Israelashvili, Moshe; Kim, Taejin; Bukobza, Gabriel
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the Internet can serve as a valuable tool assisting adolescents in pursuing the developmentally-related need for self concept clarity. Participants in the study were 278 adolescents (48.5% girls; 7th-9th graders) who completed questionnaires relating to their levels of Internet use, Internet addiction, ego development, self consciousness, self-concept clarity, and personal demographic data. The study results support the general notion that adolescents' level of self-clarity is negatively related to Internet addiction and over-use. Hence, it is suggested that future studies on adolescents' Internet over-use should use qualitative rather than quantitative conceptualization and measurements in order to properly explore such a behavior and its, either positive or negative, implications. A differentiation is proposed between over-users, heavy users, and addicted users. Namely, over-users and heavy users utilize the Internet for age-related and modern-life-related purposes, and hence should not be labeled as addicted. Implications for the measurement, definition, and treatment of Internet over-use are suggested.
Israelashvili, Moshe; Kim, Taejin; Bukobza, Gabriel
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the Internet can serve as a valuable tool assisting adolescents in pursuing the developmentally-related need for self concept clarity. Participants in the study were 278 adolescents (48.5% girls; 7th-9th graders) who completed questionnaires relating to their levels of Internet use, Internet addiction,…
DiFiori, John P.
With the growth in youth sports programs, overuse injuries in children and adolescents have become common. Physicians are challenged to make the diagnosis and identify the causes of injury. Growth-related factors require special consideration in injury management. Physicians must make a directed history assessing causative factors and a systematic…
Frush, Todd J.; Lindenfeld, Thomas N.
Context: Overuse injuries of the musculoskeletal system in immature athletes are commonly seen in medical practice. Evidence Acquisition: An analysis of published clinical, outcome, and biomechanical studies of adolescent epiphyseal and overuse injuries was performed through 2008 to increase recognition and provide treatment recommendations. Results: Adolescent athletes can sustain physeal and bony stress injuries. Recovery and return to play occur more swiftly if such injuries are diagnosed early and immobilized until the patient is pain-free, typically about 4 weeks for apophyseal and epiphyseal overuse injuries. Certain epiphyseal injuries have prolonged symptoms with delayed treatment, including those involving the bones in the hand, elbow, and foot. If such injuries are missed, prolonged healing and significant restrictions in athletic pursuits may occur. Conclusion: Some of these injuries are common to all weightbearing sports and are therefore widely recognized. Several are common in gymnastics but are rarely seen in other athletes. Early recognition and treatment of these conditions lead to quicker recovery and so may prevent season-ending, even career-ending, events from occurring. PMID:23015873
Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…
Sinkkonen, Hanna-Maija; Puhakka, Helena; Meriläinen, Matti
This study investigates Internet use among Finnish adolescents (n = 475) combining qualitative and quantitative research. Internet use was evaluated using the Internet Addiction Test (Young, 1998a, 1998b). The data was divided into three parts according to the test scores: normal users (14.3%), mild over-users (61.5%), and moderate or serious over-users (24.2%). The most common reason for use was having fun. While half the students reported disadvantages associated with their use, further qualitative analysis revealed that students with serious overuse did not report any harm caused by using the Internet. As disadvantages of using the Internet, students reported that it is time-consuming and causes mental, social, and physical harm and poor school attendance. Four factors of Internet addiction were found, and for two of them, a statistical difference between females and males was found.
Koff, Rosalind N.; Moreno, Megan A.
Internet use is widespread among the older adolescent population. Given the pervasiveness and frequency of internet use, concerns have been raised regarding the impact of excess internet use on adolescent health. In order to understand the impact of internet use on health, we must have accurate and reliable measures of internet use. This study…
Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca G; Uzel, Mehtap; Ozcan, Neslihan; Avci, Ayse
The aim of this study was to investigate Internet use habits and problematic Internet use (PIU) in Turkish adolescents. Participants were 3,975 undergraduate students, 7.6% of whom used the Internet for more than 12 hours weekly. The Online Cognition Scale (OCS) was used. The most common purpose for using the Internet was playing games, followed by general information search. Female users mostly preferred searching for general information; male users preferred playing games (p < 0.001, gamma = 995.205). The most preferred type of game was violent games. While preference for strategy and fantasy role-play (FRP) games increased with age, preference for other games decreased (p < 0.0001, gamma = 283.767). Participants who used the Internet mostly for general information searches and school-related searches had lower OCS scores (p < 0.0001). The highest OCS scores were related to violent games, followed by FRP, strategy, and sports and motor racing games. Computers and the Internet are useful, important inventions, but like other inventions, if used improperly, they may be harmful. Risk of harm raises concerns about who should use the Internet and computers, and where, when, and why the Internet and computers should be used.
Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Lubell, Keri; Kleinman, Marjorie; Parker, Sarah
During the past decade there has been increased interest in help-seeking behavior among adolescents. This reflects the recognition that while many psychiatric problems increase markedly during adolescence, the majority of disturbed teenagers do not receive mental health services. Nearly half of all adolescents have reported using the Internet to…
Pakalnis, Ann; Kring, Donna
Obesity and headaches are common in children and adults. Adult studies suggest obesity is a risk factor for chronic daily headache and increased migraine frequency and severity. Pediatric studies have suggested a relationship between obesity, increasing headache frequency, and disability. The authors retrospectively evaluated 925 children from their Pediatric Headache Clinic between July 2004 and July 2008, assessing headache frequency, medication overuse, and body mass index compared to population-based norms. The pediatric headache group as a whole had a greater percentage of overweight than the general population. This was also true with the subgroup of patients with chronic tension-type headache, although the numbers were small. Data did not show increased incidence of overweight in children with medication overuse or chronic migraine. This contrasts with adult data, which have suggested a closer link between chronic migraine and obesity and have not supported a link with chronic tension-type headache.
Kim, So Young; Kim, Min-Su; Park, Bumjung; Kim, Jin-Hwan
Although overuse of the internet has been suggested to be related to poor academic performance, the effects of internet use for education on academic performance showed conflict results in previous studies. Accordingly, the associations of school performance with internet use for study and for general purpose were explored in a large population of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) were retrieved for 59,105 12- to 18-year-old adolescents. The associations between school performance and internet use were analysed using multinomial logistic regression with complex sampling. Days of physical activity, sex, obesity, region of residence, income level, parental education level, stress, sleep time, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and total study time were recorded and adjusted for as confounders. Higher school performance was positively associated with longer internet use for study (adjusted odds ratio, AOR, of 2+ h [95% confidence interval] = 2.43 [2.10–2.82], 2.02 [1.78–2.30], 1.66 [1.46–1.89], and 1.30 [1.15–1.47] for performance groups A, B, C, and D, respectively, P < 0.001) but negatively associated with longer internet use for general purpose (AOR of 3+ h [95% confidence interval] = 0.68 [0.60–0.78], 0.85 [0.76–0.94], 0.83 [0.75–0.92], and 0.98 [0.89–1.08] for performance groups A, B, C, and D, respectively, P < 0.001). Higher school performance significantly positively correlated with internet use for study but negatively correlated with internet use for general purpose. Academic use of the internet could be a means of achieving good school performance. PMID:28369147
Background Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. Methods In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Results Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p < 0.0001), they were more likely to develop AIA (odds ratio 4.79, 95% CI: 2.51-9.73, p < 0.0001) and have psychological symptoms in 6 of the 7 subscales (not in Time-consuming subscale). The likelihood of AIA was higher among those adolescents who were male, senior high school students, or had monthly spending >100 RMB (all p-values <0.05). Adolescents tended to develop AIA and show symptoms in all subscales when they spent more hours online weekly (however, more internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p < 0.0001) or when they used the internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound
Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.
Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…
Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A
Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.
Potenza, Marc N.; Wareham, Justin D.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Cavallo, Dana A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Desai, Rani A.
Objective: The Internet represents a new and widely available forum for gambling. However, relatively few studies have examined Internet gambling in adolescents. This study sought to investigate the correlates of at-risk or problem gambling in adolescents acknowledging or denying gambling on the Internet. Method: Survey data from 2,006 Connecticut…
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Lin, Gloria
With the growing popularity of Internet communication applications among adolescents, the Internet has become an important social context for their development. This paper examined the relationship between adolescent online activity and well-being. Participants included 156 adolescents between 15 to 18.4 years of age who were surveyed about their…
Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Huppertz, Charlotte; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I
Over the past decades, Internet use has grown substantially, and it now serves people as a supportive tool that is used regularly and-in large parts of the world-inevitably. Some people develop problematic Internet use, which may lead to addictive behavior and it is becoming important to explore the risk factors for compulsive Internet use. Data were analyzed on compulsive Internet use [with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)] from 5247 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) adolescent twins registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. The participants form a sample that is informative for genetic analyses, allowing the investigation of the causes of individual differences in compulsive Internet use. The internal consistency of the instrument was high and the 1.6-year test-retest correlation in a subsample (n = 902) was 0.55. CIUS scores increased slightly with age. Remarkably, gender did not explain variation in CIUS scores, as mean scores on the CIUS were the same in boys and girls. However, the time spent on specific Internet activities differed: boys spent more time on gaming, whereas girls spent more time on social network sites and chatting. The heritability estimates were the same for boys and girls: 48 percent of the individual differences in CIUS score were influenced by genetic factors. The remaining variance (52 percent) was due to environmental influences that were not shared between family members. Because a life without Internet is almost impossible nowadays, it is important to further explore the determinants of compulsive Internet use, including genetic risk factors.
Medication overuse headache (MOH) occurs in about 1% of the general population. A marked increase of its prevalence has to be expected in the future, since more and more adolescents are subject to medication overuse. The revised International Classification of Headache Disorders contains detailed diagnostic criteria for headache due to particular groups of substances. They help recognizing MOH due to ergots, triptans, analgesics and opioids, and to distinguish them from each other MOH almost exclusively occurs in patients with a long history of migraine or chronic tension type headache, which suggests some genetic disposition. The treatment of choice of MOH is withdrawal of the causing drug. Long-term treatment for headache is ineffective during medication overuse. Relapse rate is variable depending on the substance overused, and may be considerable. Therefore, prophylaxis in patients with migraine or chronic tension type headache who do not yet suffer from MOH, is essential.
Andreou, Eleni; Svoli, Hionia
This study examined how internet users' psychological characteristics, amount of internet use and demographic factors contribute to particular dimensions of internet addiction. The sample consisted of 384 adolescents, ranging in age from 15 to 18 years. Participants were asked to complete the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), measures of Locus of…
Wolak, Janis; Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly; Finkelhor, David
We review current knowledge about adolescent Internet-mediated victimization, including Internet-initiated sex crimes in which offenders use the Internet to meet victims, unwanted online sexual solicitations, Internet harassment, and unwanted and wanted exposure to online pornography. Internet-initiated sex crimes have received considerable publicity, but the media stories have contributed to stereotypes that do not accurately portray adolescent Internet experience. Adults' concerns are valid but need to be supported with information that illuminates the real safety issues and targets the specific population of youth impacted.
Coon, Eric R; Young, Paul C; Quinonez, Ricardo A; Morgan, Daniel J; Dhruva, Sanket S; Schroeder, Alan R
As concerns over health care-related harms and costs continue to mount, efforts to identify and combat medical overuse are needed. Although much of the recent attention has focused on health care for adults, children are also harmed by overuse. Using a structured PubMed search and manual tables of contents review, we identified important articles on pediatric overuse published in 2015. These articles were evaluated according to the quality of the methods, the magnitude of clinical effect, and the number of patients potentially affected and were categorized into overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and overutilization. Overdiagnosis: Findings included evidence for overdiagnosis of hypoxemia in children with bronchiolitis and skull fractures in children suffering minor head injuries. Overtreatment: Findings included evidence that up to 85% of hospitalized children with radiographic pneumonia may not have a bacterial etiology; many children are receiving prolonged intravenous antibiotic therapy for osteomyelitis although oral therapy is equally effective; antidepressant medication for adolescents and nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis appear to be ineffective; and thresholds for treatment of hyperbilirubinemia may be too low. Overutilization: Findings suggested that the frequency of head circumference screening could be relaxed; large reductions in abdominal computed tomography testing for appendicitis appear to have been safe and effective; and overreliance on C-reactive protein levels in neonatal early onset sepsis appears to extend hospital length-of-stay.
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saghafi, Abolfazl
In the present study, factors that could play an important role in Internet addiction (IA) in 4,177 Iranian high school and secondary school adolescents (age range: 14-19 years) were examined. Data for the present study were gathered through Young's IA test, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and family relationship questionnaires distributed between high school and secondary school students in different demographic regions, carefully selected using multistage sampling techniques. Among the study participants, 21.1% of the students were in some way victims of IA, among whom 1.1% had significant problematic symptoms. Familial relationships was the most important factor related to IA; religious beliefs, moreover, was the second most important factor. The father's level of education was more important than that of the mother's by nearly twice as much. Other factors had important roles in the kind of Internet use, but not as much as the above mentioned factors. The findings of this study could help parents, school counselors, and teachers to pay more attention to excessive Internet use in adolescents and propose possible solutions.
van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Spijkerman, Renske; Vermulst, Ad A.; van Rooij, Tony J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Although parents experience growing concerns about their children's excessive internet use, little is known about the role parents can play to prevent their children from developing Compulsive Internet Use (CIU). The present study addresses associations between internet-specific parenting practices and CIU among adolescents, as well as the…
Wu, Chin-Shan; Cheng, Fei-Fei
With the recent vigorous development, the Internet has become a part of life. And the Internet café has become an emerging industry under this new wave of Internet heat. However, the Internet café has also brought about many unexpected social problems and negative effects on society in Taiwan. For example, Internet café addiction (or pathological use) is a particular phenomenon derived from Internet café in Taiwan. But currently there are just a few scholars who attend to this problem. This study focuses mainly on the phenomenon of Internet café addiction among adolescents in Taiwan, the Internet café patronage behavior, and the cause of this phenomenon. Result of a questionnaire survey indicate that a significant difference exists between male and female adolescent in the following two aspects: "the stay hours for each visit in Internet café" and "Internet café addiction scores." Males' stay hours in Internet café are longer than females', and males also get higher Internet café addiction scores than females. The results also indicate that participants' degree of self-esteem and support from their social network can account for 30% of variance of Internet café addiction. Further, the results also suggest that social support is positively related to Internet café addiction score, whereas a negative relationship between self-esteem and Internet café addiction score is observed.
Ma, Hing Keung
Internet addiction and the moral implication of antisocial Internet behavior will be investigated in this paper. More and more people use the Internet in their daily life. Unfortunately the percentage of people who use the internet excessively also increases. The concept of Internet addiction or pathological use of Internet is discussed in detail, and the characteristics of Internet addicts are also delineated. The social (especially the antisocial) use of Internet is discussed. It is argued that the behavior of Internet use is similar to daily life social behavior. In other words, Internet behavior is a kind of social behavior. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is employed to delineate the moral reasoning of the antisocial Internet behavior. The following behaviors are regarded as antisocial Internet behavior: (1) the use of Internet to carry out illegal activities such as selling faked products or offensive pornographic materials, (2) the use of Internet to bully others (i.e., cyberbullying) such as distributing libelous statements against a certain person, (3) the use of Internet to cheat others, and (4) the use of Internet to do illegal gambling. The characteristics of the moral stages that are associated with these antisocial Internet behaviors are investigated in detail.
Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer
In Germany, the internet is used by 69.4% of the population or 49 million people, and 100% of adolescents (between 14 to 19 years of age) spend time in the internet at least occasionally. An excessive use of the internet may lead to negative psychosocial consequences and changes in behaviour. This phenomenon is named "pathological internet use". Until now, there are only few studies published that investigate mental well being in German adolescents with pathological internet use. 16 participants of an outpatient treatment program for pathological internet use and 16 healthy adolescents were compared on self-reported levels of psychopathology (SPS-J), achievement motivation (FLM 7-13) and personal experience of attention deficit (FEDA). There were no differences in age, gender, intelligence or education between the two groups. Pathological internet users exhibited significantly elevated scores on self-esteem problems and the summary score of the SPS-J and significantly lower scores on FLM 7-13-dimensions "achievement ambition" and "perseverance/diligence" compared to controls. The results revealed that adolescents with pathological internet use report a higher level of psychopathology and lower levels of achievement motivation and drive. These findings should be taken into account when conceptualizing treatments for pathological internet users.
Milani, Luca; Osualdella, Dania; Di Blasio, Paola
International literature has identified a stable correlation between problems in the sphere of adolescents' personal relationships and potential Internet dependence. The objective of this research is to verify in an Italian context the relationship among problematic Internet use (PIU), the quality of interpersonal relationships, and the cognitive strategies habitually used by adolescents to face daily problems. The participants in the research were 98 adolescents ages 14 to 19 (M = 16.28 years). The following instruments were administered to the participants: the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Test of Interpersonal Relationships (TRI); and the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist (CCSC). Parents of the participants were administered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Of the participants, 36.7% showed signs of PIU. These adolescents use the Internet for many hours per week; most utilize dysfunctional coping strategies and show worse interpersonal relations than peers who do not show signs of PIU.
The Internet has turned during the past decade into a major information resource in various domains of life and a communication venue among adolescents who seek health information via the net. The increasing availability of computers in homes, as well as wireless Internet access, means that adolescents today can go online anywhere, at any time. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem, but they do contribute significantly to a variety of adolescent health problems, including aggressive behavior, sexual activity, drug use, obesity, sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression, suicide and self harm. This paper focuses on 3 major health issues in adolescents' Internet use: Body image and eating behaviors; sexuality and reproductive health behaviors; and self harm and suicidal behavior. This paper also demonstrates Internet venues where reliable health information is provided to young people by health professionals. Health professionals need to recognize the hazards of adolescents Internet use, and to address potential Internet abuse when encountering adolescents in clinical settings.
Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan
This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…
Gross, E. F.
As adolescent Internet use grew exponentially in the last decade, with it emerged a number of correspondent expectations. Among them were the following: (1) that gender predicts usage, i.e., that boys spend more time online, surfing the web and playing violent games, while girls chat or shop online; (2) that Internet use causes social isolation…
Jang, Keum Seong; Hwang, Seon Young; Choi, Ja Yun
Background: The aims of this study were to identify the independent factors associated with intermittent addiction and addiction to the Internet and to examine the psychiatric symptoms in Korean adolescents when the demographic and Internet-related factors were controlled. Methods: Male and female students (N = 912) in the 7th-12th grades were…
Buijs, Petra C. M.; Boot, Erik; Shugar, Andrea; Fung, Wai Lun Alan; Bassett, Anne S.
Background: Research on Internet safety for adolescents has identified several important issues including unwanted exposure to sexual material and sexual solicitation. Methods: Although individuals with intellectual disabilities often have poor insight and judgment, and may therefore be at risk for Internet dangers, there is surprisingly little…
Appel, Markus; Holtz, Peter; Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad
The authors examined the influence of parent-adolescent communication quality, as perceived by the adolescents, on the link between adolescents' Internet use and loneliness, controlling for perceived family support in general terms. Adolescents (N = 216, M[subscript age] = 15.80 years) provided data on Internet use, loneliness, Internet-related…
Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Johnson, Dayna A; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L M
Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331 healthy adolescents (ages 14-17 years). Heavy Internet use was defined as ≥ 2 hr/day, moderate use as <2 hr/day and ≥ 5 days/week, and light use as < 2 hr/day and ≤ 4 days/week. Elevated BP was defined as systolic or diastolic BP ≥ 90 th percentile. Heavy Internet users had statistically significantly higher odds of elevated BP compared to light Internet users. School nurses can play an important role in preventing high BP through assessment of BP and other health behaviors including Internet use, and health teaching to individuals, student groups, faculty, and parents to increase awareness of the relationship between Internet use and health.
Problematic use of the Internet by children and adolescents is a newly emerging disorder that has alerted health authorities throughout the world. In Iran, despite the very high speed rate of Internet spread, there is not enough data on the rate of Internet addiction among the adolescents. This study is the first nationwide study that addresses this issue. Overall 4500 students of high school or pre-college schools were recruited from 13/31 provinces of Iran by a cluster sampling method and 4342 (96%) participated. Two self-rated questionnaires (one demographics and one Young's Internet addiction scale) were filled b the participants. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. 962 (22.2%) of the study participants were labeled as having "internet addiction." Males were significantly more likely to be an internet addict (P<0.001). Students whose father and/or mother had a doctorate degree were most likely to have Internet addiction (P<0.001 for both). Job engagement of mothers was significantly associated with students' internet addiction, and the least rate of addiction was observed when the mother was a housewife (P<0.001); having no exercise was associated with the highest rate of Internet addiction (P<0.001). Stepwise logistic regression models showed gender (male), older age, mother's occupation, family's financial status (either very high or very low), low quality of family relationship, and students' lower levels of religious devotion were significantly associated with having Internet addiction. This study showed that Internet addiction in Iranian adolescents is prevalent, and has several independent factors, from which, family relations is most likely to be modifiable. Improvements in family relations and more strict parental supervision, especially when mothers have active job employment, are recommended.
Liberatore, Katia A; Rosario, Katyna; Colón-De Martí, Luz N; Martínez, Karen G
Internet addiction (IA) is particularly relevant in the adolescent population. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of IA in a clinical sample of Latino adolescents receiving ambulatory psychiatric treatment. The correlation between their pattern of Internet use and their respective psychiatric diagnosis was also studied. Adolescent patients from the Psychiatric Ambulatory Clinic at the Pediatric University Hospital (N=71) completed the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a questionnaire about Internet use. Information regarding demographic and diagnostic data was retrieved from their clinical records. None of the subjects presented severe IA. A total of 71.8% (n=51) of the adolescents obtained scores reflecting no problem related to IA. Only 11.6% (n=5) of subjects have discussed Internet use with their therapist. Mood disorders showed a statistically significant (p=0.044) correlation with a higher score on the IAT. Mental health care practitioners must consider questions on Internet use as an essential part of the patients' evaluation given its significant correlation with diagnosis of a mood disorder.
King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H
Adolescents are known to be an at-risk population for developing Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A recent clinical model has proposed that adolescents with IGD may endorse a unique set of maladaptive beliefs that underlie persistent and excessive involvement in Internet gaming activities. These include (a) beliefs about game reward value and tangibility, (b) maladaptive and inflexible rules about gaming behaviour, (c) over-reliance on gaming to meet self-esteem needs, and (d) gaming as a method of gaining social acceptance. A sample of 824 adolescents (402 male and 422 female) were recruited from multiple secondary schools and administered a survey that included measures of IGD symptomatology, problematic Internet gaming cognition, and psychological distress. The results showed that adolescents with IGD report significantly more maladaptive gaming beliefs than adolescents without IGD, including those who play Internet games for more than 30 h per week. The size of observed effects were large. The strong association between gaming cognitions and IGD symptoms still held after controlling for measures of gaming activity and psychological distress. These findings indicate that adolescents with IGD have distinct problematic thoughts about gaming, and highlight the importance of addressing these cognitions in therapeutic interventions for the disorder.
Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi
This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction.
Buelga, Sofía; Cava, María Jesús; Musitu, Gonzalo
The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of victimization through mobile phone and internet. The differences of gender and academic year in the type of electronic aggression were also examined. The sample comprised 2001 adolescents of both genders and ages between 11 and 17 years. Results indicated that 24.6% of the adolescents had been bullied by mobile phone during the last year, and 29% through internet. In most of the electronic aggressions, girls were more bullied than boys. It was also observed that students attending the first two years of secondary education tended to be more victimized.
EKİNCİ, Özalp; ÇELİK, Tanju; SAVAŞ, Nazan; TOROS, Fevziye
Introduction Sleep problems are commonly encountered in adolescents. It has been shown that electronic media have a negative influence on the sleep quality and daytime functioning in adolescents. This study aims to investigate the association between internet use and sleep problems in adolescents. Method A total of 1212 adolescents were recruited to the study. Self-report study questionnaire included two main parts: Young’s Internet Addiction Scale (IAS) and a semi-structured inquiry on sleep habits/problems. Results Of the study sample, 16% (n=198) reported their sleep quality as bad or very bad. One-fourth of the sample reported using internet everyday and 27% of them reported spending more than one hour when online. The mean IAS total score was 35.56±13.87. Adolescents with a higher IAS score reported getting to bed later in the night, needing more time to fall asleep and having an increased number of awakenings in the night than the adolescents with lower IAS score (p=.001). They were also found to have higher frequencies of several sleep problems including difficulty in initiating and sustaining sleep, difficulty in waking up and feelings of sleepiness in day. In addition, sleep quality of them was worse when compared to the adolescents with a lower IAS score (p=.001). Conclusion Problematic sleep habits and sleep problems were found to be more frequent in adolescents with a higher IAS total score. Health care providers must be aware of the possible negative impact of excessive and uncontrolled internet use on adolescents’ sleep habits.
Ak, Serife; Koruklu, Nermin; Yılmaz, Yusuf
The purpose of this study is to investigate the internet use of Turkish adolescents, with a (particular) focus on the risk of Internet addiction. A web-based questionnaire was completed by a total of 4,311 adolescents attending public high schools in grades 9-12, in a small-sized city in western Turkey. Ages ranged from 15 to 19 years, 54 percent were female and 46 percent male. The questionnaire included items on sociodemographic information, Internet usage, and a Turkish version of the Young's Internet Addiction Test. The data were analyzed in SPPS 15.0 program using the t test, the Mann-Whitney U test, correlation and hierarchic regression analysis. The findings show that, regardless of gender, Facebook ranked highest in the classification of students' purpose of Internet use; it was also found that females mainly used the Internet for communication, whereas males were more interested in playing online games and reading newspapers and magazines. The results of hierarchic regression analysis indicated that the significant predictors of the internet addiction were the presence of Internet access at home, gender, and family income levels.
Seo, Mia; Kang, Hee Sun; Yom, Young-Hee
The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of Internet addiction and interpersonal problems, explore the relationship between the two, and identify the relevant factors of Internet addiction in Korean middle school students. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The participants were 676 middle school students. A Korean version of the Internet addiction self-test scale and a Korean version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems were used. Among the participants, 547 (80.9%) were identified as general users, 108 (16%) were potential risk users, and 21 (3.1%) were high-risk users. There were statistically significant positive correlations between Internet addiction and interpersonal problems (r = 0.425, P = .000). There were significant positive correlations between Internet addiction and hours spent playing games. Internet-addicted adolescents also had more interpersonal problems. It is important to raise awareness about Internet addiction, and close attention must be paid not only to students at risk of Internet addiction but also to students at low risk to prevent students from becoming addicted to the Internet.
Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro
Background A psychological disorder called ‘Internet addiction’ has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. Methods and Findings We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13–18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use. PMID:24505318
Mesch, Gustavo S.
Concern has grown regarding possible harm to the social and psychological development of children and adolescents exposed to Internet pornography. Parents, academics and researchers have documented pornography from the supply side, assuming that its availability explains consumption satisfactorily. The current paper explored the user's dimension,…
Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj
Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…
Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu
The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out.
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu
The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out. PMID:22778694
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Lin, Gloria
With the growing popularity of Internet communication applications among adolescents, the Internet has become an important social context for their development. This paper examined the relationship between adolescent online activity and well-being. Participants included 156 adolescents between 15 to 18.4 years of age who were surveyed about their access to and use of the Internet. Participants also completed measures of loneliness and perceived social support. An ANOVA suggested that loneliness was not related to the total time spent online, nor to the time spent on e-mail, but was related to participants' gender. Regression analyses suggested that gender and participants' perceptions regarding their online relationships were the only variables that predicted loneliness. Adolescents who felt that their relationship with online partners was one that they could turn to in times of need were more lonely. However, perceived support from significant others was not related to time spent online, time on e-mail, participants' relationships with online partners, and to their perceptions about these relationships. The implications of our results for researchers, parents, and other lay persons are discussed.
Yang, Linsheng; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Zhihua; Sun, Yehuan; Wu, Hongyan; Ye, Dongqing
The aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of life events in the relation between Internet addiction and depression using an adolescent sample in China. A total of 3507 urban adolescent students were asked to complete the questionnaires including Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, and demographic characteristics. Path analyses demonstrated that life events fully mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression. Specificity for the mediating role of life events was demonstrated in comparison to alternative competing mediation models. The findings support our hypothesis that the effect of Internet addiction on adolescent depression is mediated by the life events. Further research is required to test the temporal relationship between Internet addiction and adolescent depression and explore mechanisms underlying the pathways leading to adolescent depression.
Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta
Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.
Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta
Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644
Rial, Antonio; Gómez, Patricia; Picón, Eduardo; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús
The percentages of adolescent Internet use in general terms have been measured for nearly two decades now; however, it might be thought that not every teenager behaves online in the same way. This study aims to identify the different types or profiles of adolescents and to characterize them from an attitudinal, behavioral and socio-demographic viewpoint. A questionnaire was applied to a representative sample of 2,339 Compulsory Secondary School students (M = 13.77 years old) from Galicia (a North-Western region of Spain) for this purpose. A two-stage cluster analysis, based on the response pattern in relation to their attitudes toward Internet, was carried out. Four different segments with specific characteristics were identified: the first steppers, the trainees, the sensible users, and the heavy users. Besides the relevance of descriptive data, these results are of particular interest at an applied level, because they could lead to a better fit of programs to prevent risky behaviors and problematic Internet use in adolescents.
Messias, Erick; Castro, Juan; Saini, Anil; Usman, Manzoor; Peeples, Dale
We investigated the association between excessive video game/Internet use and teen suicidality. Data were obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), a high school-based, nationally representative survey (N = 14,041 and N = 16,410, respectively). Teens who reported 5 hours or more of video games/Internet daily use, in the…
Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan
This study examined the associations between adolescents' perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People's Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents' age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention.
Khurana, Atika; Bleakley, Amy; Jordan, Amy B; Romer, Daniel
With many adolescents using the internet to communicate with their peers, online harassment is on the rise among youth. The purpose of this study was to understand how parental monitoring and strategies parents use to regulate children's internet use (i.e., internet restriction) can help reduce online harassment among adolescents. Online survey data were collected from a nationally representative sample of parents and their 12-17 year old adolescents (n = 629; 49 % female). Structural equation modeling was used to test direct and indirect effects of parental monitoring and internet restriction on being a victim of online harassment. Potential mediators included adolescents' frequency of use of social networking websites, time spent on computers outside of school, and internet access in the adolescent's bedroom. Age and gender differences were also explored. Adolescents' reports of parental monitoring and efforts to regulate specific forms of internet use were associated with reduced rates of online harassment. Specifically, the effect of parental monitoring was largely direct and 26 times greater than parental internet restriction. The latter was associated with lower rates of harassment only indirectly by limiting internet access in the adolescent's bedroom. These effects operated similarly for younger and older adolescents and for males and females. Adolescents' perceptions of parental monitoring and awareness can be protective against online harassment. Specific restriction strategies such as regulating internet time and content can also help reduce the risk of online harassment.
Appel, Markus; Holtz, Peter; Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad
The authors examined the influence of parent-adolescent communication quality, as perceived by the adolescents, on the link between adolescents' Internet use and loneliness, controlling for perceived family support in general terms. Adolescents (N = 216, M(age) = 15.80 years) provided data on Internet use, loneliness, Internet-related parent-adolescent communication, and perceived family support. Moderated regression analyses showed that Internet-related communication quality determined whether more extensive Internet use was associated with more loneliness. This moderation effect remained significant when perceived family support in general terms was controlled for. Gender and age of the participants did not influence the findings. Implications for successful Internet-related parenting strategies are discussed.
Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji
Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style.
Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Deng, Lin-Yuan
This study examined the associations between adolescents’ perceived relationships with their parents, perceived parental online behaviors, and Pathological Internet Use (PIU) among adolescents. Additional testing was carried out to determine the effect of different genders (parent and adolescent). Cross-sectional data was collected from 4,559 students aged 12 to 21 years in the cities of Beijing and Jinan, People’s Republic of China. Participants responded to an anonymous questionnaire concerning their Internet use behavior, perceived parental Internet use behaviors, and perceived parent-adolescent relationship. Hierarchical linear regressions controlling for adolescents’ age were conducted. Results showed different effects of parent and adolescent gender on perceived parent-adolescent relationship and parent Internet use behavior, as well as some other gender-specific associations. Perceived father-adolescent relationship was the most protective factor against adolescent PIU with perceived maternal Internet use positively predicting PIU for both male and female adolescents. However, perceived paternal Internet use behaviors positively predicted only female adolescent PIU. Results indicated a different effect pathway for fathers and mothers on boys and girls, leading to discussion of the implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:24098710
Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum
This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths…
Computer use is a widespread leisure activity for adolescents. Leisure contexts, such as Internet cafes, constitute specific social environments for computer use and may hold significant educational potential. This article reports a phenomenological study of adolescents' experiences of educational computer use at Internet cafes in Turkey. The…
Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven
Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia
Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.
Abrams, Bernard M
“An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” in the management of MOH. Prevention of transformation of primary headache types to their chronic counterparts is necessary to prevent this most troubling transformation. Strict attention to what patients are telling you (and often times not telling you) about their episodic headaches will enable pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures to avoid that transformation to chronic daily headache, so often associated with MOH. Once MOH becomes manifest, withdrawal of the overused drug is mandatory; otherwise experience tells us the pattern of overuse will only be perpetuated and no measure will help alleviate the headache. At the same time, as detoxification takes place, measures to ensure that relapse will not take place should begin. These efforts include prophylactic pharmacologic measures as well as psychological support, education, and surveillance to prevent relapses. The rate of relapse is unfortunately high, but these general and specific measures enumerated above will add greatly to the chances of success.
Mills, Kathryn L
Twenty-five years have passed since the invention of the World Wide Web changed society by allowing unfettered access to the Internet. How this technological revolution has affected brain development continues to be an open question. There is particular concern about how Internet use is affecting the brains of adolescents. This Forum article discusses the possible effects of the Internet, as well as the behaviors and capabilities associated with its use, on the adolescent brain.
Sanders, Christopher E.; Field, Tiffany M.; Diego, Miguel; Kaplan, Michele
Investigates whether higher levels of Internet use are associated with depression and social isolation among adolescents. Eighty-nine high school seniors were administered a questionnaire that measured Internet use; relationships with mother, father, and peers; and depression. Low Internet users, as compared with high users, reported better…
Daley, Melita L.; Becker, Daniel F.; Flaherty, Lois T.; Harper, Gordon; King, Robert A.; Lester, Patricia; Milosavljevic, Nada; Onesti, Silvio J.; Rappaport, Nancy; Schwab-Stone, Mary
The Internet has become an increasingly important part of teen culture; however, there still remains little in the medical/psychiatric literature pertaining to the impact of the Internet on adolescent development. Despite the potential problems associated with communication online, the Internet offers a variety of positive opportunities for teens.…
Problem Statement: Excessive internet use, particularly problematic and negative consequences of internet use, is rapidly increasing among children and adolescents throughout the World and in Turkey. While the internet provides potential advantages for users in terms of the academic support, sharing ideas & feelings, and freedom of expression,…
The Internet today, beyond being a source of information and communication, has become an "addiction" for some people. The rate of Internet addiction is rapidly increasing in the world. The aim of this study was to examine the extent of Internet addiction among adolescents in North Cyprus. Eight hundred and fifty-one participants between…
Durham, Meenakshi Gigi
Presents a feminist case analysis based on field observation of hands-on Internet sessions for low-income, minority, urban middle school students. Examination of the social dynamic within which Internet use occurred indicated that adolescents' social locations in terms of gender, race, and class worked to constrain Internet use to support dominant…
Martín-Fernández, María; Matalí, Josep Lluís; García-Sánchez, Sara; Pardo, Marta; Lleras, María; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina
Demand for treatment for problems related to the use of video games have increased significantly in adolescents. Most cases have a comorbid mental disorder that jeopardises both pathologies. The aim of this study is to describe profiles of adolescents with Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) according to comorbidity and analyze treatment response at 3 and 6 months. A sample of 86 patients which consulted in the Addictive Behavior Unit of a hospital was assessed with diagnostic criteria for IGD, the interview K-SADS-PL for mental disorders and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) to treatment progress. Of the initial sample, 68,6% (n = 59) met diagnostic criteria for IGD. Of these, the 45,76% matched an internalizing profile, presenting comorbidity with Mood Disorders (44,4%), Anxiety Disorders (44,4%) and Personality Disorders (11,1%). The externalizing profile would comprise 52,54% of the sample presenting Disruptive Behavior Disorder (48,4%=, ADHD (29%) and Disruptive Behavior Disorders not otherwise specified (22,6%). Unlike externalizing, the internalizing patients had a family history of psychiatric problems (63%), difficulties in social relationships (77,8%) and seemed to use video games preferably to escape discomfort (66,7%). After 3 months the externalizing profile showed improvements. Comorbid disorders allow the discrimination of two IGD profiles in adolescents and these could influence treatment response. Therefore, it is important to assess comorbidities to design a more accurate intervention focused on the specificities of each profile.
Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hu, Huei-Fan
This study examined the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with reinforcement sensitivity, family factors, Internet activities, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among adolescents in Taiwan diagnosed with ADHD. A total of 287 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and aged between 11 and 18 years participated in this study. Their levels of Internet addiction symptoms, ADHD symptoms, reinforcement sensitivity, family factors, and various Internet activities in which the participants engaged were assessed. The correlates of the severities of Internet addiction symptoms were determined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that low satisfaction with family relationships was the strongest factor predicting severe Internet addiction symptoms, followed by using instant messaging, watching movies, high Behavioral Approach System (BAS) fun seeking, and high Behavioral Inhibition System scores. Meanwhile, low paternal occupational SES, low BAS drive, and online gaming were also significantly associated with severe Internet addiction symptoms. Multiple factors are significantly associated with the severity of Internet addiction symptoms among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the Internet use of adolescents who exhibit the factors identified in this study.
Milani, Luca; Osualdella, Dania; Di Blasio, Paola
In a few years the Internet has become one of the most relevant means of socialization and entertainment for Italian adolescents. Studies have established a correlation between poor interpersonal relationship, poor cognitive coping strategies and Problematic Internet Use. The aim of the research was to study the characteristics and correlates of Problematic Internet Use in an Italian sample of adolescents. 98 Italian adolescents aged 14-19 were administered checklists assessing Problematic Internet Use, quality of interpersonal relationships, and cognitive-driven coping strategies. Of the participants, 36.7% are characterized by Problematic Internet Use. This subsample showed poorer interpersonal relationships and cognitive coping strategies compared to the non-problematic subsample. Overall quality of interpersonal relationships and cognitive coping strategies were found to be predictors of the level of Internet Problematic Use.
Lin, Chien-Hsin; Lin, Shong-Lin; Wu, Chin-Pi
This study explored the effects of parental monitoring, leisure boredom, and leisure activity on Internet addiction. The sample was 1,289 adolescents from eleven senior high schools in Taiwan. Participants were asked about their perception of being monitored by their parents, leisure boredom, leisure activities, and Internet addiction behavior. Results showed that leisure boredom and involvement in Internet and social activities increase the probability of Internet addiction; however, family and outdoor activities along with participative and supportive parental monitoring decrease these tendencies. Overall evidence suggests that parental monitoring is a major inhibitor of Internet addiction. Thus, adolescents should be supervised in their daily routines and encouraged to participate in family and outdoor activities. In addition, adolescents should develop a positive attitude toward leisure and the skills to prevent overdependence on online relationships with the assistance of parents. These findings suggest the preventive strategies regarding Internet addiction.
Park, Soo Kyung; Kim, Jae Yop; Cho, Choon Bum
This study investigated the prevalence of Internet addiction among South Korean adolescents and explored family factors associated with such addiction. The study participants were middle and high school students residing in Seoul. One-tenth (10.7%) of the 903 adolescents surveyed scored at least 70 on the Internet Addiction Scale. These youths were considered at high risk for Internet addiction and in need of further assessment and intervention. Results show that parenting attitudes, family communication, family cohesion, and family violence exposure (e.g., conjugal violence and parent-to-child violence) were associated with Internet addiction. These findings indicate that families play an important role in preventing Internet addiction and must be considered when programs are developed to minimize excessive Internet usage by high-risk adolescents.
Bayraktar, Fatih; Gün, Zübeyit
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Internet usage among adolescents in Northern Cyprus. A total of 686 adolescents (mean age of 14.4 years, range of 12-17 years) were recruited from elementary and high schools. Results showed that the Internet was used primarily by male students. Adolescents used the Internet generally for entertainment and communication. The quality of chat on the Internet was studied, and it was found that adolescents generally introduce themselves differently while chatting. Also, the type of games on the Internet and the correlation between playing these games and aggression was studied in this research. It was found that mostly violent games were played on the Internet and playing these games were related to anti-social aggression and aggression toward the self. Research findings indicated that 1.1% of the students who used the Internet were pathological Internet users. These pathological Internet users visited significantly more chat sites, mp3 sites, pornographic sites, and shopping sites than other users. Also, it was found that students' grade point average (GPA) decreased when pathological Internet usage increased.
Dhir, Amandeep; Chen, Sufen; Nieminen, Marko
The recent development of internet infrastructure has fuelled a popular concern that young Asian internet users are experiencing Internet addiction due to excessive Internet use. In order to understand the phenomenon, psychometric validation of a 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS), with 417 Chinese adolescents has been performed. Compared to other instruments for use with Chinese populations, e.g. the 20-item Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the 26-item Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the CIUS is relatively concise, and easy to use for measuring and diagnosing Internet addiction. The present psychometric validation has found good factorial stability with a one-factor solution for the CIUS. The internal consistency and model fit indices were very good, and even better than any previous CIUS validations. The Chinese CIUS is a valid and reliable self-reporting instrument for examining compulsive Internet use among Chinese adolescents. Other findings included: male adolescents tend to experience more compulsive Internet use than their female counterparts, and CIUS scores were positively correlated with the daily Internet use time and negatively correlated with the academic performance of the participants. No significant relationships between the CIUS, ICT accessibility, family economic condition, parental occupation or religion were found.
Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Ko, Chih-Hung
The aim of the study is to examine the differences in the diversity of family factors between adolescents with and without Internet addiction and substance use experience. A total of 3662 students (2328 boys and 1334 girls) were recruited from seven junior high schools, six senior high schools, and four vocational high schools in southern Taiwan. Internet addiction and substance experience were classified according to the score of Chen Internet Addiction Scale Questionnaires for Experience of Substance use. The family factors assessed included perceived family satisfaction, family economic status, parents' marriage status, care-givers, the frequency of intra-family conflict, families' habitual alcohol use, and perceived parents' or care givers' attitude toward adolescents' substance use. This study demonstrated that the characteristics of higher parent-adolescent conflict, habitual alcohol use of siblings, perceived parents' positive attitude to adolescent substance use, and lower family function could be used develop a predictive model for Internet addiction in the multiple logistic regression analysis. The former three family factors were also sufficient in themselves to develop a predictive model for substance use experience. The results revealed that adolescent Internet addiction and substance use experience shared similar family factors, which indicate that Internet addiction and substance use should be considered in the group of behavioral problem syndromes. A family-based preventive approach for Internet addiction and substance use should be introduced for adolescents with negative family factors.
Adolescence is a period during human development characterized by a variety of biological, psychological, and social changes. Navigating these changes can be a stressful experience for both adolescents and their families. To complicate matters further, the Internet has altered the landscape of human interaction in a way that may accentuate deficits in the capacity for self-sustaining, reciprocal peer relationships. Adolescents suffering from emotional and behavioral disorders may be especially prone to this influence, as evidenced by our observation of the growing clinical trend of adolescents admitted to inpatient and residential psychiatric units who present with a history of risky cyber-behaviors. Within these settings, education for adolescents and their families around appropriate use of the Internet, as well as social training for the online management of the impulsivity and poor judgment that is so often characteristic of adolescence, is vital. Milieu models employed in the treatment of emotionally troubled adolescents must adapt so as to incorporate the identification of problematic attachment behaviors not only in real-time relationships, but also as those behaviors inevitably occur in more troubling and potentially destructive ways over the Internet. The article addresses this need by offering recommendations for the creation of a skills-based, Internet-focused curriculum for inpatient and residential programs targeting at-risk adolescents. Evaluating the association between online communication habits and the evolution of disturbances in attachment systems is an important future direction for research aimed at safeguarding the emotional and physical well-being of all adolescents.
Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate
The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.
Kanuga, Mansi; Rosenfeld, Walter D
The Internet has become a widely used resource for sexual health information, especially among adolescents. The appeal lies in the ease and anonymity with which online seekers can obtain advice and reassurance, particularly regarding sensitive topics. This article reviews the positive and negative influences of the Internet on this age group. Specific aspects of how this medium affects adolescents as well as how it can be used to assist them are discussed.
Secades-Villa, Roberto; Calafat, Amador; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Juan, Montse; Duch, Mariangels; Skärstrand, Eva; Becoña, Elisardo; Talic, Sanela
Despite the significant contributions from previous studies about the prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) among adolescents in Europe, important questions remain regarding adverse consequences of PIU. This study aims to assess the relation between duration of Internet use and adverse psychosocial effects among adolescents from six European countries. The final sample included 7,351 adolescents (50.8% male and 49.2% female; mean age: 14.6±1.90) recruited from randomly selected schools within the six study sites. Results showed that 12.9% of adolescents used Internet more than 20 hours per week. There was a significant relationship between duration of Internet use and frequency of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drug use. Duration of Internet use is also significantly associated with school problems, with use of slot machines and with other psychosocial problems. These findings highlight the need to strengthen preventive efforts for reducing PIU and related consequences among adolescents. Key Words: Internet, adolescents, psychosocial problems.
Lee, Junghan; Lee, Seojung; Chun, Ji Won; Cho, Hyun; Kim, Dai-jin; Jung, Young-Chul
Increased reports of impulsivity and aggression in male adolescents with Internet gaming might reflect their dysfunction in emotion regulation, particularly in suppression of negative emotions, which should affect the various stages of Internet gaming disorder. This study tested the hypothesis that adolescents with Internet gaming disorder would be more disturbed by the emotional interference and demonstrate compromised dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activation during a Stroop Match-to-Sample task. In addition, functional connectivity analysis was conducted to examine the interplays between neural correlates involved in emotional processing and how they were altered in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. The Internet gaming disorder group demonstrated weaker dACC activation and stronger insular activations to interfering angry facial stimuli compared with the healthy control group. Negative functional connectivity between stronger insular activation and weaker dorsolateral prefrontal activation correlated with higher cognitive impulsivity in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder. These findings provide evidence of the compromised prefrontal cognitive control over emotional interference in adolescents with Internet gaming disorder.
