Yuon, Egor; Soukhanov, Mikhail; Markov, Kirill
is the web-service, which realizes the interaction of all parts of the system and controls whole the way of the request from the user to the database and back, adopted to the GeoSciML and EarthResourceML view. The experience of creation the Internet-based information system of digital geological data providing, and also previous works, including the developing of web-service of NGKIS-system, allows to tell, that technological realization of presenting Russian geological-cartographical data with using of international standards is possible. While realizing, it could be some difficulties, associated with geological material depth. Russian informational geological model is more deep and wide, than foreign. This means the main problem of using international standards and formats: Russian geological data presentation is possible only with decreasing the data detalisation. But, such a problem becomes not very important, if the service publishes also Russian vocabularies, not associated with international vocabularies. In this case, the international format could be the interchange format to change data between Russian users. The integration into the international projects reaches developing of the correlation schemes between Russian and foreign classificators and vocabularies.
This paper describes a student project assignment used in an accounting information systems course. We are now truly immersed in the internet age, and while many required accounting information systems courses and textbooks introduce database design, accounting software development, cloud computing, and internet security, projects involving the…
Danford, Gerard L.
This review shows how the Internet can support learning about the process of internationalization. A description of how Internet-based sources of information can be used by students when investigating internationalization has not been made. However, the Internet and its role during a corporation's foreign market expansion has not been investigated…
Ahluwalia, Rashpal S.; Govindarajulu, Sriram
This paper describes an internet-based software tool developed for the West Virginia State Police Forensics Laboratory. The software enables law enforcement agents to submit crime information to the Forensic Laboratory via a secure Internet connection. Online electronic forms were created to mirror the existing paper based forms, making the transition easier. The process of submitting case information was standardized and streamlined, there by minimizing information inconsistency. The crime information once gathered is automatically stored in a database, and can be viewed and queried by any authorized law enforcement officers. The software tool will be deployed in all counties of WV.
Donelle, Lorie; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Gatobu, Sospeter; Arocha, Jose F
Competency in health numeracy is essential in understanding risk about disease susceptibility and the consequences of disease treatment. Both health literacy and skill in using the Internet to obtain health information are lower among older compared with younger adults. Presentation format of health information has been shown to influence comprehension. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of information formatting (text and graphic) on older adults' comprehension of Internet-based numeric cancer risk information. This cross-sectional study involved a convenience sample of adults, aged 50 years and older from diverse ethnic and educational backgrounds. Cancer risk information, obtained from a Canadian Cancer Society web page, was presented as text, graphics or as a combination of text and graphics formats. Comprehension of the information was assessed by six questions focused on basic numeracy skill and ability to perform simple calculations and operations. A three-item general context numeracy and an eight-item health context numeracy instrument were used to describe health numeracy skills of participants. The six-item Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test was used to assess prose and numeric health literacy. There was no statistically significant effect of presentation format on participants' comprehension of the cancer information. Participants' comprehension of basic health numeracy information was positively correlated with education (p < or = 0.05) and income (p < or = 0.01) whereas comprehension of information that assessed calculation and operations numeracy skill was positively correlated only with income (p < or = 0.05). Health literacy skill and income explained a significant proportion of the variance in overall comprehension of Internet-based cancer risk information (R(2) = 0.414, p < or = 0.01) in this sample of older adults. Format of numeric risk information was not a significant factor in the comprehension of cancer risk information in
Lowe, H J; Lomax, E C; Polonkey, S E
The Internet is rapidly evolving from a resource used primarily by the research community to a true global information network offering a wide range of databases and services. This evolution presents many opportunities for improved access to biomedical information, but Internet-based resources have often been difficult for the non-expert to develop and use. The World Wide Web (WWW) supports an inexpensive, easy-to-use, cross-platform, graphic interface to the Internet that may radically alter the way we retrieve and disseminate medical data. This paper summarizes the Internet and hypertext origins of the WWW, reviews WWW-specific technologies, and describes current and future applications of this technology in medicine and medical informatics. The paper also includes an appendix of useful biomedical WWW servers. PMID:8750386
Asahina, Yasuko; Hori, Satoko; Sawada, Yasufumi
Since we do not know much about the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and functional foods (DS), it is important to collect DS-related events and to share the information among healthcare professionals. Therefore, we aimed to develop an internet-based system which would allow medical doctors and pharmacists to report DS-related events. We conducted a questionnaire survey among pharmacists about their experiences and views of DS-related adverse event reporting. Many pharmacists did not report events because they never had any patient who reported an event. This might have been, in part, owing to lack of awareness of an occurrence, so we collected events using our internet-based system, which periodically offers educational DS information. After educational commentaries and elucidation were appended, collected cases were distributed to the registered members via web pages to encourage them to be more concerned about the safety of DS. Additionally, we constructed a simple posting system for members to easily report similar events, because the questionnaire survey revealed that lack of time and uncertainty of causal relation between an event and DS were sometimes reasons not to report. We obtained several DS-related events both via the normal data collecting form and the simple posting system, and subsequently confirmed reports by e-mail contact. Our interactive system enabled us to obtain more detailed information about posted events. In conclusion, this information system for DS was proved to be useful to facilitate reporting of DS-related events by healthcare professionals and to accumulate events similar to already reported cases.
Kalichman, Seth C.; Cherry, Charsey; Cain, Demetria; Pope, Howard; Kalichman, Moira; Eaton, Lisa; Weinhardt, Lance; Benotsch, Eric G.
Medical information can improve health, and there is an enormous amount of health information available on the Internet. A randomized clinical trial tested the effectiveness of an intervention based on social-cognitive theory to improve information use among people living with HIV/AIDS. Men and women (N = 448) were placed in either (a) an…
Kurimoto, Fuki; Hori, Satoko; Satoh, Hiroki; Miki, Akiko; Sawada, Yasufumi
For drug fostering and evolution, it is important to collect information directly from patients on the efficacy and safety of drugs as well as patient needs. At present, however, information gathered by healthcare professionals, pharmaceutical companies, or governments is not sufficient. There is concern that patients may fail to recognize the importance of providing information voluntarily. The present study was conducted to provide drug information to patients/consumers, to enlighten them on the importance of providing drug information by themselves, and to develop an Internet website, called "Minkusu," for collecting drug information from patients. This website is based on a registration system (free of charge). It is designed to provide information on proper drug use, and to collect opinions about drugs. As of May 31, 2012, a total of 1149 people had been registered. The male/female ratio of registered members was approximately 1:1, and patients/consumers accounted for 23%. According to the results of a questionnaire survey, several patient/consumer members appreciated the usefulness of the information service, and they took an opportunity to know of the concepts of drug development and evolution (Ikuyaku, in Japanese) through the information services provided by this site. In conclusion, the developed information system would contribute to the proper use of drugs by patients/consumers and to the promotion of drug development and evolution.
Carroll, Michael L.; Downs, W. Scott
Many organizations grapple with a glut of electronic information spawned by stockpiles of incompatible computers. This book offers solutions in information sharing and computer interaction. Rather than being about the Internet per se, it is about approaches that are characteristic of the Internet and the managerial and technical aspects of…
Milson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Earle, Brian D.
In the United States, people get very little news about Africa, and what news they do get is about war or famine, with little historical information or context. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented a Pan-African Summit simulation project in order to give their approximately 100, 9th-grade students (in five World…
Discusses the Government Printing Office (GPO) plan for the transition to an electronic Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) that, through a network of partnerships comprised of the GPO, the National Archives and Records Administration, federal agencies, and FDLP libraries, will increase public access to government information. (JAK)
Skole, D. L.; Chomentowski, W.; Samek, J.; Oscar, C.; Batzli, S.; Barber, C.; Sayers, A.; Cochrane, M.
The Tropical Rain Forest Information Center (TRFIC) is a NASA-funded data center focusing on data and information services for the global change community and applications for national resources management in tropical countries. It is part of a multi-institutional federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), an on-going prototyping effort to explore new ways to manage earth science data and information in a highly distributed architecture. The TRFIC is both an analytical facility and an data provider. This paper reviews the development of the ESIP approach and provides a view to new modes of information access for future NASA earth science programs and missions with science-centered analysis and data access occurring at the same facility. The paper provides an overview of the data and information services provided by TRFIC, its technology developments including open web-based geographic information systems, and science products it creates and provides. The technology developments focus on new ways to bring the scientist to the data with internet based analysis tools. These technologies are also making it possible fro almost anyone, anywhere in the world to gain access to massive amounts of remote sensing data, primarily from Landsat, and perform custom analyses suited to their own research and applications. The paper will also describe some of the recent activities of the TRFIC to support national and international science and applications projects including the Global Observation of Forest Cover program, the FAO Forest Resources Assessment Program and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.
Burton, Kirsteen R; Howard, Andrew; Beveridge, Massey
The aim of this study was to determine the current usage, relevance, and preferences for electronic health information (EHI) in the participant surgeons' clinical, research, and teaching activities. The Internet-Based Health Information Survey (IBHIS) was conducted from August to December 2003. Thirty-seven doctors (primarily practicing in East Africa) participated, all of whom had been using the Ptolemy resources for at least 6 months. Survey questions concerned time spent reading medical literature, preferred information sources, preferred type of publication, relevance, preference for western versus local medical literature, and academic productivity. Among the 75 eligible participants, 37 (48%) responded. From these responses it was found that African surgeons with access to EHI read more than articles than they did before they had such access, and they find that the information obtained is highly relevant to their clinical, teaching, and research activities. They prefer electronic journals to textbooks and are more inclined to change their practice based on information found in western journals than local journals. Ptolemy resources helped the respondents who reported academic work write a total of 33 papers for presentation or publication. Overall, access to EHI enables doctors in Africa to read more, is relevant, and contributes directly to academic productivity; thus Western medical literature is useful in the developing world, and EHI delivery should continue to expand.
AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-C-0083 TITLE: Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening...DEC 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-C-0083 5c...care information systems, cervical cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann
Google the question, “How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?,” and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting our preference for writing over speaking. I propose that our preference for communicating through Internet-based text derives from a fundamental feature of writing: In contrast to speech, which is most often synchronous, text is most often asynchronous. PMID:26330702
Asahina, Yasuko; Hori, Satoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi
Herbs and dietary supplements (HDS) are widely used, and health professionals are in an ideal position to educate patients about them. However, it is sometimes difficult to evaluate their risks and benefits with limited information and what is worse, many health professionals in Japan are unconcerned with HDS. Therefore, we aimed to develop an internet-based educational system to periodically provide information about HDS to medical doctors and pharmacists in order to increase their awareness. Monographs about selected HDS, accompanied with educational quizzes, were prepared to meet pharmacists' needs. Examples of clinical Q&A cases about drug interactions involving HDS were prepared. The material was distributed weekly to registered health professionals by e-mail and via WWW pages. Two hundred and forty-four health professionals evaluated the system by questionnaire. The questionnaire results revealed that 1) more than 75% of responders evaluated the system as useful, 2) compilation of information into educational quizzes and cases encouraged health professionals to learn about HDS with less difficulty, and 3) e-mails led them to learn periodically and to be more concerned about the safety of HDS. In conclusion, the developed information system for HDS was proved to be useful and should serve to improve the understanding of health professionals about this issue.
Pieper, Jon; Mentzer, Nathan
Mentzer and Becker (2011) and Becker and Mentzer (2012) demonstrated that high school students engaged in engineering design problems spent more time accessing information and spent more time designing when provided with Internet access. They studied high school students engaged in an engineering design challenge. The two studies attempted to…
This is the Final Report for the Internet Based Remote Operations Contract, has performed payload operations research support tasks March 1999 through September 1999. These tasks support the GSD goal of developing a secure, inexpensive data, voice, and video mission communications capability between remote payload investigators and the NASA payload operations team in the International Space Station (ISS) era. AZTek has provided feedback from the NASA payload community by utilizing its extensive payload development and operations experience to test and evaluate remote payload operations systems. AZTek has focused on use of the "public Internet" and inexpensive, Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Internet-based tools that would most benefit "small" (e.g., $2 Million or less) payloads and small developers without permanent remote operations facilities. Such projects have limited budgets to support installation and development of high-speed dedicated communications links and high-end, custom ground support equipment and software. The primary conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) The trend of using Internet technology for "live" collaborative applications such as telescience will continue. The GSD-developed data and voice capabilities continued to work well over the "public" Internet during this period. 2. Transmitting multiple voice streams from a voice-conferencing server to a client PC to be mixed and played on the PC is feasible. 3. There are two classes of voice vendors in the market: - Large traditional phone equipment vendors pursuing integration of PSTN with Internet, and Small Internet startups.The key to selecting a vendor will be to find a company sufficiently large and established to provide a base voice-conferencing software product line for the next several years.
Reeves, Howard W.; Asher, A. Jeremiah
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann
This essay illustrates five ways that Internet-based higher education can capitalize on fundamental principles of learning. Internet-based education can enable better mastery through distributed (shorter, more frequent) practice rather than massed (longer, less frequent) practice; it can optimize performance because it allows students to learn at their peak time of their day; it can deepen memory because it requires cheat-proof assignments and tests; it can promote critical thinking because it necessitates intellectual winnowing and sifting; and it can enhance writing skills by requiring students to write frequently and for a broad audience. PMID:25653625
Chebli, Jaymee-Lee; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Gainsbury, Sally M
Internet-based interventions have emerged as a new treatment and intervention modality for psychological disorders. Given their features of treatment flexibility, anonymity and confidentiality, this modality may be well suited in the management of addictive behaviours. A systematic literature review of the effectiveness and treatment outcomes of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, problematic alcohol use, substance abuse and gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: clients received a structured therapeutic Internet-based intervention for a problematic and addictive behaviour; included more than five clients; effectiveness was based on at least one outcome; outcome variables were measured before and immediately following the interventions; had a follow-up period; and involved at least minimal therapist contact over the course of the program. Sixteen relevant studies were found; nine addressed the effects of Internet-based interventions on smoking cessation, four on gambling, two on alcohol and one on opioid dependence. All studies demonstrated positive treatment outcomes for their respective addictive behaviours. The current review concluded that Internet-based interventions are effective in achieving positive behavioural change through reducing problematic behaviours. This mode of therapy has been found to have the capacity to provide effective and practical services for those who might have remained untreated, subsequently reducing the barriers for help-seekers. This in turn provides imperative information to treatment providers, policy makers, and academic researchers.
Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha
The internet has opened up vast possibilities for research. An increasing number of studies are being conducted using the internet as both a source of data and a venue for research. Use of the internet in research has created many challenges, not just for those conducting and reviewing the studies, but also for editors publishing this work. Two key issues raised by internet-based research are ethics approval and informed consent. While some guidance exists regarding the ethics and consent of internet-based research, and some institutions provide their own guidelines, there appears to be a lack of definitive national standards. We discuss the issues surrounding ethics and consent for internet-based research and the need for a consensus on how to address these issues to ensure consistency.
Duda, Jeffrey J.; Camp, Richard J.
As the amount of information available on the internet has increased, so too has the number of citations to network-accessible information in scholarly research. We searched all papers in four Ecological Society of America journals from 1997 to 2005 for articles containing a citation to material on the internet. We then tested the links to determine whether the information cited in the paper was still accessible. We identified 877 articles that contained at least one link to information on the internet and a total of 2100 unique links. The majority of these citations were based on an object's location (Uniform Resource Locator; 77%), whereas the rest were based on an object's identity (eg Digital Object Identifier, GenBank Accession number). We found that 19–30% of the location-based links were unavailable and that there was a positive relationship between the age of an article and the probability of the link being inactive. Using an internet search engine, we recovered 72–84% of the lost information, leaving a total of 6.2% of the total citations unavailable. Our results highlight the problem of persistence of information stored on the world wide web and we include recommendations for minimizing this problem.
Rialle, V; Noury, N; Hervé, T
We present a study and whole experimental tele-monitoring and medical tele-surveillance system for maintaining patients at home. The project features networked sensors, in a fully equipped apartment, operated by an advanced information and communication system based on Internet, Java, and object oriented modeling. The sensors are connected, mainly wirelessly, with a in-home software module devoted to signals analysis and detection of critical situation such as falls, sickness, sudden palsy, stroke, hypothermia, etc. This module communicates, either via modem or ethernet network, with a remote medical control station in charge of appropriate response to received information and alarms. The system is designed to be a powerful information and communication tools for medical and social workers. It offers a series of functions such as medical file management, user profiles and rights management, drafting and management of ordinances and visit notes, confidentiality of medical information, and management of scenarios of detectable events. The access to the system is allowed to authorized users only (physicians, emergentists, social workers, etc.), and is available on as much authorized computers as needed, by means of a Java applet invoked from any traditional web browsers.
Galvin, James E; Meuser, Thomas M; Boise, Linda; Connell, Cathleen M
Despite the potential of the internet for informing clinical practice, little is know about physicians' use of and attitudes about internet use for dementia care. We surveyed 373 physicians to inform development of on-line dementia education resources. Two thirds reported using internet-based resources in their clinical practices at least three times per week; 61% participated in on-line continuing medical education. Three fourths agreed that internet-based resources are helpful in clinical care but most expressed mixed views about quality of available information. Respondents reported limited awareness and use of dementia-specific internet resources, but expressed an interest in such information regarding screening, treatment, community resources, and patient education. National Institute on Aging-funded Alzheimer's Disease Centers are in a unique position to disseminate on-line resources for physicians on dementia diagnosis, treatment, and care. Our study suggests that such a resource would be well received and utilized by physicians.
This paper describes experiments of Internet modeling and of Internet-based teleoperation aimed at developing suitable control laws to overcome the variable time-delay and the data losses typical of Internet communication. The effects of packet delay jitter and losses on teleoperation performance are demonstrated using a 2-dof force feedback master.
... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Internet-Based Telecommunications Relay Service Numbering AGENCY: Federal... rules that govern access to toll-free numbers by users of Internet- based Telecommunications Relay... an impact on any rules of particular applicability. Subject: Internet-Based Telecommunications...
Flickinger, Kathleen Anne
Distance education and Internet instruction are increasingly being used in college science teaching. In an effort to reach more students, Iowa State University's Human Anatomy and Physiology course was offered via Internet as well as via traditional lecture format. To assess the educational ramifications of this offering, three studies were conducted. In the first study, a collective case study approach was utilized to describe the learning environment created by an Internet-based college science course. In this study, three students were followed as they worked their way through the course. Collective case study methodologies were used to provide a rich description of the learning environment experienced by these students. Motivation, computer savvy, and academic and personal self-confidence appeared to impact the satisfaction level of the students enrolled in the class. To evaluate the effectiveness of the learning environment offered through the Internet-based science course, a quantitative comparison study was undertaken. In this study a comparison of achievement scores and study habits between students enrolled in the Internet-based class and those enrolled in the traditional section was made. Results from this study indicated that content understanding and retention did not appear to be effected by the type of instruction. Desirable study habits were reportedly used more frequently in the Internet section of the class than in the traditional class. To complete the description of the Internet course experience, a qualitative examination of Internet instructors' time commitment and level of teaching satisfaction was conducted. Data for this study consisted of interviews and researcher observations. Instructor time-on-task was initially quite high, and remained above the average spent on average face-to-face instruction in subsequent semesters. Additionally the role of the faculty member changed dramatically, causing some lessening of job satisfaction. Taken as
Zhao, Y Q; Ma, W J
Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers. Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease, food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program, Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation. Although several techniques have been applied to filter information, the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information. In this article, we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance program in China.
Sun, Gordon H
The ubiquity of the Internet has led to the widespread availability of health-related information to the public, and the subsequent empowerment of patients has fundamentally altered the patient-physician relationship. Among several concerns of physicians is the possibility that patients may be misinformed by information obtained from the Internet. One opportunity for health care providers to address this problem exists within Internet-based patient education materials (IPEMs). According to recent research in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, IPEMs found within professional otolaryngology websites are written at the 8th- to 18th-grade reading comprehension level, essentially unchanged over the past 3 years. This greatly exceeds the fourth- to sixth-grade reading level recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Benefits, strategies, and challenges to improving the readability of IPEMs are discussed.
Johansson, Robert; Andersson, Gerhard
Major depression is highly prevalent, and is associated with high societal costs and individual suffering. Evidence-based psychological treatments obtain good results, but access to these treatments is limited. One way to solve this problem is to provide internet-based psychological treatments, for example, with therapist support via email. During the last decade, internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy (ICBT) has been tested in a series of controlled trials. However, the ICBT interventions are delivered with different levels of contact with a clinician, ranging from nonexisting to a thorough pretreatment assessment in addition to continuous support during treatment. In this review, the authors have found an evidence for a strong correlation between the degree of support and outcome. The authors have also reviewed how treatment content in ICBT varies among treatments, and how various therapist factors may influence outcome. Future possible applications of ICBT for depression and future research needs are also discussed.
Patterson, Mary Jane
With the increasing popularity of Internet-based classes, more faculty are being asked to develop them (1). In Texas, the Virtual College of Texas (http://www.vct.org) even provides a forum that allows community colleges to advertise their distance-learning classes, and it paves the way for a college to offer a distance-learning class from any other college in the state. The two colleges simply work out a Memorandum of Understanding, mutually deciding how to administer the class, divide fees, set enrollment limits, among other details. While some classes are easily adapted to an Internet format, lab sciences raise a number of issues that must be tackled before a quality course can be developed in this new medium. I will raise some of those issues and offer a few possibilities.
Gutierrez, Melida; Coulter, Bob; Goodwin, David R.
Describes a week-long "Mapping Natural Disasters" workshop offered to K-12 teachers to promote inquiry-based teaching approaches. The workshop modeled the integration of hands-on activities, internet-based data, and the use of geographic information systems (GIS) software. (Author/MM)
Hedman, Leif; Sharafi, Parvaneh
This case study explores how educational training and clinical practice that uses personal computers (PCs) and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to access Internet-based medical information, affects the engagement modes of students, flow experience components, and IT-competence. A questionnaire assessing these variables was administered before…
Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Lai, Chih-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen
Internet-based science learning has been advocated by many science educators for more than a decade. This review examines relevant research on this topic. Sixty-five papers are included in the review. The review consists of the following two major categories: (1) the role of demographics and learners' characteristics in Internet-based science…
Wen-Yu Lee, Silvia; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liu, Tzu-Chien; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Lai, Chih-Hung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen
Internet-based science learning has been advocated by many science educators for more than a decade. This review examines relevant research on this topic. Sixty-five papers are included in the review. The review consists of the following two major categories: (1) the role of demographics and learners' characteristics in Internet-based science learning, such as demographic background, prior knowledge, and self-efficacy; and (2) the learning outcomes derived from Internet-based science learning, such as attitude, motivation, conceptual understanding, and conceptual change. Some important conclusions are drawn from the review. For example, Internet-based science learning is equally favorable, or in some cases more so, to learning for female students compared to male students. The learner's control is essential for enhancing students' attitudes and motivation toward learning in Internet-based science learning environments. Nevertheless, appropriate guidance from teachers, moderators, or the Internet-based learning environment itself is still quite crucial in Internet-based science learning. Recommendations for future research related to the effects of Internet-based science learning on students' metacognitive reflections, epistemological development, and worldviews are suggested.
Convery, Ian; Cox, Diane
Internet-based research methods can include: online surveys, web page content analysis, videoconferencing for online focus groups and/or interviews, analysis of "e-conversations" through social networking sites, email, chat rooms, discussion boards and/or blogs. Over the last ten years, an upsurge in internet-based research (IBR) has led…
Bouma, Grietje; Admiraal, Jolien M; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Schröder, Carolien P; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Reyners, Anna K L
In this review the effect of internet-based support programs on psychosocial and physical symptoms resulting from cancer diagnosis and treatment is analyzed. Selection of studies was based on the following criteria: (non-)randomized controlled trials, performed in adult cancer patients, comparing quantitative psychosocial and/or physical outcomes of an internet-based support program with (a) comparison group(s). Literature search yielded 2032 studies of which 16 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Three different internet-based support programs were identified: social support groups, online therapy for psychosocial/physical symptoms, and online systems integrating information, support, and coaching services. Outcomes improved by these programs in nine studies. Especially fatigue, social support, and distress improved, regardless of the program type. All online systems showed positive effects, mainly for social support and quality of life. This analysis indicates that internet-based support programs are effective in improving psychosocial and physical symptoms in cancer patients.
Chun, Young J; Patterson, Patrick E
Internet-based telemedicine is becoming an effective tool to deliver home-healthcare services and health information on demand, especially in rural areas, where there is often a large elderly population with greater rates of preventable chronic diseases. However, the designs of current interfaces for these internet-based telemedicine systems do not take elderly user characteristics into consideration. This study conducted usability testing on the interface of an internet-based telemedicine system using two different age groups, young adults and older adults. Differences in overall performance and satisfaction between the two groups were identified. Based on these results, a future direction is suggested for the interfaces of Internet-based telemedicine systems.
Vangberg, Hans Christian B.; Lillevoll, Kjersti R.; Waterloo, Knut; Eisemann, Martin
Background. Focus upon depression and prevention of its occurrence among adolescents is increasing. Novel ways of dealing with this serious problem have become available especially by means of internet-based prevention and treatment programs of depression and anxiety. The use of Internet-based intervention programs among adolescents has revealed some difficulties in implementation that need to be further elucidated. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between personality and adolescent depression and the characteristics of users of an Internet-based intervention program. Method. The Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) have been administered to a sample (n = 1234) of Norwegian senior high-school students. Results. Multiple regression analysis revealed associations between depression and gender, and several JTCI domains and facets. In line with previous findings in adults, high Harm Avoidance and low Self-Directedness emerged as the strongest predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. Further, in logistic regression analysis with the covariates JTCI, GSE and CES-D, the only significant variables predicting use/non-use were the CES-D and the temperament domain Reward Dependence. Conclusion. The results in this study revealed level of depressive symptoms as the strongest predictor of the use of the Internet based intervention and that personality might provide useful information about the users. PMID:22928095
Sethson, Magnus R.
This paper describes an Internet based remote experimental setup of a double lined pendulum mechanism for students experiments at the M. Sc. Level. Some of the first year experience using this web-based setup in classes is referred. In most of the courses given at the division of mechanical engineering systems at Linkoeping Institute of Technology we provide experimental setups to enhance the teaching Of M.Sc. students. Many of these experimental setups involve mechatronical systems. Disciplines like fluid power, electronics, and mechanics and also software technologies are used in each experiment. As our campus has recently been split into two different cities some new concepts for distance learning have been studied. The one described here tries to implement remotely controlled mechatronic setups for teaching basic programming of real-time operating systems and analysis of the dynamics of mechanical systems. The students control the regulators for the pendulum through a web interface and get measurement results and a movie back through their email. The present setup uses a double linked pendulum that is controlled by a DC-motor and monitored through both camera and angular position sensors. All software needed is hosted on a double-processor PC running the RedHat 7.1. distribution complemented with real-time scheduling using DIAPM-RTAI 1.7. The Internet site is presented to the students using PHP, Apache and MySQL. All of the used software originates from the open source domain. The experience from integrating these technologies and security issues is discussed together with the web-camera interface. One of the important experiences from this project so far is the need for a good visual feedback. This is both in terms of video speed but also in resolution. It has been noticed that when the students makes misstates and wants to search the failure they want clear, large images with high resolution to support their personal believes in the cause of the failure. Even
Oboe, Roberto; Fiorini, Paolo
This paper describes an environment for the design, simulation and control of Internet-based force-relflecting telerobotc systems. We define these systems as using a segment of the computer network to connect the master to the slave.
Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao
Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases.
Liu, Chen-Chung; Chang, Chia-Jung; Tseng, Jui-Min
A general challenge facing Internet-based learners is how to identify information objects which are helpful in expanding their understanding of important information in a domain. Recommendation systems may assist learners in identifying potentially helpful information objects. However, the recent literature mainly focuses on the technical…
telecytology, cytopathology, telemedicine, cancer screening, health care information systems, cervical cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF......approaches to cervical cancer screening possible. In addition, advances in information technology have facilitated the Internet transmission and archival
Anttila, M; Välimäki, M; Koivunen, M; Luukkaala, T; Kaila, M; Pitkänen, A; Kontio, R
Internet-based patient support systems are widely assumed to predict a future trend in patient education. Coherent information is still lacking on how patient education is adopted in psychiatric hospitals and how information technology is used in it. Our aim was to describe nurses' adoption of an Internet-based patient education programme and the variables explaining it. The study was based on Rogers' model of the diffusion of innovation. The Internet-based patient education sessions were carried out by nurses on nine acute psychiatric inpatient wards in two Finnish hospitals. They were evaluated with reports and analysed statistically. Out of 100 nurses, 83 adopted the programme during the study period. The nurses fell into Rogers' groups, late majority (72%), laggards (17%), early majority (7%), early adopters (3%) and innovators (1%). Three groups were formed according to their activity: laggards, late majority, adopters (including early majority, early adopters, innovators). There was a statistical difference between the nurses' programme adoption between the two hospitals (P= 0.045): more laggards (65% vs. 35%) and adopters (73% vs. 27%) in the same hospital. The findings help to provide insight into the contexts and settings when adopting information technology programmes in the area of mental health care.
Chuna, Young J; Patterson, Patrick E
Telemedicine has emerged as an effective tool for providing high quality healthcare service and health-related information, especially in rural areas. Rural areas often have a larger elderly population with greater rates of preventable disease. These areas also have fewer medical resources and specialists, and have limited access to health services, all of which can influence overall health. An Internet-based telemedicine system can be one solution to provide the rural elderly with the proper health information when needed. The elderly obviously have limited capabilities compared with younger adults in the use of internet technology. However, the interfaces of the currently existing Internet-based telemedicine systems are not specifically developed for elderly users. This paper suggests future interface design research for an Internet-based telemedicine system specifically for the elderly.
Fichter, M M; Quadflieg, N; Nisslmüller, K; Lindner, S; Voderholzer, U; Wünsch-Leiteritz, W; Osen, B; Huber, T; Zahn, S; Meermann, R; Irrgang, V; Bleichner, F
Recent technological developments of communication media offer new approaches to diagnostic and therapeutic interactions with patients. One major development is Internet-based primary prevention in vulnerable individuals not yet suffering as well as the development of new therapeutic approaches for affected individuals based on the experiences of guided self-help through CD, DVD or bibliotherapy. The eating disorder literature shows several interesting, partly controlled and randomized, studies on bulimia nervosa, a few studies on binge eating disorder and no studies on anorexia nervosa. As part of the German Eating Disorder Network on Psychotherapy (EDNET) a 9-month Internet-based relapse prevention program for patients with anorexia nervosa after inpatient treatment was evaluated. Conception, first experiences and first results of the Internet-based relapse prevention program for anorexia nervosa are reported.
Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Bott, Marjorie J; Taunton, Roma Lee
The study describes the design and implementation of an Internet-based, computed-assisted telephone survey about the care-planning process in 107 long-term care facilities in the Midwest. Two structured telephone surveys were developed to interview the care planning coordinators and their team members. Questionmark Perception Software Version 3 was used to develop the surveys in a wide range of formats. The responses were drawn into a database that was exported to a spreadsheet format and converted to a statistical format by the Information Technology team. Security of the database was protected. Training sessions were provided to project staff. The interviews were tape-recorded for the quality checks. The inter-rater reliabilities were above 95% to 100% agreement. Investigators should consider using Internet-based survey tools, especially for multisite studies that allow access to larger samples at less cost. Exploring multiple software systems for the best fit to the study requirements is essential.
Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto
Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132
Dever Fitzgerald, Theresa; Hunter, Paulette V; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Koocher, Gerald P
The provision of mental health services over the Internet is becoming increasingly commonplace as new technologies continue to develop. Evidence in support of the efficacy of many such interventions is accumulating. Given the potential global reach of Internet-based psychological services, the authors examine ethical issues relating to this growing area of practice through the lens of the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists (International Union of Psychological Science, 2008). They also raise issues relating to potential liability risks and offer recommendations intended to guide mental health practitioners who are considering involvement in the provision of Internet-based services.
Al Ateeq, Asma; Al Moamary, Eman; Daghestani, Tahani; Al Muallem, Yahya; Al Dogether, Majed; Alsughayr, Abdulrahman; Altuwaijri, Majid; Househ, Mowafa
The objective of this paper is to investigate the experiences of using a digital marketing platform to promote the use of an internet based health encyclopedia in Saudi Arabia. Key informant interviews, meeting documentation, and Google Analytics were the data collection sources used in the study. Findings show that using a digital marketing platform led to a significant increase in the number of visitors to the health encyclopedia. The results demonstrate that digital marketing platforms are effective tools to be used for promoting internet based health education interventions. Future work will examine long-term educational impacts and costs in using digital marketing platforms to promote online healthcare sites in Saudi Arabia.
cancer is theoretically completely preventable by effective screening using cervical cytology methods (the Pap test). The process of preparing and...preparation and computerized primary screening make automated approaches to cervical cancer screening possible. In addition, advances in information technology... cervical cancer screening results - completed f) Adapt commercial software (Wellogic) to integrate screening results reporting with medical decision
Appendices……………………………………………………………………………14 Introduction Cervical cancer is theoretically completely preventable by effective...approaches to cervical cancer screening possible. In addition, advances in information technology have facilitated the Internet transmission and archival...to allow secure, automated reporting of cervical cancer screening results - completed f) Adapt commercial software (Wellogic) to integrate
Finkelstein, J; Hripcsak, G; Cabrera, M R
We studied asthma patients from a low-income inner-city community without previous computer experience. The patients were given portable spirometers to perform spirometry tests and palmtop computers to enter symptoms in a diary, to exchange messages with physician and to review test results. The self-testing was performed at home on a daily basis. The results were transmitted to the hospital information system immediately after completion of each test. Physician could review results using an Internet Web browser from any location. A constantly active decision support server monitored all data traffic and dispatched alerts when certain clinical conditions were met. Seventeen patients, out of 19 invited, agreed to participate in the study and have been monitored for three weeks. They have been surveyed then using standardized questionnaire. Most of the patients (82.4%) characterized self-testing procedures as "not complicated at all." In 70.6% of cases self-testing did not interfere with usual activities, and 82.4% of patients felt the self-testing required a "very little" amount of their time. All patients stated that it is important for them to know that the results can be reviewed by professional staff in a timely manner. However, only 29.5% of patients reviewed their results at least once a week at home independently. The majority of the patients (94.1%) were strongly interested in using home asthma telemonitoring in the future. We concluded that Internet-based home asthma telemonitoring can be successfully implemented in the group of patients without previous computer background.
Kreakie, B J; Hychka, K C; Belaire, J A; Minor, E; Walker, H A
Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing internet-based social networks, and use an existing traditional (survey-based) case study to illustrate in a familiar context the deviations in methods and results. Internet-based approaches to SNA offer a means to overcome institutional hurdles to conducting survey-based SNA, provide unique insight into an institution's web presences, allow for easy snowballing (iterative process that incorporates new nodes in the network), and afford monitoring of social networks through time. The internet-based approaches differ in link definition: hyperlink is based on links on a website that redirect to a different website and relatedness links are based on a Google's "relatedness" operator that identifies pages "similar" to a URL. All networks were initiated with the same start nodes [members of a conservation alliance for the Calumet region around Chicago (n = 130)], but the resulting networks vary drastically from one another. Interpretation of the resulting networks is highly contingent upon how the links were defined.
Kreakie, B. J.; Hychka, K. C.; Belaire, J. A.; Minor, E.; Walker, H. A.
Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing internet-based social networks, and use an existing traditional (survey-based) case study to illustrate in a familiar context the deviations in methods and results. Internet-based approaches to SNA offer a means to overcome institutional hurdles to conducting survey-based SNA, provide unique insight into an institution's web presences, allow for easy snowballing (iterative process that incorporates new nodes in the network), and afford monitoring of social networks through time. The internet-based approaches differ in link definition: hyperlink is based on links on a website that redirect to a different website and relatedness links are based on a Google's "relatedness" operator that identifies pages "similar" to a URL. All networks were initiated with the same start nodes [members of a conservation alliance for the Calumet region around Chicago ( n = 130)], but the resulting networks vary drastically from one another. Interpretation of the resulting networks is highly contingent upon how the links were defined.
Sawaki, Yasuyo; Stricker, Lawrence J.; Oranje, Andreas H.
This construct validation study investigated the factor structure of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for a test form completed by participants in a field study. A higher-order factor model was identified, with a higher-order general factor…
Leemkuil, Henny; de Jong, Ton; de Hoog, Robert; Christoph, Noor
Describes the development of a collaborative Internet-based simulation game for learning to solve knowledge management problems. The game builds on two starting points: on psychological and pedagogical developments in learning and instruction, and on a perceived need for better training of people working in the emerging field of knowledge…
Strom, Lars; Pettersson, Richard; Andersson, Gerhard
This study investigated the effects of an Internet-based intervention for insomnia. Participants who met criteria for insomnia (N = 109) were randomly assigned to either a cognitive-behavioral self-help treatment or a waiting list control condition. The 5-week intervention mainly consisted of sleep restriction, stimulus control, and cognitive…
Maitan, Jacek; Haley, Rebecca
This project is aimed at developing a cost-effective working environment for the transfusion medicine specialists of American Red Cross (ARC). In this project we are developing a multimedia-based consultation environment that uses Internet and teleconferencing to increase the quality of services and to replace currently used 800 telephone lines. Through the use of Internet/LAN/ISDN the physicians can share information and references while they discuss patient cases. A multimedia interface allows the physician to access data from the office and from the house. This paper discusses the approach, current status of the project and future plans to extend the approach to other areas of medicine.
Ellis, Louise A.; McCabe, Kathryn; Davenport, Tracey; Burns, Jane M.; Rahilly, Kitty; Nicholas, Mariesa; Hickie, Ian B
Purpose: This paper aims to describe the development of WorkOut, an Internet-based program designed to help young men overcome the barriers towards help-seeking and to build the skills they need to understand and manage their own mental health. Information and communication technologies (ICT) hold great potential to significantly improve mental…
Styugin, M.; Kaygorodov, A.
In our study we analyze how to create the systems based on “communication-resource-presence”- technology. We formulate functional and architectural requirements. It is shown some new features in this systems that pertain to communication and information search on the Internet. The Internet passed three infrastructure stages from the communication between two hosts to the resource intermediation and communication in real presence systems. The systems based on the presence technologies have just started to develop. Our study shows what criteria’s they must meet. One of this criteria is the division of site resources into the "rooms" logically separated from each other. The users can see and connect to each other. The contextual data of user presence in a particular "room" can be used when searching for them in the context of professional competence.
Alford, F A; Cavitt, R E; Jordan, C W; Mauvais, M J; Niven, W A; Taylor, J M; Taylor, S S; Vickers, D L; Warren, F E; Weaver, R L
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is implementing an Internet-based process pilot called 'Zephyr' to streamline engineering and commerce using the internet. Major benefits have accrued by using Zephyr in facilitating industrial collaboration, speeding the engineering development cycle, reducing procurement time, and lowering overall costs. Programs at LLNL are potentializing the efficiencies introduced since implementing Zephyr. Zephyr"s pilot functionality is undergoing full integration with Business Systems, Finance, and Vendors to support major programs at the Laboratory.
Stone, Mary Bishop; Lyon, Joseph L; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; White, George L; Alder, Stephen C
Identifying control subjects for epidemiologic studies continues to increase in difficulty because of changes in telephone technology such as answering services and machines, caller identification, and cell phones. An Internet-based method for obtaining study subjects that may increase response rates has been developed and is described. This method uses information from two websites that, when combined, provide accurate and complete lists of names, addresses, and listed phone numbers. This method was developed by use of randomly selected streets in a suburb of Salt Lake City, Utah, in June 2005.
Isetta, Valentina; Lopez-Agustina, Carme; Lopez-Bernal, Esther; Amat, Maribel; Vila, Montserrat; Valls, Carme; Navajas, Daniel
Background The application of information and communication technologies in nursing care is becoming more widespread, but few applications have been reported in neonatal care. A close monitoring of newborns within the first weeks of life is crucial to evaluating correct feeding, growth, and health status. Conventional hospital-based postdischarge monitoring could be improved in terms of costs and clinical effectiveness by using a telemedicine approach. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a new Internet-based system for monitoring low-risk newborns after discharge compared to the standard hospital-based follow-up, with specific attention to prevention of emergency department (ED) visits in the first month of life. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of two low-risk newborn patient groups. One group, born between January 1, 2011, and June 30, 2011, received the standard hospital-based follow-up visit within 48 hours after discharge. After implementing an Internet-based monitoring system, another group, born between July 19, 2011, and January 19, 2012, received their follow-up with this system. Results A total of 18 (15.8%) out of 114 newborns who received the standard hospital-based follow-up had an ED visit in the first month of life compared with 5 (5.6%; P=.026) out of 90 infants who were monitored by the Internet-based system. The cost of the hospital-based follow-up was 182.1€ per patient, compared with 86.1€ for the Internet-based follow-up. Conclusion Our Internet-based monitoring approach proved to be both more effective and less costly than the conventional hospital-based follow-up, particularly through reducing subsequent ED visits. PMID:23419609
Background International collaborative cohorts the NINFEA and the ELF studies are mother-child cohorts that use the internet for recruitment and follow-up of their members. The cohorts investigated the association of early life exposures and a wide range of non-communicable diseases. Objective The objective is to report the research methodology, with emphasis on the advantages and limitations offered by an Internet-based design. These studies were conducted in Turin, Italy and Wellington, New Zealand. Methods The cohorts utilized various online/offline methods to recruit participants. Pregnant women who became aware volunteered, completed an online questionnaire, thus obtaining baseline information. Results The NINFEA study has recruited 7003 pregnant women, while the ELF study has recruited 2197 women. The cohorts targeted the whole country, utilizing a range of support processes to reduce the attrition rate of the participants. For the NINFEA and ELF cohorts, online participants were predominantly older (35% and 28.9%, respectively), highly educated (55.6% and 84.9%, respectively), and were in their final trimester of pregnancy (48.5% and 53.6%, respectively). Conclusions Internet-based cohort epidemiological studies are feasible, however, it is clear that participants are self-selective samples, as is the case for many birth cohorts. Internet-based cohort studies are potentially cost-effective and novel methodology for conducting long-term epidemiology research. However, from our experience, participants tend to be self-selective. In marked time, if the cohorts are to form part of a larger research program they require further use and exploration to address biases and overcome limitations. PMID:26071071
Radenski, Atanas; Follen, Gregory J. (Technical Monitor)
The rapid growth of internet-based applications and the proliferation of networking technologies have been transforming traditional commercial application areas as well as computer and computational sciences and engineering. This growth stimulates the exploration of new, internet-oriented software technologies that can open new research and application opportunities not only for the commercial world, but also for the scientific and high -performance computing applications community. The general goal of this research project is to contribute to better understanding of the transition to internet-based high -performance computing and to develop solutions for some of the difficulties of this transition. More specifically, our goal is to design an architecture for generic divide and conquer internet-based computing, to develop a portable implementation of this architecture, to create an example library of high-performance divide-and-conquer computing agents that run on top of this architecture, and to evaluate the performance of these agents. We have been designing an architecture that incorporates a master task-pool server and utilizes satellite computational servers that operate on the Internet in a dynamically changing large configuration of lower-end nodes provided by volunteer contributors. Our designed architecture is intended to be complementary to and accessible from computational grids such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. Grids provide remote access to existing high-end computing resources; in contrast, our goal is to utilize idle processor time of lower-end internet nodes. Our project is focused on a generic divide-and-conquer paradigm and its applications that operate on a loose and ever changing pool of lower-end internet nodes.
Internet-based, or computerised, cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) can be used to treat patients with depression or anxiety. Patients are engaged in structured programs of care, with several programs available either at no cost or moderate cost. Internet CBT (iCBT) may be particularly suited to patients with mobility issues or living in rural or remote areas. Although there are no adverse effects, clinicians should assess patients for risk issues and the need for more immediate assistance before recommending iCBT. Monitoring effectiveness of any intervention for the patient is important. iCBT has National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Level I evidence of efficacy.
Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A.
Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated two arrangements, one in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (Full Group), and one in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (Mixed Group). Mōtiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the two arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the Full Group ($33) relative to the Mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support. PMID:25821915
Vera, Chido; Herr, Allen; Mandato, Kenneth; Englander, Meridith; Ginsburg, Lauren; Siskin, Gary P
The Internet is being seen as a growing resource for health-related information for a large number of patients. It is undeniable that its widespread presence has led to the growth of awareness that chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) as an entity that may contribute to the symptoms experienced by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Social networking and file-sharing Web sites have brought patients with MS together from all over the world and have facilitated the distribution of personal experiences and information derived from medical research as it relates to CCSVI. As a result, there has been an accelerated growth in the number of patients seeking treatment for this syndrome in light of the possibility that it may improve their present condition. This article will review this phenomenon, the Internet-based resources available to MS patients seeking information about CCSVI, and the responsibilities of physicians as they participate in these online discussions.
Labiris, G; Coertzen, I; Katsikas, A; Karydis, A; Petounis, A
We carried out a prospective study of an Internet-based remote counselling service. A total of 15456 Internet users visited the Website over eight years. From these, 1500 users were randomly selected for analysis. Medical counselling had been granted to 901 of the people requesting it (60%). One hundred and sixty-four physicians formed project groups to process the requests and responded using email. The distribution of patients using the service was similar to the availability of the Internet: 78% were from the European Union, North America and Australia. Sixty-seven per cent of the patients lived in urban areas and the remainder were residents of remote rural areas with limited local medical coverage. Sixty-five per cent of the requests were about problems of internal medicine and 30% of the requests concerned surgical issues. The remaining 5% of the patients sought information about recent developments, such molecular medicine or aviation medicine. During the project, our portal became inaccessible five times, and counselling was not possible on 44 days. There was no hacking of the Website. Internet-based medical counselling is a helpful addition to conventional practice.
BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK
A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multijunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.
BUNTING BACA,LISA A.; DUDA JR.,LEONARD E.; WALKER,RUSSELL M.; OLDHAM,NILE; PARKER,MARK
A new way of providing calibration services is evolving which employs the Internet to expand present capabilities and make the calibration process more interactive. Sandia National Laboratories and the National Institute of Standards and Technology are collaborating to set up and demonstrate a remote calibration of multifunction calibrators using this Internet-based technique that is becoming known as e-calibration. This paper describes the measurement philosophy and the Internet resources that can provide real-time audio/video/data exchange, consultation and training, as well as web-accessible test procedures, software and calibration reports. The communication system utilizes commercial hardware and software that should be easy to integrate into most calibration laboratories.
Gupta, Krishan M.
Within the last few years, a host of value-based metrics like EVA, MVA, TBR, CFORI, and TSR have evolved. This paper attempts to analyze the validity and applicability of EVA and Balanced Scorecard for Internet based organizations. Despite the collapse of the dot-com model, the firms engaged in e- commerce continue to struggle to find new ways to account for customer-base, technology, employees, knowledge, etc, as part of the value of the firm. While some metrics, like the Balance Scorecard are geared towards internal use, others like EVA are for external use. Value-based metrics are used for performing internal audits as well as comparing firms against one another; and can also be effectively utilized by individuals outside the firm looking to determine if the firm is creating value for its stakeholders.
MacDonald, Lindsay; Bouzit, Samira
Two internet-based psychophysical experiments were conducted to investigate the performance of an image sharpness enhancement method, based on adjustment of spatial frequencies in the image according to the contrast sensitivity function and compensation of MTF losses of the display. The method was compared with the widely-used unsharp mask (USM) filter from PhotoShop. The experiment was performed in two locations with different groups of observers: one in the UK, and the second in the USA. Three Apple LCD displays (15" studio, 23" HD cinema and 15" PowerBook) were used at both sites. Observers assessed the sharpness and pleasantness of the displayed images. Analysis of the results led to four major conclusions: (1) Performance of the sharpening methods; (2) Influence of MTF compensation; (3) Image dependency; and (4) Comparison between sharpness perception and preference judgement at both sites.