Jang, Mi Heui; Kim, Mi Ja; Choi, Heeseung
This study was designed to describe the relationship between Internet addiction and parental problem drinking among early adolescents. Specific aims were to identify indirect, direct, and total influence of parental problem drinking on Internet addiction; to determine relative magnitudes of specific mediating effects of self-esteem, family function, anxiety-depression, and aggression in the total sample and the Internet addiction subgroup. The target population for this correlational study was early adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 743) who attended elementary school in J City, South Korea. Study variables included the Internet addiction self-test scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple-mediation analyses were performed. A significant association was observed between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction. Only aggression significantly mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction in the total sample. When the Internet addiction group was analyzed separately as a subgroup, the mediation effect of aggression disappeared, and parental problem drinking had neither indirect nor direct association. However, the significant association of aggression with Internet addiction in the Internet addiction subgroup was two times as much as in the total sample. The findings suggested that parental problem drinking and aggression should be examined early to prevent development of Internet addiction in early adolescents. For those who already have developed Internet addiction, aggression should be the focal point for more effective intervention strategies.
Smahel, David; Brown, B. Bradford; Blinka, Lukas
The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from…
Smith, Chad E.
An exploratory study was designed to describe Internet search behaviors of deaf adolescents who used Internet search engines to complete fact-based search tasks. The study examined search behaviors of deaf high school students such as query formation, query modification, Web site identification, and Web site selection. Consisting of two fact-based…
The Internet is a highly complex and newly emerged artifact. Building upon and going beyond two previous studies [Yan, Z. (2005). Age differences in children's understanding of complexity of the Internet. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 385-396.; Yan, Z. (2006). What influences children's and adolescents' understanding of the…
A request from the National Academies to prepare a presentation for a Workshop on Non-Technical Strategies to Protect Youth from Inappropriate Material on the Internet occurred before much was known about children, youth, and the Internet. The author's strategy was to investigate websites that cater to children and adolescents. The developmental…
Blais, Julie J.; Craig, Wendy M.; Pepler, Debra; Connolly, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to determine whether using the Internet for different activities affects the quality of close adolescent relationships (i.e., best friendships and romantic relationships). In a one-year longitudinal study of 884 adolescents (Mean age = 15, 46% male), we examined whether visiting chat rooms, using ICQ, using the…
Pawanteh, Latiffah; Rahim, Samsudin A.
Examines the Internet usage pattern of Malaysian adolescents based on a survey of 1,404 adolescents between the ages of 13-16 and focus group discussions. Finds the daily realities of media savvy Malaysian youths are an integration of on-line and off-line relationships, events, information, memberships, chats and online shopping. (RS)
Koenig, Julian; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
Refuge in Digital Worlds - the Association of Critical Life Events with Pathological Internet Use in Adolescence The present study sought to clarify the potential relationship between critical life events and pathological internet use in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted within the framework of a European school-based study (SEYLE) which included a representative sample of 1,444 students from the Rhein-Neckar catchment area. The Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ) was used to assess pathological internet use, whereas a combination of the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE) and Life Events Checklist (LCE) was administered to assess critical life events over the period of the last six months. Statistical models were adjusted for the presence of psychopathological distress using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). 4.8 % of the participating students reported pathological internet use, 14.5 % met criteria for risky Internet use. Overall, adolescents with risky or pathological internet use recalled more critical life events, particularly within the context of interpersonal relationships and academic performance. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and psychopathological distress, results showed that an unexpected decrease in academic performance as well as the termination of a romantic relationship, both were significantly associated with pathological internet use. Adolescents with pathological internet use reported significantly more frequent interpersonal problems and an unexpected decrease of academic performance. Based on the cross-sectional nature of the investigation, causality of the association cannot be established. However, results point towards potential risk factors (academic performance, termination of relationships) which may guide the identification of adolescents with risky or pathological internet use in child- and adolescent psychiatry.
Portnuff, Cory DF
Hearing loss from the overuse of portable listening devices (PLDs), such as MP3 players or iPods, is of great concern in the popular media. This review aims to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge about music-induced hearing loss from PLD use. This report evaluates the literature on the risk to hearing from PLD use, the individual and psychological factors that influence PLD usage, and strategies for reducing exposure to music through PLDs. Specific interventions are reviewed, and several recommendations for designing interventions and for individual intervention in clinical practice are presented. Clinical recommendations suggested include the “80–90 rule” and the use of isolator-style earphones to reduce background noise. PMID:26929674
Portnuff, Cory Df
Hearing loss from the overuse of portable listening devices (PLDs), such as MP3 players or iPods, is of great concern in the popular media. This review aims to discuss the current state of scientific knowledge about music-induced hearing loss from PLD use. This report evaluates the literature on the risk to hearing from PLD use, the individual and psychological factors that influence PLD usage, and strategies for reducing exposure to music through PLDs. Specific interventions are reviewed, and several recommendations for designing interventions and for individual intervention in clinical practice are presented. Clinical recommendations suggested include the "80-90 rule" and the use of isolator-style earphones to reduce background noise.
Ivković, Alan; Franić, Miljenko; Bojanić, Ivan; Pećina, Marko
The last three decades have witnessed a tremendous increase in female sports participation at all levels. However, increased sports participation of female athletes has also increased the incidence of sport-related injuries, which can be either acute trauma or overuse injuries. Overuse injuries may be defined as an imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery, which subsequently leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms. This article will review the most frequent overuse injuries in female athletes in the context of anatomical, physiological, and psychological differences between genders.
Dhir, Amandeep; Chen, Sufen; Nieminen, Marko
The past few years have witnessed great developments in Internet infrastructure, which have led to increased Internet usage among people of various age groups. However, at the same time, there have been some negative implications associated with increased Internet usage for some individuals. "Internet addiction" (IA) is one such negative…
Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Ko, Chih-Hung; Chou, Chien; Kim, Dong-Il; Watanabe, Hiroko; Ho, Roger C M
The Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R) was developed to assess Internet addiction in Chinese populations, but its psychometric properties in adolescents have not been examined. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of CIAS-R in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. 860 Grade 7 to 13 students (38 % boys) completed the CIAS-R, the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) in a survey. The prevalence of Internet addiction as assessed by CIAS-R was 18 %. High internal consistency and inter-item correlations were reported for the CIAS-R. Results from the confirmatory factor analysis suggested a four-factor structure of Compulsive Use and Withdrawal, Tolerance, Interpersonal and Health-related Problems, and Time Management Problems. Moreover, results of hierarchical multiple regression supported the incremental validity of the CIAS-R to predict mental health outcomes beyond the effects of demographic differences and self-reported time spent online. The CIAS is a reliable and valid measure of internet addiction problems in Hong Kong adolescents. Future study is warranted to validate the cutoffs of the CIAS-R for identification of adolescents with Internet use problems who may have mental health needs.
Lopez-Fernandez, Olatz; Freixa-Blanxart, Montserrat; Honrubia-Serrano, Maria Luisa
Many researchers and professionals have reported nonsubstance addiction to online entertainments in adolescents. However, very few scales have been designed to assess problem Internet use in this population, in spite of their high exposure and obvious vulnerability. The aim of this study was to review the currently available scales for assessing problematic Internet use and to validate a new scale of this kind for use, specifically in this age group, the Problematic Internet Entertainment Use Scale for Adolescents. The research was carried out in Spain in a gender-balanced sample of 1131 high school students aged between 12 and 18 years. Psychometric analyses showed the scale to be unidimensional, with excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.92), good construct validity, and positive associations with alternative measures of maladaptive Internet use. This self-administered scale can rapidly measure the presence of symptoms of behavioral addiction to online videogames and social networking sites, as well as their degree of severity. The results estimate the prevalence of this problematic behavior in Spanish adolescents to be around 5 percent.
Tan, Yafei; Chen, Ying; Lu, Yaogui; Li, Liping
The primary aim of this study was to examine associations between problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance, and explore whether there were differential effects of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. A total of 1772 adolescents who participated in the Shantou Adolescent Mental Health Survey were recruited in 2012 in Shantou, China. The Chinese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the prevalence and severity of Internet addiction. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and other socio-demographic measures were also completed. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the mediating effect of problematic Internet use and depression on sleep disturbance. Among the participants, 17.2% of adolescents met the criteria for problematic Internet use, 40.0% were also classified as suffering from sleep disturbance, and 54.4% of students had depressive symptoms. Problematic Internet use was significantly associated with depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance. The correlation between depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance was highly significant. Both problematic Internet use (β = 0.014; Sobel test Z = 12.7, p < 0.001) and depression (β = 0.232; Sobel test Z = 3.39, p < 0.001) had partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance and depression was of greater importance for sleep disturbance than problematic Internet use. There is a high prevalence of problematic Internet use, depression and sleep disturbance among high school students in southern China, and problematic Internet use and depressive symptoms are strongly associated with sleep disturbance. This study provides evidence that problematic Internet use and depression have partially mediating effects on sleep disturbance. These results are important for clinicians and policy makers with useful information for prevention and
Greydanus, Donald E; Greydanus, Megan M
The Internet has revolutionized education and social communication in the 21st century. This article reviews the growing literature identifying a number of adolescents and young adults with a pathologically excessive Internet use leading to many potential consequences. Current research dilemmas in this area include that Internet addiction is a broad topic with no standard definition and no standard measurement tools. Management of youth with identified problematic Internet use or misuse centers on behavioral therapy and treatment of comorbidities. Pharmacologic approaches are limited at this time but are undergoing research, such as use of opioid antagonists and antidepressants in adults with pathological gambling. Efforts should be expanded on not only the education of all adolescents regarding the benefits but also the potential negative consequences of Internet use. It is vital that we do this for Generation Z, whereas Generation ALPHA will soon benefit or suffer from our efforts in this regard today.
Holfeld, Brett; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena
With increasing frequency of Internet use among adolescents, there are growing concerns about their risk for becoming attached to these forms of communication and increased vulnerability for negative online experiences, including cyber victimization. The effect of these experiences on adolescent mental health is not well understood. In this study, we examine how Internet attachment is related to anxiety and depression and assess the mediating effect of cyber victimization on these associations. Participants included 1,151 middle school students (51.4 percent males) aged 10 to 16 (M = 12.7, SD = 0.93). Structural equation models show that greater Internet attachment was associated with more cyber victimization and greater symptoms of anxiety and depression. Cyber victimization mediated the associations between Internet attachment and anxiety and between Internet attachment and depression. Implications for online awareness efforts are discussed.
Lee, June-Young; Park, E-Jin; Kwon, Min; Choi, Ji-Hye; Jeong, Jo-Eun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Sam Wook; Lee, Chang-Uk
Objective This study examined the differences in psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects in accordance with the severity of Internet addiction in male adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-five adolescents from four middle and high schools in Seoul were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided into non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups according to a diagnostic interview by psychiatrists. The psychiatric comorbidities and behavioral aspects of subjects were evaluated through psychiatric clinical interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition), the Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Internet Addiction Test, and a self-reported questionnaire about behavioral aspects. Results The psychiatric comorbidity distributions were significantly different in the abuse and dependence groups, particularly in terms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and mood disorder items. The Children's Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Internet Addiction Test scores were also significantly different among the three groups. There were significant differences in 10 of the 20 items of the Internet Addiction Test between the non-addict, abuse, and dependence groups. There were significant differences in seven items between the non-addict and abuse groups, but no differences between subjects in the abuse and dependence groups. Significant differences were observed in three items between the abuse and dependence groups, but there were no significant differences between the non-addict and abuse groups. In terms of behavioral aspects, scores for abusive, sexual, and decreased social interest behaviors were highest in the dependence group, and lowest in the non-addict group. However, the behavioral aspects of decreased interpersonal relationships did not show this difference between groups. Conclusion This study suggests that there are differences in
Prabhakaran, M. C. Anusha; Patel, V. Rajvee; Ganjiwale, D. Jaishree; Nimbalkar, M. Somashekhar
Introduction: The internet is an important modern means of obtaining information and communicating with others which has converted the world into a global village. At the same time, increasing internet use among adolescents is also likely to pose a major public health concern that is internet addiction (IA). The aim was to assess the prevalence of IA among school-going adolescents and factors associated with IA. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to survey adolescents studying in 8th to 11th standard of five schools of Vadodara. Information regarding sociodemography and various patterns of internet use were obtained using survey forms. IA test (IAT) was used to screen for IA. Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis, and logistic regression were done to analyze the data. Results: Seven hundred and twenty-four participants that completed IAT were analyzed. Internet use prevalence was 98.9%. Prevalence of IA was 8.7%. Male gender, owning a personal device, hours of internet use/day, use of smartphones, permanent login status, use of internet for chatting, making online friends, shopping, watching movies, online gaming, searching information online and instant messaging were found to be associated significantly with IA in univariate analysis. Internet use for online friendships was found to be a significant predictor of IA (odds ratio [OR] =2.4), and internet use for searching information was found to be protective (OR = 0.20) against IA on logistic regression. Conclusions: IA is prevalent in the adolescent population and requires awareness and intervention. Characteristics of internet usage found to be associated with IA needs to be considered while developing strategies for interventions. PMID:28348987
Greenfield, Patricia; Yan, Zheng
With this special section on children, adolescents, and the Internet, we survey the state of a new field of inquiry in developmental psychology. This field is important because developmentalists need to understand how children and adolescents live in a new, massive, and complex virtual universe, even as they carry on their lives in the real world. We have selected six empirical articles to showcase various aspects of child and adolescent development in this virtual universe. These articles reflect three major themes of this new field: communication on the Internet; cognitive development, academic achievement, and the Internet; and adolescents in a globalized Internet world. These three sections reflect one of our major editorial goals: to sample various relevant aspects of development as they relate to the Internet. The selection of articles reflects a second editorial goal: to sample both the positive and negative aspects of the virtual world in which children and adolescents are increasingly living. Another of our editorial goals was to sample as large an age range as possible. We also utilized a very broad definition of development. Last but not least, we sought out and found methodological diversity.
Lin, Fuchun; Zhou, Yan; Du, Yasong; Zhao, Zhimin; Qin, Lindi; Xu, Jianrong; Lei, Hao
Abnormal structure and function in the striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been revealed in Internet addiction disorder (IAD). However, little is known about alterations of corticostriatal functional circuits in IAD. The aim of this study was to investigate the integrity of corticostriatal functional circuits and their relations to neuropsychological measures in IAD by resting-state functional connectivity (FC). Fourteen IAD adolescents and 15 healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scans. Using six predefined bilateral striatal regions-of-interest, voxel-wise correlation maps were computed and compared between groups. Relationships between alterations of corticostriatal connectivity and clinical measurements were examined in the IAD group. Compared to controls, IAD subjects exhibited reduced connectivity between the inferior ventral striatum and bilateral caudate head, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and posterior cingulate cortex, and between the superior ventral striatum and bilateral dorsal/rostral ACC, ventral anterior thalamus, and putamen/pallidum/insula/inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and between the dorsal caudate and dorsal/rostral ACC, thalamus, and IFG, and between the left ventral rostral putamen and right IFG. IAD subjects also showed increased connectivity between the left dorsal caudal putamen and bilateral caudal cigulate motor area. Moreover, altered cotricostriatal functional circuits were significantly correlated with neuropsychological measures. This study directly provides evidence that IAD is associated with alterations of corticostriatal functional circuits involved in the affective and motivation processing, and cognitive control. These findings emphasize that functional connections in the corticostriatal circuits are modulated by affective/motivational/cognitive states and further suggest that IAD may have abnormalities of such modulation in this network.
Lin, Fuchun; Zhou, Yan; Du, Yasong; Zhao, Zhimin; Qin, Lindi; Xu, Jianrong; Lei, Hao
Abnormal structure and function in the striatum and prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been revealed in Internet addiction disorder (IAD). However, little is known about alterations of corticostriatal functional circuits in IAD. The aim of this study was to investigate the integrity of corticostriatal functional circuits and their relations to neuropsychological measures in IAD by resting-state functional connectivity (FC). Fourteen IAD adolescents and 15 healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI scans. Using six predefined bilateral striatal regions-of-interest, voxel-wise correlation maps were computed and compared between groups. Relationships between alterations of corticostriatal connectivity and clinical measurements were examined in the IAD group. Compared to controls, IAD subjects exhibited reduced connectivity between the inferior ventral striatum and bilateral caudate head, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and posterior cingulate cortex, and between the superior ventral striatum and bilateral dorsal/rostral ACC, ventral anterior thalamus, and putamen/pallidum/insula/inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and between the dorsal caudate and dorsal/rostral ACC, thalamus, and IFG, and between the left ventral rostral putamen and right IFG. IAD subjects also showed increased connectivity between the left dorsal caudal putamen and bilateral caudal cigulate motor area. Moreover, altered cotricostriatal functional circuits were significantly correlated with neuropsychological measures. This study directly provides evidence that IAD is associated with alterations of corticostriatal functional circuits involved in the affective and motivation processing, and cognitive control. These findings emphasize that functional connections in the corticostriatal circuits are modulated by affective/motivational/cognitive states and further suggest that IAD may have abnormalities of such modulation in this network. PMID:26136677
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be “out,” and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors. PMID:25344027
Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Song, Hyoung-Seok; Kwon, Ku-Hyung; Lee, Hyeon-Soo; Nam, Min; Jung, In-Kwa
As the number of internet users increases, a new game genre using the internet as a networking tool is emerging. Some game genres are regarded as having greater addiction potentials than others. Games and the internet are closely related. We investigated games frequently used by adolescents and classified each of them with the help of game professionals. We also examined internet use patterns to identify relationships between game genre and internet use patterns. 627 middle school and high school students (male 488, female 139) completed questionnaires concerning computer and game use patterns and Korean internet addiction scales. Game genres were divided into eight criteria (simulation, role playing game, web board, community, action, adventure, shooting, and sports). Using Korean internet addiction scales, 627 participants were divided into a normal group (474), a potential risk group (128), and a high-risk group (25). Each group showed significant differences in total internet addiction scores. We classified players into specific game users based upon the game types they most prefer. Role playing game users showed significantly higher internet addiction scores than web board and sports game users. Game and internet addictions are also connected with interpersonal relationship patterns. We suggest that users of some game genre have unique psychological addiction potentials that are different from others and that this influences both game selection and internet use.
Chun, J-W; Choi, J; Cho, H; Lee, S-K; Kim, D J
Although the Internet is an important tool in our daily life, the control of Internet use is necessary to address difficult problems. This study set out with the aim of assessing the cognitive control of affective events in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and has examined the influence of IGD on neural activities with regard to swear words in young adolescents. We demonstrated the differences between adolescents with IGD and healthy control adolescents (HC) with respect to swear, negative and neutral word conditions. Swear words induced more activation in regions related to social interaction and emotional processing such as the superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) when compared with negative words. In this study, adolescents with IGD exhibited reduced activation in the right OFC related to cognitive control and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) related to social rejection during the swear word condition. In addition, adolescents with IGD were negatively correlated with activity in the right amygdala toward swear words, indicating the important role of the amygdala in the control of aggression in adolescents with IGD. These findings enhance our understanding of social-emotional perception in adolescents with IGD.
Chun, J-W; Choi, J; Cho, H; Lee, S-K; Kim, D J
Although the Internet is an important tool in our daily life, the control of Internet use is necessary to address difficult problems. This study set out with the aim of assessing the cognitive control of affective events in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and has examined the influence of IGD on neural activities with regard to swear words in young adolescents. We demonstrated the differences between adolescents with IGD and healthy control adolescents (HC) with respect to swear, negative and neutral word conditions. Swear words induced more activation in regions related to social interaction and emotional processing such as the superior temporal sulcus, right temporoparietal junction and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) when compared with negative words. In this study, adolescents with IGD exhibited reduced activation in the right OFC related to cognitive control and in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) related to social rejection during the swear word condition. In addition, adolescents with IGD were negatively correlated with activity in the right amygdala toward swear words, indicating the important role of the amygdala in the control of aggression in adolescents with IGD. These findings enhance our understanding of social–emotional perception in adolescents with IGD. PMID:26305475
Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Alexandraki, Kiriaki; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso
This study aims: a) to estimate the prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents of urban and rural areas in Greece, b) to examine whether the Internet Addiction Test cut-off point is applicable to them and c) to investigate the phenomenon's association with academic achievement. Participants were 2090 adolescents (mean age 16, 1036 males,…
Chen, Yi-Lung; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
Although the literature has documented associations between sleep problems and internet addiction, the temporal direction of these relationships has not been established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the bidirectional relationships between sleep problems and internet addiction among children and adolescents longitudinally. A four-wave longitudinal study was conducted with 1253 children and adolescents in grades 3, 5 and 8 from March 2013 to January 2014. The sleep problems of the student participants were measured by parental reports on the Sleep Habit Questionnaire, which catalogues early insomnia, middle insomnia, disturbed circadian rhythm, periodic leg movements, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, sleep talking, nightmares, bruxism, snoring and sleep apnoea. The severity of internet addiction was measured by students' self-reports on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Based on the results of time-lag models, dyssomnias (odds ratio = 1.31), especially early and middle insomnias (odds ratio = 1.74 and 2.24), sequentially predicted internet addiction, and internet addiction sequentially predicted disturbed circadian rhythm (odds ratio = 2.40), regardless of adjustment for gender and age. This is the first study to demonstrate the temporal relationship of early and middle insomnia predicting internet addiction, which subsequently predicts disturbed circadian rhythm. These findings imply that treatment strategies for sleep problems and internet addiction should vary according to the order of their occurrence.
Canan, Fatih; Yildirim, Osman; Ustunel, Tuba Yildirim; Sinani, Gjergji; Kaleli, Arzu Hisarvant; Gunes, Cemalettin; Ataoglu, Ahmet
The purpose of this study was to investigate Internet use patterns and Internet addiction among adolescents and to examine the correlation between Internet addiction and eating attitudes and body mass index (BMI). The study was conducted among 1,938 students, aged between 14 and 18 years. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT), and a sociodemographic query form were used to collect data. According to the IAT, 12.4% of the study sample met the criteria for Internet addiction. A significant positive correlation between BMI and the IAT (r=0.307; p<0.01) and weekly Internet use (r=0.215; p<0.01) was found. Nine students with Internet addiction (3.8%) and 90 with average Internet use (5.3%) were found to have a possible eating disorder (p>0.05). No relationship was found between the EAT and the IAT and duration of weekly Internet use. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant independent association of the IAT with BMI (r=0.235; p<0.001). These results indicate an association between Internet addiction and BMI. Further studies are needed to describe the causality of this association.
Pengel, K Brooke
Pediatric overuse injury is a common complaint presenting to pediatricians. Overuse injury can affect the soft tissues or bone, and results from an imbalance between training and load to the tissues and recovery time. In the skeletally immature athlete, physeal and apophyseal tissue is particularly vulnerable to overuse resulting in different patterns of injury compared to adults. Awareness of age-dependent patterns of overuse is necessary for proper recognition, treatment, and prevention of injury. This article reviews the most common pediatric overuse injuries with emphasis on risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Guidelines for prevention are included, as this is the key component for successful management of overuse injury in pediatric athletes.
Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Luk, Jeremy W.
The purposes of the current study were to examine gender and grade differences in computer use and Internet bullying, and the relationship between computer use and Internet bullying. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey, a nationally-representative sample of grades 6 to 10 (N = 7222) in the United States. Multinomial logistic regressions were used for gender and grade differences in computer use. Logistic regression analyses were used for involvement in Internet bullying and victimization, with gender, grade and computer use as predictors. Results Results showed that adolescents who spent 2 or more hours per day on computer use were more likely to bully others and to be bullied by others using computers. Females spent more time using computer, but were less likely to use computers to bully others. There was no gender difference in Internet victimization. Computer use increased with grade, but older adolescents were less likely to engage in either Internet bullying or victimization. Conclusion Time spent on computer use plays an important role on involvement in Internet bullying and victimization among adolescents. PMID:26413176
Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun
We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed.
Xiuqin, Huang; Huimin, Zhang; Mengchen, Li; Jinan, Wang; Ying, Zhang; Ran, Tao
The objectives of this study were to compare the personality profiles of adolescent males with and without Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and to determine if IAD is associated with specific parental rearing behaviors. A total of 304 subjects (204 IAD positive and 100 IAD negative controls) completed three instruments: Symptom Checklist-90-revision (SCL-90-R), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised (EPQ-R), and Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran--'My Memories of Upbringing' (EMBU). SCL-90-R profiles of adolescents with IAD revealed comparatively higher mean scores for all of the nine domains, and significantly higher scores for obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoid ideation; the mean global symptom index of adolescents with IAD was also significantly higher by approximately 10%. EPQ profiles of adolescents with IAD showed that Internet-dependent individuals tended to exhibit a significantly lower degree of extraversion and a significantly higher degree of psychoticism when compared with the control group. EMBU profiles revealed that adolescents with IAD generally rated both maternal and paternal rearing practices as lacking in emotional warmth, being over-involved, rejecting, and punitive (mothers only). The results of this study confirm that IAD often occurs concurrently with mental symptoms and personality traits such as introversion and psychoticism. Adolescents with IAD consistently rated parental rearing behaviors as being over-intrusive, punitive, and lacking in responsiveness. These findings suggest that the influences of parenting style and family function are important factors in the development of Internet dependency.
Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…
Wartberg, Lutz; Brunner, Romuald; Kriston, Levente; Durkee, Tony; Parzer, Peter; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Danuta; Thomasius, Rainer; Kaess, Michael
In Germany, high prevalence rates for problematic alcohol use and problematic Internet use in adolescents were reported. The objective of the present study was to identify psychopathological factors associated with these two behavior patterns. To our knowledge, this is the first investigation assessing psychopathological factors for both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use in the same sample of adolescents. We surveyed a sample of 1444 adolescents in Germany regarding problematic alcohol use, problematic Internet use, psychopathology and psychological well-being. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses. 5.6% of the sample showed problematic alcohol use, 4.8% problematic Internet use, and 0.8% both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Problematic alcohol use was higher in adolescents with problematic Internet use compared to those without problematic Internet use. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms were statistically significant associated with both problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use. Prosocial behavior was related to problematic Internet use. Male gender and less peer problems were associated with problematic alcohol use. For the first time associations between adolescent problematic alcohol and problematic Internet use due to common psychopathological factors were identified. However, in addition to shared factors, we found also specific psychopathological correlates associated with these two behavior patterns.
Tsitsika, Artemis; Critselis, Elena; Louizou, Amalia; Janikian, Mari; Freskou, Aliki; Marangou, Evgenia; Kormas, Georgios; Kafetzis, Dimitrios
Internet Addiction (IA) is associated with adverse psychosocial development and mental disorders. The study aims were to evaluate the psychosocial profiles and psychiatric comorbidities associated with IA among adolescents. A case-control study was conducted among 129 adolescents in the outpatient setting of the Adolescent Health Unit of the Second University Department of Pediatrics in Athens, Greece. The case group consisted of 86 adolescents with IA as evaluated following psychiatric interview with two independent examiners. The control group consisted of 43 adolescents without IA, frequency matched for age and gender with case group participants. The study findings indicated that adolescents with IA were significantly more likely to have divorced parents (p = 0.012) and/or dysfunctional familial relationships (p < 0.0001). The proportion of adolescents with poor academic performance (p < 0.0001) and unexcused school absences (p = 0.004) was greater among those with IA. Moreover, approximately two-thirds of the adolescents with IA were engaged in high-risk behaviors (p < 0.0001). Finally, adolescents with IA were 3.89 times more likely to present with comorbid psychiatric conditions (CI 95%: 1.19-12.70), including depression (10.5 vs. 0%; p = 0.022). Adolescent IA is associated with deterred familial functions, poor academic performance, engagement in high-risk behaviors, and an augmented likelihood for depression.
Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive
A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.
VURAL, Pınar; UNCU, Yeşim; KILIÇ, Emine Zinnur
Introduction Children and adolescents are at the highest risk for negative effects of internet usage. Risk taking and erroneous decision making have been described as major behavioral characteristics of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD and its association particularly with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder are correlated with risk-taking behaviors. This study was conducted to evaluate how disruptive behavior disorder symptoms are associated with internet usage, particularly unsafe internet usage, in early adolescents. Methods A sample of 1389 secondary school students was invited to the survey. All children were given an invitation letter and Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) forms were sent to their parents. The accepted participants filled in questionnaire forms, which consisted of questions interrogating demographic information and internet usage habits. Results Responses indicated that 27.4% (n=249) of the participants encountered unwanted content unintentionally and nearly one-third (n=280, 30.4%) had chatted online with people they did not know. Additionally, respondents who had more severe ADHD symptoms were more likely to report surfing online mainly for the purpose of chatting than respondents with milder ADHD symptoms. Students with comparatively higher attention deficit scores were also significantly more likely to report meeting in person with strangers they knew only from internet chatting. Analyses have demonstrated the presence of a significant difference between study participants with and without conduct disorder as for internet overusage or meeting with their internet acquaintances. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be a significant relation between ADHD symptoms, conduct disorder and pathological and unsafe internet usage. Evaluating adolescents with ADHD and conduct disorder with this risk in mind is important in the development of both preventive and interventional strategies.
Background Internet-based health resources can support informal caregivers who are caring for children or adolescents with health care needs. However, few studies discriminate informal caregivers’ needs from those of their care recipients or those of people caring for adults. Objective This study reviews the literature of health-related Internet use among informal caregivers of children and adolescents. Methods A total of 17 studies were selected from literature searches conducted in 6 electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, and EMBASE. All databases searches were limited to articles published in the years 2004 to 2014 in peer-reviewed publications. Search terms consisted of “health-related Internet use,” “eHealth,” “Internet use for health-related purpose(s),” “Web-based resource(s),” and “online resources,” combined with informal caregiver (or “parents”) of “child,” “adolescent,” “student,” “youth,” and “teen.” The age range of the children receiving care was limited to younger than 22 years. Their informal caregivers were defined as persons (parents) who provided unpaid care or assistance to a child or an adolescent with health problems. Results Among 17 empirical studies, the majority of informal caregivers of children with medical issues were the parents. Quantitative studies (14/17, 77%) reported prevalence and predictors of health-related Internet use, while mixed-methods and qualitative studies (3/17, 24%) investigated informal caregiver perceptions of helpful health-related Internet use and barriers of use. The prevalence of health-related Internet use varied (11%-90%) dependent upon how health-related Internet use was operationalized and measured. Disease-specific information was used for decision making about treatment, while social support via virtual communities and email were used for informal caregiver emotional needs. A digital divide of Internet access was identified in lower
Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M; Schouten, Alexander P
Previous research has been largely silent about what precisely influences online friendship formation and has ignored motives for online communication as potential explanations. Drawing on a sample of 493 adolescents, this study tested a path model of adolescent friendship formation including as predictors introversion/extraversion, online self-disclosure, motive for social compensation, and frequency of online communication. Our path analysis showed that extraverted adolescents self-disclosed and communicated online more frequently, which, in turn, facilitated the formation of online friendships. Introverted adolescents, by contrast, were more strongly motivated to communicate online to compensate for lacking social skills. This increased their chances of making friends online. Among introverted adolescents, a stronger motive for social compensation also led to more frequent online communication and online self-disclosure, resulting in more online friendships. The model suggests that the antecedents of online friendship formation are more complex than previously assumed and that motives for online communication should be studied more closely.
Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne K.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to gain first insight into factors which might be associated with exposure to internet-delivered interventions. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with five groups of Dutch adolescents (n = 54), aged 12-17 years. Several aspects of exposure: a first visit;…
Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus
In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised…
The goal of this study was to examine types and patterns of reading strategies that proficient adolescent readers used while reading on the Internet. Informed by research related to reading comprehension, intertextuality, and new literacies, I drew upon the model of "Constructively Responsive Reading" that had evolved from print reading to…
Background The Internet is a fundamental part of the daily life of adolescents, they consider it as a safe and confidential source of information on health matters. The aims is to describe the experience of Spanish adolescents searching for health information on the Internet. Methods A cross-sectional study of 811 school-age adolescents in Granada was carried out. An adapted and piloted questionnaire was used which was controlled by trained personnel. Sociodemographic and health variables were included together with those concerning the conditions governing access to and use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Results 811 adolescents were surveyed (99.38% response rate), mean age was 17 years old. Of these, 88% used the Internet; 57.5% used it on a daily or weekly basis and 38.7% used it occasionally. Nearly half the sample group (55.7%) stated that they used the Internet to search for health-related information. The main problems reported in the search for e-health were the ignorance of good web pages (54.8%) and the lack of confidence or search skills (23.2%). Conclusions In conclusion, it seems plausible to claim that websites designed and managed by health services should have a predominant position among interventions specifically addressed to young people. PMID:20113486
Telef, Bülent Baki
This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…
Vangberg, Hans Christian B.; Lillevoll, Kjersti R.; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin
Background. Focus upon depression and prevention of its occurrence among adolescents is increasing. Novel ways of dealing with this serious problem have become available especially by means of internet-based prevention and treatment programs of depression and anxiety. The use of Internet-based intervention programs among adolescents has revealed some difficulties in implementation that need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personality and adolescent depression and the characteristics of users of an Internet-based intervention program. Method. The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) have been administered to a sample (n = 1234) of Norwegian senior high-school students. Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between depression and gender, and several JTCI domains and facets. In line with previous findings in adults, high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness emerged as the strongest predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Further, in logistic regression analysis with the covariates JTCI, GSE and CES-D, the only significant variables predicting use/non-use were the CES-D and the temperament domain Reward Dependence. Conclusion. The results in this study revealed level of depressive symptoms as the strongest predictor of the use of the Internet based intervention and that personality might provide useful information about the users. PMID:22928095
This paper presents the policy and guidelines, which evolved over the last four years, for answering questions and giving counsel on an Internet site dedicated to sexuality and intimate relations of adolescents. The theoretical framework employed is that of non-directive counseling. Some ethical, legal, and practical issues are discussed. The…
van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…
Strom, Paris; Strom, Robert; Wing, Charlotte; Beckert, Troy
Many teenagers are more skilled in using tools of technology for learning than the adults who guide their education. The Center for a Digital Future at the University of Southern California administers annual surveys to track the impact of online technology. Jeffrey Cole, center director, reports that adolescents consider the Internet to be their…
Sobrino, Francisco José; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Guillén, Pedro
Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, on injuries occurring in professional dancers from leading Spanish dance companies who practiced disciplines such as classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish ballet. Data, including type of injury, were obtained from specialized medical services at the Trauma Service, Fremap, Madrid, Spain. Results A total of 486 injuries were evaluated, a significant number of which were overuse disorders (P < .0001), especially in the most technically demanding discipline of classical ballet (82.60%). Injuries were more frequent among female dancers (75.90%) and classical ballet (83.60%). A statistically significant prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome was found in the classical discipline (P = .007). Injuries of the adductor muscles of the thigh (P = .001) and of the low back facet (P = .02) in the Spanish ballet discipline and lateral snapping hip (P = .02) in classical and Spanish ballet disciplines were significant. Conclusion Overuse injuries were the most frequent injuries among the professional dancers included in this study. The prevalence of injuries was greater for the most technically demanding discipline (classical ballet) as well as for women. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most prevalent overuse injury, followed by Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy, and mechanical low back pain. Clinical Relevance Specific clinical diagnoses and injury-based differences between the disciplines are a key factor in ballet
Zhou, Yueyue; Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan
This study examined the unique associations between big five personality traits and adolescent Internet addiction (IA), as well as the mediating role of coping style underlying these relations. Our theoretical model was tested with 998 adolescents. Participants provided self-report data on demographic variables, big five personality traits, coping style, and IA. After controlling for demographic variables, it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with IA, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience were positively associated with IA. Mediation analyses further indicated that conscientiousness had an indirect impact on adolescent IA through decreased emotion-focused coping, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience had indirect impacts on adolescent IA through increased emotion-focused coping. In contrast, problem-focused coping had no mediating role. These findings suggest that emotion-focused coping may, in part, account for the association between big five personality and adolescent IA.
Rafla, Malak; Carson, Nicholas J; DeJong, Sandra M
The Internet's permeation into daily life has profoundly changed the practice of psychiatry with adolescents, who mobilize online social media and related technologies in their efforts to develop identity and "hang out" with peers. Technology offers both challenges and opportunities to mental health professionals working with teens. Practitioners will need a new skill-set, including keeping abreast of technological developments; professionally incorporating technology into clinical assessment and practice; identifying the negative impacts of technology on teens' physical and mental health and the particular vulnerabilities of at-risk patients in a digital world; and guiding patients and parents about interventions. Particular patient factors related to race/ethnicity, gender and sexual orientation, mental health and trauma history, family culture, parenting style, and personality traits will need to be considered. This article provides an overview of the literature on adolescents and the Internet focusing on recent research on Internet and digital technologies used for social communication among youth.
Smith, Chad E
An exploratory study was designed to describe Internet search behaviors of deaf adolescents who used Internet search engines to complete fact-based search tasks. The study examined search behaviors of deaf high school students such as query formation, query modification, Web site identification, and Web site selection. Consisting of two fact-based search tasks, the study was done in four regional day school programs for the deaf. As students conducted two search tasks, they completed task analyses of the selected Web sites and gave reasons for their selections. The research also identified the processes used by deaf students to compensate for limited English reading abilities while navigating search engines results that were typically written well above deaf students' average reading level. The results demonstrated that deaf adolescents were unable to initiate, conduct, analyze, or validate effective Internet searches in response to fact-based search tasks.
Holtz, Peter; Appel, Markus
In early adolescence, the time spent using the Internet and video games is higher than in any other present-day age group. Due to age-inappropriate web and gaming content, the impact of new media use on teenagers is a matter of public and scientific concern. Based on current theories on inappropriate media use, a study was conducted that comprised 205 adolescents aged 10-14 years (Md = 13). Individuals were identified who showed clinically relevant problem behavior according to the problem scales of the Youth Self Report (YSR). Online gaming, communicational Internet use, and playing first-person shooters were predictive of externalizing behavior problems (aggression, delinquency). Playing online role-playing games was predictive of internalizing problem behavior (including withdrawal and anxiety). Parent-child communication about Internet activities was negatively related to problem behavior.
Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Upadyaya, Katja; Hakkarainen, Kai; Lonka, Kirsti; Alho, Kimmo
Recent research shows an increased concern with well-being at school and potential problems associated with students' use of socio-digital technologies, i.e., the mobile devices, computers, social media, and the Internet. Simultaneously with supporting creative social activities, socio-digital participation may also lead to compulsive and addictive behavioral patterns affecting both general and school-related mental health problems. Using two longitudinal data waves gathered among 1702 (53 % female) early (age 12-14) and 1636 (64 % female) late (age 16-18) Finnish adolescents, we examined cross-lagged paths between excessive internet use, school engagement and burnout, and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed reciprocal cross-lagged paths between excessive internet use and school burnout among both adolescent groups: school burnout predicted later excessive internet use and excessive internet use predicted later school burnout. Reciprocal paths between school burnout and depressive symptoms were also found. Girls typically suffered more than boys from depressive symptoms and, in late adolescence, school burnout. Boys, in turn, more typically suffered from excessive internet use. These results show that, among adolescents, excessive internet use can be a cause of school burnout that can later spill over to depressive symptoms.
Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok
Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD.
Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won
Abstract Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners–Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD. PMID:25902276
Henderson, Ellen M; Eccleston, Christopher
Health-care systems seek to advance their care to adolescents through the online provision of information and support. An online, moderated, asynchronous discussion board called Let's Chat Pain was created to recruit adolescent users of online content for pain to a discussion about pain coping and associated Internet use. Participants were asked about everyday pain coping and the role they judge online information to play in this coping. They were asked about determinations of website reliability and validity for health but especially for help with pain problems. Themes around adolescent trust in online websites for pain and research are explored, in addition to inhibiting and disinhibiting factors associated with the Internet use for health. We found users to mistrust online content even when they know it to be valid. Further study is needed to assess if there are ways of instilling confidence in pain information presented online for this group.
Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane
Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators.
Wartberg, Lutz; Kammerl, Rudolf; Rosenkranz, Moritz; Hirschhäuser, Lena; Hein, Sandra; Schwinge, Christiane; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Rainer, Thomasius
Few studies have been carried out investigating the interdependence of family structures or interactions and excessive adolescent Internet use. In this study, we surveyed a representative German quota sample of 1,744 adolescents aged between 14 and 17 years with standardized questionnaires. Adolescents assessed their perceived own functioning in the family with the Self-Rating Scale (FB-S) of the German version of the Family Assessment Measure III, and reported on problematic Internet use with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). To predict problematic Internet use (CIUS summary score), we conducted a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with the seven FB-S scales, the FB-S overall index, and gender and age as explanatory variables. For the full sample, a model with only one predictor (FB-S overall index) that summarizes the quality of family functioning produced a corrected coefficient of determination of 0.239 and explained variance of nearly 24%. t Test results for unpaired samples showed significant differences in the mean values of the FB-S scales and the FB-S overall index for comparisons of both sexes, as well as of a lower age group and higher age group. The prediction of problematic Internet use between both sexes and both age groups showed comparable findings (males: corrected coefficient of determination=0.288; females: corrected coefficient of determination=0.183; lower age group: corrected coefficient of determination=0.231; higher age group: corrected coefficient of determination=0.251), each with a single predictor (FB-S overall index). The results emphasize the importance of family functioning for the occurrence of problematic Internet use in adolescents.
Melchers, Martin; Li, Mei; Chen, Yafei; Zhang, Wanqi; Montag, Christian
As empathy has not been investigated in the context of problematic use of the Internet, we conducted a study to test for a potential link. In samples from China (N=438) and Germany (N=202), two self-report measures for empathic behavior and one self-report measure for problematic Internet use (PIU) were administered in adolescents/students. Across both cultures lower empathy was associated with more PIU. The present study underlines the importance to take into account empathy related questionnaires for a better understanding of Internet overuse in the future.
Smahel, David; Brown, B Bradford; Blinka, Lukas
The past decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of youths using the Internet, especially for communicating with peers. Online activity can widen and strengthen the social networks of adolescents and emerging adults (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), but it also increases the risk of Internet addiction. Using a framework derived from Griffiths (2000a), this study examined associations between online friendship and Internet addiction in a representative sample (n = 394) of Czech youths ages 12-26 years (M = 18.58). Three different approaches to friendship were identified: exclusively offline, face-to-face oriented, Internet oriented, on the basis of the relative percentages of online and offline associates in participants' friendship networks. The rate of Internet addiction did not differ by age or gender but was associated with communication styles, hours spent online, and friendship approaches. The study revealed that effects between Internet addiction and approaches to friendship may be reciprocal: Being oriented toward having more online friends, preferring online communication, and spending more time online were related to increased risk of Internet addiction; on the other hand, there is an alternative causal explanation that Internet addiction and preference for online communication conditions young people's tendency to seek friendship from people met online.
Jelenchick, Lauren A; Hawk, Skyler T; Moreno, Megan A
Problematic Internet use (PIU), defined as Internet use that is risky, excessive, or impulsive in nature and leads to adverse life consequences, is an emerging health concern among adolescents worldwide. Social networking site (SNS) use is among the most popular and common Internet use activities for youth; however, risks of SNS use for PIU remain unexplored. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adolescents at risk for PIU within a national school-based sample of Dutch adolescents and to explore associations between SNS use and PIU. Adolescents were recruited from six public schools in the Netherlands to complete a survey, which included SNS use questions and the Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS). Logistic regression models were used to test associations between risk for PIU and demographic or SNS use variables. A total of 474 adolescents participated (98% response rate), and 11% (n=51) of adolescents were at risk for PIU. Risk for PIU was significantly associated with gender (p=0.015), increased age (p=0.034), and posting on SNS more than four times a day (p=0.003). Risk for PIU was not associated with number of SNS profiles, SNS preference or the number of online friends. Findings illustrate high risk groups for PIU includes males and older teens. Findings also illuminate that risk for PIU related to SNS was not associated with a specific SNS or number of SNSs used but was related to one's personal investment in SNSs by posting four or more times a day.
Xing, Lihong; Yuan, Kai; Bi, Yanzhi; Yin, Junsen; Cai, Chenxi; Feng, Dan; Li, Yangding; Song, Min; Wang, Hongmei; Yu, Dahua; Xue, Ting; Jin, Chenwang; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie
The association between the impaired cognitive control and brain regional abnormalities in Internet gaming disorder (IGD) adolescents had been validated in numerous studies. However, few studies focused on the role of the salience network (SN), which regulates dynamic communication among brain core neurocognitive networks to modulate cognitive control. Seventeen IGD adolescents and 17 healthy controls participated in the study. By combining resting-state functional connectivity and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography methods, we examined the changes of functional and structural connections within SN in IGD adolescents. The color-word Stroop task was employed to assess the impaired cognitive control in IGD adolescents. Correlation analysis was carried out to investigate the relationship between the neuroimaging indices and behavior performance in IGD adolescents. The impaired cognitive control in IGD was validated by more errors during the incongruent condition in color-word Stroop task. The right SN tract showed the decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in IGD adolescents, though no significant differences of functional connectivity were detected. Moreover, the FA values of the right SN tract were negatively correlated with the errors during the incongruent condition in IGD adolescents. Our results revealed the disturbed structural connectivity within SN in IGD adolescents, which may be related with impaired cognitive control. It is hoped that the brain-behavior relationship from network perspective may enhance the understanding of IGD.
Wu, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Yi-Feng; Bi, Linda; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Hu, Cai-Yun; Gong, Feng-Feng; Sun, Ye-Huan
A cross-sectional study design was applied amongst a random sample (n = 10158) of Chinese adolescents. Self-completed questionnaires, including demographic characteristics, Internet use situation, Youth Internet Addiction Test, Youth Social Support Rating Scale and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale were utilized to examine the study objectives. Among the study population, the prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 10.4%, with 1038 (10.2%) moderately and 21 (0.2%) severely addicted to the Internet. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that a variety of related factors have significant effects on Internet addiction (parental control, per capita annual household income, academic performance, the access to Internet, online activities). The correlation coefficients showed that Internet addiction was negatively correlated with social support and positively associated with depression. Social support had a significant negative predictive effect on Internet addiction. The mediating effect of depression between social support and Internet addiction was remarkable.
The use of medicines has increased markedly in many countries over recent years, providing clear evidence of the increasing 'pharmacaeuticalisation' of society. This paper contributes to the sociological analysis of pharmaceuticalisation by starting to explore how we can begin to make judgements as to when and to what extent some medicines are being overused--an important aspect that, rather surprisingly, has not so far been the focus of attention those analysing the process. It considers the World Health Organisation's criteria for the 'rational' use of medicines, pointing to some of the issues they raise. It then develops a typology of over and underuse derived from these criteria. This provides a framework for the discussion of assessing overuse that focuses in particular on the widespread and increasing use of medicines that are not very effective for the conditions for which they are prescribed, and their use where the issue of clinical need is in doubt. Some of the factors that encourage overuse are also considered.
Khan, K; Brown, J; Way, S; Vass, N; Crichton, K; Alexander, R; Baxter, A; Butler, M; Wark, J
Successful management of classical ballet dancers with overuse injuries requires an understanding of the art form, precise knowledge of anatomy and awareness of certain conditions. Turnout is the single most fundamental physical attribute in classical ballet and 'forcing turnout' frequently contributes to overuse injuries. Common presenting conditions arising from the foot and ankle include problems at the first metatarsophalangeal joint, second metatarsal stress fractures, flexor hallucis longus tendinitis and anterior and posterior ankle impingement syndromes. Persistent shin pain in dancers is often due to chronic compartment syndrome, stress fracture of the posteromedial or anterior tibia. Knee pain can arise from patellofemoral syndrome, patellar tendon insertional pathologies, or a combination of both. Hip and back problems are also prevalent in dancers. To speed injury recovery of dancers, it is important for the sports medicine team to cooperate fully. This permits the dancer to benefit from accurate diagnosis, technique correction where necessary, the full range of manual therapies to joint and soft tissue, appropriate strengthening programmes and maintenance of dance fitness during any time out of class with Pilates-based exercises and nutrition advice. Most overuse ballet conditions respond well to a combination of conservative therapies. Those dancers that do require surgical management still depend heavily on ballet-specific rehabilitation for a complete recovery.
This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addiction measured at Time 2. The study also controlled for demographics and scores of criterion variables in Internet risks: targeted for harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content consumed in Time 1. Gratifications-sought (including status-gaining, expressing opinions, and identity experimentation), Internet addiction symptoms (including withdrawal and negative life consequences), and social media use (in particular, blogs, and Facebook) significantly predicted Internet risk changes in Time 2. These findings suggest that, with their predictive power, these predictors at Time 1 could be used to identify those adolescents who are likely to develop Internet addiction symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing Internet risks based on their previous gratifications-sought, previous addiction symptoms, and their habits of social media use at Time 1.
This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addiction measured at Time 2. The study also controlled for demographics and scores of criterion variables in Internet risks: targeted for harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content consumed in Time 1. Gratifications-sought (including status-gaining, expressing opinions, and identity experimentation), Internet addiction symptoms (including withdrawal and negative life consequences), and social media use (in particular, blogs, and Facebook) significantly predicted Internet risk changes in Time 2. These findings suggest that, with their predictive power, these predictors at Time 1 could be used to identify those adolescents who are likely to develop Internet addiction symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing Internet risks based on their previous gratifications-sought, previous addiction symptoms, and their habits of social media use at Time 1. PMID:25750792
van Oosten, Johanna M F
Previous research has suggested that adolescents' exposure to sexually explicit internet material (SEIM) may result in sexual uncertainty because the content of SEIM may conflict with what adolescents have learned about sex. However, research on which type of adolescent is most susceptible to the relation between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty is lacking. This study therefore investigated whether the relationship between SEIM use and sexual uncertainty depends on within-gender differences in sexual dispositions (i.e., impersonal sex orientation and hypergendered orientation). Using data from a representative two-wave panel survey among 1765 Dutch adolescents (aged 13-17), I found that SEIM use predicted sexual uncertainty only among girls with a low hypergendered orientation and girls with a relatively high impersonal sex orientation.
van der Aa, Niels; Overbeek, Geertjan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.
This study examined the associations between adolescents' daily Internet use and low well-being (i.e., loneliness, low self-esteem, and depressive moods). We hypothesized that (a) linkages between high levels of daily Internet use and low well-being would be mediated by compulsive Internet use (CIU), and (b) that adolescents with low levels of…
Lai, Ching-Man; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cheng, Cecilia; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Bahar, Norharlina; Young, Kimberly S; Ko, Huei-Chen; Kim, Dongil; Griffiths, Mark D
There has been increased research examining the psychometric properties on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in different populations. This population-based study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the IAT in adolescents from three Asian countries. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 2,535 secondary school students (55.9% girls) aged 12-18 years from Hong Kong (n=844), Japan (n=744), and Malaysia (n=947) completed a survey in 2012-2013 school year. A nested hierarchy of hypotheses concerning the IAT cross-country invariance was tested using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Replicating past findings in Hong Kong adolescents, the construct of the IAT is best represented by a second-order three-factor structure in Malaysian and Japanese adolescents. Configural, metric, scalar, and partial strict factorial invariance was established across the three samples. No cross-country differences on Internet addiction were detected at the latent mean level. This study provided empirical support for the IAT as a reliable and factorially stable instrument, and valid to be used across Asian adolescent populations.
Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David D; Lehr, Dirk; Riper, Heleen; Sieland, Bernhard; Wiencke, Carmen
Epidemiological findings indicate that up to 18.5 % of the German adolescents suffer from depressive symptoms and that younger adults display the highest risk for relevant symptoms of depression (9.9 %) within the German adult population. Internet-based interventions have been shown to be useful for preventing and treating depression and are more easily disseminated in internet-savvy generations. Available programs are usually based on principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. They differ significantly with regard to target groups, structure, content, degree of guidance provided by online-coaches and evidence for their efficacy. Whereas some studies could not prove the use of the trainings there are others that show large effect sizes (up to d = 0.84) for the reduction of depressive symptoms. In Germany there are some online counseling programs for children and adolescents in (acute) crises available. However, at this point no structured intervention program for the treatment of depression exists.
Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Villa-George, Fabiola I.; Calvete, Esther
The objectives of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) and to examine the cognitive-behavioral theoretical model of problematic Internet use in a sample of 1491 Mexican adolescents (47.6% female, mean age = 14.51). Results showed that the GPIUS2 has adequate construct…
Mu, Karen J.; Moore, Sara E.; LeWinn, Kaja Z.
Objective To investigate the relation between Internet use and binge drinking during early and middle adolescence. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of a sub-sample of 8th and 10th graders from the Monitoring the Future (MtF) study, which annually surveys a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth on their attitudes, behaviors, and values. This study includes data from 21,170 8th and 24,362 10th graders who participated between 2007 and 2012 and were asked questions about Internet use and binge drinking. Results In fully adjusted models, we found a dose response relation between hours of recreational Internet use (i.e. outside work or school) and binge drinking which was stronger for 8th than 10th graders. Compared to <1 h of Internet use per week, odds ratios estimates for 1-5 h/week, 6-19 h/week, and 20 or more h/week were 1.24 (99% CI: 0.85, 1.82), 1.83 (1.28, 2.61), and 2.78 (1.99, 3.87) for 8th graders, respectively. For 10th graders, this same association was attenuated [estimated OR=1.06 (99% CI: 0.96, 1.16); 1.20 (1.03, 1.40); and 1.30 (1.07, 1.58), respectively]. Conclusions Drawing on a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth, we find a significant, dose-response relation between Internet use and binge drinking. This relation was stronger in 8th graders versus 10th graders. Given that alcohol is the most abused substance among adolescents and binge drinking confers many health risks, longitudinal studies designed to examine the mediators of this relation are necessary to inform binge drinking prevention strategies, which may have greater impact if targeted at younger adolescents. PMID:26807435
Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po
The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.
Cuijpers, Pim; Boluijt, Petra; van Straten, Annemieke
The Internet may offer new opportunities for treating depressed adolescents. However, before such treatments are possible, well-validated screening instruments are needed. In the current study, we validate two Internet-based screening instruments for depression among adolescents, the major depression inventory (MDI), and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). A total of 1,392 adolescents, recruited through high schools and the Internet, filled in the online questionnaires. Of these, 243 (17%) were interviewed with the MINI diagnostic interview to assess the presence of a mood disorder. Cronbach's alpha was high for both the CES-D (0.93) and the MDI (0.88), and both correlated highly with each other (0.88; P < .001). The scores on both instruments were significantly increased in all subjects with a mood disorder, whether current or lifetime, except for lifetime minor depression. In the ROC analyses, high areas under the curve were found for the MDI (0.89) and CES-D (0.90). The best cut-off point for the MDI was 19 (sensitivity: 90.48; specificity: 71.53), and for the CES-D it was 22 (sensitivity: 90.48; specificity: 74.31). We conclude that the MDI and CES-D are reliable and valid instruments that can be used for this screening.
Research has provided abundant evidence that overtraining is associated with fatigue and subsequent injury. For many years, it has been axiomatic that the vast majority of dance injuries are the result of overuse, and that dancers frequently persist in movement activities in the presence of microscopic injury--i.e., "dance through" injuries. While it is well-established fact that rest and adequate nutrition are vital components of training and conditioning, for various reasons it remains problematic for dancers to assimilate these requirements into their daily regimen. This review article provides some physiologically and biomechanically based information about the causes, inter-relationships, and consequences of these fundamental premises in dance science.
Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H
This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.
Bousoño Serrano, Matilde; Al-Halabí, Susana; Burón, Patricia; Garrido, Marlen; Díaz-Mesa, Eva María; Galván, Gonzalo; García-Álvarez, Leticia; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Bousoño, Manuel; García-Portilla, María Paz; Iglesias, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar Alejandra; Bobes, Julio
Substance and Internet use or abuse, psychopathology and suicidal ideation appear to be related. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between use of psychotropic substances, inadequate Internet use, suicidal ideation and other psychopathological symptoms within the adolescent population. The present study was carried out as part of the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE) project, funded by the European Union. The sample is composed of 1026 adolescents aged between 14 and 16 years from 12 state schools in Asturias (530 men and 496 women). This study adds to the possibility of knowing whether the SEYLE data is confirmed in a relatively isolated and recession hit province of Spain. In the present study the following consumption rates were obtained: a) alcohol 11.89% in males and 7.86% in females; b) tobacco: 4.15% and 5.44 % in males and females respectively; c) other drugs: 6.98% in males and 4.44% in females; d) maladaptive or pathological Internet use: 14.53% and 20.77% in males and females respectively. The variables that predict suicide ideation in the logistic regression model were: previous suicide attempts, depression, maladaptive or pathological Internet use, peer problems and alcohol consumption.
Siomos, Konstantinos; Paradeisioti, Anna; Hadjimarcou, Michalis; Mappouras, Demetrios G; Kalakouta, Olga; Avagianou, Penelope; Floros, Georgios
In this paper we present the results of a cross-sectional survey designed to ascertain Internet and personal computer (PC) addiction in the Republic of Cyprus. This is a follow-up to a pilot study conducted one year earlier. Data were collected from a representative sample of the adolescent student population of the first and fourth grades of high school. Total sample was 2684 students, 48.5% of them male and 51.5% female. Research material included extended demographics and an Internet security questionnaire, the Young's Diagnostic questionnaire (YDQ), the Adolescent Computer Addiction Test (ACAT). Results indicated that the Cypriot population had comparable addiction statistics with other Greek-speaking populations in Greece; 15.3% of the students were classified as Internet addicted by their YDQ scores and 16.3% as PC addicted by their ACAT scores. Those results are among the highest in Europe. Our results were alarming and have led to the creation of an Internet and PC addiction prevention program which will focus on high-school professor training and the creation of appropriate prevention material for all high-schools, starting immediately after the conclusion of the pan-Cypriot survey, focusing especially on those areas where the frequency of addictive behaviors will be highest.
Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Clements, Nicolle; Flynn, Anna B; Falco, Mathea; McLellan, A Thomas; Arria, Amelia M
Nonmedical use of prescription drugs is common and poses risks such as injury, overdose, and development of abuse and dependence. Internet pharmacies offer prescription drugs without a prescription, creating a source of illicit drugs accessible to anyone with an Internet connection. We examined this issue in a convenience sample of 1,860 adolescents and young adults from 24 residential and outpatient treatment programs. Few individuals obtained drugs from the Internet (n = 26, 2.3%). Pain relievers were the most frequently purchased type of drug. The majority of adolescents and young adult online purchasers made the purchases from their own or a friend's house.
Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W
Many youth have recently embraced online social networking sites such as MySpace (myspace.com) to meet their social and relational needs. While manifold benefits stem from participating in such web-based environments, the popular media has been quick to demonize MySpace even though an exponentially small proportion of its users have been victimized due to irresponsible or naive usage of the technology it affords. Major concerns revolve around the possibility of sexual predators and pedophiles finding and then assaulting adolescents who carelessly or unwittingly reveal identifiable information on their personal profile pages. The current study sought to empirically ascertain the type of information youth are publicly posting through an extensive content analysis of randomly sampled MySpace profile pages. Among other findings, 8.8% revealed their full name, 57% included a picture, 27.8% listed their school, and 0.3% provided their telephone number. When considered in its proper context, these results indicate that the problem of personal information disclosure on MySpace may not be as widespread as many assume, and that the overwhelming majority of adolescents are responsibly using the web site. Implications for Internet safety among adolescents and future research regarding adolescent Internet use are discussed.
Franko, Debra L; Cousineau, Tara M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Roehrig, James P
This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based health promotion program, BodiMojo, designed to promote positive body image in adolescents. Participants were 178 students (mean age 15.2 years, 67.6% ethnic minority) in three public high schools. Intervention groups used BodiMojo for four weekly health class periods, while controls participated in their usual health curriculum. Body image measures were given at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months. Girls reported decreased body dissatisfaction (p<.05), decreased physical appearance comparison (p<.05), and increased appearance satisfaction (p<.05), relative to controls. Effects were not maintained at 3-month follow-up. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups with boys. Moderation analyses suggested positive effects for diverse adolescents as well as those who were overweight or indicated baseline high body dissatisfaction. BodiMojo appears to be modestly effective in decreasing body image concerns among adolescent girls in the short term.
Background Pathological Internet Use (PIU) has become a global issue associated with the increasing number of Internet users. Previous studies concerned both the interpersonal and intrapersonal vulnerable factors and the corresponding models. However, a limited amount of research has explored the relationship between positive factors and PIU. Objective The current investigation attempted to clarify the relationship between virtues and PIU among Chinese adolescents; it also sought to explore the specific contributions of the three virtues. Virtue was the core concept in positive psychology and the Values in Action Classification. A recent study demonstrated that there might be three universal virtues (relationship, vitality, and conscientiousness). Methods A cross-sectional sample of adolescents aged 12-17 years were recruited in 2013. A total of 674 adolescents (males = 302, females = 372; junior high school = 296, senior high school = 378) from eight junior and senior high schools in four provinces of Mainland China completed a package of psychological inventories, including the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale (APIUS). The mean age of the current sample was 15.10 years (SD = 1.81) with an average of 5.31 years’ length (SD = 2.09) of Internet use. Results A total of 9.50% participants exhibited significant symptoms of PIU. Male students (Mmale = 2.50) had significantly higher scores on PIU than female students (Mfemale = 2.25). Relationship (β = -.24) and conscientiousness (β = -.21) negatively predicted PIU, whereas vitality (β = .25) positively predicted PIU. Dominance analysis further revealed that relationship and conscientiousness could explain 81% variance of PIU, and vitality only accounted for another 19%. Conclusions Relationship and conscientiousness were possible protective factors of pathological Internet users, while vitality was vulnerable. The
Lim, Chang Hoon; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Jong Hyun; Lee, Jue Seong; Lee, Yoon
Purpose To examine the correlation of depression with Internet use and body image perception, and to analyze the risk factors of depression in a total of 920 students in Seoul, Korea. Methods Students were recruited by contacting school principals and teachers and were encouraged to fill out a self-report questionnaire designed specifically for this study in July of 2008. Results Female participants had an increased risk for depression than did male participants (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.790; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.330–2.410, P<0.001). Older students were more susceptible to depression (aOR, 1.246; 95% CI, 1.115–1.392, P<0.001). Longer daily Internet use and more frequent Internet use were analyzed as risk factors for depression. No physical activity was a risk factor for depression (aOR, 0.392; 95% CI, 1.264–4.526, P=0.014). Dissatisfaction with one's body image increased the risk for depression (aOR, 1.373; 95% CI, 1.169–1.613; P<0.001). Obesity and perception of body image showed no significant relationship with increased risk for depression. Conclusion Prevalence of depression was 13.8% in adolescents in Seoul, Korea, in July 2008. Female sex, age, daily Internet use duration, weekly Internet use frequency, physical activity, and dissatisfaction with one's body image independently increased risk of depression. PMID:28203256
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
Estimates suggest that up to 90% or more youth between 12 and 18 years have access to the Internet. Concern has been raised that this increased accessibility may lead to a rise in pornography seeking among children and adolescents, with potentially serious ramifications for child and adolescent sexual development. Using data from the Youth Internet Safety Survey, a nationally representative, cross-sectional telephone survey of 1501 children and adolescents (ages 10-17 years), characteristics associated with self-reported pornography seeking behavior, both on the Internet and using traditional methods (e.g., magazines), are identified. Seekers of pornography, both online and offline, are significantly more likely to be male, with only 5% of self-identified seekers being female. The vast majority (87%) of youth who report looking for sexual images online are 14 years of age or older, when it is developmentally appropriate to be sexually curious. Children under the age of 14 who have intentionally looked at pornography are more likely to report traditional exposures, such as magazines or movies. Concerns about a large group of young children exposing themselves to pornography on the Internet may be overstated. Those who report intentional exposure to pornography, irrespective of source, are significantly more likely to cross-sectionally report delinquent behavior and substance use in the previous year. Further, online seekers versus offline seekers are more likely to report clinical features associated with depression and lower levels of emotional bonding with their caregiver. Results of the current investigation raise important questions for further inquiry. Findings from these cross-sectional data provide justification for longitudinal studies aimed at parsing out temporal sequencing of psychosocial experiences.
Fischer, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Klug, Katja; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimi; Wasserman, Danuta; Vonderlin, Eva; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
To investigate associations between risky and pathologic internet use with depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour among a representative sample of German adolescents. A total of 1,435 students (48% boys, 52% girls) from the area of Heidelberg/Germany were recruited during the SEYLE study, a European school-based intervention study and completed an assessment of different questionnaires, including the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for the assessment of risky and pathological internet use, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Deliberate Self Harm Inventory, and the Paykel Suicide Scale. 80.7% of the students reported regular, 14.5% risky, and 4.8% pathological internet use. The risky and the pathological internet users showed significant higher rates of depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour compared to students with regular internet use. Remarkably, there were no significant differences of levels of depression and suicidal behaviour between risky and pathological users. These results suggest that not only pathologic internet use but also risky internet use is associated with symptoms of depression, self-harm and suicidal behaviour. Therefore, more attention should be paid to adolescents with risky internet use for the early recognition of depression, self-harm and suicidality in adolescence.
Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed. The various Internet activities that the participants engaged in were also examined. Results The associations between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities and the moderators of these associations were examined using logistic regression analyses. Social skills deficits were significantly associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction after adjustment for the effects of other factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.030-1.070]. Social skills deficits were also significantly associated with Internet gaming and watching movies. The maternal occupational socioeconomic levels of the participants moderated the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction. Conclusions Social skills deficits should be considered targets in prevention and intervention programs for treating Internet addiction among adolescents with ADHD.
Problematic Internet use-frequently called Internet addiction or compulsive use-represents an increasingly widespread problem among adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal and reciprocal relations between the presence of depressive symptoms and various components of problematic Internet use (i.e., the preference for online relationships, use of the Internet for mood regulation, deficient self-regulation, and the manifestation of negative outcomes). Consequently, a longitudinal design was employed with two times separated by a 1 year interval. The sample consisted of 699 adolescents (61.1% girls) between 13 and 17 years of age. The results indicated that depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted an increase in preference for online relationships, mood regulation, and negative outcomes after 1 year. In turn, negative outcomes at time 1 predicted an increase in depressive symptoms at time 2. These results entail several practical implications for the design of prevention programs and the treatment of problematic Internet use.
Havas, Jano; de Nooijer, Jascha; Crutzen, Rik; Feron, Frans
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the needs and views of adolescents regarding the development of online support for mental health problems. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured qualitative focus group interviews were conducted with ten groups of Dutch adolescents (n=106), aged 12-19 years, from four urban secondary schools…
Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Young Sik; Yang, Kevin C; Kim, Eun Young; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F
Excessive internet video game play (EIGP) has emerged as a leading cause of behavioral and developmental problems in adolescents. Recent research has implicated the role of striatal dopaminergic system in the behavioral maladaptations associated with EIGP. This study investigates the reward-dependence characteristics in EIGP adolescents as it potentially relates to genetic polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system and temperament. Seventy-nine male EIGP adolescents and 75 age- and gender-matched healthy comparison adolescents were recruited. Associations were tested with respect to the reward-dependence (RD) scale in Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and the frequencies of 3 dopamine polymorphisms: Taq1A1 allele of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 Taq1A1) and Val158Met in the Catecholamine-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) genes. The Taq1A1 and low activity (COMT) alleles were significantly more prevalent in the EIGP group relative to the comparison group. The present EIGP group had significantly higher RD scores than controls. Within the EIGP group, the presence of the Taq1A1 allele correlated with higher RD scores. Our findings suggest that EIGP subjects have higher reward dependency and an increased prevalence of the DRD2 Taq1A1 and COMT alleles. In particular, the DRD2 Taq1A1 allele seems to be associated with reward dependence in EIGP adolescents.
Rial Boubeta, Antonio; Gómez Salgado, Patricia; Isorna Folgar, Manuel; Araujo Gallego, Manuel; Varela Mallou, Jesús
Adolescents' use of the Internet is becoming a matter of great concern for different sectors of society. The psychological and behavioural consequences of problematic Internet use in young people demands quick and effective answers. One of the major challenges in this context is the development of empirically validated tools, which would facilitate early detection and screening for potential risk cases. This is precisely the aim of this paper. Based on a sample of 1,709 secondary-school students from Galicia (a region in northern Spain) aged 11 to 17 (M = 13.74, SD = 1.43), the analysis carried out permitted us to present a brief and simple tool (with just 11 items). It has substantial theoretical support, since both the existing background information and the views of experts from the academic and professional spheres were taken into account in the course of its development. The scale is adapted to the Spanish cultural context and to the language of young people. It has satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of reliability of the scores (α = .82), evidence of its internal structure (tested via a Confirmatory Factorial Analysis), sensitivity (81%), and specificity (82.6%). Moreover, its use enables the gradation of adolescents on a risk or problematic Internet use continuum. In our view, all of this lends it enormous applied potential in both the educational and clinical contexts.
Siomos, Konstantinos; Floros, Georgios; Fisoun, Virginia; Evaggelia, Dafouli; Farkonas, Nikiforos; Sergentani, Elena; Lamprou, Maria; Geroukalis, Dimitrios
We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming.
Brunelle, Natacha; Leclerc, Danielle; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Dufour, Magali; Gendron, Annie; Martin, Isabelle
Internet gambling among adolescents is a growing phenomenon that has received little attention to date. This study examines associations between Internet gambling and the severity of gambling, substance use (SU), and delinquent behavior among 1,870 Quebec students aged 14 to 18. The results show a higher proportion of Internet-gambling (IG) students reporting problematic substance use and delinquency, compared with nongamblers (NG) and non-Internet gamblers (NIG). Furthermore, a higher proportion of at-risk and probable pathological gamblers are found among IG compared with NIG. A moderating effect (Baron & Kenny, 1986) of the gambler categories (NIG, IG) was found in the relationship between the associated problems and the severity of gambling. Among IG, the severity of delinquency and of substance use contributes to explaining gambling severity whereas, among NIG, the severity of delinquency is the only factor that significantly contributes to such an explanation. Discussion of the results is based on Jessor, Donovan, and Costa's (1991) general deviance syndrome theory.
Pakalnis, Ann; Butz, Catherine; Splaingard, Deborah; Kring, Donna; Fong, Joanna
Chronic daily headaches are an increasingly recognized neurologic issue in children. Frequent headaches can be a source of significant disability and family discord with work/school absenteeism. Medication overuse and emotional disorder would significantly impact treatment and progression. This study examined the frequency of emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents with chronic daily headache compared with age-related healthy controls. Prevalence of medication overuse in this chronic daily headache group was evaluated. Otherwise healthy children and adolescents with chronic daily headache (according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-II criteria) were enrolled from the Headache Clinic. Healthy controls were prospectively enrolled from physician offices. Multiple psychological rating scales, headache diaries, presence of medication overuse, and disability surveys (Pediatric Migraine Disability Assessment Survey) were completed. A total of 57 healthy controls and 70 patients were studied. The sample consisted largely of females, many of whom (60%) had medication overuse before medical treatment. Headache patients had significantly more symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization compared with controls. Patients with chronic daily headache were at higher risk for emotional disorders, and medication overuse was a significant occurrence, suggesting a need for multisystem treatment approach.
Nie, Jia; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Jia; Li, Wendi
Impairments in response inhibition and working memory functions have been found to be closely associated with internet addiction (IA) symptoms and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. In this study, we examined response inhibition and working memory processes with two different materials (internet-related and internet-unrelated stimuli) among adolescents with IA, ADHD and co-morbid IA/ADHD. Twenty-four individuals with IA, 28 individuals with ADHD, 17 individuals with IA/ADHD, and 26 matched normal controls (NC) individuals were recruited. All participants were measured with a Stop-Signal Task and 2-Back Task under the same experimental conditions. In comparison to the NC group, subjects with IA, ADHD and IA/ADHD demonstrated impaired inhibition and working memory. In addition, in comparison to internet-unrelated conditions, IA and co-morbid subjects performed worse on the internet-related condition in the Stop trials during the stop-signal task, and they showed better working memory on the internet-related condition in the 2-Back Task. The findings of our study suggest individuals with IA and IA/ADHD may be impaired in inhibition and working memory functions that might be linked to poor inhibition specifically related to internet-related stimuli, which will advance our understanding of IA and contribute to prevention and intervention strategies.
Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kegel, Katharina; Thomasius, Rainer
Background and aims The surge of problematic Internet use in adolescents is a continuously growing problem across the globe. To our knowledge, to date valid questionnaire-based measurement of problematic Internet use is possible only by self-assessment. The objective for the present study was to adapt an established instrument for a parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this questionnaire. Methods Data were collected from a representative German sample of 1,000 parents of adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years using a standardized questionnaire. To assess problematic Internet use, we adapted the established Young Diagnostic Questionnaire by rewording the items to survey a parental rating instead of a self-report ("Parental version of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire," PYDQ). Additionally, we assessed the Internet usage time, parental monitoring, family functioning, school performance of the adolescent, and parent-adolescent conflicts. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis based on the 8 items of the PYDQ modeled as categorical indicators and one latent factor using a robust weighted least squares estimator. We also calculated a reliability coefficient, the acceptance of the instrument, and performed correlation analyses. Results The unidimensional model showed excellent global goodness-of-fit (χ(2)/df = 1.65, RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99) and satisfactory factor loadings (standardized values ranged from 0.60 to 0.77). We observed a reliability coefficient of 0.70, a good acceptance of the instrument, and the correlation analyses indicated the construct validity of the PYDQ. Discussion and conclusion The proposed PYDQ is a suitable instrument for parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use.
Wartberg, Lutz; Kriston, Levente; Kegel, Katharina; Thomasius, Rainer
Background and aims The surge of problematic Internet use in adolescents is a continuously growing problem across the globe. To our knowledge, to date valid questionnaire-based measurement of problematic Internet use is possible only by self-assessment. The objective for the present study was to adapt an established instrument for a parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use and to evaluate the psychometric properties of this questionnaire. Methods Data were collected from a representative German sample of 1,000 parents of adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years using a standardized questionnaire. To assess problematic Internet use, we adapted the established Young Diagnostic Questionnaire by rewording the items to survey a parental rating instead of a self-report (“Parental version of the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire,” PYDQ). Additionally, we assessed the Internet usage time, parental monitoring, family functioning, school performance of the adolescent, and parent–adolescent conflicts. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis based on the 8 items of the PYDQ modeled as categorical indicators and one latent factor using a robust weighted least squares estimator. We also calculated a reliability coefficient, the acceptance of the instrument, and performed correlation analyses. Results The unidimensional model showed excellent global goodness-of-fit (χ2/df = 1.65, RMSEA = 0.03, CFI = 0.99, TLI = 0.99) and satisfactory factor loadings (standardized values ranged from 0.60 to 0.77). We observed a reliability coefficient of 0.70, a good acceptance of the instrument, and the correlation analyses indicated the construct validity of the PYDQ. Discussion and conclusion The proposed PYDQ is a suitable instrument for parental assessment of adolescent problematic Internet use. PMID:27363465
This study aimed at analyzing complex relationships among Internet use, Internet users, and conceptual understanding of the Internet. It used path models to examine factors related to Internet use (duration of Internet use, frequency of Internet use, and informal Internet classes) and Internet users (age and gender) in affecting understanding of…
van der Aa, Niels; Overbeek, Geertjan; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
This study examined the associations between adolescents' daily Internet use and low well-being (i.e., loneliness, low self-esteem, and depressive moods). We hypothesized that (a) linkages between high levels of daily Internet use and low well-being would be mediated by compulsive Internet use (CIU), and (b) that adolescents with low levels of agreeableness and emotional stability, and high levels of introversion would be more likely to develop CIU and lower well-being. Data were used from a sample of 7888 Dutch adolescents (11-21 years). Results from structural equation modeling analyses showed that daily Internet use was indirectly related to low well-being through CIU. In addition, daily Internet use was found to be more strongly related to CIU in introverted, low-agreeable, and emotionally less-stable adolescents. In turn, again, CIU was more strongly linked to loneliness in introverted, emotionally less-stable, and less agreeable adolescents.
Kurki, Marjo; Hätönen, Heli; Koivunen, Marita; Anttila, Minna; Välimäki, Maritta
The aim of this explorative study was to describe nurses' opportunities to integrate computer and Internet-based programmes in psychiatric out-patient care among adolescents with depression. Therefore, nurses' daily computer use and possible problems related to it were investigated. The data were collected by conducting focus group interviews with Finnish registered nurses (n =12) working at the out-patient clinics of two university central hospitals. The data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The analysis showed that nurses used the computer and Internet in their daily work for data transmission and informal interaction with adolescents. Findings revealed that nurses have good computer skills, a positive attitude towards using the computer and Internet and were motivated to make use of both on a daily basis. Problems faced in daily computer use were a lack of instructions and education, and lack of help and support. We can conclude that nurses have good opportunities to implement computer and Internet-based programmes in adolescent out-patient care. These results are encouraging keeping in mind that adolescents are the most active Internet users in society.
Király, Orsolya; Griffiths, Mark D; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt
There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities.
Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A
One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity.
Wartberg, Lutz; Thomsen, Monika; Moll, Bettina; Thomasius, Rainer
Excessive Internet use and its severe form, pathological internet use, are currently increasing in many industrial nations in Asia, North America and Europe. According to recent epidemiological studies pathological internet use occurs more frequently in youth than in adults. In Germany between 4 and 6% of the adolescents use the internet in a pathological way. Only few studies have investigated therapeutic interventions and their effectiveness in affected adolescents. In this pilot study, we surveyed over a period of 15 months all minor participants (aged up to 17) of a cognitive behavioural group programme at the beginning and at the end of the treatment (pre-post design) with standardized questionnaires (CIUS, SPS-J). At the second point of measurement the adolescents (n = 18, 75 percent retention rate) reported a significantly lower severity of problematic internet use as well as reduced average usage times during the week and at the weekend. No changes were revealed in psychological well-being of the youth. The results of this pilot study indicate positive effects of a cognitive behavioural group programme with psychoeducative elements in the treatment of youth affected by pathological internet use.
... 1- to 2-Year-Old The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse KidsHealth > For Parents > The Danger of Antibiotic ... by not reaching for the prescription pad. How Antibiotics Work Antibiotics, first used in the 1940s, are ...
It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.
... type of muscle or joint injury, such as tendinitis or a stress fracture, that's caused by repetitive ... Khan K, et al. Overview of chronic (overuse) tendinopathies. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Dec. 21, ...
Use of computer keyboards requires repetitive movements that may cause "overuse injuries" among students. Education on computer literacy must include warning of these negative side effects and must instill safe operating habits among students. (10 references) (CJH)
Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Fales, Jessica; Bromberg, Maggie H; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Tai, Gabrielle
Internet-delivered interventions are emerging as a strategy to address barriers to care for individuals with chronic pain. This is the first large multicenter randomized controlled trial of Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric chronic pain. Participants included were 273 adolescents (205 females and 68 males), aged 11 to 17 years with mixed chronic pain conditions and their parents, who were randomly assigned in a parallel-group design to Internet-delivered CBT (n = 138) or Internet-delivered Education (n = 135). Assessments were completed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. All data collection and procedures took place online. The primary analysis used linear growth models. Results demonstrated significantly greater reduction on the primary outcome of activity limitations from baseline to 6-month follow-up for Internet CBT compared with Internet education (b = -1.13, P = 0.03). On secondary outcomes, significant beneficial effects of Internet CBT were found on sleep quality (b = 0.14, P = 0.04), on reducing parent miscarried helping (b = -2.66, P = 0.007) and protective behaviors (b = -0.19, P = 0.001), and on treatment satisfaction (P values < 0.05). On exploratory outcomes, benefits of Internet CBT were found for parent-perceived impact (ie, reductions in depression, anxiety, self-blame about their adolescent's pain, and improvement in parent behavioral responses to pain). In conclusion, our Internet-delivered CBT intervention produced a number of beneficial effects on adolescent and parent outcomes, and could ultimately lead to wide dissemination of evidence-based psychological pain treatment for youth and their families.
Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L; Park, Chang G; Quinn, Laurie; Kong, In Deok
The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ(2)-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t = -6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents.
Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Gervasi, Alessia Maria; Manzella, Sergio; Famà, Francesca Isabella
Studies on the role played by attachment attitudes among late adolescents who show Problematic Internet Use (PIU) are still lacking. Three self-report measures concerning attachment attitudes, childhood experiences of abuse, and Internet addiction were administered to 310 students (49 % males) aged 18-19 attending the last year of high school. Students who screened positive for PIU were more likely to be male and to have suffered childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse; they also scored higher than the other participants on scales assessing anxious and avoidant attachment attitudes. A logistic regression showed that the classification of participants in the PIU group was predicted by male gender, having suffered from physical and sexual abuse in childhood, and preoccupation with relationships. Keeping constant the effects of gender and childhood experiences of abuse in the equation model, increasing values of preoccupation with relationships were reflected by an exponential growth in the probability curve for PIU classification. Findings of the study support the hypothesis that insecure attachment attitudes (particularly the preoccupation with relationships) are involved in the development of PIU among late adolescents.
Kim, Nahyun; Hughes, Tonda L.; Park, Chang G.; Quinn, Laurie
Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the resting-state plasma catecholamine and anxiety levels of Korean male adolescents with Internet game addiction (IGA) and those without IGA. This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted with 230 male high school students in a South Korean city. Convenience and snowball sampling methods were employed, and data were collected using (1) participant blood samples analyzed for dopamine (DA), epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) and (2) two questionnaires to assess IGA and anxiety levels. Using SPSS 15.0, data were analyzed by descriptive analysis, χ2-tests, t-tests, and Pearson's correlation tests. The plasma Epi (t = 1.962, p < 0.050) and NE (t = 2.003, p = 0.046) levels were significantly lower in the IGA group than in the non-IGA group; DA levels did not significantly differ between the groups. The mean anxiety level of the IGA group was significantly higher compared with the non-IGA group (t =−6.193, p < 0.001). No significant correlations were found between catecholamine and anxiety levels. These results showed that excessive Internet gaming over time induced decreased peripheral Epi and NE levels, thus altering autonomic regulation, and increasing anxiety levels in male high school students. Based on these physiological and psychological effects, interventions intended to prevent and treat IGA should include stabilizing Epi, NE, and anxiety levels in adolescents. PMID:26849530
Cheung, Lee M; Wong, Wing S
The negative association of insomnia and internet addiction with mental health is widely documented in the literature, yet little is known about their inter-relationships. The primary aim of this study was to examine the inter-relationships between insomnia, internet addiction and depression. A total of 719 Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong participated in this school-based cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), the 12-item version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and questions assessing internet use pattern and sociodemographic characteristics. The classification of internet addiction and insomnia was based on the CIAS cutoff global score >63 and PSQI cutoff global score >5, respectively. Multiple regression analyses tested the effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression. Among students with internet addiction (17.2%), 51.7% were also identified as insomniacs. Internet addicts scored significantly poorer on all PSQI components, except sleep duration, than their non-addicted counterparts. After adjustment for gender and internet use time, both internet addiction (β=0.05; Sobel test Z=6.50, P<0.001) and insomnia (β=0.59; Sobel test Z=4.49, P<0.001) demonstrated a significant association with depression. Overall, there is high comorbidity between internet addiction and insomnia. Both insomnia and internet addiction emerged as significant explanatory factors, but they exerted differential effects on depression. Future research should be directed at determining the causal relationship between internet addiction and insomnia, and its underlying mechanism with depression.
Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Villa-George, Fabiola I; Calvete, Esther
The objectives of this study were to analyze the psychometric properties of the Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 (GPIUS2) and to examine the cognitive-behavioral theoretical model of problematic Internet use in a sample of 1491 Mexican adolescents (47.6% female, mean age = 14.51). Results showed that the GPIUS2 has adequate construct and convergent validity and internal consistency. Consistent with the hypotheses put forth by the cognitive-behavioral model, the findings indicate that preference for online social interaction and the use of the Internet for mood regulation increased the probability of reporting deficient self-regulation (i.e., compulsive Internet use and cognitive preoccupations with Internet use), which, in turn, was significantly associated with negative life outcomes. The fit of the model was adequate both for males and females, and there were no significant differences between them. Lastly, we discuss the contributions of this research to this field of study.
Strittmatter, Esther; Parzer, Peter; Brunner, Romuald; Fischer, Gloria; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael
Longitudinal studies of prospective predictors for pathological Internet use (PIU) in adolescents as well as its course are lacking. This three-wave longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the European Union-funded project "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" over a 2-year period. The sample consisted of 1444 students at the baseline investigation (T0); 1202 students after 1 year (T1); and 515 students after 2 years (T2). Structured self-report questionnaires were administered at all three time points. PIU was assessed using the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). In addition, demographic (i.e., gender), social (i.e., parental involvement), psychological (i.e., emotional problems), and Internet use-related factors (i.e., online activities) were assessed as prospective predictors. The prevalence of PIU was 4.3 % at T0, 2.7 % at T1 and 3.1 % at T2. However, only 3 students (0.58 %) had persistent categorical PIU (YDQ score of ≥5) over the 2-year period. In univariate models, a variety of variables that have been previously identified in cross-sectional investigations predicted PIU at T2. However, multivariate regression demonstrated that only previous PIU symptoms and emotional problems were significant predictors of PIU 2 years later (adjusted R (2) 0.23). The stability of categorical PIU in adolescents over 2 years was lower than previously reported. However, current PIU symptoms were the best predictor of later PIU; emotional symptoms also predicted PIU over and above the influence of previous problematic Internet use. Both PIU symptoms and emotional problems may contribute to the vicious cycle that supports the perpetuation of PIU.
Wang, Lubin; Shen, Hui; Lei, Yu; Zeng, Ling-Li; Cao, Fenglin; Su, Linyan; Yang, Zheng; Yao, Shuqiao; Hu, Dewen
Internet addiction (IA) is a condition characterized by loss of control over Internet use, leading to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences. Recent neuroimaging studies have begun to identify IA-related changes in specific brain regions and connections. However, whether and how the interactions within and between the large-scale brain networks are disrupted in individuals with IA remain largely unexplored. Using group independent component analysis, we extracted five intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) from the resting-state fMRI data of 26 adolescents with IA and 43 controls, including the anterior and posterior default mode network (DMN), left and right fronto-parietal network (FPN), and salience network (SN). We then examined the possible group differences in the functional connectivity within each ICN and between the ICNs. We found that, compared with controls, IA subjects showed: (1) reduced inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the right FPN, whereas increased intra-hemispheric functional connectivity of the left FPN; (2) reduced functional connectivity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the anterior DMN; (3) reduced functional connectivity between the SN and anterior DMN. Our findings suggest that IA is associated with imbalanced interactions among the DMN, FPN and SN, which may serve as system-level neural underpinnings for the uncontrollable Internet-using behaviors.
Ip, Patrick; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu-Chee; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Lo, Lewis A.; Chiu, Ivy Wing-Sze; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong
Purpose Youth smoking is a global public health concern. Health educators are increasingly using Internet-based technologies, but the effectiveness of Internet viral marketing in promoting health remains uncertain. This prospective pilot study assessed the efficacy of an online game-based viral marketing campaign in promoting a smoke-free attitude among Chinese adolescents. Methods One hundred and twenty-one Hong Kong Chinese adolescents aged 10 to 24 were invited to participate in an online multiple-choice quiz game competition designed to deliver tobacco-related health information. Participants were encouraged to refer others to join. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was used to explore the factors contributing to the referral process. Latent transition analysis utilising a pre- and post-game survey was used to detect attitudinal changes toward smoking. Results The number of participants increased almost eightfold from 121 to 928 (34.6% current or ex-smokers) during the 22-day campaign. Participants exhibited significant attitudinal change, with 73% holding negative attitudes toward smoking after the campaign compared to 57% before it. The transition probabilities from positive to negative and neutral to negative attitudes were 0.52 and 0.48, respectively. It was also found that attempting every 20 quiz questions was associated with lower perceived smoking decision in future (OR = 0.95, p-value <0.01). Conclusions Our online game-based viral marketing programme was effective in reaching a large number of smoking and non-smoking participants and changing their attitudes toward smoking. It constitutes a promising practical and cost-effective model for engaging young smokers and promulgating smoking-related health information among Chinese adolescents. PMID:24911010
Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos
This paper presents a cross-sectional study of a large, high-school Greek student sample (N=1971) with the aim to examine adolescent motives for participating in social networking (SN) for a possible link with parenting style and cognitions related to Internet addiction disorder (IAD). Exploratory statistics demonstrate a shift from the prominence of online gaming to social networking for this age group. A regression model provides with the best linear combination of independent variables useful in predicting participation in SN. Results also include a validated model of negative correlation between optimal parenting on the one hand and motives for SN participation and IAD on the other. Examining cognitions linked to SN may assist in a better understanding of underlying adolescent wishes and problems. Future research may focus in the patterns unveiled among those adolescents turning to SN for the gratification of basic unmet psychological needs. The debate on the exact nature of IAD would benefit from the inclusion of SN as a possible online activity where addictive phenomena may occur.
Bi, Yanzhi; Yuan, Kai; Feng, Dan; Xing, Lihong; Li, Yangding; Wang, Hongmei; Yu, Dahua; Xue, Ting; Jin, Chenwang; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie
Rapid progress had been made towards the effect of Internet addiction (IA) on the adolescents brain, relatively little is known about the alterations in inter-hemispheric resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) changes. In the current study, voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) was used to examine inter-hemispheric RSFC in IA adolescents (n=21) and controls (n=21). The integrity of the fibers connecting the regions, which showed aberrant inter-hemispheric functional connectivity, was assessed by fiber tractography analysis. In addition, the coupling of inter-hemispheric functional and structural connectivity was investigated. Relative to controls, IA adolescents showed decreased VMHC of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the genu of corpus callosum (CC). The decreased VMHC of DLPFC was significantly negative correlated with the duration of IA. Moreover, the VMHC of DLPFC showed significant correlations with the FA of CC in healthy controls, which was disrupted in IA. Our findings provided more scientific evidence for the involvement of DLPFC in IA. It is hoped that multimodal imaging methods can provide deeper insights into the IA effects on the brain.
Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N; Mayes, Linda C; Crowley, Michael J
While the conceptualization of problematic Internet use (PIU) as a "behavioral addiction" resembling substance-use disorders is debated, the neurobiological underpinnings of PIU remain understudied. This study examined whether adolescents displaying features of PIU (at-risk PIU; ARPIU) are more impulsive and exhibit blunted responding in the neural mechanisms underlying feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risk-taking. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by positive (i.e. reward) and negative (i.e. loss) feedback were recorded during performance on a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) among ARPIU (n=39) and non-ARPIU subjects (n=27). Compared to non-ARPIU, ARPIU adolescents displayed higher levels of urgency and lack of perseverance on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Although no between-group difference in BART performance was observed, ERPs demonstrated overall decreased sensitivity to feedback in ARPIU compared to non-ARPIU adolescents, as indexed by blunted feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P300 amplitudes to both negative and positive feedback. The present study provides evidence for feedback processing during risk-taking as a neural correlate of ARPIU. Given recent concerns regarding the growing prevalence of PIU as a health concern, future work should examine the extent to which feedback processing may represent a risk factor for PIU, a consequence of PIU, or possibly both.
Sanger, Dixie; Ritzman, Mitzi; LaCost, Barbara; Stofer, Keri; Long, Amie; Grady, Marilyn
This qualitative study explored the meanings of chat room conversations through observations of teenagers using the Internet. Adolescent girls were a focus because of their shaky sense of self. Participants in ten chat rooms included 534 individuals. Six themes, emerging from analyzing 2526 utterances [descriptive statements], included (a)…
Heinicke, Brooke E.; Paxton, Susan J.; McLean, Sian A.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.