Mohammed Nawi, AZMAWATI; Che Jamaludin, FARRAH ILYANI
Background: Co-morbidities in adulthood is a significant problem and is associated with obesity during adolescent. Methods: This 3-months randomised controlled trial was aimed at determining the effectiveness of having internet-based intervention (obeseGO!) toward obesity among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur. Forty seven students were assigned randomly to the obeseGO! (intervention) group for internet-based intervention i.e., information on healthy lifestyle and diet were provided via the internet. Fifty students were assigned to the control group, where pamphlets containing health education were provided to these students. The measurement of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and the body fat percentage was taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results: The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) analysis found that obeseGO! had a small effect in reducing BMI, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Conclusion: The internet-based obesity intervention program may be an effective medium for promoting healthy diet and physical activity among the obese adolescents. PMID:26715908
Beach, Pamela; Willows, Dale
This qualitative study examined an innovative methodology, combining screen capture technology and a retrospective think aloud, for exploring the use of Internet-based resources by elementary teachers. Pre-service and in-service teachers explored "The Balanced Literacy Diet," a free, interactive, and evidenced-informed professional…
Limayem, Moez; Cheung, Christy M. K.
The proliferation and advance of Internet-based technologies create expanded opportunities for educators to provide students with better learning experiences. Although current studies focus mostly on the learning processes and learning outcomes, this article examines the students' usage behaviour with Internet-based learning technologies across…
Wan, Chunyang; Jiang, Yanqing
Internet based education media are developing at an amazing rate and being seen as an upstart that will likely take the place of traditional education means worldwide in the future. This paper presents the results of a comparative analysis on user preferences for four major categories of internet-based media used in China. In this paper, we first…
Cook, David A.; Levinson, Anthony J.; Garside, Sarah
Authors have claimed that Internet-based instruction promotes greater learning efficiency than non-computer methods. Objectives Determine, through a systematic synthesis of evidence in health professions education, how Internet-based instruction compares with non-computer instruction in time spent learning, and what features of Internet-based…
... incident to Internet-based communications. 515.578 Section 515.578 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Exportation of certain services incident to Internet-based communications. (a) Except as provided in paragraph... Internet, such as instant messaging, chat and email, social networking, sharing of photos and movies,...
... incident to Internet-based communications. 515.578 Section 515.578 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Exportation of certain services incident to Internet-based communications. (a) Except as provided in paragraph... Internet, such as instant messaging, chat and email, social networking, sharing of photos and movies,...
... incident to Internet-based communications authorized. 542.511 Section 542.511 Money and Finance: Treasury....511 Exportation of certain services incident to Internet-based communications authorized. (a) To the... Internet, such as instant messaging, chat and email, social networking, sharing of photos and movies,...
... incident to Internet-based communications. 515.578 Section 515.578 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Exportation of certain services incident to Internet-based communications. (a) Except as provided in paragraph... Internet, such as instant messaging, chat and email, social networking, sharing of photos and movies,...
Reece, Michael; Smith, Matthew Lee; Jun, Mi Kyung
To explore factors associated with college students' intentions to participate in Internet-based health research, data were collected from 502 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level business courses at a large midwestern university. Findings suggest that intentions to participate in Internet-based research are influenced by one's…
Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chuang, Shih-Chyueh; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Meng-Jung
This paper reviews 46 papers from 1999 to 2009 regarding self-efficacy in Internet-based learning environments, and discusses three major categories of research: (1) learners' Internet self-efficacy, assessing learners' confidence in their skills or knowledge of operating general Internet functions or applications in Internet-based learning; (2)…
Follen, Gregory J. (Technical Monitor); Radenski, Atanas
The growth of Internet-based applications and the proliferation of networking technologies have been transforming traditional commercial application areas as well as computer and computational sciences and engineering. This growth stimulates the exploration of Peer to Peer (P2P) software technologies that can open new research and application opportunities not only for the commercial world, but also for the scientific and high-performance computing applications community. The general goal of this project is to achieve better understanding of the transition to Internet-based high-performance computing and to develop solutions for some of the technical challenges of this transition. In particular, we are interested in creating long-term motivation for end users to provide their idle processor time to support computationally intensive tasks. We believe that a practical P2P architecture should provide useful service to both clients with high-performance computing needs and contributors of lower-end computing resources. To achieve this, we are designing dual -service architecture for P2P high-performance divide-and conquer computing; we are also experimenting with a prototype implementation. Our proposed architecture incorporates a master server, utilizes dual satellite servers, and operates on the Internet in a dynamically changing large configuration of lower-end nodes provided by volunteer contributors. A dual satellite server comprises a high-performance computing engine and a lower-end contributor service engine. The computing engine provides generic support for divide and conquer computations. The service engine is intended to provide free useful HTTP-based services to contributors of lower-end computing resources. Our proposed architecture is complementary to and accessible from computational grids, such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. Grids provide remote access to existing higher-end computing resources; in contrast, our goal is to utilize idle processor time of
Chamberlain, James; Myers, Gerry; Clem, David; Speir, Terri
The Internet Voice Distribution System (IVoDS) is a voice-communication system that comprises mainly computer hardware and software. The IVoDS was developed to supplement and eventually replace the Enhanced Voice Distribution System (EVoDS), which, heretofore, has constituted the terrestrial subsystem of a system for voice communications among crewmembers of the International Space Station (ISS), workers at the Payloads Operations Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, principal investigators at diverse locations who are responsible for specific payloads, and others. The IVoDS utilizes a communication infrastructure of NASA and NASArelated intranets in addition to, as its name suggests, the Internet. Whereas the EVoDS utilizes traditional circuitswitched telephony, the IVoDS is a packet-data system that utilizes a voice over Internet protocol (VOIP). Relative to the EVoDS, the IVoDS offers advantages of greater flexibility and lower cost for expansion and reconfiguration. The IVoDS is an extended version of a commercial Internet-based voice conferencing system that enables each user to participate in only one conference at a time. In the IVoDS, a user can receive audio from as many as eight conferences simultaneously while sending audio to one of them. The IVoDS also incorporates administrative controls, beyond those of the commercial system, that provide greater security and control of the capabilities and authorizations for talking and listening afforded to each user.
Gantenbein, Rex E
Several recent grants from the National Institutes of Health to the Universities of Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana have created a unique opportunity for collaboration in biomedical research among the three schools, as well as the community colleges in the region. NIH Center of Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) programs at Wyoming have been established to study the biological effect of nitric oxide and to investigate stressors that can contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease. Funding from these and related grants have significantly upgraded Wyoming bioimaging and microscopy facilities, as well as provided support for faculty and students in a variety of research disciplines. In order to enhance these research efforts, the Center for Rural Health Research and Education at the University of Wyoming is spearheading an effort to create an Internet-based system for sharing data and research resources among the involved sites. This paper describes how such a "collaboratory" could be designed, using techniques developed for distributed research and development in the computer industry. The system, as envisioned, will support remote data acquisition, management, and visualization, while providing security in the form of authorization and authentication of users and virtual private networking for data transmitted between nodes of the network.
Lee, Samuel A.; Gallagher, Larry A.; Thongdee, Metawee; Staudinger, Benjamin J.; Lippman, Soyeon; Singh, Pradeep K.; Manoil, Colin
The essential functions of a bacterial pathogen reflect the most basic processes required for its viability and growth, and represent potential therapeutic targets. Most screens for essential genes have assayed a single condition—growth in a rich undefined medium—and thus have not distinguished genes that are generally essential from those that are specific to this particular condition. To help define these classes for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we identified genes required for growth on six different media, including a medium made from cystic fibrosis patient sputum. The analysis used the Tn-seq circle method to achieve high genome coverage and analyzed more than 1,000,000 unique insertion positions (an average of one insertion every 6.0 bp). We identified 352 general and 199 condition-specific essential genes. A subset of assignments was verified in individual strains with regulated expression alleles. The profile of essential genes revealed that, compared with Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa is highly vulnerable to mutations disrupting central carbon-energy metabolism and reactive oxygen defenses. These vulnerabilities may arise from the stripped-down architecture of the organism’s carbohydrate utilization pathways and its reliance on respiration for energy generation. The essential function profile thus provides fundamental insights into P. aeruginosa physiology as well as identifying candidate targets for new antibacterial agents. PMID:25848053
Background Since the beginning of 2007, the National Health Research Institutes has been promoting the dissemination of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The current study examined longitudinal trends of behaviors in how hospital-based physicians and nurses have searched for medical information during the spread of EBM. Methods Cross-sectional postal questionnaire surveys were conducted in nationally representative regional hospitals of Taiwan thrice in 2007, 2009, and 2011. Demographic data were gathered concerning gender, age, working experience, teaching appointment, academic degree, and administrative position. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors and changes over time. Results Data from physicians and nurses were collected in 2007 (n = 1156), 2009 (n = 2975), and 2011 (n = 3999). There were significant increases in the use of four Internet-based resources – Web portals, online databases, electronic journals, and electronic books – across the three survey years among physicians and nurses (p < 0.001). Access to textbooks and printed journals, however, did not change over the 4-year study period. In addition, there were significant relationships between the usage of Internet-based resources and users’ characteristics. Age and faculty position were important predictors in relation to the usage among physicians and nurses, while academic degree served as a critical factor among nurses only. Conclusions Physicians and nurses used a variety of sources to look for medical information. There was a steady increase in use of Internet-based resources during the diffusion period of EBM. The findings highlight the importance of the Internet as a prominent source of medical information for main healthcare professionals. PMID:23289500
Roy, Sushmita; Werner-Washburne, Margaret; Lane, Terran
Motivation: Condition-specific networks capture system-wide behavior under varying conditions such as environmental stresses, cell types or tissues. These networks frequently comprise parts that are unique to each condition, and parts that are shared among related conditions. Existing approaches for learning condition-specific networks typically identify either only differences or only similarities across conditions. Most of these approaches first learn networks per condition independently, and then identify similarities and differences in a post-learning step. Such approaches do not exploit the shared information across conditions during network learning. Results: We describe an approach for learning condition-specific networks that identifies the shared and unique subgraphs during network learning simultaneously, rather than as a post-processing step. Our approach learns networks across condition sets, shares data from different conditions and produces high-quality networks that capture biologically meaningful information. On simulated data, our approach outperformed an existing approach that learns networks independently for each condition, especially for small training datasets. On microarray data of hundreds of deletion mutants in two, yeast stationary-phase cell populations, the inferred network structure identified several common and population-specific effects of these deletion mutants and several high-confidence cases of double-deletion pairs, which can be experimentally tested. Our results are consistent with and extend the existing knowledge base of differentiated cell populations in yeast stationary phase. Availability and Implementation: C++ code can be accessed from http://www.broadinstitute.org/~sroy/condspec/ Contact: email@example.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21551143
Villegas, N.; Santisteban, D.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Ambrosia, T.; Peragallo, N.; Lara, L.
Background Young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age are at high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The literature shows a shortage of STI–HIV prevention interventions focused on this specific high-risk population and a unique set of barriers to receiving prevention messages. Internet-based interventions are promising for delivering STI–HIV prevention interventions and avoiding barriers to services. Aims The study aimed to develop a culturally informed Internet-based STI–HIV prevention intervention for Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age, to investigate its feasibility and acceptability, and to compile recommendations on what would make the intervention more acceptable and feasible for these women. Methods The development of the Internet intervention was facilitated by a process that featured consultation with content and technology experts. A pre-post test design was used to test the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention with 40 young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Results The intervention website consisted of four modules of content and activities that support learning. The intervention was feasible and acceptable for young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Discussion and conclusion This study demonstrated the value of engaging multiple expert panels to develop culturally informed and technology-based interventions. The results of this study support the feasibility and acceptability of conducting an Internet-based intervention with multiple sessions, yielding high participation rates in a population in which there are barriers to discussion of STI–HIV prevention and sex-related content. Implications for nursing and health policy The outcomes have implications for nursing education and clinical practice and they can be used for the legal and judicial systems to promote or reinforce policies that encourage STI–HIV prevention strategies
Torio, Monika-Bianca; Cafazzo, Joseph A
Background The high prevalence rate of asthma represents a major societal burden. Advancements in information technology continue to affect the delivery of patient care in all areas of medicine. Internet-based solutions, social media, and mobile technology could address some of the problems associated with increasing asthma prevalence. Objective This review evaluates Internet-based asthma interventions that were published between 2004 and October 2014 with respect to the use of behavioral change theoretical frameworks, applied clinical guidelines, and assessment tools. Methods The search term (Asthma AND [Online or Internet or Mobile or Application or eHealth or App]) was applied to six bibliographic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, BioMed Central, ProQuest Computing, Web of Knowledge, and ACM Digital Library) including only English-language articles published between 2004 and October 2014. In total, 3932 articles matched the priori search terms and were reviewed by the primary reviewer based on their titles, index terms, and abstracts. The matching articles were then screened by the primary reviewer for inclusion or exclusion based on their abstract, study type, and intervention objectives with respect to the full set of priori inclusion and exclusion criteria; 331 duplicates were identified and removed. A total of 85 articles were included for in-depth review and the remaining 3516 articles were excluded. The primary and secondary reviewer independently reviewed the complete content of the 85 included articles to identify the applied behavioral change theories, clinical guidelines, and assessment tools. Findings and any disagreement between reviewers were resolved by in-depth discussion and through a consolidation process for each of the included articles. Results The reviewers identified 17 out of 85 interventions (20%) where at least one model, framework, and/or construct of a behavioral change theory were applied. The review identified six clinical guidelines
Mira, Adriana; Bretón-López, Juana; García-Palacios, Azucena; Quero, Soledad; Baños, Rosa María; Botella, Cristina
Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficacy of an Internet-based program for depressive symptoms using automated support by information and communication technologies (ICTs) and human support. Patients and methods An Internet-based program was used to teach adaptive ways to cope with depressive symptoms and daily problems. A total of 124 participants who were experiencing at least one stressful event that caused interference in their lives, many of whom had clinically significant depressive symptoms, were randomly assigned into either an intervention group with ICT support (automated mobile phone messages, automated emails, and continued feedback through the program); an intervention group with ICT support plus human support (brief weekly support phone call without clinical content); or a waiting-list control. At pre-, post-, and 12-month follow-up, they completed depression, anxiety, positive and negative effect, and perceived stress measures. Results were analyzed using both intention-to-treat and completers data. The majority were women (67.7%), with a mean age of 35.6 years (standard deviation =9.7). Results The analysis showed that the two intervention groups improved significantly pre- to posttreatment, compared with the control group. Furthermore, improvements were maintained at the 12-month follow-up. Adherence and satisfaction with the program was high in both conditions. Conclusion The Internet-based program was effective and well accepted, with and without human support, showing that ICT-based automated support may be useful. It is essential to continue to study other ICT strategies for providing support.
Borgulya, Gábor; Jakab, Zsuzsanna; Schuler, Dezso; Garami, Miklós
Cancer registration has developed in Europe over the last 50 years, and in the last decade intensive joint activities between the European Cancer Registries, in response to the need of pan-European harmonization of registration practices, have taken place. The Hungarian Paediatric Cancer Registry has been functioning as the database of the Hungarian Paediatric Oncology Network since 1971, aiming to follow the incidence and the treatment efficacy of malignant diseases. The goals of this globally unique open source information system are the following: 1) to raise the quality of the registration system to the European level by developing an Internet-based registration and communication system, modernizing the database, establishing automatic statistical analyses and adding an Internet website, 2) to support clinical epidemiological studies that we conduct with international collaborators on detailed analyses of the characteristics of patients and their diseases, evaluation of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, prevention programs, and long-term quality of life and side effects. The benefits of the development of the Internet-based registration and communication system are as follows: a) introduction of an Internet-based case reporting system, b) modernization of the registry database according to international recommendations, c) automatic statistical summaries, encrypted mail systems, document repository, d) application of data security and privacy standards, e) establishment of a website and compilation of educational materials. The overall objective of this scientific project is to contribute towards the improvement of cancer prevention and cancer care for the benefit of the public in general and of cancer patients in particular.
Andreeva, Valentina A; Galan, Pilar; Julia, Chantal; Castetbon, Katia; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge
Whereas the feasibility and effectiveness of Internet-based epidemiologic research have been established, methodological support for the quality of such data is still accumulating. We aimed to identify sociodemographic differences among members of a French cohort according to willingness to provide part of one's 15-digit national identification number (personal Social Security number (PSSN)) and to assess response consistency based on information reported on the sociodemographic questionnaire and that reflected in the PSSN. We studied 100,118 persons enrolled in an Internet-based prospective cohort study, the NutriNet-Santé Study, between 2009 and 2013. Persons aged 18 years or more who resided in France and had Internet access were eligible for enrollment. The sociodemographic profiles of participants with discordant data were compared against those of participants with concordant data via 2-sided polytomous logistic regression. In total, 84,442 participants (84.3%) provided the first 7 digits of their PSSN, and among them 5,141 (6.1%) had discordant data. Our multivariate analysis revealed differences by sex, age, education, and employment as regards response consistency patterns. The results support the quality of sociodemographic data obtained online from a large and diverse volunteer sample. The quantitative description of participant profiles according to response consistency patterns could inform future methodological work in e-epidemiology.
Oh, Minsik; Rhee, Sungmin; Moon, Ji Hwan; Chae, Heejoon; Lee, Sunwon; Kang, Jaewoo; Kim, Sun
miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by binding to the 3′-UTR of genes. Many recent studies have reported that miRNAs play important biological roles by regulating specific mRNAs or genes. Many sequence-based target prediction algorithms have been developed to predict miRNA targets. However, these methods are not designed for condition-specific target predictions and produce many false positives; thus, expression-based target prediction algorithms have been developed for condition-specific target predictions. A typical strategy to utilize expression data is to leverage the negative control roles of miRNAs on genes. To control false positives, a stringent cutoff value is typically set, but in this case, these methods tend to reject many true target relationships, i.e., false negatives. To overcome these limitations, additional information should be utilized. The literature is probably the best resource that we can utilize. Recent literature mining systems compile millions of articles with experiments designed for specific biological questions, and the systems provide a function to search for specific information. To utilize the literature information, we used a literature mining system, BEST, that automatically extracts information from the literature in PubMed and that allows the user to perform searches of the literature with any English words. By integrating omics data analysis methods and BEST, we developed Context-MMIA, a miRNA-mRNA target prediction method that combines expression data analysis results and the literature information extracted based on the user-specified context. In the pathway enrichment analysis using genes included in the top 200 miRNA-targets, Context-MMIA outperformed the four existing target prediction methods that we tested. In another test on whether prediction methods can re-produce experimentally validated target relationships, Context-MMIA outperformed the four existing target prediction methods. In
This dissertation investigated the relation between epistemic cognition---epistemic aims and source beliefs---and learning outcome in an Internet--based research context. Based on a framework of epistemic cognition (Chinn, Buckland, & Samarapungavan, 2011), a context--specific epistemic aims and source beliefs questionnaire (CEASBQ) was developed and administered to 354 students from college--level introductory chemistry courses. A series of multitrait--multimethod model comparisons provided evidence for construct convergent and discriminant validity for three epistemic aims--- true beliefs, justified beliefs, explanatory connection, which were all distinguished from, yet correlated with, mastery goals. Students' epistemic aims were specific to the chemistry topics in research. Multidimensional scaling results indicated that students' source evaluation was based on two dimensions--- professional expertise and first--hand knowledge, suggesting a multidimensional structure of source beliefs. Most importantly, online learning outcome was found to be significantly associated with two epistemic aims---justified beliefs and explanatory connection: The more students sought justifications in the online research, the lower they tended to score on the learning outcome measure, whereas the more students sought explanatory connections between information, the higher they scored on the outcome measure. There was a significant but small positive association between source beliefs and learning outcome. The influences of epistemic aims and source beliefs on learning outcome were found to be above and beyond the effects of a number of covariates, including prior knowledge and perceived ability with online sources.
Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie; Geraghty, Adam W A; Miller, Sascha; Yardley, Lucy; Gardner, Benjamin; Shahab, Lion; McEwen, Andy; Stapleton, John A; West, Robert
Reviews of internet-based behaviour-change interventions have shown that they can be effective but there is considerable heterogeneity and effect sizes are generally small. In order to advance science and technology in this area, it is essential to be able to build on principles and evidence of behaviour change in an incremental manner. We report the development of an interactive smoking cessation website, StopAdvisor, designed to be attractive and effective across the social spectrum. It was informed by a broad motivational theory (PRIME), empirical evidence, web-design expertise, and user-testing. The intervention was developed using an open-source web-development platform, 'LifeGuide', designed to facilitate optimisation and collaboration. We identified 19 theoretical propositions, 33 evidence- or theory-based behaviour change techniques, 26 web-design principles and nine principles from user-testing. These were synthesised to create the website, 'StopAdvisor' (see http://www.lifeguideonline.org/player/play/stopadvisordemonstration). The systematic and transparent application of theory, evidence, web-design expertise and user-testing within an open-source development platform can provide a basis for multi-phase optimisation contributing to an 'incremental technology' of behaviour change.
Wilson, David P
Beliefs regarding the origins of the universe and life differ substantially between groups of people and are often particularly associated with religious worldviews. It is important to understand factors associated with evolution and creationism beliefs and unacceptance of scientific evidence for evolution. An internet-based survey was conducted to elicit information from people who self-identify as Christians, atheists, agnostics and other belief systems, as well as by geographical location and other demographic variables, on acceptance of evolution or creationism, certainty with which each position is believed, and reasons for rejecting the alternative. It was found that almost 60% of Christians believe in creationism and less than 10% believe in natural evolution. Worldwide, these proportions were relatively consistent across all locations except for in Europe. Among European Christians the majority of Christians believe in a form of evolution. It was found that the vast majority (87%) of Christians are 'absolutely certain' about their beliefs, compared with the minority of atheists and agnostics claiming 'absolute certainty'. Generally, reasons Christians did not accept evolution were based not on evidence but on religious doctrine. In contrast, the most common reason for not accepting the existence of a god by atheists who supported evolution was the lack of evidence. Innovative strategies may be required to communicate evolutionary science effectively to non-European Christians.
Takriti, Yahya; El-Sayeh, Hany G; Adams, Clive E
Background The internet is becoming a widely used source of accessing medical research through various on-line databases. This instant access to information is of benefit to busy clinicians and service users around the world. The population of the Arab World is comparable to that of the United States, yet it is widely believed to have a greatly contrasting output of randomised controlled trials related to mental health. This study was designed to investigate the existence of such research in the Arab World and also to investigate the availability of this research on-line. Methods Survey of findings from three internet-based potential sources of randomised trials originating from the Arab world and relevant to mental health care. Results A manual search of an Arabic online current contents service identified 3 studies, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO searches identified only 1 study, and a manual search of a specifically indexed, study-based mental health database, PsiTri, revealed 27 trials. Conclusion There genuinely seem to be few trials from the Arab world and accessing these on-line was problematic. Replication of some studies that guide psychiatric/psychological practice in the Arab world would seem prudent. PMID:16045805
Kurki, Marjo; Hätönen, Heli; Koivunen, Marita; Anttila, Minna; Välimäki, Maritta
The aim of this explorative study was to describe nurses' opportunities to integrate computer and Internet-based programmes in psychiatric out-patient care among adolescents with depression. Therefore, nurses' daily computer use and possible problems related to it were investigated. The data were collected by conducting focus group interviews with Finnish registered nurses (n =12) working at the out-patient clinics of two university central hospitals. The data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The analysis showed that nurses used the computer and Internet in their daily work for data transmission and informal interaction with adolescents. Findings revealed that nurses have good computer skills, a positive attitude towards using the computer and Internet and were motivated to make use of both on a daily basis. Problems faced in daily computer use were a lack of instructions and education, and lack of help and support. We can conclude that nurses have good opportunities to implement computer and Internet-based programmes in adolescent out-patient care. These results are encouraging keeping in mind that adolescents are the most active Internet users in society.
Yeh, Mei-Ling; Hung, Yu-Ling; Lin, Jaung-Geng
Background. Primary dysmenorrhea is prevalent in adolescents and young women. Menstrual pain and distress causes poor school performance and physiological damage. Auricular acupressure can be used to treat these symptoms, and Internet-based systems are a flexible way of communicating and delivering the relevant information. Objective. This study investigates the effects of auricular acupressure (AA) alone and combined with an interactive Internet-based (II) intervention for the management of menstrual pain and self-care of adolescents with primary dysmenorrhea. Design. This study adopts a pretest/posttest control research design with a convenience sample of 107 participants. Results. The outcomes were measured using the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), visual analogue scale (VAS), menstrual distress questionnaire (MDQ), and adolescent dysmenorrheic self-care scale (ADSCS). Significant differences were found in ADSCS scores between the groups, and in SF-MPQ, VAS, MDQ, and ADSCS scores for each group. Conclusion. Auricular acupressure alone and a combination of auricular acupressure and interactive Internet both reduced menstrual pain and distress for primary dysmenorrhea. Auricular acupressure combined with interactive Internet instruction is better than auricular acupuncture alone in improving self-care behaviors. PMID:23653661
Holländare, Fredrik; Anthony, Susanne A; Randestad, Mia; Tillfors, Maria; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Engström, Ingemar
The objective of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of internet-based relapse prevention for sufferers of partially remitted depression. Eighty-four individuals with partially remitted unipolar depression were randomized to either internet-based CBT (iCBT) or to a control group. After the ten week intervention period the participants were followed for 24 months and diagnostic interviews conducted to detect relapse. The intervention and monthly self-ratings of depressive symptoms were administered via an internet-based platform that ensured secure communication with all participants. Significantly fewer participants in the iCBT group had experienced a relapse compared with those in the control group two years after the internet-based intervention. The relapse rate in the iCBT group was 13.7% (CI 95%=2.5-24.9) and in the control group it was 60.9% (CI 95%=44.8-77). Furthermore, a significantly larger proportion of the iCBT group experienced remission two years after the intervention compared with the control group. Internet-based CBT seems promising for preventing relapse in sufferers of partially remitted depression.
Hartz, Sarah M.; Quan, Tiffany; Ibiebele, Abiye; Fisher, Sherri L.; Olfson, Emily; Salyer, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.
Purpose: Internet-based technologies are increasingly being used for research studies. However, it is not known whether Internet-based approaches will effectively engage participants from diverse racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Methods: A total of 967 participants were recruited and offered genetic ancestry results. We evaluated viewing Internet-based genetic ancestry results among participants who expressed high interest in obtaining the results. Results: Of the participants, 64% stated that they were very or extremely interested in their genetic ancestry results. Among interested participants, individuals with a high school diploma (n = 473) viewed their results 19% of the time relative to 4% of the 145 participants without a diploma (P < 0.0001). Similarly, 22% of participants with household income above the federal poverty level (n = 286) viewed their results relative to 10% of the 314 participants living below the federal poverty level (P < 0.0001). Among interested participants both with a high school degree and living above the poverty level, self-identified Caucasians were more likely to view results than self-identified African Americans (P < 0.0001), and females were more likely to view results than males (P = 0.0007). Conclusion: In an underserved population, engagement in Internet-based research was low despite high reported interest. This suggests that explicit strategies should be developed to increase diversity in Internet-based research. Genet Med 19 2, 240–243. PMID:27467456
Page, Timothy F.; Horvath, Keith J.; Danilenko, Gene P.; Williams, Mark
The purpose of the study was to document development costs and estimate implementation costs of an internet based medication adherence intervention for people living with HIV in the US. Participants (n=61) were enrolled in the 8 week study in 2011 and entered the intervention website remotely in the setting of their choice. Development costs were obtained from a feasibility and acceptability study of an internet based medication adherence intervention. Implementation costs were estimated based on an 8 week trial period during the feasibility and acceptability study. Results indicated that although developing an internet based medication adherence intervention is expensive, the monthly cost of implementing and delivering the intervention is low. If the efficacy of similar interventions can be established, these results suggest the internet could be an effective method for delivering medication adherence interventions to persons residing in areas with limited access to in-person adherence services. PMID:22362156
a randomized trial among primary care patients with low health literacy . Patient Education and Counseling, 73(3), 482-489. Appendix 1) Complete...patients with low health literacy . Patient Educ Couns 2008, 73:482-489. 39. Davison BJ, Kirk P, Degner LF, Hassard TH: Information and patient...Carey LA, et al: Retention and use of breast cancer recurrence risk information from genomic tests: the role of health literacy . Cancer Epidemiol
Ozkan, Hasan Huseyin
Internet is gradually becoming the most valuable learning environment for the people which form the information society. That the internet provides written, oral and visual communication between the participants who are at different places, that it enables the students' interaction with other students and teachers, and that it does these so fast…
Kim, Jun Woo; Ha, Sung Ho
Information-intensive Web services such as price comparison sites have recently been gaining popularity. However, most users including novice shoppers have difficulty in browsing such sites because of the massive amount of information gathered and the uncertainty surrounding Web environments. Even conventional price comparison sites face various problems, which suggests the necessity of a new approach to address these problems. Therefore, for this study, an intelligent product search system was developed that enables price comparisons for online shoppers in a more effective manner. In particular, the developed system adopts linguistic price ratings based on fuzzy logic to accommodate user-defined price ranges, and personalizes product recommendations based on linguistic product clusters, which help online shoppers find desired items in a convenient manner.
Kim, Jun Woo; Ha, Sung Ho
Information-intensive Web services such as price comparison sites have recently been gaining popularity. However, most users including novice shoppers have difficulty in browsing such sites because of the massive amount of information gathered and the uncertainty surrounding Web environments. Even conventional price comparison sites face various problems, which suggests the necessity of a new approach to address these problems. Therefore, for this study, an intelligent product search system was developed that enables price comparisons for online shoppers in a more effective manner. In particular, the developed system adopts linguistic price ratings based on fuzzy logic to accommodate user-defined price ranges, and personalizes product recommendations based on linguistic product clusters, which help online shoppers find desired items in a convenient manner. PMID:25268901
Bowen, A M; Williams, M L; Daniel, C M; Clayton, S
Internet delivered primary prevention interventions for HIV risk reduction present significant challenges. Changing lifestyle behaviors, such as beginning to use condoms, is difficult and men seeking dates on line may want to avoid thinking about HIV risk which may lead to low initiation and high dropout rates. Many Internet delivered HIV risk reduction programs have mimicked face-to-face outreach programs, failing to take advantage of the Internet's capabilities or did not conduct evaluation. This study focuses on examining the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an Internet delivered HIV risk reduction program for rural men who have sex with men (MSM). The program included online recruiting, three intervention modules, each with two sessions, online questionnaires. The intervention was developed based on iterative research and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model. Participants (N = 475) were randomly assigned to one of six module orders and data were collected automatically at pre-test and after each module. Data supports the feasibility and acceptability of the program as demonstrated by good retention and rapid program completion. Knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies and motivation increase in a dose response fashion. Post-intervention behavior changes included reduced anal sex and significant increases in condom use. Limitations include a short follow-up period, a predominantly young white rural sample, and the lack of an attention control. Overall the results of the study provide support for the efficacy of Internet-based interventions to reduce risk of HIV infection. Results also support traditional research methods to evaluate HIV prevention programs delivered exclusively through the Internet.
Klein, Carolina A; Kandel, Surendra
The Internet has increasingly become an intrinsic part of everyday life, offering countless possibilities for education, services, recreation, and more. In fact, an entire virtual life within the digitalized World Wide Web is possible and common among many Internet users. Today's psychiatrists must therefore incorporate this dimension of human life into clinical practice, to achieve an adequate assessment of the tools and risks available to the patient. We focus on the Internet as a portal for the trade of and access to substances of abuse. We review the legal regulations that may inform care and standards of practice and analyze the difficulties that arise in assessment and monitoring of the current situation. We consider the potential impact of Internet-based narcotics trade on addiction morbidities and the practice of clinical psychiatry, as well as on the potential legal implications that the forensic expert may face.
The Internet has made it possible for teachers to administer online assessments with affordability and ease. However, little is known about Japanese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students' attitudes of internet-based tests (IBTs). Therefore, this study aimed to measure the perceptions of IBTs among Japanese English language learners with the…
Wagner, Birgit; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Maercker, Andreas
The present study investigates the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy program for bereaved people suffering complicated grief. The program combines established methods of psychotherapy with new technology--therapists and patients communicated exclusively by e-mail. Bereaved individuals diagnosed with complicated grief (n =…
French, Deanie, Ed.; Hale, Charles, Ed.; Johnson, Charles, Ed.; Farr, Gerald, Ed.
This contributed volume is designed for junior college faculty, senior college faculty, and business trainers who wish to integrate new Internet technology for learning. Chapters are as follows: (1) "Preparing for Internet-Based Learning" (Deanie French); (2) "Learning To Learn in a WWW-Based Environment" (Betty Collis and…
Zhuang, Hanqi; Morgera, Salvatore D.
The objective, strategy, and implementation details of a new undergraduate course, Internet-based Instrumentation and Control, are presented. The course has a companion laboratory that is supported by the National Science Foundation and industry. The combination is offered to senior-level undergraduate engineering students interested in sensing,…
Botella, C.; Gallego, M. J.; Garcia-Palacios, A.; Banos, R. M.; Quero, S.; Alcaniz, M.
Several randomised controlled studies have shown the efficacy of Internet-based self-help treatments. These studies have centred their attention on axis I (efficacy) of the Guidelines for Empirically Validated Treatments, although there are a few studies that also take into account axis II (effectiveness). The aim of the present work was to test…
Garcia Laborda, Jesus
Interface design and ergonomics, while already studied in much of educational theory, have not until recently been considered in language testing (Fulcher, 2003). In this paper, we revise the design principles of PLEVALEX, a fully operational prototype Internet based language testing platform. Our focus here is to show PLEVALEX's interfaces and…
Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth
This study involves an evaluation of online learners' experiences with two Internet-based clinical social work courses. The evaluation sought to discover whether there were differences in learning between traditional (under 25 years old) and nontraditional age learners (25 years and over) who completed the asynchronous online course. The study…
Jordan, C.W.; Cavitt, R.E.; Niven, W.A.; Warren, F.E.; Taylor, S.S.; Sharick, T.M.; Vickers, D.L.; Mitschkowetz, N.; Weaver, R.L.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is piloting an Internet- based paperless process called `Zephyr` to streamline engineering procurements. Major benefits have accrued by using Zephyr in reducing procurement time, speeding the engineering development cycle, facilitating industrial collaboration, and reducing overall costs. Programs at LLNL are benefiting by the efficiencies introduced since implementing Zephyr`s engineering and commerce on the Internet.
Describes the Financial System Simulator game, an Internet-based, interactive teaching aid that introduces undergraduate students to the domestic and international consequences of monetary policy. States that student surveys indicate the game keeps learners motivated and interested and helps them understand monetary policy. (JEH)
Stromso, Helge I.; Braten, Ivar
The predictability of Internet-specific epistemic beliefs for self-regulated learning within Internet technologies was examined in a sample of 84 physics undergraduates. Dimensions of Internet-specific epistemic beliefs were found to explain unique variance in Internet-based search, help-seeking, and self-regulatory strategies, respectively.…
Hawkins, Isabel; Battle, Robyn
Research has been conducted which develops case studies on how to engage scientists in partnerships with teachers. Studies have focused on the Internet and the World Wide Web as potential conduits of research results to the classroom, particularly if scientists and teachers were involved in joint creation of Internet-based curriculum and lesson…
Chen, Su-Yen; Fang, Sheng-Ping
This study expanded the definition of reading practices to include both print- and Internet-based reading, and examined the relationship of reading profiles to Taiwanese college students' performance on various practices. The results showed that more time was spent on Internet-than print-based extracurricular reading, and that the three…
Solem, Michael N.
Analyzes the Internet-based teaching practices of college-level geography instructors. Relates these practices to their research specialty, place of employment, teaching experiences, and academic rank. Focuses on full-time geography faculty listed in the "1997-98 Association of American Geographers Guide to Programs in the United States and…
Bacon, Melanie; Blood, Leslie; Ault, Marilyn; Adams, Doug
4Kids.org is an online resource with an accompanying syndicated print publication created to promote safe access to websites and technology literacy. 4Kids.org, created by ALTEC at the University of Kansas in 1995, provides a variety of Internet-based activities as well as access to a database of websites reviewed for educational content,…
Kontkanen, Jani; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Åhlberg, Mauri
Visual databases are increasingly important resources through which individuals and groups can undertake species identification. This paper reports research on the collaborative processes undertaken by pre-service teacher students when working in small groups to identify birds using an Internet-based taxonomic resource. The student groups are…
Hill, Anne J.; Theodoros, Deborah G.; Russell, Trevor G.; Cahill, Louise M.; Ward, Elizabeth C.; Clark, Kathy M.
Purpose: This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an Internet-based telerehabilitation application for the assessment of motor speech disorders in adults with acquired neurological impairment. Method: Using a counterbalanced, repeated measures research design, 2 speech-language pathologists assessed 19 speakers with…
Miller, Van V.
Describes an Internet-based simulation used in a course about business strategy in an emerging economy. The simulation, when coupled with today's dominant strategy paradigm, the Resource Based View, appears to yield a course design that attracts students while emphasizing the actual substance which is crucial in such a course. (EV)
Hedman, Erik; Lindefors, Nils; Andersson, Gerhard; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Rück, Christian; Ljótsson, Brjánn
Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for severe health anxiety can be effective, but not all patients achieve full remission. Under these circumstances, knowledge about predictors is essential for the clinician in order to make reliable treatment recommendations. The primary aim of this study was to investigate clinical, demographic, and therapy process-related predictors of Internet-based CBT for severe health anxiety. We performed three types of analyses on data from a sample comprising participants (N = 81) who had received Internet-based CBT in a randomized controlled trial. Outcomes were a) end state health anxiety, b) improvement in health anxiety (continuous change scores), and c) clinically significant improvement. Outcomes were assessed at six-month follow-up. The results showed that the most stable predictors of both end state health anxiety and improvement were baseline health anxiety and depressive symptoms. Treatment adherence, i.e. the number of completed treatment modules, also significantly predicted outcome. Notably, health anxiety at baseline was positively associated with symptom improvement while depressive symptoms was negatively related to improvement. Demographic factors were largely without significant impact on end state symptoms or improvement. We conclude that baseline symptom burden and adherence to treatment have strong predictive effects in Internet-based CBT for severe health anxiety.
Caffray, Christine M.; Chatterji, Pinka
This manuscript describes the development and testing of an Internet-based cost survey that was designed by the authors for the National Assembly on School-Based Health Care (NASBHC) to capture the costs of school-based health programs. The intent of the survey was twofold. First, the survey was designed to collect comprehensive data on costs in a…
Colvin, Jan; Chenoweth, Lillian; Bold, Mary; Harding, Cheryl
We explored the perceptions of caregivers of older adults using Internet-based social support networks regarding the unique advantages and disadvantages of online social support. Participants were recruited with permission of Web owners through 15 Web sites that offered social networks, and responses from 63 electronically submitted surveys were…
Presents three Internet-based activities for teaching elementary students about the Underground Railroad. The activities include creating a freight-train of facts about the Underground Railroad, mapping the routes of the Underground Railroad, and participating in an electronic simulation of life as a fugitive slave. (SM)
... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay... of Internet-based TRS to be provided (i.e., VRS, IP Relay, and/or IP captioned telephone relay... IP Relay providers certified under this section must notify the Commission of substantive changes...
... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay... of Internet-based TRS to be provided (i.e., VRS, IP Relay, and/or IP captioned telephone relay... IP Relay providers certified under this section must notify the Commission of substantive changes...
... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Telecommunications Relay... of Internet-based TRS to be provided (i.e., VRS, IP Relay, and/or IP captioned telephone relay... IP Relay providers certified under this section must notify the Commission of substantive changes...
Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have recently emerged to be a cost-effective solution to support large-scale wireless Internet access. They have numerous applications, such as broadband Internet access, building automation, and intelligent transportation systems. One research challenge for Internet-based WMNs is to design efficient mobility…
Bentley, Joanne P. H.; Tinney, Mari Vawn; Chia, Bing Howe
As the internet-based learning (IBL) market becomes increasingly global, understanding differing educational values and cultural expectations could provide an important competitive edge for providers (universities, publishing houses, and corporate training entities). How each of person determines "good" or "quality" instruction is to a large…
Bull, Sheana; Prescott, Tonya L.; Birungi, Ruth
Capitalizing on emerging data suggesting that HIV preventive behaviors can be positively affected by Internet-based programs, we developed and tested CyberSenga, an Internet-based, comprehensive sexuality education program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and sixty-six secondary school students were randomly assigned to either the 5-lesson program (+ booster) or a treatment-as-usual control. At three-month follow-up, intervention participants provided feedback on program acceptability. Six focus groups with intervention participants were additionally conducted after the final follow-up at 6 months. Data support a hypothesis of feasibility: Despite schedule interruptions, 95% of intervention participants completed all 5 modules; only 17% deviated from the once-a-week intended delivery schedule. Internet service was uninterrupted during the field period and, in general, the technology performed to specifications. The intervention also appears to be acceptable: 94% of intervention youth somewhat or strongly agreed that they learned a lot and 93% said they were somewhat or very likely to recommend the program. Although more than two in three youth somewhat or strongly agreed that the program talked too much about sex (70%) and condoms (75%), 89% somewhat or strongly disagreed that “I do not think kids like me should do the CyberSenga program”. Feedback from focus group participants further suggested that the content was generally acceptable and did not contradict local norms in most cases. In fact, despite concerns from some local stakeholders to the contrary, information about condoms did not appear to be confusing or contradictory for youth who were abstinent. Nonetheless, some of the sexual topics seemed to be unfamiliar or uncomfortable for some participants – particularly brief references to oral and anal sex. Together, both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that the program is a feasible and acceptable way of delivering HIV
Ybarra, Michele L; Bull, Sheana S; Prescott, Tonya L; Birungi, Ruth
Capitalizing on emerging data suggesting that HIV-preventive behaviors can be positively affected by Internet-based programs, we developed and tested CyberSenga, an Internet-based, comprehensive sexuality education program for adolescents in Mbarara, Uganda. Three hundred and sixty-six secondary school students were randomly assigned to either the five-lesson program (+ booster) or a treatment-as-usual control. At three-month follow-up, intervention participants provided feedback on the program acceptability. Six focus groups with intervention participants were additionally conducted after the final follow-up at 6 months. Data support a hypothesis of feasibility: despite schedule interruptions, 95% of intervention participants completed all the five modules; only 17% deviated from the once-a-week intended delivery schedule. Internet service was uninterrupted during the field period and, in general, the technology performed to specifications. The intervention also appears to be acceptable: 94% of intervention youth somewhat or strongly agreed that they learned a lot and 93% said they were somewhat or very likely to recommend the program. Although more than two in three youth somewhat or strongly agreed that the program talked too much about sex (70%) and condoms (75%), 89% somewhat or strongly disagreed that "I do not think kids like me should do the CyberSenga program." Feedback from focus group participants further suggested that the content was generally acceptable and did not contradict local norms in most cases. In fact, despite concerns from some local stakeholders to the contrary, information about condoms did not appear to be confusing or contradictory for youth who were abstinent. Nonetheless, some of the sexual topics seemed to be unfamiliar or uncomfortable for some participants - particularly brief references to oral and anal sex. Together, both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that the program is a feasible and acceptable way of delivering HIV
Background As adolescents with hemophilia approach adulthood, they are expected to assume responsibility for their disease management. A bilingual (English and French) Internet-based self-management program, “Teens Taking Charge: Managing Hemophilia Online,” was developed to support adolescents with hemophilia in this transition. This study explored the usability of the website and resulted in refinement of the prototype. Methods A purposive sample (n=18; age 13–18; mean age 15.5 years) was recruited from two tertiary care centers to assess the usability of the program in English and French. Qualitative observations using a “think aloud” usability testing method and semi-structured interviews were conducted in four iterative cycles, with changes to the prototype made as necessary following each cycle. This study was approved by research ethics boards at each site. Results Teens responded positively to the content and appearance of the website and felt that it was easy to navigate and understand. The multimedia components (videos, animations, quizzes) were felt to enrich the experience. Changes to the presentation of content and the website user-interface were made after the first, second and third cycles of testing in English. Cycle four did not result in any further changes. Conclusions Overall, teens found the website to be easy to use. Usability testing identified end-user concerns that informed improvements to the program. Usability testing is a crucial step in the development of Internet-based self-management programs to ensure information is delivered in a manner that is accessible and understood by users. PMID:24094082
Kishi, Yukiko; Matsumura, Tomoko; Murishige, Naoko; Kodama, Yuko; Hatanaka, Nobuyo; Takita, Morihito; Sakamoto, Kenjiro; Hamaki, Tamae; Kusumi, Eiji; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Yuji, Koichiro; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Kami, Masahiro
The more manga (Japanese graphic novels) communicate medical information, the more people are likely to be influenced by manga. We investigated through an Internet search using Google the characteristics of medical manga published in Japan, defined as those in which the main character is a medical professional and that occur in a medical setting. As of December 2008, 173 medical manga had been published. For a period of time after the first medical manga by Osamu Tezuka in 1970, the number of publications maintained a steady level, but increased rapidly in the mid 1980s. The professions of the protagonist were 134 doctors, 19 nurses, 3 dentists, 3 medical students, and 1 nursing student. Although the main character was mostly a doctor, manga featuring paramedical professionals have increased since 1990s. Medical manga may be a powerful tool for increasing the awareness of the public regarding medicine.
Geraghty, Adam W A; Kirby, Sarah; Essery, Rosie; Little, Paul; Bronstein, Adolfo; Turner, David; Stuart, Beth; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Yardley, Lucy
Introduction Dizziness is highly prevalent in older adults and can lead to falls, fear of falling, loss of confidence, anxiety and depression. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) exercises are effective in reducing dizziness due to vestibular dysfunction, but access to trained therapists is limited. Providing dizzy patients with booklets teaching them how to carry out VR exercises has been shown to be a cost-effective way of managing dizziness in primary care. Internet-based intervention delivery has many advantages over paper-based methods, including the provision of video instructions, automated tailoring and symptom-related feedback. This trial will examine whether an internet-based VR intervention is (1) effective in reducing dizziness and (2) a cost-effective primary care treatment option. Methods/analysis This will be a single blind, randomised controlled trial carried out in UK primary care. A stand-alone internet-based VR intervention will be compared with routine care in 262 dizzy patients aged 50 years and over. Measures will be taken at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Our primary outcome measure will be the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing dizziness symptoms compared with routine care at 6 months. Cost-effectiveness will be examined along with the effect of the intervention on dizziness-related disability and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Psychological process variables including expectancy, self-efficacy and acceptance will be explored in relation to adherence and symptom reduction. Ethics/dissemination This trial has undergone ethical scrutiny and been approved by an NHS Research Ethics Committee, Southampton A REC Reference: 13/SC/0119. The findings of this trial will be disseminated to the scientific community through presentations at national and international conferences, and by publishing in peer review journals. Findings will be disseminated to the public through targeted press releases. This trial will provide valuable information on
Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes toward internet-based distance education by the faculty members of two Jordanian public universities, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University and Yarmouk University, as well as to explore the relationship between their attitudes toward internet-based distance education and their perceptions of their…
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BACKGROUND In e-health intervention studies, there are concerns about the reliability of internet-based, self-reported (SR) data and about the potential for identity fraud. This study introduced and tested a novel procedure for assessing the validity of internet-based, SR identity and validated anth...
Chu, Regina Juchun; Chu, Anita Zichun; Weng, Cathy; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Chia-chun
This research explores the relationships between self-directed learning readiness and transformative learning theory (TLT) reflected by the Constructivist Internet-based Learning Environment Scale (CILES). A questionnaire survey about adult learner's perceptions of Internet-based learning was administered to adults enrolled in classes in community…
Kaya, Deniz; Kesan, Cenk; Izgiol, Dilek
In the study, it was researched the effect of internet-based application on student success. Internet-based application was used at the teaching of triangles subject which is included in 8th grade units of triangles and algebra. The study was carried out over the internet with a computer software program: Vitamin Program. The study was carried out…
Mattsson, Susanne; Olsson, Erik Martin Gustaf
Background The use of the Internet has the potential to increase access to evidence-based mental health services for a far-reaching population at a low cost. However, low take-up rates in routine care indicate that barriers for implementing Internet-based interventions have not yet been fully identified. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the preference for Internet-based psychological interventions as compared to treatment delivered face to face among individuals without past or current use of mental health treatment delivered online. A further aim was to investigate predictors of treatment preference and to complement the quantitative analyses with qualitative data about the perceived advantages and disadvantages of Internet-based interventions. Methods Two convenience samples were used. Sample 1 was recruited in an occupational setting (n=231) and Sample 2 consisted of individuals previously treated for cancer (n=208). Data were collected using a paper-and-pencil survey and analyzed using mixed methods. Results The preference for Internet-based psychological interventions was low in both Sample 1 (6.5%) and Sample 2 (2.6%). Most participants preferred psychological interventions delivered face to face. Use of the Internet to search for and read health-related information was a significant predictor of treatment preference in both Sample 1 (odds ratio [OR] 2.82, 95% CI 1.18-6.75) and Sample 2 (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.33-9.29). Being born outside of Sweden was a significant predictor of preference for Internet-based interventions, but only in Sample 2 (OR 6.24, 95% CI 1.29-30.16). Similar advantages and disadvantages were mentioned in both samples. Perceived advantages of Internet-based interventions included flexibility regarding time and location, low effort, accessibility, anonymity, credibility, user empowerment, and improved communication between therapist and client. Perceived disadvantages included anonymity, low credibility, impoverished
Chen, Li; Wang, Yue; Hoffman, Eric P.; Riggins, Rebecca B.; Clarke, Robert
Many computational methods for identification of transcription regulatory modules often result in many false positives in practice due to noise sources of binding information and gene expression profiling data. In this paper, we propose a multi-level strategy for condition-specific gene regulatory module identification by integrating motif binding information and gene expression data through support vector regression and significant analysis. We have demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method on a yeast cell cycle data set. The study on a breast cancer microarray data set shows that it can successfully identify the significant and reliable regulatory modules associated with breast cancer. PMID:20054984
Schmidt, Brian; Ebrahim, Ali; Metz, Thomas O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Palsson, Bernard O.; Hyduke, Daniel R.
Motivation: Genome-scale metabolic models have been used extensively to investigate alterations in cellular metabolism. The accuracy of these models to represent cellular metabolism in specific conditions has been improved by constraining the model with omics data sources. However, few practical methods for integrating metabolomics data with other omics data sources into genome-scale models of metabolism have been reported. Results: GIMMME (Gene Inactivation Moderated by Metabolism, Metabolomics, and Expression) is an algorithm that enables the development of condition-specific models based on an objective function, transcriptomics, and intracellular metabolomics data. GIMMME establishes metabolite utilization requirements with metabolomics data, uses model-paired transcriptomics data to find experimentally supported solutions, and also provides calculations of the turnover (production / consumption) flux of metabolites. GIMMME was employed to investigate the effects of integrating additional omics datasets to create increasingly constrained solution spaces of Salmonella Typhimurium metabolism during growth in both rich and virulence media. This integration proved to be informative and resulted in a requirement of additional active reactions (12 in each case) or metabolites (26 or 29, respectively). The addition of constraints from transcriptomics also impacted the allowed solution space, and the cellular metabolites with turnover fluxes that were necessarily altered by the change in conditions increased from 118 to 271 of 1397. Availability: GIMMME has been implemented in Python and requires a COBRApy 0.2.x. The algorithm and sample data described here are freely available at: http://opencobra.sourceforge.net/
O’Hara, Cindy; Vethanayagam, Dilini; Majaesic, Carina; Mayers, Irvin
Asthma costs Canadians over $1.2 billion per annum and, despite advances, many asthmatic patients still have poor control. An action plan, symptom diary and measurement of peak expiratory flow have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Effective educational interventions are an important component of good care. However, many rural sites lack not only access to education but physician care as well. It is reasonable, therefore, that an Internet-based asthma management program may be used as an approach. In the present case report, a novel approach that may increase access in these poorly serviced areas is presented. In an Internet-based asthma management program, patients are reviewed by a physician, receive education and are given a unique password that provides program access. Patients record symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates. The present case report shows that a patient can be assisted through an exacerbation, thus averting emergency intervention and stabilizing control, even when travelling on another continent. PMID:16470251
O'Hara, Cindy; Vethanayagam, Dilini; Majaesic, Carina; Mayers, Irvin
Asthma costs Canadians over 1.2 billion dollars per annum and, despite advances, many asthmatic patients still have poor control. An action plan, symptom diary and measurement of peak expiratory flow have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Effective educational interventions are an important component of good care. However, many rural sites lack not only access to education but physician care as well. It is reasonable, therefore, that an Internet-based asthma management program may be used as an approach. In the present case report, a novel approach that may increase access in these poorly serviced areas is presented. In an Internet-based asthma management program, patients are reviewed by a physician, receive education and are given a unique password that provides program access. Patients record symptoms and peak expiratory flow rates. The present case report shows that a patient can be assisted through an exacerbation, thus averting emergency intervention and stabilizing control, even when travelling on another continent.
Jorm, Anthony Francis; Mackinnon, Andrew James
Background Recruiting participants to randomized controlled trials of health interventions can be very difficult. Internet-based recruitment is becoming an increasingly important mode of recruitment, yet there are few detailed accounts of experiences recruiting participants to mental health interventions. Objective To report on our experience with Internet-based recruitment to an online depression prevention intervention and pass on lessons we learned. Methods Participants were recruited to the Mood Memos study, an online preventive depression intervention, purely through Internet-based sources. The study was targeted to adults with subthreshold depression symptoms from several English-speaking countries. A variety of online recruitment sources were trialed, including search engine advertising (Google, Yahoo!, Bing), Facebook advertising, posts in forums and online noticeboards, and promotion through relevant websites and email newsletters of mental health organizations. Results The study website received visits from 94,808 individuals over the 14-month recruitment period. The recruitment target was reached with 1699 individuals signing up to the randomized controlled trial and 1326 fully enrolling. Most visitors arrived via Google advertising, which promoted a depression-screening questionnaire. Google advertising accounted for nearly half of the total participants who signed up to the study, at an average cost of AUD $12 per participant. Promoting the study through trustworthy organizations and websites known to participants was also effective. Recruitment techniques that were less effective were contacting forums, email groups, and community noticeboards. Conclusions Several techniques, including Google advertising, were successful in recruiting participants to a trial evaluating an online depression intervention. Results suggest that Internet-based recruitment to mental health interventions is feasible and can be relatively affordable. Trial Registration ACTRN
Feldstein, Stephanie; Afshar, Maryam
“Natural home remedies” for nevi removal found on the Internet can be ineffective, or worse, dangerous. Children and teens, in particular, may be more likely to attempt self-treatment in order to avoid discussing their concerns with their parents. Here, the authors report a case of an adolescent who presented with a chemical burn after following an Internet-based protocol for nevi removal using apple cider vinegar. PMID:26155328
Feldstein, Stephanie; Afshar, Maryam; Krakowski, Andrew C
"Natural home remedies" for nevi removal found on the Internet can be ineffective, or worse, dangerous. Children and teens, in particular, may be more likely to attempt self-treatment in order to avoid discussing their concerns with their parents. Here, the authors report a case of an adolescent who presented with a chemical burn after following an Internet-based protocol for nevi removal using apple cider vinegar.
Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Corti, Stefania; Molinari, Enrico; Castelnuovo, Gianluca
The objective of this systematic review is to update a previous systematic review on the effectiveness of internet-based interventions for weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese people with new or additional studies. A literature search from 2008 to March 2010 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: participants were adults with a body mass index ≤ 25, at least one study arm involved an internet-based intervention and the primary aims were weight loss or maintenance. Eight additional studies over the eighteen included in the previous review met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on sample characteristics, attrition, weight loss, duration of treatment and maintenance of weight loss. Effect sizes (Hedges g) and relative 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all two-way comparisons within each study. No attempt was made to pool the data in a meta-analysis because of the great heterogeneity of designs among studies. An examination of effect sizes show that the higher significant effects pertain studies that found a superiority of behavioral internet-based programs enhanced by features such as tailored feedback on self-monitoring of weight, eating and activity over education only internet-based interventions. However, control groups are very different among studies and this heterogeneity probably accounts for much of the variance in effect sizes. Hence, questions still remain as to the effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss or maintenance. Implications for further research include using a "real" control group in order to make meta-analysis possible and developing multi-factorial design in order to separate components of interventions and identify which of them or patterns of them are keys to success.
2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of an Internet-Based Parent Training Intervention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER for Children with ASD 5b. GRANT...develop and pilot an internet-delivered parent training program for caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The intervention will be...In the second phase of the project (Years 2 and 3), the focus is on pilot testing two delivery methods for the online parent training program: 1
Ray, James V; Kimonis, Eva R; Donoghue, Christine
With its ever-growing penetration of remote regions of the world, the Internet provides great opportunity for conducting research. Beyond clear advantages such as increased cost-effectiveness and efficiency in collecting large samples, Internet-based research has proven particularly useful in reaching hidden or marginalized populations who engage in illegal or deviant behaviors. However, this new medium for research raises important and complex legal, ethical, and methodological/technological issues that researchers must address, particularly when studying undetected criminal behaviors. The current paper chronicles various issues that were encountered in the implementation of an active Internet-based pilot research study of child pornography (CP) users. Moreover, this study was undertaken to address a critical gap in the existing research on CP offending, which has to date primarily focused on incarcerated or convicted samples. The Internet provides the optimal medium for studying community populations of CP users, given that it has become the primary market for CP distribution. This paper is designed to serve as a guide for researchers interested in conducting Internet-based research studies on criminal and sexually deviant populations, particularly CP offenders. Several recommendations are offered based on our own experiences in the implementation of this study.
Cranwell, Jo; Benford, Steve; Houghton, Robert J; Golembewski, Michael; Golembewksi, Michael; Fischer, Joel E; Hagger, Martin S
Self-control resources can be defined in terms of "energy." Repeated attempts to override desires and impulses can result in a state of reduced self-control energy termed "ego depletion" leading to a reduced capacity to regulate future self-control behaviors effectively. Regular practice or "training" on self-control tasks may improve an individual's capacity to overcome ego depletion effectively. The current research tested the effectiveness of training using a novel Internet-based smartphone application to improve self-control and reduce ego depletion. In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, which received a daily program of self-control training using a modified Stroop-task Internet-based application delivered via smartphone to participants over a 4-week period, or a no-training control group. Participants assigned to the experimental group performed significantly better on post-training laboratory self-control tasks relative to participants in the control group. Findings support the hypothesized training effect on self-control and highlight the effectiveness of a novel Internet-based application delivered by smartphone as a practical means to administer and monitor a self-control training program. The smartphone training application has considerable advantages over other means to train self-control adopted in previous studies in that it has increased ecological validity and enables effective monitoring of compliance with the training program.
Wozney, Lori; Bagnell, Alexa; Fitzpatrick, Eleanor; Curtis, Sarah; Jabbour, Mona; Johnson, David; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Young, Michael; Ohinmaa, Arto; Joyce, Anthony; McGrath, Patrick
Background There is a demand to make first-line treatments, including cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for adolescent anxiety disorders, more widely available. Internet-based CBT is proposed to circumvent access and availability barriers and reduce health care system costs. Recent reviews suggest more evidence is needed to establish the treatment effects of Internet-based CBT in children and adolescents and to determine related economic impacts. Objective This pilot trial aims to collect the necessary data to inform the planning of a full-scale RCT to test the effectiveness of the Internet-based CBT program Breathe (Being Real, Easing Anxiety: Tools Helping Electronically). Methods We are conducting a 27-month, 2-arm parallel-group, pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Outcomes will inform the planning of a full-scale RCT aimed to test the effectiveness of Internet-based CBT with a population of adolescents with moderate to mild anxiety problems. In the pilot RCT we will: (1) define a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for the primary outcome measure (total anxiety score using the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children); (2) determine a sample size for the full-scale RCT; (3) estimate recruitment and retention rates; (4) measure intervention acceptability to inform critical intervention changes; (5) determine the use of co-interventions; and (6) conduct a cost-consequence analysis to inform a cost-effectiveness analysis in the full-scale RCT. Adolescents aged 13-17 years seeking care for an anxiety complaint from a participating emergency department, mobile or school-based crisis team, or primary care clinic are being screened for interest and eligibility. Enrolled adolescents are being randomly allocated to either 8 weeks of Internet-based CBT with limited telephone and e-mail support, or a control group with access to a static webpage listing anxiety resources. Adolescents are randomly assigned using a computer generated allocation
Montero-Marín, Jesús; Araya, Ricardo; Mayoral, Fermín; Gili, Margalida; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa; Castro, Adoración; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Vives, Margarita; Riera, Antoni; García-Campayo, Javier
Background Depression is the most prevalent cause of illness-induced disability worldwide. Face-to-face psychotherapeutic interventions for depression can be challenging, so there is a need for other alternatives that allow these interventions to be offered. One feasible alternative is Internet-based psychological interventions. This is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) on the effectiveness of an Internet-based intervention on depression in primary health care in Spain. Objective Our aim was to compare the effectiveness of a low-intensity therapist-guided (LITG) Internet-based program and a completely self-guided (CSG) Internet-based program with improved treatment as usual (iTAU) care for depression. Methods Multicenter, three-arm, parallel, RCT design, carried out between November 2012 and January 2014, with a follow-up of 15 months. In total, 296 adults from primary care settings in four Spanish regions, with mild or moderate major depression, were randomized to LITG (n=96), CSG (n=98), or iTAU (n=102). Research completers at follow-up were 63.5%. The intervention was Smiling is Fun, an Internet program based on cognitive behavioral therapy. All patients received iTAU by their general practitioners. Moreover, LITG received Smiling is Fun and the possibility of psychotherapeutic support on request by email, whereas CSG received only Smiling is Fun. The main outcome was the Beck Depression Inventory-II at 3 months from baseline. Mixed-effects multilevel analysis for repeated measures were undertaken. Results There was no benefit for either CSG [(B coefficient=-1.15; P=.444)] or LITG [(B=-0.71; P=.634)] compared to iTAU, at 3 months. There were differences at 6 months [iTAU vs CSG (B=-4.22; P=.007); iTAU vs LITG (B=-4.34; P=.005)] and 15 months [iTAU vs CSG (B=-5.10; P=.001); iTAU vs LITG (B=-4.62; P=.002)]. There were no differences between CSG and LITG at any time. Adjusted and intention-to-treat models confirmed these findings. Conclusions An Internet-based
Waggoner, Darrel J; Martin, Christa Lese
Over the past several years, the field of medical genetics has continued to expand and is now impacting a broad range of medical care, mainly due to rapid advances in genetic technology and information generated by the Human Genome Project. Physicians from multiple disciplines will need to become familiar with genetic principles, and the availability of genetic databases on the internet is a valuable resource for medical students and physicians. To integrate these tools into medical student training, the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine set out to develop multiple, interactive, case-based, educational sessions in the pre-clinical and clinical curriculum, designed to reinforce basic principles taught in the pre-clinical genetics class and demonstrate the usefulness of genetic information accessible via the internet in the clinical setting. Two interactive sessions and a self-assessment exercise were developed. The sessions took place in a computer classroom where each student had access to the internet and could work independently. The sessions used case-based scenarios to help students become familiar with internet based resources and demonstrate how genetic information can affect medical care. The sessions were well received by the student participants with 99% agreeing that the material was useful and important to clinical medicine. In a follow-up questionnaire 1/3 of the students reported using the databases presented during class in a clinical setting.
Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Brand, Tilman; Reeske-Behrens, Anna; Plumbaum, Till; Zeeb, Hajo
The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation.
Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Klein-Ellinghaus, Funda; Brand, Tilman; Reeske-Behrens, Anna; Plumbaum, Till; Zeeb, Hajo
The Internet offers a new chance for health professionals to reach population groups not usually reached through traditional information channels, for example, migrants. Criticism has, however, been raised that most health information on the Internet is not easy to read and lacks cultural sensitivity. We developed an Internet-based bilingual health assistant especially for Turkish migrants in Germany, tested its acceptance, and evaluated its usability in a participatory research design with families with and without Turkish migrant background. The interactive health assistant covered the following: nutrition, physical activity, overweight, diabetes, as well as pregnancy and pregnancy support. The idea of an Internet-based health assistant was generally accepted by all participants of the evaluation study, as long as it would be incorporated in existing appliances, such as smartphones. The bilingual nature of the assistant was welcomed especially by first generation migrants, but migrant participants also indicated that not all health information needed to be made available in a culture-specific way. The participants were least satisfied with the nutrition component, which they felt should include recipes and ingredients from the culture of origin, as well as specific aspects of food preparation. PMID:26633455
Haimovich, Julian S.; Venkatesh, Arjun K.; Coppi, Andreas; Li, Shu-Xia; Krumholz, Harlan M.
Identifying temporal variation in hospitalization rates may provide insights about disease patterns and thereby inform research, policy, and clinical care. However, the majority of medical conditions have not been studied for their potential seasonal variation. The objective of this study was to apply a data-driven approach to characterize temporal variation in condition-specific hospitalizations. Using a dataset of 34 million inpatient discharges gathered from hospitals in New York State from 2008–2011, we grouped all discharges into 263 clinical conditions based on the principal discharge diagnosis using Clinical Classification Software in order to mitigate the limitation that administrative claims data reflect clinical conditions to varying specificity. After applying Seasonal-Trend Decomposition by LOESS, we estimated the periodicity of the seasonal component using spectral analysis and applied harmonic regression to calculate the amplitude and phase of the condition’s seasonal utilization pattern. We also introduced four new indices of temporal variation: mean oscillation width, seasonal coefficient, trend coefficient, and linearity of the trend. Finally, K-means clustering was used to group conditions across these four indices to identify common temporal variation patterns. Of all 263 clinical conditions considered, 164 demonstrated statistically significant seasonality. Notably, we identified conditions for which seasonal variation has not been previously described such as ovarian cancer, tuberculosis, and schizophrenia. Clustering analysis yielded three distinct groups of conditions based on multiple measures of seasonal variation. Our study was limited to New York State and results may not directly apply to other regions with distinct climates and health burden. A substantial proportion of medical conditions, larger than previously described, exhibit seasonal variation in hospital utilization. Moreover, the application of clustering tools yields groups
Wolfe, Christopher R
This discussion of the symposium 20 Years of Internet-Based Research at SCiP: Surviving Concepts, New Methodologies compares the issues faced by the pioneering Internet-based psychology researchers who presented at the first symposia on the topic, at the 1996 annual meeting of the Society for Computers in Psychology, to the issues facing researchers today. New methodologies unavailable in the early days of Web-based psychological research are discussed, with an emphasis on mobile computing with smartphones that is capitalizing on capabilities such as touch screens and gyro sensors. A persistent issue spanning the decades has been the challenge of conducting scientific research with consumer-grade electronics. In the 1996 symposia on Internet-based research, four advantages were identified: easy access to a geographically unlimited subject population, including subjects from very specific and previously inaccessible target populations; bringing the experiment to the subject; high statistical power through large sample size; and reduced cost. In retrospect, it appears that Internet-based research has largely lived up to this early promise-with the possible exception of sample size, since the public demand for controlled psychology experiments has not always been greater than the supply offered by researchers. There are many reasons for optimism about the future of Internet-based research. However, unless courses and textbooks on psychological research methods begin to give Web-based research the attention it deserves, the future of Internet-based psychological research will remain in doubt.
Lamas, Eugenia; Salinas, Rodrigo; Vuillaume, Dominique
A characteristic feature of the development of health-related social networks is the emergence of internet-based virtual communities, composed of patients. These communities go beyond the mere interchange of information concerning their conditions, intervening in the planning and execution of clinical research, including randomised controlled trials, in collaboration with health professionals. That was the case, in 2009, when patients suffering amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a rare and severe disease, conducted a clinical trial in USA, organising themselves through an online platform. This initiative launched a new model for the planning and conduction of clinical research: "Participants-Led Research" (PLR). The distinctive particularities of this new research paradigm represent a challenge to the traditional standards used for judging the ethical soundness of clinical investigation. That is the case, for example, of informed consent. This article aims at identifying the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) posed by PLR and the relevant concepts that may help in solving them. The following issues, in particular, are analysed, that may give place to a new social contract for the ethical assessment of clinical research: consent for participating in research and personal integrity; data protection and confidentiality; benefits sharing and intellectual property.
Greco, Giampaolo; Patel, Anand S.; Lewis, Sara C.; Shi, Wei; Rasul, Rehana; Torosyan, Mary; Erickson, Bradley J.; Hiremath, Atheeth; Moskowitz, Alan J.; Tellis, Wyatt M.; Siegel, Eliot L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Mendelson, David S.
Rationale and Objectives Inefficient transfer of personal health records among providers negatively impacts quality of health care and increases cost. This multicenter study evaluates the implementation of the first Internet-based image-sharing system that gives patients ownership and control of their imaging exams, including assessment of patient satisfaction. Materials and Methods Patients receiving any medical imaging exams in four academic centers were eligible to have images uploaded into an online, Internet-based personal health record. Satisfaction surveys were provided during recruitment with questions on ease of use, privacy and security, and timeliness of access to images. Responses were rated on a five-point scale and compared using logistic regression and McNemar's test. Results A total of 2562 patients enrolled from July 2012 to August 2013. The median number of imaging exams uploaded per patient was 5. Most commonly, exams were plain X-rays (34.7%), computed tomography (25.7%), and magnetic resonance imaging (16.1%). Of 502 (19.6%) patient surveys returned, 448 indicated the method of image sharing (Internet, compact discs [CDs], both, other). Nearly all patients (96.5%) responded favorably to having direct access to images, and 78% reported viewing their medical images independently. There was no difference between Internet and CD users in satisfaction with privacy and security and timeliness of access to medical images. A greater percentage of Internet users compared to CD users reported access without difficulty (88.3% vs. 77.5%, P < 0.0001). Conclusion A patient-directed, interoperable, Internet-based image-sharing system is feasible and surpasses the use of CDs with respect to accessibility of imaging exams while generating similar satisfaction with respect to privacy. PMID:26625706
Background Interventions based on meditation and mindfulness techniques have been shown to reduce stress and increase psychological well-being in a wide variety of populations. Self-administrated Internet-based mindfulness training programs have the potential to be a convenient, cost-effective, easily disseminated, and accessible alternative to group-based programs. Objective This randomized controlled pilot trial with 90 university students in Stockholm, Sweden, explored the feasibility, usability, acceptability, and outcomes of an 8-week Internet-based mindfulness training program. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n=46) or an active control condition (n=44). Intervention participants were invited to an Internet-based 8-week mindfulness program, and control participants were invited to an Internet-based 4-week expressive writing program. The programs were automated apart from weekly reminders via email. Main outcomes in pre- and postassessments were psychological well-being and depression symptoms. To assess the participant’s experiences, those completing the full programs were asked to fill out an assessment questionnaire and 8 of the participants were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis, were performed. Results In the mindfulness program, 28 out of 46 students (60%) completed the first week and 18 out of 46 (39%) completed the full program. In the expressive writing program, 35 out of 44 students (80%) completed the first week and 31 out of 44 (70%) completed the full program. There was no statistically significantly stronger intervention effect for the mindfulness intervention compared to the active control intervention. Those completing the mindfulness group reported high satisfaction with the program. Most of those interviewed were satisfied with the layout and technique and with the support provided by the study coordinators. More
He, Zhenlei; Shen, Zhangbiao; Zhu, Shanan
This paper describes an internet-based electrical engineering laboratory (IEE-Lab) with virtual and physical experiments at Zhejiang University. In order to synthesize the advantages of both experiment styles, the IEE-Lab is come up with Client/Server/Application framework and combines the virtual and physical experiments. The design and workflow of IEE-Lab are introduced. The analog electronic experiment is taken as an example to show Flex plug-in design, data communication based on XML (Extensible Markup Language), experiment simulation modeled by Modelica and control terminals' design.
Bhinder, Sacha; Chowdhury, Noori; Granton, John; Krahn, Murray; Tullis, D Elizabeth; Waddell, Thomas K
Background Patient registries are commonly used to track survival and medical outcomes in large cohorts. However, large-scale collection of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) data is more challenging because such data must be collected directly from patients. Internet-based HRQOL questionnaires are a potential solution, allowing home data collection with immediate storage in a central database. Objectives Our objectives were to investigate the sociodemographic predictors of Internet use and willingness to convey HRQOL information over the Internet in a Canadian tertiary care patient population and to determine whether Internet use patterns of tertiary care patients differ from those of the general Canadian population. Additionally, we sought to identify the success of home completion of Internet-based HRQOL questionnaires, as well as factors hindering home completion. Methods We surveyed 644 patients at the Toronto General and St. Michael’s Hospitals from November 2003 through July 2006 within a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of HRQOL in patients with lung disease or lung transplants. Using multiple logistic regression, we assessed patient age, gender, rurality, marital status, and employment or education status as potential sociodemographic predictors of having an Internet-accessible home computer, using email at least weekly, and willingness to complete a quality of life questionnaire over the Internet. Patients electing to complete questionnaires over the Internet were followed from September 2005 through March 2008 to assess completion of HRQOL questionnaires from home, identify barriers for noncompletion, and determine sociodemographic predictors for home completion. Results Of the 644 patients, the median age was 51 years, with a similar number of males and females. Most were urban Ontario residents, were unemployed, and were married or in a common-law relationship. Having an Internet-accessible home computer was reported by 79.7% (513/644) of
Riley, Jeffrey B; Austin, Jon W; Holt, David W; Searles, Bruce E; Darling, Edward M
A challenge faced by many university-based perfusion education (PE) programs is the need for student clinical rotations at hospital locations that are geographically disparate from the main educational campus. The problem has been addressed through the employment of distance-learning environments. The purpose of this educational study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this teaching model as it is applied to PE. Web-based virtual classroom (VC) environments and educational management system (EMS) software were implemented independently and as adjuncts to live, interactive Internet-based audio/video transmission from classroom to classroom in multiple university-based PE programs. These Internet environments have been used in a variety of ways including: 1) forum for communication between the university faculty, students, and preceptors at clinical sites, 2) didactic lectures from expert clinicians to students assigned to distant clinical sites, 3) small group problem-based-learning modules designed to enhance students analytical skills, and 4) conversion of traditional face-to-face lectures to asynchronous learning modules. Hypotheses and measures of student and faculty satisfaction, clinical experience, and learning outcomes are proposed, and some early student feedback was collected. For curricula that emphasize both didactic and clinical education, the use of Internet-based VC and EMS software provides significant advancements over traditional models. Recognized advantages include: 1) improved communications between the college faculty and the students and clinical preceptors, 2) enhanced access to a national network of clinical experts in specialized techniques, 3) expanded opportunity for student distant clinical rotations with continued didactic course work, and 4) improved continuity and consistency of clinical experiences between students through implementation of asynchronous learning modules. Students recognize the learning efficiency of on
Amgalan, Bayarbaatar; Lee, Hyunju
Sub-networks can expose complex patterns in an entire bio-molecular network by extracting interactions that depend on temporal or condition-specific contexts. When genes interact with each other during cellular processes, they may form differential co-expression patterns with other genes across different cell states. The identification of condition-specific sub-networks is of great importance in investigating how a living cell adapts to environmental changes. In this work, we propose the weighted MAXimum clique (WMAXC) method to identify a condition-specific sub-network. WMAXC first proposes scoring functions that jointly measure condition-specific changes to both individual genes and gene-gene co-expressions. It then employs a weaker formula of a general maximum clique problem and relates the maximum scored clique of a weighted graph to the optimization of a quadratic objective function under sparsity constraints. We combine a continuous genetic algorithm and a projection procedure to obtain a single optimal sub-network that maximizes the objective function (scoring function) over the standard simplex (sparsity constraints). We applied the WMAXC method to both simulated data and real data sets of ovarian and prostate cancer. Compared with previous methods, WMAXC selected a large fraction of cancer-related genes, which were enriched in cancer-related pathways. The results demonstrated that our method efficiently captured a subset of genes relevant under the investigated condition.
Amgalan, Bayarbaatar; Lee, Hyunju
Sub-networks can expose complex patterns in an entire bio-molecular network by extracting interactions that depend on temporal or condition-specific contexts. When genes interact with each other during cellular processes, they may form differential co-expression patterns with other genes across different cell states. The identification of condition-specific sub-networks is of great importance in investigating how a living cell adapts to environmental changes. In this work, we propose the weighted MAXimum clique (WMAXC) method to identify a condition-specific sub-network. WMAXC first proposes scoring functions that jointly measure condition-specific changes to both individual genes and gene-gene co-expressions. It then employs a weaker formula of a general maximum clique problem and relates the maximum scored clique of a weighted graph to the optimization of a quadratic objective function under sparsity constraints. We combine a continuous genetic algorithm and a projection procedure to obtain a single optimal sub-network that maximizes the objective function (scoring function) over the standard simplex (sparsity constraints). We applied the WMAXC method to both simulated data and real data sets of ovarian and prostate cancer. Compared with previous methods, WMAXC selected a large fraction of cancer-related genes, which were enriched in cancer-related pathways. The results demonstrated that our method efficiently captured a subset of genes relevant under the investigated condition. PMID:25148538
Stöckli, Cornel; Theiler, Robert; Sidelnikov, Eduard; Balsiger, Maria; Ferrari, Stephen M; Buchzig, Beatus; Uehlinger, Kurt; Riniker, Christoph; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A
We developed a user-friendly Internet-based tool for patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) due to osteoarthritis to predict their pain and function after surgery. In the first step, the key questions were identified by statistical modelling in a data set of 375 patients undergoing THR. Based on multiple regression, we identified the two most predictive WOMAC questions for pain and the three most predictive WOMAC questions for functional outcome, while controlling for comorbidity, body mass index, age, gender and specific comorbidities relevant to the outcome. In the second step, a pilot study was performed to validate the resulting tool against the full WOMAC questionnaire among 108 patients undergoing THR. The mean difference between observed (WOMAC) and model-predicted value was -1.1 points (95% confidence interval, CI -3.8, 1.5) for pain and -2.5 points (95% CI -5.3, 0.3) for function. The model-predicted value was within 20% of the observed value in 48% of cases for pain and in 57% of cases for function. The tool demonstrated moderate validity, but performed weakly for patients with extreme levels of pain and extreme functional limitations at 3 months post surgery. This may have been partly due to early complications after surgery. However, the outcome-prediction tool may be useful in helping patients to become better informed about the realistic outcome of their THR.
Stöckli, Cornel; Theiler, Robert; Sidelnikov, Eduard; Balsiger, Maria; Ferrari, Stephen M; Buchzig, Beatus; Uehlinger, Kurt; Riniker, Christoph
Summary We developed a user-friendly Internet-based tool for patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) due to osteoarthritis to predict their pain and function after surgery. In the first step, the key questions were identified by statistical modelling in a data set of 375 patients undergoing THR. Based on multiple regression, we identified the two most predictive WOMAC questions for pain and the three most predictive WOMAC questions for functional outcome, while controlling for comorbidity, body mass index, age, gender and specific comorbidities relevant to the outcome. In the second step, a pilot study was performed to validate the resulting tool against the full WOMAC questionnaire among 108 patients undergoing THR. The mean difference between observed (WOMAC) and model-predicted value was −1.1 points (95% confidence interval, CI −3.8, 1.5) for pain and −2.5 points (95% CI −5.3, 0.3) for function. The model-predicted value was within 20% of the observed value in 48% of cases for pain and in 57% of cases for function. The tool demonstrated moderate validity, but performed weakly for patients with extreme levels of pain and extreme functional limitations at 3 months post surgery. This may have been partly due to early complications after surgery. However, the outcome-prediction tool may be useful in helping patients to become better informed about the realistic outcome of their THR. PMID:24585892
Rohart, Florian; Milinovich, Gabriel J.; Avril, Simon M. R.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao
Effective disease surveillance is critical to the functioning of health systems. Traditional approaches are, however, limited in their ability to deliver timely information. Internet-based surveillance systems are a promising approach that may circumvent many of the limitations of traditional health surveillance systems and provide more intelligence on cases of infection, including cases from those that do not use the healthcare system. Infectious disease surveillance systems built on Internet search metrics have been shown to produce accurate estimates of disease weeks before traditional systems and are an economically attractive approach to surveillance; they are, however, also prone to error under certain circumstances. This study sought to explore previously unmodeled diseases by investigating the link between Google Trends search metrics and Australian weekly notification data. We propose using four alternative disease modelling strategies based on linear models that studied the length of the training period used for model construction, determined the most appropriate lag for search metrics, used wavelet transformation for denoising data and enabled the identification of key search queries for each disease. Out of the twenty-four diseases assessed with Australian data, our nowcasting results highlighted promise for two diseases of international concern, Ross River virus and pneumococcal disease. PMID:27994231
Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C.; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S.
Background Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:27178645
Glasgow, Russell E.; Kurz, Deanna; King, Diane; Dickman, Jennifer M.; Faber, Andrew J.; Halterman, Eve; Woolley, Tim; Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Osuna, Diego; Ritzwoller, Debra
Objective Internet-based programs offer potential for practical, cost-effective chronic illness self-management programs. Methods We report 12-month results of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, with and without additional support, compared to enhanced usual care in a 3-arm practical randomized trial. Patients (n= 463) were randomized: 77.3% completed 12-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were changes in health behaviors of healthy eating, physical activity, and medication taking. Secondary outcomes were hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure, and psychosocial factors. Results Internet conditions improved health behaviors significantly vs. usual care over the 12-month period (d for effect size = .09 – .16). All conditions improved moderately on biological and psychosocial outcomes. Latinos, lower literacy, and higher cardiovascular disease risk patients improved as much as other participants. Conclusions The Internet intervention meets the reach and feasibility criteria for a potentially broad public health impact. However, 12-month magnitude of effects was small, suggesting that different or more intensive approaches are necessary to support long-term outcomes. Research is needed to understand the linkages between intervention and maintenance processes and downstream outcomes. Practice Implications Automated self-management interventions should be tailored and integrated into primary care; maintenance of patient self-management can be enhanced through links to community resources. PMID:21924576
Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S
Background Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases.
Kuester, Annika; Niemeyer, Helen; Knaevelsrud, Christine
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent and highly distressing affliction, but access to trauma-focused psychotherapy is limited. Internet-based interventions (IBIs) could improve the delivery of and access to specialized mental health care. Currently, no meta-analytical evidence is available on IBIs for PTSD. We conducted a meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled studies, including 21 comparisons, in order to summarize the current state of efficacy for the treatment of PTSD and to identify moderator variables. Studies tested internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and expressive writing (EW) against active or passive comparison conditions, including subclinical and clinical samples. Results show that at post-assessment CBT-IBIs are significantly more efficacious than passive controls, resulting in medium to large effects on the PTSD sum and all sub-symptom scores (0.66
Botella, C; Gallego, M J; Garcia-Palacios, A; Guillen, V; Baños, R M; Quero, S; Alcañiz, M
This study offers data about the efficacy of "Talk to Me," an Internet-based telepsychology program for the treatment of fear of public speaking that includes the most active components in cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for social phobia (exposure and cognitive therapies). One hundred twenty-seven participants with social phobia were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: (a) an Internet-based self-administered program; (b) the same program applied by a therapist; (c) a waiting-list control group. Results showed that both treatment conditions were equally efficacious. In addition, Talk to Me and the same treatment applied by a therapist were more efficacious than the waiting-list condition. Treatment gains were maintained at 1-year follow-up. The results from this study support the utility of Internet-delivered CBT programs in order to reach a higher number of people who could benefit from CBT. Internet-delivered CBT programs could also play a valuable role in the dissemination of CBT.
Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Viseskul, Nongkran; Srikantha, Wimonsiri; Fongkaew, Warunee; Surapagdee, Natthakarn; Grimes, Richard M.
HIV infection is increasing among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Internet-based instruction on HIV prevention knowledge. The sample consisted of 162 MSM volunteers in Thailand. The research instruments included a demographic data questionnaire, a knowledge test, and an HIV preventive practice questionnaire. The subjects completed these instruments at entry to the study and four months later. After entry to the study the participants were given access to a previously developed Internet-based instruction on HIV risk behaviors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-test. After having access to the Internet-based instruction, the average score of the HIV prevention knowledge among the samples increased significantly, from 11.17 to 15.09 (maximum score of 20 points). The average score of HIV practicing prevention among the samples increased significantly from 62.94 to 76.51 (maximum score of 99 points). This study demonstrated that Internet-based instruction was effective in improving HIV prevention knowledge and practices among MSM. This suggests that Internet-based instruction could be developed for use in other countries and evaluated in similar fashion. PMID:24645824
Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Viseskul, Nongkran; Srikantha, Wimonsiri; Fongkaew, Warunee; Surapagdee, Natthakarn; Grimes, Richard M
HIV infection is increasing among men who have sex with men. In this study, the effects of Internet-based instruction on HIV-prevention knowledge were evaluated. The sample consisted of 162 men-who-have-sex-with-men volunteers in Thailand. The research instruments included a demographic data questionnaire, a knowledge test, and an HIV preventive practice questionnaire. The participants completed these instruments upon entry to the study and four months later. After entry to the study, the participants were given access to a previously-developed Internet-based instruction on HIV risk behaviors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-test. After accessing the Internet-based instruction, the average score of HIV-prevention knowledge among the sample increased significantly, from 11.17 to 15.09 (maximum score of 20 points). The average score of practicing HIV prevention among the sample increased significantly, from 62.94 to 76.51 (maximum score of 99 points). This study demonstrated that Internet-based instruction was effective in improving HIV-prevention knowledge and practices among men who have sex with men. This suggests that Internet-based instruction could be developed for use in other countries and evaluated in a similar way.
Background Internet-based instruction in continuing medical education (CME) has been associated with favorable outcomes. However, more direct comparative studies of different Internet-based interventions, instructional methods, presentation formats, and approaches to implementation are needed. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative evaluation of two Internet-based CME delivery formats and the effect on satisfaction, knowledge and confidence outcomes. Methods Evaluative outcomes of two differing formats of an Internet-based CME course with identical subject matter were compared. A Scheduled Group Learning format involved case-based asynchronous discussions with peers and a facilitator over a scheduled 3-week delivery period. An eCME On Demand format did not include facilitated discussion and was not based on a schedule; participants could start and finish at any time. A retrospective, pre-post evaluation study design comparing identical satisfaction, knowledge and confidence outcome measures was conducted. Results Participants in the Scheduled Group Learning format reported significantly higher mean satisfaction ratings in some areas, performed significantly higher on a post-knowledge assessment and reported significantly higher post-confidence scores than participants in the eCME On Demand format that was not scheduled and did not include facilitated discussion activity. Conclusions The findings support the instructional benefits of a scheduled delivery format and facilitated asynchronous discussion in Internet-based CME. PMID:20113493
LI, Min; ZHANG, Miao; WANG, Heng; PAN, Xuefeng; WU, Wenbin; ZHANG, Qi; LIU, Yun; ZHANG, Hui
Background: The objective of the present study was to explore the efficacy of internet-based intervention on quality of life of patients with chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 81 patients diagnosed with CPSP after radical resection for lung cancer between January 2013 and July 2014. They were enrolled either as part of the conventional care group which included 40 cases or the internet-based pain intervention group which included 41 cases. The patients in the conventional care group were treated weekly in the outpatient clinic, while patients in internet-based group were treated via smartphone or the internet. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was utilized to assess the quality of life of patients who were suffering from CPSP, 1 month and 3 months after therapy. Results: The patients in the internet-based pain intervention group demonstrated similar health-related qualities of life and overall satisfaction rates compared with the conventional care group (P>0.05). Conclusion: Internet-based pain management is a suitable option to improve the quality of life of patients with CPSP after radical resection for lung cancer. PMID:28053926
Hooper, Simon; Rosser, B R Simon; Horvath, Keith J; Oakes, J Michael; Danilenko, Gene
As part of a study to develop effective Internet-based HIV prevention interventions for Men who use the Internet to seek Sex with Men (MISM), we sought information from the target population on; (a) acceptability of sexually explicit media; (b) interest in specific content areas; and (c) identification of credible sources of information. A cross-sectional stratified Internet-based survey design was employed. Between September and November 2005, we recruited 2,716 MISM through Gay.com stratified across race/ethnicity to ensure adequate racial/ethnic diversity. Sixteen Likert-type items assessed acceptability of sexual explicitness, 24 items identified topics for inclusion, and two assessed sources of information. There was near universal acceptability for highly sexually explicit education. Over 75% reported high interest in 10 sexual health topics. HIV positive MISM and MISM engaged in unprotected anal sex with multiple male partners reported significantly less interest in HIV prevention specific content. Differences across age, race/ethnicity and education were identified. Idiosyncratic searches and gay sites were frequently cited sources of information; however blogs, government, and media sites were not. It is acceptable for web-based HIV prevention for MISM to be highly sexually explicit and to provide detailed content relevant to men's sexual health. Since demographic differences in acceptability and content were minor, it is appropriate for interventions to target across demographics. Interventions to re-engage men engaging in high risk and HIV + MISM should be considered. Leading health agencies should review whether their web information is retrievable, credible and useful to those most at risk.
Bellgard, Matthew I; Macgregor, Andrew; Janon, Fred; Harvey, Adam; O'Leary, Peter; Hunter, Adam; Dawkins, Hugh
There is a need to develop Internet-based rare disease registries to support health care stakeholders to deliver improved quality patient outcomes. Such systems should be architected to enable multiple-level access by a range of user groups within a region or across regional/country borders in a secure and private way. However, this functionality is currently not available in many existing systems. A new approach to the design of an Internet-based architecture for disease registries has been developed for patients with clinical and genetic data in geographical disparate locations. The system addresses issues of multiple-level access by key stakeholders, security and privacy. The system has been successfully adopted for specific rare diseases in Australia and is open source. The results of this work demonstrate that it is feasible to design an open source Internet-based disease registry system in a scalable and customizable fashion and designed to facilitate interoperability with other systems.
Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Rim, Sun Hee; Hawkins, Nikki A; Rodriguez, Juan L; Polonec, Lindsey
The demographic and practice-related characteristics of physicians who use social networking websites, portable devices to access the internet, email to communicate with patients, podcasts, widgets, RSS feeds, and blogging were investigated. Logistic regression was used to analyze a survey of US primary care physicians, pediatricians, obstetrician/gynecologists, and dermatologists (N=1750). Reported technology use during the last 6 months ranged from 80.6% using a portable device to access the internet to 12.9% writing a blog. The most consistent predictors of use were being male, being younger, and having teaching hospital privileges. Physician specialty, practice setting, years in practice, average number of patients treated per week, and number of physicians in practice were found to be inconsistently associated or unassociated with use of the technologies examined. Demographic characteristics, rather than practice-related characteristics, were more consistent predictors of physician use of seven internet-based communication technologies with varying levels of uptake. PMID:22634078
Sridhar, S; Kumaravel, N
An Internet based expert system for the management of gallstones, Renal, Ureteric and bladder calculi based on ultrasound images is presented in this paper. Calculi are due to abnormal collection of certain chemicals like oxalate, phosphate and Uric acid. These calculi can be present in kidney, Ureter or in Urinary bladder and also in gall bladder. The expert system is designed to assist the physician to detect, extract, classify and diagnose calculi with greater accuracy. It also helps physicians in the management of calculi based on the etiological analysis of calculi. The Expert system takes an ultrasound image as input along with the symptoms of the patients. The expert system extracts the renal calculi and analyzes it using different image processing techniques to extract the image features like size, location and texture. These image features along with the clinical data of the patient enable the expert system to provide the decisions to decide the future course of treatment with more accuracy.
Alexander, Lorraine K; Horney, Jennifer A; Markiewicz, Milissa; MacDonald, Pia D M
Distance learning is an effective strategy to address the many barriers to continuing education faced by the public health workforce. With the proliferation of online learning programs focused on public health, there is a need to develop and adopt a common set of principles and practices for distance learning. In this article, we discuss the 10 principles that guide the development, design, and delivery of the various training modules and courses offered by the North Carolina Center for Public Health Preparedness (NCCPHP). These principles are the result of 10 years of experience in Internet-based public health preparedness educational programming. In this article, we focus on three representative components of NCCPHP's overall training and education program to illustrate how the principles are implemented and help others in the field plan and develop similar programs.
Berking, Matthias; Ebert, David D; Lehr, Dirk; Riper, Heleen; Sieland, Bernhard; Wiencke, Carmen
Epidemiological findings indicate that up to 18.5 % of the German adolescents suffer from depressive symptoms and that younger adults display the highest risk for relevant symptoms of depression (9.9 %) within the German adult population. Internet-based interventions have been shown to be useful for preventing and treating depression and are more easily disseminated in internet-savvy generations. Available programs are usually based on principles of cognitive behavioural therapy. They differ significantly with regard to target groups, structure, content, degree of guidance provided by online-coaches and evidence for their efficacy. Whereas some studies could not prove the use of the trainings there are others that show large effect sizes (up to d = 0.84) for the reduction of depressive symptoms. In Germany there are some online counseling programs for children and adolescents in (acute) crises available. However, at this point no structured intervention program for the treatment of depression exists.
Kontkanen, Jani; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick; Hartikainen-Ahia, Anu; Åhlberg, Mauri
Visual databases are increasingly important resources through which individuals and groups can undertake species identification. This paper reports research on the collaborative processes undertaken by pre-service teacher students when working in small groups to identify birds using an Internet-based taxonomic resource. The student groups are conceptualised as 'knowledge-building communities' working in a 'joint problem space' comprising the collective knowledge of the participants interacting with the taxonomic database. Collaborative group work and associated dialogue were recorded with digital video. The recordings were analysed for the categories of dialogue and the categories of knowledge used by the students as they interacted with the taxonomic database and how they drew on their previous experiences of identifying birds. The outcomes are discussed in the context of the interplay of individual and social processes and the interplay between abstraction and lived experience in the joint problem space.
Franko, Debra L; Cousineau, Tara M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Roehrig, James P
This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based health promotion program, BodiMojo, designed to promote positive body image in adolescents. Participants were 178 students (mean age 15.2 years, 67.6% ethnic minority) in three public high schools. Intervention groups used BodiMojo for four weekly health class periods, while controls participated in their usual health curriculum. Body image measures were given at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months. Girls reported decreased body dissatisfaction (p<.05), decreased physical appearance comparison (p<.05), and increased appearance satisfaction (p<.05), relative to controls. Effects were not maintained at 3-month follow-up. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups with boys. Moderation analyses suggested positive effects for diverse adolescents as well as those who were overweight or indicated baseline high body dissatisfaction. BodiMojo appears to be modestly effective in decreasing body image concerns among adolescent girls in the short term.