This study evaluated a targeted intervention designed to alleviate body image and eating problems in adolescent girls that was delivered over the internet so as to increase access to the program. The program consisted of six, 90-minute weekly small group, synchronous on-line sessions and was facilitated by a therapist and manual. Participants were…
The purpose of the present study was to identify latent classes resting on early adolescents' change trajectory patterns in using computers and the Internet for learning and to test the effects of gender, self-control, self-esteem, and game use in South Korea. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) was used to identify subpopulations in the Korea…
In this study, direct and indirect effects of self-esteem, daily internet use and social media addiction to depression levels of adolescents have been investigated by testing a model. This descriptive study was conducted with 1130 students aged between 12 and 18 who are enrolled at different schools in southern region of Aegean. In order to…
Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Palmer, Paula H; Gallaher, Peggy; Chou, Chih-Ping; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Sussman, Steve; Johnson, C Anderson
ever Internet use (OR = 1.2 for +1 STD, all p < 0.05). Body mass index was not related to any of the Internet use-related measures. In this ethnically diverse sample of Southern California 7(th) grade students, 99% could access the Internet at school and/or at home. This suggests that the Internet is already a potential venue for large scale health communication studies. Adolescents with more psychosocial risk factors or detrimental health behaviors were more likely to use the Internet. Therefore, if used properly, Internet interventions could effectively address the high risk populations. Additional research is needed to gain a more complete understanding of the positive and negative consequences of Internet use among adolescents.
Bowerman, Erin Anne; Whatman, Chris; Harris, Nigel; Bradshaw, Elizabeth
The objective of this study was to review the evidence for selected risk factors of lower extremity overuse injuries in young elite female ballet dancers. An electronic search of key databases from 1969 to July 2013 was conducted using the keywords dancers, ballet dancers, athletes, adolescent, adolescence, young, injury, injuries, risk, overuse, lower limb, lower extremity, lower extremities, growth, maturation, menarche, alignment, and biomechanics. Thirteen published studies were retained for review. Results indicated that there is a high incidence of lower extremity overuse injuries in the target population. Primary risk factors identified included maturation, growth, and poor lower extremity alignment. Strong evidence from well-designed studies indicates that young elite female ballet dancers suffer from delayed onset of growth, maturation, menarche, and menstrual irregularities. However, there is little evidence that this deficit increases the risk of overuse injury, with the exception of stress fractures. Similarly, there is minimal evidence linking poor lower extremity alignment to increased risk of overuse injury. It is concluded that further prospective, longitudinal studies are required to clarify the relationship between growth, maturation, menarche, and lower extremity alignment, and the risk of lower extremity overuse injury in young elite female ballet dancers.
Jelenchick, Lauren A; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A
Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale's reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population.
Jelenchick, Lauren A.; Eickhoff, Jens; Christakis, Dimitri A; Brown, Richard L.; Zhang, Chong; Benson, Meghan; Moreno, Megan A.
Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a growing health concern among adolescents and young adults. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to develop and refine a theoretically-grounded and psychometrically-validated assessment instrument for PIU specifically tailored to adolescents and young adults. An item pool was developed using concept mapping and a review of the literature, and administered to 714 students from two universities between 18 and 25 years of age. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used in a development subsample (n=500) to construct the scale. A cross-validation sample (n=214) was used to confirm the scale’s reliability. The Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS) is an 18-item scale with three subscales: Social Impairment, Emotional Impairment, and Risky/Impulsive Internet Use. Based on its strong theoretical foundation and promising psychometric performance, the PRIUSS may be a valuable tool for screening and prevention efforts in this population. PMID:24882938
Whittemore, Robin; Chao, Ariana; Popick, Rachel; Grey, Margaret
In response to the childhood obesity epidemic, numerous studies on school-based Internet obesity prevention interventions have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and evaluate the research on school-based Internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Medline, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched from January 1995 to August 2012 to locate relevant studies. Ninety-one reports were initially identified, with 12 meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies had variable control groups, program content, and sample characteristics. Though few authors reported on implementation processes or body mass index (BMI) outcomes, the majority of studies were effective in improving health behaviors in the short term. Most studies were judged to have a high or unclear risk of bias in at least two domains, thus the quality of evidence for this body of literature is moderate. Further research is needed to examine programs of longer duration, optimal dose and timing of programs, cost-effectiveness, and mediators and moderators of intervention outcomes.
Background Existing instruments for measuring problematic computer and console gaming and internet use are often lengthy and often based on a pathological perspective. The objective was to develop and present a new and short non-clinical measurement tool for perceived problems related to computer use and gaming among adolescents and to study the association between screen time and perceived problems. Methods Cross-sectional school-survey of 11-, 13-, and 15-year old students in thirteen schools in the City of Aarhus, Denmark, participation rate 89%, n = 2100. The main exposure was time spend on weekdays on computer- and console-gaming and internet use for communication and surfing. The outcome measures were three indexes on perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use. Results The three new indexes showed high face validity and acceptable internal consistency. Most schoolchildren with high screen time did not experience problems related to computer use. Still, there was a strong and graded association between time use and perceived problems related to computer gaming, console gaming (only boys) and internet use, odds ratios ranging from 6.90 to 10.23. Conclusion The three new measures of perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use among adolescents are appropriate, reliable and valid for use in non-clinical surveys about young people’s everyday life and behaviour. These new measures do not assess Internet Gaming Disorder as it is listed in the DSM and therefore has no parity with DSM criteria. We found an increasing risk of perceived problems with increasing time spent with gaming and internet use. Nevertheless, most schoolchildren who spent much time with gaming and internet use did not experience problems. PMID:24731270
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is refractory headache with continuous and large amount use of drugs (analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and triptans etc.) For treatment of MOH, overused drugs must be stopped as soon as possible. And preventive medication should be started at the same time. Also, the history of the patient's headache and social condition must be clarified. In some cases, replacement therapy with another medication must be considered. But, even in recent years, scientific research in high-evidence level cannot be achieved. We should make more clear animal models of MOH and the investigations with more basic study must be scheduled.
Fountain, Lorna B
With millions of children participating in high-intensity sports activities at a young age, overuse injuries are seen commonly by family physicians. Little Leaguer's shoulder, swimmer's shoulder, Little Leaguer's elbow, snapping hip, and shin splints are 5 overuse injuries frequently sustained by pediatric athletes. Physicians managing these injuries require a basic understanding of the underlying sport-related strain on the body. Diagnosis is clinical for most patients, and management typically is conservative. The physician must be able to differentiate these conditions from more significant injuries that necessitate further imaging and referral. For most patients, monitoring and limiting the repetitive activity can prevent the occurrence of these injuries.
Fullem, Brian W
When athletes train harder the risk of injury increases, and there are several common overuse injuries to the lower extremity. Three of the most common lower extremity overuse injuries in sports are discussed including the diagnosis and treatments: medial tibal stress syndrome, iliotibial band syndrome, and stress fractures. The charge of sports medicine professionals is to identify and treat the cause of the injuries and not just treat the symptoms. Symptomatology is an excellent guide to healing and often the patient leads the physician to the proper diagnosis through an investigation of the athlete's training program, past injury history, dietary habits, choice of footwear, and training surface.
Fioravanti, Giulia; Dèttore, Davide; Casale, Silvia
There is a general consensus that Internet addiction (IA) is mainly related to social aspects of the Web, especially among adolescents. The empirical link between poor social skills and IA is well documented; however, theoretical explanations for this relationship are less developed. One possibility is that people with poor social skills are especially prone to develop a preference for online social interaction (POSI), which, in turn, predicts problematic usage. This hypothesis has been tested for loneliness and social anxiety, but not for self-esteem (SE; one of the main antecedents of IA). Furthermore, the mediating role of the perceived relevance of some Internet features (e.g., anonymity) in the relationship between SE and POSI has never been investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 257 adolescents. Using mediation analyses, we found evidence among females for the mediating role of (a) POSI in the relationship between SE and IA, and (b) the subjective relevance of some Internet features in the association between SE and POSI. No significant effects were found for males.
Mohammed Nawi, AZMAWATI; Che Jamaludin, FARRAH ILYANI
Background: Co-morbidities in adulthood is a significant problem and is associated with obesity during adolescent. Methods: This 3-months randomised controlled trial was aimed at determining the effectiveness of having internet-based intervention (obeseGO!) toward obesity among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur. Forty seven students were assigned randomly to the obeseGO! (intervention) group for internet-based intervention i.e., information on healthy lifestyle and diet were provided via the internet. Fifty students were assigned to the control group, where pamphlets containing health education were provided to these students. The measurement of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and the body fat percentage was taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results: The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) analysis found that obeseGO! had a small effect in reducing BMI, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Conclusion: The internet-based obesity intervention program may be an effective medium for promoting healthy diet and physical activity among the obese adolescents. PMID:26715908
Chen, Yan; Kang, Yaowen; Gong, Weizhi; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Yao, Yingshui
Background and aim The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) in adolescents so as to provide a scientific basis for the communities, schools, and families. Methods We conducted a survey by randomized cluster sampling on 5,249 students, grades ranging from 7 to 12, in Anhui province, People’s Republic of China. The questionnaire consisted of general information and IA test. Chi-square test was used to compare the status of IA disorder (IAD). Results In our results, the overall detection rate of IAD and non-IAD in students was 8.7% (459/5,249) and 76.2% (4,000/5,249), respectively. The detection rate of IAD in males (12.3%) was higher than females (4.9%). The detection rate of IAD was statistically different between students from rural (8.2%) and urban (9.3%) areas, among students from different grades, between students from only-child families (9.5%) and non-only-child families (8.1%), and among students from different family types. Conclusion Prevalence of IA is high among Chinese adolescents. IAD has more effect on male students, single-child families, single-parent families, and higher grade students. We should take more care of male students, only-child students, and students living with their fathers, and related education should be strengthen for susceptible subjects of IDA. PMID:27621633
Du, Xin; Qi, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan
Recent studies suggested that internet gaming disorder (IGD) was associated with impulsivity and structural abnormalities in brain gray matter (GM). However, no morphometric study has examined the association between GM and impulsivity in IGD individuals. In this study, 25 adolescents with IGD and 27 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited, and the relationship between Barratt impulsiveness scale-11 (BIS) score and gray matter volume (GMV) was investigated with the voxel-based morphometric (VBM) correlation analysis. Then, the intergroup differences in correlation between BIS score and GMV were tested across all GM voxels. Our results showed that the correlations between BIS score and GMV of the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), the bilateral insula and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), the right amygdala and the left fusiform gyrus decreased in the IGD group compared to the HCs. Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis revealed that GMV in all these clusters showed significant positive correlations with BIS score in the HCs, while no significant correlation was found in the IGD group. Our findings demonstrated that dysfunction of these brain areas involved in the behavior inhibition, attention and emotion regulation might contribute to impulse control problems in IGD adolescents. PMID:26858620
Griffiths, Mark D.; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Abstract There is an ongoing debate in the literature whether problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic online gaming (POG) are two distinct conceptual and nosological entities or whether they are the same. The present study contributes to this question by examining the interrelationship and the overlap between PIU and POG in terms of sex, school achievement, time spent using the Internet and/or online gaming, psychological well-being, and preferred online activities. Questionnaires assessing these variables were administered to a nationally representative sample of adolescent gamers (N=2,073; Mage=16.4 years, SD=0.87; 68.4% male). Data showed that Internet use was a common activity among adolescents, while online gaming was engaged in by a considerably smaller group. Similarly, more adolescents met the criteria for PIU than for POG, and a small group of adolescents showed symptoms of both problem behaviors. The most notable difference between the two problem behaviors was in terms of sex. POG was much more strongly associated with being male. Self-esteem had low effect sizes on both behaviors, while depressive symptoms were associated with both PIU and POG, affecting PIU slightly more. In terms of preferred online activities, PIU was positively associated with online gaming, online chatting, and social networking, while POG was only associated with online gaming. Based on our findings, POG appears to be a conceptually different behavior from PIU, and therefore the data support the notion that Internet Addiction Disorder and Internet Gaming Disorder are separate nosological entities. PMID:25415659
Kaess, Michael; Durkee, Tony; Brunner, Romuald; Carli, Vladimir; Parzer, Peter; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Hoven, Christina; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Cohen, Renaud; Cosman, Doina; Cotter, Padraig; Fischer, Gloria; Floderus, Birgitta; Iosue, Miriam; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Musa, George J; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Resch, Franz; Saiz, Pilar A; Sisask, Merike; Snir, Avigal; Varnik, Airi; Žiberna, Janina; Wasserman, Danuta
Rising global rates of pathological Internet use (PIU) and related psychological impairments have gained considerable attention in recent years. In an effort to acquire evidence-based knowledge of this relationship, the main objective of this study was to investigate the association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours among school-based adolescents in eleven European countries. This cross-sectional study was implemented within the framework of the European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe. A representative sample of 11,356 school-based adolescents (M/F: 4,856/6,500; mean age: 14.9) was included in the analyses. PIU was assessed using the Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire. Psychopathology was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Self-destructive behaviours were evaluated by the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory and Paykel Suicide Scale. Results showed that suicidal behaviours (suicidal ideation and suicide attempts), depression, anxiety, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention were significant and independent predictors of PIU. The correlation between PIU, conduct problems and hyperactivity/inattention was stronger among females, while the link between PIU and symptoms of depression, anxiety and peer relationship problems was stronger among males. The association between PIU, psychopathology and self-destructive behaviours was stronger in countries with a higher prevalence of PIU and suicide rates. These findings ascertain that psychopathology and suicidal behaviours are strongly related to PIU. This association is significantly influenced by gender and country suggesting socio-cultural influences. At the clinical and public health levels, targeting PIU among adolescents in the early stages could potentially lead to improvements of psychological well-being and a reduction of suicidal behaviours.
Lenhard, Fabian; Vigerland, Sarah; Andersson, Erik; Rück, Christian; Mataix-Cols, David; Thulin, Ulrika; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Serlachius, Eva
Background International guidelines recommend Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) as the first line treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a substantial proportion of patients do not have access to such treatment. We developed and tested the feasibility, efficacy and acceptability of a novel therapist-guided, Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) platform for adolescents with OCD. Methods An interactive, age-appropriate ICBT platform (“BiP OCD”) was developed. Twenty-one adolescents (12–17 years) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of OCD and their parents were enrolled in the study. All participants received 12 weeks of ICBT with therapist support. The primary outcome measure was the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Acceptability was assessed at post-treatment. Results Participants completed on average 8.29 (SD = 3.0) of the 12 treatment chapters. Treatment yielded significant improvements on all clinician-, parent- and most self-administered outcome measures, with a large effect size of d = 2.29 (95% CI 1.5–3.07) on the CY-BOCS. Patients continued to improve at follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, 71% were classified as responders (≥35% decrease on the CY-BOCS) and 76% as being in remission (CY-BOCS score ≤12). Average clinician support time was less than 20 minutes per patient per week. The majority of participants felt that BiP OCD was age-appropriate and rated the treatment as good or very good. Conclusions ICBT could be efficacious, acceptable, and cost-effective for adolescents with OCD. More rigorously controlled studies are needed to further evaluate the treatment. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01809990. PMID:24949622
Abstract Problematic Internet use—frequently called Internet addiction or compulsive use—represents an increasingly widespread problem among adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the temporal and reciprocal relations between the presence of depressive symptoms and various components of problematic Internet use (i.e., the preference for online relationships, use of the Internet for mood regulation, deficient self-regulation, and the manifestation of negative outcomes). Consequently, a longitudinal design was employed with two times separated by a 1 year interval. The sample consisted of 699 adolescents (61.1% girls) between 13 and 17 years of age. The results indicated that depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted an increase in preference for online relationships, mood regulation, and negative outcomes after 1 year. In turn, negative outcomes at time 1 predicted an increase in depressive symptoms at time 2. These results entail several practical implications for the design of prevention programs and the treatment of problematic Internet use. PMID:25405784
McKeag, Douglas B.; Dolan, Cathleen
Discusses management of common overuse disorders, which are often a result of repetitive stress. Reducing inflammation through icing, rest, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents is the primary treatment goal. Patients taking anti-inflammatories must be cautioned against returning to activity too soon because the medication's analgesic…
Paterno, Mark V.; Taylor-Haas, Jeffery A.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Synopsis The purpose of this article is to review current theories regarding prevalence, mechanism and prevention strategies for overuse injuries in a young, athletic population. This information will provide valuable insight into the state of current evidence regarding overuse injuries in young athletes as well as potential future directions in the development of overuse injury prevention interventions. PMID:24095071
Teo, Timothy; Kam, Chester
Following the call to ensure the validity of instruments used to assess users' level of Internet usage, this study examined the factor structure of the Internet Addiction Test-Adolescence version (IAT-A) when applied to a sample of young children in a multicultural society and assessed whether the items in the IAT-A were invariant by gender and,…
De Bruin, Eduard J.; van Steensel, Francisca J.A.; Meijer, Anne Marie
Study Objectives: To investigate cost-effectiveness of adolescent cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in group- and Internet-delivered formats, from a societal perspective with a time horizon of 1 y Methods: Costs and effects data up to 1-y follow-up were obtained from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing Internet CBTI to face-to-face group CBTI. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam, and the academic youth mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam. Sixty-two participants meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria for insomnia were randomized to face-to-face group CBTI (GT; n = 31, age = 15.6 y ± 1.8, 71.0% girls) or individual Internet CBTI (IT; n = 31, age = 15.4 y ± 1.5, 83.9% girls). The intervention consisted of six weekly sessions and a 2-mo follow up booster-session of CBTI, consisting of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT sessions were held in groups of six to eight adolescents guided by two trained sleep therapists. IT consisted of individual Internet therapy with preprogrammed content similar to GT, and guided by trained sleep therapists. Results: Outcome measures were subjective sleep efficiency (SE) ≥ 85%, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Analyses were conducted from a societal perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated using bootstrap sampling, and presented in cost-effectiveness planes. Primary analysis showed costs over 1 y were higher for GT but effects were similar for IT and GT. Bootstrapped ICERs demonstrated there is a high probability of IT being cost-effective compared to GT. Secondary analyses confirmed robustness of results. Conclusions: Internet CBTI is a cost-effective treatment compared to group CBTI for adolescents, although
Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Las Hayas, Carlota
Problematic Internet use (PIU) and problematic alcohol use are two pervasive problems during adolescence that share similar characteristics and predictors. The first objective of this study was to analyze the temporal and reciprocal relationships among the main components of PIU from the cognitive-behavioral model (preference for online social interaction, mood regulation through the Internet, deficient self-regulation, and negative consequences). The second objective was to examine the temporal and reciprocal relationships between PIU components and problematic alcohol use. We also examined whether these relationships differ between males and females. The sample comprised 801 Spanish adolescents (mean age=14.92, SD=1.01) who completed the measures both at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2) six months apart. We used structural equation modeling to analyze the relationship among the variables. Results showed that deficient self-regulation at T1 predicted an increase in preference for online interactions, mood regulation, and negative consequences of the Internet at T2. In turn, the emergence of negative consequences of PIU at T1 predicted a rise in problematic alcohol use at T2. Longitudinal relationships between different components of PIU and between the components of PIU and problematic alcohol use were invariant across genders. Deficient self-regulation, consisting of diminished self-control over cognition and behaviors related to the Internet, plays a central role in the maintenance of PIU, increasing the preference for online interactions, mood regulation, and negative consequences from Internet use over time. In turn, adolescents who present negative consequences of PIU are vulnerable targets for problematic alcohol use.
Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Borrajo, Erika; Almendros, Carmen
Background and aims This study aims to analyze the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between three major risky online behaviors during adolescence: problematic Internet use, cyberbullying perpetration, and meeting strangers online. An additional objective was to study the role of impulsivity-irresponsibility as a possible explanatory variable of the relationships between these risky online behaviors. Methods The study sample was 888 adolescents that completed self-report measures at time 1 and time 2 with an interval of 6 months. Results The findings showed a significant cross-sectional relationship between the risky online behaviors analyzed. At the longitudinal level, problematic Internet use at time 1 predicted an increase in the perpetration of cyberbullying and meeting strangers online at time 2. Furthermore, meeting strangers online increased the likelihood of cyberbullying perpetration at time 2. Finally, when impulsivity-irresponsibility was included in the model as an explanatory variable, the relationships previously found remained significant. Discussion These results extend traditional problem behavior theory during adolescence, also supporting a relationship between different risky behaviors in cyberspace. In addition, findings highlighted the role of problematic Internet use, which increased the chances of developing cyberbullying perpetration and meeting strangers online over time. However, the results suggest a limited role of impulsivity-irresponsibility as an explicative mechanism. Conclusions The findings suggest that various online risk activities ought to be addressed together when planning assessment, prevention and intervention efforts.
Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Borrajo, Erika; Almendros, Carmen
Background and aims This study aims to analyze the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between three major risky online behaviors during adolescence: problematic Internet use, cyberbullying perpetration, and meeting strangers online. An additional objective was to study the role of impulsivity–irresponsibility as a possible explanatory variable of the relationships between these risky online behaviors. Methods The study sample was 888 adolescents that completed self-report measures at time 1 and time 2 with an interval of 6 months. Results The findings showed a significant cross-sectional relationship between the risky online behaviors analyzed. At the longitudinal level, problematic Internet use at time 1 predicted an increase in the perpetration of cyberbullying and meeting strangers online at time 2. Furthermore, meeting strangers online increased the likelihood of cyberbullying perpetration at time 2. Finally, when impulsivity–irresponsibility was included in the model as an explanatory variable, the relationships previously found remained significant. Discussion These results extend traditional problem behavior theory during adolescence, also supporting a relationship between different risky behaviors in cyberspace. In addition, findings highlighted the role of problematic Internet use, which increased the chances of developing cyberbullying perpetration and meeting strangers online over time. However, the results suggest a limited role of impulsivity–irresponsibility as an explicative mechanism. Conclusions The findings suggest that various online risk activities ought to be addressed together when planning assessment, prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:28092196
Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan; Bao, Zhenzhou; Wen, Fangfang
Although a growing body of research documents the negative association between school connectedness and adolescent problematic Internet use (PIU), little is known about the mediating mechanism (i.e., how school connectedness relates to PIU?) and moderating mechanism (i.e., when the protection is most potent?) underlying this relation. The present study examined whether deviant peer affiliation mediated the relationship between school connectedness and PIU, and whether this mediating process was moderated by adolescent self-control. A total of 2,758 Chinese adolescents (46 % male; mean age = 13.53 years, SD = 1.06) from 10 middle schools completed anonymous questionnaires regarding school connectedness, deviant peer affiliation, self-control, and PIU. After controlling for gender, age, socioeconomic status, and parental attachment, it was found that the negative association between school connectedness and adolescent PIU was partially mediated by deviant peer affiliation. Moreover, this indirect link was stronger for adolescents with low self-control than for those with high self-control. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the social control theory and organism-environment interaction model to understand how and when school connectedness impacts adolescent PIU.
Brownlee, Shannon; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Doust, Jenny; Elshaug, Adam G; Glasziou, Paul; Heath, Iona; Nagpal, Somil; Saini, Vikas; Srivastava, Divya; Chalmers, Kelsey; Korenstein, Deborah
Overuse, which is defined as the provision of medical services that are more likely to cause harm than good, is a pervasive problem. Direct measurement of overuse through documentation of delivery of inappropriate services is challenging given the difficulty of defining appropriate care for patients with individual preferences and needs; overuse can also be measured indirectly through examination of unwarranted geographical variations in prevalence of procedures and care intensity. Despite the challenges, the high prevalence of overuse is well documented in high-income countries across a wide range of services and is increasingly recognised in low-income countries. Overuse of unneeded services can harm patients physically and psychologically, and can harm health systems by wasting resources and deflecting investments in both public health and social spending, which is known to contribute to health. Although harms from overuse have not been well quantified and trends have not been well described, overuse is likely to be increasing worldwide.
Lam, Lawrence T
Internet gaming addiction was included in the latest version of the DSM-V as a possible disorder recently, while debate is still on-going as to whether the condition called "Internet Addiction" (IA) could be fully recognised as an established disorder. The major contention is how well IA could fulfil the validation criteria as a psychiatric disorder as in other well-established behavioural addictions. In addition to various proposed validation criteria, evidence of risk and protective factors as well as development of outcomes from longitudinal and prospective studies are suggested as important. A systematic review of available longitudinal and prospective studies was conducted to gather epidemiological evidence on risk and protective factors of IA and the health effect of IA on adolescents. Nine articles were identified after an extensive search of the literature in accordance to the PRISMA guidelines. Of these, eight provided data on risk or protective factors of IA and one focused solely on the effects of IA on mental health. Information was extracted and analysed systematically from each study and tabulated. Many exposure variables were studied and could be broadly classified into three main categories: psychopathologies of the participants, family and parenting factors, and others such as Internet usage, motivation, and academic performance. Some were found to be potential risk or protective factors of IA. It was also found that exposure to IA had a detrimental effect on the mental health of young people. These results were discussed in light of their implications to the fulfilment of the validation criteria.
Journeau, Pierre; Polirzstok, E; Launay, F; Barbier, D
Sport injuries are common in children and teenaggers, especially overuse injuries. Typical musculoskelotal disorders include apophyseal pains or avulsion, stess fractures, and also epiphyseal ostoochondritis. Some lesions are specific according the practice, such spine or wrist lesions. Prevention of sport injury should be the main priority as well for the parents than the coaches and children themselves. Proper education and preparation, specific training and streching are essential for all sports activities.
Renström, P; Johnson, R J
Because knowledge of overuse syndromes is limited, the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are a challenge to sports medicine physicians. Trial and error methods of treatment and too little attention to basic research have resulted in less than optimum solutions. We do know that these maladies most frequently result from overload or repetitive microtrauma stemming from extrinsic factors such as training errors, poor performance, poor techniques and inappropriate surfaces or intrinsic factors including malalignment and muscle imbalance. Overuse injuries involving the muscles include compartment syndromes and muscle soreness; while those involving the tendons result from a variety of degenerative and inflammatory processes. Overstress of bone results in stress fractures, apophysitis and periostitis. Bursitis and joint overstress problems are also discussed briefly. General guidelines for establishing the appropriate diagnosis are: the initial stages of therapy require rest, often a modification or scaled down exposure to the athlete's usual performance rather than complete abstinence; in acutely symptomatic cases pain medications and various measures to control inflammation may be necessary; an exercise programme should start early with range of motion exercises and isometric muscle contractions; when pain allows, dynamic muscle and flexibility exercises can resume together with a conditioning programme; if possible, eccentric exercises should be performed. The treatment may also include other conservative treatment modalities and surgery in special cases. Overuse injuries constitute a great diagnostic and therapeutic problem because the symptoms are often diffuse and uncharacteristic. An appropriate diagnosis followed by adequate treatment can improve or eliminate most of these conditions, but perhaps even more importantly a proper understanding of overuse syndromes should allow physicians to assist athletes, trainers, and coaches in preventing them.
Ellis, Shellie D.; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Carpenter, William R.; Jackson, George L.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Liu, Huan; Weinberger, Morris
BACKGROUND Medicare reimbursement cuts have been associated with declining Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonist overuse in localized prostate cancer. Medical school affiliation and foreign training have been associated with persistent overuse. However, physician-level prescribing changes and the practice type of persistent overusers have not been examined. We sought to describe physician-level changes in GnRH agonist overuse and test the association of time in practice and solo practice type with GnRH agonist overuse. METHODS We matched American Medical Association physician data for 2,138 urologists to SEER–Medicare data for 12,943 men diagnosed with early stage and lower grade adenocarcinoma of the prostate between 2000 and 2007. We conducted a population-based, retrospective study using multi-level modeling to control for patient and provider characteristics. RESULTS Three distinct patterns of GnRH agonist overuse were observed. Urologists’ time in practice was not associated with GnRH agonist overuse (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.75–1.05).However, solo practice type (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.34–2.02), medical school affiliation (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.55–0.77), and patient race were. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.37–2.27), Hispanics (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.12–1.79) and men of “other” race (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.04–1.99) had greater odds of receiving unnecessary GnRH agonists. CONCLUSIONS GnRH agonist overuse remains high among some urologists who may be professionally isolated and difficult to reach. These urologists treat more vulnerable populations, which may contribute to health disparities in prostate cancer treatment quality. Nonetheless, these findings provide guidance to develop interventions to address overuse in prostate cancer. PMID:25849354
Lau, Erica Y; Lau, Patrick W C; Cai, Bo; Archer, Edward
This study examined the effects of text message content (generic vs. culturally tailored) on the login rate of an Internet physical activity program in Hong Kong Chinese adolescent school children. A convenience sample of 252 Hong Kong secondary school adolescents (51% female, 49% male; M age = 13.17 years, SD = 1.28 years) were assigned to one of 3 treatments for 8 weeks. The control group consisted of an Internet physical activity program. The Internet plus generic text message group consisted of the same Internet physical activity program and included daily generic text messages. The Internet plus culturally tailored text message group consisted of the Internet physical activity program and included daily culturally tailored text messages. Zero-inflated Poisson mixed models showed that the overall effect of the treatment group on the login rates varied significantly across individuals. The login rates over time were significantly higher in the Internet plus culturally tailored text message group than the control group (β = 46.06, 95% CI 13.60, 156.02; p = .002) and the Internet plus generic text message group (β = 15.80, 95% CI 4.81, 51.9; p = .021) after adjusting for covariates. These findings suggest that culturally tailored text messages may be more advantageous than generic text messages on improving adolescents' website login rate, but effects varied significantly across individuals. Our results support the inclusion of culturally tailored messaging in future online physical activity interventions.
Vigerland, Sarah; Lenhard, Fabian; Bonnert, Marianne; Lalouni, Maria; Hedman, Erik; Ahlen, Johan; Olén, Ola; Serlachius, Eva; Ljótsson, Brjánn
Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is a relatively novel treatment format with the potential to increase accessibility of evidence-based care. However, little is known about the feasibility and efficacy of ICBT in children and adolescents. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of ICBT for children and adolescents to provide an overview of the field and assess the efficacy of these interventions. A systematic literature search of six electronic databases was performed to identify ICBT intervention studies for children with a psychiatric condition, such as social anxiety disorder, or a somatic condition, such as chronic pain. Two reviewers independently rated study quality. Twenty-five studies, targeting 11 different disorders, were included in the review. Study quality and presentation of treatment variables, such as therapist time and treatment adherence, varied largely. Twenty-four studies (N=1882) were included in the meta-analysis and ICBT yielded moderate between-group effect sizes when compared with waitlist, g=0.62, 95% CI [0.41, 0.84]. The results suggest that CBT for psychiatric and somatic conditions in children and adolescents can be successfully adapted to an internet-delivered format.
Olason, Daniel Thor; Kristjansdottir, Elsa; Einarsdottir, Hafdis; Haraldsson, Haukur; Bjarnason, Geir; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.
This study reports findings on Internet gambling and problem gambling among Icelandic youth. Participants were 1.537 13-18 year-old students, 786 boys and 747 girls. Results revealed that 56.6% had gambled at least once in the past 12 months and 24.3% on the Internet. Gender and developmental differences were found for Internet gambling, as boys…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the type, pattern, and complexity of Internet reading strategies used by seven accomplished high school readers. Individual participants performed an academic Internet reading task with the goal of developing critical questions about their chosen controversial topic. Strategies for Internet reading were…
Schwebel, David C.; Yang, Jingzhen
Abstract: This commentary addresses the intriguing correspondence of two trends. First, we describe the increasing selectivity for undergraduate admission to elite colleges and universities in the United States and an apparent preference for “angular” applicants who have demonstrated tremendous accomplishment in a single non-academic pursuit such as music, athletics, or the arts. Second, we describe an apparent increase in overuse injuries among American children and adolescents, a trend that many experts attribute to specialization within a single athletic, musical or artistic pursuit among youth who in previous generations were more “generalist” in their extracurricular activities. It is premature to demonstrate causality and suggest increasing college selectivity has led to increasing rates of overuse injuries, but we speculate there may be a causal relation present and encourage scholarly research on the topic. PMID:27130516
Yang, Jingzhen; Tibbetts, Abigail S.; Covassin, Tracey; Cheng, Gang; Nayar, Saloni; Heiden, Erin
Context: Although overuse injuries are gaining attention, epidemiologic studies on overuse injuries in male and female collegiate athletes are lacking. (70.7%) acute injuries were reported. The overall injury rate was Objective: To report the epidemiology of overuse injuries sustained by collegiate athletes and to compare the rates of overuse and acute injuries. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: A National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 1317 reported injuries sustained by 573 male and female athletes in 16 collegiate sports teams during the 2005–2008 seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s): The injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data were obtained from the Sports Injury Monitoring System. An injury was coded as either overuse or acute based on the nature of injury. Injury rate was calculated as the total number of overuse (or acute) injuries during the study period divided by the total number of AEs during the same period. Results: A total of 386 (29.3%) overuse injuries and 931 63.1 per 10000 AEs. The rate ratio (RR) of acute versus overuse injuries was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05, 2.67). Football had the highest RR (RR = 8.35, 95% CI = 5.38, 12.97), and women's rowing had the lowest (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.51, 1.10). Men had a higher acute injury rate than women (49.8 versus 38.6 per 10000 AEs). Female athletes had a higher rate of overuse injury than male athletes (24.6 versus 13.2 per 10000 AEs). More than half of the overuse injuries (50.8%) resulted in no time loss from sport. Conclusions: Additional studies are needed to examine why female athletes are at greater risk for overuse injuries and identify the best practices for prevention and rehabilitation of overuse injuries. PMID:22488286
Giombini, A; Dragoni, S; Averna, T; Ripani, M; Longo, U G; Maffulli, N
This article reports the clinical features, findings at imaging, management and outcome of five athletes who presented with osteoid osteoma. The diagnosis was missed initially in all the athletes, who were managed for an overuse syndrome for many months before receiving a correct diagnosis. Osteoid osteoma can cause atypical pain, and therefore lead to delay in diagnosis and inappropriate management. Each injured athlete must be fully evaluated by history, physical examination and appropriate imaging investigations to minimize the rate of misdiagnosis and underestimation, unnecessary procedures, and delayed management.
Hogg, Elliot; Tagliati, Michele
Background Overuse or task-specific dystonia has been described in a number of professions characterized by repetitive actions, typically affecting the upper extremities. Cervical dystonia (CD), however, has rarely been associated with overuse. Case Report We present a case report of typical CD that developed in the context of chronic repetitive movements associated with the patient’s professional occupation as an office manager who spent many hours per day holding a phone to his ear. Discussion Overuse CD should be suspected when typical symptoms and signs of CD develop in the context of chronic repetitive use or overuse of cervical muscles, especially where exacerbating tasks involve asymmetric postures. PMID:27708983
Qi, Xin; Du, Xin; Yang, Yongxin; Du, Guijin; Gao, Peihong; Zhang, Yang; Qin, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Quan
Greater impulse and risk-taking and reduced decision-making ability were reported as the main behavioral impairments in individuals with internet gaming disorder (IGD), which has become a serious mental health issue worldwide. However, it is not clear to date how the risk level modulates brain activity during the decision-making process in IGD individuals. In this study, 23 adolescents with IGD and 24 healthy controls (HCs) without IGD were recruited, and the balloon analog risk task (BART) was used in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to evaluate the modulation of the risk level (the probability of balloon explosion) on brain activity during risky decision making in IGD adolescents. Reduced modulation of the risk level on the activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the active BART was found in IGD group compared to the HCs. In the IGD group, there was a significant negative correlation between the risk-related DLPFC activation during the active BART and the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) scores, which were significantly higher in IGD group compared with the HCs. Our study demonstrated that, as a critical decision-making-related brain region, the right DLPFC is less sensitive to risk in IGD adolescents compared with the HCs, which may contribute to the higher impulsivity level in IGD adolescents.
Increased intensity of sports activities combined with a decrease in daily physical activity is making overuse injuries in children more common. These injuries are located mainly in the epiphyseal cartilage. The broad term for these injuries is osteochondrosis, rather than osteochondritis, which more specifically refers to inflammatory conditions of bone and cartilage. The osteochondrosis may be epiphyseal, physeal, or apophyseal, depending on the affected site. The condition can either be in the primary deformans form or the dissecans form. While there is no consensus on the etiology of osteochondrosis, multiple factors seem to be involved: vascular, traumatic, or even microtraumatic factors. Most overuse injuries involve the lower limbs, especially the knees, ankle and feet. The most typical are Osgood-Schlatter disease and Sever's disease; in both conditions, the tendons remain relatively short during the pubescent grown spurt. The main treatment for these injuries is temporary suspension of athletic activities, combined with physical therapy in many cases. Surgery may be performed if conservative treatment fails. It is best, however, to try to prevent these injuries by analyzing and correcting problems with sports equipment, lifestyle habits, training intensity and the child's level of physical activity, and by avoiding premature specialization. Pain in children during sports should not be considered normal. It is a warning sign of overtraining, which may require the activity to be modified, reduced or even discontinued.
Kuss, D J; Griffiths, M D; Karila, L; Billieux, J
In the last decade, Internet usage has grown tremendously on a global scale. The increasing popularity and frequency of Internet use has led to an increasing number of reports highlighting the potential negative consequences of overuse. Over the last decade, research into Internet addiction has proliferated. This paper reviews the existing 68 epidemiological studies of Internet addiction that (i) contain quantitative empirical data, (ii) have been published after 2000, (iii) include an analysis relating to Internet addiction, (iv) include a minimum of 1000 participants, and (v) provide a full-text article published in English using the database Web of Science. Assessment tools and conceptualisations, prevalence, and associated factors in adolescents and adults are scrutinised. The results reveal the following. First, no gold standard of Internet addiction classification exists as 21 different assessment instruments have been identified. They adopt official criteria for substance use disorders or pathological gambling, no or few criteria relevant for an addiction diagnosis, time spent online, or resulting problems. Second, reported prevalence rates differ as a consequence of different assessment tools and cut-offs, ranging from 0.8% in Italy to 26.7% in Hong Kong. Third, Internet addiction is associated with a number of sociodemographic, Internet use, and psychosocial factors, as well as comorbid symptoms and disorder in adolescents and adults. The results indicate that a number of core symptoms (i.e., compulsive use, negative outcomes and salience) appear relevant for diagnosis, which assimilates Internet addiction and other addictive disorders and also differentiates them, implying a conceptualisation as syndrome with similar etiology and components, but different expressions of addictions. Limitations include the exclusion of studies with smaller sample sizes and studies focusing on specific online behaviours. Conclusively, there is a need for nosological
Prevalence, frequency, and psychosocial predictors of Internet and computer game use were assessed with 803 male and 788 female adolescents across 2 time periods, 21 months apart. At Time 1, participants were in the 9th or 10th grade; at Time 2, they were in the 11th or 12th grade. Most girls (93.7%) and boys (94.7%) reported using the Internet at…
Doornwaard, Suzan M; den Boer, Fedde; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; van Nijnatten, Carol H C J; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
The Internet offers adolescents unique opportunities to actively shape their own sexual media environment. The aim of this study was to gain in-depth insight into Dutch adolescents' motives, perceptions, and reflections toward Internet use for (a) finding information or advice related to romance and sexuality; (b) searching for and viewing pornographic or erotic material; and (c) romantic and sexual communication (i.e., cybersex/sexting). Data were collected through 12 Web-based focus groups (36 adolescents aged 16 to 19 years, 72.2% girls) and analyzed through three stages of open, axial, and selective coding. The themes that emerged from the focus-group discussions suggest that sex-related Internet use is a complex and ambivalent experience for adolescents. Sex-related Internet use seems an increasingly normalized and common phenomenon. Participants perceived the Internet as a useful source of sexual information, stimulation, inspiration, and communication. Yet they discussed a range of negative consequences and risks related to sex-related online behaviors, particularly concerning pornography's potential to create unrealistic expectations about sex and sexual attractiveness. Participants generally believed they had the necessary skills to navigate through the online sexual landscape in a responsible way, although they believed other young people could be influenced inadvertently and adversely by sex-related online content.
Weber, Kristi; Story, Mary; Harnack, Lisa
Americans are spending an increasing amount of time using "new media" like the Internet. There has been little research examining food and beverage Web sites' content and marketing practices, especially those that attract children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to conduct a content analysis of food- and beverage-brand Web sites and the marketing techniques and advertising strategies present on these sites. The top five brands in eight food and beverage categories, 40 brands in total, were selected based on annual sales data from Brandweek magazine's annual "Superbrands" report. Data were collected using a standardized coding form. The results show a wide variety of Internet marketing techniques and advertising strategies targeting children and adolescents. "Advergaming" (games in which the advertised product is part of the game) was present on 63% of the Web sites. Half or more of the Web sites used cartoon characters (50%) or spokescharacters (55%), or had a specially designated children's area (58%) with a direct link from the homepage. With interactive media still in its developmental stage, there is a need to develop safeguards for children. Food and nutrition professionals need to advocate for responsible marketing techniques that will support the health of children.
Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso
Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…
Buller, David B.; Borland, Ron; Woodall, W. Gill; Hall, John R.; Hines, Joan M.; Burris-Woodall, Patricia; Cutter, Gary R.; Miller, Caroline; Balmford, James; Starling, Randall; Ax, Bryan; Saba, Laura
The Internet may be an effective medium for delivering smoking prevention to children. Consider This, an Internet-based program, was hypothesized to reduce expectations concerning smoking and smoking prevalence. Group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled trials were conducted in Australia (n = 2,077) and the United States (n = 1,234) in schools…
Yuan, Kai; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Jin, Chenwang; Tian, Jie
Regardless of whether it is conceptualized as a behavioral addiction or an impulse-control disorder, internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been speculated to be associated with impaired cognitive control. Efficient cognitive behavior involves the coordinated activity of large-scale brain networks, however, whether the interactions among these networks during resting state modulated cognitive control behavior in IGD adolescents remain unclear. Twenty-eight IGD adolescents and twenty-five age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls participated in our study. Stroop color-word task was conducted to evaluate the cognitive control deficits in IGD adolescents. Functional connectivity and Granger Causal Analysis were employed to investigate the functional and effective connections within and between the salience, central executive, and default mode networks. Meanwhile, diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess the structural integrity of abnormal network connections. The abnormal functional connectivity within central executive networks and effective connectivity within salience network in IGD adolescents were detected. Moreover, the inefficient interactions between these two brain networks were observed. In addition, we identified reduced fractional anisotropy in salience network, right central executive network tracts, and between-network (the anterior cingulate cortex-right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tracts) pathways in IGD individuals. Notably, we observed a significant correlation between the effective and structural connection from salience network to central executive network and the number of errors during incongruent condition in Stroop task in both IGD and control subjects. Our results suggested that impaired cognitive control in IGD adolescents is likely to be mediated through the abnormal interactions and structural connection between intrinsic large-scale brain networks.
Kim, Yeoung-Rang; Son, Jung-Woo; Lee, Sang-Ick; Shin, Chul-Jin; Kim, Sie-Kyeong; Ju, Gawon; Choi, Won-Hee; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seungbok; Jo, Seongwoo; Ha, Tae Hyon
While adolescent internet addicts are immersed in cyberspace, they are easily able to experience 'disembodied state'. The purposes of this study were to investigate the difference of brain activity between adolescent internet addicts and normal adolescents in a state of disembodiment, and to find the correlation between the activities of disembodiment-related areas and the behavioral characteristics related to internet addiction. The fMRI images were taken while the addiction group (N=17) and the control group (N=17) were asked to perform the task composed with ball-throwing animations. The task reflected on either self-agency about ball-throwing or location of a ball. And each block was shown with either different (Changing View) or same animations (Fixed View). The disembodiment-related condition was the interaction between Agency Task and Changing View. Within-group analyses revealed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the thalamus, bilateral precentral area, bilateral middle frontal area, and the area around the right temporo-parietal junction. And between-group analyses showed that the addiction group exhibited higher activation in the area near the left temporo-parieto-occipital junction, right parahippocampal area, and other areas than the control group. Finally, the duration of internet use was significantly correlated with the activity of posterior area of left middle temporal gyrus in the addiction group. These results show that the disembodiment-related activation of the brain is easily manifested in adolescent internet addicts. Internet addiction of adolescents could be significantly unfavorable for their brain development related with identity formation.
Bull, Sheana; Prescott, Tonya L.; Birungi, Ruth
Capitalizing on emerging data suggesting that HIV preventive behaviors can be positively affected by Internet-based programs, we developed and tested CyberSenga, an Internet-based, comprehensive sexuality education program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and sixty-six secondary school students were randomly assigned to either the 5-lesson program (+ booster) or a treatment-as-usual control. At three-month follow-up, intervention participants provided feedback on program acceptability. Six focus groups with intervention participants were additionally conducted after the final follow-up at 6 months. Data support a hypothesis of feasibility: Despite schedule interruptions, 95% of intervention participants completed all 5 modules; only 17% deviated from the once-a-week intended delivery schedule. Internet service was uninterrupted during the field period and, in general, the technology performed to specifications. The intervention also appears to be acceptable: 94% of intervention youth somewhat or strongly agreed that they learned a lot and 93% said they were somewhat or very likely to recommend the program. Although more than two in three youth somewhat or strongly agreed that the program talked too much about sex (70%) and condoms (75%), 89% somewhat or strongly disagreed that “I do not think kids like me should do the CyberSenga program”. Feedback from focus group participants further suggested that the content was generally acceptable and did not contradict local norms in most cases. In fact, despite concerns from some local stakeholders to the contrary, information about condoms did not appear to be confusing or contradictory for youth who were abstinent. Nonetheless, some of the sexual topics seemed to be unfamiliar or uncomfortable for some participants – particularly brief references to oral and anal sex. Together, both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that the program is a feasible and acceptable way of delivering HIV
Ybarra, Michele L; Bull, Sheana S; Prescott, Tonya L; Birungi, Ruth
Capitalizing on emerging data suggesting that HIV-preventive behaviors can be positively affected by Internet-based programs, we developed and tested CyberSenga, an Internet-based, comprehensive sexuality education program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and sixty-six secondary school students were randomly assigned to either the five-lesson program (+ booster) or a treatment-as-usual control. At three-month follow-up, intervention participants provided feedback on the program acceptability. Six focus groups with intervention participants were additionally conducted after the final follow-up at 6 months. Data support a hypothesis of feasibility: despite schedule interruptions, 95% of intervention participants completed all the five modules; only 17% deviated from the once-a-week intended delivery schedule. Internet service was uninterrupted during the field period and, in general, the technology performed to specifications. The intervention also appears to be acceptable: 94% of intervention youth somewhat or strongly agreed that they learned a lot and 93% said they were somewhat or very likely to recommend the program. Although more than two in three youth somewhat or strongly agreed that the program talked too much about sex (70%) and condoms (75%), 89% somewhat or strongly disagreed that "I do not think kids like me should do the CyberSenga program." Feedback from focus group participants further suggested that the content was generally acceptable and did not contradict local norms in most cases. In fact, despite concerns from some local stakeholders to the contrary, information about condoms did not appear to be confusing or contradictory for youth who were abstinent. Nonetheless, some of the sexual topics seemed to be unfamiliar or uncomfortable for some participants - particularly brief references to oral and anal sex. Together, both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that the program is a feasible and acceptable way of delivering HIV
Chiou, Wen-Bin; Wan, Chin-Sheng
The negative impact of the Internet on adolescents has received much attention. How to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is also a critical issue. Based on cognitive dissonance theory, two experiments were conducted to examine whether personal responsibility and justification of cost may play crucial factors in impacting adolescent players' attitude change and their willingness to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior. The results of Experiment 1 revealed that adolescent players who felt a strong sense of responsibility appeared to exhibit greater attitude change. In Experiment 2, the findings indicated that players tended to employ justification of cost in order to reduce or eliminate the dissonance between their attitude toward online gaming and invested cost. Adolescent players who perceived a higher cost in online gaming were less willing to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior. Reducing adolescents ' overuse of online gaming can be appreciated through the perspective of cognitive dissonance.