Ferrer, Rebecca A; Grenen, Emily G; Taber, Jennifer M
Procedures used to induce affect in a laboratory are effective and well-validated. Given recent methodological and technological advances in Internet research, it is important to determine whether affect can be effectively induced using Internet methodology. We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review of prior research that has used Internet-based affect induction procedures, and examined potential moderators of the effectiveness of affect induction procedures. Twenty-six studies were included in final analyses, with 89 independent effect sizes. Affect induction procedures effectively induced general positive affect, general negative affect, fear, disgust, anger, sadness, and guilt, but did not significantly induce happiness. Contamination of other nontarget affect did not appear to be a major concern. Video inductions resulted in greater effect sizes. Overall, results indicate that affect can be effectively induced in Internet studies, suggesting an important venue for the acceleration of affective science. (PsycINFO Database Record
Comer, Jonathan S; Furr, Jami M; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Madigan, Ryan J; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla; Idrobo, Fabio; Chase, Rhea M; McNeil, Cheryl B; Eyberg, Sheila M
Given the enormous individual, familial, and societal costs associated with early disruptive behavior disorders, transformative efforts are needed to develop innovative options for overcoming traditional barriers to effective care and for broadening the availability of supported interventions. This paper presents the rationale and key considerations for a promising innovation in the treatment of early-onset disruptive behavior disorders-that is, the development of an Internet-based format for the delivery of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) directly to families in their own homes. Specifically, we consider traditional barriers to effective care, and discuss how technological innovations can overcome problems of treatment availability, accessibility, and acceptability. We then detail our current Internet-delivered PCIT treatment program (I-PCIT), which is currently being evaluated across multiple randomized clinical trials relative to waitlist comparison, and to traditional in-office PCIT. Embedded video clips of children treated with I-PCIT are used to illustrate novel aspects of the treatment.
Xu, Xiaonong; Song, Aiguo; Zhang, Huatao; Ji, Peng
Random time delay may cause instability in the internet based teleoperation system. Transparency and intuitiveness are also very important for operator to control the system to accurately perform the desired action, especially for the gripper teleoperation system. This paper presents a new grip force control method of gripper teleoperation system with haptic feedback. The system employs the SEMG signal as the control parameter in order to enhance the intuitive control experience for operator. In order to eliminate the impacts on the system stability caused by random time delay, a non-time based teleoperation method is applied to the control process. Besides, neural network and designed fuzzy logic controller is also utilized to improve this control method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by experiment results.
Ong, Mingwei; Watanuki, Keiichi
Recently, as consumers gradually prefer buying products that reflect their own personality, there exist some consumers who wish to involve in the product design process. Parallel with the popularization of e-business, many manufacturers have utilized the Internet to promote their products, and some have even built websites that enable consumers to select their desirable product specifications. Nevertheless, this method has not been applied on complicated mechanical product due to the facts that complicated mechanical product has a large number of specifications that inter-relate among one another. In such a case, ordinary consumers who are lacking of design knowledge, are not capable of determining these specifications. In this paper, a prototype framework called Internet-based consumer-oriented product ordering system has been developed in which it enables ordinary consumers to have large freedom in determining complicated mechanical product specifications, and meanwhile ensures that the manufacturing of the determined product is feasible.
Yang, Sheng; Kuo, C.-C. Jay
An Internet-based interactive walkthrough virtual environment is presented in this work to facilitate interactive streaming and browsing of 3D graphic models across the Internet. The models are compressed by the view-dependent progressive mesh compression algorithm to enable the decorrelation of partitions and finer granularity. Following the fundamental framework of mesh representation, an interactive protocol based on the real time streaming protocol (RTSP) is developed to enhance the interaction between the server and the client. Finally, the data of the virtual world is re-organized and transmitted according to the viewer's requests. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm reduces the required transmission bandwidth, and provides an acceptable visual quality even at low bit rates.
Vu, M. T.; Raghavan, S. V.; Liong, S. Y.
Many hydrological modeling studies suffer from lack of robust station observed data, mainly rainfall and discharge. Where such a dearth of data exists, detailed modeling studies in estimating and assessing change in water resources become difficult when models cannot be compared against recorded observations. In addition, some river basins exist along trans-boundaries of two or more countries that problems in data sharing among them add to the difficulties in such modeling studies. Nevertheless, with the advancement in the global internet resources, access to such data has become easy. Whether such internet based data are good substitutes for station data can be ascertained only after performing some modeling research. To this end, this paper describes a hydrological modeling study that simulates the river flow of the Da River across the trans-boundary regions of China and Vietnam over a 11 yr period from 1971 to 1982. Globally available observation data used in this study include topography (from SRTM - Shuttle Radar Topography Mission), land use (from GLCC - Global Land Cover Characterization), soil (from FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization), precipitation (from APHRODITE - Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards the Evaluation) and temperature (from GHCN2 - modified of Global Historical Climatology Network version 2). The study employs a hydrological model to recreate the natural flow without dam(s) built across the main river channel. The results of the study are promising and provide a wide scope to utilize internet based data for further research. This also has implications in the context of climate change applications.
Stoops, William W; Dallery, Jesse; Fields, Nell M; Nuzzo, Paul A; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Martin, Catherine A; Casey, Baretta; Wong, Conrad J
The implementation of cigarette smoking abstinence reinforcement programs may be hindered by the time intensive burden placed on patients and treatment providers. The use of remote monitoring and reinforcement of smoking abstinence may enhance the accessibility and acceptability of this intervention, particularly in rural areas where transportation can be unreliable and treatment providers distant. This study determined the effectiveness of an Internet-based abstinence reinforcement intervention in initiating and maintaining smoking abstinence in rural smokers. Sixty-eight smokers were enrolled to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet-based smoking cessation program. During the 6-week intervention period, all participants were asked to record 2 videos of breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples daily. Participants also typed the value of their CO readings into web-based software that provided feedback and reinforcement based on their smoking status. Participants (n=35) in the Abstinence Contingent (AC) group received monetary incentives contingent on recent smoking abstinence (i.e., CO of 4 parts per million or below). Participants (n=33) in the Yoked Control (YC) group received monetary incentives independent of smoking status. Participants in the AC group were significantly more likely than the YC group to post negative CO samples on the study website (OR=4.56; 95% CI=2.18-9.52). Participants assigned to AC were also significantly more likely to achieve some level of continuous abstinence over the 6-week intervention compared to those assigned to YC. These results demonstrate the feasibility and short-term efficacy of delivering reinforcement for smoking abstinence over the Internet to rural populations.
Boettcher, Johanna; Aström, Viktor; Påhlsson, Daniel; Schenström, Ola; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per
Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the transdiagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, posttreatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's d(between)=0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d=0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d=0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01577290).
Background This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of internet-based interventions for the treatment of different eating disorders in adults. Method A search for peer reviewed journal articles detailing Randomised Control Trials (RCT) and Controlled Trials (CT) addressing participants with eating disorders aged at least 16 was completed in the electronic databases Web of Science, PsycInfo and PubMed. The quality of the included articles was assessed, results were reviewed and effect sizes and corresponding confidence intervals were calculated. Results Eight studies, including a total of N = 609 participants, fulfilled the selection criteria and were included. The majority of treatments applied in these studies were based on CBT principles. Six studies described guided self-help interventions that showed significant symptom reduction in terms of primary and secondary outcomes regarding eating behaviour and abstinence rates. These studies produced significant medium to high effect sizes both within and between the groups after utilisation of guided self-help programs or a self-help book backed up with supportive e-mails. The two remaining studies utilised a specific writing task or e-mail therapy that did not follow a structured treatment program. Here, no significant effects could be found. Treatment dropout rates ranged from 9% to 47.2%. Furthermore, reductions in other symptoms, for example depression and anxiety, and an increase in quality of life were found by four studies. Conclusions Overall, the results support the value of internet-based interventions that use guided self-help to tackle eating disorders, but further research is needed due to the heterogeneity of the studies. PMID:23919625
Bachman, Jean A.; Panzarine, Susan
Twenty nursing graduate students in an Internet-based course were compared with 23 who did not take the course. The former were more likely to be connected to nursing networks, used Internet-based health information in practice, used computer skills for other classes, and understood the relevance of telemedicine. (SK)
Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Rocheleau, Jessica N; Kamalou, Somayyeh; Moscovitch, David A
Social anxiety (SA) and online privacy concerns (OPCs) are conceptually distinct fears, but both may be activated by Internet-based social contexts. Whereas SA is focused on being the object of interpersonal evaluation, OPC is focused on preventing others from gaining unauthorized access to private personal information. No research to date has investigated how SA and OPCs may uniquely or interactively predict individual differences in online interaction anxiety or attitudes and preferences about online communication. Participants (N = 374) completed the Social Phobia Inventory and measures of OPCs, online interaction anxiety, and attitudes related to online communication. The results revealed that SA and OPCs were not correlated with one another; however, they each uniquely predicted significant variance in particular outcomes, with no interactive effects. Findings help to illuminate the ways in which online communication preferences may be differentially shaped by people's levels of SA and OPCs, respectively. Theoretical implications and applications are discussed.
Nguyen, To N.; Woodward, Richard T.
NutrientNet is an Internet-based environment in which a class can simulate a market-based approach for improving water quality. In NutrientNet, each student receives a role as either a point source or a nonpoint source polluter, and then the participants are allowed to trade water quality credits to cost-effectively reduce pollution in a…
Carlbring, Per; Furmark, Tomas; Steczko, Johan; Ekselius, Lisa; Andersson, Gerhard
This study evaluated a 9-week Internet-based self-help program for people suffering from social phobia. After confirming the diagnosis with a structured clinical interview for the "DSM-IV" (SCID) by telephone, 26 participants were treated with a multimodal treatment package based on cognitive behavioural therapy plus weekly therapist…
This study assesses the effectiveness of internet-based distance learning (IBDL) through the VClass live e-education platform. The research examines (1) the effectiveness of IBDL for regular and distance students and (2) the distance students' experience of VClass in the IBDL course entitled Computer Programming 1. The study employed the common…
Elliot, A J; Kara, E O; Loveridge, P; Bawa, Z; Morbey, R A; Moth, M; Large, S; Smith, G E
Syndromic surveillance is an innovative surveillance tool used to support national surveillance programmes. Recent advances in the use of internet-based health data have demonstrated the potential usefulness of these health data; however, there have been limited studies comparing these innovative health data to existing established syndromic surveillance systems. We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the usefulness of a national internet-based 'symptom checker' service for use as a syndromic surveillance system. NHS Direct online data were extracted for 1 August 2012 to 1 July 2013; a time-series analysis on the symptom categories self-reported by online users was undertaken and compared to existing telehealth syndromic data. There were 3·37 million online users of the internet-based self-checker compared to 1·43 million callers to the telephone triage health service. There was a good correlation between the online and telephone triage data for a number of syndromic indicators including cold/flu, difficulty breathing and eye problems; however, online data appeared to provide additional early warning over telephone triage health data. This assessment has illustrated some potential benefit of using internet-based symptom-checker data and provides the basis for further investigating how these data can be incorporated into national syndromic surveillance programmes.
Bingham, Teri; Ray, Jan
In an effort to keep up with the new generation of digital learners, educators are integrating multiple forms of technology into their teaching, including online learning game applications. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which internet-based learning game applications selected by preservice teachers were aligned with the…
Wang, Chao; Yan, Jiaolan; Liu, Bao
Based on Bailey's washback model, in respect of participants, process and products, the present empirical study was conducted to find the actual washback effects of the internet-based College English Test Band 4 (IB CET-4). The methods adopted are questionnaires, class observation, interview and the analysis of both the CET-4 teaching and testing…
Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.
Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…
Hemmati, Nima; Omrani, Soghra; Hemmati, Naser
The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL) and traditional classroom lecture (TCL) for continuing medical education (CME) programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) curriculum guidelines training…
The purpose of this study is to elicit problem causing word stress patterns for Turkish EFL (English as a foreign language) learners and investigate whether Internet-based pronunciation lesson is superior to traditional pronunciation lesson in terms of enhancing Turkish EFL learners' accurate production of stressed syllables in English words. A…
Burdett, Kimberli R.
The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of how current internet-based resources are affecting the college choice process. An explanatory mixed methods design was used, and the study involved collecting qualitative data after a quantitative phase to explain the quantitative data in greater depth. An additional study was…
Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse
The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…
Kleiboer, Annet; Donker, Tara; Seekles, Wike; van Straten, Annemieke; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim
Internet-based interventions can be effective treatments for anxiety and depression. Meta-analytic evidence suggests that they should be delivered with human support to reach optimal effects. These findings have not consistently been replicated in direct comparisons of supported and unsupported interventions, however. This study examined the role of support in Internet-based problem solving treatment (PST) for symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. Adults with mild to moderate symptoms of anxiety and/or depression were recruited from the general population and randomized to: (1) PST without support (n = 107), (2) PST with support on request (n = 108), (3) PST with weekly support (n = 106), (4) no Internet-based intervention but non-specific chat or email (n = 110), or (5) waitlist control (WLC; n = 106). Primary outcomes were symptoms of anxiety (HADS) and depression (CES-D) measured at baseline and 6 weeks later. Analyses were first based on the intention-to-treat principle (ITT) and repeated with intervention completers. Only participants who received PST with weekly support improved significantly more than WLC for depressive symptoms. Results for anxiety were less robust but in favor of the weekly support condition. The results underscore the importance of structural support in Internet-based interventions for depression and anxiety.
LaChausse, Robert G.
Objective: To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Participants: Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group.…
Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…
Martin, Christie S.; Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Lambert, Richard G.; Pugalee, David K.
This study examined the influence of professional development on elementary school teachers' perceptions of and use of an internet-based formative assessment tool focused on students' number sense skills. Data sources include teacher-participants' pre and post survey, open ended response on post survey, use of the assessment tool and their written…
Schreurs, Bernard G.; Smith-Bell, Carrie A.; Burhans, Lauren B.
Incubation of fear has been used to account for the delayed manifestation of symptoms of fear and anxiety including the delayed onset of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). We have shown the utility of classical conditioning-specific modification of the rabbit nictitating membrane response (NMR) as a model of PTSD. This modification includes an exaggeration in the size and a change in the timing of the unconditioned NMR after several days of classical conditioning. To assess the effects of incubation on conditioning-specific modification, we measured changes in responding as a function of the time between classical conditioning and NMR testing. After just one day of classical conditioning resulting in modest levels of learning, increases in response size were an inverted-U shaped function of days of incubation with little if any change occurring one and ten days after training but significant change occurring after six days. The incubation effect persisted for a week. An unpaired control group showed no change in the size of the response confirming the incubation effect was associative. The results bear a striking resemblance to symptoms of PTSD that do not always occur immediately after trauma and become exacerbated over time and then persist. They point to a window when incubation can exacerbate symptoms and speak to the vulnerability of re-experiencing trauma too soon. This could be a serious problem for military or emergency personnel recalled to combat or a disaster site without sufficient time to deal with the effects of their initial experiences. PMID:21803372
Lintvedt, Ove K; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Sørensen, Kristian; Østvik, Andreas R; Wang, Catharina E A; Eisemann, Martin; Waterloo, Knut
The Internet has the potential to increase the capacity and accessibility of mental health services. This study aimed to investigate whether an unguided Internet-based self-help intervention delivered without human support or guidance can reduce symptoms of depression in young people at risk of depression. The study also aimed to explore the usage of such sites in a real-life setting, to estimate the effects of the intervention for those who received a meaningful intervention dose and to evaluate user satisfaction. Young adults were recruited by means of a screening survey sent to all students at the University of Tromsø. Of those responding to the survey, 163 students (mean age 28.2 years) with elevated psychological distress were recruited to the trial and randomized to an Internet intervention condition or the waiting list control group. The Internet condition comprised a depression information website and a self-help Web application delivering automated cognitive behavioural therapy. The participants in the waiting list condition were free to access formal or informal help as usual. Two-thirds of the users who completed the trial initially reported an unmet need for help. The findings demonstrated that an unguided intervention was effective in reducing symptoms of depression and negative thoughts and in increasing depression literacy in young adults. Significant improvements were found at 2-month follow up. Internet-based interventions can be effective without tracking and thus constitute a minimal cost intervention for reaching a large number of people. User satisfaction among participants was high.
The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.
Karatas, Sercin; Simsek, Nurettin
The purpose of this study is to determine whether "equivalent learning experiences" ensure equivalency, in the Internet-based and face-to-face interaction methods on learning results and student satisfaction. In the experimental process of this study, the effect of the Internet-based and face-to-face learning on the equivalency in…
... and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS providers. 52.34 Section 52.34 Telecommunication... Portability § 52.34 Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet... customer's or a Registered Internet-based TRS User's valid number portability request, as it is defined...
... and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS providers. 52.34 Section 52.34 Telecommunication... Portability § 52.34 Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet... customer's or a Registered Internet-based TRS User's valid number portability request, as it is defined...
... and from interconnected VoIP or Internet-based TRS providers. 52.34 Section 52.34 Telecommunication... Portability § 52.34 Obligations regarding local number porting to and from interconnected VoIP or Internet... customer's or a Registered Internet-based TRS User's valid number portability request, as it is defined...
Berryhill, K. J.; Coble, K.; Slater, T. F.; McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.
Responding to national science education reform documents calling for students to have more opportunities for authentic research experiences, several national projects have developed online telescope networks to provide students with Internet-access to research grade telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier in the past. Internet-based robotic telescopes allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005) and undergraduate programs (e.g., McLin et al. 2009). This project looks at the educational value of using Internet-based robotic telescopes in a general education introductory astronomy course at the undergraduate level. Students at a minority-serving institution in the midwestern United States conducted observational programs using the Global Telescope Network (GTN). The project consisted of the use of planetarium software to determine object visibility, observing proposals (with abstract, background, goals, and dissemination sections), peer review (including written reviews and panel discussion according to NSF intellectual merit and broader impacts criteria), and classroom presentations showing the results of the observation. The GTN is a network of small telescopes funded by the Fermi mission to support the science of high energy astrophysics. It is managed by the NASA E/PO Group at Sonoma State University and is controlled using SkyNet. Data includes course artifacts (proposals, reviews, panel summaries, presentations, and student reflections) for six semesters plus student interviews. Using a grounded theory approach
Thiart, Hanne; Ebert, David Daniel; Lehr, Dirk; Nobis, Stephanie; Buntrock, Claudia; Berking, Matthias; Smit, Filip; Riper, Heleen
Study Objectives: Lost productivity caused by insomnia is a common and costly problem for employers. Although evidence for the efficacy of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (iCBT-I) already exists, little is known about its economic effects. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of providing iCBT-I to symptomatic employees from the employer's perspective. Methods: School teachers (N = 128) with clinically significant insomnia symptoms and work-related rumination were randomized to guided iCBT-I or a waitlist-control-group, both with access to treatment as usual. Economic data were collected at baseline and 6-mo follow-up. We conducted (1) a cost-effectiveness analysis with treatment response (Reliable Change [decline of 5.01 points] and Insomnia Severity Index < 8 at 6-month follow-up) as the outcome and (2) a cost-benefit analysis. Because both analyses were performed from the employer's perspective, we focused specifically on absenteeism and presenteeism costs. Statistical uncertainty was estimated using bootstrapping. Results: Assuming intervention costs of €200 ($245), cost-effectiveness analyses showed that at a willingness-to-pay of €0 for each positive treatment response, there is an 87% probability that the intervention is more cost effective than treatment as usual alone. Cost-benefit analyses led to a net benefit of €418 (95% confidence interval: −593.03 to 1,488.70) ($512) per participant and a return on investment of 208% (95% confidence interval: −296.52 to 744.35). The reduction in costs was mainly driven by the effects of the intervention on presenteeism and to a lesser degree by reduced absenteeism. Conclusions: Focusing on sleep improvement using iCBT-I may be a cost-effective strategy in occupational health care. Clinical Trials Registration: Title: Online Recovery Training for Better Sleep in Teachers with High Psychological Strain. German Clinical Trial Register (DRKS), URL: https
Liew, Yi Jin; Li, Yong; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel
RNA editing is a rare post-transcriptional event that provides cells with an additional level of gene expression regulation. It has been implicated in various processes including adaptation, viral defence and RNA interference; however, its potential role as a mechanism in acclimatization has just recently been recognised. Here, we show that RNA editing occurs in 1.6% of all nuclear-encoded genes of Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals. All base-substitution edit types were present, and statistically significant motifs were associated with three edit types. Strikingly, a subset of genes exhibited condition-specific editing patterns in response to different stressors that resulted in significant increases of non-synonymous changes. We posit that this previously unrecognised mechanism extends this organism's capability to respond to stress beyond what is encoded by the genome. This in turn may provide further acclimatization capacity to these organisms, and by extension, their coral hosts.
RNA editing is a rare post-transcriptional event that provides cells with an additional level of gene expression regulation. It has been implicated in various processes including adaptation, viral defence and RNA interference; however, its potential role as a mechanism in acclimatization has just recently been recognised. Here, we show that RNA editing occurs in 1.6% of all nuclear-encoded genes of Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals. All base-substitution edit types were present, and statistically significant motifs were associated with three edit types. Strikingly, a subset of genes exhibited condition-specific editing patterns in response to different stressors that resulted in significant increases of non-synonymous changes. We posit that this previously unrecognised mechanism extends this organism’s capability to respond to stress beyond what is encoded by the genome. This in turn may provide further acclimatization capacity to these organisms, and by extension, their coral hosts. PMID:28245292
Comer, Jonathan S.; Furr, Jami M.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Madigan, Ryan J.; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla; Idrobo, Fabio; Chase, Rhea M.; McNeil, Cheryl B.; Eyberg, Sheila M.
Given the enormous individual, familial, and societal costs associated with early disruptive behavior disorders, transformative efforts are needed to develop innovative options for overcoming traditional barriers to effective care and for broadening the availability of supported interventions. This paper presents the rationale and key considerations for a promising innovation in the treatment of early-onset disruptive behavior disorders—that is, the development of an Internet-based format for the delivery of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) directly to families in their own homes. Specifically, we consider traditional barriers to effective care, and discuss how technological innovations can overcome problems of treatment availability, accessibility, and acceptability. We then detail our current Internet-delivered PCIT treatment program (I-PCIT), which is currently being evaluated across multiple randomized clinical trials relative to waitlist comparison, and to traditional in-office PCIT. Embedded video clips of children treated with I-PCIT are used to illustrate novel aspects of the treatment. PMID:26120268
Seol, Soon-Ho; Kwon, Jun Soo; Kim, Yang Yeol; Kim, Sung Nyun
Objective Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is regarded as one of the most effective intervention for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, many patients remain untreated or inadequately treated due to time or geographical constraints. The purpose of this study was to develop an internet-based CBT (ICBT) for OCD, and to examine its efficacy in the Korean clinical setting. Methods The ICBT program ('COT') was developed from the same OCD manual in the standard CBT intervention. Twenty-seven participants of the total 42 patients completed all training sessions of the ICBT and the remainder (n=15) were classified as non-completers. Self-report measures of OCD, depression, anxiety, and work/social functioning, in addition to a neurocognitive test battery, were administered by face-to-face before and after treatment. Results The participants showed significant improvements in OCD and depressive symptoms, and in work/social functioning after ICBT completion. The presence of combined medication had no significant impact on treatment effect. The non-completers displayed more severe depressive and anxiety symptoms, and ICBT responders were younger and performed better in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion ICBT was found to be as effective for patients with moderate OC symptoms and little treatment experience. Considering the high accessibility and convenience of ICBT, it could be a helpful first treatment step for OCD patients when face-to-face treatment is unavailable. In the future a randomized controlled study will be necessary for verification and generalization of these results. PMID:27482237
Medek, Danielle Eve; Kljakovic, Marjan; Fox, Ian; Pretty, David George; Prebble, Matthew
Investigating the impact of climate change on human health requires the development of efficient tools that link patient symptoms with changing environmental variables. We developed an internet-based hay fever diary linked to simultaneously recorded pollen load and weather variables in Canberra, Australia over spring 2010. We recruited 42 hay fever sufferers to complete a simple online pollen diary daily over a period of 60 days. In conjunction, daily airborne pollen load was counted and meteorological data collected simultaneously. We focused on the relationships between temperature, rainfall, pollen count and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. Pollen load increased after a peak rainfall event until the end of the study. Compliance was high, averaging 79% of days per person. Nasal rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms increased in concert with increasing pollen load, and then remained high. Mucosal itching increased more gradually and strongly coincided with increased daily maximum temperature. Our study successfully demonstrated the feasibility of linking pollen load and climate variables to symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis in the Australian community. However, a larger study would better explore the nature of associations between these variables. Similar online methods could be used to monitor a range of health responses to our changing environment.
Yilmaz, Nihat; Ozdeniz, A Hadi
Spontaneous combustion on industrial-scale stockpiles causes environmental problems and economic losses for the companies consuming large amounts of coal. In this study, an effective monitoring and prediction system based on internet was developed and implemented to prevent losses and environmental problems. The system was performed in a coal stockpile with 5 m width, 10 m length, 3 m height, and having 120 t of weight. The inner temperature data of the stockpile was recorded by 17 temperature sensors placed inside the stockpile at certain points. Additionally, the data relating to the air temperature, air humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and wind direction that are the parameters affecting the coal stockpile were also recorded. The recorded values were analyzed with artificial neural network and Statistical modeling methods for prediction of spontaneous combustion. Real-time measurement values and model outputs were published with a web page on internet. The internet-based system can also provide real-time monitoring (combustion alarms, system status) and tele-controlling (Parameter adjusting, system control) through internet exclusively with a standard web browser without the need of any additional software.
Shah, Manish N; Swanson, Peter A; Nobay, Flavia; Peterson, Lars-Kristofer N; Caprio, Thomas V; Karuza, Jurgis
Despite caring for large numbers of older adults, prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers receive minimal geriatrics-specific training while obtaining their certification. Studies have shown that they desire further training to improve their comfort level and knowledge in caring for older adults, but continuing education programs to address these needs must account for each EMS provider's specific needs, consider each provider's learning styles, and provide an engaging, interactive experience. A novel, Internet-based, video podcast-based geriatric continuing education program was developed and implemented for EMS providers, and their perceived value of the program was evaluated. They found this resource to be highly valuable and were strongly supportive of the modality and the specific training provided. Some reported technical challenges and the inability to engage in a discussion to clarify topics as barriers. It was felt that both of these barriers could be addressed through programmatic and technological revisions. This study demonstrates the proof of concept of video podcast training to address deficiencies in EMS education regarding the care of older adults, although further work is needed to demonstrate the educational effect of video podcasts on the knowledge and skills of trainees.
Poon, David P; Langkals, John W; Giesel, Frederik L; Knopp, Michael V; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik
Internet protocol-based digital data collaboration with videoconferencing is not yet well utilized in the imaging community. Videoconferencing, combined with proven low-cost solutions, can provide reliable functionality and speed, which will improve rapid, time-saving, and cost-effective communications, within large multifacility institutions or globally with the unlimited reach of the Internet. The aim of this project was to demonstrate the implementation of a low-cost hardware and software setup that facilitates global data collaboration using WebEx and GoToMeeting Internet protocol-based videoconferencing software. Both products' features were tested and evaluated for feasibility across 2 different Internet networks, including a video quality and recording assessment. Cross-compatibility with an Apple OS is also noted in the evaluations. Departmental experiences with WebEx pertaining to clinical trials are also described. Real-time remote presentation of dynamic data was generally consistent across platforms. A reliable and inexpensive hardware and software setup for complete Internet-based data collaboration/videoconferencing can be achieved.
Klein, Britt; Mitchell, Joanna; Gilson, Kathryn; Shandley, Kerrie; Austin, David; Kiropoulos, Litza; Abbott, Jo; Cannard, Gwenda
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating mental health condition frequently associated with psychiatric comorbidity and diminished quality of life, and it typically follows a chronic, often lifelong, course. Previous research has shown that trauma-related psychopathology (but not necessarily clinical PTSD) can be effectively treated via the Internet. This study is the first of its kind to report on the online treatment of patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fourth edition) clinical diagnosis of PTSD with therapist support by e-mail only. Preliminary findings are presented of an open trial involving a 10-week Internet-based therapist-assisted cognitive behavioural treatment for PTSD (PTSD Online). Pre and posttreatment measures of PTSD and related symptomatology were compared for 16 participants with a variety of trauma experiences. Participants showed clinically significant reductions in PTSD severity and symptomatology, moderate tolerance of the program content, and high therapeutic alliance ratings. No significant change was found on measures of more general psychological symptoms. The results suggest that PTSD Online appears to be an effective and accessible clinical treatment for people with a confirmed PTSD diagnosis.
Smith, Ronald E.; Fagan, Corey; Wilson, Nicole L.; Chen, Jessica; Corona, Marissa; Nguyen, Hong; Racz, Sarah; Shoda, Yuichi
Collaborative (or therapeutic) assessment is an empirically supported procedure that involves the client as an active participant in the assessment process. Clients discuss data they provide with the assessor in a collaborative manner designed to provide insights and assist in setting mutually agreeable treatment goals. Internet-based procedures allow for ongoing (including daily) tracking of psychological variables and provision of immediate graphic feedback to therapists, clients, and clinical supervisors. As an example, we describe one such system: Evidence-Based Assessment System for Clinicians (EAS-C) that contains more than 30 brief and empirically validated assessment instruments that can be completed via the internet or smartphone. We also provide examples from a stress management intervention demonstrating how single-client data from a web-based daily stress and coping diary tied to the EAS-C were utilized to provide clients with individualized feedback, assess progress, identify idiographic patterns of cognitions, affect, and coping strategies, and test clinical hypotheses. Internet- and computer-based technological advances can improve service delivery and help bridge the gap that currently exists between science and practice. PMID:23894220
Crook, A.; Diehl, J. F.
The Michigan Tech University GPS monument was made operational in October of 2002. The monument, which consists of a concrete pillar extending approximately 10 feet below the surface and protrudes 5 feet above ground, is located at the Houghton County Memorial Airport (47.171803° N, 88.498361° W). The primary purpose of the monument is to measure the velocity of the North American Plate at this location. A Trimble 4000ssi geodetic receiver with a Trimble Zephyr antenna is used to collect GPS data. The data are sent to a PC where they are processed using Auto-GIPSY, an internet-based GPS processing utility, which makes it possible to process GPS data, via email, without having knowledge of how the software works. Two Perl scripts were written to facilitate automation and to simplify processing of the GPS data even further. Twelve months of GPS data were processed, using Auto-GIPSY, which produced a velocity of -24 +/- 5 mm/yr and -4 +/- 6 mm/yr for the X and Y components respectively with an azimuth of 261° with respect to the ITRF2000. This calculated result compares well with the NNR-NUVEL1A velocity of -17 mm/yr and -1 mm/yr for the X and Y components respectively with an azimuth of 267° . The results from an alternative online processing service, the Scripps Coordinate Update Tool (SCOUT) that uses GAMIT, will also be presented as a comparative method.
Marcus, Adam P; Marcus, Diana M; Ayis, Salma; Johnson, Antoinette; Marcus, Samuel F
The objective was to determine the likelihood of conceiving spontaneously following cessation of IVF/ICSI; how long does it take and what factors are associated with conception? The design was an internet-based survey. All registered users of www.ivf-infertility.com received an electronic questionnaire addressing issues relating to the duration and cause of infertility, number of IVF/ICSI cycles and outcome, whether they conceived following cessation of IVF/ICSI and the time taken to conceive and outcome. Four hundred and eighty four patients responded of whom 403 met the study criteria. The overall cumulative live birth rate over a 6-year period following cessation of IVF/ICSI was 29%. Eighty-two percent of conceptions occurred within 2 years. Positive factors associated with spontaneous conception were unexplained infertility (p = 0.02), ovulation dysfunction (p = 0.01), infertility less than four years prior to IVF/ICSI (p = 0.045) and 2 years or less since discontinuation of IVF/ICSI (p < 0.001) and up to four attempts at IVF/ICSI (p = 0.02). In conclusion, 29% of couples conceived spontaneously over a 6-year period following the cessation of IVF/ICSI. The findings of this study can be used to counsel and reassure women following IVF/ICSI.
van Gaalen, Johanna L; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti; Bakker, Moira J; Snoeck-Stroband, Jiska B; Sont, Jacob K
Objectives The aim of this study was to explore barriers among patients, general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses to implement internet-based self-management support as provided by PatientCoach for asthma in primary care. Setting Primary care within South Holland, the Netherlands. Participants Twenty-two patients (12 women, mean age 38 years), 21 GPs (6 women, mean age 52 years) and 13 practice nurses (all women, mean age 41 years). Design A qualitative study using focus groups and interviews. Outcomes Barriers as perceived by patients, GPs and practice nurses to implementation of PatientCoach. Methods 10 focus groups and 12 interviews were held to collect data: 4 patient focus groups, 4 GP focus groups, 2 practice nurse focus group, 2 patient interviews, 5 GP interviews and 5 practice nurse interviews. A prototype of PatientCoach that included modules for coaching, personalised information, asthma self-monitoring, medication treatment plan, feedback, e-consultations and a forum was demonstrated. A semistructured topic guide was used. Directed content analysis was used to analyse data. Reported barriers were classified according to a framework by Grol and Wensing. Results A variety of barriers emerged among all participant groups. Barriers identified among patients include a lack of a patient–professional partnership in using PatientCoach and a lack of perceived benefit in improving asthma symptoms. Barriers identified among GPs include a low sense of urgency towards asthma care and current work routines. Practice nurses identified a low level of structured asthma care and a lack of support by colleagues as barriers. Among all participant groups, insufficient ease of use of PatientCoach, lack of financial arrangements and patient characteristics such as a lack of asthma symptoms were reported as barriers. Conclusions We identified a variety of barriers to implementation of PatientCoach. An effective implementation strategy for internet-based self
Sereda, Magdalena; Coulson, Neil; Hoare, Derek J
Background Tinnitus is a common medical symptom that can affect an individual’s emotional and functional quality of life. Psychological therapies are acknowledged as beneficial to people with tinnitus; however, such therapies are not always readily accessible. With their global reach, automated Internet-based interventions have the potential to reduce the disparity in access to psychological support that people with tinnitus currently experience. However, the evidence on the acceptability and efficacy of these interventions is lacking. Process evaluations that develop an in-depth understanding of how users experience these interventions provide an essential first step when evaluating complex psychological interventions. Objective To describe the protocol for a study that will explore past, current, and new users’ reactions to and interactions with the Tinnitus E-Programme, an Internet-based intervention for the self-management of tinnitus. Methods Two parallel mixed-methods studies will be carried out with 2 different populations. Study 1 will use an online survey to gather past and current users’ views of the program. Study 2 will recruit new program users to take part in an interview and complete a relaxation log to explore how well they were able to implement the skills they learned during the program in their everyday lives. The findings from both studies will be triangulated to develop an in-depth understanding of the program’s mechanisms of impact and identify any implementation or contextual factors that strengthen or impede its delivery and functioning. Results Study 1 is open for recruitment with a projected completion in June 2016 and Study 2 was completed November 2015. At the time of submission, 36 participants have been recruited to Study 1 and 12 participants have taken part in Study 2. Conclusions Findings will inform the optimization of the Tinnitus E-Programme and guide future evaluation work to assess the program’s effectiveness as a
Jacobs, Bradly P; Bent, Stephen; Tice, Jeffrey A; Blackwell, Terri; Cummings, Steven R
The herbal extracts kava and valerian are the leading dietary supplements used in the self-management of anxiety and insomnia, respectively. There is limited evidence to support their effectiveness for these common symptoms. The Internet has been used to a limited extent for research, but it is not known whether randomized controlled trials can be conducted entirely using Internet technology. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using a novel Internet-based design to determine if kava is effective for reducing anxiety and if valerian is effective for improving sleep quality. E-mail recruitment letters and banner advertisements on websites were used to recruit a large pool of interested participants (1551) from 45 states over an 8-week period. Participants were first asked to read study information, complete an online informed consent process, and undergo electronic identity verification. In order to be eligible for the study, participants were required to have 1) anxiety as documented by scores of at least 0.5 standard deviations above the mean on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory State subtest (STAI-State) on 2 separate occasions, and 2) insomnia, defined as a "problem getting to sleep or staying asleep over the past 2 weeks." We randomly assigned 391 eligible participants to 1 of the following 3 groups, and mailed 28 days' supply: kava with valerian placebo (n = 121), valerian with kava placebo (n = 135), or double placebo (n = 135). The primary outcome measures were changes from baseline in anxiety (STAI-State questionnaire) and insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]) compared with placebo. Participants receiving placebo had a 14.4 point decrease in anxiety symptoms on the STAI-State score and an 8.3 point decrease in insomnia symptoms on the ISI. Those receiving kava had similar reductions in STAI-State score (2.7 point greater reduction in placebo compared with kava; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.8 to +6.2). Those receiving
Background Identifying similarities and differences in the molecular constitutions of various types of cancer is one of the key challenges in cancer research. The appearances of a cancer depend on complex molecular interactions, including gene regulatory networks and gene-environment interactions. This complexity makes it challenging to decipher the molecular origin of the cancer. In recent years, many studies reported methods to uncover heterogeneous depictions of complex cancers, which are often categorized into different subtypes. The challenge is to identify diverse molecular contexts within a cancer, to relate them to different subtypes, and to learn underlying molecular interactions specific to molecular contexts so that we can recommend context-specific treatment to patients. Results In this study, we describe a novel method to discern molecular interactions specific to certain molecular contexts. Unlike conventional approaches to build modular networks of individual genes, our focus is to identify cancer-generic and subtype-specific interactions between contextual gene sets, of which each gene set share coherent transcriptional patterns across a subset of samples, termed contextual gene set. We then apply a novel formulation for quantitating the effect of the samples from each subtype on the calculated strength of interactions observed. Two cancer data sets were analyzed to support the validity of condition-specificity of identified interactions. When compared to an existing approach, the proposed method was much more sensitive in identifying condition-specific interactions even in heterogeneous data set. The results also revealed that network components specific to different types of cancer are related to different biological functions than cancer-generic network components. We found not only the results that are consistent with previous studies, but also new hypotheses on the biological mechanisms specific to certain cancer types that warrant further
Harden, Samantha M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A; Hill, Jennie L; Linnan, Laura A; Allen, Kacie C; Estabrooks, Paul A
Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p < .05) relationships between weight change from baseline to 12 months and change scores of absolute or relative absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity.
Berryhill, K. J.; Gershun, D.; Slater, T. F.; Armstrong, J. D.
How can science teachers become more familiar with emerging technology, excite their students and give students a taste of astronomy research? Astronomy teachers do not always have research experience, so it is difficult for them to convey to students how researchers use telescopes. The nature of astronomical observation (e.g., remote sites, expensive equipment, and odd hours) has been a barrier to providing teachers with insight into the process. Robotic telescopes (operated automatically with queued observing schedules) and remotely controlled telescopes (controlled by the user via the Internet) allow scientists to conduct observing sessions on research-grade telescopes half a world away. The same technology can now be harnessed by STEM educators to engage students and reinforce what is being taught in the classroom, as seen in some early research in elementary schools (McKinnon and Mainwaring 2000 and McKinnon and Geissinger 2002), and middle/high schools (Sadler et al. 2001, 2007 and Gehret et al. 2005). However, teachers need to be trained to use these resources. Responding to this need, graduate students and faculty at the University of Wyoming and CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are developing teacher professional development programs using Internet-based telescopes. We conducted an online course in the science education graduate program at the University of Wyoming. This course was designed to sample different types of Internet-based telescopes to evaluate them as resources for teacher professional development. The 10 participants were surveyed at the end of the course to assess their experiences with each activity. In addition, pre-test/post-test data were collected focusing specifically on one of the telescopes (Gershun, Berryhill and Slater 2012). Throughout the course, the participants learned to use a variety of robotic and remote telescopes including SLOOH Space Camera (www.slooh.com), Sky Titan Observatory (www
period, albeit without therapist contact. Results The current study is believed to result in three important findings. First, a CBT intervention is assumed to be beneficial for people suffering from problems caused by procrastination. Second, the degree of therapist contact will have a positive effect on treatment outcome as procrastination can be partially explained as a self-regulatory failure. Third, an Internet based CBT intervention is presumed to be an effective way to administer treatment for procrastination, which is considered highly important, as the availability of adequate care is limited. The current study is therefore believed to render significant knowledge on the treatment of procrastination, as well as providing support for the use of Internet based CBT for difficulties due to delayed tasks and commitments. Conclusions To our knowledge, the current study is the first clinical trial to examine the effects of CBT for procrastination, and is assumed to render significant knowledge on the treatment of procrastination, as well as investigating whether it can be delivered via the Internet. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01842945; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01842945 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KSmaXewC). PMID:24220277
Gluskin, Rebecca Tave; Johansson, Michael A; Santillana, Mauricio; Brownstein, John S
Dengue is a common and growing problem worldwide, with an estimated 70-140 million cases per year. Traditional, healthcare-based, government-implemented dengue surveillance is resource intensive and slow. As global Internet use has increased, novel, Internet-based disease monitoring tools have emerged. Google Dengue Trends (GDT) uses near real-time search query data to create an index of dengue incidence that is a linear proxy for traditional surveillance. Studies have shown that GDT correlates highly with dengue incidence in multiple countries on a large spatial scale. This study addresses the heterogeneity of GDT at smaller spatial scales, assessing its accuracy at the state-level in Mexico and identifying factors that are associated with its accuracy. We used Pearson correlation to estimate the association between GDT and traditional dengue surveillance data for Mexico at the national level and for 17 Mexican states. Nationally, GDT captured approximately 83% of the variability in reported cases over the 9 study years. The correlation between GDT and reported cases varied from state to state, capturing anywhere from 1% of the variability in Baja California to 88% in Chiapas, with higher accuracy in states with higher dengue average annual incidence. A model including annual average maximum temperature, precipitation, and their interaction accounted for 81% of the variability in GDT accuracy between states. This climate model was the best indicator of GDT accuracy, suggesting that GDT works best in areas with intense transmission, particularly where local climate is well suited for transmission. Internet accessibility (average ∼ 36%) did not appear to affect GDT accuracy. While GDT seems to be a less robust indicator of local transmission in areas of low incidence and unfavorable climate, it may indicate cases among travelers in those areas. Identifying the strengths and limitations of novel surveillance is critical for these types of data to be used to make
De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek
Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.
Carlbring, Per; Degerman, Nicklas; Jonsson, Jakob; Andersson, Gerhard
Effective therapies for pathological gambling exist, but their use is limited to about 10% of the target population. In an attempt to lower the barriers for help, Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has been shown to be effective when delivered to a non-depressed sample with pathological gambling. This study sought to extend this finding to a larger, more representative population, and also test a model to predict responder status. Following advertisement, a total of 284 participants started an 8-week ICBT programme with minimal therapist contact via e-mail and weekly telephone calls of less than 15 min. The average time spent on each participant, including telephone conversations, e-mail, and administration, was 4 h. In addition to a mixed effects model to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment, two logistic regression analyses were performed with the following eight pre-defined response predictor variables: work-life satisfaction, primary gambling activity, debts due to gambling, social support, personal yearly salary, alcohol consumption, stage of change, and dissociative gambling. ICBT resulted in statistically significant reductions in the scores of pathological gambling, anxiety, and depression as well as an increase in quality of life compared to pre-treatment levels. Follow-ups carried out in the treatment group at 6, 18, and 36 months indicated that treatment effects were sustained. Using the eight predictor variable model rendered an acceptable predictive ability to identify responders both at post-test (AUC = .72, p < .01) and at 36-month follow-up (AUC = .70, p < .01). We conclude that ICBT for pathological gamblers, even if depressed, can be effective and that outcome can partly be predicted by pre-treatment characteristics.
Zhdanov, Andrey; Nurminen, Jussi; Baess, Pamela; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Jousmäki, Veikko; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Mandel, Anne; Meronen, Lassi; Hari, Riitta; Parkkonen, Lauri
Hyperscanning Most neuroimaging studies of human social cognition have focused on brain activity of single subjects. More recently, “two-person neuroimaging” has been introduced, with simultaneous recordings of brain signals from two subjects involved in social interaction. These simultaneous “hyperscanning” recordings have already been carried out with a spectrum of neuroimaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG), and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Dual MEG Setup We have recently developed a setup for simultaneous magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of two subjects that communicate in real time over an audio link between two geographically separated MEG laboratories. Here we present an extended version of the setup, where we have added a video connection and replaced the telephone-landline-based link with an Internet connection. Our setup enabled transmission of video and audio streams between the sites with a one-way communication latency of about 130 ms. Our software that allows reproducing the setup is publicly available. Validation We demonstrate that the audiovisual Internet-based link can mediate real-time interaction between two subjects who try to mirror each others’ hand movements that they can see via the video link. All the nine pairs were able to synchronize their behavior. In addition to the video, we captured the subjects’ movements with accelerometers attached to their index fingers; we determined from these signals that the average synchronization accuracy was 215 ms. In one subject pair we demonstrate inter-subject coherence patterns of the MEG signals that peak over the sensorimotor areas contralateral to the hand used in the task. PMID:26098628
Gluskin, Rebecca Tave; Johansson, Michael A.; Santillana, Mauricio; Brownstein, John S.
Dengue is a common and growing problem worldwide, with an estimated 70–140 million cases per year. Traditional, healthcare-based, government-implemented dengue surveillance is resource intensive and slow. As global Internet use has increased, novel, Internet-based disease monitoring tools have emerged. Google Dengue Trends (GDT) uses near real-time search query data to create an index of dengue incidence that is a linear proxy for traditional surveillance. Studies have shown that GDT correlates highly with dengue incidence in multiple countries on a large spatial scale. This study addresses the heterogeneity of GDT at smaller spatial scales, assessing its accuracy at the state-level in Mexico and identifying factors that are associated with its accuracy. We used Pearson correlation to estimate the association between GDT and traditional dengue surveillance data for Mexico at the national level and for 17 Mexican states. Nationally, GDT captured approximately 83% of the variability in reported cases over the 9 study years. The correlation between GDT and reported cases varied from state to state, capturing anywhere from 1% of the variability in Baja California to 88% in Chiapas, with higher accuracy in states with higher dengue average annual incidence. A model including annual average maximum temperature, precipitation, and their interaction accounted for 81% of the variability in GDT accuracy between states. This climate model was the best indicator of GDT accuracy, suggesting that GDT works best in areas with intense transmission, particularly where local climate is well suited for transmission. Internet accessibility (average ∼36%) did not appear to affect GDT accuracy. While GDT seems to be a less robust indicator of local transmission in areas of low incidence and unfavorable climate, it may indicate cases among travelers in those areas. Identifying the strengths and limitations of novel surveillance is critical for these types of data to be used to make
Myers, Gerry; Welch, Clara L. (Technical Monitor)
AZ Technology has been working with NASA MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) to find ways to make it easier for remote experimenters (RPI's) to monitor their International Space Station (ISS) payloads in real-time from anywhere using standard/familiar devices. That effort resulted in a product called 'EZStream' which is in use on several ISS-related projects. Although the initial implementation is geared toward ISS, the architecture and lessons learned are applicable to other space-related programs. This paper begins with a brief history on why Internet-based real-time data is important and where EZStream or products like it fit in the flow of data from orbit to experimenter/researcher. A high-level architecture is then presented along with explanations of the components used. A combination of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), Open Source, and custom components are discussed. The use of standard protocols is shown along with some details on how data flows between server and client. Some examples are presented to illustrate how a system like EZStream can be used in real world applications and how care was taken to make the end-user experience as painless as possible. A system such as EZStream has potential in the commercial (non-ISS) arena and some possibilities are presented. During the development and fielding of EZStream, a lot was learned. Good and not so good decisions were made. Some of the major lessons learned will be shared. The development of EZStream is continuing and the future of EZStream will be discussed to shed some light over the technological horizon.
Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L; Bryant, Richard A; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D
Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work.
Schover, Leslie R.; Yuan, Ying; Fellman, Bryan M.; Odensky, Evan; Lewis, Pamela E.; Martinetti, Paul
The recent National Comprehensive Cancer Network Survivorship Guideline recommends systematic evaluation and multidisciplinary treatment of cancer-related sexual dysfunctions. Yet, most oncology professionals fail to routinely assess sexual problems and lack expertise to treat them. An internet-based intervention was designed to educate female patients and their partners about cancer-related sexual problems, to describe medical treatment options and how to find expert care, and to provide self-help strategies. A randomized trial assessed efficacy of the intervention when used as self-help versus the same web access plus three supplemental counseling sessions. Survivors of localized breast or gynecological cancer completed online questionnaires at baseline, post-treatment, and 3- and 6-month follow-up, including the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI); the Menopausal Sexual Interest Questionnaire (MSIQ), the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) to assess emotional distress, and the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors Scale (QLACS). Program evaluation ratings were completed post-treatment. Fifty-eight women completed baseline questionnaires (mean age 53 ± 9). Drop-out rates were 22% during treatment and 34% at 6-month follow-up. Linear mixed models for each outcome across time showed improvement in total scores on the FSFI, MSIQ, and QLACS (P<0.001) and BSI-18 (P=0.001). The counseled group improved significantly more on sexuality measures, but changes in emotional distress and quality of life did not differ between groups. Program content and ease of use were rated positively. Research is needed on how best to integrate this intervention into routine clinical practice, particularly how to improve uptake and adherence. PMID:24225972
Background There are an increasing number of interventions being delivered online, and an expanding body of research to assess the effectiveness of such interventions. Yet, little is known about the motivations for participating in online research. Furthermore, internet interventions and online research studies are characterised by poor adherence and high attrition rates. This study aimed to explore participant motivations for taking part in an online trial of an internet intervention and the reasons for continuing. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with twenty members of the intervention arm of an internet-based randomised control trial evaluating an online cognitive behavioural tool to improve mental wellbeing. The qualitative interviews were analysed using the Framework Approach to identify themes and subthemes, through familiarization with the data, identifying a thematic framework, charting, indexing, mapping and interpreting the data. Results A number of key themes emerged. Trusted brands were key to participants feeling secure in engaging with the trial due to the association with institutions such as the UK National Health Service and the lead University conducting the research. Participants had a number of motivations for signing up with the study; altruism, low mood and as a replacement for a physical health professional. Participants felt the need for the language used in the intervention to be tailored to them as individuals. The majority of those interviewed also described multiple benefits from the intervention, which could have been a reason for them to persist. Conclusion The nascent field of research on internet delivered healthcare needs to take account of participant views, as have been identified in this trial and future studies would benefit from applying its findings. PMID:24165325
Joscelyne, Amy; Knuckey, Sarah; Satterthwaite, Margaret L.; Bryant, Richard A.; Li, Meng; Qian, Meng; Brown, Adam D.
Human rights advocates play a critical role in promoting respect for human rights world-wide, and engage in a broad range of strategies, including documentation of rights violations, monitoring, press work and report-writing, advocacy, and litigation. However, little is known about the impact of human rights work on the mental health of human rights advocates. This study examined the mental health profile of human rights advocates and risk factors associated with their psychological functioning. 346 individuals currently or previously working in the field of human rights completed an internet-based survey regarding trauma exposure, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), resilience and occupational burnout. PTSD was measured with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and depression was measured with the Patient History Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). These findings revealed that among human rights advocates that completed the survey, 19.4% met criteria for PTSD, 18.8% met criteria for subthreshold PTSD, and 14.7% met criteria for depression. Multiple linear regressions revealed that after controlling for symptoms of depression, PTSD symptom severity was predicted by human rights-related trauma exposure, perfectionism and negative self-appraisals about human rights work. In addition, after controlling for symptoms of PTSD, depressive symptoms were predicted by perfectionism and lower levels of self-efficacy. Survey responses also suggested high levels of resilience: 43% of responders reported minimal symptoms of PTSD. Although survey responses suggest that many human rights workers are resilient, they also suggest that human rights work is associated with elevated rates of PTSD and depression. The field of human rights would benefit from further empirical research, as well as additional education and training programs in the workplace about enhancing resilience in the context of human rights work. PMID:26700305
Kim, Robert; Demichelis, Francesca; Tang, Jeffery; Riva, Alberto; Shen, Ronglai; Gibbs, Doug F; Mahavishno, Vasudeva; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Rubin, Mark A
Background Translational research requires taking basic science observations and developing them into clinically useful tests and therapeutics. We have developed a process to develop molecular biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis by integrating tissue microarray (TMA) technology and an internet-database tool, Profiler. TMA technology allows investigators to study hundreds of patient samples on a single glass slide resulting in the conservation of tissue and the reduction in inter-experimental variability. The Profiler system allows investigator to reliably track, store, and evaluate TMA experiments. Here within we describe the process that has evolved through an empirical basis over the past 5 years at two academic institutions. Results The generic design of this system makes it compatible with multiple organ system (e.g., prostate, breast, lung, renal, and hematopoietic system,). Studies and folders are restricted to authorized users as required. Over the past 5 years, investigators at 2 academic institutions have scanned 656 TMA experiments and collected 63,311 digital images of these tissue samples. 68 pathologists from 12 major user groups have accessed the system. Two groups directly link clinical data from over 500 patients for immediate access and the remaining groups choose to maintain clinical and pathology data on separate systems. Profiler currently has 170 K data points such as staining intensity, tumor grade, and nuclear size. Due to the relational database structure, analysis can be easily performed on single or multiple TMA experimental results. The TMA module of Profiler can maintain images acquired from multiple systems. Conclusion We have developed a robust process to develop molecular biomarkers using TMA technology and an internet-based database system to track all steps of this process. This system is extendable to other types of molecular data as separate modules and is freely available to academic institutions for licensing. PMID:16364175
Schwebel, David C.; McClure, Leslie A.; Severson, Joan
Child pedestrian injury is a preventable global health challenge. Successful training efforts focused on child behavior, including individualized streetside training and training in large virtual pedestrian environments, are laborious and expensive. This study considers the usability and feasibility of a virtual pedestrian environment “game” application to teach children safe street-crossing behavior via the internet, a medium that could be broadly disseminated at low cost. Ten 7- and 8-year-old children participated. They engaged in an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment and completed a brief assessment survey. Researchers rated children's behavior while engaged in the game. Both self-report and researcher observations indicated the internet-based system was readily used by the children without adult support. The youth understood how to engage in the system and used it independently and attentively. The program also was feasible. It provided multiple measures of pedestrian safety that could be used for research or training purposes. Finally, the program was rated by children as engaging and educational. Researcher ratings suggested children used the program with minimal fidgeting or boredom. The pilot test suggests an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment offers a usable, feasible, engaging, and educational environment for child pedestrian safety training. If future research finds children learn the cognitive and perceptual skills needed to cross streets safely within it, internet-based training may provide a low-cost medium to broadly disseminate child pedestrian safety training. The concept may be generalized to other domains of health-related functioning such as teen driving safety, adolescent sexual risk-taking, and adolescent substance use. PMID:24678263
Schwebel, David C; McClure, Leslie A; Severson, Joan
Child pedestrian injury is a preventable global health challenge. Successful training efforts focused on child behavior, including individualized streetside training and training in large virtual pedestrian environments, are laborious and expensive. This study considers the usability and feasibility of a virtual pedestrian environment "game" application to teach children safe street-crossing behavior via the internet, a medium that could be broadly disseminated at low cost. Ten 7- and 8-year-old children participated. They engaged in an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment and completed a brief assessment survey. Researchers rated children's behavior while engaged in the game. Both self-report and researcher observations indicated the internet-based system was readily used by the children without adult support. The youth understood how to engage in the system and used it independently and attentively. The program also was feasible. It provided multiple measures of pedestrian safety that could be used for research or training purposes. Finally, the program was rated by children as engaging and educational. Researcher ratings suggested children used the program with minimal fidgeting or boredom. The pilot test suggests an internet-based virtual pedestrian environment offers a usable, feasible, engaging, and educational environment for child pedestrian safety training. If future research finds children learn the cognitive and perceptual skills needed to cross streets safely within it, internet-based training may provide a low-cost medium to broadly disseminate child pedestrian safety training. The concept may be generalized to other domains of health-related functioning such as teen driving safety, adolescent sexual risk-taking, and adolescent substance use.
Alderson, J. Charles
In this article, the author reviews the TOEFL iBT which is the latest version of the TOEFL, whose history stretches back to 1961. The TOEFL iBT was introduced in the USA, Canada, France, Germany and Italy in late 2005. Currently the TOEFL test is offered in two testing formats: (1) Internet-based testing (iBT); and (2) paper-based testing (PBT).…
Aneni, Ehimen C.; Roberson, Lara L.; Maziak, Wasim; Agatston, Arthur S.; Feldman, Theodore; Rouseff, Maribeth; Tran, Thinh H.; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Blaha, Michael J.; Blankstein, Ron; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Nasir, Khurram
Context The internet is gaining popularity as a means of delivering employee-based cardiovascular (CV) wellness interventions though little is known about the cardiovascular health outcomes of these programs. In this review, we examined the effectiveness of internet-based employee cardiovascular wellness and prevention programs. Evidence Acquisition We conducted a systematic review by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane library for all published studies on internet-based programs aimed at improving CV health among employees up to November 2012. We grouped the outcomes according to the American Heart Association (AHA) indicators of cardiovascular wellbeing – weight, BP, lipids, smoking, physical activity, diet, and blood glucose. Evidence Synthesis A total of 18 randomized trials and 11 follow-up studies met our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Follow-up duration ranged from 6 – 24 months. There were significant differences in intervention types and number of components in each intervention. Modest improvements were observed in more than half of the studies with weight related outcomes while no improvement was seen in virtually all the studies with physical activity outcome. In general, internet-based programs were more successful if the interventions also included some physical contact and environmental modification, and if they were targeted at specific disease entities such as hypertension. Only a few of the studies were conducted in persons at-risk for CVD, none in blue-collar workers or low-income earners. Conclusion Internet based programs hold promise for improving the cardiovascular wellness among employees however much work is required to fully understand its utility and long term impact especially in special/at-risk populations. PMID:24421894
Chang, Tzu-Hao; Wu, Shih-Lin; Wang, Wei-Jen; Horng, Jorng-Tzong; Chang, Cheng-Wei
Microarrays are widely used to assess gene expressions. Most microarray studies focus primarily on identifying differential gene expressions between conditions (e.g., cancer versus normal cells), for discovering the major factors that cause diseases. Because previous studies have not identified the correlations of differential gene expression between conditions, crucial but abnormal regulations that cause diseases might have been disregarded. This paper proposes an approach for discovering the condition-specific correlations of gene expressions within biological pathways. Because analyzing gene expression correlations is time consuming, an Apache Hadoop cloud computing platform was implemented. Three microarray data sets of breast cancer were collected from the Gene Expression Omnibus, and pathway information from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes was applied for discovering meaningful biological correlations. The results showed that adopting the Hadoop platform considerably decreased the computation time. Several correlations of differential gene expressions were discovered between the relapse and nonrelapse breast cancer samples, and most of them were involved in cancer regulation and cancer-related pathways. The results showed that breast cancer recurrence might be highly associated with the abnormal regulations of these gene pairs, rather than with their individual expression levels. The proposed method was computationally efficient and reliable, and stable results were obtained when different data sets were used. The proposed method is effective in identifying meaningful biological regulation patterns between conditions.
Haga, Silje Marie; Brendryen, Håvar; Slinning, Kari
Background As much as 10-15% of new mothers experience depression postpartum. An Internet-based intervention (Mamma Mia) was developed with the primary aims of preventing depressive symptoms and enhancing subjective well-being among pregnant and postpartum women. A secondary aim of Mamma Mia was to ease the transition of becoming a mother by providing knowledge, techniques, and support during pregnancy and after birth. Objective The aim of the paper is to provide a systematic and comprehensive description of the intervention rationale and the development of Mamma Mia. Methods For this purpose, we used the intervention mapping (IM) protocol as descriptive tool, which consists of the following 6 steps: (1) a needs assessment, (2) definition of change objectives, (3) selection of theoretical methods and practical strategies, (4) development of program components, (5) planning adoption and implementation, and (6) planning evaluation. Results Mamma Mia is a fully automated Internet intervention available for computers, tablets, and smartphones, intended for individual use by the mother. It starts in gestational week 18-24 and lasts up to when the baby becomes 6 months old. This intervention applies a tunneled design to guide the woman through the program in a step-by-step fashion in accordance with the psychological preparations of becoming a mother. The intervention is delivered by email and interactive websites, combining text, pictures, prerecorded audio files, and user input. It targets risk and protective factors for postpartum depression such as prepartum and postpartum attachment, couple satisfaction, social support, and subjective well-being, as identified in the needs assessment. The plan is to implement Mamma Mia directly to users and as part of ordinary services at well-baby clinics, and to evaluate the effectiveness of Mamma Mia in a randomized controlled trial and assess users’ experiences with the program. Conclusions The IM of Mamma Mia has made clear
This volume contains: bidding requirements; terms and conditions; specifications for Division 1 -- general requirements; specifications for Division 2 -- sitework; specifications for Divisions 5 -- metals; subcontract drawings, (general, Union Carbide processing site, North Continent processing site, and Burro Canyon disposal site).
Freeman, Becky; Perez, Donna
Background Since legislation prohibiting tobacco advertising in traditional media, online communication platforms and social media have become one of the few avenues for the tobacco industry to promote its products to Australians. Little is currently known about the exposure of young people to these new media promotions. Objective To measure exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among Australian youth, identify common formats of branding encountered, and examine the association between exposure and smoking susceptibility. Methods The Tobacco Promotion Impact Study is a repeat cross-sectional telephone survey of young people (12-24 years) in 2 Australian states, conducted yearly from 2010 to 2013 (total n=8820). The survey included questions about past-month exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and tobacco company branding. Changes in levels of exposure, characteristics of exposed youth, and the association between exposure and smoking susceptibility were explored. Results Past-month exposure to Internet-based tobacco advertising and branding among young people increased over the years of the survey (advertising: 21% in 2010 to 29% in 2013; branding: 20% in 2010 to 26% in 2013). The participants who were younger, female, from lower socioeconomic status, and never-smokers were more likely to report exposure. Facebook was the most commonly cited platform for encountering tobacco branding in 2013 (22% of all branding). Compared with young people interviewed in 2013, participants in 2010 were significantly less likely to report exposure to tobacco branding on social media (odds ratio [OR] 0.26, 95% CI 0.20-0.33, P<.001) or 2011 (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.37-0.57, P<.001). Among never-smokers aged 12-17 years, exposure to online advertising and branding (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.11-1.57, P=.002) or branding alone (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.10-1.77, P=.007) were significant predictors of smoking susceptibility. Conclusions Ensuring tobacco advertising bans are
Camerini, Anne-Linda; Allam, Ahmed; Schulz, Peter J
Background Chronic back pain (CBP) represents a significant public health problem. As one of the most common causes of disability and sick leave, there is a need to develop cost-effective ways, such as Internet-based interventions, to help empower patients to manage their disease. Research has provided evidence for the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions in many fields, but it has paid little attention to the reasons why they are effective. Objective This study aims to assess the impact of interactive sections of an Internet-based self-management intervention on patient empowerment, their management of the disease, and, ultimately, health outcomes. Methods A total of 51 patients were recruited through their health care providers and randomly assigned to either an experimental group with full access to the Internet-based intervention or a control group that was denied access to the interactive sections and knew nothing thereof. The intervention took 8 weeks. A baseline, a mid-term after 4 weeks, and a final assessment after 8 weeks measured patient empowerment, physical exercise, medication misuse, and pain burden. Results All patients completed the study. Overall, the intervention had a moderate effect (F 1.52=2.83, P=.03, η2=0.30, d=0.55). Compared to the control group, the availability of interactive sections significantly increased patient empowerment (midterm assessment: mean difference=+1.2, P=.03, d=0.63; final assessment: mean difference=+0.8, P=.09, d=0.44) and reduced medication misuse (midterm assessment: mean difference=−1.5, P=.04, d=0.28; final assessment: mean difference=−1.6, P=.03, d=−0.55) in the intervention group. Both the frequency of physical exercise and pain burden decreased, but to equal measures in both groups. Conclusions Results suggest that interactive sections as part of Internet-based interventions can positively alter patients’ feelings of empowerment and help prevent medication misuse. Detrimental effects were not
Wittich, Christopher M; Daniels, Wendlyn L; West, Colin P; Harris, Ann M; Beebe, Timothy J
Background Most research on how to enhance response rates in physician surveys has been done using paper surveys. Uncertainties remain regarding how to enhance response rates in Internet-based surveys. Objective To evaluate the impact of a low-cost nonmonetary incentive and paper mail reminders (formal letter and postcard) on response rates in Internet-based physician surveys. Methods We executed a factorial-design randomized experiment while conducting a nationally representative Internet-based physician survey. We invited 3966 physicians (randomly selected from a commercial database of all licensed US physicians) via email to complete an Internet-based survey. We used 2 randomly assigned email messages: one message offered a book upon survey completion, whereas the other did not mention the book but was otherwise identical. All nonrespondents received several email reminders. Some physicians were further assigned at random to receive 1 reminder via paper mail (either a postcard or a letter) or no paper reminder. The primary outcome of this study was the survey response rate. Results Of the 3966 physicians who were invited, 451 (11.4%) responded to at least one survey question and 336 (8.5%) completed the entire survey. Of those who were offered a book, 345/2973 (11.6%) responded compared with 106/993 (10.7%) who were not offered a book (odds ratio 1.10, 95% CI 0.87-1.38, P=.42). Regarding the paper mail reminder, 168/1572 (10.7%) letter recipients, 148/1561 (9.5%) postcard recipients, and 69/767 (9.0%) email-only recipients responded (P=.35). The response rate for those receiving letters or postcards was similar (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 0.91-1.44, P=.26). Conclusions Offering a modest nonmonetary incentive and sending a paper reminder did not improve survey response rate. Further research on how to enhance response rates in Internet-based physician surveys is needed. PMID:27637296
Michie, Susan; Raupach, Tobias; West, Robert
Background An accurate and up-to-date estimate of the potential reach of Internet-based smoking cessation interventions (ISCIs) would improve calculations of impact while an understanding of the characteristics of potential users would facilitate the design of interventions. Objective This study reports the prevalence and the sociodemographic, smoking, and Internet-use characteristics of smokers interested in using ISCIs in a nationally representative sample. Methods Data were collected using cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of adults in England. Interest in trying an Internet site or “app” that was proven to help with stopping smoking was assessed in 1128 adult smokers in addition to sociodemographic characteristics, dependence, motivation to quit, previous attempts to quit smoking, Internet and handheld computer access, and recent types of information searched online. Results Of a representative sample of current smokers, 46.6% (95% CI 43.5%-49.6%) were interested in using an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention. In contrast, only 0.3% (95% CI 0%-0.7%) of smokers reported having used such an intervention to support their most recent quit attempt within the past year. After adjusting for all other background characteristics, interested smokers were younger (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99), reported stronger urges (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51), were more motivated to quit within 3 months (OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.54-3.02), and were more likely to have made a quit attempt in the past year (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.37), access the Internet at least weekly (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.40-3.36), have handheld computer access (OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.22-2.24), and have used the Internet to search for online smoking cessation information or support in past 3 months (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.20-6.62). There was no association with social grade. Conclusions Almost half of all smokers in England are interested in using online smoking cessation interventions, yet fewer than
This research investigates the use of the Internet for engineering education, design, and analysis through the presentation of a Virtual City environment. The main focus of this research was to provide an infrastructure for engineering education, test the concept of distributed collaborative design and analysis, develop and implement the Virtual City environment, and assess the environment's effectiveness in the real world. A three-tier architecture was adopted in the development of the prototype, which contains an online database server, a Web server as well as multi-user servers, and client browsers. The environment is composed of five components, a 3D virtual world, multiple Internet-based multimedia modules, an online database, a collaborative geometric modeling module, and a collaborative analysis module. The environment was designed using multiple Intenet-based technologies, such as Shockwave, Java, Java 3D, VRML, Perl, ASP, SQL, and a database. These various technologies together formed the basis of the environment and were programmed to communicate smoothly with each other. Three assessments were conducted over a period of three semesters. The Virtual City is open to the public at www.vcity.ou.edu. The online database was designed to manage the changeable data related to the environment. The virtual world was used to implement 3D visualization and tie the multimedia modules together. Students are allowed to build segments of the 3D virtual world upon completion of appropriate undergraduate courses in civil engineering. The end result is a complete virtual world that contains designs from all of their coursework and is viewable on the Internet. The environment is a content-rich educational system, which can be used to teach multiple engineering topics with the help of 3D visualization, animations, and simulations. The concept of collaborative design and analysis using the Internet was investigated and implemented. Geographically dispersed users can build the
Foltz, David A.
The NASA Glenn Research Center successfully demonstrated a transmission-control-protocol/ Internet-protocol- (TCP/IP) based approach to the command and control of onorbit assets over a secure network. This is a significant accomplishment because future NASA missions will benefit by using Internet-standards-based protocols. Benefits of this Internet-based space command and control system architecture include reduced mission costs and increased mission efficiency. The demonstration proved that this communications architecture is viable for future NASA missions. This demonstration was a significant feat involving multiple NASA organizations and industry. Phillip Paulsen, from Glenn's Project Development and Integration Office, served as the overall project lead, and David Foltz, from Glenn's Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch, provided the hybrid networking support for the required Internet connections. The goal was to build a network that would emulate a connection between a space experiment on the International Space Station and a researcher accessing the experiment from anywhere on the Internet, as shown. The experiment was interfaced to a wireless 802.11 network inside the demonstration area. The wireless link provided connectivity to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Internet Link Terminal (TILT) satellite uplink terminal located 300 ft away in a parking lot on top of a panel van. TILT provided a crucial link in this demonstration. Leslie Ambrose, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, provided the TILT/TDRSS support. The TILT unit transmitted the signal to TDRS 6 and was received at the White Sands Second TDRSS Ground Station. This station provided the gateway to the Internet. Coordination also took place at the White Sands station to install a Veridian Firewall and automated security incident measurement (ASIM) system to the Second TDRSS Ground Station Internet gateway. The firewall provides a trusted network for the simulated space
Free, Caroline; Morris, Tim P; Kenward, Michael G; Syred, Jonathan; Baraitser, Paula
Background Ensuring rapid access to high quality sexual health services is a key public health objective, both in the United Kingdom and internationally. Internet-based testing services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are considered to be a promising way to achieve this goal. This study will evaluate a nascent online STI testing and results service in South East London, delivered alongside standard face-to-face STI testing services. Objective The aim of this study is to establish whether an online testing and results services can (1) increase diagnoses of STIs and (2) increase uptake of STI testing, when delivered alongside standard face-to-face STI testing services. Methods This is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. We will recruit 3000 participants who meet the following eligibility criteria: 16-30 years of age, resident in the London boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark, having at least one sexual partner in the last 12 months, having access to the Internet and willing to take an STI test. People unable to provide informed consent and unable to read and understand English (the websites will be in English) will be excluded. Baseline data will be collected at enrolment. This includes participant contact details, demographic data (date of birth, gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation), and sexual health behaviors (last STI test, service used at last STI test and number of sexual partners in the last 12 months). Once enrolled, participants will be randomly allocated either (1) to an online STI testing and results service (Sexual Health 24) offering postal self-administered STI kits for chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and HIV; results via text message (short message service, SMS), except positive results for HIV, which will be delivered by phone; and direct referrals to local clinics for treatment or (2) to a conventional sexual health information website with signposting to local clinic-based sexual health services. Participants will be free to
Wagner, Birgit; Nagl, Michaela; Dölemeyer, Ruth; Klinitzke, Grit; Steinig, Jana; Hilbert, Anja; Kersting, Anette
Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a prevalent health condition associated with obesity. Few people with BED receive appropriate treatment. Personal barriers include shame, fear of stigma, geographic distance to mental health services, and long wait-lists. The aims of this study were to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention for adults with threshold BED (DSM-IV) and to examine the stability of treatment effects over 12months. Participants were randomly assigned to a 16-week Internet-based cognitive-behavioral intervention (n=69) or a wait-list condition (n=70). Binge-eating frequency and eating disorder psychopathology were measured with the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination administered over the telephone. Additionally, body weight and body mass index, depression, and anxiety were assessed before and immediately after treatment. Three-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up data were recorded in the treatment group. Immediately after the treatment the number of binge-eating episodes showed significant improvement (d=1.02, between group) in the treatment group relative to the wait-list condition. The treatment group had also significantly reduced symptoms of all eating psychopathology outcomes relative to the wait-list condition (0.82≤d≤1.11). In the treatment group significant improvement was still observed for all measures 1year after the intervention relative to pretreatment levels. The Internet-based intervention proved to be efficacious, significantly reducing the number of binge-eating episodes and eating disorder pathology long term. Low-threshold e-health interventions should be further evaluated to improve treatment access for patients suffering from BED.
Green, Shana M.; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L.
Within recent years public health interventions have become technologically based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions. The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to effective behavioral interventions like Healthy Relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based Healthy Relationships Video Groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages, disadvantages and overall preference for home or agency delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective. PMID:26357907
Kurz, Deanna; King, Diane; Dickman, Jennifer M.; Faber, Andrew J.; Halterman, Eve; Wooley, Tim; Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Osuna, Diego; Ritzwoller, Debra
OBJECTIVE Internet and other interactive technology-based programs offer great potential for practical, effective, and cost-efficient diabetes self-management (DSM) programs capable of reaching large numbers of patients. This study evaluated minimal and moderate support versions of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, compared to an enhanced usual care condition. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A three-arm practical randomized trial was conducted to evaluate minimal contact and moderate contact versions of an Internet-based diabetes self-management program, offered in English and Spanish, compared to enhanced usual care. A heterogeneous sample of 463 type 2 patients was randomized and 82.5% completed a 4-month follow-up. Primary outcomes were behavior changes in healthy eating, physical activity, and medication taking. Secondary outcomes included hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, lipids, and blood pressure. RESULTS The Internet-based intervention produced significantly greater improvements than the enhanced usual care condition on three of four behavioral outcomes (effect sizes [d] for healthy eating = 0.32; fat intake = 0.28; physical activity= 0.19) in both intent-to-treat and complete-cases analyses. These changes did not translate into differential improvements in biological outcomes during the 4-month study period. Added contact did not further enhance outcomes beyond the minimal contact intervention. CONCLUSIONS The Internet intervention meets several of the RE-AIM criteria for potential public health impact, including reaching a large number of persons, and being practical, feasible, and engaging for participants, but with mixed effectiveness in improving outcomes, and consistent results across different subgroups. Additional research is needed to evaluate longer-term outcomes, enhance effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, and understand the linkages between intervention processes and outcomes. Electronic supplementary material The online version
da Silva Junior, Evert Pereira; Esteves, Guilherme Pompeu; Dames, Karla Kristine; Melo, Pedro Lopes de
Changes in thoracoabdominal motion are highly prevalent in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. Home care services that use telemedicine techniques and Internet-based monitoring have the potential to improve the management of these patients. However, there is no detailed description in the literature of a system for Internet-based monitoring of patients with disturbed thoracoabdominal motion. The purpose of this work was to describe the development of a new telemedicine instrument for Internet-based home monitoring of thoracoabdominal movement. The instrument directly measures changes in the thorax and abdomen circumferences and transfers data through a transmission control protocol/Internet protocol connection. After the design details are described, the accuracy of the electronic and software processing units of the instrument is evaluated by using electronic signals simulating normal subjects and individuals with thoracoabdominal motion disorders. The results obtained during in vivo studies on normal subjects simulating thoracoabdominal motion disorders showed that this new system is able to detect a reduction in abdominal movement that is associated with abnormal thoracic breathing (p < 0.0001) and the reduction in thoracic movement during abnormal abdominal breathing (p < 0.005). Simulated asynchrony in thoracoabdominal motion was also adequately detected by the system (p < 0.0001). The experimental results obtained for patients with respiratory diseases were in close agreement with the expected values, providing evidence that this instrument can be a useful tool for the evaluation of thoracoabdominal motion. The Internet transmission tests showed that the acquisition and analysis of the thoracoabdominal motion signals can be performed remotely. The user can also receive medical recommendations. The proposed system can be used in a spectrum of telemedicine scenarios, which can reduce the costs of assistance offered to patients with respiratory diseases.
Abraham, Anisha A.; Chow, Wing-Chi; So, Hung-Kwan; Yip, Benjamin Hon-Kei; Li, Albert M.; Kumta, Shekhar M.; Woo, Jean; Chan, Suk-Mei; Lau, Esther Yuet-Ying; Nelson, E. Anthony S.
Objectives Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens. Design and Methods This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT) group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions. Results The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups. Conclusion An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624 PMID:25946465
Green, Shana M; Lockhart, Elizabeth; Marhefka, Stephanie L
Within recent years, public health interventions have become technology based to reflect the digital age we currently live in and appeal to the public in innovative and novel ways. The Internet breaks down boundaries distance imposes and increases our ability to reach and connect with people. Internet-based interventions have the potential to expand access to effective behavioral interventions (EBIs). The US National HIV/AIDS Strategy states that people living with HIV should have access to EBIs such as healthy relationships (HR) to help them develop safe sex and disclosure skills. However, access to HR is limited across the country, especially for people in remote or rural areas. Internet-based healthy relationships video groups (HR-VG) delivered at home or community-based organizations (CBOs) can possibly expand access. This study assesses the preferences of women living with HIV (WLH) for participation in HR-VG among 21 WLH who participated in a randomized control trial (RCT) testing HR-VG and completed open-ended semi-structured telephone interviews. Transcripts were thematically analyzed to determine advantages and disadvantages of home or CBO delivery of HR-VG. Themes relating to convenience, technology access, privacy, distractions, HIV serostatus disclosure, and social opportunities were identified as advantages or disadvantages to participating in HR-VG at each location. Overall, privacy was the most salient concern of accessing HR-VG at home or at a CBO. Considering the concerns expressed by WLH, further studies are needed to assess how an Internet-based intervention delivered at home for WLH can maintain privacy while being cost effective.
Exploring factors related to the adoption and acceptance of an internet-based electronic personal health management tool (EPHMT) in a low income, special needs population of people living with HIV and AIDS in New York City.
Odlum, Michelle; Gordon, Peter; Camhi, Eli; Valdez, Esmerlin; Bakken, Suzanne
Access to personal health information assists efforts to improve health outcomes and creates a population of active and informed health consumers. Understanding this significance, Healthy People 2020 retained, as a Focus Area, the need for improved interactive Health Communication and HIT. Attainment of this goal includes increasing the use of Internet-based electronic personal health management tools (EPHMT). Health information management, essential for favorable health outcomes, can be problematic in low income, special needs populations with complex chronic illnesses such as HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, barriers to the adoption and acceptance of an EPHMT in such populations have not been well explored. The current study seeks to explore the usability of an EPHMT entitled MyHealthProfile and to identify perceived health information needs in a vulnerable population of people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWH) that have access to an EPHMT through their Medicaid Special Needs Plan.
Jiga-Boy, Gabriela; Maio, Gregory R; Haddock, Geoffrey; Lewis, Michael
Background The HealthValues Healthy Eating Programme is a standalone Internet-based intervention that employs a novel strategy for promoting behavior change (analyzing one’s reasons for endorsing health values) alongside other psychological principles that have been shown to influence behavior. The program consists of phases targeting motivation (dietary feedback and advice, analyzing reasons for health values, thinking about health-related desires, and concerns), volition (implementation intentions with mental contrasting), and maintenance (reviewing tasks, weekly tips). Objective The aim was to examine the effects of the program on consumption of fruit and vegetables, saturated fat, and added sugar over a 6-month period. Methods A total of 82 females and 18 males were recruited using both online and print advertisements in the local community. They were allocated to an intervention or control group using a stratified block randomization protocol. The program was designed such that participants logged onto a website every week for 24 weeks and completed health-related measures. Those allocated to the intervention group also completed the intervention tasks at these sessions. Additionally, all participants attended laboratory sessions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. During these sessions, participants completed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, the Block Fat/Sugar/Fruit/Vegetable Screener, adapted for the UK), and researchers (blind to group allocation) measured their body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Results Data were analyzed using a series of ANOVA models. Per protocol analysis (n=92) showed a significant interaction for fruit and vegetable consumption (P=.048); the intervention group increased their intake between baseline and 6 months (3.7 to 4.1 cups) relative to the control group (3.6 to 3.4 cups). Results also showed overall reductions in saturated fat intake (20.2 to 15.6 g, P<.001) and added sugar
Carter, Owen; Parsons, Richard; Hendrie, Delia
Background Tobacco smoking leads to death or disability and a drain on national resources. The literature suggests that cigarette smoking continues to be a major modifiable risk factor for a variety of diseases and that smokers aged 18-30 years are relatively resistant to antismoking messages due to their widely held belief that they will not be lifelong smokers. Objective To conduct a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a computer-generated photoaging intervention to promote smoking cessation among young adult smokers within a community pharmacy setting. Methods A trial was designed with 80% power based on the effect size observed in a published pilot study; 160 subjects were recruited (80 allocated to the control group and 80 to the intervention group) from 8 metropolitan community pharmacies located around Perth city center in Western Australia. All participants received standardized smoking cessation advice. The intervention group participants were also digitally photoaged by using the Internet-based APRIL Face Aging software so they could preview images of themselves as a lifelong smoker and as a nonsmoker. Due to the nature of the intervention, the participants and researcher could not be blinded to the study. The main outcome measure was quit attempts at 6-month follow-up, both self-reported and biochemically validated through testing for carbon monoxide (CO), and nicotine dependence assessed via the Fagerström scale. Results At 6-month follow-up, 5 of 80 control group participants (6.3%) suggested they had quit smoking, but only 1 of 80 control group participants (1.3%) consented to, and was confirmed by, CO validation. In the intervention group, 22 of 80 participants (27.5%) reported quitting, with 11 of 80 participants (13.8%) confirmed by CO testing. This difference in biochemically confirmed quit attempts was statistically significant (χ2 1=9.0, P=.003). A repeated measures analysis suggested the average intervention group smoking dependence score
Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alström, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian
Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. Design A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥20. Concurrent psychotropic drug treatment was permitted if the dose had been stable for at least two months before enrolment and remained unchanged during the trial. Interventions Participants received either BDD-NET (n=47) or supportive therapy (n=47) delivered via the internet for 12 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the BDD-YBOCS score after treatment and follow-up (three and six months from baseline) as evaluated by a masked assessor. Responder status was defined as a ≥30% reduction in symptoms on the scale. Secondary outcomes were measures of depression (MADRS-S), global functioning (GAF), clinical global improvement (CGI-I), and quality of life (EQ5D). The six month follow-up time and all outcomes other than BDD-YBOCS and MADRS-S at 3 months were not pre-specified in the registration at clinicaltrials.gov because of an administrative error but were included in the original trial protocol approved by the regional ethics committee before the start of the trial. Results BDD-NET was superior to supportive therapy and was associated with significant improvements in severity of symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-YBOCS group difference −7.1 points, 95% confidence interval −9.8 to −4.4), depression (MADRS-S group difference −4.5 points, −7.5 to −1.4), and other secondary measures. At follow-up, 56% of those receiving BDD-NET were classed as responders, compared with 13% receiving supportive therapy. The number needed to treat was 2.34 (1.71 to 4.35). Self
Looney, Craig W.
Wolfram|Alpha (http://www.wolframalpha.com/), a free internet-based mathematical engine released earlier this year, represents an orders-of magnitude advance in mathematical power freely available - without money, passwords, or downloads - on the web. Wolfram|Alpha is based on Mathematica, so it can plot functions, take derivatives, solve systems of equations, perform symbolic and numerical integration, and more. These capabilities (especially plotting and integration) will be explored in the context of topics covered in upper level undergraduate physics courses.
Rausch, Leonie; Baumeister, Harald
Background Mental disorders are highly prevalent and associated with considerable disease burden and personal and societal costs. However, they can be effectively reduced through prevention measures. The Internet as a medium appears to be an opportunity for scaling up preventive interventions to a population level. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically summarize the current state of research on Internet-based interventions for the prevention of mental disorders to give a comprehensive overview of this fast-growing field. Methods A systematic database search was conducted (CENTRAL, Medline, PsycINFO). Studies were selected according to defined eligibility criteria (adult population, Internet-based mental health intervention, including a control group, reporting onset or severity data, randomized controlled trial). Primary outcome was onset of mental disorder. Secondary outcome was symptom severity. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Meta-analytical pooling of results took place if feasible. Results After removing duplicates, 1169 studies were screened of which 17 were eligible for inclusion. Most studies examined prevention of eating disorders or depression or anxiety. Two studies on posttraumatic stress disorder and 1 on panic disorder were also included. Overall study quality was moderate. Only 5 studies reported incidence data assessed by means of standardized clinical interviews (eg, SCID). Three of them found significant differences in onset with a number needed to treat of 9.3-41.3. Eleven studies found significant improvements in symptom severity with small-to-medium effect sizes (d=0.11- d=0.76) in favor of the intervention groups. The meta-analysis conducted for depression severity revealed a posttreatment pooled effect size of standardized mean difference (SMD) =−0.35 (95% CI, −0.57 to −0.12) for short-term follow-up, SMD = −0.22 (95% CI, −0.37 to −0.07) for medium-term follow-up, and SMD = −0
Aldridge, Molly; Cook, Suzanne Follan; Bright, Renee; Mallette, Meaghan; Moniz, Heather; Shah, Samir A; LeLeiko, Neal S; Shapiro, Jason; Sands, Bruce E; Chen, Wenli; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Galanko, Joseph; Long, Millie D; Martin, Christopher F; Sandler, Robert S; Kappelman, Michael D
Background Traditional cohort studies are important contributors to our understanding of inflammatory bowel diseases, but they are labor intensive and often do not focus on patient-reported outcomes. Internet-based studies provide new opportunities to study patient-reported outcomes and can be efficiently implemented and scaled. If a traditional cohort study was linked to an Internet-based study, both studies could benefit from added synergy. Existing cohort studies provide an opportunity to develop and test processes for cohort linkage. The Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America’s (CCFA) Partners study is an Internet-based cohort of more than 14,000 participants. The Ocean State Crohn’s and Colitis Area Registry (OSCCAR) is an inception cohort. The Sinai-Helmsley Alliance for Research Excellence (SHARE) is a multicentered cohort of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Both the later cohorts include medical record abstraction, patient surveys, and biospecimen collection. Objective Given the complementary nature of these existing cohorts, we sought to corecruit and link data. Methods Eligible OSCCAR and SHARE participants were invited to join the CCFA Partners study and provide consent for data sharing between the 2 cohorts. After informed consent, participants were directed to the CCFA Partners website to complete enrollment and a baseline Web-based survey. Participants were linked across the 2 cohorts by the matching of an email address. We compared demographic and clinical characteristics between OSCCAR and SHARE participants who did and did not enroll in CCFA Partners and the data linkage. Results Of 408 participants in the OSCCAR cohort, 320 were eligible for participation in the CCFA Partners cohort. Of these participants, 243 consented to participation; however, only 44 enrolled in CCFA Partners and completed the linkage. OSCCAR participants who enrolled in CCFA Partners were better educated (17% with doctoral degrees) than those who did not (3% with
Cieslak, Roman; Benight, Charles C.; Rogala, Anna; Smoktunowicz, Ewelina; Kowalska, Martyna; Zukowska, Katarzyna; Yeager, Carolyn; Luszczynska, Aleksandra
Background: Although the evidence for the associations among self-efficacy, secondary traumatic stress (STS) and secondary posttraumatic growth (SPTG) is mounting, there is a lack of the experimental evidence for the influence of self-efficacy on positive and negative mental health outcomes among professionals indirectly exposed to trauma. Purpose: This study investigated the effects of an internet-based self-efficacy intervention (the experimental condition), compared to an education (the active control condition) on STS and SPTG among workers exposed to traumatic events indirectly, through their clients. We hypothesized that the group assignment (experimental vs. control) would affect STS and SPTG indirectly, with a mediating role of self-efficacy beliefs. Methods: Participants were 168 health and human services professionals (78% women), exposed indirectly to a traumatic event at work. They were randomly assigned to either a 4-session internet-based self-efficacy intervention (n = 87) or an education control group (n = 81) which received information about coping resources and consequences of stressors at work or at home. STS, SPTG, and self-efficacy were measured at the baseline (Time 1), 1-month follow-up (Time 2) and 2-month follow-up (Time 3). Results: Analysis of covariance showed that the group assignment had a significant effect on STS (Time 2) and self-efficacy (Time 2), with lower STS and higher self-efficacy reported by the self-efficacy intervention participants. Compared to the experimental group, the active control (education) group participants reported higher SPTG at Time 2. Mediation analyses indicated that the group assignment had indirect effects on STS and SPTG at Time 3. Workers who experienced increases in self-efficacy (Time 2) through the intervention were more likely to report lower STS and higher SPTG at Time 3. Conclusion: Elucidating the mediating processes that explain why an intervention for secondary trauma works is essential in
Bailit, Jennifer L.; Grobman, William; McGee, Paula; Reddy, Uma M.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; Thorp, John M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Iams, Jay D.; Tita, Alan T. N.; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J.; Blackwell, Sean C.
Objective To evaluate whether the presence of condition-specific obstetric protocols within a hospital was associated with better maternal and neonatal outcomes. Study Design Cohort study of a random sample of deliveries performed at 25 hospitals over three years. Condition-specific protocols were collected from all hospitals and categorized independently by two authors. Data on maternal and neonatal outcomes, as well as data necessary for risk adjustment were collected. Risk-adjusted outcomes were compared according to whether the patient delivered in a hospital with condition-specific obstetric protocols at the time of delivery. Results Hemorrhage-specific protocols were not associated with a lower rate of postpartum hemorrhage or with fewer cases of EBL >1000cc. Similarly, in the presence of a shoulder dystocia protocol, there were no differences in the frequency of shoulder dystocia or number of shoulder dystocia maneuvers used. Conversely, preeclampsia-specific protocols were associated with fewer ICU admissions (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18–0.44) and fewer cases of severe maternal hypertension (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77–0.96). Conclusion The presence of condition-specific obstetric protocols was not consistently shown to be associated with improved risk-adjusted outcomes. Our study would suggest that the presence or absence of a protocol does not matter and regulations to require protocols are not fruitful. PMID:25659468
Lanier, Ryan K.; Gibson, Kainen D.; Cohen, Amy E.; Varga, Maria
Anatabine is a Solanaceae plant family alkaloid marketed in the United States as a dietary supplement. It has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro, and may be useful for musculoskeletal aches and pains. The purpose of this internet-based survey study was to provide more information about anatabine users who report benefits for joint pain or stiffness. Of the 282 survey respondents, 232 (82%) reported a benefit from anatabine supplementation for one or more joint pain conditions, most commonly the knee, wrists/hands/fingers, shoulder, and back, most often due to osteoarthritis or injury to the joint. Mean scores of joint pain and stiffness were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced after starting anatabine supplementation, and for most respondents joint pain was virtually eliminated. Around 90% of all individuals rated the effect of anatabine supplementation as good or excellent for joint pain, stiffness, functionality, and overall effects. These results provide evidence that anatabine supplementation can lead to substantial improvement of musculoskeletal aches, pains, and stiffness, and can provide benefits in some individuals for various medical conditions in multiple joint locations. PMID:24250235
Background Internet-based interventions are seen as attractive for harmful users of alcohol and lead to desirable clinical outcomes. Some participants will however not achieve the desired results. In this study, harmful users of alcohol have been partitioned in subgroups with low, intermediate or high probability of positive treatment outcome, using recursive partitioning classification tree analysis. Methods Data were obtained from a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of two Internet-based alcohol interventions. The main outcome variable was treatment response, a dichotomous outcome measure for treatment success. Candidate predictors for the classification analysis were first selected using univariate regression. Next, a tree decision model to classify participants in categories with a low, medium and high probability of treatment response was constructed using recursive partitioning software. Results Based on literature review, 46 potentially relevant baseline predictors were identified. Five variables were selected using univariate regression as candidate predictors for the classification analysis. Two variables were found most relevant for classification and selected for the decision tree model: ‘living alone’, and ‘interpersonal sensitivity’. Using sensitivity analysis, the robustness of the decision tree model was supported. Conclusions Harmful alcohol users in a shared living situation, with high interpersonal sensitivity, have a significantly higher probability of positive treatment outcome. The resulting decision tree model may be used as part of a decision support system but is on its own insufficient as a screening algorithm with satisfactory clinical utility. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (Cochrane Collaboration): NTR-TC1155. PMID:23651767
Meenan, Richard T.; Stevens, Victor J.; Funk, Kristine; Bauck, Alan; Jerome, Gerald J.; Lien, Lillian F.; Appel, Lawrence; Hollis, Jack F.; Brantley, Phillip L.; Svetkey, Laura P.
Objectives The Weight Loss Maintenance Trial (WLM) was a multi-center, randomized trial comparing two weight loss maintenance interventions, a personal contact program (PC) with primarily telephone-based monthly contacts, and an Internet-based program (IT), to a self-directed control group, among overweight or obese individuals at high cardiovascular risk. This paper describes implementation costs of both interventions as well as IT development costs. Methods Resources were micro-costed in 2006 dollars from the primary perspective of a sponsoring healthcare system considering adopting an extant intervention, rather than developing its own. Costs were discounted at 3% annually. Length of trial participation was 30 months (randomization during February-November 2004). IT development costs were assessed over 36 months. Univariate and multivariate, including probabilistic, sensitivity analyses were performed. Results Total discounted IT development costs over 36 months were $839,949 ($2,414 per IT participant). Discounted 30-month implementation costs for 342 PC participants were $537,242 ($1,571 per participant), and for 348 IT participants, were $214,879 ($617 per participant). Under all plausible scenarios, PC implementation costs exceeded IT implementation costs. Conclusions Costs of implementing and operating an Internet-based intervention for weight loss maintenance were substantially less than analogous costs of an intervention using standard phone and in-person contacts, and are of a magnitude that would be attractive to many health systems, subject to demonstration of cost-effectiveness. PMID:19619360
Doub, Allison E; Small, Meg L; Levin, Aron; LeVangie, Kristie; Brick, Timothy R
Increasing home cooking while decreasing the consumption of food prepared away from home is a commonly recommended weight management strategy, however research on where individuals obtain ideas about meals to cook at home is limited. This study examined the characteristics of individuals who reported using traditional and Internet-based resources for meal ideas. 583 participants who were ≥50% responsible for household meal planning were recruited to approximate the 2014 United States Census distribution on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and household income. Participants reported demographic characteristics, home cooking frequency, and their use of 4 traditional resources for meal ideas (e.g., cookbooks), and 7 Internet-based resources for meal ideas (e.g., Pinterest) in an online survey. Independent samples t-tests compared home cooking frequency by resource use. Association rule learning identified those demographic characteristics that were significantly associated with resource use. Family and friends (71%), food community websites (45%), and cookbooks (41%) were the most common resources reported. Cookbook users reported preparing more meals at home per week (M = 9.65, SD = 5.28) compared to non-cookbook users (M = 8.11, SD = 4.93; t = -3.55, p < 0.001). Resource use was generally higher among parents and varied systematically with demographic characteristics. Findings suggest that home cooking interventions may benefit by modifying resources used by their target population.