Makarushka, Marta Maria
Depression during adolescence is highly prevalent with as many as 20% experiencing a major depressive episode by the age of 18. Adolescent depression causes significant impairment across life areas including school functioning, such as poor academic performance and decreased academic achievement. Despite the existence of many evidence-based…
The purpose of this study was to provide a clearer understanding of current Korean American adolescents under the recognition that their stories are barely told in educational research. Based on the literature that has described identity as a core concept in understanding adolescence and literacy practice as a dominant tool for identity…
Shek, Daniel T L; Tang, Vera M Y; Lo, C Y
This paper described an indigenous multi-level counseling program designed for young people with Internet addiction problems based on the responses of 59 clients. Regarding objective outcome evaluation, pretest and posttest data generally showed that the Internet addiction problems of the participants decreased after joining the program and there were some slight positive changes in the parenting attributes. For the subjective outcome evaluation findings, participants generally perceived that the program was helpful. Findings based on these two evaluation strategies suggest this multi-level indigenous counseling program has promise for helping young people with Internet addiction problems.
Ciarrochi, Joseph; Parker, Philip; Sahdra, Baljinder; Marshall, Sarah; Jackson, Chris; Gloster, Andrew T.; Heaven, Patrick
Is compulsive Internet use (CIU) an antecedent to poor mental health, a consequence, or both? Study 1 used a longitudinal design to track the development of CIU and mental health in Grade 8 (N = 1,030 males, 1,038 females, M[subscript age] = 13.7), 9, 10, and 11. Study 2 extended Study 1 by examining the kinds of Internet behaviors most strongly…
Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Joakim; Wasserman, Danuta; Balazs, Judit; Germanavicius, Arunas; Machín, Núria; Meszaros, Gergely; Sarchiapone, Marco; Värnik, Airi; Varnik, Peeter; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir
Background Adolescents and young adults are among the most frequent Internet users, and accumulating evidence suggests that their Internet behaviors might affect their mental health. Internet use may impact mental health because certain Web-based content could be distressing. It is also possible that excessive use, regardless of content, produces negative consequences, such as neglect of protective offline activities. Objective The objective of this study was to assess how mental health is associated with (1) the time spent on the Internet, (2) the time spent on different Web-based activities (social media use, gaming, gambling, pornography use, school work, newsreading, and targeted information searches), and (3) the perceived consequences of engaging in those activities. Methods A random sample of 2286 adolescents was recruited from state schools in Estonia, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Questionnaire data comprising Internet behaviors and mental health variables were collected and analyzed cross-sectionally and were followed up after 4 months. Results Cross-sectionally, both the time spent on the Internet and the relative time spent on various activities predicted mental health (P<.001), explaining 1.4% and 2.8% variance, respectively. However, the consequences of engaging in those activities were more important predictors, explaining 11.1% variance. Only Web-based gaming, gambling, and targeted searches had mental health effects that were not fully accounted for by perceived consequences. The longitudinal analyses showed that sleep loss due to Internet use (ß=.12, 95% CI=0.05-0.19, P=.001) and withdrawal (negative mood) when Internet could not be accessed (ß=.09, 95% CI=0.03-0.16, P<.01) were the only consequences that had a direct effect on mental health in the long term. Perceived positive consequences of Internet use did not seem to be associated with mental health at all. Conclusions The magnitude of Internet use is
Chen, Yi-Lung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen
This longitudinal study investigated the prevalence, predictors, and related factors for Internet addiction among elementary and junior high school students in Taiwan. A convenient sample of grades 3, 5, and 8 students (n = 1153) was recruited from six elementary and one junior high schools. They were assessed during the beginning and the end of the spring semester of 2013. Internet addiction was examined by the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS). Other factors were screened using the Chinese version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) for autistic trait, the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) for parenting, the Family APGAR for family support, the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents for social function, and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV) for ADHD symptoms. The prevalence of Internet addiction decreased from 11.4% to 10.6%. Male, low family support, poor social adjustment, and high ADHD-related symptoms were related to Internet addiction. However, there was an inverse relationship between autistic traits and Internet addiction. Further, its predictivity could be accounted by poor academic performance, male, and protective parenting style. Internet addiction is not uncommon among youths in Taiwan. The predictors identified in this study could be the specific measures for the development of a prevention program for Internet addiction in the youth population.
Doornwaard, Suzan M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Baams, Laura; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F M
Although a growing body of literature addresses the effects of young people's use of sexually explicit Internet material, research on the compulsive use of this type of online content among adolescents and its associated factors is largely lacking. This study investigated whether factors from three distinct psychosocial domains (i.e., psychological well-being, sexual interests/behaviors, and impulsive-psychopathic personality) predicted symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Links between psychosocial factors and boys' compulsive use symptoms were analyzed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally with compulsive use symptoms measured 6 months later (T2). Data were used from 331 Dutch boys (M age = 15.16 years, range 11-17) who indicated that they used sexually explicit Internet material. The results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that lower levels of global self-esteem and higher levels of excessive sexual interest concurrently predicted boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Longitudinally, higher levels of depressive feelings and, again, excessive sexual interest predicted relative increases in compulsive use symptoms 6 months later. Impulsive and psychopathic personality traits were not uniquely related to boys' symptoms of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material. Our findings, while preliminary, suggest that both psychological well-being factors and sexual interests/behaviors are involved in the development of compulsive use of sexually explicit Internet material among adolescent boys. Such knowledge is important for prevention and intervention efforts that target the needs of specific problematic users of sexually explicit Internet material.
Background As adolescents with hemophilia approach adulthood, they are expected to assume responsibility for their disease management. A bilingual (English and French) Internet-based self-management program, “Teens Taking Charge: Managing Hemophilia Online,” was developed to support adolescents with hemophilia in this transition. This study explored the usability of the website and resulted in refinement of the prototype. Methods A purposive sample (n=18; age 13–18; mean age 15.5 years) was recruited from two tertiary care centers to assess the usability of the program in English and French. Qualitative observations using a “think aloud” usability testing method and semi-structured interviews were conducted in four iterative cycles, with changes to the prototype made as necessary following each cycle. This study was approved by research ethics boards at each site. Results Teens responded positively to the content and appearance of the website and felt that it was easy to navigate and understand. The multimedia components (videos, animations, quizzes) were felt to enrich the experience. Changes to the presentation of content and the website user-interface were made after the first, second and third cycles of testing in English. Cycle four did not result in any further changes. Conclusions Overall, teens found the website to be easy to use. Usability testing identified end-user concerns that informed improvements to the program. Usability testing is a crucial step in the development of Internet-based self-management programs to ensure information is delivered in a manner that is accessible and understood by users. PMID:24094082
Bales, James; Bales, Karrn
Most triathlon overuse injuries occur due to the running and cycling aspects of the sport. By nature of swimming being a non-weight-bearing sport, triathletes have a tendency to use swimming for rehabilitation and recovery. Swimming has a significantly lower injury rate than the other 2 disciplines in a triathlon. Most triathletes use the freestyle stroke, because it is typically the first stroke learned, it is for many the fastest stroke, and by lifting the head the freestyle stroke allows triathletes to sight their direction, which is important in open water swimming. During the freestyle stroke, the shoulder undergoes repetitive overhead motion, and shoulder pain is the most common and well-documented site of musculoskeletal pain in competitive swimmers. It is felt that the pathologic process is attributable to repetitive overhead motion causing microtrauma in the shoulder from either mechanical impingement or generalized laxity or both. Without sufficient rest and recovery, the development of inflammation and pain may result. Depending on the age of the triathlete and the exact etiology of the shoulder pain, treatment options range from nonsurgical to surgical in nature.
Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor Højland
Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a debilitating condition in which frequent and prolonged use of medication for the acute treatment of pain results in the worsening of the headache. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature on MOH and discuss future avenues for research. MOH accounts for a substantial share of the global burden of disease. Prevalence is often reported as 1–2% but can be as high as 7% overall, with higher proportions among women and in those with a low socioeconomic position. Management consists of withdrawing pain medication, focusing on prophylactic and nonmedical treatments, and limiting acute symptomatic medication. Stress reduction and lifestyle interventions may support the change towards rational pain medication use. Support, follow up, and education are needed to help patients through the detoxification period. There is fertile ground for research in MOH epidemiology, pathophysiology, and neuroimaging. Randomized and long-term follow-up studies on MOH treatment protocols are needed. Further focused research could be of major importance for global health. PMID:27493718
Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Thrasher, James F; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo
Exposure to tobacco advertisement is associated with smoking initiation among the youth, its elimination is a key objective to effectively curb the tobacco epidemic. Historically, the tobacco industry has pioneered the use of new communication technologies to keep and expand their market. Nowadays, Internet and video games have transcended the entertainment sphere, becoming significant media for massive communication and providing new opportunities for advertisement. The present essay reviews the existing literature on tobacco presence in the Internet and video games to define research and policy tasks required to develop effective means for tobacco advertisement regulation and control.
... gov/news/fullstory_163248.html Antibiotic Overuse Behind 'Superbug' Outbreak in U.K. Hospitals Finding could have ... related to the outbreak of Clostridium difficile , a "superbug" gut infection. The investigators concluded that reducing the ...
Koo, Hoon Jung; Han, Doug Hyun; Park, Sung-Yong
Objective This study aimed to develop and validate a Structured Clinical Interview for Internet Gaming Disorder (SCI-IGD) in adolescents. Methods First, we generated preliminary items of the SCI-IGD based on the information from the DSM-5 literature reviews and expert consultations. Next, a total of 236 adolescents, from both community and clinical settings, were recruited to evaluate the psychometric properties of the SCI-IGD. Results First, the SCI-IGD was found to be consistent over the time period of about one month. Second, diagnostic concordances between the SCI-IGD and clinician's diagnostic impression were good to excellent. The Likelihood Ratio Positive and the Likelihood Ratio Negative estimates for the diagnosis of SCI-IGD were 10.93 and 0.35, respectively, indicating that SCI-IGD was ‘very useful test’ for identifying the presence of IGD and ‘useful test’ for identifying the absence of IGD. Third, SCI-IGD could identify disordered gamers from non-disordered gamers. Conclusion The implications and limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:28096871
Zwick, Ernst B; Kocher, Robert
The onset and timing of the growth of children and adolescents occurs with considerable variability in cohorts of the same chronological age. The musculoskeletal system changes in proportion over time, and lever-arm changes, altered individual flexibility, and strength lead to age-specific injury patterns in youth sports. In sports, juniors are commonly grouped according to their chronological age. Early- and late-maturing children and adolescents might therefore not routinely be trained in relation to their biology. This not only represents a risk for overuse and injury but might limit their development in sports. To obtain information about the biological age of children is challenging. Numerous methods have been studied and validated. However, the implementation of these methods on a large scale is still to come. This report provides a brief overview of growth dynamics in relation to youth sports injuries and describes a few challenges for the future.
Doornwaard, Suzan M; Bickham, David S; Rich, Michael; ter Bogt, Tom F M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M
Although research has repeatedly demonstrated that adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) is related to their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior, it is not clear how linkages between these constructs unfold over time. This study combined 2 types of longitudinal modeling, mean-level development and cross-lagged panel modeling, to examine (a) developmental patterns in adolescents' SEIM use, permissive sexual attitudes, and experience with sexual behavior, as well as whether these developments are related; and (b) longitudinal directionality of associations between SEIM use on the 1 hand and permissive sexual attitudes and sexual behavior on the other hand. We used 4-wave longitudinal data from 1,132 7th through 10th grade Dutch adolescents (M(age) T1 = 13.95; 52.7% boys) and estimated multigroup models to test for moderation by gender. Mean-level developmental trajectories showed that boys occasionally and increasingly used SEIM over the 18-month study period, which co-occurred with increases in their permissive attitudes and their experience with sexual behavior. Cross-lagged panel models revealed unidirectional effects from boys' SEIM use on their subsequent endorsement of permissive attitudes, but no consistent directional effects between their SEIM use and sexual behavior. Girls showed a similar pattern of increases in experience with sexual behavior, but their SEIM use was consistently low and their endorsement of permissive sexual attitudes decreased over the 18-month study period. In contrast to boys, girls' SEIM use was not longitudinally related to their sexual attitudes and behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these gender-specific findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
Soldatova, Galina Urtanbekovna; Rasskazova, Elena Igorevna
The article examines the opportunities and limitations of the coping behavior of children and teenagers on the Internet and the assistance that they receive from significant adults (parental mediation) in the context of the new developmental social situation, which is mediated by modern information and communication technologies, and in particular…
Norris, Tina L.
Using two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), I investigated the relationships among bullying behaviors, internet use, and academic achievement for Black, Hispanic, and White boys and girls. I assessed three measures of academic achievement, including scores on mathematics, reading comprehension, and vocabulary.…
Huan, Vivien S.; Ang, Rebecca P.; Chye, Stefanie
Background: Davis' ("Comput Hum Behav" 17:187-195, 2001) cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use (PIU) proposed and theorized that certain psychopathological characteristics present within an individual, predispose him to PIU. Objective: This study extended Davis' model in hypothesizing that social anxiety mediates in a…
Whitlock, Janis L.; Powers, Jane L.; Eckenrode, John
The 2 studies reported here use observational data from message boards to investigate how adolescents solicit and share information related to self-injurious behavior. Study 1 examines the prevalence and nature of these message boards, their users, and most commonly discussed topics. Study 2 was intended to explore the correlations between content…
Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M
Previous research on the influence of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) on adolescents' stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles has three shortcomings. First, the role of peers has been neglected; second, stereotypical beliefs have rarely been studied as causing the use of SEIM and the selection of specific peers; and third, it is unclear whether adolescents are more vulnerable to the effects of SEIM than adults. We used data from two nationally representative two-wave panel surveys among 1,445 Dutch adolescents and 833 Dutch adults, focusing on the stereotypical belief that women engage in token resistance to sex (i.e., the notion that women say "no" when they actually intend to have sex). Structural equation modeling showed that peers who supported traditional gender roles elicited, both among adolescents and adults, stronger beliefs that women use token resistance to sex. Further, the belief that women engage in token resistance predicted adolescents' and adults' selection of gender-role traditional peers, but it did not predict adolescents' and adults' use of SEIM. Finally, adults, but not adolescents, were susceptible to the impact of SEIM on beliefs that women engage in token resistance to sex.
Strittmatter, Esther; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Fischer, Gloria; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Durkee, Tony; Apter, Alan; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Cosman, Doina; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta
"Internet gaming disorder" was recently included in Section 3 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Non-gaming Internet activities were not considered because of a lack of evidence. This study examined whether gamers differ from non-gamers with respect to their psychological well-being among students who show pathological Internet use (PIU). This cross-sectional study was conducted within the project "Working in Europe to Stop Truancy Among Youth (WE-STAY)". A total of 8807 European representative students from randomly selected schools were included. The Young Diagnostic Questionnaire was applied to assess PIU, and students with this condition were divided into gamers (PIU-G) and non-gamers (PIU-NG). Overall, 3.62% and 3.11% of the students were classified as having PIU-G and PIU-NG, respectively. A multinomial logistic regression revealed that students with PIU-G and those with PIU-NG showed similarly increased risks for emotional symptoms, conduct disorder, hyperactivity/inattention, self-injurious behaviors, and suicidal ideation and behaviors. Students with PIU-G were more likely to be male and have a higher risk for peer problems than those with PIU-NG. Students with PIU-NG had a higher risk of depression than those with PIU-G. The significant psychological impairment of PIU-NG suggests that it should be considered in future diagnostic criteria.
Grey, Margaret; Whittemore, Robin; Liberti, Lauren; Delamater, Alan; Murphy, Kathryn; Faulkner, Melissa S
Implementing psycho-educational programs for youth with type 1 diabetes in clinical care and reaching diverse youth with type 1 diabetes is challenging due to youth, provider, and organizational barriers. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of an internet coping skills training program with a control condition of internet diabetes education. Each program consists of 5 weekly interactive lessons; the coping skills training program also provides the ability for youth to interact with each other as well as a health coach. Approximately 300 youths with type 1 diabetes will be recruited to participate in this multi-site clinical trial. The primary outcomes are metabolic control, quality of life, and family conflict. Secondary outcomes include stress, coping, self-efficacy, and social competence. Usage, satisfaction, and cost will also be evaluated. In addition, mediators and moderators to intervention effects will be explored. An internet based psycho-educational program for youth with type 1 diabetes may be a promising approach that can be easily be integrated into clinical care.
Zhang, Chao; Hu, Ruifa; Shi, Guanming; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G; Huang, Xusheng
Pesticide use has experienced a dramatic increase worldwide, especially in China, where a wide variety of pesticides are used in large amounts by farmers to control crop pests. While Chinese farmers are often criticized for pesticide overuse, this study shows the coexistence of overuse and underuse of pesticide based on the survey data of pesticide use in rice, cotton, maize, and wheat production in three provinces in China. A novel index amount approach is proposed to convert the amount of multiple pesticides used to control the same pest into an index amount of a referenced pesticide. We compare the summed index amount with the recommended dosage range of the referenced pesticide to classify whether pesticides are overused or underused. Using this new approach, the following main results were obtained. Pesticide overuse and underuse coexist after examining a total of 107 pesticides used to control up to 54 crop pests in rice, cotton, maize, and wheat production. In particular, pesticide overuse in more than half of the total cases for 9 crop pest species is detected. In contrast, pesticide underuse accounts for more than 20% of the total cases for 11 pests. We further indicate that the lack of knowledge and information on pesticide use and pest control among Chinese farmers may cause the coexistence of pesticide overuse and underuse. Our analysis provides indirect evidence that the commercialized agricultural extension system in China probably contributes to the coexistence of overuse and underuse. To improve pesticide use, it is urgent to reestablish the monitoring and forecasting system regarding pest control in China.
Background Medication overuse headache (MOH) has been recognized as an important problem in headache patients although the pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. The diagnosis of MOH is based on clinical characteristics defined by the International Headache Society. The aim was the evaluation of the diagnostic criteria of MOH in a mixed population of chronic pain patients to gain information about the prevalence and possible associations with MOH. Methods Data of all patients referred to the interdisciplinary pain clinic at the University Hospital of Zurich between September 2005 and December 2007 were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data (age, sex, history of migration), as well as data about duration of pain disease, category of pain disease (neurological, psychiatric, rheumatologic, other), use of medication, history of trauma, and comorbidity of depression and anxiety have been collected. Results Totally 178 of 187 consecutive chronic pain patients were included in the study. A total of 138 patients (78%) used analgesics on 15 or more days per month. Chronic headache was more prevalent among patients with analgesic overuse (39.8%) than without analgesic overuse (18%). The prevalence of MOH was 29%. The odds ratio (OR) for a patient with medication overuse to have chronic headache was 13.1 if he had a history of primary headache, compared to a patient without a primary headache syndrome. Furthermore, history of headache (OR 2.5, CI [1.13;5.44]), history of migration (OR 2.9, CI [1.31;6.32]) and comorbid depression (OR 3.5, CI [1.46;8.52]) were associated with overuse of acute medication, in general. Conclusions Primary headaches have a high risk for chronification in patients overusing analgesics for other pain disorders. Whereas history of headache, history of migration and comorbidity of depression are independentely associated with analgesic overuse in this group of patients. PMID:23565761
Background Recent studies suggest that Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is an impulse disorder, or is at least related to impulse control disorders. In the present study, we hypothesized that different facets of trait impulsivity may be specifically linked to the brain regions with impaired impulse inhibition function in IGA adolescents. Methods Seventeen adolescents with IGA and seventeen healthy controls were scanned during performance of a response-inhibition Go/No-Go task using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS)-11 was used to assess impulsivity. Results There were no differences in the behavioral performance on the Go/No-Go task between the groups. However, the IGA group was significantly hyperactive during No-Go trials in the left superior medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex, right superior/middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left precentral gyrus, and left precuneus and cuneus. Further, the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule were significantly hypoactive during No-Go trials. Activation of the left superior medial frontal gyrus was positively associated with BIS-11 and Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS) total score across IGA participants. Conclusions Our data suggest that the prefrontal cortex may be involved in the circuit modulating impulsivity, while its impaired function may relate to high impulsivity in adolescents with IGA, which may contribute directly to the Internet addiction process. PMID:24885073
Nordfeldt, Sam; Ängarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Nordwall, Maria; Krevers, Barbro
Background Little is known about parents’ views on the use of online resources for information, education and support regarding childhood type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Considering the rapidly evolving new communication practices, parents’ perspectives need to be explored. The main purpose of this paper was to explore parents’ perceptions of their information-seeking, Internet use, and social networking online. This applied to their everyday life, including the contexts of T1DM and contact with peers. A second aim was to identify implications for future development of Internet use in this respect. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-seven parents of 24 young persons aged 10–17 with T1DM participated in eight focus group interviews during their regular visits to a county hospital. Focus group discussions were video/audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Self-reported demographic and medical information was also collected. A main theme was Finding things out, including two sub-themes, Trust and Suitability. The latter were key factors affecting parents’ perceptions of online resources. Parents’ choice of information source was related to the situation, previous experiences and knowledge about sources and, most importantly, the level of trust in the source. A constantly present background theme was Life situation, including two sub-themes, Roles and functions and Emotions and needs. Parents’ information-seeking regarding T1DM varied greatly, and was closely associated with their life situation, the adolescents development phases and the disease trajectory. Conclusions/Significance Health practitioners and system developers need to focus on creating trust and suitability for users’ needs. They should understand the children’s diverse needs, which depend on their life situation, on the children’s development, and on the disease trajectory. To enhance trust in online health information and support services, the
Li, Wen; O'Brien, Jennifer E; Snyder, Susan M; Howard, Matthew O
Studies have identified high rates and severe consequences of Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use (IA/PIU) in university students. However, most research concerning IA/PIU in U.S. university students has been conducted within a quantitative research paradigm, and frequently fails to contextualize the problem of IA/PIU. To address this gap, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study using the focus group approach and examined 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as intensive Internet users, spent more than 25 hours/week on the Internet for non-school or non-work-related activities and who reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. Students completed two IA/PIU measures (Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring the natural history of their Internet use; preferred online activities; emotional, interpersonal, and situational triggers for intensive Internet use; and health and/or psychosocial consequences of their Internet overuse. Students' self-reports of Internet overuse problems were consistent with results of standardized measures. Students first accessed the Internet at an average age of 9 (SD = 2.7), and first had a problem with Internet overuse at an average age of 16 (SD = 4.3). Sadness and depression, boredom, and stress were common triggers of intensive Internet use. Social media use was nearly universal and pervasive in participants' lives. Sleep deprivation, academic under-achievement, failure to exercise and to engage in face-to-face social activities, negative affective states, and decreased ability to concentrate were frequently reported consequences of intensive Internet use/Internet overuse. IA/PIU may be an underappreciated problem among U.S. university students and warrants additional research.
Li, Wen; O’Brien, Jennifer E.; Snyder, Susan M.; Howard, Matthew O.
Studies have identified high rates and severe consequences of Internet Addiction/Pathological Internet Use (IA/PIU) in university students. However, most research concerning IA/PIU in U.S. university students has been conducted within a quantitative research paradigm, and frequently fails to contextualize the problem of IA/PIU. To address this gap, we conducted an exploratory qualitative study using the focus group approach and examined 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as intensive Internet users, spent more than 25 hours/week on the Internet for non-school or non-work-related activities and who reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. Students completed two IA/PIU measures (Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and participated in focus groups exploring the natural history of their Internet use; preferred online activities; emotional, interpersonal, and situational triggers for intensive Internet use; and health and/or psychosocial consequences of their Internet overuse. Students’ self-reports of Internet overuse problems were consistent with results of standardized measures. Students first accessed the Internet at an average age of 9 (SD = 2.7), and first had a problem with Internet overuse at an average age of 16 (SD = 4.3). Sadness and depression, boredom, and stress were common triggers of intensive Internet use. Social media use was nearly universal and pervasive in participants’ lives. Sleep deprivation, academic under-achievement, failure to exercise and to engage in face-to-face social activities, negative affective states, and decreased ability to concentrate were frequently reported consequences of intensive Internet use/Internet overuse. IA/PIU may be an underappreciated problem among U.S. university students and warrants additional research. PMID:25647224
Kayri, Murat; Gunuc, Selim
Internet dependency is going to expand into social life in wide area whereas it has been accepted as a pathological and psychological disease. Knowing the basic effects of internet dependency is an inevitable approach to use the internet technology healthy. In this study, internet dependency levels of 754 students were examined with the Internet…
Estévez Gutiérrez, Ana; Herrero Fernández, David; Sarabia Gonzalvo, Izaskun; Jáuregui Bilbao, Paula
The way emotions are regulated might affect the engagement on risk behaviors in adolescents and young adults. Therefore, studying the relationship between these variables could be of great importance. Some of the less studied risky behaviors are pathological gambling, and Internet and videogame abuse. This research aims to analyze the existing relationship between such risky behaviors, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional psychological symptomatology (depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism). In addition, it also looks to assess whether emotional regulation plays a mediating role between pathological gambling, and Internet and videogame abuse, and psychological symptomatology. The sample was composed of 1312 young adults and adolescents, aged between 12 and 30, recruited from scholar centers, universities and free time groups, and from associations and centers associated with FEJAR (Spanish Federation of Rehabilitated Gamblers). Participants completed measurements of impulsive behavior, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional symptomatology. Results showed that there is generally a positive and significant relation between these variables. Moreover, it has been pointed out that emotion regulation mediates the association between impulsive behavior and dysfunctional symptomatology among those young adults and adolescents who engage in these impulsive behaviors, except for the relation between videogame abuse and depressive symptomatology. Training in emotional regulation skills could be useful in dealing with and treating this type of behaviors in adolescents and young adults.
There is substantial literature on the impact of the mass media on children's and adolescents' health and development. The question of what role new technology plays in the media's influence is now a subject of both review and discussion, particularly regarding health risks and intervention. This article takes a brief look at online usage and the theoretical mechanisms that might make Internet access more problematic in terms of risks, compared with more traditional media such as television and film. One of these risks, known today as cyberbullying or Internet harassment, is scrutinized in detail.
Khoury, Viviane; Guillin, Raphaël; Dhanju, Jag; Cardinal, Etienne
Sports and overuse injuries of the ankle and foot are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Ultrasound (US) has been established as an excellent diagnostic modality for foot and ankle injuries, providing a rapid noninvasive, economical, and readily available tool that is well tolerated by the patient with acute or chronic pain. The opportunity for dynamic examination is another advantage of US in evaluating ankle and foot pathology, where maneuvers such as muscle contraction and stressing of the joint may be particularly helpful. In many cases, US can be used as a first-line and only imaging modality for diagnosis. This article focuses on ankle disorders related to sports or overuse that affect tendons, including tendinosis, tenosynovitis, paratendinitis, rupture, dislocation, and ligaments that are commonly torn. The sonographic features of certain common foot disorders related to physical activity and overuse are also discussed, including plantar fasciitis, Morton's neuroma, stress fractures, and plantar plate injury.
Smerdelj, M; Madjarević, M; Oremus, K
The lower leg, foot and ankle form a functional unit of the locomotor system with an important static and dynamic function. Injury or loss of function of any muscle group of the lower leg and the foot influences normal gait or impedes standing. Increased or frequent loads on the muscle group may lead to pain syndromes known as overuse syndromes or overuse injuries. Athletes and certain professions involving standing or walking for a long time are especially susceptible to increased muscle strains. This article describes and clarifies the causes and the development of the pain syndromes in the lower leg, foot and ankle associated with certain professions or sports. The description of anatomical relationships and functions of individual muscle groups is here to clarify the occurrence of overuse injuries which may involve the muscle itself, the tendon, or the point of their attachment to the bone. The article describes observations and experiences from everyday clinical practice, but it also summarises results described in recent publications. The focus is also put on the therapy, which is usually conservative. Particular mention is given to new non-invasive surgical techniques. The article describes the most common overuse injuries of the lower leg such as shin splints, tibialis posterior syndrome, chronic anterior compartment syndrome, overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, enthesitis of the tendo Achilles, retrocalcanear bursitis and rupture of the Achilles tendon. In the foot area the most frequent overuse syndromes are the plantar fasciitis, tibialis posterior tendinitis, tendinitis of the long flexor of the toe, toe extensor tendinitis, and also anterior and posterior impingement syndromes of the ankle.
Martin, Staci; Wolters, Pamela L; Baldwin, Andrea; Roderick, Marie Claire; Toledo-Tamula, Mary Anne; Gillespie, Andrea; Widemann, Brigitte
Youth with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) have multiple, complex symptoms associated with physical, social-emotional, and cognitive difficulties. In addition, caring for a child with NF1 can be extremely challenging for parents. Since research with other chronic illness populations suggests that social support, including internet support groups (ISGs), can be beneficial, this survey study aimed to determine the attitudes and preferences of adolescents and young adults with NF1 and parents of a child with NF1 regarding ISGs. Thirty patients and 30 caregivers completed a 24-item survey about ISGs. Many patients and parents are not aware of any ISGs for NF1, but are interested in using one in the future for a variety of reasons, including to get answers to their questions about NF1, to find out about research studies, and to discuss problems and concerns about NF1. Specific concerns of interest include physical, social-emotional, and cognitive aspects of NF1. ISGs have potential as a social support intervention within the NF1 community. ISGs for the NF1 population should include patients with NF1 (or parents of children with NF1) as well as a health professional, and both chat rooms and discussion boards likely would be well-received.
Pontes, Halley M; Macur, Mirna; Griffiths, Mark D
Background and aims Since the inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a tentative disorder, a few psychometric screening instruments have been developed to assess IGD, including the 9-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) - a short, valid, and reliable instrument. Methods Due to the lack of research on IGD in Slovenia, this study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in addition to investigating the prevalence rates of IGD in a nationally representative sample of eighth graders from Slovenia (N = 1,071). Results The IGDS9-SF underwent rigorous psychometric scrutiny in terms of validity and reliability. Construct validation was investigated with confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factorial structure of the IGDS9-SF and a unidimensional structure appeared to fit the data well. Concurrent and criterion validation were also investigated by examining the association between IGD and relevant psychosocial and game-related measures, which warranted these forms of validity. In terms of reliability, the Slovenian version IGDS9-SF obtained excellent results regarding its internal consistency at different levels, and the test appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD among Slovenian youth. Finally, the prevalence rates of IGD were found to be around 2.5% in the whole sample and 3.1% among gamers. Discussion and conclusion Taken together, these results illustrate the suitability of the IGDS9-SF and warrants further research on IGD in Slovenia.
Pontes, Halley M.; Macur, Mirna; Griffiths, Mark D.
Background and aims Since the inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a tentative disorder, a few psychometric screening instruments have been developed to assess IGD, including the 9-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) – a short, valid, and reliable instrument. Methods Due to the lack of research on IGD in Slovenia, this study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in addition to investigating the prevalence rates of IGD in a nationally representative sample of eighth graders from Slovenia (N = 1,071). Results The IGDS9-SF underwent rigorous psychometric scrutiny in terms of validity and reliability. Construct validation was investigated with confirmatory factor analysis to examine the factorial structure of the IGDS9-SF and a unidimensional structure appeared to fit the data well. Concurrent and criterion validation were also investigated by examining the association between IGD and relevant psychosocial and game-related measures, which warranted these forms of validity. In terms of reliability, the Slovenian version IGDS9-SF obtained excellent results regarding its internal consistency at different levels, and the test appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD among Slovenian youth. Finally, the prevalence rates of IGD were found to be around 2.5% in the whole sample and 3.1% among gamers. Discussion and conclusion Taken together, these results illustrate the suitability of the IGDS9-SF and warrants further research on IGD in Slovenia. PMID:27363464
Wozney, Lori; Bagnell, Alexa; Fitzpatrick, Eleanor; Curtis, Sarah; Jabbour, Mona; Johnson, David; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Young, Michael; Ohinmaa, Arto; Joyce, Anthony; McGrath, Patrick
Background There is a demand to make first-line treatments, including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for adolescent anxiety disorders, more widely available. Internet-based CBT is proposed to circumvent access and availability barriers and reduce health care system costs. Recent reviews suggest more evidence is needed to establish the treatment effects of Internet-based CBT in children and adolescents and to determine related economic impacts. Objective This pilot trial aims to collect the necessary data to inform the planning of a full-scale RCT to test the effectiveness of the Internet-based CBT program Breathe (Being Real, Easing Anxiety: Tools Helping Electronically). Methods We are conducting a 27-month, 2-arm parallel-group, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Outcomes will inform the planning of a full-scale RCT aimed to test the effectiveness of Internet-based CBT with a population of adolescents with moderate to mild anxiety problems. In the pilot RCT we will: (1) define a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the primary outcome measure (total anxiety score using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children); (2) determine a sample size for the full-scale RCT; (3) estimate recruitment and retention rates; (4) measure intervention acceptability to inform critical intervention changes; (5) determine the use of co-interventions; and (6) conduct a cost-consequence analysis to inform a cost-effectiveness analysis in the full-scale RCT. Adolescents aged 13-17 years seeking care for an anxiety complaint from a participating emergency department, mobile or school-based crisis team, or primary care clinic are being screened for interest and eligibility. Enrolled adolescents are being randomly allocated to either 8 weeks of Internet-based CBT with limited telephone and e-mail support, or a control group with access to a static webpage listing anxiety resources. Adolescents are randomly assigned using a computer generated allocation
Tynes, Brendesha M; Giang, Michael T; Thompson, Geneene N
The relationship among adolescents' (N = 228) ethnic identity, outgroup orientation, and online intergroup experiences was examined across three groups: European Americans, ethnic minorities (i.e., Latino and African Americans), and multiracials. Similar to previous studies, ethnic minorities reported significantly higher ethnic identity than European Americans and multiracials. Although outgroup orientation did not differ among ethnic groups, European Americans reported that they had more online intergroup contact than the other ethnic groups; greater intergroup contact was also related to higher outgroup orientation for this group. These results show that ethnic identity remains stronger for ethnic minorities, but intergroup interaction has become a salient and influential aspect of the online experience for European Americans. Implications are drawn for understanding and improving online and offline intergroup relations.
de Bruin, Eduard J.; Bögels, Susan M.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie
Study Objectives: To investigate the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) in adolescents. Design: A randomized controlled trial of CBTI in group therapy (GT), guided internet therapy (IT), and a waiting list (WL), with assessments at baseline, directly after treatment (post-test), and at 2 months follow-up. Setting: Diagnostic interviews were held at the laboratory of the Research Institute of Child Development and Education at the University of Amsterdam. Treatment for GT occurred at the mental health care center UvAMinds in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants: One hundred sixteen adolescents (mean age = 15.6 y, SD = 1.6 y, 25% males) meeting DSM-IV criteria for insomnia, were randomized to IT, GT, or WL. Interventions: CBTI of 6 weekly sessions, consisted of psychoeducation, sleep hygiene, restriction of time in bed, stimulus control, cognitive therapy, and relaxation techniques. GT was conducted in groups of 6 to 8 adolescents, guided by 2 trained sleep therapists. IT was applied through an online guided self-help website with programmed instructions and written feedback from a trained sleep therapist. Measurements and Results: Sleep was measured with actigraphy and sleep logs for 7 consecutive days. Symptoms of insomnia and chronic sleep reduction were measured with questionnaires. Results showed that adolescents in both IT and GT, compared to WL, improved significantly on sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, and total sleep time at post-test, and improvements were maintained at follow-up. Most of these improvements were found in both objective and subjective measures. Furthermore, insomnia complaints and symptoms of chronic sleep reduction also decreased significantly in both treatment conditions compared to WL. Effect sizes for improvements ranged from medium to large. A greater proportion of participants from the treatment conditions showed high end-state functioning and clinically significant
Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert
Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates.
Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D.; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert
Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates. PMID:27504915
Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Seung Ju; Chun, Sung-Youn
Objective: To examine the association between the level of Internet addiction and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korean adolescents, focusing on the roles of family structure and household economic status. Methods: Data from 221 265 middle and high school students taken from the 2008–2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were used in this study. To identify factors associated with suicidal ideation/attempts, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The level of Internet use was measured using the simplified Korean Internet Addiction Self-assessment Tool. Results: Compared with mild users of the Internet, high-risk users and potential-risk users were more likely to report suicidal ideation (nonuser, odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.15; potential risk, OR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.36 to 1.63; high risk OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.10) or attempts (nonuser, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.42; potential risk, OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38; high risk, OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.14). The nonuser group also had a slightly higher risk of suicidal ideation/attempts compared with mild users. This association appeared to vary by perceived economic status and family structure. Conclusions: Our study suggests that it is important to attend to adolescents who are at high risk for Internet addiction, especially when they do not have parents, have stepparents, or perceive their economic status as either very low or very high. PMID:27254417
Wartberg, Lutz; Aden, Anneke; Thomsen, Monika; Thomasius, Rainer
Einleitung: Neben einer generellen Nutzung digitaler Medien durch Kinder und Jugendliche ist in vielen Industrieländern (insbesondere in Asien, Europa und Nordamerika) ein pathologischer Gebrauch des Internets ein Phänomen von wachsender Bedeutung. Aktuellen epidemiologischen Daten zufolge sind in Deutschland Jugendliche häufiger betroffen als Erwachsene. International wurden in verschiedenen Studien Zusammenhänge von familialen Interaktionsmustern und pathologischer Internetnutzung bei Jugendlichen untersucht. Dieser Beitrag gibt eine Übersicht über die aktuell vorliegenden Forschungsbefunde. Methodik: Es erfolgte eine systematische Literaturrecherche in den Datenbanken PubMed, PsycINFO und Psyndex mit festgelegten Schlagwörtern. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden 15 Untersuchungen zu dieser Thematik identifiziert. Es wurden alle Originalarbeiten eingeschlossen, die in englischer oder deutscher Sprache verfasst und in denen ausschließlich minderjährige Untersuchungsteilnehmer befragt worden waren. Funktionalität der Familie, eine gute Kommunikation zwischen Eltern und Kind, eine positive Eltern-Kind-Beziehung sowie unterstützendes elterliches Monitoring vermindern das Risiko einer jugendlichen pathologischen Internetnutzung. Diskussion: Die beschriebenen familialen Prädiktoren wurden in mehreren Studien repliziert. Implikationen für die zukünftige Forschung zu dieser Thematik werden diskutiert.
Diener, Hans-Christoph; Holle, Dagny; Solbach, Kasja; Gaul, Charly
Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders as a headache in patients with a pre-existing primary headache disorder that occurs on ≥15 days per month for >3 months, and is caused by overuse of medication intended for acute or symptomatic headache treatment. The prevalence of MOH in the general population is around 1%, but the condition is much more common in people with headache, in particular chronic migraine. The phenotype of the headache in MOH depends on the initial primary headache and the type of overused acute medication. In this Review, we will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of MOH. Treatment of MOH is performed in three steps: educating patients about the relationship between frequent intake of acute headache medication and MOH with the aim to reduce intake of acute medication; initiation of migraine prevention (such as topiramate or onabotulinumtoxin A in migraine) in patients who fail step 1; detoxification on an outpatient basis or in a day hospital or inpatient setting, depending on severity and comorbidities. The success rate of treatment is around 50-70%, although patients whose MOH is associated with opioid overuse have higher relapse rates. In all patients with MOH, relapse rates can be reduced by patient education and care in the follow-up period.
Wu, Liyun; Delva, Jorge
We used longitudinal data to investigate the relationship between computer use in internet cafés and smoking/drinking behavior among Chinese adolescents and young adults. Data are from two waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2004 and 2006). Fixed effects models were used to examine if changes in internet café use were associated with changes in cigarette smoking and drinking of alcohol. Male café users spent on average 17.3 hours in front of the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of being a current smoker by 13.3% and with smoking 1.7 more cigarettes. Female café users spent on average 11 hours on the computer/week. This was associated with an increase in the probability of drinking wine and/or liquor by 14.74% and was not associated with smoking. Internet cafés are an important venue by which adolescent and young adults in China are exposed to smoking and drinking. Multi-component interventions are needed ranging from policies regulating cigarette and alcohol availability in these venues to anti-tobacco campaigns aimed at the general population but also at individuals who frequent these establishments.
Chan, Ko-Ling; Chow, Chun-Bong; Lam, Tai-Hing; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Wong, Margaret Fung-Yee
Background Underage drinking is a prevalent risk behavior and common public health problem. Research shows that alcohol abuse not only affects the quality of life of drinkers themselves. The problems resulting from underage drinking pose substantial costs to society as well. The proposed study will address underage drinking with the use of an Internet campaign, which is a cost-effective way of tackling the problem. Objective The aims of this study are to test the effectiveness of an online quiz competition in changing adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behavior and to explore the feasibility of using Internet viral marketing to reach a significant number of adolescents. Methods The study will constitute a cluster randomized controlled trial for 20 secondary schools (6720 Grade 7-9 students). Schools will be randomized to intervention or control arm with equal likelihood. Students in intervention schools will be invited to take part in the Internet campaign, whereas those in control schools will receive relevant promotional leaflets. Results Alcohol-related attitude and behavior will be the primary outcome measures. The results of the proposed study will provide evidence on the efficacy of an Internet intervention in modifying adolescents’ attitudes and behavior and guide further investigation into the prevention of and intervention in such risk behaviors as underage drinking. The project was funded July 2015, enrollment started September 2015, and results are expected July 2017. Conclusions With the Internet increasingly being recognized as a practical and cost-effective platform for health information delivery, the proposed Internet-based intervention is expected to be more effective in altering adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors than traditional health promotion. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02450344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02450344 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6heB2zMBD) PMID:27252072
Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson
This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and less conscientiousness (β=0.12, p<0.001) displayed significant associations with internet addiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, p<0.01) and low openness (β=0.06, p<0.05) were significantly associated with gaming addiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and extraversion (β=0.10, p<0.01) were significantly associated with social networking addiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs.
Tseng, Fang-Yi; Yang, Hao-Jan
The relationships of Internet use, web communication, and sources of social support with adolescent self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) in Taiwan were investigated. The study sample of 391 12 to 18-year-olds was selected from nine public high schools. Findings show that girls are more likely to have SITBs, except for suicide gestures. Web communication is a risk factor for SITBs in boys but not in girls. Family support is protective in both genders. Support from friends is protective and support from significant others was a risk factor for suicide plans in girls. Support from virtual social communities can have both positive and negative effects on adolescent SITBs, with different effects by gender.
Wilder, Robert P; Sethi, Shikha
Approximately 50% of all sports injuries are secondary to overuse and result from repetitive microtrauma that causes local tissue damage. Injuries are most likely with changes in mode, intensity, or duration of training and can accumulate before symptoms appear. Intrinsic factors contributing to injuries are individual bio-mechanical abnormalities such as malalignments, muscle imbalance, inflexibility, weakness, and instability. Contributing extrinsic (avoidable) factors include poor technique, improper equipment, and improper changes in duration or frequency of activity. Injuries are often related to biomechanical abnormalities removed from the specific injury site, requiring evaluation of the entire kinetic chain. This article discusses common overuse injuries of the lower leg, ankle, and foot: tendinopathies, stress fractures, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and shin splints.
Parks, Eric D.; Ray, Tracy R.
With millions of athletes participating in baseball in the United States annually, overuse injuries are common occurrences. Epidemiological studies, including surveys of orthopaedic surgeons, coaches, and athletes, indicate that injuries such as those to the ulnar collateral ligament are increasing in incidence. Many risk factors for throwing injuries have been proposed—including the immature skeleton, throwing mechanics, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit, pitch type, velocity, and counts—but little evidence is available to support the majority of these factors. Recent studies have shown that pitch volume and overuse are central factors that lead to shoulder and elbow injuries in the young throwing athlete. Pitching while fatigued and in spite of arm pain has also been implicated. PMID:23015915
Randomized controlled trial of primary care physician motivational interviewing versus brief advice to engage adolescents with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention: 6-month outcomes and predictors of improvement.
Hoek, Willemijn; Marko, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Schuurmans, Josien; Gladstone, Tracy; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Bell, Carl; Reinecke, Mark A; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W
We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We conducted a randomized comparison of two approaches in engaging adolescents with the Internet intervention: primary care physician (PCP) motivational interview + CATCH-IT Internet program (MI) vs PCP brief advice + CATCH-IT Internet program (BA). The participants (N = 84) were recruited by screening for risk of depression in 13 primary care practices. We compared depressive disorder outcomes between groups and within groups over 6 months and examined the potential predictors and moderators of outcomes across both study arms. Depressive symptom scores declined from baseline to 6 weeks with these statistically significant reductions sustained at the 6 months follow-up in both groups. No significant interactions with treatment condition were found. However, by 6 months, the MI group demonstrated significantly fewer depressive episodes and reported less hopelessness as compared with the BA group. Hierarchical linear modeling regressions showed higher ratings of ease of use of the Internet program predicting lower depressive symptom levels over 6 months. In conclusion, a primary care/Internet-based intervention model among adolescents demonstrated reductions in depressed mood over 6 months and may result in fewer depressive episodes.
Fry, H J
Overuse (injury) syndrome, common in musicians, is characterised by persisting pain and tenderness in the muscles and joint ligaments of the upper limb due to excessive use and in more advanced instances by weakness and loss of response and control in the affected muscle groups. This occurs typically in tertiary music students when their practice load is raised. In seven Australian performing music schools the minimum prevalence of the condition was found to be 9.3%. In two music schools where the study was more controlled the incidences were 13% and 21%. The factors leading to overuse (injury) syndrome may be identified as follows: the genetic factor of vulnerability which cannot be altered; the student's technique which may be influenced by teaching and application so that it is more "energy efficient"; and the time X intensity of practice which is totally within the student's control. Prevention involves education of staff and students about the overuse process, rationalisation of practice habits and repertoire, abolition or reduction of static loading of the weight of the instruments, and earlier reporting when the problem is most easily corrected. Psychological problems arising in this syndrome appeared to occur as a reaction to the condition rather than as a causal factor. PMID:3814532
Guided internet-administered self-help to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer during adolescence (U-CARE: YoungCan): a study protocol for a feasibility trial
Ander, Malin; Wikman, Anna; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Grönqvist, Helena; Ljungman, Gustaf; Woodford, Joanne; Lindahl Norberg, Annika; von Essen, Louise
Introduction A subgroup of adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer during adolescence reports elevated levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and unmet needs for psychological support. Evidence-based psychological treatments tailored for this population are lacking. This protocol describes a feasibility study of a guided-internet-administered self-help programme (YoungCan) primarily targeting symptoms of anxiety and depression among young persons diagnosed with cancer during adolescence and of the planned study procedures for a future controlled trial. Methods/analysis The study is an uncontrolled feasibility trial with a pre-post and 3-month follow-up design. Potential participants aged 15–25 years, diagnosed with cancer during adolescence, will be identified via the Swedish Childhood Cancer Registry. 30 participants will be included. Participants will receive YoungCan, a 12-week therapist-guided, internet-administered self-help programme consisting primarily of cognitive–behavioural therapy organised into individually assigned modules targeting depressive symptoms, worry and anxiety, body dissatisfaction and post-traumatic stress. Interactive peer support and psychoeducative functions are also available. Feasibility outcomes include: recruitment and eligibility criteria; data collection; attrition; resources needed to complete the study and programme; safety procedures; participants' and therapists' adherence to the programme; and participants' acceptability of the programme and study methodology. Additionally, mechanisms of impact will be explored and data regarding symptoms of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, body dissatisfaction, reactions to social interactions, quality of life, axis I diagnoses according to the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and healthcare service use will be collected. Exploratory analyses of changes in targeted outcomes will be conducted. Ethics/dissemination This feasibility protocol was
Tucker, Jennica J; Riggin, Corinne N; Connizzo, Brianne K; Mauck, Robert L; Steinberg, David R; Kuntz, Andrew F; Soslowsky, Louis J; Bernstein, Joseph
Supraspinatus tears often result in the setting of chronic tendinopathy. However, the typical repair model utilizes an acute injury. In recognition of that distinction, our laboratory developed an overuse animal model; however it is unclear whether induced overuse is necessary in the repair model. We studied the repair properties of overuse-induced tendons compared to normal tendons. We hypothesized that histological and mechanical properties would not be altered between the overuse-induced and normal tendons 1 and 4 weeks after repair. Thirty-one adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either overuse or cage activity for 4 weeks prior to bilateral supraspinatus tendon repair surgery. Rats were sacrificed at 1 and 4 weeks post-surgery and evaluated for histology and mechanics. Results at 1 week showed no clear histologic changes, but increased inflammatory protein expression in overuse tendons. At 4 weeks, percent relaxation was slightly increased in the overuse group. No other alterations in mechanics or histology were observed. Our results suggest that the effects of the surgical injury overshadow the changes evoked by overuse. Because clinically relevant mechanical parameters were not altered in the overuse group, we conclude that when examining tendons 4 weeks after repair in the classic rat supraspinatus model, inducing overuse prior to surgery is likely to be unnecessary.
Park, Jeong Ha; Hong, Ji Sun; Han, Doug Hyun; Min, Kyoung Joon; Lee, Young Sik; Kee, Baik Seok; Kim, Sun Mi
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is often comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we compared the neurobiological differences between ADHD comorbid with IGD (ADHD+IGD group) and ADHD without comorbidity (ADHD-only group) by analyzing quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) findings. We recruited 16 male ADHD+IGD, 15 male ADHD-only adolescent patients, and 15 male healthy controls (HC group). Participants were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale and ADHD Rating Scale. Relative power and inter- and intra-hemispheric coherences of brain waves were measured using a digital electroencephalography (EEG) system. Compared to the ADHD-only group, the ADHD+IGD group showed lower relative delta power and greater relative beta power in temporal regions. The relative theta power in frontal regions were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Inter-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between F3-F4 and C3-C4 electrodes were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Intra-hemispheric coherence values for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands between P4-O2 electrodes and intra-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between Fz-Cz and T4-T6 electrodes were higher in ADHD+IGD group compared to ADHD-only group. Adolescents who show greater vulnerability to ADHD seem to continuously play Internet games to unconsciously enhance attentional ability. In turn, relative beta power in attention deficit in ADHD+IGD group may become similar to that in HC group. Repetitive activation of brain reward and working memory systems during continuous gaming may result in an increase in neuronal connectivity within the parieto-occipital and temporal regions for the ADHD+IGD group.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is often comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we compared the neurobiological differences between ADHD comorbid with IGD (ADHD+IGD group) and ADHD without comorbidity (ADHD-only group) by analyzing quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) findings. We recruited 16 male ADHD+IGD, 15 male ADHD-only adolescent patients, and 15 male healthy controls (HC group). Participants were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale and ADHD Rating Scale. Relative power and inter- and intra-hemispheric coherences of brain waves were measured using a digital electroencephalography (EEG) system. Compared to the ADHD-only group, the ADHD+IGD group showed lower relative delta power and greater relative beta power in temporal regions. The relative theta power in frontal regions were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Inter-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between F3–F4 and C3–C4 electrodes were higher in ADHD-only group compared to HC group. Intra-hemispheric coherence values for the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands between P4–O2 electrodes and intra-hemispheric coherence values for the theta band between Fz–Cz and T4–T6 electrodes were higher in ADHD+IGD group compared to ADHD-only group. Adolescents who show greater vulnerability to ADHD seem to continuously play Internet games to unconsciously enhance attentional ability. In turn, relative beta power in attention deficit in ADHD+IGD group may become similar to that in HC group. Repetitive activation of brain reward and working memory systems during continuous gaming may result in an increase in neuronal connectivity within the parieto-occipital and temporal regions for the ADHD+IGD group. PMID:28145657
van den Bosch, Matilda; Chen, Yun; Friberg, Peter; Osika, Walter
Background Frequencies in reported psychosomatic illnesses have increased in Sweden among children, adolescents, and young adults. Little is known about demographic differences in self-reported psychosomatic complaints, such as between urban and rural areas, and whether surveys launched on the Internet could be a useful method in sampling such data. Objectives This study examines the connection between psychosomatic illnesses and demographics in Swedish children and youth. The feasibility of using the Internet to gather large amounts of data regarding psychosomatic complaints in this group is another major objective of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study using 7 validated questions about psychosomatic health, were launched in a controlled way onto a recognized Swedish Internet community site, which targeted users 10 to 24 years of age. The subjects were able to answer the items while they were logged in to their personal domain. The results were analyzed cross-geographically within Sweden. Results In total, we received 100,000 to 130,000 individual answers per question. Subjects of both sexes generally reported significantly higher levels of self-reported psychosomatic complaints in major city areas as compared with minor city/rural areas, even though the differences between the areas were small. For example, 12.00% (4472/37,265) of females in minor regions reported always feeling tense, compared with 13.80% (3156/22,873) of females in major regions (P<.001). In males, the answer pattern was similar, 16.40% (4887/29,801) in major regions versus 15.60% (2712/17,386) in minor regions, (P=.006). Females reported significantly higher frequencies of psychosomatic complaints than males (P<.001). Conclusions In subjects aged 10 to 24 years, higher levels of psychosomatic complaints appear to correlate with living in major city areas in comparison with minor city/rural areas. Surveys launched on the Internet could be a useful method in sampling data regarding
ALTINTAŞ, Ebru; KARAKURUM GÖKSEL, Başak; SARITÜRK, Çağla; TAŞKINTUNA, Nilgün
Introduction We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and relationship between childhood maltreatment (CMT) among patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) and to investigate whether CMT is associated with medication overuse in patients having headaches or with headaches that become chronic. Epidemiological studies report a relationship between childhood abuse and headache. There is growing knowledge about the evidence that childhood maltreatment leads to neurobiological sequel. Medication overuse is the most important problem for migraine to become chronic. But in the literature, there was no information about the role of childhood abuse in MOH and for migraine to become chronic. Methods A total of 116 patients with headache, aged from 15 to 65 years, were included in the study. Patients having chronic migraine (CM), MOH and episodic migraine (EM) were selected out of patients presented to the headache outpatient clinic. Types of headache were determined according to the revised International Headache Society (IHS) criteria published in 2004. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory were performed. Presence of psychiatric co-morbidities was evaluated by a clinician using Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Fourth Edition. Results A total of 116 patients with headache were included in the study. Of patients, 64 had MOH, 25 had CM and 27 had EM. The prevalence of CMT, particularly emotional neglect (62%), physical neglect (44%) and emotional abuse (36.2%), was determined higher in all headache groups. There was no statistically significant difference in prevalence of childhood maltreatment between MOH, CM and EM groups. No statistically significant difference was detected between educational status, psychiatric co-morbidities and childhood trauma, except for physical neglect. Conclusion Childhood maltreatment was observed in MOH as in other forms of migraine and
Hawkins, B J; Covey, D C; Thiel, B G
Osteolysis of the distal clavicle has been reported to occur from traumatic, atraumatic (overuse), or systemic causes. Three patients with bilateral osteolysis of the distal clavicles whose osteolysis did not fit these etiologic categories were evaluated. Clinical, imaging, and laboratory evaluations were nonspecific, and histologic sections of the distal clavicle showed evidence of chronic inflammation with reactive change of the articular surface. Patients either had complete resolution or marked improvement of their symptoms after bilateral distal clavicle resection at mean followup of 5 years 3 months. These cases of osteolysis of the distal clavicle represent a category of this disorder not previously described.
Siewe, J; Marx, G; Knöll, P; Eysel, P; Zarghooni, K; Graf, M; Herren, C; Sobottke, R; Michael, J
Competitive bodybuilding is a weightlifting sport similar to powerlifting, strongman competition and Olympic weightlifting, which aims to increase muscle mass, symmetry, and body definition. Although data regarding rates of injury, overuse syndromes and pain during routine training is available for these other disciplines, it is rare for competitive bodybuilding. The aim of this study was to investigate rates of injury, pain during workouts and/or overuse syndromes, as well as the influence of particular intrinsic and external factors. Data was collected using questionnaires from 71 competitive and elite bodybuilders. The information included training routines and prior injuries. Participants were recruited from bodybuilding clubs in Germany. 45.1% of athletes reported symptoms while training. The overall injury rate was computed to be 0.12 injuries per bodybuilder per year (0.24 injuries per 1 000 h of bodybuilding). Athletes over 40 exhibited higher rates of injury (p=0.029). Other investigated parameters showed no effects. Most injuries occurred in the shoulder, elbow, lumbar spine and knee regions. A large proportion of bodybuilders complained of pain not resulting in interruptions of training/competition. The injury rate is low compared to other weightlifting disciplines such as powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting or strongman competition. In comparison to team or contact sports the injury rate is minimal.
Kromer, P; Röcker, K; Sommer, A; Baur, H; Konstantinidis, L; Gollhofer, A; Südkamp, N P; Hirschmüller, A
Although paracycling is a growing discipline in high level competitive sports as well as in posttraumatic rehabilitation, epidemiological data of resulting injuries is still missing. Therefore, 19 athletes of the German national paracycling team were asked about their injuries during the 2008 season using a standardized questionnaire. Overall, 18 (94.7 %) of 19 athletes reported overuse injuries; most commonly localized at the back (83.3 %), neck/shoulder (77.8 %), knee (50 %), groin/buttock (50 %) and hands/wrists (38.9 %). Altogether, 18 accidents were registered, corresponding to an injury rate of 0,95 acute injuries per athlete per year (0,07 / 1000 km). The most common acute injuries were abrasions (69.2 %) and contusions (61.5 %), whereas fractures were stated only twice (11.8 %). The anatomical distribution of overuse injuries in disabled cyclists confirms the results of studies in able-bodied cycling, although the incidences in low-back pain and neck/shoulder pain is clearly higher in disabled cycling, as well as the rate of traumatic injuries.
Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Zhou, Chuan; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Logan, Deirdre; Tai, Gabrielle
Although pain and function improve at immediate posttreatment for youth receiving cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic pain, limited data are available to understand changes that youth make during psychological treatment. We sought to characterize distinct trajectory patterns of change in pain and function to understand the temporal association of these changes during internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Weekly repeated assessments of pain and function were conducted during 8 weeks of treatment among 135 adolescents, aged 11 to 17 years, with chronic pain who were randomized to the cognitive behavioral intervention arm of an ongoing trial of internet-delivered CBT (Web-based management of adolescent pain; Web-MAP2). Using random-effects growth mixture models, we characterized pain and functional disability trajectories finding distinct trajectory groups indicating patterns of both linear and quadratic effects. Trajectories of change showed that some patients' pain and functional disability were improving, others worsened or changed minimally. Paired t tests compared the within-subject relative change rate in pain and function demonstrating similar change range for pain and function during the treatment period. There was no support for improvements in either pain or function to precede changes in the other domain. Findings may be useful in informing future studies of psychosocial treatments for pediatric chronic pain to consider how to target treatment strategies to distinct patient response profiles. This may lead to the development of intervention strategies that can both more effectively target children's pain and function during treatment and lead to sustained changes after treatment.
Conti, Rena; Busch, Alisa B.; Cutler, David M.
Objective Concerns have been raised that antidepressants may be overused. This study aimed to provide an estimate of antidepressant overuse in a more recent, nationally representative sample of adults and with a more contemporary set of antidepressants than has been covered in prior studies. Methods The data set included adult (weighted N=23,026,608) respondents who self-reported antidepressant treatment in the household and prescription drug components of the 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Overuse was defined as off-label antide-pressant prescribing with limited or no scientific support for use as a treatment for the diagnosis, according to the Physicians’ Desk Reference, the United States Pharmacopeia–National Formulary, and the Micromedex DrugDx data system. Stratification and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine clinical and socioeconomic predictors of overuse. Results Overuse was estimated at 20%, with the majority concentrated in newer-generation antidepressants (74% of overuse). Another 30%–40% of overuse was associated with documented diagnoses that may represent a reasonable clinical rationale for antidepressant use or suggest underdiagnosis of possible depressive and anxiety syndromes. Older age (odds ratio [OR]=.95, p=.03) and self-report of poor mental health (OR=.80, p=.02) were negatively associated with overuse. Conclusions Antidepressant overuse among adults is less common than previously reported. Our results suggest that the actual extent of overuse may be lower than 20%. To improve treatment quality and the efficiency of the U.S. health care system, nationally representative data collection efforts on prescription drug use should aim to include enhanced measures of need in order to further refine future estimates of antidepressant overuse. PMID:21724783
Zhu, Yunqi; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei
Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA), which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRI studies demonstrate that structural changes in frontal cortex are associated with functional abnormalities in Internet addicted subjects. Nuclear imaging findings indicate that IA is associated with dysfunction of the brain dopaminergic systems. Abnormal dopamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could underlie the enhanced motivational value and uncontrolled behavior over Internet overuse in addicted subjects. Further investigations are needed to determine specific changes in the Internet addictive brain, as well as their implications for behavior and cognition.
Messina, Emily S; Iwasaki, Yoshitaka
The ease and accessibility of the Internet has created an environment where individuals can both remain anonymous and interact with others who share their interests. Electronic discussion boards and social-networking sites allow individuals to communicate with others, via public postings, regarding specific topics of interest. These interactions have taken a therapeutic form for adolescents and young adults seeking practical and emotional support on the Internet. Support sites exist for many issues and illnesses, but sites focusing on self-injurious behaviors (SIB) have garnered recent attention because of their potential to either aid in recovery or exacerbate symptoms. SIB are those behaviors in which an individual purposely inflicts harm to his or her body. Based on an interdisciplinary literature review, self-injurious Web sites have been shown to provide anonymous support for individuals experiencing SIB from others who have experienced similar emotions. However, the literature also reveals that some peers who are providing the support are accepting of SIB and guilty of glossing over potentially serious posts. The emotional support received on these sites differs from services those individuals would receive from professionals, such as coping strategies to deal with stressors and a more detailed examination of ominous signs. The use of these Web sites as a help or a hindrance to an individual's recovery from SIB remains highly contested; health professionals should be aware of the pros and cons associated with this phenomenon and should be able to identify safe means of communication for clients suffering from SIB.
Lake, Spencer P.; Archambault, Joanne M.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Rest is a common treatment for overuse injuries, but its effectiveness on gene expression has not been systematically evaluated under controlled experimental conditions. We asked whether genes regulated in the supraspinatus tendon as a result of overuse would return to normal levels after 2 or 4 weeks of rest. We used a rat model of tendon overuse that generates reproducible changes in the histology, geometry, gene expression, and mechanical properties consistent with an overuse injury. Animals were subjected to the overuse protocol for 2 or 4 weeks followed by either 2 or 4 weeks of rest. Microarray analysis was used to measure global changes in gene expression after the overuse plus rest protocol. Genes upregulated as a result of the overuse returned to near normal levels after rest in most animals. The biochemical composition of the tendon was similar to normal after the imposed rest period, except for slightly lower collagen content. These results suggest as little as 2 weeks of rest is often sufficient to recover from the molecular and biochemical effects of 2 and 4 weeks of overuse in this rat model. PMID:18459028
Kox, Laura S; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Opperman, Jip; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Maas, Mario; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
This study's objective was to collect items from experienced sports physicians, relating to the presence and severity of overuse wrist injuries in young athletes, for developing a measurement instrument for signals of overuse wrist injury. Seven Dutch elite sports physicians involved in guidance and treatment of young athletes in wrist-loading sports (gymnastics, tennis, judo, field hockey, volleyball and rowing) participated in a focus group. They discussed signals and limitations related to overuse wrist injuries in young athletes. Data were coded and categorised into signals and limitations with subcategories, using an inductive approach. Of the resulting 61 signals and limitations in nineteen (sub)categories, 20 were considered important, forming a comprehensive item set for identifying overuse wrist injury in young athletes. Signals such as pain, "click", crepitations, swelling and limited range of motion were marked useful for early identification of overuse wrist injury. Limitations in movement and performance were considered indicative of severe overuse injury but less relevant for initial injury identification. The focus group provided 17 important signals and 3 important limitations indicative of overuse wrist injury. These provide the basis for a valid measurement instrument for identifying overuse wrist injury in young athletes, with equal emphasis on pain and on other symptoms.
Jenkins, Walter L; Raedeke, Susanne G
One hundred thirty-two female basketball players were observed for lower-extremity overuse injury between 1993 and 2004. Athletes studied between 1993 and 1996 did not receive foot orthotic devices and composed the control group. The treatment group comprised athletes studied between 1996 and 2004. Athletes in the treatment group were given a foot orthotic device before participation in basketball. Data analysis included lower-extremity overuse injury rates and the effect of foot orthotic devices on lower-extremity overuse injury rates by means of an incidence density ratio. The control group had a lower-extremity overuse injury rate of 5.37 per 1,000 exposures, and the treatment group had a rate of 6.44 per 1,000 exposures. The incidence density ratio was not significant (P = .44). This study rejects the concept that foot orthotic devices may assist in prevention of lower-extremity overuse injury in female basketball players.
Young, Kimberly S.
Until recently, little attention has been given to the addictive potential of the Internet. If left unchecked or unnoticed, this addiction can silently run rampant in schools, universities, offices, libraries, and homes. This book teaches how to guard against Internet overuse. It describes how, by drawing from the same criteria used to diagnosis…
Clendenin, Brianna Rebecca; Conlon, Helen Acree; Burns, Candace
Overuse of health care in the United States is a growing concern. This article addresses the use of diagnostic imaging for work-related injuries. Diagnostic imaging drives substantial cost for increases in workers' compensation. Despite guidelines published by the American College of Radiology and the American College of Occupational Medicine and the Official Disability Guidelines, practitioners are prematurely ordering imaging sooner than recommended. Workers are exposed to unnecessary radiation and are incurring increasing costs without evidence of better outcomes. Practitioners caring for workers and submitting workers' compensation claims should adhere to official guidelines, using their professional judgment to consider financial impact and health outcomes of diagnostic imaging including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine imaging, radiography, and ultrasound.
Prabhakaran, Ramanandan; Chithambaram, Shivapriya; Xia, Xuhua
The GC-rich bacterial species, Aeromonas salmonicida, is parasitised by both GC-rich phages (Aeromonas phages - phiAS7 and vB_AsaM-56) and GC-poor phages (Aeromonas phages - 25, 31, 44RR2.8t, 65, Aes508, phiAS4 and phiAS5). Both the GC-rich Aeromonas phage phiAS7 and Aeromonas phage vB_AsaM-56 have nearly identical codon usage bias as their host. While all the remaining seven GC-poor Aeromonas phages differ dramatically in codon usage from their GC-rich host. Here, we investigated whether tRNA encoded in the genome of Aeromonas phages facilitate the translation of phage proteins. We found that tRNAs encoded in the phage genome correspond to synonymous codons overused in the phage genes but not in the host genes.
Starcevic, Vladan; Aboujaoude, Elias
This article re-examines the popular concept of Internet addiction, discusses the key problems associated with it, and proposes possible alternatives. The concept of Internet addiction is inadequate for several reasons. Addiction may be a correct designation only for the minority of individuals who meet the general criteria for addiction, and it needs to be better demarcated from various patterns of excessive or abnormal use. Addiction to the Internet as a medium does not exist, although the Internet as a medium may play an important role in making some behaviors addictive. The Internet can no longer be separated from other potentially overused media, such as text messaging and gaming platforms. Internet addiction is conceptually too heterogeneous because it pertains to a variety of very different behaviors. Internet addiction should be replaced by terms that refer to the specific behaviors (eg, gaming, gambling, or sexual activity), regardless of whether these are performed online or offline.
The Effects of Musical Elements in Mass Media and Internet on the Social Development of Children and Adolescents (Kitle Iletisim Araçlarindaki ve Internetteki Müziksel Unsurlarin Çocuklarin ve Adolesanlarin Sosyal Gelisimleri Üzerindeki Etkileri)
In this qualitative study, musical elements in mass media and internet mostly intended to children and adolescents, were examined in the context of the dimensions of the social development of them in a general approach, through scientific literature and written, audio, visual and audio-visual documents regarding mass media and internet. Purpose of…
Pilot Study of Implementation of an Internet-Based Depression Prevention Intervention (CATCH-IT) for Adolescents in 12 US Primary Care Practices: Clinical and Management/Organizational Behavioral Perspectives
Eisen, Jeffrey C.; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Cardenas, Alonso; Bahn, My; Bradford, Nathan; Fagan, Blake; Wiedmann, Peggy
Objective: To explore the implementation of CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive-behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training), an Internet-based depression intervention program in 12 primary care sites, occurring as part of a randomized clinical trial comparing 2 versions of the intervention (motivational interview + Internet program versus brief advice + Internet program) in 83 adolescents aged 14 to 21 years recruited from February 1, 2007, to November 31, 2007. Method: The CATCH-IT intervention model consists of primary care screening to assess risk, a primary care physician interview to encourage participation, and 14 online modules of Internet training to teach adolescents how to reduce behaviors that increase vulnerability to depressive disorders. Specifically, we evaluated this program from both a management/organizational behavioral perspective (provider attitudes and demonstrated competence) and a clinical outcomes perspective (depressed mood scores) using the RE-AIM model (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance of the intervention). Results: While results varied by clinic, overall, clinics demonstrated satisfactory reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of the CATCH-IT depression prevention program. Measures of program implementation and management predicted clinical outcomes at practices in exploratory analyses. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary approaches may be essential to evaluating the impact of complex interventions to prevent depression in community settings. Primary care physicians and nurses can use Internet-based programs to create a feasible and cost-effective model for the prevention of mental disorders in adolescents in primary care settings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00152529 and NCT00145912 PMID:24800110
Bales, James; Bales, Karrn
The sport of triathlon offers athletes the chance to build and/or maintain cardiovascular fitness across 3 endurance disciplines. Swimming, biking, and running each have a host of overuse injuries that can occur as a result of overtraining. High running mileage, a history of previous injury, inadequate warm up or cool down, and an increase in the years of triathlon experience are a few of the factors that have been linked to triathlon overuse injuries. Early identification of overtraining symptoms and a corresponding reallocation of balance between each discipline, perhaps with an emphasis on increasing swimming, may help prevent many overuse injuries.
Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren
In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families.
... in US overuse quick-relief inhalers, underuse control medications Published Online: December 13, 2013 Asthma exacerbations and ... by frequency of symptoms, need for quick-relief medications, and number of exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids (among ...
Van Tiggelen, Damien; Wickes, Simon; Coorevits, Pascal; Dumalin, Mich; Witvrouw, Erik
The incidence of foot blisters and other overuse injuries of the lower limb is very high during basic military training (BMT). One hundred and eighty-nine subjects were divided into two intervention groups wearing alternative sock systems and one control group. Overall, 57% of the 173 recruits who completed the training, developed foot blisters. Binary logistic regression revealed the type of sock, race, previous hiking or military experience, and known orthopedic foot conditions to be predictive variables for foot blisters. Fifty-three percent of the 173 recruits also developed another overuse injury of the lower limb (25.4% related to the knee joint). Previous military or hiking experience and the association of foot blisters revealed to be predictive for the overuse injuries of the knee joint. The results of the present study suggest associated foot blisters are also an important factor in the development of overuse injuries of the knee joint during BMT.
de Jong, Annemieke Bonny; Preuper, Henrica R Schiphorst; Reneman, Michiel F
To explore clinicians' and patients' (self)-assessment of activity overuse and underuse, and its relationship with physical capacity in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Study design was cross-sectional. Participants included patients with CMP, admitted to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain rehabilitation program. The main measures used were as follows: a five-point scale to rate overuse and underuse, filled out by clinicians and patients; a five-point scale to rate physical capacity, filled out by clinicians and patients; and lifting and aerobic capacity. Cohen's κ were calculated to test the agreement between assessments. Depending on the normality, a t-test or a Mann-Whitney U-test was used to test differences between the results of a capacity test and patients' and clinicians' assessments of capacity. A total of 141 patients were included: 42% were men, and 60% had back pain, 21% had neck pain, 19% had pain in a different location. Six percent of the patients rated themselves as underusers; clinicians rated 23% of the patients as underusers. Clinicians and patients fairly agreed (61%; κ=0.23) in their assessments of overuse and underuse. Differences in the physical capacity of overuse and underusers, as assessed by clinicians and patients, were all nonsignificant (P>0.05). The physical capacity of overusers did not differ from that of underusers (P<0.05). In conclusion, although clinicians and patients with CMP fairly agree on their assessment of activity overuse and underuse, the physical capacity of overusers was not different from that of underusers.
Campanelli, Valentina; Piscitelli, Francesco; Verardi, Luciano; Maillard, Pauline; Sbarbati, Andrea
Background Most ice figure skaters train and compete with ongoing issues in the lower extremities, which are often overlooked by the skaters and considered injuries only when they prevent the athletes from skating. Although not severe, these conditions impair the quality of daily training and compromise the skaters’ state of mind and performances. Purpose (1) To determine the point prevalence of the ongoing lower extremity overuse conditions in a population of ice figure skaters of all ages and levels and (2) to identify the risk factors contributing to the development of the most common ongoing conditions. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods A total of 95 skaters of all ages and skating levels were evaluated in a single examination in the middle of the competitive season. Data collection consisted of a questionnaire, clinical examination, and measurement of the skaters’ characteristics and the equipment used. Results Retrocalcaneal bursitis was the most common problem, affecting at least 1 foot in 34% of the skaters evaluated, followed by posterior heel skin calluses and superficial calcaneal bursitis, which affected 29% and 28% of skaters, respectively. The prevalence of the majority of these conditions was 10% to 32% higher in elite skaters than in nonelite skaters. Higher boot–foot length difference was associated with greater risk of superficial calcaneal bursitis in the landing foot of elite skaters, while higher body weight and greater in-skate ankle flexibility were associated with the development of retrocalcaneal bursitis in nonelite skaters. Only 30 skaters (32%) wore the appropriate boot size, while 57 skaters (51%) could not dorsiflex their ankles properly while wearing skates. Conclusion The heel represents a major area of concern for the high prevalence of calcaneal bursitis and calluses in proximity of the Achilles tendon, suggesting that improvements on the boot heel cup design should take priority. The
Ekman, E; Frohm, A; Ek, P; Hagberg, J; Wirén, C; Heijne, A
The main aim of this study was to translate the Oslo Sport Trauma Research Center (OSTRC) Overuse Injury Questionnaire into Swedish. The validity and applicability of the questionnaire for studying overuse injuries among Swedish handball, volleyball, tennis, and orienteering top athletes were also examined. The back-translation method was used for translation. An expert committee further developed it for use in a study of injuries in handball, orienteering, tennis, and volleyball. A 10-week pretest was then conducted on 43 athletes, average age 21 (18-31) from these sports, during which time the athletes completed the modified OSTRC questionnaire on a weekly basis. In the 10th week, four additional questions were added in order to examine the questionnaire's content validity. No major disagreement was found in the translation. The athletes perceived the web-based questionnaire to be smooth and easy to complete, accurately capturing overuse injuries. However, suggestions were made to add questions relating to the hip for orienteerers and to the hand/fingers for handball players. The average prevalence of overuse injuries for all athletes, in any anatomical area was 22% (95% confidence interval 20-25). Construct validity appeared to be high, and we therefore suggest that the questionnaire may be used when studying overuse injuries in different sports.
Seminati, Elena; Minetti, Alberto Enrico
Overuse injuries are predominant in sports involving the repetition of similar movements patterns, such as in volleyball or beach volleyball, and they may represent as much a problem as do acute injuries. This review discusses the prevalence of two of the most common overuse-related injuries in volleyball: shoulder and back/spine injuries. Risk factors and the aetiology of these injuries are illustrated in order to make possible to initiate preventive programme or post-injuries solutions. Data collected from literature showed a moderately higher injury rate for overuse shoulder injuries compared to the back/spine (19.0 ± 11.2% and 16.8 ± 9.7%, respectively). These data could be underestimated, and future epidemiological studies should consider overuse injuries separately from the others, with new methodological approaches. In addition to age, biomechanical and anatomical features of a volleyball technique utilised in game and the amount of hours played are considered as the main risk factors for overuse upper limb injuries, both for professional and recreational athletes. Together with post-injuries solutions, great importance has to be placed on preventive programmes, such as preventive rehabilitation, stretching, adequate warm up, strength-power exercises, etc. Furthermore, it is particularly suggested that coaches and players work together in order to develop new game/training techniques that minimise stresses and range of motion of the principal anatomical structures involved, while maintaining athletes performance.
This paper presents empirical qualitative results of Internet heavy-use and addiction among some college students in Taiwan. It offers in-depth, online interviews of student-subjects in order to facilitate an interdisciplinary understanding of Internet heavy use, addiction and its potential impacts. A total of 83 subjects were interviewed, both as individuals and in chat-room groups. The analysis of qualitative data presented in six major themes: (1) Internet use and reasons; (2) Internet features; (3) the Internet as replacement for other media; (4) impact of Internet overuse; (5) controlling Internet use; and (6) coping with Internet withdrawal. Discussions, explanations, along with examples and quotes from subjects, are provided in each section. Implications for student affairs administrators and further research directions are also addressed.
Campbell, Andrew J; Cumming, Steven R; Hughes, Ian
The Internet has often been argued to have adverse psychological consequences, such as depression or anxiety symptoms, among "over-users." The present study offers an alternative understanding, suggesting the Internet may be used as a forum for expanding social networks and consequently enhancing the chance of meaningful relationships, self-confidence, social abilities, and social support. An online sample of 188 people was recruited over the Internet, while paper and pencil tests were administered to an offline sample group of 27 undergraduate university students, who were regular Internet users. Subjects completed the Zung Depression Scale (ZDS), Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire?Revised Short Scale (EPQ-R Short), Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) scale, Internet Use Questionnaire (IUQ), and an Internet Effects Questionnaire (IEQ). Results suggested that there was no relationship between time spent online and depression, anxiety, or social fearfulness. Those who primarily used the Internet for online chat believed that the Internet is psychologically beneficial to them, but also believed that frequent Internet users are lonely and that the Internet can be addictive. It is argued that "chat" users who are socially fearful may be using the Internet as a form of low-risk social approach and an opportunity to rehearse social behavior and communication skills, which, may help them improve interaction with offline, face-to-face, social environments.
Loaiza-Bonilla, Arturo; Sullivan, Tollin; Harris, Ryan Kendall
Introduction. Acute adrenal crisis in relation to nasal steroid overuse has been reported very scantly in English medical literature and remains an underdiagnosed condition. Case presentation. A 55 year-old male presented with altered mental status, retrograde amnesia, fluid refractory hypotension, abdominal pain, fever, and chest pain. Physical examination revealed amnesia, bradypsychia, tachycardia, decreased muscle tone and hyporeflexia. Overuse of nasal steroid was suspected by history. Random early morning cortisol level was < 0.2 mcg/dL. The patient was started on hydrocortisone and within 24 hours he had a full recovery. Conclusion. This one-of-a-kind case describes acute adrenal crisis secondary to withdrawal from inhaled nasal corticosteroids overuse in a patient with particular risk factors. Prevention and early recognition of this disorder can significantly reduce its morbidity and mortality.
Background Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among US youth; risks to internet use include cyberbullying, privacy violations and unwanted solicitation. Internet safety education may prevent these negative consequences; however, it is unclear at what age this education should begin and what group is responsible for teaching this topic. Methods Surveys were distributed to key stakeholders in youth safety education including public school teachers, clinicians, parents and adolescents. Surveys assessed age at which internet safety education should begin, as well as experiences teaching and learning internet safety. Surveys of adults assessed willingness to teach internet safety. Finally, participants were asked to identify a group whose primary responsibility it should be to teach internet safety. Results A total of 356 participants completed the survey (93.4% response rate), including 77 teachers, 111 clinicians, 72 parents and 96 adolescents. Stakeholders felt the optimal mean age to begin teaching internet safety was 7.2 years (SD = 2.5), range 2-15. Internet safety was regularly taught by some teachers (20.8%), few clinicians (2.6%) and many parents (40.3%). The majority of teachers, clinicians and parents were willing to teach internet safety, but all groups surveyed identified parents as having primary responsibility for teaching this topic. Conclusions Findings suggest agreement among key stakeholders for teaching internet safety at a young age, and for identifying parents as primary teachers of this topic. Clinicians have a unique opportunity to support parents by providing resources, guidance and support. PMID:23738647
Ramsey, Codi A.
Iliotbial band syndrome (ITBS) is an overuse injury that affects distance runners and produces a large amount of frustration (and pain) to the runner, coaches and trainers. Treatments for ITBS vary widely and no known cures exist. Many running experts and physicians have prescribed several variations of training programs designed to help runners…
Sobhani, S; Dekker, R; Postema, K; Dijkstra, P U
Studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries are quite diverse in research methodology, data reporting, and outcomes. The aims of this systematic review were to analyze the methodology of published studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries in different sports disciplines and to summarize epidemiological data of ankle and foot overuse injuries. Four electronic databases, PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus(®) were systematically searched up to June 2011. A total of 89 articles on 23 sports disciplines were included in this review. Soccer, running, and gymnastics were the most frequently studied sports. Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and stress fracture were the most frequently studied injuries. Study design and reporting methods were heterogeneous. Most studies suffered from a weak methodology and poor reporting. The most common weaknesses were lack of a clear case definition, describing assessment procedures and reporting sample characteristics. Due to methodological heterogeneity of studies, inter-sports and intra-sports comparisons and meta-analysis were not possible. Methodology of most studies on incidence and prevalence of ankle and foot overuse injuries is insufficient. Based on the results, we recommend authors to clearly define cases, describe assessment procedures and report sample characteristics adequately.
Overuse injuries may represent as much of a problem as do acute injuries in many sports. This paper reviews key concepts related to the methodology for recording overuse symptoms. Results from the FIVB Volleyball Injury Study were used to compare two different recording methods. The aim of this paper was to provide recommendations on how standardised methodology can be developed to quantify overuse injuries in surveillance studies. Using beach volleyball data, a "traditional" cohort study approach using a time-loss injury definition suggested that injury risk was very low. In contrast, the data from a survey of past and present pain problems in the shoulder, knees and low back demonstrated that these were prevalent. The following recommendations are made: (1) studies should be prospective, with continuous or serial measurements of symptoms; (2) valid and sensitive scoring instruments need to be developed to measure pain and other relevant symptoms; (3) prevalence and not incidence should be used to report injury risk; (4) severity should be measured based on functional level and not time loss from sports. In conclusion, new approaches are needed to develop more appropriate methodology to quantify overuse injuries in studies.
Naraen, A; Giannikas, K A; Livesley, P J
A previously unreported overuse injury of the coracoid process in an eleven years old archer is presented. Diagnosis was made on clinical grounds in association with the radiographic appearance of the unfused physis. The pathology and the management are presented and discussed.
de Jong, Annemieke Bonny; Preuper, Henrica R. Schiphorst; Reneman, Michiel F.
To explore clinicians' and patients' (self)-assessment of activity overuse and underuse, and its relationship with physical capacity in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Study design was cross-sectional. Participants included patients with CMP, admitted to a multidisciplinary outpatient pain rehabilitation program. The main…
Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Meeusen, Romain
This prospective cohort study aims to assess the overall incidence of acute and overuse basketball injuries and identifies risk factors associated with ankle sprains and knee overuse injuries. In total, 164 senior players (23.7 years ± 7.0) of all levels of play, and including both men and women, participated voluntarily during one season. A total of 139 acute and 87 overuse injuries were reported, resulting in an overall injury incidence of 9.8 (8.5 to 11.1) per 1,000 hours. The incidence of acute injuries was 6.0/1,000 hours. Ankle sprains (n = 34) accounted for most acute injuries, and 52.9% of all players with ankle sprains reported a previous ankle sprain. Relative Risks (RR) and Odds Ratio (OR) with their 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were calculated to determine significant differences. Landing on an opponent’s foot was the major inciting event, significantly more so than non contact mechanisms (RR=2.1 [95% CI: 1.0-4.2]). Acute knee injuries resulted in the highest playing absence (7 weeks 2 days ± 9 weeks 1 day). Overuse injury incidence was 3.8/1,000 hours. The knee (1.5/1,000 hours) was the most common site. Forward players sustained less knee overuse injuries than players of all other playing positions, and significantly less than center players (OR=0.5 [95% CI: 0.2-0.9]). This study showed that ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries are the most common injuries in basketball, both accounting for 14.8%. Injury prevention programmes however should not concentrate on those injuries only, but might one to consider that acute knee injuries, in spite of the fact that they occur less frequently, also merit further research. Key pointsAnkle sprains are the most common acute injuries in basketball with the inciting event being landing on an opponent’s foot or changing direction.Anterior knee pain is the most common overuse injury. Etiologic factors are well described in literature, but prevention strategies are lacking.Acute knee injuries account for the
Caskey, Micki M.
Explored student and parent attitudes toward school-based Internet use using an intergenerational approach that positioned 54 pairs of young adolescents and their parents as co-learners for simultaneous Internet instruction while another 51 pairs were given separate Internet instruction. Highlights include reliability measures, factor analysis,…
Foch, Eric; Milner, Clare E
Kinematic and kinetic analyses are routinely implemented to determine if gait differences exist between runners with and without a history of knee injury. Hip and knee kinematic differences have been reported between knee injured and non-injured runners. Yet, there is no consensus on whether these differences are the primary variables contributing to knee injury. Furthermore, there may be additional underlying factors that contribute to the development of injury that cannot be determined by gait analysis. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if joint position sense differences exist in runners with and without a history of knee overuse injury. Sagittal plane knee and hip joint position sense was measured in 13 runners with a history of knee overuse injury and 13 runners with no history of knee overuse injury. Absolute joint position replication error was measured during both a weight bearing and a non-weight bearing condition. Joint position replication errors at each joint were compared among groups and task using a two-way ANOVA with joint task as the repeated measure. Knee and hip joint replication errors were similar between both groups. The weight bearing and non-weight bearing tasks resulted in similar joint position replication errors. There were no interaction effects. In conclusion, knee flexion and hip adduction joint position sense is similar in runners with and without a history of knee overuse injury. Therefore, joint position sense measured via weight bearing and non-weight bearing joint position replication tasks may not play an important role in the development of knee overuse injury.
Shwayhat, A F; Linenger, J M; Hofherr, L K; Slymen, D J; Johnson, C W
This prospective study examined running history as a risk factor for subsequent overuse injury in Navy Sea, Air, and Land (SEAL) recruits. Recruits preparing to be Navy SEALs undergo 6 months of rigorous physical training programs, which place these recruits at high risk for developing an overuse injury. We assessed the independent variables of age; prior running frequency, duration, and pace; and training surface. Univariate and multivariate estimates of risk were determined for each variable. We observed an incidence of 3.4 overuse injuries per 1000 recruit-days. Assessing the physical activity of the recruits in the 6 months before entrance into basic training, we found that the recruits who ran at a pace slower than 8 minutes per mile and on softer training surfaces were more likely to sustain an overuse injury during basic training, in both univariate and multivariate estimates of risk. Recruits who ran fewer weekly miles and for shorter durations before basic training were also more likely to sustain an overuse injury according to univariate estimates of risk. Our findings suggest that risk of overuse injuries can be reduced by adjusting exercise routines before training. Running on different type surfaces with a gradual increase in speed, duration, and weekly mileage in the period preceding basic training may reduce risk of overuse injury.
The unexpectedly rapid expansion of the Internet in Eastern and Central Europe is having a significant effect on institutions of higher education, still suffering from decades of isolation. The benefits include global access to information and cost-effective communications. A number of international efforts are under way to expand Internet access,…
activities. F. Responsibilities 1. The CIO shall: a. Approve, for the OIG, DoD, policies implementing laws and guidelines on Internet use . IGDINST 4630.2 3 b...Provide leadership to manage Internet use within the OIG, DoD. c. Authorize monitoring. d. Oversee the promulgation of policies and guidance to ensure
Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.
Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.; Decoster, Laura C.; Loud, Keith J.; Micheli, Lyle J.; Parker, J. Terry; Sandrey, Michelle A.; White, Christopher
Abstract Objective: To provide certified athletic trainers, physicians, and other health care professionals with recommendations on best practices for the prevention of overuse sports injuries in pediatric athletes (aged 6–18 years). Background: Participation in sports by the pediatric population has grown tremendously over the years. Although the health benefits of participation in competitive and recreational athletic events are numerous, one adverse consequence is sport-related injury. Overuse or repetitive trauma injuries represent approximately 50% of all pediatric sport-related injuries. It is speculated that more than half of these injuries may be preventable with simple approaches. Recommendations: Recommendations are provided based on current evidence regarding pediatric injury surveillance, identification of risk factors for injury, preparticipation physical examinations, proper supervision and education (coaching and medical), sport alterations, training and conditioning programs, and delayed specialization. PMID:21391806
Bauernhofer, Kathrin; Papousek, Ilona; Fink, Andreas; Unterrainer, Human Friedrich; Weiss, Elisabeth M
The repetitive excessive use of internet has led to an increasing number of reports about the negative consequences of overuse and is now viewed as an important public health issue, although the diagnosis of internet addiction remains problematic. Increasing knowledge about the neurobiological mechanism of behavioral addictions will promote future research and is essential for the development of specific and effective treatment. Growing evidence suggests that the neurobiological substrates and pathways of internet addiction resemble those of substance dependency and other forms of behavioral addictions. This paper reviews the current neuroimaging findings and genetic influencing factors for problematic internet use (PIN)/internet addiction. Recent evidence from neuro-scientific studies has pointed out that certain dysfunctions in the prefrontal cortex possibly driven by impaired dopamine neurotransmission are related to symptoms of internet addiction. Finally the literature on psychological and pharmacological interventions for internet addiction will be discussed. However, due to a lack of methodological sound treatment studies in this field it is currently impossible to recommend any evidence-based treatment of internet addiction.