Day, Victor; McGrath, Patrick J; Wojtowicz, Magdalena
Anxiety, depression and stress, often co-occurring, are the psychological problems for which university students most often seek help. Moreover there are many distressed students who cannot, or choose not to, access professional help. The present study evaluated the efficacy of an internet-based guided self-help program for moderate anxiety, depression and stress. The program was based on standard cognitive behavior therapy principles and included 5 core modules, some of which involved options for focusing on anxiety and/or depression and/or stress. Trained student coaches provided encouragement and advice about using the program via e-mail or brief weekly phone calls. Sixty-six distressed university students were randomly assigned to either Immediate Access or a 6-week Delayed Access condition. Sixty-one percent of Immediate Access participants completed all 5 core modules, and 80% of all participants completed the second assessment. On the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21, Immediate Access participants reported significantly greater reductions in depression (ηp(2)=. 07), anxiety (ηp(2)=. 08) and stress (ηp(2)=. 12) in comparison to participants waiting to do the program, and these improvements were maintained at a six month follow-up. The results suggest that the provision of individually-adaptable, internet-based, self-help programs can reduce psychological distress in university students.
Bailey, John; Wallace, Michael; Wright, Bradley
An Internet-based field experiment was conducted to examine potential hiring discrimination based on sexual orientation; specifically, the "first contact" between job applicants and employers was looked at. In response to Internet job postings on CareerBuilder.com®, more than 4,600 resumes were sent to employers in 4 U.S. cities: Philadelphia, Chicago, Dallas, and San Francisco. The resumes varied randomly with regard to gender, implied sexual orientation, and other characteristics. Two hypotheses were tested: first, that employers' response rates vary by the applicants' assumed sexuality; and second, that employers' Response Rates by Sexuality vary by city. Effects of city were controlled for to hold constant any variation in labor market conditions in the 4 cities. Based on employer responses to the applications, it was concluded that there is no evidence that gay men or lesbians are discriminated against in their first encounter with employers, and no significant variation across cities in these encounters was found. Implications of these results for the literature on hiring discrimination based on sexual orientation, the strengths and limitations of the research, and the potential for the Internet-based field experiment design in future studies of discrimination are discussed.
In the current information age, there is a growing use of and reliance on the Internet. One area of concern for educators is the communication of information using an electronic questionnaire interface. Therefore, it seems pertinent to look at the issue of dissemination of Internet questionnaire information and the integrity of this process.…
Sjöström, Malin; Umefjord, Göran; Stenlund, Hans; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Samuelsson, Eva
Objectives To evaluate the long-term effects of two non-face-to-face treatment programmes for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) based on pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). Subjects and Methods The present study was a randomized controlled trial with online recruitment of 250 community-dwelling women aged 18–70 years with SUI ≥ one time/week. Diagnosis was based on validated self-assessed questionnaires, 2-day bladder diary and telephone interview with a urotherapist. Consecutive computer-generated block randomization was carried out with allocation by an independent administrator to 3 months of treatment with either an internet-based treatment programme (n = 124) or a programme sent by post (n = 126). Both interventions focused mainly on PFMT. The internet group received continuous e-mail support from a urotherapist, whereas the postal group trained on their own. Follow-up was performed after 1 and 2 years via self-assessed postal questionnaires. The primary outcomes were symptom severity (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form [ICIQ-UI SF]) and condition-specific quality of life (ICIQ-Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Quality of Life [ICIQ-LUTSqol]). Secondary outcomes were the Patient Global Impression of Improvement, health-specific quality of life (EQ-visual analogue scale [EQ-VAS]), use of incontinence aids, and satisfaction with treatment. There was no face-to-face contact with the participants at any time. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat. Results We lost 32.4% (81/250) of participants to follow-up after 1 year and 38.0% (95/250) after 2 years. With both interventions, we observed highly significant (P < 0.001) improvements with large effect sizes (>0.8) for symptoms and condition-specific quality of life (QoL) after 1 and 2 years, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups. The mean (sd) changes in symptom score were 3.7 (3.3) for the internet group and 3.2 (3.4) for the postal group (P = 0
Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing i...
Social network analysis (SNA) is based on a conceptual network representation of social interactions and is an invaluable tool for conservation professionals to increase collaboration, improve information flow, and increase efficiency. We present two approaches to constructing in...
Arvind, R; Karthik, B; Sriraam, Natarajan
Continuous monitoring of EEG is essential for the neurologist to detect the epileptic seizures that occur at various intervals. Since large volume of data need to be analyzed, visual analysis has been proven to be time consuming and subsequently automated detection techniques have gained importance in the recent years. For the biomedical research community, the major challenge lies in providing a solution to neurologists in terms of diagnosis and EEG database management. This paper discusses the automated detection of epileptic seizure using frequency domain and entropy parameters which helps in the construction of epileptic database for handling EEG data. Experimental study indicates that the suggested mode of operation can be used for internet based framework which contains pure epileptic patterns in the server. This can be retrieved and analyzed for detection and annotation of epileptic spikes in extensive EEG recordings.
Weiner, Michael; Schadow, Gunther; Lindbergh, Donald; Warvel, Jill; Abernathy, Greg; Perkins, Susan M; Dexter, Paul R; McDonald, Clement J
We expect the use of real-time, interactive video conferencing to grow, due to more affordable technology and new health policies. Building and implementing portable systems to enable conferencing between physicians and patients requires durable equipment, committed staff, reliable service, and adequate protection and capture of data. We are studying the use of Internet-based conferencing between on-call physicians and patients residing in a nursing facility. We describe the challenges we experienced in constructing the study. Initiating and orchestrating unscheduled conferences needs to be easy, and requirements for training staff in using equipment should be minimal. Studies of health outcomes should include identification of medical conditions most amenable to benefit from conferencing, and outcomes should include positive as well as negative effects.
Internet-based applications and mobile health technology has advanced at unprecedented rates over the last decade and has proved to be a highly effective platform for communication. Simultaneously, the United States health care system has reached a critical and unsustainable level of spending, arising largely from ingrained system inefficiencies and overall suboptimum communication. Internet-based and mobile health technology offers an innovative solution to both of these problems. The prevention of readmissions for heart failure provides an excellent example of how this new technology can be used in today's health care environment to improve patient care.
Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao
Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults. PMID:27409634
Botella, Cristina; Mira, Adriana; Moragrega, Inés; García-Palacios, Azucena; Bretón-López, Juana; Castilla, Diana; Riera López del Amo, Antonio; Soler, Carla; Molinari, Guadalupe; Quero, Soledad; Guillén-Botella, Verónica; Miralles, Ignacio; Nebot, Sara; Serrano, Berenice; Majoe, Dennis; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa María
Purpose Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT) has been shown to be efficacious. Moreover, CCBT can be enhanced by using physiological and activity sensors, but there is no evidence about the acceptability of all these tools. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use of an Internet-based CCBT program for preventing depression, with and without sensors (electroencephalography, electrocardiograhpy ECG, and actigraphy), in a high-risk population (unemployed men). Patients and methods Sixty participants at risk of depression (unemployed men) were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions: 1) intervention program (N=22), 2) intervention program plus sensors (N=19), and 3) control group (N=19). Participants completed depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect, and perceived stress measures. Furthermore, they also completed the measures for expectation, satisfaction, and the ease of use of the program. Results Results showed that the two intervention groups improved significantly more than the control group on the clinical variables, and the improvements were greater in the group that used sensors than in the group that did not use them. Furthermore, participants in both intervention groups scored high on expectations and satisfaction with the CCBT program (with and without sensors). The mean score for usability was 88 out of 100 (standard deviation =12.32). No significant differences were found between groups on any of these variables. Conclusion This is the first study to analyze the efficacy, expectations, satisfaction, and ease of use of an Internet-based program using physiological and activity sensors. These results suggest that an Internet program for depression with or without physiological and activity sensors is effective, satisfactory, and easy to use. PMID:27042067
Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Gersons, Berthold P.R.; Olff, Miranda
Background Injured trauma victims are at risk of developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and other post-trauma psychopathology. So far, interventions using cognitive behavioral techniques (CBT) have proven most efficacious in treating early PTSD in highly symptomatic individuals. No early intervention for the prevention of PTSD for all victims has yet proven effective. In the acute psychosocial care for trauma victims, there is a clear need for easily applicable, accessible, cost-efficient early interventions. Objective To describe the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of a brief Internet-based early intervention that incorporates CBT techniques with the aim of reducing acute psychological distress and preventing long-term PTSD symptoms in injured trauma victims. Method In a two armed RCT, 300 injured trauma victims from two Level-1 trauma centers in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, will be assigned to an intervention or a control group. Inclusion criteria are: being 18 years of age or older, having experienced a traumatic event according to the diagnostic criteria of the DSM-IV and understanding the Dutch language. The intervention group will be given access to the intervention's website (www.traumatips.nl), and are specifically requested to login within the first month postinjury. The primary clinical study outcome is PTSD symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include symptoms of depression and anxiety, quality of life, and social support. In addition, a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention will be performed. Data are collected at one week post-injury, prior to first login (baseline), and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Analyses will be on an intention-to-treat basis. Discussion The results will provide more insight into the effects of preventive interventions in general, and Internet-based early interventions specifically, on acute stress reactions and PTSD, in an injured population, during the acute phase after
Background Educational courses for doctors and medical students are increasingly offered via the Internet. Despite much research, course developers remain unsure about what (if anything) to offer online and how. Prospective learners lack evidence-based guidance on how to choose between the options on offer. We aimed to produce theory driven criteria to guide the development and evaluation of Internet-based medical courses. Methods Realist review - a qualitative systematic review method whose goal is to identify and explain the interaction between context, mechanism and outcome. We searched 15 electronic databases and references of included articles, seeking to identify theoretical models of how the Internet might support learning from empirical studies which (a) used the Internet to support learning, (b) involved doctors or medical students; and (c) reported a formal evaluation. All study designs and outcomes were considered. Using immersion and interpretation, we tested theories by considering how well they explained the different outcomes achieved in different educational contexts. Results 249 papers met our inclusion criteria. We identified two main theories of the course-in-context that explained variation in learners' satisfaction and outcomes: Davis's Technology Acceptance Model and Laurillard's model of interactive dialogue. Learners were more likely to accept a course if it offered a perceived advantage over available non-Internet alternatives, was easy to use technically, and compatible with their values and norms. 'Interactivity' led to effective learning only if learners were able to enter into a dialogue - with a tutor, fellow students or virtual tutorials - and gain formative feedback. Conclusions Different modes of course delivery suit different learners in different contexts. When designing or choosing an Internet-based course, attention must be given to the fit between its technical attributes and learners' needs and priorities; and to ways of
Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Chun-Long; Qi, Jia-Yue; Huang, Li-Na; Shi, Dan; Du, Shan-Shan; Liu, Li-Yan; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao
Our previous studies have demonstrated that histidine supplementation significantly ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress in obese women and high-fat diet-induced obese rats. However, the effects of dietary histidine on general population are not known. The objective of this Internet-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between dietary histidine and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity in northern Chinese population. A total of 2376 participants were randomly recruited and asked to finish our Internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Afterwards, 88 overweight/obese participants were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Compared with healthy controls, dietary histidine was significantly lower in overweight (p < 0.05) and obese (p < 0.01) participants of both sexes. Dietary histidine was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure in overall population and stronger associations were observed in women and overweight/obese participants. Higher dietary histidine was associated with lower prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity, especially in women. Further studies indicated that higher dietary histidine was associated with lower fasting blood glucose (FBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), malonaldehyde (MDA) and vaspin and higher glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and adiponectin of overweight/obese individuals of both sexes. In conclusion, higher dietary histidine is inversely associated with energy intake, status of insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight/obese participants and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity in northern Chinese adults.
Garcia Laborda, Jesus
This paper focuses on the rationale and underlying processes of an Inter/intranet tool designed to evaluate oral tests and especially the university entrance examination according to the national minimal requirements. This exam is taken by up to 100,000 students simultaneously. This presentation gives information of the tool design and up-to-now…
Cahyono, Bambang Yudi; Mutiaraningrum, Ira
The use of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) especially the Internet has been a common practice in education. However, research studies show that the Internet has not been frequently used in the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL) writing, especially in the Indonesian context. This study aimed to find out whether or…
Kleiman, Tali; Gati, Itamar
In the twenty-first century, for a growing number of people around the world, the Internet is used not only for gathering information but also for self-help. The uses of the Internet are steadily growing, and it has become an inseparable part of everyday life for ordinary people (Barak, 1999; Barak & English, 2002; Gore & Leuwerke, 2000;…
Kartal, Erdogan; Arikan, Arda
The effects of information and communication technologies, which are rapidly improving and spreading in the current age, can be seen in the field of training and education as well as in all other fields. Unlike previous technologies, the Internet, which is the concrete compound of those technologies, provides users with the trio of audio, text and…
Lagace, Nettie; McClennen, Michael
The Internet Public Library (IPL), hosted by the University of Michigan School of Information is an operating virtual library that answers reference questions from all over the world. Discussion includes the construct of the IPL Reference Center, how the Reference Center handles questions, and characteristics of e-mail reference service. (AEF)
The Efficacy of Internet-Based Mindfulness Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Training With Telephone Support in the Enhancement of Mental Health Among College Students and Young Working Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial
Chio, Floria HN; Chan, Amy TY; Lui, Wacy WS; Wu, Ellery KY
Background College students and working adults are particularly vulnerable to stress and other mental health problems, and mental health promotion and prevention are needed to promote their mental health. In recent decades, mindfulness-based training has demonstrated to be efficacious in treating physical and psychological conditions. Objective The aim of our study was to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based mindfulness training program (iMIND) in comparison with the well-established Internet-based cognitive-behavioral training program (iCBT) in promoting mental health among college students and young working adults. Methods This study was a 2-arm, unblinded, randomized controlled trial comparing iMIND with iCBT. Participants were recruited online and offline via mass emails, advertisements in newspapers and magazines, announcement and leaflets in primary care clinics, and social networking sites. Eligible participants were randomized into either the iMIND (n=604) or the iCBT (n=651) condition. Participants received 8 Web-based sessions with information and exercises related to mindfulness or cognitive-behavioral principles. Telephone or email support was provided by trained first tier supporters who were supervised by the study’s research team. Primary outcomes included mental and physical health-related measures, which were self-assessed online at preprogram, postprogram, and 3-month follow-up. Results Among the 1255 study participants, 213 and 127 completed the post- and 3-month follow-up assessment, respectively. Missing data were treated using restricted maximum likelihood estimation. Both iMIND (n=604) and iCBT (n=651) were efficacious in improving mental health, psychological distress, life satisfaction, sleep disturbance, and energy level. Conclusions Both Internet-based mental health programs showed potential in improving the mental health from pre- to postassessment, and such improvement was sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The high attrition
Chan, Ko-Ling; Chow, Chun-Bong; Lam, Tai-Hing; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Wong, Margaret Fung-Yee
Background Underage drinking is a prevalent risk behavior and common public health problem. Research shows that alcohol abuse not only affects the quality of life of drinkers themselves. The problems resulting from underage drinking pose substantial costs to society as well. The proposed study will address underage drinking with the use of an Internet campaign, which is a cost-effective way of tackling the problem. Objective The aims of this study are to test the effectiveness of an online quiz competition in changing adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behavior and to explore the feasibility of using Internet viral marketing to reach a significant number of adolescents. Methods The study will constitute a cluster randomized controlled trial for 20 secondary schools (6720 Grade 7-9 students). Schools will be randomized to intervention or control arm with equal likelihood. Students in intervention schools will be invited to take part in the Internet campaign, whereas those in control schools will receive relevant promotional leaflets. Results Alcohol-related attitude and behavior will be the primary outcome measures. The results of the proposed study will provide evidence on the efficacy of an Internet intervention in modifying adolescents’ attitudes and behavior and guide further investigation into the prevention of and intervention in such risk behaviors as underage drinking. The project was funded July 2015, enrollment started September 2015, and results are expected July 2017. Conclusions With the Internet increasingly being recognized as a practical and cost-effective platform for health information delivery, the proposed Internet-based intervention is expected to be more effective in altering adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors than traditional health promotion. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02450344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02450344 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6heB2zMBD) PMID:27252072
Schonnesson, Lena Nilsson; Bowen, Anne M; Williams, Mark L
In Sweden, 57 % of HIV transmission occurs among MSM, and other sexually transmitted infections are increasing, supporting the need for innovative interventions. The Internet is a potentially useful HIV-prevention platform, but there is a lack of such programs in Sweden. The purpose of this exploratory study was to test the efficacy of the Internet-based SMART intervention to decrease HIV sexual risks in Swedish MSM. The intervention was adapted from the Wyoming Rural AIDS Prevention Project to the Swedish context, which was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral (IMB) skills model and consisted of six sessions. A total of 112 men responded to a pretest questionnaire and were randomly assigned to the SMART intervention or to a waitlist group. Fifty-four men dropped out, leaving a final sample of 58 participants. Twenty-five were assigned to the SMART intervention and 33 to a waitlist group. One month post intervention, the number of casual anal sex partners significantly decreased (t = 2.19, p = .04). Compared with the waitlist group, men in the intervention group increased their HIV knowledge (β = 0.70, p = .01), their belief of condom use as an act of responsibility (β = 1.19, p = .04), their willingness to use a condom with every new partner all the time (β = 1.39, p = .03), and their confidence in using condoms in challenging situations (β = 1.65, p = .02). Condom use was not analyzed due to the small sample size. Despite the small sample, high drop-out, and short follow-up, the study provides support for the efficacy of the Internet interventions, the SMART intervention specifically, for reducing the proportion of casual anal sex partners and improving the three cognitive components of the IMB model for Swedish MSM.
García, M C; Duong, Q L; Meyer, S B; Ward, P R
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are one of the largest HIV risk groups in Viet Nam and have been understudied. Sexual concurrency and multiple sex partnerships may contribute to high HIV incidence among MSM in Viet Nam. Limited information is available on concurrency and multiple sexual partnerships among MSM in Viet Nam or on the extent to which this population engages in concurrent and multiple unprotected anal intercourse. Data are from a self-administered Internet-based survey of Vietnamese MSM aged 18 years or older, having sex with male partner(s) in the last 12 months and recruited from social networking MSM-specific websites in Viet Nam. Multiple partnerships and concurrency were measured using the UNAIDS-recommended sexual partner matrix, a key component in the questionnaire. Concurrent and multiple sexual partnerships were analyzed at the individual level. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the demographic characteristics and behaviors associated with multiple sexual partnerships. A total of 1695 MSM reported on multiple sexual partnerships; 69.5% indicated multiple sexual partnerships in the last 6 months. A total of 257 MSM reported on concurrent sexual partnerships, with 51.0% reporting penetrative sex with concurrent partners in the last 6 months. Respondents were more likely to engage in multiple sexual partnerships if they were no longer a student, consumed alcohol before and/or during sex, used the Internet to meet casual sex partners and had never participated in a behavioral HIV intervention. Multiple sexual partnerships in the previous 6 months were common among MSM surveyed, as was sexual concurrency. High levels of multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships may be catalyzing the transmission of HIV among MSM in Viet Nam. Given the high prevalence of this high-risk sexual behavior, our findings underscore the urgent need for targeted prevention efforts, focusing on the reduction of multiple and concurrent sexual partners
Rubinelli, Sara; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Gelatti, Umberto
Background Direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GT) are easily purchased through the Internet, independent of a physician referral or approval for testing, allowing the retrieval of genetic information outside the clinical context. There is a broad debate about the testing validity, their impact on individuals, and what people know and perceive about them. Objective The aim of this review was to collect evidence on DTC-GT from a comprehensive perspective that unravels the complexity of the phenomenon. Methods A systematic search was carried out through PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Embase, in addition to Google Scholar according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist with the key term “Direct-to-consumer genetic test.” Results In the final sample, 118 articles were identified. Articles were summarized in five categories according to their focus on (1) knowledge of, attitude toward use of, and perception of DTC-GT (n=37), (2) the impact of genetic risk information on users (n=37), (3) the opinion of health professionals (n=20), (4) the content of websites selling DTC-GT (n=16), and (5) the scientific evidence and clinical utility of the tests (n=14). Most of the articles analyzed the attitude, knowledge, and perception of DTC-GT, highlighting an interest in using DTC-GT, along with the need for a health care professional to help interpret the results. The articles investigating the content analysis of the websites selling these tests are in agreement that the information provided by the companies about genetic testing is not completely comprehensive for the consumer. Given that risk information can modify consumers’ health behavior, there are surprisingly few studies carried out on actual consumers and they do not confirm the overall concerns on the possible impact of DTC-GT. Data from studies that investigate the quality of the tests offered confirm that they are not informative, have little predictive
Bruce, Linda; Gresh, Kathy; Vanchiswaran, Rohini; Werapitiya, Deepthi
This article discusses the part-time/Internet-based Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health was the first school of public health in the United States to offer a Master of Public Health program via the Internet. The JHSPH MPH Program…
Harris, Jeremy W.
Internet-based distance education (IDE) continues to grow in popularity and ubiquity. Acceptance of IDE among Christian higher education institutions has also increased. However, these institutions seek assistance. Such was the case with the nineteen institutions endorsed by the Assemblies of God (AG). The AG's oversight organization (The…
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students…
Jaciw, Andrew P.; Schellinger, Adam M.; Lin, Li; Zacamy, Jenna; Toby, Megan
In 2012, WestEd received a "Development" grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Investing in Innovation (i3) competition to develop and implement Internet-based Reading Apprenticeship Improving Science Education ("iRAISE"). "iRAISE" was implemented in Michigan and Pennsylvania and was provided to over 100…
Khosropour, Christine M; Sullivan, Patrick S
As the frequency of internet-based research has increased, it is important for researchers to consider how the conditions in which data are collected may influence the risks to participants. In particular, because internet-based data collection often occurs outside a clinical or research setting, there may be unintentional disclosures of a participant's involvement in a research study of which the researcher is unaware. The current analysis examined the responses of men who have sex with men participating in an internet-based HIV behavioural risk study when queried about the possible disclosure of their participation in the study. Fewer than 2% of participants indicated that their participation in the research study was disclosed, and all but one indicated no negative outcomes associated with the disclosure. As the field of online research continues to expand, it is important to consider risks that are unique to internet-based research, and to monitor these risks to ensure that the confidentiality of research subjects is maintained.
Chu, R. J-C.; Tsai, C-C.
This article examines several research questions to establish a theory model for explaining factors that influence adult learners' preferences for constructivist Internet-based learning environments (CILE). Data were gathered from 541 individual participants enrolled in adult education institutes in Taiwan for structural equation modelling (SEM)…
Miller, J. Patrick; Davis, Jeffrey W.; Holmes, Robert E., Jr.; Devore, Harlan; Raab, Herbert; Pennypacker, Carlton R.; White, Graeme L.; Gould, Alan
The International Asteroid Search Campaign (IASC, fondly nicknamed "Isaac") is an Internet-based program for high schools and colleges. Within hours of acquisition, astronomical CCD images are made available via the Internet to participating schools around the world. Under the guidance of their teachers, students analyze the images with free…
Bauer, Stephanie; Moessner, Markus; Wolf, Markus; Haug, Severin; Kordy, Hans
New communication technologies offer novel possibilities for the prevention of mental illness, in which geographical and psychosocial distances often hamper help-seeking. This paper introduces ES[S]PRIT, an Internet-based eating disorders (ED) prevention programme for university students. The programme follows a stepped-care approach combining…
Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study was conducted to explore the relationship between Internet self-efficacy and preferences toward constructivist Internet-based learning environments. The sample included 365 college students in Taiwan who all majored in early childhood care and pre-school education. Some of them were preservice pre-school teachers (n=185), and the rest…
Larsson, Ellinor; Larsson-Lund, Maria; Nilsson, Ingeborg
The digital gap is a threat to the participation of senior citizens in society, as a large proportion of seniors are not involved in Internet based activities (IBAs). To be able to overcome this disadvantage for seniors, there is a need to both learn more about the conditions that make seniors start performing IBAs and to be able to provide them…
Zhang, Kai; Locatis, Craig; Ackerman, Michael
Abstract Alternative videoconferencing technologies for providing telemedicine via the Internet are described. Background information about how digital video applications have been instantiated using Internet protocols is presented. Specific methods for encoding and decoding video are discussed and video applications that have been tested at the National Library of Medicine are reviewed. This article suggests that no one technology is best and that the appropriateness of a method depends on specific applications. Some technologies, however, have lower, more flexible bandwidth requirements and are more standardized, making them more practical. Still, emerging, yet-to-be-standardized applications offer new capabilities warranting further investigation. PMID:21563926
Glickman, Seth W; Galhenage, Sam; McNair, Lindsay; Barber, Zachry; Patel, Keyur; Schulman, Kevin A; McHutchison, John G
The rapid growth of internet usage has led to an explosion of social networking sites for discussion of health issues. This provides a forum for subjects to communicate with one another during the course of the studies. Previous studies have raised concerns about the quality of health information on social networking sites, although none have evaluated content related to ongoing clinical trials. We reviewed material posted in virtual communities by self-identified clinical trial participants. We identified material posted in online health forums that could introduce bias into clinical research studies; we believe that this issue warrants further study and discussion. Physicians and others who conduct clinical trials should be aware of this issue. Study investigators and research teams should also talk to their study subjects about where and how they are obtaining information in order to prevent behaviors and correct misinformation that could put a subject's safety or the study objectives at risk. Given the rapid increase in Internet use for health care, a broader evaluation of both the benefits and potential risks of social networking among research participants during the course of a clinical trial appears warranted.
Gustafson, David H.; Hawkins, Robert; McTavish, Fiona; Pingree, Suzanne; Chen, Wei Chih; Volrathongchai, Kanittha; Stengle, William; Stewart, James A.; Serlin, Ronald C.
To compare the benefits of the Internet generally versus a focused system of services, 257 breast cancer patients were randomly assigned to a control group, access to the Internet with links to high-quality breast cancer sites, or access to an eHealth system (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System, CHESS) that integrated information, support, and decision and analysis tools. The intervention lasted 5 months, and self-report data on quality of life, health-care competence, and social support were collected at pretest and at 2-, 4-, and 9-month posttests. CHESS subjects logged on more overall than Internet subjects and accessed more health resources, but the latter used non health-related sites more. Subjects with access to the Internet alone experienced no better outcomes than controls at any of the 3 time points, compared to pretest levels. Subjects with CHESS experienced greater social support during the intervention period and had higher scores on all 3 outcomes at 9 months, 4 months after the intervention ended. CHESS subjects also scored higher than those with Internet access during the intervention period but not significantly after the intervention ended. Thus, CHESS (with one simple interface and integrated information, communication, and skills services) helped newly diagnosed breast cancer patients even after computers were removed. In contrast, patients received little benefit from Internet access, despite having links to a variety of high-quality sites. PMID:21804645
Boyle, A. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, P.
whether or not use of internet-based activities could enhance understanding of 3-D spatial relationships. A key finding was that pre-tests of students' spatial-visualisation abilities indicated student in different subject areas (e.g. geology, geophysics, marine science) had different ranges of ability, although post-test results showed no improvement resulting from the '3-D training methods' used. Evaluation of outcomes indicates that "own time" internet-based activities were valued by students as working at their own pace in their own time improved their ownership of the activity as well as their confidence, awareness, and cognitive understanding when dealing with 3-D spatial relationships. After this project ended we included internet-based activities in first year skills modules. Although many of these web-based resources and activities were of direct relevance to Year 1 geoscience students, the resources and activities may have wider application and, by helping students develop understanding of 3-D spatial relationships, be beneficial in other STEM disciplines at this level.
Wald, D. J.; Quitoriano, V. R.; Hopper, M.; Mathias, S.; Dewey, J. W.
Over the past decade, the U.S. Geological Survey’s “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI) system has automatically collected shaking and damage reports from Internet users immediately following earthquakes. This 10-yr stint of citizen-based science preceded the recently in vogue notion of "crowdsourcing" by nearly a decade. DYFI is a rapid and vast source of macroseismic data, providing quantitative and qualitative information about shaking intensities for earthquakes in the US and around the globe. Statistics attest to the abundance and rapid availability of these Internet-based macroseismic data: Over 1.8 million entries have been logged over the decade, and there are 30 events each with over 10,000 responses (230 events have over 1,000 entries). The greatest number of responses to date for an earthquake is over 78,000 for the April 2010, M7.2 Baja California, Mexico, event. Questionnaire response rates have reached 62,000 per hour (1,000 per min!) obviously requiring substantial web resource allocation and capacity. Outside the US, DYFI has gathered over 189,000 entries in 9,500 cities covering 140 countries since its global inception in late 2004. The rapid intensity data are automatically used in the Global ShakeMap (GSM) system, providing intensity constraints near population centers and in places without instrumental coverage (most of the world), and allowing for bias correction to the empirical prediction equations employed. ShakeMap has also been recently refined to automatically use macroseismic input data in their native form, and treat their uncertainties rigorously in concert with ground-motion data. Recent DYFI system improvements include a graphical user interface that allows seismic analysts to perform common functions, including map triggering and resizing , as well as sorting, searching, geocoding, and flagging entries. New web-based geolocation and geocoding services are being incorporated into DYFI for improving the accuracy of the users’ locations
Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Kathyrn L
The Climate Schools: Ecstasy module is a universal harm-minimisation school-based prevention program for adolescents aged 14 to 16 years. The program was developed to address the need for Ecstasy prevention given the increasing use of Ecstasy use among young Australians. The core content of the program is delivered over the Internet using cartoon storylines to engage students, and the teacher-driven activities reinforce the core information. The three-lesson program is embedded within the school health curriculum and is easy to implement with minimal teacher training required. The program was developed in 2010 through extensive collaboration with students (n = 8), teachers (n = 10) and health professionals (n = 10) in Sydney, Australia. This article describes the formative research and process of planning that formed the development of the program and the evidence base underpinning the approach.
Skinner, Harvey A; Maley, Oonagh; Norman, Cameron D
Health education and health promotion have a tradition of using information and communication technology (ICT). In recent years, the rapid growth of the Internet has created innovative opportunities for Web-based health education and behavior change applications-termed eHealth promotion. However, many eHealth promotion applications are developed without an explicit model to guide the design, evaluation, and ongoing improvement of the program. The spiral technology action research (STAR) model was developed to address this need. The model comprises five cycles (listen, plan, do, study, act) that weave together technological development, community involvement, and continuous improvement. The model is illustrated by a case study describing the development of the Smoking Zine (www.SmokingZine.org), a youth smoking prevention and cessation Web site.
Slater, T. F.
Yohkoh Public Outreach Project (YPOP) is a collaborative industry, university, and K-16 project bringing fascinating and dynamic images of the Sun to the public in real-time. Partners have developed an extensive public access and educational WWW site containing more than 100 pages of vibrant images with current information that focuses on movies of the X-ray output of our Sun taken by the Yohkoh Satellite. More than 5 Gb of images and movies are available on the WWW site from the Yohkoh satellite, a joint project of the Institute for Space and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) and NASA. Using a movie theater motif, the site was created by teams working at Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA in the Solar and Astrophysics Research Group, the Montana State University Solar Physics Research Group, and the Montana State University Conceptual Astronomy and Physics Education Research Group with funding from the NASA Learning Technology Project (LTP) program (NASA LTP SK30G4410R). The Yohkoh Movie Theater Internet Site is found at URL: http://www.lmsal.com/YPOP/ and mirrored at URL: http://solar.physics.montana.edu/YPOP/. In addition to being able to request automated movies for any dates in a 5 Gb on-line database, the user can view automatically updated daily images and movies of our Sun over the last 72 hours. Master science teachers working with the NASA funded Yohkoh Public Outreach Project have developed nine technology-based on-line lessons for K-16 classrooms. These interdisciplinary science, mathematics, and technology lessons integrate Internet resources, real-time images of the Sun, and extensive NASA image databases. Instructors are able to freely access each of the classroom-ready activities. The activities require students to use scientific inquiry skills and manage electronic information to solve problems consistent with the emphasis of the NRC National Science Education Standards.
Huang, Sung-Cheng; Truong, David; Wu, Hsiao-Ming; Chatziioannou, Arion F.; Shao, Weber; Wu, Anna M.; Phelps, Michael E.
Many considerations, involving understanding and selection of multiple experimental parameters, are required to perform MicroPET studies properly. The large number of these parameters/variables and their complicated interdependence make their optimal choice nontrivial. We have a developed kinetic imaging system (KIS), an integrated software system, to assist the planning, design, and data analysis of MicroPET studies. The system serves multiple functions–education, virtual experimentation, experimental design, and image analysis of simulated/experimental data–and consists of four main functional modules–“Dictionary,” “Virtual Experimentation,” “Image Analysis,” and “Model Fitting.” The “Dictionary” module provides didactic information on tracer kinetics, pharmacokinetic, MicroPET imaging, and relevant biological/pharmacological information. The “Virtual Experimentation” module allows users to examine via computer simulations the effect of biochemical/pharmacokinetic parameters on tissue tracer kinetics. It generates dynamic MicroPET images based on the user's assignment of kinetics or kinetic parameters to different tissue organs in a 3-D digital mouse phantom. Experimental parameters can be adjusted to investigate the design options of a MicroPET experiment. The “Image Analysis” module is a full-fledged image display/manipulation program. The “Model Fitting” module provides model-fitting capability for measured/simulated tissue kinetics. The system can be run either through the Web or as a stand-alone process. With KIS, radiotracer characteristics, administration method, dose level, imaging sequence, and image resolution-to-noise tradeoff can be evaluated using virtual experimentation. KIS is designed for biology/pharmaceutical scientists to make learning and applying tracer kinetics fun and easy. PMID:16132473
Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans
Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate
Gajecki, Mikael; Johansson, Magnus; Blankers, Matthijs; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Stenlund-Gens, Erik; Berman, Anne H.
Background The Internet has increasingly been studied as mode of delivery for interventions targeting problematic alcohol use. Most interventions have been fully automated, but some research suggests that adding counselor guidance may improve alcohol consumption outcomes. Methods An eight-module Internet-based self-help program based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was tested among Internet help-seekers. Eighty participants with problematic alcohol use according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; scores of ≥ 6 for women and ≥ 8 for men) were recruited online from an open access website and randomized into three different groups. All groups were offered the same self-help program, but participants in two of the three groups received Internet-based counselor guidance in addition to the self-help program. One of the guidance groups was given a choice between guidance via asynchronous text messages or synchronous text-based chat, while the other guidance group received counselor guidance via asynchronous text messages only. Results In the choice group, 65% (13 of 20 participants) chose guidance via asynchronous text messages. At the 10-week post-treatment follow-up, an intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that participants in the two guidance groups (choice and messages) reported significantly lower past week alcohol consumption compared to the group without guidance; 10.8 (SD = 12.1) versus 22.6 (SD = 18.4); p = 0.001; Cohen’s d = 0.77. Participants in both guidance groups reported significantly lower scores on the AUDIT at follow-up compared to the group without guidance, with a mean score of 14.4 (SD = 5.2) versus 18.2 (SD = 5.9); p = 0.003; Cohen’s d = 0.68. A higher proportion of participants in the guidance groups said that they would recommend the program compared to the group without guidance (81% for choice; 93% for messages versus 47% for self-help). Conclusion Self-help programs for problematic alcohol use can be more
Cunha, C.; Gras-Velázquez, À.; Gerard, E.
The objectives of the Lisbon declaration (2000) and the affirmation of the European Commission that there is a need to promote more widely inquiry based science education methodologies in primary and secondary schools and to support teachers' networks (2007), were the basis for launch by European Schoolnet (EUN) of Scientix, a new web-based information platform for science education in Europe. It's aim is to ensure the regular dissemination and sharing of progress, know-how, and best practices in the field of science education and providing a feedback mechanism. Scientix is a three-year project run by EUN since December 2009 on behalf of the European Commission Directorate General Research and is funded under the 7th Framework Programme. The portal (http://www.scientix.eu), available in six European languages, offers a resource repository containing hundreds of teaching materials from European projects, but also research reports and policy-making documents; a translation on demand service for the teaching materials towards any of the 23 languages of the European Union; a community including a forum and chat rooms; an online news service featuring international science education topics and a calendar of forthcoming events and training opportunities; and also a newsletter sent once a month to registered users. The Scientix main targets are teachers, providing teaching materials, scientific support and documentation that are able to give them some quality tools for the development and implementation of inquiry based science education teaching methodologies. Besides the website, several events and workshops will be organized during the three years of the project. Workshops and newsletters to inform science teachers, give them tools to use the Scientix platform in class effectively and meet other science teachers in Europe will be organized from 2010 to 2012 and will take place in several European countries. An example of this was the Scientix European Conference that
Jordan, C. W., LLNL
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories` Zephyr System provides a showcase for the ways in which emerging technologies can help streamline procurement processes and improve the coordination between participants in engineering projects by allowing collaboration in ways that have not been possible before. The project also shows the success of a highly pragmatic approach that was initiated by the end user community, and that intentionally covered standard situations, rather than aiming at also automating the exceptions. By helping push purchasing responsibilities down to the end user, thereby greatly reducing the involvement of the purchasing department in operational activities, it was possible to streamline the process significantly resulting in time savings of up to 90%, major cost reductions, and improved quality. Left with less day-to- day purchasing operations, the purchasing department has more time for strategic tasks such as selecting and pre-qualifying new suppliers, negotiating blanket orders, or implementing new procurement systems. The case shows once more that the use of information technologies can result in major benefits when aligned with organizational adjustments.
the occupants acted on the feedback they received. Relying solely on an Internet-based questionnaire for collecting data would not appear to provide an adequate response rate for random population-based surveys at this point in time. PMID:21070681
Bruppacher, Rudolf; Ruppanner, Hans; Hersberger, Kurt E
Background There are multiple ways in which community pharmacies can present themselves on the Internet, e.g., as a platform for drug information or as an advertising platform for their services. Objective To estimate the number of Swiss community pharmacies on the Internet over the period of 32 months (2000-2003), to describe their current e-commerce services, and to explore the experiences and plans these pharmacies have with regard to their Internet presence. Methods A longitudinal study was performed to determine the number of Swiss German pharmacies on the Internet by conducting Internet searches in 2000, 2001, and 2003. In April 2002, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was administered to explore the pharmacies' experiences and plans regarding their Web sites. Results As of April 2003, 373 (44%) of 852 community pharmacies from the German speaking part of Switzerland were on the Internet. One hundred eighty four listed an e-mail address and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Of the 107 pharmacies answering the survey questions (58% response rate): 46% had been on the Internet for 1 to 2 years; 33% of the Web sites are part of a pharmacy group's Web portal; 31% of the pharmacies plan to expand their Internet appearance in the future; 74% provide e-commerce services, with 81% of those pharmacies filling five or less orders per month; and 12% plan on expanding their e-commerce services in the future. Conclusions The number of community pharmacies offering Internet services steadily increased over 32 months. Given the importance of the Internet as a tool for information, communication, and advertising for pharmacy products and services, it can be expected that the increase will continue. Pharmacy-group portals are important promoters of pharmacies on the Internet. For many community pharmacies, Internet portals that provide an Internet presence for the pharmacies and provide regularly-updated content (e.g., health news, tips, drug information) seem to
Primrose, Rachel J.; Zaveri, Toral; Bakke, Alyssa J.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Moskowitz, Howard R.; Hayes, John E.
Vaginal microbicides potentially empower women to protect themselves from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially when culture, religion, or social status may prevent them from negotiating condom use. The open literature contains minimal information on factors that drive user acceptability of women’s health products or vaginal drug delivery systems. By understanding what women find to be most important with regard to sensory properties and product functionality, developers can iteratively formulate a more desirable product. Conjoint analysis is a technique widely used in market research to determine what combination of elements influence a consumer’s willingness to try or use a product. We applied conjoint analysis here to better understand what sexually-active woman want in a microbicide, toward our goal of formulating a product that is highly acceptable to women. Both sensory and non-sensory attributes were tested, including shape, color, wait time, partner awareness, messiness/leakage, duration of protection, and functionality. Heterosexually active women between 18 and 35 years of age in the United States (n = 302) completed an anonymous online conjoint survey using IdeaMap software. Attributes (product elements) were systematically presented in various combinations; women rated these combinations of a 9-point willingness-to-try scale. By coupling systematic combinations and regression modeling, we can estimate the unique appeal of each element. In this population, a multifunctional product (i.e., broad spectrum STI protection, coupled with conception) is far more desirable than a microbicide targeted solely for HIV protection; we also found partner awareness and leakage are potentially strong barriers to use. PMID:26999009
Jones, Jacquelynn R; Colditz, Jason B; Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Lin, Liu Yi; Terry, Martha Ann; Primack, Brian A
Professional social networking websites are commonly used among young professionals. In light of emerging concerns regarding social networking use and emotional distress, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association between frequency of use of LinkedIn, the most commonly used professional social networking website, and depression and anxiety among young adults. In October 2014, we assessed a nationally representative sample of 1,780 U.S. young adults between the ages of 19-32 regarding frequency of LinkedIn use, depression and anxiety, and sociodemographic covariates. We measured depression and anxiety using validated Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System measures. We used bivariable and multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between LinkedIn use and depression and anxiety, while controlling for age, sex, race, relationship status, living situation, household income, education level, and overall social media use. In weighted analyses, 72% of participants did not report use of LinkedIn, 16% reported at least some use, but less than once each week, and 12% reported use at least once per week. In multivariable analyses controlling for all covariates, compared with those who did not use LinkedIn, participants using LinkedIn at least once per week had significantly greater odds of increased depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.31-3.38) and increased anxiety (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.72-4.53). LinkedIn use was significantly related to both outcomes in a dose-response manner. Future research should investigate directionality of this association and possible reasons for it.
Gul, M; Kaynar, M
Premature ejaculation is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions; however, only a few patients with premature ejaculation are seeking professional help or advice. Internet has become an important source of knowledge, and thus, more patients are looking online for health information. According to our best knowledge, no study has evaluated the content and quality of websites on premature ejaculation. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the content and quality of currently available Internet-based information on premature ejaculation. A sample was obtained comprising the 50 top sites retrieved from Google, Bing and Yahoo search engines using the terms 'premature ejaculation'. Each site then was reviewed based on some predefined evaluation criteria to determine the general quality, condition-specific content quality, popularity index and ownership. The websites reviewed were differed highly in terms of quality and ownership. Only a few sites provided comprehensive medical and complete information on premature ejaculation. The online information available is often of uncertain calibre; therefore, men are being exposed to information about premature ejaculation with a highly variable degree quality. This fact should be considered both by health professionals and website owners, and better online resources should be provided for these patients.
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Labhart, Florian
Rapid advances in mobile data-transfer technologies offer new possibilities in the use of cell phones to conduct assessments of a person's natural environment in real time. This paper describes features of a new Internet-based, cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), which consists of a retrospective baseline assessment combined with text messages sent to the participants' personal cell phones providing a hyperlink to an Internet-stored cell phone-optimized questionnaire. Two participation conditions were used to test variations in response burden. Retention rates, completion rates, and response times in different subgroups were tested by means of χ² tests, Cox regression, and logistic regression. Among the 237 initial participants, we observed a retention rate of 90.3% from the baseline assessment to the cell-phone part, and 80.4% repeated participation in the 30 daily assessments. Each day, 40-70% of the questionnaires were returned, a fourth in less than 3 minutes. Qualitative interviews underscored the ease of use of ICAT. This technique appears to be an innovative, convenient, and cost-effective way of collecting data on situational characteristics while minimizing recall bias. Because of its flexibility, ICAT can be applied in various disciplines, whether as part of small pilot studies or large-scale, crosscultural, and multisite research projects.
Downing, Martin J; Antebi, Nadav; Schrimshaw, Eric W
Despite evidence that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM) may contribute to greater numbers of sexual partners, sexual risk taking, greater interest in group sex, and lower self-esteem among men who have sex with men (MSM), research has not addressed compulsive use of Internet-based SEM due to the lack of a validated measure for this population. This report investigates the psychometric properties of the 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS; Meerkerk, van den Eijnden, Vermulst, & Garretsen, 2009) adapted to assess the severity of compulsive Internet SEM use. A total of 265 Internet SEM-viewing MSM participated in an online survey about their SEM preferences, viewing habits, and recent sexual behaviors. A principal components analysis revealed a single-component, 13-item scale to adequately assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of this phenomenon, with a high internal consistency (α=.92). Greater compulsive use of Internet SEM was positively correlated with several relevant variables including boredom, sexual frustration, time spent viewing Internet SEM, and number of recent male sexual partners. The results offer preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of using an adapted version of the CIUS to understand compulsive Internet SEM use, and allow for more research into the potential negative consequences of compulsive SEM use.
Bignell, Whitney E; Sullivan, Elizabeth; Andrianos, Anne; Anderson, Alex Kojo
This study examined the determinants of support strategies and services provided by community-based breastfeeding counselors (CBBCs) and compared differences in extent of support provided by paid and volunteer counselors. Participants (N = 847) in this internet-based survey were mostly White/Caucasian (74.9%), college-educated (59.0%), and paid CBBCs (63.8%). The majority (75.9%) of volunteer CBBCs compared with their paid full-time (52.1%) and paid part-time (47.4%) counterparts had completed college. Being a full-time paid compared with volunteer/unpaid CBBC was associated with face-to-face counseling (OR = 3.69; 95% CI: 1.93, 7.06), use of client-centered counseling skills (OR = 6.23; 95% CI: 3.40, 11.45), making referrals to social service agencies (OR = 13.18; 95% CI: 6.86, 25.32), and helping position baby (OR = 3.77; 95% CI: 1.64, 8.69). Because of the disparities in CBBC usage of breastfeeding support strategies and continuing education between paid and volunteer CBBCs, there is a need to examine differences in training curricula and determine the facilitators and barriers of continuing education.
Frewen, Paul; Hargraves, Heather; DePierro, Jonathan; D'Andrea, Wendy; Flodrowski, Les
Meditation Breath Attention Scores (MBAS) represent a self-report, state measure of focused attention (FA) during the practice of meditation. The MBAS assessment procedure involves sounding a bell at periodic intervals during meditation practice, at which times participants indicate if they were attending toward breathing (scored 1) or if instead they had become distracted (e.g., by mind wandering; scored 0); scores are then tallied to yield participants' MBAS for that meditation. The current study developed and evaluated a fully automated and Internet-based version of MBAS in 1,101 volunteers. Results suggested that: (a) MBAS are internally consistent across bell rings; (b) MBAS total scores exhibit a non-normal distribution identifying subgroups of participants with particularly poor or robust FA during meditation; (c) MBAS decrease linearly with the duration of meditation practices, indicating that participants tend to experience less FA later as opposed to earlier in the meditation; (d) in the case of eyes-open meditation, MBAS are higher when the amount of time between bells is shorter; (e) MBAS correlate with various self-reported subjective experiences occurring during meditation; and (f) MBAS are weakly associated with higher trait mindful "acting with awareness," lesser ADHD-related symptoms of inattentiveness, and estimated minutes of meditation practiced in the past month. In sum, results provide further support for the construct validity of MBAS and serve to further characterize the dynamics of individual differences in FA during meditation. (PsycINFO Database Record
Al-Surimi, Khaled; Khalifa, Mohammed; Bahkali, Salwa; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Househ, Mowafa
Health threats due to infectious diseases used to be a major public health concerns around the globe till mid of twentieth century when effective public health interventions helped in eradicating a number of infectious diseases around the world. Over the past 15 years, there has been a rise in the number of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases being reported such as the Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002, HINI in 2009, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012, Ebola in 2014, and Zika in 2016. These emerging viral infectious diseases have led to serious public health concerns leading to death and causing fear and anxiety among the public. More importantly, at the moment, the prevention and control of viral infectious diseases is difficult due to a lack of effective vaccines. Thus having real-time reporting tools are paramount to alert relevant public health surveillance systems and authorities about taking the right and necessary actions to control and minimize the potential harmful effects of viral infectious diseases. Social media and Internet-based data can play a major role in real-time reporting to empower active public health surveillance systems for controlling and fighting infectious diseases.