L., B. DRINKWATER, M. JOHNSON, and A. LOUCKS. American college of sports medicine position stand. The female athlete triad . Med. Sci. Sports Exerc...However, the overall lower-extremity overuse injury rates were comparable with females in a study of high school runners that used a per athletic exposure...concurs with other female recruit (28) and athlete studies (2,5). The conflicting injury distributions among female recruit studies may be attributable to
Gottlieb, Uri; Lozin, Mariya
The study objective was to determine whether spatiotemporal gait parameters could predict lower-limb overuse injuries in cohort of combat soldiers during first year of military service. Newly recruited infantry soldiers walked on a treadmill at a 15° incline with a fixed speed of 1.67 m/sec while wearing a standard military vest with a 10 kg load. Stride time variability, stride length variability, step length asymmetry, and the duration of the loading response phase of the gait cycle were measured. Injury data on 76 soldiers who did not report musculoskeletal complaints at initial screening were collected one year after recruitment. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the predictive effect of the gait parameters on lower-limb injuries. Twenty-four soldiers (31.6%) had overuse injuries during the first year after recruitment. Duration of the loading response was a significant predictor of general lower-limb injury (p < 0.05), as well as of foot/ankle and knee injuries (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, resp.). A cutoff value of less than 12.15% for loading response duration predicted knee injuries with 83% sensitivity and 67% specificity. This study demonstrates the utility of spatiotemporal gait evaluation, a simple screening tool before military training, which may help to identify individuals at risk of lower-limb overuse injuries. PMID:27478864
Frich, Jan C; Kristoffersen, Espen Saxhaug; Lundqvist, Christofer
Background Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is common in the general population, and most patients are managed in primary health care. Brief Intervention (BI) has been used as a motivational technique for patients with drug and alcohol overuse, and may a have role in the treatment of MOH. Aim To explore GPs’ experiences using BI in the management of patients with MOH. Design and setting Qualitative study in Norwegian general practice. Method Data were collected through four focus group interviews with 22 GPs who participated in an intervention study on BI for MOH. Systematic text condensation was used to analyse transcripts from the focus group interviews. Results The GPs experienced challenges when trying to convince patients that the medication they used to treat and prevent headache could cause headache, but labelling MOH as a diagnosis opened up a space for change. GPs were able to use BI within the scope of a regular consultation, and they thought that the structured approach had a potential to change patients’ views about their condition and medication use. Being diagnosed with medication overuse could bring about feelings of guilt in patients, and GPs emphasised that a good alliance with the patient was necessary for successful change using BI to manage MOH. Conclusion GPs experience BI as a feasible strategy to treat MOH, and the technique relies on a good alliance between the doctor and patient. When using BI, GPs must be prepared to counter patients’ misconceptions about medication used for headache. PMID:25179065
Reuther, Katherine E.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Tucker, Jennica J.; Vafa, Rameen P.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Liu, Stephen S.; Caro, Adam C.; Yannascoli, Sarah M.; Kuntz, Andrew F.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Shoulder tendon injuries are common clinical conditions and are a significant source of pain and dysfunction. These conditions are more common in individuals who perform repetitive overhead activities and in individuals who have abnormal scapular kinematics, termed scapular dyskinesis (SD). However, the long term consequences associated with overuse activity in the presence of SD are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of overuse in combination with SD on joint mechanics and properties of the rotator cuff and biceps tendons. A rat model of scapular dyskinesis was used. 90 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400–450 grams) were randomized into three groups: nerve transection (SD), sham nerve transection + overuse (OV), or nerve transection + overuse (SD + OV). Rats were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. Shoulder function and passive joint mechanics were evaluated over time and tendon properties (mechanical, histological, organizational, and compositional) were measured. Results demonstrated that overuse activity and SD are each independently detrimental to tendon properties (e.g., diminished mechanical properties, disorganized collagen). However, tendon damage caused by the addition of overuse may be worse, with more parameters altered, than damage caused by the addition of SD. This study helps define the mechanical mechanisms leading to tendon damage and provides a framework for distinguishing treatment strategies for active patients and those with abnormal scapular mechanics. PMID:25266934
Lindroth, Linda K.
Lists Internet sites related to articles in this issue. Topics include a first-grade unit on voting, student-created theme binders, techniques for student motivation, and involving parents in the middle school. (KDFB)
Jyotsna; Kapil; Aayush
Censorship on Internet has always wet its hands in the water of controversies, It is said to go in with synonym of "FILTERING THE NET" i.e. Either done to protect minors or for nationís privacy, some take it as snatching their freedom over internet and some take it as an appropriate step to protect minor, It has its supporters as well as opponents.Google has reported a whooping number of requests from Governments of U.K, China, Poland, Spain, and Canada to remove videos and search links that led to harassment, sensitive issues or suspicious people. This paper deals with the cons of censorship on internet and to make people aware of the fact that Internet is not a single body owned by an org. but an open sky of information shared equally by all. Research done has found out many unseen aspects of different people's view point.
Dunn, Tamara L; Casey, Leanne M; Sheffield, Jeanie K; Petsky, Helen; Anderson-James, Sophie; Chang, Anne B
Background Chronic respiratory illnesses are the most common group of childhood chronic health conditions and are overrepresented in socially isolated groups. Objective To conduct a randomized controlled pilot trial to evaluate the efficacy of Breathe Easier Online (BEO), an Internet-based problem-solving program with minimal facilitator involvement to improve psychosocial well-being in children and adolescents with a chronic respiratory condition. Methods We randomly assigned 42 socially isolated children and adolescents (18 males), aged between 10 and 17 years to either a BEO (final n = 19) or a wait-list control (final n = 20) condition. In total, 3 participants (2 from BEO and 1 from control) did not complete the intervention. Psychosocial well-being was operationalized through self-reported scores on depression symptoms and social problem solving. Secondary outcome measures included self-reported attitudes toward their illness and spirometry results. Paper-and-pencil questionnaires were completed at the hospital when participants attended a briefing session at baseline (time 1) and in their homes after the intervention for the BEO group or a matched 9-week time period for the wait-list group (time 2). Results The two groups were comparable at baseline across all demographic measures (all F < 1). For the primary outcome measures, there were no significant group differences on depression (P = .17) or social problem solving (P = .61). However, following the online intervention, those in the BEO group reported significantly lower depression (P = .04), less impulsive/careless problem solving (P = .01), and an improvement in positive attitude toward their illness (P = .04) compared with baseline. The wait-list group did not show these differences. Children in the BEO group and their parents rated the online modules very favorably. Conclusions Although there were no significant group differences on primary outcome measures, our pilot data provide tentative support
Heinke, Blair; Mullner, Justin
Participation in athletic activities among children and adolescents is on the rise in the United States. Approximately 35 million children ages 5 to 18 play organized sports each year. High school athletes suffer approximately 2 million injuries per year, resulting in 500,000 doctor visits and 30,000 hospitalizations. In addition, early specialization in sports has led to increased incidence of overuse injury in adolescents. Head injuries among adolescents are also on the rise. Primary care providers are called on to complete preparticipation evaluations and to see adolescents with acute injuries. The goal of this article is to discuss these issues common to adolescent athletes.
Király, Orsolya; Maraz, Aniko; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Demetrovics, Zsolt
Abstract Background Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia. Methods Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) was included in European Health Interview Study (EHIS) on representative Slovenian sample. The frequency of Internet use and problematic Internet use were both assessed. Results 59.9% of Slovenian adult population uses the Internet daily, and 3.1% are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, 11% in the age group from 20 to 24 years. Those being at risk for becoming problematic Internet users are younger (mean age 31.3 vs. 48.3 for non-problematic users), more likely to be males (3.6% of males, whereas 2.6% of females are affected), students (12.0%), unemployed (6.3%) or unable to work (8.7%), single (6.5%), with high education (4.5%). Regression analysis revealed that the strongest predictor of being at risk for problematic Internet use is age (ß=-0.338, p<0.001); followed by high educational level (ß=0.145; p<0.001) and student status (ß=0.136; p<0.001). Conclusion 3.1% of Slovenian adult population are at risk of becoming problematic Internet users, whereas 3 out of 20 Slovenian adolescents aged from 18 to 19 years are at risk (14.6%). Prevention programs and treatment for those affected are paramount, especially for the young generation. PMID:27703540
Molyneux, Robert E.; Williams, Robert V.
Examines the literature that measures characteristics of the Internet. Discusses: conclusions about the Internet measurement literature; definition of the Internet from a technical standpoint; history of Internet measurement; nature of the Internet data environment; Internet technical characteristics; information measurement and the Internet;…
Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang
The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management.
The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”
Chatterjee, Robin; Vyas, Jay
Wrist pain due to repetitive motion or overuse is a common presentation in primary care. This case reports the rare condition of intersection syndrome as the cause of the wrist pain in an amateur tennis player. This is a non-infectious, inflammatory process that occurs where tendons in the first extensor compartment intersect the tendons in the second extensor compartment. Suitable history and examination provided the diagnosis, which was confirmed by MRI. Management consisted of early involvement of the multidisciplinary team, patient education, workplace and sporting adaptations, rest, analgesia, reduction of load, protection and immobilisation of the affected joint followed by a period of rehabilitation.
Gergaud, S; Lermite, E; Butel, F; Soltner, C; Lasocki, S
We reported the case of a 61-year-old woman, who has been hospitalized in ICU because of an extensive mesenteric ischaemia, involving the small bowel, secondary to a naratriptan overuse. This mesenteric ischaemia was complicated by multiple organ failure and was responsible for extensive small bowel resection and left colectomy. A concomitant abundant absorption of grapefruit juice, a well-known P450 inhibitor, may have enhanced this naratriptan toxicity. This case underscore that an abdominal pain occurring in the context of headache treatment may be related to a mesenteric ischaemia.
Brunelle, Natacha; Tremblay, Joel; Leclerc, Danielle; Cousineau, Marie-Marthe; Khazaal, Yasser; Légaré, Andrée-Anne; Rousseau, Michel; Berbiche, Djamal
Objectives: There are presently no data available concerning Internet addiction (IA) problems among adolescents in Canada and the province of Quebec. The goal of this study is thus to document and compare the influence of gender on Internet use and addiction. Method: The study data were collected from a larger research project on gambling among adolescents. Activities conducted online (applications used and time spent) as well as answers to the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) were collected from 3938 adolescents from grades 9 to 11. The two most often employed cut-off points for the IAT in the literature were documented: (40-69 and 70+) and (50+). Results: Boys spent significantly more time on the Internet than did girls. A greater proportion of the girls made intense use of social networks, whereas a greater proportion of the boys made intense use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games, online games, and adult sites. The proportion of adolescents with a potential IA problem varied according to the cut-off employed. When the cut-off was set at 70+, 1.3% of the adolescents were considered to have an IA, while 41.7% were seen to be at risk. At a 50+ cut-off, 18% of the adolescents were considered to have a problem. There was no significant difference between the genders concerning the proportion of adolescents considered to be at risk or presenting IA problems. Finally, analysis of the percentile ranks would seem to show that a cut-off of 50+ better describes the category of young people at risk. Conclusions: The results of this study make it possible to document Internet use and IA in a large number of Quebec adolescents. PMID:27310231
Al-Shahi, R; Sadler, M; Rees, G; Bateman, D
The growing use of email and the world wide web (WWW), by the public, academics, and clinicians—as well as the increasing availability of high quality information on the WWW—make a working knowledge of the internet important. Although this article aims to enhance readers' existing use of the internet and medical resources on the WWW, it is also intelligible to someone unfamiliar with the internet. A web browser is one of the central pieces of software in modern computing: it is a window on the WWW, file transfer protocol sites, networked newsgroups, and your own computer's files. Effective use of the internet for professional purposes requires an understanding of the best strategies to search the WWW and the mechanisms for ensuring secure data transfer, as well as a compendium of online resources including journals, textbooks, medical portals, and sites providing high quality patient information. This article summarises these resources, available to incorporate into your web browser as downloadable "Favorites" or "Bookmarks" from www.jnnp.com, where there are also freely accessible hypertext links to the recommended sites. PMID:12438460
Focuses on the issue of ethical use of the Internet in schools, and suggests that by devising and implementing acceptable use policies, and providing students with a set of ethical guidelines, schools and libraries can deal with the situation before it becomes a problem. Discusses and the need for parents to be included in policy formation and to…
The number of children and adolescents accessing the Internet as well as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities include playing video games, accessing web sites, and communicating via chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A theoretical framework for understanding the effects of Internet use on…
Monetti, David M.; Whatley, Mark A.; Hinkle, Kerry T.; Cunningham, Kerry T.; Breneiser, Jennifer E.; Kisling, Rhea
This study developed an Internet Usage Scale (IUS) for use with adolescent populations. The IUS is a 26-item scale that measures participants' beliefs about how their Internet usage impacts their behavior. The sample for this study consisted of 947 middle school students. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the…
Raggi, A; Giovannetti, A M; Leonardi, M; Schiavolin, S; D'Amico, D; Curone, M; Usai, S; Bussone, G; Grazzi, L
This study aims to compare disability and mood state in patients with episodic (EM) and chronic migraine associated to medication overuse (CM-MO), and to assess the relationships between the two outcomes. Patients, matched for age and gender, were administered the MIDAS, the WHO-DAS-2 and BDI-2. Difference between EM and CM-MO was assessed with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test; difference in distribution of patients with severe disability and low mood was tested with contingency coefficient; the correlation between MIDAS, WHO-DAS-2 and BDI-2 was tested with Spearman's index. Seventy patients were enrolled: CM-MO patients reported higher BDI-2 scores and higher MIDAS and WHO-DAS-2 scores, and were more likely to have severe disability and low mood state than those with EM; BDI-2 scores were correlated with disability scores, particularly with WHO-DAS-2. The study shows that disability and mood state are negatively impacted by the presence of more frequent headaches and by the overuse of acute medications.
Channon, Rachel; Sayers, Edna Edith
The use of function words in 135 essays written by deaf college underclassmen in developmental and credit-bearing English composition classes is described and compared with Standard English (SE) versions of teh same essay. If student and SE version were the same, this was considered mastery; if the student omitted a word, this was considered avoidance; and if the student added a word, this was considered overuse. The deaf students varied from SE more for function than for content words. They demonstrated low mastery of independent clause markers, demonstratives, third-person singular neuter pronouns, and modals related to possibility, but had relatively high mastery of the first-person singular; and some punctuation. These students strongly avoided some dependent clause markers, some demonstratives, the indefinite article, punctuation except for periods and commas, and the modal verbs may, might and should , but greatly overused other dependent clause markers, the second person and third-person pronouns, quantifiers, the verb do, and the modals could and will. They were also more likely to produce run-ons than fragments.
Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars
Antimicrobial resistance is a global public health challenge, which has accelerated by the overuse of antibiotics worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance is the cause of severe infections, complications, longer hospital stays and increased mortality. Overprescribing of antibiotics is associated with an increased risk of adverse effects, more frequent re-attendance and increased medicalization of self-limiting conditions. Antibiotic overprescribing is a particular problem in primary care, where viruses cause most infections. About 90% of all antibiotic prescriptions are issued by general practitioners, and respiratory tract infections are the leading reason for prescribing. Multifaceted interventions to reduce overuse of antibiotics have been found to be effective and better than single initiatives. Interventions should encompass the enforcement of the policy of prohibiting the over-the-counter sale of antibiotics, the use of antimicrobial stewardship programmes, the active participation of clinicians in audits, the utilization of valid rapid point-of-care tests, the promotion of delayed antibiotic prescribing strategies, the enhancement of communication skills with patients with the aid of information brochures and the performance of more pragmatic studies in primary care with outcomes that are of clinicians' interest, such as complications and clinical outcomes.
Meng, Xueqin; Wu, Liming
The overuse of glucocorticoid may cause the metabolic disorders affecting the long term outcome of liver transplantation. This study aims to investigate the immune adjustment strategy by decreasing use of glucocorticoid after liver transplantation. The follow-up study was carried out on liver function and lipid metabolism. This study included adult recipients of liver transplantation. There were 3 groups according to their use of glucocorticoid: long term (>3 months, n = 18), short term (<3 months, n = 20), and control group (no use of glucocorticoid, radical hepatic resection, n = 22). The laboratory results of liver function (AST/ALT ratio) and serum lipid were compared 6 months after liver transplantation. AST/ALT ratio, the marker of liver function, showed no significant difference between long and short term group (P > 0.05). The acute rejection had no significant difference between short and long term groups, while TG, HDL, LDL, and glucose showed significant change in the long term group (P < 0.05). At 6 months after liver transplantation, the long term group showed higher metabolic disorders (P < 0.05). The proper immune adjustment strategy should be made to avoid overuse of glucocorticoid. It can decrease hyperlipidemia and other metabolic disorders after liver transplantation without increasing the acute rejection or liver function damage. PMID:28194427
Mehendale, Anand W; Goldman, Mark P; Mehendale, Rachel P
Throughout history, opioids have effectively alleviated pain but not without the risk of addiction and death. Seductive and dangerous, full of promise and destruction, opioids are both revered and feared by Western culture. Their exponential use in "developed countries" is now an enormous public health problem and requires us to harness their properties with scientific rigor and adequate safeguards. The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic nonterminal pain (CNTP) has been a relatively new phenomenon which has coincided with the proclamation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization in 2000 that pain assessment be the "fifth vital sign," notwithstanding the fact that pain is a symptom and not a sign.(1) Nonetheless, this resulted in a culture of a marked increase in use of opioids for acute and chronic pain management. Consequently, there are many unintended outcomes which include opioid-induced hyperalgesia increased diversion, addiction, and death. Understandably, this has resulted in many regulatory responses from such agencies such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and state medical boards. This article proposes a clinically relevant paradigm of opioid overuse pain syndrome. The goal of this article is to inform the clinicians of the complicated neurobiology of opioids. It is our hope that scientists rather than government regulators dictate the appropriate response to the epidemic of over prescription of opioids. A similar designation of "medication overuse headache" has resulted in near extinction of excessive use of opioids in the field of headache medicine.
Bassolino, Michela; Finisguerra, Alessandra; Canzoneri, Elisa; Serino, Andrea; Pozzo, Thierry
Accurate and updated representations of the space where the body acts, i.e. the peripersonal space (PPS), and the location and dimension of body parts (body representation, BR) are essential to perform actions. Because both PPS and BR are involved in motor execution and display the same plastic proprieties after the use of a tool to reach far objects, it has been suggested that they overlap in a unique representation of the body in a space devoted to action. Here we determined whether manipulating actions in space, without modifying body metrics, i.e. through immobilization, induces a dissociation of the plastic properties of PPS and BR. In 39 healthy subjects we evaluated PPS and BR for the non-used right limb and the overused left limb before and after 10 h of right arm immobilization. We observed that non-use reduces PPS representation around the immobilized arm, without affecting the metric representation (i.e. perceived length) of that limb. In contrast, overuse modulates the metric representation of the free arm, leaving PPS unchanged around that limb. These results suggest that the plasticity in PPS and BR depends on different mechanisms; while PPS representation is shaped as a function of the dimension of the acting space, metric characteristics of BR are forged on a complex interplay between visual and sensorimotor information related to the body. This behavioral dissociation between PPS and BR defines a new scenario for the role of action in shaping space and body representations.
Knee pain in children and adolescents is one of the most prevalent complaints in a pediatric practice, accounting for at least a third of musculoskeletal complaints. Accurate diagnosis requires an understanding of knee anatomy and patterns of knee injuries and skill in physical examination. This review covers the most common causes of knee pain in children and adolescents, including overuse issues, such as Osgood-Schlatter and osteochondritis dissecans, as well as traumatic injuries, including tibial spine fractures and anterior cruciate ligament injuries.
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia
Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and…
Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC. Crimes against Children Unit.
While online computer exploration opens a world of possibilities, children and adolescents online can be exposed to individuals who attempt to sexually exploit children through the use of online services and the Internet. This pamphlet, prepared from actual investigations involving child victims, was designed to help parents understand the…
Tserkovnikova, Nataliya G.; Shchipanova, Dina Ye.; Uskova, Bella A.; Puzyrev, Viktor V.; Fedotovskih, Olga ?.
The relevance of the problem under study is due to the lack of elaborated theoretical approaches to addiction and addictive behavior factors among children and adolescents, as well as due to the need and demand for psychological and pedagogical work with Internet addicted children and young people or with those who are potentially prone to…
The aim of this research is to examine risk behaviour of students (adolescents) on the internet, i.e. which risk websites students visit most in their free time, and whether there are differences among students considering the type of school they attend (gymnasium, four-year high school and three-year high school). The research was carried out in…
The U.S. Supreme Court agreed to review a lower court ruling that found the Communications Decency Act to be an unconstitutional infringement on free speech. The judges from the U.S. District Court in Philadelphia said that parents should monitor material that children are exposed to on the Internet. AIDS groups that publish information on safer sex, HIV prevention and AIDS treatments are not responsible for censoring content.
Filjar, Renato; Desic, Sasa; Pokrajac, Danijela; Cubic, Ivica
Automatic Identification System (AIS) has recently become the leading issue in maritime navigation and traffic management worldwide. The present AIS solution, based on a VHF data communications scheme, provides AIS functionalities for SOLAS (AIS Class A) vessels only in a limited environment defined by radio propagation properties. Here we present a novel approach in AIS development based on current mobile communication technologies. It utilises existing mobile communications equipment that the majority of targetted end-users own and are familiar with. A novel AIS concept aims to offer a transition of AIS data traffic to mobile Internet. An innovative AIS architecture supports AIS data processing, storing and transferring to authorised parties. This enhances not only the operational area, but also provides the global AIS with data transfer security and an improved aids-for-navigation service, with all legally traceable vessels (both AIS Class A and AIS Class B) included in the system. In order to provide the development framework for Internet AIS, a set of essential four use-cases, a communication protocol and the first Internet AIS prototype have been recently developed and are briefly introduced in this article.
Although adolescents are currently the most frequent users of the Internet, many youngsters still have difficulties with a critical, reflective, and responsible use of the Internet. A study was carried out on teaching with a digital role-play game to increase students' reflective Internet skills. In this game, students had to promote a fictional…
KOCASOY ORHAN, Elif; BAYKAN, Betül
Medication overuse headache (MOH) is well-defined clinically and is one of the common reasons of chronic daily headache, but its pathophysiology has not been elucidated yet. MOH has varying clinical features in regard to regional, psychosocial, medical and economic factors. Even though, the studies have shown that many factors may play a role, MOH is likely to occur in patients who are prone to primary headaches. Mainstay of the treatment is to withdraw the excessively used analgesic drugs. The primary prevention with education of the patients as well as early diagnosis and treatment of MOH will reduce its increasing financial burden on both patients and countries. Meticulous and multifactorial evaluation of the disease besides the diagnosis and treatment of the comorbid diseases will reduce the risk of recurrences.
Zdziarski, Przemysław; Simon, Krzysztof; Majda, Jacek
In this paper the ecological aspects of widespread antibiotic consumption are described. Many practitioners, veterinarians, breeders, farmers and analysts work on the assumption that a antibiotics undergo spontaneous degradation. It is well documented that the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has led to the water contamination, selection and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant organisms, alteration of fragile ecology of the microbial ecosystems. The damages caused by the overuse of antibiotics include hospital, waterborne and foodborne infections by resistant bacteria, enteropathy (irritable bowel syndrome, antibiotic-associated diarrhea etc.), drug hypersensitivity, biosphere alteration, human and animal growth promotion, destruction of fragile interspecific competition in microbial ecosystems etc. The consequences of heavy antibiotic use for public and environmental health are difficult to assess: utilization of antibiotics from the environment and reduction of irrational use is the highest priority issue. This purpose may be accomplished by bioremediation, use of probenecid for antibiotic dosage reduction and by adoption of hospital infections methodology for control resistance in natural ecosystems.
Canillas, Fernando; Colino, Alvaro; Menéndez, Pablo
Introduction: New technologies have been related to upper limb diseases Trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis in young patients has not been described yet as one of these “overuse pathologies”. Case Report: We present two cases. A 33 and a 32 year-old women, right handed, suffering from trapeziometacarpal pain. Neither previous trauma nor rheumatic disease was reported. Excessive use of last generation cellular phone was the only background reported. Pain and joint crepitation were found on physical examination and osteoarthritis signs were seen on MRI scans. One of the patients improved after using a cast, physical activity restrictions and a specific rehabilitation program; whilst the other required a corticosteroid joint injection. Conclusion: We warn about the potential growth of these pathologies caused by an indiscriminate use (or abuse) of touch-screen cellular phones. PMID:27298990
Gaul, Charly; Visscher, Corine M; Bhola, Rhia; Sorbi, Marjolijn J; Galli, Federica; Rasmussen, Annette V; Jensen, Rigmor
Multidisciplinary approaches are gaining acceptance in headache treatment. However, there is a lack of scientific data about the efficacy of various strategies and their combinations offered by physiotherapists, physicians, psychologists and headache nurses. Therefore, an international platform for more intense collaboration between these professions and between headache centers is needed. Our aims were to establish closer collaboration and an interchange of knowledge between headache care providers and different disciplines. A scientific session focusing on multidisciplinary headache management was organised at The European Headache and Migraine Trust International Congress (EHMTIC) 2010 in Nice. A summary of the contributions and the discussion is presented. It was concluded that effective multidisciplinary headache treatment can reduce headache frequency and burden of disease, as well as the risk for medication overuse headache. The significant value of physiotherapy, education in headache schools, and implementation of strategies of cognitive behavioural therapy was highlighted and the way paved for future studies and international collaboration.
Jaye, Chrystal; Fitzgerald, Ruth
In New Zealand, as in other industrialised nations, rates of work-related gradual onset injuries increased during the 1980s and 1990s. The perspectives and experiences of workers suffering what became known as occupational overuse injuries in New Zealand offer insights into local lived political economies. Here, we explore the dominant metaphor, 'battling', in participants' narratives. On the face of it, battles were fought over diagnoses, over occupational health and safety in the workplace, and over entitlements to therapy and income compensation. However, participants were also battling to maintain their identities as hard workers, while resisting and challenging normalising technologies of self and morally charged negative identities offered them by employers, state-funded accident and injury insurance agencies, and the medical profession. Inherent in their narratives is a critique of the neo-liberal capitalist political economy that allows workers' bodies to be exploited (and sacrificed) for employers' profits.
Anderson, Terry; Wentworth, Donald R.
Traces the problems of water overuse to the fact that many farmers are allowed to use water at a fraction of its real cost. Maintains that government subsidies promote misuse and abuse of this resource. Proposes two solutions: environmentally friendly water prices and environmentally friendly water ownership. (MJP)
Trone, Daniel W; Cipriani, Daniel J; Raman, Rema; Wingard, Debra L; Shaffer, Richard A; Macera, Carol A
The association between self-reported smoking and overuse injury in a cohort of young men (n = 900) and women (n = 597) undergoing 12 weeks of standardized military instruction, after adjustment for physical activity, health history, and incoming fitness tests was examined. The outcome includes all International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes related to injuries resulting from cumulative microtrauma (overuse injuries). The short survey asked about the subject's demographics, smoking habits, prior injuries sustained, physical activity level, self-perceived fitness, and (for women) menstrual history. From the survey, 4 questions established smoking behavior: smoked at least 100 cigarettes in lifetime, age smoked a whole cigarette for the first time, how many cigarettes smoked during the last 30 days, and how many cigarettes smoked per day during the last 30 days. None of the adjusted hazard ratios for the smoking questions were associated with an increased risk of overuse injury for either sex. Furthermore, this study did not find a significant association with respect to smoking and all injuries in either men or women. In conclusion, smoking does not appear to be an independent risk factor for overuse injury in either young men or women during 12 weeks of standardized military instruction.
In this clinical presentation a non-blaming, non-judgmental approach to overuse of sexually explicit media (SEM) is introduced. This approach normalizes the problem and sees it in the context of evolution and market forces. It is claimed that such an approach contributes to change and strengthens the therapeutic alliance. A new technique utilizing…
ALTINTAŞ, Ebru; KARAKURUM GÖKSEL, Başak; TAŞKINTUNA, Nilgün; SARITÜRK, Çağla
Introduction The present study aimed to determine (a) the correlation between type and number of stressful life events and quality of life in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH) and (b) whether stressful life events could be attributed to medication overuse and the conversion of headache to a chronic type. Methods The present study included 114 patients aged between 15 and 65 years who met the criteria for headache classification of International Headache Society (IHS). The patients were divided into three groups according to the revised 2004 IHS classification; MOH (n=64), chronic migraine (n=25) and episodic migraine (n=25). Detailed data on clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were recorded. Neurological and physical examinations were performed for differential diagnosis. The patients underwent structured clinical interviews for DSM-IV Inventory (SCID-I), Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Life Events List. Scores of these inventories were statistically compared. Results Comparing MOH group with episodic migraine group via SF-36, statistically significant decreases were observed in the subscales of physical role limitation (p=.024), pain (p=.0001), general health (p=.043) and social functioning (p=.004). There was a statistically significant correlation between the number of life events and the time the disease became chronic in the patient group with non-MOH chronic migraine (p=.027). Moreover, a statistically significant correlation was observed between stressful family life events and the body pain subscale of quality of life scale (p=.038). Conclusion The present study demonstrates that stressful life events impair quality of life in patients with MOH. It was also found that number of stressful life events could be attributed to the conversion of headache to a chronic type. PMID:28360716
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann
Google the question, "How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?," and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting…
This issue of "Art to Zoo" examines the "mysteries" surrounding the Internet and offers simple "pointers" on how to access the Smithsonian's teaching materials. Many of the materials are available online. Articles include: (1) "What is the Internet?"; (2) "Connecting to the Internet"; (3) "Internet Shopping List"; (4) "Internet Terms"; (5) "A…
Lukose, Rajan Mathew
The World Wide Web and the Internet are rapidly expanding spaces, of great economic and social significance, which offer an opportunity to study many phenomena, often previously inaccessible, on an unprecedented scale and resolution with relative ease. These phenomena are measurable on the scale of tens of millions of users and hundreds of millions of pages. By virtue of nearly complete electronic mediation, it is possible in principle to observe the time and ``spatial'' evolution of nearly all choices and interactions. This cyber-space therefore provides a view into a number of traditional research questions (from many academic disciplines) and creates its own new phenomena accessible for study. Despite its largely self-organized and dynamic nature, a number of robust quantitative regularities are found in the aggregate statistics of interesting and useful quantities. These regularities can be understood with the help of models that draw on ideas from statistical physics as well as other fields such as economics, psychology and decision theory. This thesis develops models that can account for regularities found in the statistics of Internet congestion and user surfing patterns and discusses some practical consequences. practical consequences.
Attkiss, K J; Buncke, H J
A case of premature closure of the distal phalanx growth plate of the thumb is reported in an adolescent, presumably caused by accumulated repetitive trauma incurred during years of piano playing. The injury may be analogous to overuse injury to certain growth plates reported in child and adolescent athletes. Upper extremity problems in musicians due to the unusual and excessive demands of playing an instrument are discussed.
Various issues associated with next generation Internet are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Internet architecture; 2) NASA's advanced networking; 3) Internet capability, capacity and applications; and 4) Systems engineering.
Ybarra, Michele L.; Bull, Sheana S.; Prescott, Tonya L.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Bangsberg, David R.; Kiwanuka, Julius P.
Context Cost-effective, scalable programs are urgently needed in countries deeply affected by HIV. Methods This parallel-group RCT was conducted in four secondary schools in Mbarara, Uganda. Participants were 12 years and older, reported past-year computer or Internet use, and provided informed caregiver permission and youth assent. The intervention, CyberSenga, was a five-hour online healthy sexuality program. Half of the intervention group was further randomized to receive a booster at four-months post-intervention. The control arm received ‘treatment as usual’ (i.e., school-delivered sexuality programming). The main outcome measures were: 1) condom use and 2) abstinence in the past three months at six-months' post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were: 1) condom use and 2) abstinence at three-month's post-intervention; and 6-month outcomes by booster exposure. Analyses were intention to treat. Results All 416 eligible youth were invited to participate, 88% (n = 366) of whom enrolled. Participants were randomized to the intervention (n = 183) or control (n = 183) arm; 91 intervention participants were further randomized to the booster. No statistically significant results were noted among the main outcomes. Among the secondary outcomes: At three-month follow-up, trends suggested that intervention participants (81%) were more likely to be abstinent than control participants (74%; p = 0.08), and this was particularly true among youth who were abstinent at baseline (88% vs. 77%; p = 0.02). At six-month follow-up, those in the booster group (80%) reported higher rates of abstinence than youth in the intervention, no booster (57%) and control (55%) groups (p = 0.15); they also reported lower rates of unprotected sex (5%) compared to youth in the intervention, no booster (24%) and control (21%) groups (p = 0.21) among youth sexually active at baseline. Conclusions The CyberSenga program may affect HIV preventive behavior among abstinent
Caballero, Rafael; Argyle, R. W.
Amateur astronomers can carry out scientific research in many different ways. Some activities require expensive telescopes, cameras, and often access to dark skies. But those who live in highly polluted areas, or do not have access to very specialized equipment, still have many possibilities; amongst which is using the online resources available from the internet. In this chapter we explore Aladin, Simbad, and VizieR, three resources created and maintained by the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). Although these applications are intended for professional astronomers, they are also freely available for amateurs. They allow us to find and measure old neglected difficult pairs, discover new double stars, and in general have a better understanding of those tiny pairs of points of light that we love to observe, photograph and measure.
Cheok, Adrian David
Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.
Describes the Internet Hunt, a game designed to challenge and inform librarians about information sources available on the Internet. The use of telnet, and FTP (File Transfer Protocol) are described, and the results of the first Internet Hunt are provided. (EA)
Tercier, Stéphane; Gojanovic, Boris; Depallens, Sarah; Vust, Sophie; Ambresin, Emmanuelle
Benefits of physical activity during adolescence have widely been demonstrated. Yet, raising awareness among young athletes and their surrounding about risks associated with too early specialization or energy deficit--with or without eating disorder--is of outmost importance. Such behaviours can affect adolescents' physical or psychological development as well as compromise their athletic career not to mention the potential negative impact on their athletic performance. Primary care practitioners play an important role in early detection and prevention of overuse injuries as well as psychological distress associated with intense physical activity. Such situations need the intervention of an interdisciplinary team in order to prevent long-term complications.
Shenk, Chad E.; Barnes, Jaclyn E.; Haralson, Katherine J.
OBJECTIVE: High-risk Internet behaviors, including viewing sexually explicit content, provocative social networking profiles, and entertaining online sexual solicitations, were examined in a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated adolescent girls aged 14 to 17 years. The impact of Internet behaviors on subsequent offline meetings was observed over 12 to 16 months. This study tested 2 main hypotheses: (1) maltreatment would be a unique contributor to high-risk Internet behaviors and (2) high-quality parenting would dampen adolescents’ propensity to engage in high-risk Internet behaviors and to participate in offline meetings. METHODS: Online and offline behaviors and parenting quality were gleaned from 251 adolescent girls, 130 of whom experienced substantiated maltreatment and 121 of whom were demographically matched comparison girls. Parents reported on adolescent behaviors and on the level of Internet monitoring in the home. Social networking profiles were objectively coded for provocative self-presentations. Offline meetings with persons first met online were assessed 12 to 16 months later. RESULTS: Thirty percent of adolescents reported having offline meetings. Maltreatment, adolescent behavioral problems, and low cognitive ability were uniquely associated with high-risk Internet behaviors. Exposure to sexual content, creating high-risk social networking profiles, and receiving online sexual solicitations were independent predictors of subsequent offline meetings. High-quality parenting and parental monitoring moderated the associations between adolescent risk factors and Internet behaviors, whereas use of parental control software did not. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment modalities for maltreated adolescents should be enhanced to include Internet safety literacy. Adolescents and parents should be aware of how online self-presentations and other Internet behaviors can increase vulnerability for Internet-initiated victimization. PMID:23319522
Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich
Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might
Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi
Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in middle school students and to identify associated psychosocial risk factors and depression. Methods This study was part of a larger epidemiological study on childhood psychiatric disorders conducted in Osan, a city of Republic of Korea. We used IAS for internet addiction, K-YSR for subjects' emotional and behavioral problems and K-CDI for depressive symptoms. We used the data of n=1217 completed cases. We put on independent variables, which are sex, age, smoking and alcohol experiences, economic status, age of first Internet use, K-YSR and K-CDI score. Results The subjects consisted of addicted users (2.38%), over users (36.89%) and normal Internet users (60.72%). Attention problems, sex, delinquent problems, K-CDI scores, thought problems, age and aggressive behavior were predictable variables of internet addiction. Age of initial Internet use negatively predicted Internet addiction. Conclusion This result showed similar to other researches about sociodemographic, emotional or behavioral factors related to internet addiction. Generally, subjects with more severe internet addiction had more emotional or behavioral problems. It means that they already have had various difficulties when we found internet addiction of adolescents. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate whether the subjects have any emotional or behavioral troubles and to intervene to prevent internet addiction. PMID:25395968
Tschopp, M; Brunner, F
Running is one of the most popular sports worldwide, with running events attracting hundreds of thousands of runners of all age groups. Running is an effective way to improve health but is also associated with a high risk of injuries. Up to 50% of regular runners report having more than one injury each year. Some injuries are caused by an accident but most are caused by overuse. The most frequent diagnoses are patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress syndrome (shin splint), Achilles tendinopathy, iliotibial band friction syndrome (runner's knee), plantar fasciitis and stress fractures of the metatarsals and tibia. The knee is the most frequently injured joint in runners at all distances. Hamstring injuries are typically acute resulting in a sudden, sharp pain in the posterior thigh. Hip injuries are less common but it can be more difficult to make the correct diagnosis and treatment is more complex. Clinicians confronted by runners with shin pain must distinguish between stress fractures of the tibia, tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) and chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Foot and ankle injuries are the most common injuries reported by long distance and marathon runners. Excess body weight and the number of kilometers run per week are high risk factors for injuries. The roles of other factors, such as shoes, stretching and biomechanics are less clear. A detailed anamnesis and physical examination are important for the correct diagnosis or the necessity for further diagnostic imaging and subsequent therapy.
Natsis, Konstantinos; Lyrtzis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Efthymia; Anastasopoulos, Nikos
Summary Background: Rectus abdominis injuries are common in tennis players at all levels of competition. Traumeel® injection can be used for treatment of muscle strains and hematomas. Case Report: A 21-year-old female tennis athlete was injured on the non-dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion. She suffered from pain and tenderness. One week later, during a serve, she experienced severe pain on the contralateral side of her abdomen. Conservative treatment was performed by the team physician with rest, ice therapy and analgesics for 20 days, but she had recurrent injuries. The ultrasonography and MRI showed hematoma of the rectus abdominis muscle. She was treated with 2 injections of Traumeel® on the 2nd, 4th, 6th post-traumatic day and received 1 injection on the 10th post-traumatic day. She also modified her serve technique. On the fourth post-treatment week the athlete had pain-free function and both the MRI appearance and the size of rectus abdominal muscle were normal. She returned to her sport activities. There is no recurrence of her injury 2 years later. Conclusions: Rectus abdominis hematoma must be diagnosed early. Traumeel® injections are effective, safe and well-tolerated for the treatment of overuse injury of the rectus abdominis following strain. PMID:23569472
Johansson, Kristian; Lempainen, Lasse; Sarimo, Janne; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Orava, Sakari
Summary Background the origin of chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is currently unclear and epidemiological factors, such as ethnicity, may be associated. Methods intraoperative findings from the treatment of 865 Finnish and 156 Italian athletic patients with chronic Achilles tendon related pain were evaluated, retrospectively. The mean age was 34 years (range, 18 to 65 years) in the Finnish and 29 years (range, 17–63 years) in the Italian patients. In total, 786 patients were males and 226 females of which 84 and 87% Finnish, respectively. Data were collected, retrospectively from patient records. The differences in the frequencies of operative findings were assessed for statistical significance. Results retrocalcaneal bursitis, partial tear and chronic paratenonitis were the most prevalent findings in patients with chronic AT undergoing surgery. Tendinosis and chronic paratenonitis were significantly (p=0.011) more common in Finnish athletes. Italian patients exhibited significantly (p<0.001) more insertional calcific tendinopathy (heel spurs) and prominent posterosuperior calcaneal corners (Haglund’s heel). Conclusion ethnicity appears to be associated with specific characteristics of overuse-related Achilles tendon pathology. This is an issue that should be considered in the planning of genetic research on AT. PMID:27331038
Schleifer, David; Rothman, David J.
Previous research has found that American patients strongly believe that more testing and more treatment lead to better outcomes and, to a lesser extent, that newer treatments are more effective. We conducted five focus groups with privately insured, healthy, middle-aged Americans (n = 43) to explore these apparent preferences. Contrary to previous research, an unexpected distinction emerged. Participants placed enormous value on testing and screening, reacting with hostility to guidelines recommending less of either. However, they were suspicious of overmedication. The wariness of pharmaceuticals and enthusiasm for testing and screening both appear to reflect participants’ efforts to take responsibility for their health. But recommendations to test and screen less conflicted with their active, engaged, information-seeking roles. Nonetheless, given patients’ concerns about overuse of pharmaceuticals, we maintain that they can learn to understand the connections between over-testing and over-treatment, and can actively choose to do less. We close with suggestions about how treatment guidelines can better communicate these connections to patients. Our findings cannot necessarily be generalized beyond privately-insured, healthy, middle-aged Americans. But because we found that, among these individuals, attitudes towards pharmaceuticals differ from attitudes towards testing and screening, we maintain that future research should also distinguish among and compare attitudes towards different types of medical interventions. PMID:23300706
Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman
Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.
Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman
Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published. PMID:27998173
Shek, Daniel T. L.; Keung Ma, Hing; Sun, Rachel C. F.
Several adolescent developmental problems in Hong Kong are briefly reviewed in this paper. First, rising adolescent substance abuse trends are described. Second, Internet use problems and Internet addiction among young people are examined. Third, worrying trends in adolescent sexuality are identified. Fourth, phenomena on bullying among young people are reviewed. Finally, phenomena related to adolescent materialistic orientation are focused upon. With reference to these adolescent developmental problems, possible solutions are briefly discussed particularly with reference to the ecological perspective. It is argued that the related scientific literature provides useful pointers for designing the curriculum in the extension phase of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong. PMID:22194661
Background Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a chronic headache condition that results from the overuse of analgesics drugs, triptans, or other antimigraine compounds. The epidemiology of drug-induced disorders suggests that medication overuse could lead to nephrotoxicity, particularly in chronic patients. The aim of this work was to confirm and extend the results obtained from a previous study, in which we analyzed the urinary proteome of 3 MOH patients groups: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), triptans and mixtures abusers, in comparison with non-abusers individuals (controls). Methods In the present work we employed specialized proteomic techniques, namely two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS), and the innovative Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS), to discover characteristic proteomic profiles associated with MOH condition. Results By 2-DE and MS analysis we identified 21 over-excreted proteins in MOH patients, particularly in NSAIDs abusers, and the majority of these proteins were involved in a variety of renal impairments, as resulted from a literature search. Urine protein profiles generated by SELDI-TOF-MS analysis showed different spectra among groups. Moreover, significantly higher number of total protein spots and protein peaks were detected in NSAIDs and mixtures abusers. Conclusions These findings confirm the presence of alterations in proteins excretion in MOH patients. Analysis of urinary proteins by powerful proteomic technologies could lead to the discovery of early candidate biomarkers, that might allow to identify MOH patients prone to develop potential drug overuse-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:23565828
Mauricio, Anne M.; Dillman-Carpentier, Francesca; Horan, John
Given the Internet's capacity to reach a wide audience and recent increases in violence-related episodes among our nation's youth, Internet-delivered, interactive conflict resolution programs may prove to be a powerful tool to prevent the growing phenomena of adolescent violence. In this study, we tested the efficacy of an Internet-delivered…
Attia, Mohamed; Scott, Alexander; Duchesnay, Arlette; Carpentier, Gilles; Soslowsky, Louis J; Huynh, Minh Bao; Van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Gossard, Camille; Courty, José; Tassoni, Marie-Claude; Martelly, Isabelle
Supraspinatus tendon overuse injuries lead to significant pain and disability in athletes and workers. Despite the prevalence and high social cost of these injuries, the early pathological events are not well known. We analyzed the potential relation between glycosaminoglycan (GAG) composition and phenotypic cellular alteration using a rat model of rotator cuff overuse. Total sulfated GAGs increased after 4 weeks of overuse and remained elevated up to 16 weeks. GAG accumulation was preceded by up-regulation of decorin, versican, and aggrecan proteoglycans (PGs) mRNAs and proteins and biglycan PG mRNA after 2 weeks. At 2 weeks, collagen 1 transcript decreased whereas mRNAs for collagen 2, collagen 3, collagen 6, and the transcription factor Sox9 were increased. Protein levels of heparin affine regulatory peptide (HARP)/pleiotrophin, a cytokine known to regulate developmental chondrocyte formation, were enhanced especially at 4 weeks, without up-regulation of HARP/pleiotrophin mRNA. Further results suggest that the increased GAGs present in early lesions may sequester HARP/pleiotrophin, which could contribute to a loss of tenocyte's phenotype. All these modifications are characteristic of a shift towards the chondrocyte phenotype. Identification of these early changes in the extra-cellular matrix may help to prevent the progression of the pathology to more disabling, degenerative alterations.
Spanish-speaking adolescents' interests and tastes in books vary as much as those of their English-speaking counterparts. This annotated bibliography includes brief short stories, realistic novels, an Internet guide, engrossing mysteries, passionate poems, all recently published books available for Spanish-speaking adolescents. (AEF)
Gregory, Robert J.; Mustata, Georgian T.
Adolescents sometimes cut themselves to relieve distress; however, the mechanism is unknown. Previous studies have linked self-injury to deficits in processing emotions symbolically through language. To investigate expressive language of adolescent cutters, the authors analyzed 100 narratives posted on the Internet. Most narratives (n = 66)…
Snyder, Susan M; Li, Wen; O'Brien, Jennifer E; Howard, Matthew O
This is the first study to investigate how college students in the U.S. with problematic Internet use perceive the role the Internet plays within their families of origin. The sample included 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as excessive Internet users. Participants reported spending more than 25 hours a week on the Internet on non-school or non-work-related activities and reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. This study provides descriptive statistics from participants' completion of two problematic Internet use measures (i.e., Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and reports findings from four focus groups. Three themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) family connectedness, (2) family conflict/family disconnection, and (3) family Internet overuse. The findings of this study are a first step toward the design of effective interventions for problematic Internet use among U.S. college students and serve to inform clinical practice and health policy in this area.
Snyder, Susan M.; Li, Wen; O’Brien, Jennifer E.; Howard, Matthew O.
This is the first study to investigate how college students in the U.S. with problematic Internet use perceive the role the Internet plays within their families of origin. The sample included 27 U.S. university students who self-identified as excessive Internet users. Participants reported spending more than 25 hours a week on the Internet on non-school or non-work-related activities and reported Internet-associated health and/or psychosocial problems. This study provides descriptive statistics from participants' completion of two problematic Internet use measures (i.e., Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and the Compulsive Internet Use Scale) and reports findings from four focus groups. Three themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) family connectedness, (2) family conflict/family disconnection, and (3) family Internet overuse. The findings of this study are a first step toward the design of effective interventions for problematic Internet use among U.S. college students and serve to inform clinical practice and health policy in this area. PMID:26658077
Memari, Amir Hossein; Ziaee, Vahid; Beygi, Sara; Moshayedi, Pouria; Mirfazeli, Fatemeh Sadat
Psychopharmacotherapy can be an effective part of the treatment for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However debate continues over the potential benefits and costs of these treatments; additionally little is known about the pattern of psychotropic medication use in developing countries. We aimed to survey the use of psychotropic…
Recupero, Patricia R
Problematic Internet use appears to be a growing concern in many criminal and civil legal proceedings. Problems range from inappropriate personal use of the Internet in the workplace and excessive use of online games, pornography, and gambling, to cyberbullying among children and adolescents and numerous forms of criminal activity. Forensic psychiatric evaluations may help courts or other agencies to understand individual cases and to discern whether a psychiatric disability may be involved. Furthermore, the forensic psychiatrist may be asked to formulate a prognosis or to suggest which treatments may be helpful. Among the multiple underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that explain problematic Internet use are: addiction, compulsion, impulse-control problems, and mood disorders. There is no definitive or standard treatment protocol for evaluation or treatment of problematic Internet use per se. A comprehensive evaluation should address the underlying psychopathology or personal problems that prompt or contribute to the problematic Internet use. This article suggests approaches that may help forensic psychiatrists to conduct a thorough evaluation with reasonable treatment recommendations. Different formulations of the problem and a discussion of DSM-IV factors are offered to provide starting points for the evaluation and to help psychiatrists to understand how problematic Internet use may relate to Axis I disorders or other factors.