White, Ian R; Kalaitzaki, Eleftheria; Thompson, Simon G
Missing outcome data and incomplete uptake of randomised interventions are common problems, which complicate the analysis and interpretation of randomised controlled trials, and are rarely addressed well in practice. To promote the implementation of recent methodological developments, we describe sequences of randomisation-based analyses that can be used to explore both issues. We illustrate these in an Internet-based trial evaluating the use of a new interactive website for those seeking help to reduce their alcohol consumption, in which the primary outcome was available for less than half of the participants and uptake of the intervention was limited. For missing outcome data, we first employ data on intermediate outcomes and intervention use to make a missing at random assumption more plausible, with analyses based on general estimating equations, mixed models and multiple imputation. We then use data on the ease of obtaining outcome data and sensitivity analyses to explore departures from the missing at random assumption. For incomplete uptake of randomised interventions, we estimate structural mean models by using instrumental variable methods. In the alcohol trial, there is no evidence of benefit unless rather extreme assumptions are made about the missing data nor an important benefit in more extensive users of the intervention. These findings considerably aid the interpretation of the trial's results. More generally, the analyses proposed are applicable to many trials with missing outcome data or incomplete intervention uptake. To facilitate use by others, Stata code is provided for all methods.
Hobday, John V.; Savik, Kay; Gaugler, Joseph E.
The goal of this project was to develop a portable, Internet-based multimedia education program (IBME) to provide a more efficient training resource for direct care workers (DCWs) who care for nursing home residents suffering from late-stage dementia. Thirty-four DCWs from eight nursing homes in eight states completed five post-test open-ended questions and 20 Likert items on the feasibility, strengths, and weaknesses of the IBME prototype. Pre- and post-test surveys also examined whether late-stage dementia care knowledge changed significantly. Over 90% of DCWs “agreed” or “strongly agreed” that the IBME prototype improved DCWs’ feelings of competency and everyday care delivery. Open-ended comments offered several suggestions for improvement, including group-based discussion of the modules. Results also found that DCWs’ late-stage dementia care knowledge significantly increased (p < .001) following completion of the IBME modules. The IBME prototype offers an online, ansychronous training strategy to enhance dementia-pertinent knowledge and skills related to everyday care delivery in nursing homes. PMID:20691503
Mullens, Wilfried; Oliveira, Leonardo P J; Verga, Tanya; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Tang, Wai Hong Wilson
Changes in intrathoracic impedance (Z) leading to crossing of a derived fluid index (FI) threshold has been associated with heart failure (HF) hospitalization. The authors developed a remote monitoring program as part of HF disease management and prospectively examined the feasibility and resource utilization of monitoring individuals with an implanted device capable of measuring Z. An HF nurse analyzed all transmitted data daily, as they were routinely uploaded as part of quarterly remote device monitoring, and called the patient if the FI crossed the threshold (arbitrarily defined at 60 Omega) to identify clinically relevant events (CREs) that occurred during this period (eg, worsening dyspnea or increase in edema or weight). A total of 400 uploads were completed during the 4-month study period. During this period, 34 patients (18%) had an FI threshold crossing, averaging 0.52 FI threshold crossings per patient-year. Thirty-two of 34 patients contacted by telephone (94%) with FI threshold crossing had evidence of CREs during this period. However, only 6 (18%) had HF hospitalizations, 19 (56%) had reported changes in HF therapy, and 13 (38%) reported drug and/or dietary plan nonadherence. The average data analysis time required was 30 min daily when focusing on those with FI threshold crossing, averaging 8 uploads for review per working day and 5 telephone follow-ups per week. Our pilot observations suggested that Internet-based remote monitoring of Z trends from existing device interrogation uploads is feasible as part of a daily routine of HF disease management.
Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya
The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963
Saadati, Farzaneh; Ahmad Tarmizi, Rohani
Because students’ ability to use statistics, which is mathematical in nature, is one of the concerns of educators, embedding within an e-learning system the pedagogical characteristics of learning is ‘value added’ because it facilitates the conventional method of learning mathematics. Many researchers emphasize the effectiveness of cognitive apprenticeship in learning and problem solving in the workplace. In a cognitive apprenticeship learning model, skills are learned within a community of practitioners through observation of modelling and then practice plus coaching. This study utilized an internet-based Cognitive Apprenticeship Model (i-CAM) in three phases and evaluated its effectiveness for improving statistics problem-solving performance among postgraduate students. The results showed that, when compared to the conventional mathematics learning model, the i-CAM could significantly promote students’ problem-solving performance at the end of each phase. In addition, the combination of the differences in students' test scores were considered to be statistically significant after controlling for the pre-test scores. The findings conveyed in this paper confirmed the considerable value of i-CAM in the improvement of statistics learning for non-specialized postgraduate students. PMID:26132553
Morano, Tania J.; Bailey, Nicole J.; Cahill, Catherine M.; Dumont, Éric C.
The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) is a basal forebrain structure considered to be part of a cortico-striato-pallidal system that coordinates autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioural physiological responses. Recent evidence suggests that the BST plays a role in the emotional aspect of pain. The objective of the present study was to further understand the neurophysiological bases underlying the involvement of the BST in the pain experience, in both acute and chronic pain conditions. Using c-Fos as an indicator of neuronal activation, the results demonstrated that a single toe-pinch in rats produced nuclei-and condition-specific neuronal responses within the anterior region of the BST (antBST). Specifically, acute noxious stimulation increased c-Fos in the dorsal medial (dAM) and fusiform (FU) nuclei. Chronic neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve decreased the number of c-Fos positive cells following acute mechanical stimulation in the dAM and FU nuclei, and increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the ventral medial (vAM) aspect of the BST. In addition, the results revealed a nuclei-specific sensitivity to the surgical procedure. Following noxious stimulation to animals that received a sham surgery, c-Fos immunoreactivity was blunted in the FU nucleus while it increased in the oval (OV) nucleus of the BST. Altogether, this study demonstrates that pain induces nuclei-and condition-specific neuronal activation in the BST revealing an intriguing supraspinal neurobiological substrate that may contribute to the physiology of acute nociception and the pathophysiology of chronic pain. PMID:18164529
Horswill, M S; Coster, M E
The Internet has been exploited successfully in the past as a medium for behavioral research. This paper presents a series of studies designed to assess Internet-based measures of drivers' risk-taking behavior. First, we compared responses from an Internet sample with a traditional pencil-and-paper sample using established questionnaire measures of risk taking. No significant differences were found. Second, we assessed the validity of new Internet-based instruments, involving photographs and photographic animations, that measured speed, gap acceptance, and passing. Responses were found to reflect known demographic patterns of actual behavior to some degree. Also, a roadside survey of speeds was carried out at the locations depicted in the photographic measure of speeding and, with certain exceptions, differences between the two appeared to be constant. Third, a between-subject experimental manipulation involving the photographic animation measure of gap acceptance was used to demonstrate one application of these techniques.
Gernsbacher, Morton Ann
Google the question, "How is the Internet changing the way we communicate?," and you will find no shortage of opinions, or fears, about the Internet altering the way we communicate. Although the Internet is not necessarily making communication briefer (neither is the Internet making communication less formal), the Internet is manifesting…
Sturm, Renea M; Breyer, Benjamin N; Li, Chin-Shang; Subak, Leslee L; Brown, Jeannete S; Shindel, Alan W
Women who have sex with women (WSW) are a medically underserved population. Data on urologic health in WSW are scant. We hypothesized that the prevalence of urinary symptoms in WSW is similar to population norms and that urinary symptoms in WSW would be associated with known risk factors for urologic problems. WSW were recruited to participate in an internet-based survey via invitations, listserves, and social media. Primary outcome measures were the validated Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) and a single question assessing stress urinary incontinence (SUI). OAB status was dichotomized by OAB-q score (0-8=none/mild; >8=moderate/severe). SUI was dichotomized by single item response (none/little bit of the time=none/mild; sometimes through always=moderate/severe). Ethnodemographic, health, sexuality, and relationship data was also collected. Multivariable logistic regression utilizing 17 factors was performed with SAS V9.2, followed by multivariable analysis with stepwise selection based on the initial analysis (included factors, p<0.25). The final study population consisted of 1,566 adult WSW with mean age 34.6±10.4 years. Moderate/severe OAB was present in 354 (23%) women; 275 (18%) reported moderate /severe SUI. Concomitant OAB and SUI were present in 183 (12%). In multivariable analysis with stepwise selection, OAB symptoms were significantly associated with diabetes, history of urinary tract infection, gynecologic surgery, routine health care, and consultation with a provider regarding urinary symptoms. SUI symptoms were associated with sexual bother. This is the first survey report of prevalence and associations of OAB and SUI in a population of WSW. SUI and OAB were prevalent in WSW. Further attention to urological health in WSW is warranted.
Sturm, Renea M.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Li, Chin-Shang; Subak, Leslee L.; Brown, Jeannete S.
Abstract Women who have sex with women (WSW) are a medically underserved population. Data on urologic health in WSW are scant. We hypothesized that the prevalence of urinary symptoms in WSW is similar to population norms and that urinary symptoms in WSW would be associated with known risk factors for urologic problems. WSW were recruited to participate in an internet-based survey via invitations, listserves, and social media. Primary outcome measures were the validated Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) and a single question assessing stress urinary incontinence (SUI). OAB status was dichotomized by OAB-q score (0–8=none/mild; >8=moderate/severe). SUI was dichotomized by single item response (none/little bit of the time=none/mild; sometimes through always=moderate/severe). Ethnodemographic, health, sexuality, and relationship data was also collected. Multivariable logistic regression utilizing 17 factors was performed with SAS V9.2, followed by multivariable analysis with stepwise selection based on the initial analysis (included factors, p<0.25). The final study population consisted of 1,566 adult WSW with mean age 34.6±10.4 years. Moderate/severe OAB was present in 354 (23%) women; 275 (18%) reported moderate /severe SUI. Concomitant OAB and SUI were present in 183 (12%). In multivariable analysis with stepwise selection, OAB symptoms were significantly associated with diabetes, history of urinary tract infection, gynecologic surgery, routine health care, and consultation with a provider regarding urinary symptoms. SUI symptoms were associated with sexual bother. This is the first survey report of prevalence and associations of OAB and SUI in a population of WSW. SUI and OAB were prevalent in WSW. Further attention to urological health in WSW is warranted. PMID:25314336
Williams, Alishia D.; O’Moore, Kathleen; Blackwell, Simon E.; Smith, Jessica; Holmes, Emily A.; Andrews, Gavin
Background Accruing evidence suggests that positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification (CBM) could have potential as a standalone targeted intervention for depressive symptoms or as an adjunct to existing treatments. We sought to establish the benefit of this form of CBM when delivered prior to Internet cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) for depression Methods A randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a 1-week Internet-delivered positive CBM vs. an active control condition for participants (N=75, 69% female, mean age=42) meeting diagnostic criteria for major depression; followed by a 10-week iCBT program for both groups. Results Modified intent-to-treat marginal and mixed effect models demonstrated no significant difference between conditions following the CBM intervention or the iCBT program. In both conditions there were significant reductions (Cohen׳s d .57–1.58, 95% CI=.12–2.07) in primary measures of depression and interpretation bias (PHQ9, BDI-II, AST-D). Large effect size reductions (Cohen׳s d .81–1.32, 95% CI=.31–1.79) were observed for secondary measures of distress, disability, anxiety and repetitive negative thinking (K10, WHODAS, STAI, RTQ). Per protocol analyses conducted in the sample of participants who completed all seven sessions of CBM indicated between-group superiority of the positive over control group on depression symptoms (PHQ9, BDI-II) and psychological distress (K10) following CBM (Hedges g .55–.88, 95% CI=−.03–1.46) and following iCBT (PHQ9, K10). The majority (>70%) no longer met diagnostic criteria for depression at 3-month follow-up. Limitations The control condition contained many active components and therefore may have represented a smaller ‘dose’ of the positive condition. Conclusions Results provide preliminary support for the successful integration of imagery-based CBM into an existing Internet-based treatment for depression. PMID:25805405
Simone, Charles B. Vapiwala, Neha; Hampshire, Margaret K.; Metz, James M.
Purpose: Pain is a common symptom among cancer patients, yet many patients do not receive adequate pain management. Few data exist quantifying analgesic use by radiation oncology patients. This study evaluated the causes of pain in cancer patients and investigated the reasons patients fail to receive optimal analgesic therapy. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved, Internet-based questionnaire assessing analgesic use and pain control was posted on the OncoLink (available at (www.oncolink.org)) Website. Between November 2005 and April 2006, 243 patients responded. They were predominantly women (73%), white (71%), and educated beyond high school (67%) and had breast (38%), lung (6%), or ovarian (6%) cancer. This analysis evaluated the 106 patients (44%) who underwent radiotherapy. Results: Of the 106 patients, 58% reported pain from their cancer treatment, and 46% reported pain directly from their cancer. The pain was chronic in 51% and intermittent in 33%. Most (80%) did not use medication to manage their pain. Analgesic use was significantly less in patients with greater education levels (11% vs. 36%, p = 0.002), with a trend toward lower use by whites (16% vs. 32%, p 0.082) and women (17% vs. 29%, p = 0.178). The reasons for not taking analgesics included healthcare provider not recommending medication (87%), fear of addiction or dependence (79%), and inability to pay (79%). Participants experiencing pain, but not taking analgesics, pursued alternative therapies for relief. Conclusions: Many radiation oncology patients experience pain from their disease and cancer treatment. Most study participants did not use analgesics because of concerns of addiction, cost, or failure of the radiation oncologist to recommend medication. Healthcare providers should have open discussions with their patients regarding pain symptoms and treatment.
Wise, Lauren A; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Wesselink, Amelia K.; McKinnon, Craig; Gruschow, Siobhan M.; Horgan, Casie E.; Wiley, Aleta S.; Hahn, Kristen A.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Hatch, Elizabeth E.
Background We launched the Boston University Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO) to assess the feasibility of carrying out an internet-based preconception cohort study in the U.S. and Canada. Methods We recruited female participants age 21–45 and their male partners through internet advertisements, word of mouth, and flyers. Female participants were randomized with 50% probability to receive a subscription to FertilityFriend.com (FF), a web-based program that collects real-time data on menstrual characteristics. We compared recruitment methods within PRESTO, assessed the cost-efficiency of PRESTO relative to its Danish counterpart (Snart-Gravid), and validated retrospectively-reported date of last menstrual period (LMP) against FF data. Results After 99 weeks of recruitment (2013–2015), 2,421 women enrolled; 1,384 (57%) invited their male partners to participate, of whom 693 (50%) enrolled. Baseline characteristics were balanced across randomization groups. Cohort retention was similar among those randomized vs. not randomized to FF (84% vs. 81%). At study enrollment, 56%, 22%, and 22% couples had been trying to conceive for <3, 3–5, and ≥6 months, respectively. The cost per subject enrolled was $146 (2013 $US), which was similar to our companion Danish study and half that of a traditional cohort study. Among FF users who conceived, >97% reported their LMP on the PRESTO questionnaire within 1 day of the LMP recorded via FF. Conclusions Use of the internet as a method of recruitment and follow-up in a North American preconception cohort study was feasible and cost-effective. PMID:26111445
Ye, Yuan-yuan; Chen, Ni-ka; Chen, Jia; Liu, Juan; Lin, Ling; Liu, Ya-zhen; Lang, Ying; Li, Xun-jun; Yang, Xin-ju; Jiang, Xiao-jiang
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of internet-based cognitive–behavioural therapy for insomnia (ICBT-i) in adults. Design A meta-analysis of ICBT-i. Data sources Systematic searches of randomised controlled trials of ICBT-i were performed in the PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library databases up to 19 June 2016. Review method 2 reviewers independently performed study selection, quality assessment and data extraction. Outcomes of interest included sleep onset latency (SOL), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of nocturnal awakenings (NWAK), and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). RevMan 5.2 and Stata 13.0 meta-analysis software were used to perform statistical analysis. Results 14 records for 15 studies (1013 experimental group participants, 591 waiting list group participants) were included. The meta-analysis indicated that, at the post-test time point, SOL decreased by 18.41 min (95% CI 13.60 to 23.21), TST increased by 22.30 min (95% CI 16.38 to 28.23), SE increased by 9.58% (95% CI 7.30% to 11.85%), WASO decreased by 22.31 min (95% CI 13.50 to 31.11), NWAK decreased by 0.52 (95% CI 0.28 to 0.76), and ISI decreased by 5.88 points (95% CI 4.29 to 7.46). Additionally SOL, TST, SE, and WASO exhibited statistically significant improvements at follow-up versus before treatment. Conclusions ICBT-i is an effective treatment for adults with insomnia. This conclusion should be verified in further studies. PMID:27903557
Hashimoto, Sayuri; Munakata, Tsunestugu; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Okunaka, Jyunzo; Koga, Tatsuzo
Our research showed that a high degree of life-stress has a negative mental health effect that may interrupt regular exercise. We used an internet based, remotely conducted, face to face, preventive counseling program using video monitors to reduce the source of life-stresses that interrupts regular exercise and evaluated the preventative effects of the program in elderly people. NTSC Video signals were converted to the IP protocol and facial images were transmitted to a PC display using the exclusive optical network lines of JGN2. Participants were 22 elderly people in Hokkaido, Japan, who regularly played table tennis. A survey was conducted before the intervention in August 2003. IT remote counseling was conducted on two occasions for one hour on each occasion. A post intervention survey was conducted in February 2004 and a follow-up survey was conducted in March 2005. Network quality was satisfactory with little data loss and high display quality. Results indicated that self-esteem increased significantly, trait anxiety decreased significantly, cognition of emotional support by people other than family members had a tendency to increase, and source of stress had a tendency to decrease after the intervention. Follow-up results indicated that cognition of emotional support by family increased significantly, and interpersonal dependency decreased significantly compared to before the intervention. These results suggest that face to face IT remote counseling using video monitors is useful to keep elderly people from feeling anxious and to make them confident to continue exercising regularly. Moreover, it has a stress management effect.
ROSE, SUSAN; DHANDAYUDHAM, ARUN
Background: Compulsive and addictive forms of consumption and buying behaviour have been researched in both business and medical literature. Shopping enabled via the Internet now introduces new features to the shopping experience that translate to positive benefits for the shopper. Evidence now suggests that this new shopping experience may lead to problematic online shopping behaviour. This paper provides a theoretical review of the literature relevant to online shopping addiction (OSA). Based on this selective review, a conceptual model of OSA is presented. Method: The selective review of the literature draws on searches within databases relevant to both clinical and consumer behaviour literature including EBSCO, ABI Pro-Quest, Web of Science – Social Citations Index, Medline, PsycINFO and Pubmed. The article reviews current thinking on problematic, and specifically addictive, behaviour in relation to online shopping. Results: The review of the literature enables the extension of existing knowledge into the Internet-context. A conceptual model of OSA is developed with theoretical support provided for the inclusion of 7 predictor variables: low self-esteem, low self-regulation; negative emotional state; enjoyment; female gender; social anonymity and cognitive overload. The construct of OSA is defined and six component criteria of OSA are proposed based on established technological addiction criteria. Conclusions: Current Internet-based shopping experiences may trigger problematic behaviours which can be classified on a spectrum which at the extreme end incorporates OSA. The development of a conceptual model provides a basis for the future measurement and testing of proposed predictor variables and the outcome variable OSA. PMID:25215218
Htun, Tha Pyai; Wong, Suei Nee; Tam, Wai San Wilson; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee
Background Self-monitoring using the Internet offers new opportunities to engage perinatal diabetic women in self-management to reduce maternal and neonatal complications. Objective This review aims to synthesize the best available evidence to evaluate the efficacy of Internet-based self-monitoring interventions in improving maternal and neonatal outcomes among perinatal diabetic women. Methods The review was conducted using Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsyINFO, Scopus, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses to search for English-language research studies without any year limitation. A risk of bias table was used to assess methodological quality. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan software. Cochran Q and I2 tests were used to assess heterogeneity. The overall effect was assessed using z tests at P<.05. Of the 438 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, nine experimental studies from 10 publications were selected. Results Half of the selected studies showed low risk of bias and comprised 852 perinatal diabetic women in six countries. The meta-analysis revealed that Internet-based self-monitoring interventions significantly decreased the level of maternal glycated hemoglobin A1c (z=2.23, P=.03) compared to usual care among perinatal diabetic women at postintervention. Moreover, Internet-based self-monitoring interventions significantly decreased the cesarean delivery rate (z=2.23, P=.03) compared to usual care among the mixed group at postintervention. Conclusions This review shows neonatal or other maternal outcomes are similar between Internet-based self-monitoring interventions and usual diabetes care among perinatal diabetic women. The long-term effects of the intervention must be confirmed in future studies using randomized controlled trials and follow-up data. PMID:27526637
Background Depression is common and treatable with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), for example. However, access to this therapy is limited. Internet-based interventions have been found to be effective in reducing symptoms of depression. The International Society for Research on Internet Interventions has highlighted the importance of translating effective Internet programs into multiple languages to enable worldwide dissemination. Objective The aim of the current study was to determine if it would be cost effective to translate an existing English-language Internet-based intervention for use in a non-English-speaking country. Methods This paper reports an evaluation of a trial in which a research group in Norway translated two English-language Internet-based interventions into Norwegian (MoodGYM and BluePages) that had previously been shown to reduce symptoms of depression. The translation process and estimates of the cost-effectiveness of such a translation process is described. Estimated health effect was found by using quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Results Conservative estimates indicate that for every 1000 persons treated, 16 QALYs are gained. The investment is returned 9 times and the cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) is 3432. The costs of the translation project totaled to approximately 27% of the estimated original English-language version development costs. Conclusions The economic analysis shows that the cost-effectiveness of the translation project was substantial. Hopefully, these results will encourage others to do similar analyses and report cost-effectiveness data in their research reports. PMID:23343481
Cetinceviz, Yucel; Bayindir, Ramazan
The network requirements of control systems in industrial applications increase day by day. The Internet based control system and various fieldbus systems have been designed in order to meet these requirements. This paper describes an Internet based control system with wireless fieldbus communication designed for distributed processes. The system was implemented as an experimental setup in a laboratory. In industrial facilities, the process control layer and the distance connection of the distributed control devices in the lowest levels of the industrial production environment are provided with fieldbus networks. In this paper, the Internet based control system that will be able to meet the system requirements with a new-generation communication structure, which is called wired/wireless hybrid system, has been designed on field level and carried out to cover all sectors of distributed automation, from process control, to distributed input/output (I/O). The system has been accomplished by hardware structure with a programmable logic controller (PLC), a communication processor (CP) module, two industrial wireless modules and a distributed I/O module, Motor Protection Package (MPP) and software structure with WinCC flexible program used for the screen of Scada (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition), SIMATIC MANAGER package program ("STEP7") used for the hardware and network configuration and also for downloading control program to PLC.
Ruutel, K; Lohmus, L; Janes, J
The aim of the current project was to develop an Internet-based recruitment system for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia in order to collect biological samples during behavioural studies. In 2013, an Internet-based HIV risk-behaviour survey was conducted among MSM living in Estonia. After completing the questionnaire, all participants were offered anonymous and free-of-charge STI testing. They could either order a urine sample kit by post to screen for chlamydia infections (including lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)), trichomoniasis, gonorrhoea and Mycoplasma genitalium infections, or visit a laboratory for HIV, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus,hepatitis C virus and syphilis screening. Of 301 participants who completed the questionnaire, 265 (88%),reported that they were MSM. Of these 265 MSM,68 (26%) underwent various types of testing. In the multiple regression analysis, Russian as the first language,previous HIV testing and living in a city or town increased the odds of testing during the study. Linking Internet-based behavioural data collection with biological sample collection is a promising approach. As there are no specific STI services for MSM in Estonia,this system could also be used as an additional option for anonymous and free-of-charge STI screening.
Reynolds, James N; McGrath, Patrick; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Huguet, Anna; Hewitt, Amy; Green, Courtney; Wozney, Lori; Mushquash, Christopher; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Sourander, Andre; Caughey, Heather; Roane, Jessica
Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term used to encompass the full range of neurobehavioral and cognitive dysfunction that may occur as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure. There is relatively little research on intervention strategies that specifically target the behavioral problems of children with FASD. Availability and access to services are barriers to timely and effective care for families. The Strongest Families FASD intervention was recently adapted from the Strongest Families “Parenting the Active Child” program to include FASD-specific content delivered via an Internet-based application in conjunction with 11 telephone coaching sessions. Objective Our objectives are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of Strongest Families FASD in reducing externalizing problems (primary outcome), internalizing problems, and parent distress (secondary outcomes) in children aged between 4 and 12 years diagnosed with FASD when compared to a control group with access to a static resource Web page; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of Strongest Families FASD in improving social competence (secondary outcome) in school-aged children aged between 6 and 12 diagnosed with FASD when compared with an online psychoeducation control; and (3) explore parental satisfaction with the Strongest Families FASD online parenting program. Methods Parents and caregivers (N=200) of children diagnosed with FASD who have significant behavioral challenges, ages 4-12, are being recruited into a 2-arm randomized trial. The trial is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Web-based Strongest Families FASD parenting intervention on child behavior and caregiver distress, compared to a control group receiving access to a static resource Web page (ie, a list of FASD-specific websites, readings, videos, and organizations). Results The primary outcome will be externalizing problems measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Secondary outcomes include (1) internalizing
Hanson, William R.
Describes high school students' use of the Internet based on experiences at a Canadian high school, including its use to obtain information for classroom assignments. Topics discussed include Internet Relay Chat; gender bias; collaboration; hackers and ethics agreements; control on the Internet; students teaching teachers; listservs and discussion…
Grismore, Brian A.
The purpose of this database comparison is to express the importance of teaching information literacy skills and to apply those skills to commonly used Internet-based research tools. This paper includes a comparison and evaluation of three databases (ProQuest, ERIC, and Google Scholar). It includes strengths and weaknesses of each database based…
Vehreschild, Viktor; Alkoudmani, Ramez M
Background Despite the advanced development of evidence-based psychological treatment services, help-seeking persons with mental health problems often fail to receive appropriate professional help. Internet-delivered psychotherapy has thus been suggested as an efficient strategy to overcome barriers to access mental health care on a large scale. However, previous research indicated poor public acceptability as an issue for the dissemination of Internet-delivered therapies. Currently, little is known about the expectations and attitudes toward Internet-delivered therapies in the general population. This is especially the case for countries such as Germany where electronic mental health (e-mental health) treatment services are planned to be implemented in routine care. Objective This pilot study aimed to determine the expectations and attitudes toward Internet-based psychotherapy in the general population in Germany. Furthermore, it aimed to explore the associations between attitudes toward Internet-based therapies and perceived stress. Methods To assess public attitudes toward Internet-based psychotherapy, we conducted both Web-based and paper-and-pencil surveys using a self-developed 14-item questionnaire (Cronbach alpha=.89). Psychological distress was measured by employing a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the 20-item German version of the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). In addition, we conducted explorative factor analysis (principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation). Spearman’s rank correlations were used to determine the associations between attitudes toward Internet-based therapies and perceived stress. Results Descriptive analyses revealed that most respondents (N=1558; female: 78.95%, 1230/1558) indicated being not aware of the existence of Internet-delivered therapies (83.46%, 1141/1367). The average age was 32 years (standard deviation, SD 10.9; range 16-76). Through exploratory factor analysis, we identified 3 dimensions of public
Background The aims of this study were to (1) investigate to what extent the generic and condition specific (CS) forms of the oral impact of daily performance (OIDP) inventory discriminate between a group of patients with hypodontia and a group of patients having malocclusion, (2) assess the association of the generic and CS OIDP with severity and localisation of hypodontia, whilst adjusting for patients’ age and sex. Methods A total of 163 patients aged 10–17 years were included in a cross-sectional study. Two groups were investigated: 62 patients with non-syndromic hypodontia and 101 non-hypodontia patients. Both groups had a malocclusion of similar treatment need. All patients underwent a clinical and radiographic examination and completed a Norwegian version of the generic and the CS OIDP inventory. CS scores were established for impacts attributed to hypodontia. Results The mean number of missing teeth in the hypodontia group was 6.2. The prevalence of generic and CS oral impacts in the hypodontia group were 64% and 30%, and the corresponding rates in the non-hypodontia group were 62% and 10%. The generic OIDP did not discriminate between the two groups with respect to overall scores. The CS OIDP discriminated strongly between patients with and without hypodontia regarding problems with emotional status, showing teeth, social contact, speaking and carrying out work. Compared to the non-hypodontia group, patients with hypodontia, with severe hypodontia (≥ 6 missing teeth) and upper anterior hypodontia were respectively 3.4, 2.5 and 7.0 times more likely to report any oral impact attributed to small teeth, gaps between teeth and missing teeth. Conclusions Hypodontia and malocclusion patients report a considerable burden of oral impacts. The CS-OIDP measure discriminated most effectively between patients with and without hypodontia and was related to severity and upper anterior localisation of hypodontia. PMID:24884584
Myers, Candice A.; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Allen, H. Raymond; Brouillette, Robert M.; Foil, Heather; Davis, Allison B.; Greenway, Frank L.; Johnson, William D.; Martin, Corby K.
Dementia is a chronic condition in the elderly and depression is often a concurrent symptom. As populations continue to age, accessible and useful tools to screen for cognitive function and its associated symptoms in elderly populations are needed. The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of a new internet-based assessment battery for screening mood and cognitive function in an elderly population. Specifically, the Helping Hand Technology (HHT) assessments for depression (HHT-D) and global cognitive function (HHT-G) were evaluated in a sample of 57 elderly participants (22 male, 35 female) aged 59–85 years. The study sample was categorized into three groups: 1) dementia (n = 8; Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score 10–24), 2) mild cognitive impairment (n = 24; MMSE score 25–28), and 3) control (n = 25; MMSE score 29–30). Test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation coefficient, r) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha, α) of the HHT-D and HHT-G were assessed. Validity of the HHT-D and HHT-G was tested via comparison (Pearson r) to commonly used pencil-and-paper based assessments: HHT-D versus the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and HHT-G versus the MMSE. Good test-retest (r = 0.80; p < 0.0001) and acceptable internal consistency reliability (α = 0.73) of the HHT-D were established. Moderate support for the validity of the HHT-D was obtained (r = 0.60 between the HHT-D and GDS; p < 0.0001). Results indicated good test-retest (r = 0.87; p < 0.0001) and acceptable internal consistency reliability (α = 0.70) of the HHT-G. Validity of the HHT-G was supported (r = 0.71 between the HHT-G and MMSE; p < 0.0001). In summary, the HHT-D and HHT-G were found to be reliable and valid computerized assessments to screen for depression and cognitive status, respectively, in an elderly sample. PMID:27589529
Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Bock, Beth C; Larsen, Britta A; Linke, Sarah; Pekmezi, Dori; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Marcus, Bess H
Spanish-speaking Latinas have some of the lowest rates of meeting physical activity guidelines in the U.S. and are at high risk for many related chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the maintenance of a culturally and individually-tailored Internet-based physical activity intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas. Inactive Latinas (N = 205) were randomly assigned to a 6-month Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or a Wellness Contact Control Internet Group, with a 6-month follow-up. Maintenance was measured by assessing group differences in minutes per week of self-reported and accelerometer measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at 12 months after baseline and changes in MVPA between the end of the active intervention (month 6) and the end of the study (month 12). Potential moderators of the intervention were also examined. Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, and were analyzed in 2015 at the University of California, San Diego. The Intervention Group engaged in significantly more minutes of MVPA per week than the Control Group at the end of the maintenance period for both self-reported (mean diff. = 30.68, SE = 11.27, p = .007) and accelerometer measured (mean diff. = 11.47, SE = 3.19, p = .01) MVPA. There were no significant between- or within-group changes in MVPA from month 6 to 12. Greater intervention effects were seen for those with lower BMI (BMI × intervention = -6.67, SE = 2.88, p = .02) and lower perceived places to walk to in their neighborhood (access × intervention = -43.25, SE = 19.07, p = .02), with a trend for less family support (social support × intervention = -3.49, SE = 2.05, p = .08). Acculturation, health literacy, and physical activity related psychosocial variables were not significant moderators of the intervention effect during the maintenance period. Findings from the current study support the efficacy of an Internet
van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Cuijpers, Pim; van Straten, Annemieke; Karyotaki, Eirini; Andersson, Gerhard; Smit, Jan H.; Riper, Heleen
Background Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) is an effective and acceptable treatment for depression, especially when it includes guidance, but its treatment adherence has not yet been systematically studied. We conducted a meta-analysis, comparing the adherence to guided iCBT with the adherence to individual face-to-face CBT. Methods Studies were selected from a database of trials that investigate treatment for adult depression (see www.evidencebasedpsychotherapies.org), updated to January 2013. We identified 24 studies describing 26 treatment conditions (14 face-to-face CBT, 12 guided iCBT), by means of these inclusion criteria: targeting depressed adults, no comorbid somatic disorder or substance abuse, community recruitment, published in the year 2000 or later. The main outcome measure was the percentage of completed sessions. We also coded the percentage of treatment completers (separately coding for 100% or at least 80% of treatment completed). Results We did not find studies that compared guided iCBT and face-to-face CBT in a single trial that met our inclusion criteria. Face-to-face CBT treatments ranged from 12 to 28 sessions, guided iCBT interventions consisted of 5 to 9 sessions. Participants in face-to-face CBT completed on average 83.9% of their treatment, which did not differ significantly from participants in guided iCBT (80.8%, P = .59). The percentage of completers (total intervention) was significantly higher in face-to-face CBT (84.7%) than in guided iCBT (65.1%, P < .001), as was the percentage of completers of 80% or more of the intervention (face-to-face CBT: 85.2%, guided iCBT: 67.5%, P = .003). Non-completers of face-to-face CBT completed on average 24.5% of their treatment, while non-completers of guided iCBT completed on average 42.1% of their treatment. Conclusion We did not find studies that compared guided iCBT and face-to-face CBT in a single trial. Adherence to guided iCBT appears to be adequate and could
Enander, Jesper; Ivanov, Volen Z; Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian
Objectives Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). However, most sufferers do not have access to this treatment. One way to increase access to CBT is to administer treatment remotely via the Internet. This study piloted a novel therapist-supported, Internet-based CBT program for BDD (BDD-NET). Design Uncontrolled clinical trial. Participants Patients (N=23) were recruited through self-referral and assessed face to face at a clinic specialising in obsessive–compulsive and related disorders. Suitable patients were offered secure access to BDD-NET. Intervention BDD-NET is a 12-week treatment program based on current psychological models of BDD that includes psychoeducation, functional analysis, cognitive restructuring, exposure and response prevention, and relapse prevention modules. A dedicated therapist provides active guidance and feedback throughout the entire process. Main outcome measure The clinician-administered Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for BDD (BDD-YBOCS). Symptom severity was assessed pretreatment, post-treatment and at the 3-month follow-up. Results BDD-NET was deemed highly acceptable by patients and led to significant improvements on the BDD-YBOCS (p=<0.001) with a large within-group effect size (Cohen's d=2.01, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.97). At post-treatment, 82% of the patients were classified as responders (defined as≥30% improvement on the BDD-YBOCS). These gains were maintained at the 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcome measures of depression, global functioning and quality of life also showed significant improvements with moderate to large effect sizes. On average, therapists spent 10 min per patient per week providing support. Conclusions The results suggest that BDD-NET has the potential to greatly increase access to CBT, at least for low-risk individuals with moderately severe BDD symptoms and reasonably good insight. A randomised controlled trial of BDD-NET is warranted
Kellogg, Wendy A.; Mathur, Anjali
Studies suggest that urban residents in low-income and minority communities are subject to an unequal amount of environmental pollution and inequitable enforcement practices. Projects such as Sustainable Cleveland show that key components of implementing policies are access to Internet-based information and participation community-based…
Pan, Shi; Han, Xiao-Xu; Zhang, Jing; Chu, Zhen-Xing; Hai, Yan-Qiu; Mao, Xiang; Yu, Yan-Qiu; Geng, Wen-Qing; Jiang, Yong-Jun
HIV prevalence is still rapidly increasing among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). The Internet also makes it easier for MSM to have casual partners. This study aims to evaluate the trend of Internet-based sex-seeking behavior of MSM and its impact on HIV prevalence, the distribution of HIV subtype strains, and transmitted drug resistance rates. A serial cross-sectional study was conducted from 2009 to 2014. Of the 1,981 MSM, 50.5% (1,000/1,981) mainly sought homosexual partners through the Internet (Internet-based MSM, IBM). The proportion of IBM among total MSM subjects increased from 43.3% to 61.5% (p < 0.001). HIV prevalence of IBM increased from 5.7% to 20.7%, while that of non-Internet-based MSM (NIBM) increased from 7.0% to 14.7%. A relative higher proportion of NIBM were infected with HIV CRF01_AE subtype than IBM (79.5% versus 72.2%, p = 0.52). Multivariable analysis found IBM had a significantly higher HIV prevalence than NIBM (13.2% versus 10.5%, aOR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.0–1.9]). Being a migrant non-Shenyang resident MSM (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI [1.3–2.9]) and occasionally/never using condoms with casual homosexual partners (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI [1.1–2.6]) were two distinct risk factors for HIV infection in IBM. More efforts should be targeted towards developing interventions aimed at IBM, particularly migrant MSM and who engage in UAI with casual homosexual partners. PMID:28105415
Hummel, Susanna B; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Oldenburg, Hester S A; Hahn, Daniela E E; Kieffer, Jacobien M; Gerritsma, Miranda A; Kuenen, Marianne A; Bijker, Nina; Borgstein, Paul J; Heuff, Gijsbert; Lopes Cardozo, Alexander M F; Plaisier, Peter W; Rijna, Herman; van der Meij, Suzan; van Dulken, Eric J; Vrouenraets, Bart C; Broomans, Eva; Aaronson, Neil K
Purpose We evaluated the effect of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on sexual functioning and relationship intimacy (primary outcomes) and body image, menopausal symptoms, marital functioning, psychological distress, and health-related quality of life (secondary outcomes) in breast cancer survivors (BCSs) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of a sexual dysfunction. Patients and Methods We randomly assigned 169 BCSs to either Internet-based CBT or a waiting-list control group. The CBT consisted of weekly therapist-guided sessions, with a maximum duration of 24 weeks. Self-report questionnaires were completed by the intervention group at baseline (T0), midtherapy (T1), and post-therapy (T2) and at equivalent times by the control group. We used a mixed-effect modeling approach to compare the groups over time. Results Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed a significant improvement over time in overall sexual functioning (effect size for T2 [EST2] = .43; P = .031), which was reflected in an increase in sexual desire (EST1 = .48 and EST2 = .72; P < .001), sexual arousal (EST2 = .50; P = .008), and vaginal lubrication (EST2 = .46; P = .013). The intervention group reported more improvement over time in sexual pleasure (EST1 = .32 and EST2 = .62; P = .001), less discomfort during sex (EST1 = .49 and EST2 = .66; P = .001), and less sexual distress (EST2 = .59; P = .002) compared with the control group. The intervention group reported greater improvement in body image (EST2 = .45; P = .009) and fewer menopausal symptoms (EST1 = .39; P = .007) than the control group. No significant effects were observed for orgasmic function, sexual satisfaction, intercourse frequency, relationship intimacy, marital functioning, psychological distress, or health-related quality of life. Conclusion Internet-based CBT has salutary effects on sexual functioning, body image, and menopausal symptoms in BCSs with a sexual dysfunction.
Surikova, Jelena; Liu, Sam; Ross, Heather; Mechetiuc, Teodora; Nolan, Robert P
Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality. In order to maintain heart function and quality of life, patients with CHF need to follow recommended self-care guidelines (ie, eating a heart healthy diet, exercising regularly, taking medications as prescribed, monitoring their symptoms, and living a smoke-free life). Yet, adherence to self-care is poor. We have developed an Internet-based e-Counseling platform, Canadian e-Platform to Promote Behavioral Self-Management in Chronic Heart Failure (CHF-CePPORT), that aims to improve self-care adherence and quality of life in people with CHF. Before assessing the efficacy of this e-platform in a multisite, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the usability of the prototype website. Objective The objective of the study was to assess the usability of the CHF-CePPORT e-Counseling platform in terms of navigation, content, and layout. Methods CHF patients were purposively sampled from the Heart Function Clinic at the Peter Munk Cardiac Center, University Health Network, to participate in this study. We asked the consented participants to perform specific tasks on the website. These tasks included watching self-help videos and reviewing content as directed. Their interactions with the website were captured using the “think aloud” protocol. After completing the tasks, research personnel conducted a semi-structured interview with each participant to assess their experience with the website. Content analysis of the transcripts from the “think aloud” sessions and the interviews was conducted to identify themes related to navigation, content, and layout of the website. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the satisfaction data. Results A total of 7 men and women (ages 39-77) participated in 2 iterative rounds of testing. Overall, all participants were very satisfied with the content and layout of the website. They reported that the content was helpful to
Nandigam, V.; Crosby, C. J.; Baru, C.; Arrowsmith, R.
LIDAR is an excellent example of the new generation of powerful remote sensing data now available to Earth science researchers. Capable of producing digital elevation models (DEMs) more than an order of magnitude higher resolution than those currently available, LIDAR data allows earth scientists to study the processes that contribute to landscape evolution at resolutions not previously possible, yet essential for their appropriate representation. Along with these high-resolution datasets comes an increase in the volume and complexity of data that the user must efficiently manage and process in order for it to be scientifically useful. Although there are expensive commercial LIDAR software applications available, processing and analysis of these datasets are typically computationally inefficient on the conventional hardware and software that is currently available to most of the Earth science community. We have designed and implemented an Internet-based system, the OpenTopography Portal, that provides integrated access to high-resolution LIDAR data as well as web-based tools for processing of these datasets. By using remote data storage and high performance compute resources, the OpenTopography Portal attempts to simplify data access and standard LIDAR processing tasks for the Earth Science community. The OpenTopography Portal allows users to access massive amounts of raw point cloud LIDAR data as well as a suite of DEM generation tools to enable users to generate custom digital elevation models to best fit their science applications. The Cyberinfrastructure software tools for processing the data are freely available via the portal and conveniently integrated with the data selection in a single user-friendly interface. The ability to run these tools on powerful Cyberinfrastructure resources instead of their own labs provides a huge advantage in terms of performance and compute power. The system also encourages users to explore data processing methods and the
Background Perfectionism is elevated across, and increases risk for, a range of psychological disorders as well as having a direct negative effect on day-to-day function. A growing body of evidence shows that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduces perfectionism and psychological disorders, with medium to large effect sizes. Given the increased desire for Web-based interventions to facilitate access to evidence-based therapy, Internet-based CBT self-help interventions for perfectionism have been designed. Existing Web-based interventions have not included personalized guidance which has been shown to improve outcome rates. Objective To assess the efficacy of an Internet-based guided self-help CBT intervention for perfectionism at reducing symptoms of perfectionism and psychological disorders posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. Methods A randomized controlled trial method is employed, comparing the treatment arm (Internet-based guided self-help CBT) with a waiting list control group. Outcomes are examined at 3 time points, T1 (baseline), T2 (postintervention at 12 weeks), T3 (follow-up at 24 weeks). Participants will be recruited through universities, online platforms, and social media and if eligible will be randomized using an automatic randomizer. Results Data will be analyzed to estimate the between group (intervention, control) effect on perfectionism, depression, and anxiety. Completer and intent-to-treat analyses will be conducted. Additional analysis will be conducted to investigate whether the number of modules completed is associated with change. Data collection should be finalized by December 2016, with submission of results for publication expected in mid-year 2017. Results will be reported in line with recommendations in the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials Statement for Randomized Controlled Trials of Electronic and Mobile Health Applications and Online TeleHealth (CONSORT-EHEALTH). Conclusions Findings will contribute to the
Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Lagadec, Marthylle; Benyamina, Amine; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Reynaud, Michel
Background Internet-based interventions targeted at the most at-risk gamblers could reduce the treatment gap for addictive disorders. Currently, no clinical trial has included non–treatment-seeking patients who have been recruited directly in their gambling environment. This study was the first exclusively Internet-based randomized controlled trial among non–help-seeking problem gamblers with naturalistic recruitment in their gambling environment. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of three modalities of Internet-based psychotherapies with or without guidance, compared to a control condition, among problem gamblers who play online poker. Methods All active poker gamblers on the Winamax website were systematically offered screening. All problem poker gamblers identified with a Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) score of ≥5 were eligible to be included in the trial. Problem gamblers were randomized into four groups: (1) waiting list (control group), (2) personalized normalized feedback on their gambling status by email, (3) an email containing a self-help book to be downloaded with a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) program without guidance, and (4) the same CBT program emailed weekly by a trained psychologist with personalized guidance. Efficacy was assessed based on the change in PGSI between baseline and 6 weeks (end of treatment) or 12 weeks (maintenance) and supported by player account-based gambling data automatically collected at the three time points. Results All groups met high attrition rates (83%), but the group with guidance had a significantly higher dropout rate than the other three groups, including the control group. Although all groups showed some improvement, with a mean decrease of 1.35 on the PGSI, no significant difference in efficacy between the groups was observed. One-third of the problem gamblers fell below the problem gambling threshold at 6 weeks. Conclusions Guidance could have aversively affected
Wilhelm, Kay; Robins, Lisa; Proudfoot, Judy
Background Diabetes mellitus is Australia’s fastest growing chronic disease, and has high comorbidity with depression. Both subthreshold depression and diabetes distress are common amongst people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and are associated with poorer diabetes self-care. A need exists for low-intensity self-help interventions for large numbers of people with diabetes and diabetes distress or subthreshold depression, as part of a stepped-care approach to meeting the psychological needs of people with diabetes. Benefit-finding writing is a very brief intervention that involves writing about any positive thoughts and feelings about a stressful experience, such as an illness. Benefit-finding writing has been associated with increases in positive affect and positive growth, and has demonstrated promising results in trials amongst other clinical populations. However, benefit-finding writing has not yet been examined in people with diabetes. Objective The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet-based benefit-finding writing (iBFW) intervention for adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (compared to a control writing condition) for reducing diabetes distress and increasing benefit-finding in diabetes, and also improving a range of secondary outcomes. Methods A two-arm RCT will be conducted, using the online program Writing for Health. Adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes living in Australia will be recruited using diabetes-related publications and websites, and through advertisements in diabetes services and general practitioners’ offices. Potential participants will be referred to the study-specific website for participant information and screening. All data will be collected online. Participants will be randomized to either iBFW about diabetes, or a control writing condition of writing about use-of-time. Both conditions involve three daily sessions (once per day for three consecutive days) of 15-minute online
Hearn, Paul; Strong, David; Swain, Eric; Decker, Jeremy
South Florida's Greater Everglades area is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise, due to its rich endowment of animal and plant species and its heavily populated urban areas along the coast. Rising sea levels are expected to have substantial impacts on inland flooding, the depth and extent of surge from coastal storms, the degradation of water supplies by saltwater intrusion, and the integrity of plant and animal habitats. Planners and managers responsible for mitigating these impacts require advanced tools to help them more effectively identify areas at risk. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Internet-based Modeling, Mapping, and Analysis for the Greater Everglades (IMMAGE) Web site has been developed to address these needs by providing more convenient access to projections from models that forecast the effects of sea level rise on surface water and groundwater, the extent of surge and resulting economic losses from coastal storms, and the distribution of habitats. IMMAGE not only provides an advanced geographic information system (GIS) interface to support decision making, but also includes topic-based modules that explain and illustrate key concepts for nontechnical users. The purpose of this report is to familiarize both technical and nontechnical users with the IMMAGE Web site and its various applications.