Li, Mengjiao; Chen, Jie; Li, Naishi; Li, Xinying
Our goal was to estimate genetic and environmental sources of influence on adolescent problematic internet use, and whether these individual differences can be explained by effortful control, an important aspect of self-regulation. A sample of 825 pairs of Chinese adolescent twins and their parents provided reports of problematic internet use and effortful control. Univariate analysis revealed that genetic factors explained 58-66% of variance in problematic internet use, with the rest explained by non-shared environmental factors. Sex difference was found, suggesting boys' problematic internet use was more influenced by genetic influences than girls' problematic internet use. Bivariate analysis indicated that effortful control accounted for a modest portion of the genetic and non-shared environmental variance in problematic internet use among girls. In contrast, among boys, effortful control explained between 6% (parent report) and 20% (self-report) of variance in problematic internet use through overlapping genetic pathways. Adolescent problematic internet use is heritable, and poor effortful control can partly explain adolescent problematic internet use, with effects stronger for boys. Implications for future research are discussed.
Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...
Koh, Jae O
BACKGROUNDː To estimate the prevalence of chronic overuse pain (COP) and to identify possible risk factors of COP in sport-poomsae-Taekwondo. METHODSː This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 263 sport-poomsae competitors (112 females; 151 males; aged between 12-44 years), who competed at the 2014 sport-poomsae- Taekwondo competition, participated in this study. The prevalence rate of COP and possible risk factors associated with COP were analyzed by using Chi-square tests and independent t-tests. RESULTSː A total of 173 athletes reported that they experienced COP (65.8%; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 60.5-71.5). Female athletes showed a higher prevalence rate than their male counterparts (75.9% vs. 58.3%). Lower body (61.5%) and knee joints (26.4%) were the two primarily injured body part. A total of 101 athletes reported that they injured in the previous year. Among those, 81.2% were suffered from COP. The technique that caused pain most frequently was side-kick among females and front-kick among males. Prevalence rates of COP were significantly different by sex, education level, training hour, and a history of injury. CONCLUSIONː The prevalence of COP is high among sport-poomsae-Taekwondo athletes. Competitors who are female, have a history of injury, and train for extended hours were more likely to experience COP. To identify other potential risk factors of COP in sport- poomsae-Taekwondo, more research is needed to build upon the findings.
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann
Google the question, “How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?,” and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting our preference for writing over speaking. I propose that our preference for communicating through Internet-based text derives from a fundamental feature of writing: In contrast to speech, which is most often synchronous, text is most often asynchronous. PMID:26330702
Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chiang, Jeng-Tung; Pan, Ying-Chun
This study examined the relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and its impact on online health information seeking. Data were obtained from 1,869 junior high school students and 1,365 parents in Taiwan in 2013. Multivariate analysis results showed that higher levels of parental Internet skill and eHealth literacy were associated with an increase in parental online health information seeking. Parental eHealth literacy, parental active use Internet mediation, adolescent Internet literacy, and health information literacy were all related to adolescent eHealth literacy. Similarly, adolescent Internet/health information literacy, eHealth literacy, and parental active use Internet mediation, and parental online health information seeking were associated with an increase in adolescent online health information seeking. The incorporation of eHealth literacy courses into parenting programs and school education curricula is crucial to promote the eHealth literacy of parents and adolescents.
Sarda, Elisa; Bègue, Laurent; Bry, Clémentine; Gentile, Douglas
The overuse of online games is known to be inversely related to various indicators of well-being. This article validates the DSM-5 criteria of internet gaming disorder (IGD), and analyzes its links with five indicators of well-being: life satisfaction, loneliness, anxiety, depression, and academic performance in a French-speaking sample of 693 gamers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed a one-factor structure of IGD criteria. The IGD scale showed satisfactory validity and reliability and was related in a consistent way with well-being measures. The IGD scale appears to be an appropriate measure to assess video game addiction and will contribute to increase the comparability of international research on video game addiction.
Grohol, J M
The debate surrounding the definition and validity of "Internet addiction,"a theorized disorder involving people who find themselves spending a lot of time online to the detriment of other relationships and responsibilities, remains unresolved. Although an understanding of human behavior is one piece of the equation, other pieces must be taken into consideration to appreciate the full picture. Societal acceptance of technology, the definitions of addictions and compulsions, and the effects of labeling are additional issues to take into consideration. When viewed from a broader perspective, online overuse looks surprisingly similar to normal social interactions carried out online, or simply one method for coping with other life, medical, or mental health problems. This article attempts to address these issues from this broader context while examining the underlying problems with research in this area to-date and offering suggestions for future research.
Huan, Vivien S; Ang, Rebecca P; Chong, Wan Har; Chye, Stefanie
In recent years, research indicated that the problematic effects of Internet use must be examined together with individual differences present in its users with which such effects are contingent. This study examined loneliness in adolescents as a mediator of the relationship between shyness and their generalized problematic Internet use (PIU). A total of 1469 adolescents (48.5% male, 51.5% female) from Grade 8 and Grade 9 classes participated in this study. Using the Social Reticence Scale (SRS), the revised UCLA Loneliness scale and the Generalized Problematic Internet Use scale, initial findings indicated significant correlations among the three variables. Results from the study further revealed that loneliness completely mediated the relationship between shyness and generalized problematic Internet use. Implications for intervention work addressing both loneliness and shyness issues facing adolescents who are problematic users of the Internet were discussed.
Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Yun
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%).
Jacobson, Cara; Bailin, Alexandra; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew
This article examines the health implications of new age technology use among adolescents. As Internet prevalence has increased, researchers have found evidence of potential negative health consequences on adolescents. Internet addiction has become a serious issue. Pornography is now easily accessible to youth and studies have related pornography with several negative health effects. Cyberbullying has become a large problem as new age technologies have created a new and easy outlet for adolescents to bully one another. These technologies are related to increased morbidity and mortality, such as suicides due to cyberbullying and motor vehicle deaths due to texting while driving.
The aim of this study is to present the development and issues of internet and internet use. The study has a descriptive survey design and 185 randomly selected teacher trainees at Marmara University, Ataturk Education Faculty in the 2001-2002 academic year constitute the sample. Data were collected via a questionnaire prepared by the researcher…
Van Houweling, Douglas
Argues that to be successful, technology developed to build Internet2 must migrate to commercial networks. Discusses University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID) and Internet2, corporate involvement in Internet2, and the federal governments Next Generation Internet (NGI). Highlights Internet2 applications, engineering, and…
Examined extent to which Scottish adolescents (N=40) were influenced by negative images of adolescence present in the culture, investigating self-images by means of Q sort. Eleven factors emerged from analysis, six of which met criterion that distinguishes common factors. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents were influenced by…
Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Chung-Sheng; Wang, Shing-Yaw
This study evaluated the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance, the gender difference of frustration intolerance, and the gender differences of the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance. Participants were 2,114 students (1,204 male and 910 female) who were recruited to complete the Chen Internet Addiction Scale and Frustration Discomfort scale. Females had higher scores on the subscale of entitlement and emotional intolerance and the total scale of the frustration intolerance. There was a significant gender difference on the association between Internet addiction and frustration intolerance. The association was higher in male adolescents. Regression analysis revealed male adolescents with Internet addiction had higher intolerance to frustration of entitlement and emotional discomfort, and female adolescents with it had higher intolerance to emotional discomfort and lower tolerance to frustration of achievement. Frustration intolerance should be evaluated for adolescents with Internet addiction, especially for males. Rational emotive behavior therapy focusing on different irrational beliefs should be provided to male and female adolescents with Internet addiction.
Jugenheimer, Donald W.
States that although many advertisers have intentions of utilizing the Internet for advertising, which can provide specific audience targeting and buyer/seller interactivity, few have been successful. Explains advantages and disadvantages of using the Internet for advertising purposes. Cites special problems with Internet advertising and successes…
This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…
Van Horn, Royal
Describes national study of the attitudes and behaviors of middle and high school students who use the Internet. Finds that Internet-savvy students use the Internet as a virtual book and reference library, a tutor and study shortcut, a study group, a guidance counselor, and a locker, backpack, and notebook. Offers several explanations about the…
Once schools are connected to the Internet, the next step is getting network workstations configured for Internet access. This article describes a basic toolkit comprising software currently available on the Internet for free or modest cost. Lists URLs for Web browser, Telnet, FTP, file decompression, portable document format (PDF) reader,…
Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Glümer, Charlotte; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Jensen, Rigmor Højland
Near-daily intake of acute symptomatic medication for frequent headache increases the risk for medication-overuse headache (MOH). Chronic headache (CH) and MOH prevalences are inversely related to socioeconomic position (SEP). It is not known how SEP influences the health status of people with these headaches. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of CH in Denmark; possible associations between CH and education, work status, and income; and the health status of people with CH across socioeconomic strata. A total of 129,150 individuals aged ⩾ 16 years were invited to the 2010 Danish National Health Survey. Data on SEP indicators and purchases of prescription drugs in 2009 were retrieved from national registers. Respondents with headache ⩾ 15 days per month over 3 months were classified as having CH. Those with concurrent over-the-counter analgesic intake of ⩾ 15 days per month or prescription medication overuse (⩾ 20 or ⩾ 30 defined daily doses per month depending on the drug or drugs) were classified as having MOH. Associations between headache and SEP were analyzed by logistic regression, and associations between headache and health status scores, by linear regression. Physical and mental health composite scores (SF-12) were summarized per headache group, stratified by SEP, and compared to the sample mean. Analyses were adjusted for stratified sampling and nonresponse. The response rate was 53.1%. CH prevalence was 3.3% with 53.0% of cases having concurrent medication overuse (MOH prevalence 1.8%). CH was more prevalent among those individuals with low SEP. Health status scores were significantly lower among persons with CH in all SEP categories. The burden of CH can be reduced by preventing and treating MOH.
Curone, M; D'Amico, D; Bussone, G
Patients with chronic migraine (CM) and medication overuse (MO) have a high frequency of psychiatric comorbidity or psychopathological traits, the presence of which may have important implications for the course of the CM and the MO, both for response to treatment and possible relapses. Overuse of symptomatic drugs is regarded as one of the most important risk factor for the transformation of episodic migraine into CM and drug-seeking tendency due to fear of headache in chronic migraine patients shares with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) the compulsive quality of the behavior. Aim of this study was to review the clinical history of a sample of CM patients with MO in which an obsessive-compulsive trait was identified, performing a comparison with a sample of patients without obsessive-compulsive trait. We selected 14 patients with positivity to Spectrum Project OBS (obsessive-compulsive disorder) questionnaire and other 14 patients with negativity to the same tool from among a sample of patients who were enrolled in a previous study on the psychopathological profile of patients suffering from CM with MO. According to data obtained from the clinical records referring to the previous 5 years, patients with OBS questionnaire positivity showed a worse clinical course and a tendency to early relapse in MO after symptomatic medication withdrawal. Our results show that the comorbidity of OCD should be always evaluated in patients with CM and MO as it may play a relevant role--particularly if not treated--among the risk factors favoring the progression of episodic migraine to the chronic form, and/or the tendency to a pathological behavior that prompts the overuse of symptomatic medications.
Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim
The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…
Dowell, Elizabeth B.; Burgess, Ann W.; Cavanaugh, Deborah J.
Background: Internet safety is a growing public concern especially among adults and youth who live in an "instant messaging" world of technological communication. To better understand how early adolescents are using the Internet, a study was undertaken to more clearly identify the online general use, safety knowledge, and risk behaviors…
Johnson, Genevieve Marie
The number of children and adolescents accessing the Internet as well as the amount of time online are steadily increasing. The most common online activities include playing video games, navigating web sites, and communicating via chat rooms, email, and instant messaging. A theoretical framework for understanding the effects of Internet use on…
Wynne, Liam G.; Mai, Li-Wei
A survey of 98 British adolescents intending to continue postcompulsory education and 30 not continuing revealed similar levels of television, newspaper, and radio use. Internet users included 87% of group one, 42% of group two; the latter are less likely to have access. Among Internet users, only 40.8% use it for information on…
Eells, Gregory T.
The use of the mobile Internet continues to play an increasing role in all of our lives and particularly in the lives of college and university students. Questions have been raised about the impact of the Internet on adolescents' and college students' fulfillment of traditional developmental tasks and more broadly their mental health. The present…
Negro, Andrea; Curto, Martina; Lionetto, Luana; Crialesi, Dorotea; Martelletti, Paolo
The efficacy and safety of OnabotulinumtoxinA 155-195 U (BOTOX(®)) in adults with chronic migraine (CM) were demonstrated in both the Phase III Research Evaluating Migraine Prophylaxis Therapy (PREEMPT) studies. However, data about its long-term efficacy and safety in clinical settings are scanty. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate OnabotulinumtoxinA 155 U treatment in patients affected with CM and co-morbid medication overuse headache (MOH) over 2-year analysis. We prospectively evaluated 155 CM and MOH affected patients started on OnabotulinumtoxinA 155U (PREEMPT injection paradigm) between October 2010 and November 2011 and followed-up for 2 years. All patients failed to positively respond to previous multiple preventive therapies that were withdrawn before starting OnabotulinumtoxinA. Headache days, migraine days, acute pain medication intake days and Headache Impact Test (HIT)-6 score were used as efficacy measures, whereas safety was evaluated with side effects occurrence during the treatment phase. Baseline data were collected from patients headache diary referred to the previous month, and patients were evaluated every 3 months at the time of each injection. OnabotulinumtoxinA 155U significantly reduced the number of headache and migraine days (p < 0.001), acute pain medication intake days (p < 0.001) and HIT-6 score (p < 0.001) when compared with the baseline data. The reduction was significant after the first injection (p < 0.001), and gradually increased during the 2 years of treatment. Treatment related adverse events were transient and mild-moderate (e.g. headache, injection-site pain, eyelid ptosis, musculoskeletal weakness). This prospective 2-years analysis of efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with OnabotulinumtoxinA 155 U in patients affected with CM and MOH confirms the efficacy data from previous Randomized Clinical Trials for CM prophylaxis. Moreover, here we demonstrate that OnabotulinumtoxinA can be
In this article, the "multiple voices" of 13-15-year-old German and Italian adolescents in internet guest-books are analyzed. The study is based on guest-books texts with a mixture of different registers, languages and dialects. In particular, the German adolescents from the Augsburg region (Bavaria) display a strong regional linguistic…
Kim, Ran; Lee, Kwang-Ja; Choi, Yun-Jung
This research was conducted to examine the relationships among mobile phone use, anxiety, and parental attitudes toward child-rearing in a convenience sample of 351 Grade 6 elementary school students. There were 157 boys and 194 girls. A mobile phone overuse questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Parental Attitude Inventory were used for data collection. The data were analyzed by the t test, analysis of variance, hierarchical regression, and descriptive analysis using SPSS WIN 18.0. Mobile phone use was greater in girls than in boys, and the difference was statistically significant. Mobile phone use was positively correlated with anxiety, and it was negatively correlated with parental child-raising attitudes. Mobile phone use in girls was mainly affected by anxiety, and in boys, it was significantly affected by the maternal child-raising attitude. This research provides basic data for parent education, school policy, and prevention programs about mobile phone overuse that support mental health improvement in the individual, family, and community.
Kim, Seul-Kee; Kim, So-Yeong; Kang, Hang-Bong
Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group. PMID:27366147
Kim, Seul-Kee; Kim, So-Yeong; Kang, Hang-Bong
Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group.
Background To validate a rapid questionnaire as a screening tool, because application of the diagnostic revised criteria of the ICHD-II for medication overuse headache (MOH) requires experience for the physician and is time-consuming. Methods ICHD-II criteria for probable MOH (pMOH) were transformed in questions formulated in such a way that they could be self-administered, easily understood, and quickly filled out. We compared this questionnaire to the gold standard: the diagnosis made by headache specialists, based on the the ICHD-II criteria. Patients who were consulting for pMOH or migraine for the first time were consecutively included. As validity indicators, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the items. Results Seventy-nine patients were screened, 77 included, 2 female patients excluded. Forty-two patients have been considered as suffering from pMOH, 35 patients suffered from migraine without medication overuse. The association of the question “do you take a treatment for attacks more than 10 days per month” and the question “is this intake on a regular basis?” had a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 80%. Conclusion This screening tool can detect pMOH with a sensitivity that could be of interest to screen patients in clinical practice and to pre-include patients for research as epidemiological studies. PMID:24088386
Alhassan, Sulaiman; Sayf, Alaa Abu; Arsene, Camelia; Krayem, Hicham
BACKGROUND: Majority of our computed tomography-pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scans report negative findings. We hypothesized that suboptimal reliance on diagnostic algorithms contributes to apparent overuse of this test. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 2031 CTPA cases in a large hospital system. Investigators retrospectively calculated pretest probability (PTP). Use of CTPA was considered as inappropriate when it was ordered for patients with low PTP without checking D-dimer (DD) or following negative DD. RESULTS: Among the 2031 cases, pulmonary embolism (PE) was found in 7.4% (151 cases). About 1784 patients (88%) were considered “PE unlikely” based on Wells score. Out of those patients, 1084 cases (61%) did not have DD test prior to CTPA. In addition, 78 patients with negative DD underwent unnecessary CTPA; none of them had PE. CONCLUSIONS: The suboptimal implementation of PTP assessment tools can result in the overuse of CTPA, contributing to ineffective utilization of hospital resources, increased cost, and potential harm to patients. PMID:27803751
Jones, Rachel K; Biddlecom, Ann E
At the same time that there was a decline in comprehensive school-based sex education, adolescents' use of the Internet became nearly universal. This study explores adolescents' use and evaluation of the Internet for sexual health information, with a focus on the issues of contraception and abstinence. The authors conducted 58 in-depth interviews with juniors and seniors in 3 public high schools in New York City and Indiana. Most of the adolescents used the Internet on a daily basis, but few considered it a main source of information about contraception or abstinence. Students were more likely to rely on and had greater trust in traditional sexuality education sources such as school, family members, and friends. Most of the adolescents the authors interviewed were wary of sexual health information on the Internet, and the authors describe strategies adolescents used to sort through the abundance of sex-related material. Formal and informal efforts to provide sexuality education to adolescents should include specific age- and content-appropriate Web sites because many teens are not actively searching on their own, and they express reservations about relying on the Internet as a source of sexual health information.
Hong, Soon-Beom; Harrison, Ben J; Dandash, Orwa; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seong-Chan; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Shim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung
Brain cortico-striatal circuits have consistently been implicated in the pathology of addiction related disorders. We applied a reliable seed-based analysis of the resting-state brain activity to comprehensively delineate the subdivisions of striatal functional connectivity implicated in internet gaming disorder. Among twelve right-handed male adolescents with internet gaming disorder and 11 right-handed and gender-matched healthy controls, we examined group differences in the functional connectivity of dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the caudate nucleus and putamen, as well as the association of these connectivity indices with behavioral measures of internet use. Adolescents with internet gaming disorder showed significantly reduced dorsal putamen functional connectivity with the posterior insula-parietal operculum. More time spent playing online games predicted significantly greater functional connectivity between the dorsal putamen and bilateral primary somatosensory cortices in adolescents with internet gaming disorder, and significantly lower functional connectivity between the dorsal putamen and bilateral sensorimotor cortices in healthy controls. The dorsal putamen functional connectivity was significantly and specifically different in adolescents with internet gaming disorder. The findings suggest a possible biomarker of internet gaming disorder.
Durkee, Tony; Hadlaczky, Gergo; Westerlund, Michael; Carli, Vladimir
The general aim of this study was to review the scientific literature concerning the Internet and suicidality and to examine the different pathways by which suicidal risks and prevention efforts are facilitated through the Internet. An online literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases. The main themes that were investigated included pathological Internet use and suicidality, pro-suicide websites, suicide pacts on the Internet, and suicide prevention via the Internet. Articles were screened based on the titles and abstracts reporting on the themes of interest. Thereafter, articles were selected based on scientific relevance of the study, and included for full text assessment. The results illustrated that specific Internet pathways increased the risk for suicidal behaviours, particularly in adolescents and young people. Several studies found significant correlations between pathological Internet use and suicidal ideation and non-suicidal self-injury. Pro-suicide websites and online suicide pacts were observed as high-risk factors for facilitating suicidal behaviours, particularly among isolated and susceptible individuals. Conversely, the evidence also showed that the Internet could be an effective tool for suicide prevention, especially for socially-isolated and vulnerable individuals, who might otherwise be unreachable. It is this paradox that accentuates the need for further research in this field.
literally examine hundreds of books and speeches. Since the purpose of this work is examining ways to counter an extremist’s Internet use of the...provide differing perspectives on how to counter extremist Internet use . A 2008 New York Times article indirectly offers some methods. Writers Eric...or scholars have the most potential to effectively counter extremist Internet use . Such efforts could help to stifle some of the issues that
Kwon, Jung-Hye; Chung, Chung-Suk; Lee, Jung
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Baumeister's escape from self theory may account for the pathological use of Internet games among Korean adolescents. A sample of 1,136 junior high school students completed measures assessing Internet game addiction (IGA), real-ideal self discrepancy, escape from self, current mood, peer relationships, perceived parent-child relationship, and parental supervision. IGA was significantly correlated with all of these variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that escape from self best explained the adolescents' IGA. A path model yielded significant paths from self-discrepancy to negative mood, from negative mood to escape from self, and from escape from self to IGA. These results support the validity of using the escape from self theory to explain the adolescents' IGA, thereby suggesting that adolescents become addicted to Internet games in an attempt to escape from self and reality.
In its prime state, DATA is a Latin word meaning ``[things] given'', a plural noun derived from the verb ``To Give''. Its singular form is DATUM. Modern conversation equates DATA with ``Information'', while modern philosophies on information management are getting entwined with parallel philosophies on knowledge management. In some ways that is a positive development, and is greatly assisted by Open Access and Internet policies, but in others it is more detrimental, by threatening to blur the essential distinction between objectivity and subjectivity in our science. We examine that essential distinction from the view-points of observers, authors (and publishers), and database managers, and suggest where, when and how the distinctiveness of their fundamental contributions to the communication and validation of research results should be respected and upheld.
Griffin, Elizabeth M.
In its prime state, DATA is a Latin word meaning "[things] given", a plural noun derived from the verb "To Give". Its singular form is DATUM. Modern conversation equates DATA with "Information", while modern philosophies on information management are getting entwined with parallel philosophies on knowledge management. In some ways that is a positive development, and is greatly assisted by Open Access and Internet policies, but in others it is more detrimental, by threatening to blur the essential distinction between objectivity and subjectivity in our science. We examine that essentialdistinction from the view-points of observers, authors (and publishers), and database managers, and suggest where, when and how the distinctiveness of their fundamental contributions to the communication and validation of research results should be respected and upheld.
Romano, Michela; Osborne, Lisa A.; Truzoli, Roberto; Reed, Phil
The study explored the immediate impact of internet exposure on the mood and psychological states of internet addicts and low internet-users. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests to explore levels of internet addiction, mood, anxiety, depression, schizotypy, and autism traits. They were then given exposure to the internet for 15 min, and re-tested for mood and current anxiety. Internet addiction was associated with long-standing depression, impulsive nonconformity, and autism traits. High internet-users also showed a pronounced decrease in mood following internet use compared to the low internet-users. The immediate negative impact of exposure to the internet on the mood of internet addicts may contribute to increased usage by those individuals attempting to reduce their low mood by re-engaging rapidly in internet use. PMID:23408958
Smeaton, Michael; Griffiths, Mark
Within the last few years, we have seen a substantial increase in the amount of gambling opportunities offered on the Internet. Many concerns have been raised about the activity, including the potential for excessive gambling, and the lack of safeguards for vulnerable populations such as adolescents and problem gamblers. Given these concerns, a representative selection of 30 U.K.-owned Internet gambling sites were studied to examine what safeguards were in place to encourage social responsibility of Internet gamblers. It was found that very few sites were engaged in socially responsible practice and that much more could be done to protect vulnerable groups. The findings from this study were then used to compile a list of recommendations for good practice among Internet gambling operators.
Chamakura, Reddy P.
The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.
The Internet is a worldwide network of computer networks. In the United States, the National Science Foundation Network (NSFNet) serves as the Internet "backbone" (a very high speed network that connects key regions across the country). The NSFNet will likely evolve into the National Research and Education Network (NREN) as defined in…
Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna
This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…
Internet Research, 1996
Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…
Donath, L; Roesner, K; Schöffl, V; Gabriel, H H W
An imbalanced load application of the upper extremity may contribute to overuse-induced injuries of the fingers. Thus, the present study evaluated load-application symmetry between the right and the left hand and its work-relief ratios (WRR) depending on climbing ability and pre-exhaustion level. Twenty-eight sport climbers (age: 29 ± 8 years; body mass index: 22 ± 2 kg/m(2); years of climbing: 10 ± 6; climbing level: 6+ UIAA to 9 UIAA) were assigned to a group of recreational (≤8-UIAA, n = 14) or a group of ambitious (≥8 UIAA, n = 14) climbers. Blood lactate and perceived exertion level were recorded at the end of the climbing attempt. Load application and WRR were derived from video analysis separately for the left and the right hand. Differences in load-application time between the left (47 ± 4%) and the right (53 ± 4%) hand (P < 0.001) were observed. Irrespective of side differences, the overall WRR was 5:1. Increasing climbing level leads to a more symmetric load application (r = -0.42, P < 0.03). Differences of lactate concentration and exertion level were found between the pre- and the non-pre-exhausted group. Depending on climbing ability and exhaustion level, load application for the dominant hand (right) prevails. Further longitudinal studies should focus on imbalanced load application and overuse-induced climbing injuries.
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Greenfield, Patricia
Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social
Tan, Kok Eng; Ng, Melissa L. Y.; Saw, Kim Guan
Among a number of urban adolescents in Malaysia, going online is a much valued practice. They are regularly drawn to the Internet to engage in activities across school, nonschool, mainstream and alternative domains. The aim of this study is to know more about what these adolescents do online. Data on the online activities were collected from 535…
Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Hurtado, Isabel; Sanfélix-Genovés, José; Baixauli-Pérez, Cristóbal; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L.; Peiró, Salvador
Inappropriate prescribing of antiosteoporotic medications has been observed; however, the joint study of both overuse and underuse has barely been attempted. Spain, with its high utilization rates, constitutes a good example to assess differences in over and under use according to diverse highly-influential osteoporosis guidelines (HIOG) worldwide. We used data of a population-based cross-sectional study including 824 post-menopausal women ≥50 years old living in the city of Valencia, Spain and aimed to estimate the percentage of women eligible for treatment, and the proportion of overuse and underuse of antiosteoporotic treatment according to HIOG. The prevalence of antiosteoporotic treatment in postmenopausal women ≥ 50 in Valencia was 20.9% (95%CI:17.6–24.4). The type of antiosteoporotic drugs prescribed varied greatly depending on the medical specialty responsible of the initial prescription. When applying the HIOG, the percentage of women 50 and over who should be treated varied from less than 9% to over 44%. In real terms, from the approximately eight million women of 50 years old and over in Spain, the number eligible for treatment would range from 0.7 to 3.8 million, depending on the guideline used. A huge proportion of inappropriate treatments was found when applying these guidelines to the Spanish population, combining a high overuse (42–78% depending on the guideline used) and underuse (7–41%). In conclusion, we found that the pharmacological management of osteoporosis in women of 50 and over in this population combines an important overuse and, to a lesser extent, underuse, although the level of inappropriateness varied strikingly depending on the CPG used. It seems urgent to reduce treatment overuse without neglecting underuse, as is urgent an attempt to reach wider agreement worldwide regarding osteoporosis management, in order to facilitate appropriate treatment and development of policies to reduce effectively treatment inappropriateness
Estrada, Yannine; Molleda, Lourdes; Murray, Ashley; Drumhiller, Kathryn; Tapia, Maria; Sardinas, Krystal; Rosen, Alexa; Pantin, Hilda; Perrino, Tatiana; Sutton, Madeline; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Dorcius, Daphney; Wendorf Muhamad, Jessica; Prado, Guillermo
This paper describes the Internet adaptation of an evidenced-based intervention for Hispanic families, eHealth Familias Unidas, and explores whether an Internet-based format is feasible and acceptable to Hispanic families. Core intervention components from the evidence-based intervention, Familias Unidas, were transposed into a video format and edited for content. Additionally, interactive exercises and a soap opera series were incorporated to reinforce intervention content and optimize participant engagement and retention. To understand the feasibility and acceptability of eHealth Familias Unidas, we conducted a pilot study and examined findings from: (1) session completion rates for both e-parent group sessions and family sessions (n = 23 families); and (2) qualitative data collected from Hispanic parents (n = 29) that received the eHealth intervention. Engagement and attendance in the intervention showed that 83% of families engaged in the intervention and that there was an overall session completion rate of 78%. Qualitative interviews were conducted mid and post intervention with a combined total of 29 participants. A general inductive approach was used to derive themes from the collected data. Overall, parents expressed positive feedback in regards to the intervention and stated that there were multiple lessons learned from participating in eHealth Familias Unidas. Findings indicate that an Internet-based family intervention is not only feasible and acceptable for Hispanic families, but also offers a viable option to ameliorate barriers to participation and implementation of preventive interventions. PMID:28273862
Williams, Mark E
The growth of internet-based communications and the increasing demand for living organ donors are resulting in more use of Web sites for organ solicitation. Web resources have the capacity to improve public awareness about both organ donations and transplant outcomes. Rules for organ donation and fair allocation must follow legal principles regarding organ solicitation. Categories of internet recipient/donor matching services include "clearing house," "membership," and "individual" sites. All these raise ethical concerns related to the individual recipient/donor relationship and to the current system of organ allocation. However, a lack of rules and regulations regarding internet solicitation exists. Several pragmatic steps are proposed.
Chéron, Charlène; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine; Jespersen, Eva; Rexen, Christina Trifonov; Franz, Claudia; Wedderkopp, Niels
Objectives It is not known which sports are most likely to cause overuse injuries of the extremities in children. In this study, we report on the incidence of overuse injuries of the upper and lower extremities in children who participate in various leisure-time sports and relate this to the frequency of sport sessions. Design Natural experiment including a prospective cohort study. Setting 10 state schools in 1 Danish municipality: Svendborg. Participants 1270 children aged 6–13 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Outcomes measures Over 2.5 years, parents answered weekly SMS-track messages (a) on type and frequency of leisure-time sports undertaken by their child, and (b) reporting if their child had experienced any musculoskeletal pain. Children with reported pain were examined by a clinician and diagnosed as having an overuse injury of an extremity or not. The incidence of diagnosed overuse injury was calculated for each of the 9 most common sports in relation to 5-week periods. Incidence by frequency of sessions was calculated, and multivariable analysis was performed taking into account age, sex and frequency of physical education classes at school. Results Incidence of overuse injuries of the lower extremity ranged from 0.2 to 3.3 for the 9 sports, but was near 0 for overuse injuries of the upper extremities. There was no obvious dose–response. The multivariate analysis showed soccer and handball to be the sports most likely to result in an overuse injury. Conclusions Among a general population of schoolchildren, overuse injuries of the lower extremities were not common and overuse injuries of the upper extremities were rare. Organised leisure-time sport, as practised in Denmark, can be considered a safe activity for children. PMID:28087543
Odabasi, H. Ferhan
Children's effective use of Internet relies heavily on the factors surrounding them, thus parents' views and attitudes are crucial for elementary children's productive use of Internet. Besides, parental awareness on Internet helps parents to reflect to the related issues of Internet. This study tries to reveal the elementary school children's…
Simpson, Carol Mann
This guide introduces the library media specialist to the Internet, its history and features, and provides information on specific uses of the Internet in school libraries and specific areas. Section 1, "What is the Internet?" introduces the reader to the Internet; electronic mail; telnet; file transfer protocol (FTP); wide area…
Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter
Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.
Hooke, A. J.
Architectural design of the interplanetary internet is now underway and prototype flight testing of some of the candidate protocols is anticipated within a year. This talk will describe the current status of the project.
Galkin, I. A.; Kitrosser, D. F.; Kecic, Z.; Reinisch, B. W.
Connecting ionosondes to the Internet gives easy access to real-time information on ionospheric conditions. Some of the ionosonde sites provide just the ionogram displays, others give in addition the scaled ionospheric characteristics directly usable for frequency management and HF channel assessment. Some sounders also store days or months of station data, which makes it possible remotely to evaluate the time history of geophysical events. The Internet link is also a convenient means for remote system maintenance and control. The paper addresses various aspects of the Internet ionosonde scenario, including data base support, WWW publishing, user interface, security, and data format. A list of Internet accessible ionosonde stations is provided with a brief description.
Porter, M E
Many of the pioneers of Internet business, both dot-coms and established companies, have competed in ways that violate nearly every precept of good strategy. Rather than focus on profits, they have chased customers indiscriminately through discounting, channel incentives, and advertising. Rather than concentrate on delivering value that earns an attractive price from customers, they have pursued indirect revenues such as advertising and click-through fees. Rather than make trade-offs, they have rushed to offer every conceivable product or service. It did not have to be this way--and it does not have to be in the future. When it comes to reinforcing a distinctive strategy, Michael Porter argues, the Internet provides a better technological platform than previous generations of IT. Gaining competitive advantage does not require a radically new approach to business; it requires building on the proven principles of effective strategy. Porter argues that, contrary to recent thought, the Internet is not disruptive to most existing industries and established companies. It rarely nullifies important sources of competitive advantage in an industry; it often makes them even more valuable. And as all companies embrace Internet technology, the Internet itself will be neutralized as a source of advantage. Robust competitive advantages will arise instead from traditional strengths such as unique products, proprietary content, and distinctive physical activities. Internet technology may be able to fortify those advantages, but it is unlikely to supplant them. Porter debunks such Internet myths as first-mover advantage, the power of virtual companies, and the multiplying rewards of network effects. He disentangles the distorted signals from the marketplace, explains why the Internet complements rather than cannibalizes existing ways of doing business, and outlines strategic imperatives for dot-coms and traditional companies.
The Internet goose has laid countless golden eggs, along with a growing number of rotten ones. But it's the rotten ones that now tempt commercial, governmental, and consumer interests to threaten the Internet's uniquely creative power. The expediently selected, almost accidentally generative properties of the Internet - its technical openness, ease of access and mastery, and adaptability - have combined, especially when coupled with those of the PC, to produce an unsurpassed environment for innovative experiment. Those same properties, however, also make the Internet hospitable to various forms of wickedness: hacking, porn, spam, fraud, theft, predation, and attacks on the network itself. As these undesirable phenomena proliferate, business, government, and many users find common cause for locking down Internet and PC architecture in the interests of security and order. PC and Internet security vulnerabilities are a legitimate menace. However, the most likely reactions - if they are not forestalled - will be at least as unfortunate as the security problems themselves. Consider the growing profusion of "tethered appliances" - devices whose functions cannot readily be altered by their owners (think TiVo). Such appliances take Internet innovations and wrap them up in a neat, easy-to-use package, which is good - but only if the Internet and PC can remain sufficiently in the center of the digital ecosystem to produce the next round of innovations and to generate competition. People buy these devices for their convenience or functionality and may appreciate the fact that they are safer to use (they limit the damage users can do through ignorance or carelessness). But the risk is that users, by migrating to such appliances, will unwittingly trade away the future benefits of generativity - a loss that will go unappreciated even as innovation tapers off.
Li, Yajun; Zhang, Xinghui; Lu, Furong; Zhang, Qin
Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of Chinese elementary and middle school students and to investigate Internet addiction among Internet users with different usages. The data were from the National Children's Study of China (NCSC) in which 24,013 fourth- to ninth-grade students were recruited from 100 counties in 31 provinces in China. Only 54.2% of the students had accessed the Internet. According to the criteria of Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ), an eight-item instrument, the prevalence of Internet addiction in the total sample was 6.3%, and among Internet users was 11.7%. Among the Internet users, males (14.8%) and rural students (12.1%) reported Internet addiction more than females (7.0%) and urban students (10.6%). The percentage of Internet addicts in elementary school students (11.5%) was not significantly lower than the percentage of middle school students (11.9%). There was no statistically significant difference between the four geographical regions (9.6%, 11.5%, 12.3%, 11.1%) characterized by different levels of economy, health, education, and social environment. As the frequency of Internet use and time spent online per week increased, the percentage of Internet addicts increased. When considering the location and purpose of Internet use, the percentage of Internet addicts was highest in adolescents typically surfing in Internet cafes (18.1%) and playing Internet games (22.5%). PMID:23971432
This is the Final Report for the Internet Based Remote Operations Contract, has performed payload operations research support tasks March 1999 through September 1999. These tasks support the GSD goal of developing a secure, inexpensive data, voice, and video mission communications capability between remote payload investigators and the NASA payload operations team in the International Space Station (ISS) era. AZTek has provided feedback from the NASA payload community by utilizing its extensive payload development and operations experience to test and evaluate remote payload operations systems. AZTek has focused on use of the "public Internet" and inexpensive, Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Internet-based tools that would most benefit "small" (e.g., $2 Million or less) payloads and small developers without permanent remote operations facilities. Such projects have limited budgets to support installation and development of high-speed dedicated communications links and high-end, custom ground support equipment and software. The primary conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The trend of using Internet technology for "live" collaborative applications such as telescience will continue. The GSD-developed data and voice capabilities continued to work well over the "public" Internet during this period. 2. Transmitting multiple voice streams from a voice-conferencing server to a client PC to be mixed and played on the PC is feasible. 3. There are two classes of voice vendors in the market: - Large traditional phone equipment vendors pursuing integration of PSTN with Internet, and Small Internet startups.The key to selecting a vendor will be to find a company sufficiently large and established to provide a base voice-conferencing software product line for the next several years.
Wong, Irene Lai Kuen; So, Ernest Moon Tong
The study investigated Internet gambling involvement and pathological gambling among Hong Kong adolescents aged 12-19 years. The diagnostic and statistical manual (4th edition) multiple response format for juveniles (DSM-IV-MR-J) (Fisher in J Gambl Stud 16:253-273, 2000) was filled by 1,004 students (597 boys, 407 girls) recruited by random selection of classes. The response rate was 86.6 %. Results indicate that more respondents participated in land-based gambling than Internet gambling (63.5 vs. 3.5 %) but online gamblers are 1.5 and 3.2 times more likely to develop pathological and at-risk gambling than non-Internet gamblers. Using the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria, 5.7 and 22.9 % of the Internet gamblers could be classified as at-risk gamblers and pathological gamblers, respectively. Majority (94.3 %) wagered online at home, and 91.4 % made their first bet before 18 years. Many perceived Internet gambling as a trendy (71.4 %) and safe entertainment (54.3 %). Problematic Internet gambling was significantly associated with the male gender, school grades, online gambling frequency, amount wagered and a gambling family environment. Survey results have implications for gambling research and preventive programs.
Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos
In this study, we attempt to identify motives pivotal in choices made regarding online and offline game genres and assess whether they are meaningful predictors of Internet addiction. A separate goal was to determine how an assessment of Internet-related cognitions compares to criteria-based research instruments on Internet addiction, and demonstrate its clinical usefulness. We are using data from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12-18 of the island of Kos. Results indicate that specific game genres and motives for choosing a game are important predictors of Internet addiction, even after accounting for sociodemographic and Internet-use-related variables. Gender differences are not statistically important when we account for genre choices and motives for choosing them. Boys' thought content tends to revolve more around their Internet use compared to girls. Several patterns of motives to play specific genres were identified with the help of a canonical correlation analysis, demonstrating the fact that the simple observation of overt behavior is not enough to deduce the meaning of these actions for the individual. Using multiple measures of online addiction, examining genre preferences and underlying motives for choosing a game can be helpful in reaching a better understanding of the individual game player.
House, Carol; Reece, Allyson; Roiz de Sa, Dan
This study was undertaken to determine whether the incidence of lower limb overuse injuries (LLOIs) sustained during Royal Marine training could be reduced by issuing the recruits with shock-absorbing insoles (SAIs) to wear in their military boots. This was a retrospective longitudinal trial conducted in two phases. Injury data from 1,416 recruits issued with standard Saran insoles and 1,338 recruits issued with SAI were compared. The recruits in the two groups were of similar height, body mass, and aerobic fitness and followed the same training course. The incidence of LLOI sustained by the recruits was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group (19.0%) compared to the Saran Insole Group (31.7%). The incidences of lower limb stress fractures, tibial periostitis, tenosynovitis of foot, achilles tendonopathy, other tendonopathy and anterior knee pain were lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group. Tibial stress fracture incidence was lower (p < 0.05) in the SAI Group but metatarsal and femoral stress fracture incidences were the same for the two insole groups. Thus, issuing SAIs to military recruits undertaking a sustained, arduous physical training program with a high incidence of LLOI would provide a beneficial reduction in the incidence of LLOI.
Raggi, A; Leonardi, M; Giovannetti, A M; Schiavolin, S; Bussone, G; Grazzi, L; Usai, S; Curone, M; Di Fiore, P; D'Amico, D
This paper aims to evaluate changes in disease severity, disability and mood state in patients with chronic migraine associated to medication overuse (CM-MO). MIDAS was used for assessing disease activity, WHO-DAS-2 for disability, DBI-2 for mood state. ANOVA was used to test change over time; t-test to assess follow-up differences in WHO-DAS-2 and BDI-2 between patients with MIDAS ≤20 and ≥21. Change in MIDAS, WHO-DAS-2 and BDI-2 scores were computed: Pearson's index was used to assess correlation between them; linear regression to assess change in WHO-DAS-2, using MIDAS and BDI-2 change as predictors. Mean MIDAS decreased significantly (from 101.9 to 52.0). In 26.1 % of the sample, MIDAS fell below 21 at follow-up: these patients had lower WHO-DAS-2 score. WHO-DAS-2 change was little correlated to MIDAS change and strongly correlated to changes in BDI-2 scores. 57.1 % of WHO-DAS-2 change variance is explained by change in BDI-2 and MIDAS scores. There was a clear clinical improvement 14 months after detoxification, and a modest reduction in disability which is explained by reduced disease activity and improved mood state. An appropriate treatment of CM-MO, based on detoxification and prophylaxis, is likely to reduce disease burden: recognition and treatment of mood problems may be a key factor to reduce disability.
Prieto, Jacqui; Singleton, Julie; O’Connor, Vivienne; Lynam, Siobhan; Loveday, Heather
Background: The use of non-sterile gloves (NSG) has become routine in the delivery of health care, often for procedures for which they are not required; their use may increase the risk of cross contamination and is generally not integrated into hand hygiene audit. This paper describes a small-scale application and validation of an observational audit tool devised to identify inappropriate use of NSG and potential for cross contamination. Methods: Two observers simultaneously observed the use of NSG during episodes of care in an acute hospital setting. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the audit tool was measured corrected for chance agreement using Kappa. Results: A total of 22 episodes of care using NSG were observed. In 68.6% (24/35) of procedures there was no contact with blood/body fluid; in 54.3% (19/35) NSG-use was inappropriate. The IRR was 100% for eight of 12 components of the tool. For hand hygiene before and after NSG removal it was 82% (Kappa = 0.72) and 95% (Kappa = 0.87). Conclusions: In this small-scale application of a glove-use audit tool we demonstrated over-use and misuse of NSG and potential for cross transmission on gloved hands. The audit tool provides an effective mechanism for integrating glove use into the audit of hand hygiene behaviour.
Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)
The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current
Feldstein, Stephanie; Afshar, Maryam
“Natural home remedies” for nevi removal found on the Internet can be ineffective, or worse, dangerous. Children and teens, in particular, may be more likely to attempt self-treatment in order to avoid discussing their concerns with their parents. Here, the authors report a case of an adolescent who presented with a chemical burn after following an Internet-based protocol for nevi removal using apple cider vinegar. PMID:26155328
Feldstein, Stephanie; Afshar, Maryam; Krakowski, Andrew C
"Natural home remedies" for nevi removal found on the Internet can be ineffective, or worse, dangerous. Children and teens, in particular, may be more likely to attempt self-treatment in order to avoid discussing their concerns with their parents. Here, the authors report a case of an adolescent who presented with a chemical burn after following an Internet-based protocol for nevi removal using apple cider vinegar.
Yau, Yvonne H C; Pilver, Corey E; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen J; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N
With the popularity of Internet use among adolescents, there is concern that some youth may display problematic or addictive patterns of Internet use. Although excessive patterns of Internet use was considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 with pathological gambling and substance-use disorders in a category of addictive disorders, it was determined that more research was needed on Internet-use behaviors before such actions be further considered and possibly undertaken. The present study is the first to investigate whether at-risk/problematic Internet use (ARPIU) may moderate the strength of association between problem-gambling severity and gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures in adolescents. Survey data from 1884 Connecticut high-school student stratified by Internet use (ARPIU vs. non-ARPIU) were examined in bivariate analyses and logistic regression models. Gambling-related characteristics and health and well-being measures were mostly positively associated with problem-gambling severity in both Internet use groups. Interaction odds ratio revealed that the strength of the associations between problem-gambling severity and marijuana, alcohol and caffeine use were stronger amongst the non-ARPIU compared to the ARPIU group, suggesting that the relationships between these substance use behaviors and problem gambling may be partially accounted for by ARPIU. Future studies should examine the extent to which preventative interventions targeting both problematic Internet use and problem gambling may synergistically benefit measures of health and reduce risk-taking behaviors in adolescence.