Anema, A; Freifeld, C C; Druyts, E; Montaner, J S G; Hogg, R S; Brownstein, J S
No studies to date have assessed the quantity of HIV/AIDS-related media on the Internet. We assessed the quantity of language-specific HIV/AIDS Internet-based news coverage, and the correlation between country-specific HIV/AIDS news coverage and HIV/AIDS prevalence. Internet-based HIV/AIDS news articles were queried from Google News Archives for 168 countries, for the year 2007, in the nine most commonly spoken languages worldwide. English, French and Spanish sources had the greatest number of HIV/AIDS-related articles, representing 134,000 (0.70%), 11,200 (0.65%) and 24,300 (0.49%) of all news articles, respectively. A strong association between country-specific HIV/AIDS news coverage and HIV/AIDS prevalence was found, Spearman's rank correlation: 0.6 (P < 0.001). Among countries with elevated HIV/AIDS prevalence (> or =10%), the volume of HIV/AIDS-specific media was highest in Swaziland (15.9%) and Malawi (13.2%), and lowest in South Africa (4.8%) and Namibia (4.9%). Increased media attention should be placed on countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence and limited HIV/AIDS-specific news coverage.
Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Veehof, Martine M; Schreurs, Karlein M G
Acceptance-based psychological interventions can potentially minimize the burden of chronic pain. This randomized controlled trial evaluated an internet-delivered, guided self-help intervention based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). A total of 238 chronic pain sufferers from the general population were randomly allocated to either ACT (n = 82), an internet-based control condition Expressive Writing (n = 79) or a waiting list condition (n = 77). Participants completed measures at baseline, posttreatment (3 months) and at a 3-month follow-up. At follow-up, ACT participants had improved in pain interference in daily life (primary outcome) compared to participants in Expressive Writing (Cohen's d = .47), but not compared to waiting list participants (p value = .11). Those who adhered to the ACT-intervention (48%) did improve significantly compared to waiting list participants (d = .49). ACT-participants also showed superior improvement on depression, pain intensity, psychological inflexibility and pain catastrophizing (d: .28-.60). Significant clinical improvement was present. Especially, 28% of ACT-participants showed general clinically relevant improvement in pain interference, as well as in pain intensity and depression (vs. Expressive Writing and waiting list 5%). Given these findings, internet-based ACT programs may be a promising treatment modality for chronic pain.
Moss-Morris, Rona; McCrone, Paul; Yardley, Lucy; van Kessel, Kirsten; Wills, Gary; Dennison, Laura
The majority of people affected by Multiple Sclerosis (paMS) experience severe and disabling fatigue. A recent randomised controlled trial (RCT) showed that cognitive behaviour therapy with a clinical psychologist was an effective treatment for MS fatigue. An Internet-based version of this intervention, MS Invigor8, was developed for the current study using agile design and input from paMS. MS Invigor8 includes eight tailored, interactive sessions. The aim was to test the feasibility and potential efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the programme in a pilot RCT. 40 patients were randomised to MS Invigor8 (n=23) or standard care (n=17). The MS Invigor8 group accessed sessions over 8-10 weeks and received up to three 30-60min telephone support sessions. Participants completed online standardised questionnaires assessing fatigue, mood, quality of life and service use at baseline and 10 weeks follow-up. Large between group treatment effects were found for the primary outcomes of fatigue severity (d=1.19) and impact (d=1.02). The MS Invigor8 group also reported significantly greater improvements in anxiety, depression and quality-adjusted life years. These data suggest that Internet-based CBT may be a clinically and cost-effective treatment for MS fatigue. A larger RCT with longer term follow-up is warranted.
Franko, Debra L.; Cousineau, Tara M.; Trant, Meredith; Green, Traci Craig; Rancourt, Diana; Thompson, Douglas; Ainscough, Jessica; Mintz, Laurie B.; Ciccazzo, Michelle
Objective MyStudentBody.com-Nutrition (MSB-N) is an Internet-based nutrition and physical activity education program for college students. Method Students from six universities (N = 476) in the U.S. were randomly assigned in the fall of 2005 to one of three groups: MSB-N (Experimental I), MSB-N plus Booster (Experimental II), or an attention placebo control group. Results Experimental I and II group participants increased their fruit and vegetable intake by .33 and .24 servings, respectively, relative to the control group at post-test. Both experimental groups improved their motivation to change eating behaviors (p < .05) and were also more likely to increase their social support and self-efficacy for dietary change (p’s < .05). Experimental groups also improved their attitude toward exercise (p < .05), but no behavioral changes in physical activity were noted. Conclusion MyStudentBody.com-Nutrition is an effective Internet-based program that may have wide applicability on college campuses for nutrition education and promoting change in health behaviors. PMID:18639581
Mistler-Jackson, Megan Elizabeth
The purpose of this study is to examine how gender issues influence middle school students' participation, interest and learning in an Internet-based science curriculum project. One central question is whether using the Internet for communication and collaboration might serve as an entree into science and computer technology for those who are otherwise disinterested. Five students and their teacher were observed for five weeks and interviewed at the end of their participation in the Journey North Internet-based science project. Other methods of data collection included field notes, journal writing, and document review. Data were analyzed using ethnographic and case study methodology. Results revealed that boys were viewed as science and computer experts by themselves and by their peers more often than girls, both when they were and were not more knowledgeable. Data also showed that the teacher's inexperience with computers and the Journey North project was a more significant factor in student learning than gender. Findings with two students support the notion that using the Internet for communication and collaboration may encourage participation in computer technology by students like them. These results add to literatures that document the gender gap in science and computing and complement research on the incorporation of the Internet in the classroom. This study examines participation and interest from students' points of view, confirms the central role teachers play in enacting network science projects effectively and identifies several challenges this teacher faced in learning to utilize new technologies.
Mason, Lucia; Boldrin, Angela; Ariasi, Nicola
This study examined epistemic metacognition as a reflective activity about knowledge and knowing in the context of online information searching on the Web, and whether it was related to prior knowledge on the topic, study approach, and domain-specific beliefs about science. In addition, we investigated whether Internet-based learning was…
Eriksson, Annsofi; Lövgren, Lisa; Humble, Mats B; Boersma, Katja
Background Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition with recurring episodes that often lead to suffering, decreased functioning, and sick leave. Pharmacotherapy in the form of mood stabilizers is widely available, but does not eliminate the risk of a new depressive or (hypo)manic episode. One way to reduce the risk of future episodes is to combine pharmacological treatment with individual or group psychological interventions. However, access to such interventions is often limited due to a shortage of trained therapists. In unipolar depression there is now robust evidence of the effectiveness of Internet-based psychological interventions, usually comprising psychoeducation and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Internet-based interventions for persons suffering from bipolar disorder could increase access to psychological treatment. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of an Internet-based intervention, as well as its effect on residual depressive symptoms in persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II (BP-II). The most important outcomes were depressive symptoms, treatment adherence, and whether the patient perceived the intervention as helpful. Methods A total of 7 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder type II at a Swedish psychiatric outpatient clinic were offered the opportunity to participate. Of the 7 patients, 3 (43%) dropped out before treatment began, and 4 (57%) were treated by means of an online, Internet-based intervention based on CBT (iCBT). The intervention was primarily aimed at psychoeducation, treatment of residual depressive symptoms, emotion regulation, and improved sleep. All patients had ongoing pharmacological treatment at recruitment and established contact with a psychiatrist. The duration of BP-II among the treated patients was between 6 and 31 years. A single-subject design was used and the results of the 4 participating patients were presented individually. Results Initiating treatment was perceived as
Honeth, Louise; Ström, Peter; Ploner, Alexander; Bagger-Sjöbäck, Dan; Rosenhall, Ulf; Nyrén, Olof
The aim of this cross-sectional study among Swedish hunters was to examine the association between shooting history and presence of high-frequency hearing impairment (HFHI). All hunters registered with an e-mail address in the membership roster of the Swedish Hunters' Association were invited via e-mail to a secure website with a questionnaire and an Internet-based audiometry test. Associations, expressed as prevalence ratio (PR), were multivariately modelled using Poisson regression. The questionnaire was answered by 1771 hunters (age 11-91 years), and 202 of them also completed the audiometry test. Subjective severe hearing loss was reported by 195/1771 (11%), while 23/202 (11%) exhibited HFHI upon testing with Internet-based audiometry. As many as 328/1771 (19%) had never used hearing protection during hunting. In the preceding 5 years, 785/1771 (45%), had fired >6 unprotected gunshots with hunting rifle calibers. The adjusted PR of HFHI when reporting 1-6 such shots, relative to 0, was 1.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.1; P = 0.02]. We could not verify any excessive HFHI prevalence among 89 hunters reporting unprotected exposure to such gunshot noise >6 times. Nor did the total number of reported rifle shots seem to matter. These findings support the notion of a wide variation in individual susceptibility to impulse noise; that significant sound energy, corresponding to unprotected noise from hunting rifle calibers, seems to be required; that susceptible individuals may sustain irreversible damage to the inner ear from just one or a few shots; and that use of hearing protection should be encouraged from the first shot with such weapons.
Stiegler, A.; Abele, H.; Batra, A.
Alcohol or tobacco consumption in pregnancy can harm the unborn child. Counselling on this subject is therefore of major importance. The aim of the presented study was not only to develop an internet based, professionally e-mail accompanied platform for alcohol or tobacco consuming pregnant women (“IRIS Platform”) but also to analyse the beneficiary profiles and investigate the practicability and acceptance of the platform among women and referring gynaecologists. The offer comprised three 12-week counselling programmes (alcohol, tobacco, combined consumption). Altogether 32 women registered within the recruitment period of 20 weeks, only 9 of them at the suggestion of gynaecologists. Thirty were enrolled. The average age was 31 years. Ten women were pregnant for the first time, 14 unplanned. Most of them were smokers (n = 29). 75 % (n = 12 of 16) of them had smoked in the previous pregnancies, 5 of 16 women had suffered miscarriages. Six women completed the entire 12 week programme. The abstinence rate after 3 months was min. 18.5 % (ITT) in the tobacco group, while in the alcohol programme 3 women achieved abstinence. Satisfaction was reported especially for the eCoach initiative. The results demonstrate that an internet-based service like IRIS can be a useful form of support for tobacco or alcohol consuming pregnant women. A particular challenge is the accessibility of the persons concerned and the form in which alcohol consuming pregnant women are approached in daily medical practice. The individual contact to the eCoach can be a decisive form of support and aid to motivation. PMID:27904166
Kostagiolas, Petros; Martzoukou, Konstantina; Georgantzi, Georgia; Niakas, Dimitris
Introduction: This study investigated the information seeking behaviour and needs of parents of paediatric patients and their motives for seeking Internet-based information. Method: A questionnaire survey of 121 parents was conducted in a paediatric clinic of a Greek university hospital. Analysis: The data were analysed using SPSS; descriptive…
Gati, Itamar; Asulin-Peretz, Lisa
A major characteristic of the 21st century with significant implications on career decision making is the growing prevalence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Challenges involving ICT-based self-assessment and self-help interventions aimed at facilitating career decision making are discussed. Specifically, this article focuses…
Hilpert, Jonathan C.; Brem, Sarah K.
Introduction: Although studies of peoples' knowledge and beliefs about Human Papillomavirus have provided good information to the medical community, few, if any, have addressed how young people construct an understanding of the virus in realistic contexts. This is problematic because increasingly people are turning to the internet for health…
VELASCO, EDWARD; AGHENEZA, TUMACHA; DENECKE, KERSTIN; KIRCHNER, GÖRAN; ECKMANNS, TIM
Context: The exchange of health information on the Internet has been heralded as an opportunity to improve public health surveillance. In a field that has traditionally relied on an established system of mandatory and voluntary reporting of known infectious diseases by doctors and laboratories to governmental agencies, innovations in social media and so-called user-generated information could lead to faster recognition of cases of infectious disease. More direct access to such data could enable surveillance epidemiologists to detect potential public health threats such as rare, new diseases or early-level warnings for epidemics. But how useful are data from social media and the Internet, and what is the potential to enhance surveillance? The challenges of using these emerging surveillance systems for infectious disease epidemiology, including the specific resources needed, technical requirements, and acceptability to public health practitioners and policymakers, have wide-reaching implications for public health surveillance in the 21st century. Methods: This article divides public health surveillance into indicator-based surveillance and event-based surveillance and provides an overview of each. We did an exhaustive review of published articles indexed in the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Scirus between 1990 and 2011 covering contemporary event-based systems for infectious disease surveillance. Findings: Our literature review uncovered no event-based surveillance systems currently used in national surveillance programs. While much has been done to develop event-based surveillance, the existing systems have limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for further development of automated technologies that monitor health-related information on the Internet, especially to handle large amounts of data and to prevent information overload. The dissemination to health authorities of new information about health events is not always efficient and could be improved. No
Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Hobbs, Fd Richard; Kelly, Jo; Smith, Emily R; Bradbury, Katherine J; Hughes, Stephanie; Smith, Peter Wf; Moore, Michael V; Lean, Mike Ej; Margetts, Barrie M; Byrne, Christopher D; Griffin, Simon; Davoudianfar, Mina; Hooper, Julie; Yao, Guiqing; Zhu, Shihua; Raftery, James; Yardley, Lucy
BACKGROUND Behavioural counselling with intensive follow-up for obesity is effective, but in resource-constrained primary care settings briefer approaches are needed. OBJECTIVES To estimate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an internet-based behavioural intervention with regular face-to-face or remote support in primary care, compared with brief advice. DESIGN Individually randomised three-arm parallel trial with health economic evaluation and nested qualitative interviews. SETTING Primary care general practices in the UK. PARTICIPANTS Patients with a body mass index of ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (or ≥ 28 kg/m(2) with risk factors) identified from general practice records, recruited by postal invitation. INTERVENTIONS Positive Online Weight Reduction (POWeR+) is a 24-session, web-based weight management intervention completed over 6 months. Following online registration, the website randomly allocated participants using computer-generated random numbers to (1) the control intervention (n = 279), which had previously been demonstrated to be clinically effective (brief web-based information that minimised pressure to cut down foods, instead encouraging swaps to healthier choices and increasing fruit and vegetables, plus 6-monthly nurse weighing); (2) POWeR+F (n = 269), POWeR+ supplemented by face-to-face nurse support (up to seven contacts); or (3) POWeR+R (n = 270), POWeR+ supplemented by remote nurse support (up to five e-mails or brief telephone calls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was a modelled estimate of average weight reduction over 12 months, assessed blind to group where possible, using multiple imputation for missing data. The secondary outcome was the number of participants maintaining a 5% weight reduction at 12 months. RESULTS A total of 818 eligible individuals were randomised using computer-generated random numbers. Weight change, averaged over 12 months, was documented in 666 out of 818 participants (81
Abbott, Jo-Anne M; Kaldo, Viktor; Klein, Britt; Austin, David; Hamilton, Catherine; Piterman, Leon; Williams, Ben; Andersson, Gerhard
The effectiveness of a therapist-supported Internet intervention program for tinnitus distress in an industrial setting was evaluated using a cluster randomised design. Fifty-six Australian employees of two industrial organisations were randomly assigned, based on their work site (18 work sites from BP Australia and five from BHP Billiton), to either a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) program or an information-only control program. Participants were assessed at pre- and post-program, measuring tinnitus distress, depression, anxiety, stress, quality of life, and occupational health. The CBT program was not found to be superior to the information program for treating tinnitus distress. A high attrition rate and small sample size limit the generalisability of the findings, and further developments of the program and assessment process are needed to enhance engagement and compliance.
Stricker, Lawrence J.; Rock, Donald A.
This study assessed the invariance in the factor structure of the "Test of English as a Foreign Language"™ Internet-based test (TOEFL® iBT) across subgroups of test takers who differed in native language and exposure to the English language. The subgroups were defined by (a) Indo-European and Non-Indo-European language family, (b)…
Reid, John; Egge, Robert; McAfee, Nancy
This document summarizes the feedback gathered during the user-testing phase in the development of an electronic library application: the Aeronautics and Space Access Pages (ASAP). It first provides some historical background on the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) program and its efforts to enhance the services it offers the aerospace community. Following a brief overview of the ASAP project, it reviews the results of an online user survey, and from the lessons learned therein, outlines direction for future development of the project.
Mortillaro, Gino; Rodgman, Christopher; Kinzie, Erik; Ryals, Sarah
"Morgellon's Disease" is a term used to describe a bizarre condition characterized by the belief that strange sensations in the skin are due to filaments called "Morgellon's Bodies."' The focus of this case report is to inform readers of the growing incidence of this psychosomatic condition. Unfortunately, self-diagnosis has become increasingly common because of the widespread coverage on the Internet. While the validity of the diagnosis is in question, the impact on patient's lives is real, often debilitating, and bears more examination.
Doty, Jennifer L; Rudi, Jessie H; Pinna, Keri L M; Hanson, Sheila K
Background Some evidence suggests parents are drawn to media-based interventions over face-to-face interventions, but little is known about the factors associated with parents’ use of Internet-based or Internet-enhanced programs, especially among military families. Research is needed to understand characteristics of parents who may be most likely to use online components or attend face-to-face meetings in order to ensure maximum engagement. Objective In this study, we examined characteristics that predict various patterns of Internet use and face-to-face attendance in a parenting program designed for military families. Methods An ecological framework guided analysis of differences in patterns of Internet-based use and face-to-face attendance by parents’ demographic characteristics (gender, education, employment, and child age), incentives offered, and number of months the parent was deployed. We reported differences in the total number of online components completed over the 14 modules, total number of face-to-face sessions attended, and the use of different types of online components accessed (videos, downloadable handouts, mindfulness exercises, knowledge checks, and downloadable summaries). Then, we computed multinomial logistic regression accounting for nestedness (parents within families) to examine associations between demographic, programmatic, and military-related characteristics and patterns of engagement (use of online components and attendance at face-to-face sessions). Results Just over half (52.2%, 193/370) of the participants used the online components at least once, and the majority of participants (73.2%, 271/370) attended at least 1 face-to-face session. An examination of different patterns of participation revealed that compared with those who participated primarily in face-to-face sessions, parents who participated online but had little face-to-face participation were more likely to have received incentives than those who did not (95% CI 1
Hill, Anne J; Theodoros, Deborah G; Russell, Trevor G; Ward, Elizabeth C
A previous study revealed that reliable assessment of dysarthria was feasible. However, that study also revealed a number of system limitations and suggested that technological enhancements and improvements in study design and clinical assessment protocols were needed before validity and reliability of assessment of dysarthria via telerehabilitation could be confirmed. In the current study, improvements in technology, study design, and clinical assessment protocols were implemented in order to re-examine the validity and reliability of assessing and diagnosing dysarthria via the telerehabilitation medium. The aim of this study was to explore the validity and reliability of assessing dysarthria using both formal standardized and informal assessments via a purpose-built telerehabilitation system. Twenty-four participants with an acquired dysarthria were assessed simultaneously via telerehabilitation and face-to-face (FTF) on a battery of assessments. A custom-built telerehabilitation system enabled real-time telerehabilitation assessment over a 128 Kbps Internet connection. Data analysis included an analysis of strength of agreement between the two methods using percentage agreement and weighted ? statistics. Inter-rater and intrarater reliability were also examined for both the FTF and telerehabilitation-led assessments. Good strength of agreement was found between the FTF and telerehabilitation assessment methods. High intrarater and inter-rater reliability within both the FTF and telerehabilitation assessment methods supported these findings. Participants reported high overall satisfaction in the telerehabilitatin environment. This study describes the improvements made to the telerehabilitation system reported previously and confirms that valid and reliable assessment of dysarthria using both standardized and informal assessments over the Internet is possible using this system.
Background Binge eating disorder (BED) is a prevalent clinical eating disorder associated with increased psychopathology, psychiatric comorbidity, overweight and obesity, and increased health care costs. Since its inclusion in the DSM-IV, a few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have suggested efficacy of book-based self-help interventions in the treatment of this disorder. However, evidence from larger RCTs is needed. Delivery of self-help through new technologies such as the internet should be investigated in particular, as these approaches have the potential to be more interactive and thus more attractive to patients than book-based approaches. This study will evaluate the efficacy of an internet-based guided self-help program (GSH-I) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which has been proven in several studies to be the gold standard treatment for BED, in a prospective multicenter randomized trial. Methods The study assumes the noninferiority of GSH-I compared to CBT. Both treatments lasted 4 months, and maintenance of outcome will be assessed 6 and 18 months after the end of treatment. A total of 175 patients with BED and a body mass index between 27 and 40 kg/m2 were randomized at 7 centers in Germany and Switzerland. A 20% attrition rate was assumed. As in most BED treatment trials, the difference in the number of binge eating days over the past 28 days is the primary outcome variable. Secondary outcome measures include the specific eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, body weight, quality of life, and self-esteem. Predictors and moderators of treatment outcome will be determined, and the cost-effectiveness of both treatment conditions will be evaluated. Results The methodology for the INTERBED study has been detailed. Conclusions Although there is evidence that CBT is the first-line treatment for BED, it is not widely available. As BED is still a recent diagnostic category, many cases likely remain undiagnosed, and a large number of
Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo
Background In previous research, variables such as age, education, treatment credibility, and therapeutic alliance have shown to affect patients’ treatment adherence and outcome in Internet-based psychotherapy. A more detailed understanding of how such variables are associated with different measures of adherence and clinical outcomes may help in designing more effective online therapy. Objective The aims of this study were to investigate demographical, psychological, and treatment-specific variables that could predict dropout, treatment adherence, and treatment outcomes in a study of online relaxation for mild to moderate stress symptoms. Methods Participant dropout and attrition as well as data from self-report instruments completed before, during, and after the online relaxation program were analyzed. Multiple linear and logistical regression analyses were conducted to predict early dropout, overall attrition, online treatment progress, number of registered relaxation exercises, posttreatment symptom levels, and reliable improvement. Results Dropout was significantly predicted by treatment credibility, whereas overall attrition was associated with reporting a focus on immediate consequences and experiencing a low level of intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Treatment progress was predicted by education level and treatment credibility, whereas number of registered relaxation exercises was associated with experiencing intrinsic motivation for the treatment. Posttreatment stress symptoms were positively predicted by feeling external pressure to participate in the treatment and negatively predicted by treatment credibility. Reporting reliable symptom improvement after treatment was predicted by treatment credibility and therapeutic bond. Conclusions This study confirmed that treatment credibility and a good working alliance are factors associated with successful Internet-based psychotherapy. Further, the study showed that measuring adherence in different ways
Kraus, Carl N; Baldwin, Alan T; McAllister, R G
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires risk communication as an element of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) to alert and educate healthcare providers about severe toxicities associated with approved drugs. The educational effectiveness of this approach has not been evaluated. To support the communication plan element of the ipilimumab REMS, a Medscape Safe Use Alert (SUA) letter was distributed by Medscape via email and mobile device distribution to clinicians specified in the REMS. This alert contained the FDA-approved Dear Healthcare Provider (DHCP) letter mandated for distribution. A continuing medical education (CME) activity describing ipilimumab toxicities and the appropriate management was simultaneously posted on the website and distributed to Medscape members. Data were collected over a 6-month period regarding the handling of the letter and the responses to pre- and post-test questions for those who participated in the CME activity. Analysis of the answers to the pre- and posttest questions showed that participation in the CME activity resulted in an improvement in correct answer responses of 47%. Our experience shows that there are likely distinct information sources that are utilized by different HCP groups. The ready availability of a brief CME activity was utilized by 24,063 individuals, the majority of whom showed enhanced understanding of ipilimumab toxicity by improvement in post-test scores, educational data that are not available via implementation of standard safety alert communications. These results demonstrate that improvement in understanding of specific drug toxicities is enhanced by a CME intervention.
Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Whiteaker, T.
"Water is everywhere." This sentiment underscores the importance of instilling hydrologic and earth science literacy in educators, students, and the general public, but also presents challenges for water scientists and educators. Scientific data about water is collected and distributed by several different sources, from federal agencies to scientific investigators to citizen scientists. As competition for limited water resources increase, increasing access to and understanding of the wealth of information about the nation's and the world's water will be critical. The CUAHSI-HIS system is a web based system for sharing hydrologic data that can help address this need. HydroDesktop is a free, open source application for finding, getting, analyzing and using hydrologic data from the CUAHSI-HIS system. It works with HydroCatalog which indexes the data to find out what data exists and where it is, and then it retrieves the data from HydroServers where it is stored communicating using WaterOneFlow web services. Currently, there are over 65 services registered in HydroCatalog providing central discovery of water data from several federal and state agencies, university projects, and other sources. HydroDesktop provides a simplified GIS that allows users to incorporate spatial data, and simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization. HydroDesktop is designed to be useful for a number of different groups of users with a wide variety of needs and skill levels including university faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, K-12 students, engineering and scientific consultants, and others. This presentation will highlight some of the features of HydroDesktop and the CUAHSI-HIS system that make it particularly appropriate for use in educational and public outreach settings, and will present examples of educational use. The incorporation of "real data," localization to an area of interest, and problem-based learning are all recognized as effective strategies for
Tillotson, Sherri; Lear, Scott; Araki, Yuriko; Horvat, Dan; Prkachin, Ken; Bates, Joanna; Balka, Ellen
Remote and rural regions in Canada are faced with unique challenges in the delivery of primary health services. The purpose of this study was to understand how patients and healthcare professionals in northern British Columbia might make use of the Internet to manage cardiovascular diseases. The study used a qualitative methodology. Eighteen health professionals and 6 patients were recruited for a semi-structured interview that explored their experience in managing patients with cardiovascular disease and their opinions and preferences about the use of the Internet in chronic disease management. Key findings from the data suggest that a) use of the Internet helps to maintain continuity of care while a patient moves through various stages of care, b) the Internet may possibly be used as an educational tool in chronic disease self-management, c) there is a need for policy development to support Internet-based consultation processes, and d) while health providers endorse the notion of electronic advancement in their practice, the need for secure and stable electronic systems is essential.
Ye, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Yuan-Feng; Chen, Jia; Liu, Juan; Li, Xun-Jun; Liu, Ya-Zhen; Lang, Ying; Lin, Ling; Yang, Xin-Ju; Jiang, Xiao-Jiang
As the internet has become popularized in recent years, cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) has shifted from a face-to-face approach to delivery via the internet (internet-based CBT-i, ICBT-i). Several studies have investigated the effects of ICBT-i on comorbid anxiety and depression; however, the results remain inconclusive. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of ICBT-i on anxiety and depression. Electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library (throughout May 28, 2015), were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ICBT-i. Data were extracted from the qualified studies and pooled together. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to assess the effects of ICBT-i on comorbid anxiety and depression. Nine records that included ten studies were ultimately qualified. The effect sizes (ESs) were -0.35 [-0.46, -0.25] for anxiety and -0.36 [-0.47, -0.26] for depression, which were stable using a between-group or within-group comparison and suggest positive effects of ICBT-i on both comorbid disorders. Although positive results were identified in this meta-analysis, additional high-quality studies with larger sample sizes are needed in the future.
Querstret, Dawn; Cropley, Mark; Fife-Schaw, Chris
This study aimed to extend our theoretical understanding of how mindfulness-based interventions exert their positive influence on measures of occupational health. Employing a randomized waitlist control study design, we sought to (a) assess an Internet-based instructor-led mindfulness intervention for its effect on key factors associated with "recovery from work," specifically, work-related rumination, fatigue, and sleep quality; (b) assess different facets of mindfulness (acting with awareness, describing, nonjudging, and nonreacting) as mechanisms of change; and (c) assess whether the effect of the intervention was maintained over time by following up our participants after 3 and 6 months. Participants who completed the mindfulness intervention (n = 60) reported significantly lower levels of work-related rumination and fatigue, and significantly higher levels of sleep quality, when compared with waitlist control participants (n = 58). Effects of the intervention were maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-up with medium to large effect sizes. The effect of the intervention was primarily explained by increased levels of only 1 facet of mindfulness (acting with awareness). This study provides support for online mindfulness interventions to aid recovery from work and furthers our understanding with regard to how mindfulness interventions exert their positive effects. (PsycINFO Database Record
Hovland, Anders; Johansen, Henning; Sjøbø, Trond; Vøllestad, Jon; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Pallesen, Ståle; Havik, Odd E; Martinsen, Egil W; Nordgreen, Tine
Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) is a recommended, cost-effective and efficacious treatment for panic disorder (PD). However, treatment effects in psychiatric settings indicate that a substantial proportion fail to achieve remission. Physical exercise improves symptoms in patients with PD, and acts through mechanisms that can augment the effect of ICBT. The feasibility of combining these two interventions has not previously been investigated, and this was the aim of this study. The intervention comprised guided ICBT combined with one weekly session of supervised and two weekly sessions of unsupervised physical exercise for a total of 12 weeks. Treatment rationale, procedures and protocols are presented together with preliminary results for four patients with PD who have currently finished treatment. Quantitative and qualitative results are reported on the feasibility of adhering to the treatments, treatment outcome as assessed by clinician rating and estimation of reliable and clinically significant change for outcome measures, and participants' satisfactions with the combined treatment. The preliminary results indicate that the combined treatment is feasible to complete, and that the combination is perceived by the participants as beneficial.
Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Safer, Debra L.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Cunning, Darby; Rizk, Marianne T.; Genkin, Brooke H.; Weisman, Hannah L.; Bailey, Jakki O.; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr
Student Bodies, an internet-based intervention, has successfully reduced weight/shape concerns and prevented eating disorders in a subset of college-age women at highest risk for an eating disorder. Student Bodies includes an online, guided discussion group; however, the clinical utility of this component is unclear. This study investigated whether the guided discussion group improves program efficacy in reducing weight/shape concerns in women at high risk for an eating disorder. Exploratory analyses examined whether baseline variables predicted who benefitted most. Women with high weight/shape concerns (N=151) were randomized to Student Bodies with a guided discussion group (n=74) or no discussion group (n=77). Regression analyses showed weight/shape concerns were reduced significantly more among guided discussion group than no discussion group participants (p = 0.002; d = 0.52); guided discussion group participants had 67% lower odds of having high-risk weight/shape concerns post-intervention (p = 0.02). There were no differences in binge eating at post-intervention between the two groups, and no moderators emerged as significant. Results suggest the guided discussion group improves the efficacy of Student Bodies in reducing weight/shape concerns in college students at high risk for an eating disorder. PMID:25461783
Högström, Jens; Enebrink, Pia; Melin, Bo; Ghaderi, Ata
The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if previously reported treatment gains of a parent management training (PMT) program, administered via Internet, were retained from post to the 18-month follow-up. Another aim was to evaluate homework compliance as a predictor of short and long-term outcomes. Participants were parents of 58 children (3-11 years) with conduct problems who received a 10-week self-directed PMT program, with limited therapist support. Parents of 32 children (55.2 %) responded at all measurement point (baseline, post-test and follow-up) and analyses showed that child conduct problems continued to decrease during the 18-month period after the intervention whereas parenting skills deteriorated somewhat from post treatment. Pre- to post-treatment change in child conduct problems was predicted by parental engagement in homework assignments intended to reduce negative child behaviors. The findings provide support for the use of Internet-based PMT and stress the importance of parental compliance to homework training.
J. Daniel Arthur
In recent years, rising populations and regional droughts have caused coal-fired power plants to temporarily curtail or cease production due to a lack of available water for cooling. In addition, concerns about the availability of adequate supplies of cooling water have resulted in cancellation of plans to build much-needed new power plants. These issues, coupled with concern over the possible impacts of global climate change, have caused industry and community planners to seek alternate sources of water to supplement or replace existing supplies. The Department of Energy, through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is researching ways to reduce the water demands of coal-fired power plants. As part of the NETL Program, ALL Consulting developed an internet-based Catalog of potential alternative sources of cooling water. The Catalog identifies alternative sources of water, such as mine discharge water, oil and gas produced water, saline aquifers, and publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), which could be used to supplement or replace existing surface water sources. This report provides an overview of the Catalog, and examines the benefits and challenges of using these alternative water sources for cooling water.
Feinman, Richard D; Vernon, Mary C; Westman, Eric C
The Active Low-Carber Forums (ALCF) is an on-line support group started in 2000 which currently has more than 86,000 members. Data collected from posts to the forum and from an on-line survey were used to determine the behavior and attitudes of people on low carbohydrate diets. Members were asked to complete a voluntary 27-item questionnaire over the internet. Our major findings are as follows: survey respondents, like the membership at large, were mostly women and mostly significantly overweight, a significant number intending to and, in many cases, succeeding at losing more than 100 lbs. The great majority of members of ALCF identify themselves as following the Atkins diet or some variation of it. Although individual posts on the forum and in the narrative part of our survey are critical of professional help, we found that more than half of respondents saw a physician before or during dieting and, of those who did, about half received support from the physician. Another 28 % found the physician initially neutral but supportive after positive results were produced. Using the same criteria as the National Weight Registry (without follow-up)--30 lbs or more lost and maintained for more than one year--it was found that more than 1400 people had successfully used low carb methods. In terms of food consumed, the perception of more than half of respondents were that they ate less than before the diet and whereas high protein, high fat sources replaced carbohydrate to some extent, the major change indicated by survey-takers is a large increase in green vegetables and a large decrease in fruit intake. Government or health agencies were not sources of information for dieters in this group and a collection of narrative comments indicates a high level of satisfaction, indeed enthusiasm for low carbohydrate dieting. The results provide both a tabulation of the perceived behavior of a significant number of dieters using low carbohydrate strategies as well as a collection of
Atkinson, Mark J; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Kaufman, Julie; Bhaidani, Shamsu
Objectives This proof of concept (POC) study was designed to evaluate the use of an Internet-based bulletin board technology to aid parallel cross-cultural development of thematic content for a new set of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs). Methods The POC study, conducted in Germany and the United States, utilized Internet Focus Groups (IFGs) to assure the validity of new PRO items across the two cultures – all items were designed to assess the impact of excess facial oil on individuals' lives. The on-line IFG activities were modeled after traditional face-to-face focus groups and organized by a common 'Topic' Guide designed with input from thought leaders in dermatology and health outcomes research. The two sets of IFGs were professionally moderated in the native language of each country. IFG moderators coded the thematic content of transcripts, and a frequency analysis of code endorsement was used to identify areas of content similarity and difference between the two countries. Based on this information, draft PRO items were designed and a majority (80%) of the original participants returned to rate the relative importance of the newly designed questions. Findings The use of parallel cross-cultural content analysis of IFG transcripts permitted identification of the major content themes in each country as well as exploration of the possible reasons for any observed differences between the countries. Results from coded frequency counts and transcript reviews informed the design and wording of the test questions for the future PRO instrument(s). Subsequent ratings of item importance also deepened our understanding of potential areas of cross-cultural difference, differences that would be explored over the course of future validation studies involving these PROs. Conclusion The use of IFGs for cross-cultural content development received positive reviews from participants and was found to be both cost and time effective. The novel thematic coding methodology
Brandt, Caroline L; Dalum, Peter; Thomsen, Tine T
This study aimed to investigate how users perceive the different elements of an internet based smoking cessation intervention and to see if the program meet needs and expectations of people in a smoking cessation process. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted in February 2010. Participants were recruited via the homepage of the smoking cessation program Dit Digitale Stopprogram (Your Digital Quit Program) operated by the Danish Cancer Society. The main result was that participants established a relationship to the program which influenced their smoking cessation process. Participants perceived the program as caring and found it supportive. However, the program also created feelings of frustration, disappointment and anger. Some participants in the last phase of cessation experienced text messages from the program as smoking cues. The study concluded that individual interpretations of the different elements in an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention can have both positive and negative impact on the smoking cessation process of participants.
Ball, Diane M.; Levy, Yair
Over the past decade there has been a shift in the emphasis of Internet-based emerging educational technology from use in online settings to supporting face-to-face and mixed delivery classes. Although emerging educational technology integration in the classroom has been led by information systems (IS) instructors, the technology acceptance and…
In this paper, we consider the process of the data warehouse creation and population using the latest Internet and database access technologies. The logical three-tier model is applied. This approach allows developing of an enterprise schema by analyzing the various processes in the organization, and extracting the relevant entities and relationships from them. Integration with local schemas and population of the data warehouse is done through the corresponding user, business, and data services components. The hierarchy of these components is used to hide from the data warehouse users the entire complex online analytical processing functionality.
Nuffer, Wesley; Duke, Jodi
To compare the effectiveness of an internet-based training series with a traditional live classroom session in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings. Two cohorts of students were identified that prepared by utilizing a recorded online training exclusively, and two separate cohorts of students prepared by receiving only live classroom instruction. All students in the four cohorts were given a survey to evaluate the training sessions, and results were analyzed using the analysis of variance statistical test (ANOVA). Preceptors at the sites who interacted with students in all four cohorts were surveyed to evaluate which students appeared more prepared; these data were compared using paired t tests. Final assessment data for students in all four cohorts were analyzed using ANOVA. There were statistical differences between the two live training groups, with the second group finding the training to be more beneficial for preparing them, feeling the training length was appropriate and preferring the live modality for delivery. The two internet training cohorts were similar except for perceptions regarding the length of the online training. Comparing responses from those students who received live training with those receiving internet instruction demonstrated a statistical difference with the live groups rating the trainings as more helpful in preparing them for the clinics, rating the training as necessary, and rating their confidence higher in seeing patients. Preceptors rated the live training statistically higher than online training in preparing students. There was no difference between groups on their final site assessments. Live classroom training appears to be superior to the recorded internet training in preparing pharmacy students to oversee a diabetes management program in community settings.
Ljótsson, Brjánn; Hedman, Erik; Svanborg, Cecilia; Kaldo, Viktor; Lindefors, Nils
Background Although the effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) for treating depression has been well documented, knowledge of outcome predictors and risk factors associated with lower treatment response is limited, especially when the treatment has been conducted within a naturalistic clinical setting. Identification of such factors is important for clinicians when making treatment recommendations. Methods Data from a large cohort (N = 1738) of adult outpatients having been treated with ICBT for depression at an outpatient psychiatric clinic were analysed. A multilevel modelling approach was used to identify patient and treatment variables associated with the speed of recovery during treatment using weekly measurements of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale Self-Rated (MADRS-S). Outcomes Adhering to the treatment, perceiving it as credible and working full-time emerged as predictors of a faster pace of recovery and were also associated with a lower level of depression at the end of treatment. Higher pre-treatment depression and sleep problems were associated with a greater improvement rate, but predicted higher depression after treatment. Having a history of psychotropic medication was associated with both slower improvement and higher post-treatment depression. Conclusion Perceived credibility of ICBT is a strong predictor of treatment response. Assessing patient beliefs and expectations may be a useful aid for clinicians when identifying those who are more or less likely to benefit from ICBT. Helping patients improve expectations prior to treatment may be an important goal for clinicians during the initial assessment phase. PMID:27618548
Kivi, Marie; Eriksson, Maria C M; Hange, Dominique; Petersson, Eva-Lisa; Vernmark, Kristofer; Johansson, Boo; Björkelund, Cecilia
Depression presents a serious condition for the individual and a major challenge to health care and society. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is a treatment option supported in several trials, but there is as yet a lack of effective studies of ICBT in "real world" primary care settings. We examined whether ICBT differed from treatment-as-usual (TAU) in reducing depressive symptoms after 3 months. TAU comprised of visits to general practitioner, registered nurse, antidepressant drugs, waiting list for, or psychotherapy, or combinations of these alternatives. Patients, aged ≥ 18 years, who tentatively met criteria for mild to moderate depression at 16 primary care centers in the south-western region of Sweden were recruited and then assessed in a diagnostic interview. A total of 90 patients were randomized to either TAU or ICBT. The ICBT treatment included interactive elements online, a workbook, a CD with mindfulness and acceptance exercises, and minimal therapist contact. The treatment period lasted for 12 weeks after which both groups were assessed. The main outcome measure was Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Additional measures were Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale - self rating version (MADRS-S) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The analyses revealed no significant difference between the two groups at post treatment, neither on BDI-II, MADRS-S, nor BAI. Twenty patients (56%) in the ICBT treatment completed all seven modules. Our findings suggest that ICBT may be successfully delivered in primary care and that the effectiveness, after 3 months, is at par with TAU.
Kivi, Marie; Eriksson, Maria C. M.; Hange, Dominique; Petersson, Eva-Lisa; Vernmark, Kristofer; Johansson, Boo; Björkelund, Cecilia
Depression presents a serious condition for the individual and a major challenge to health care and society. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) is a treatment option supported in several trials, but there is as yet a lack of effective studies of ICBT in “real world” primary care settings. We examined whether ICBT differed from treatment-as-usual (TAU) in reducing depressive symptoms after 3 months. TAU comprised of visits to general practitioner, registered nurse, antidepressant drugs, waiting list for, or psychotherapy, or combinations of these alternatives. Patients, aged ≥ 18 years, who tentatively met criteria for mild to moderate depression at 16 primary care centers in the south-western region of Sweden were recruited and then assessed in a diagnostic interview. A total of 90 patients were randomized to either TAU or ICBT. The ICBT treatment included interactive elements online, a workbook, a CD with mindfulness and acceptance exercises, and minimal therapist contact. The treatment period lasted for 12 weeks after which both groups were assessed. The main outcome measure was Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Additional measures were Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale – self rating version (MADRS-S) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The analyses revealed no significant difference between the two groups at post treatment, neither on BDI-II, MADRS-S, nor BAI. Twenty patients (56%) in the ICBT treatment completed all seven modules. Our findings suggest that ICBT may be successfully delivered in primary care and that the effectiveness, after 3 months, is at par with TAU. PMID:24911260
Rozental, Alexander; Forsell, Erik; Svensson, Andreas; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per
Procrastination is a common self-regulatory failure that can have a negative impact on well-being and performance. However, few clinical trials have been conducted, and no follow-up has ever been performed. The current study therefore aimed to provide evidence for the long-term benefits and investigate predictors of a positive treatment outcome among patients receiving Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT). A total of 150 self-recruited participants were randomized to guided or unguided ICBT. Self-report measures of procrastination, depression, anxiety, and quality of life were distributed at pre-treatment assessment, post-treatment assessment, and one-year follow-up. Mixed effects models were used to investigate the long-term gains, and multiple linear regression for predictors of a positive treatment outcome, using the change score on the Irrational Procrastination Scale as the dependent variable. Intention-to-treat was implemented for all statistical analyses. Large within-group effect sizes for guided and unguided ICBT, Cohen's d = .97-1.64, were found for self-report measures of procrastination, together with d = .56-.66 for depression and anxiety. Gains were maintained, and, in some cases, improved at follow-up. Guided and unguided ICBT did not differ from each other, mean differences -.31-1.17, 95% CIs [-2.59-3.22], and none of the predictors were associated with a better result, bs -1.45-1.61, 95% CIs [-3.14-4.26]. In sum, ICBT could be useful and beneficial in relation to managing procrastination, yielding great benefits up to one year after the treatment period has ended, with comparable results between guided and unguided ICBT.
Carlbring, Per; Linna, Emma; Andersson, Gerhard
Background Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is a form of guided self-help that has been found to be effective for addressing several problems. The target for this type of therapy is usually restricted to one specific disorder. Tailoring the treatment widens the scope of ICBT in that it can address comorbid conditions directly. Objectives The working, or therapeutic, alliance has been found to predict outcome in studies of face-to-face therapy. The extent to which these findings apply to ICBT is largely unknown. We therefore decided to find out whether the working alliance could predict outcome in tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. Methods Data were obtained from the treatment group (n=27) in a randomized controlled trial aiming to test the effects of tailored ICBT for anxiety disorders. The forthcoming study was designed to test the hypothesis that the working alliance measured both pre-treatment and early in treatment (week 3) can predict treatment outcome as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a heterogeneous group of patients with anxiety disorders (n=27). Results Working alliance measured at week 3 into the treatment correlated significantly with the residual gain scores on the primary outcome measure (r=-.47, P=.019, n=25), while expected working alliance pre-treatment did not (r=-.17, P=.42, n=27). Conclusions These results raise questions about the importance of working alliance in ICBT treatments, and suggest that the working alliance could be important in ICBT. PMID:23612437
Moessner, Markus; Minarik, Carla; Ozer, Fikret; Bauer, Stephanie
Only little is known about costs and effects (i.e., success) of dissemination strategies, although cost-effective dissemination strategies are crucial for the transfer of interventions into routine care. This study investigates the effects and cost-effectiveness of five school-based dissemination strategies for an Internet-based intervention for the prevention and early intervention of eating disorders. Three-hundred ninety-five schools were randomly assigned to one of five dissemination strategies. Strategies varied with respect to intensity from only sending advertisement materials and asking the school to distribute them among students to organizing presentations and workshops at schools. Effects were defined as the number of page visits, the number of screenings conducted, and the number of registrations to the Internet-based intervention. More expensive strategies proved to be more cost-effective. Cost per page visit ranged from 2.83€ (introductory presentation plus workshop) to 20.37€ (dissemination by student representatives/peers). Costs per screening ranged from 3.30€ (introductory presentation plus workshop) to 75.66€ (dissemination by student representatives/peers), and costs per registration ranged from 6.86€ (introductory presentation plus workshop) to 431.10€ (advertisement materials only). Dissemination of an Internet-based intervention for prevention and early intervention is challenging and expensive. More intense, expensive strategies with personal contact proved to be more cost-effective. The combination of an introductory presentation on eating disorders and a workshop in the high school was most effective and had the best cost-effectiveness ratio. The sole distribution of advertisement materials attracted hardly any participants to the Internet-based program.
Sawaki, Yasuyo; Stricker, Lawrence; Oranje, Andreas
The present study investigated the factor structure of a field trial sample of the Test of English as a Foreign Language™ Internet-based test (TOEFL® iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted for a polychoric correlation matrix of items on a test form completed by 2,720 participants in the 2003-2004 TOEFL iBT Field…
García-Ruiz, Antonio; Luciano, Juan V.; García Campayo, Javier; Gili, Margalida; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa; Castro, Adoración; López-Del-Hoyo, Yolanda; Pérez Ara, Mª Ángeles; Modrego-Alarcón, Marta; Mayoral Cleríes, Fermín
Depression is one of the most common mental disorders and will become one of the leading causes of disability in the world. Internet-based CBT programs for depression have been classified as “well established” following the American Psychological Association criteria for empirically supported treatments. The aim of this study is to analyze the cost effectiveness at 12-month follow-up of the Internet-based CBT program “Smiling is fun” with (LITG) and without psychotherapist support (TSG) compared to usual care. The perspective used in our analysis is societal. A sample of 296 depressed patients (mean age of 43.04 years; 76% female; BDI-II mean score = 22.37) from primary care services in four Spanish regions were randomized in the RCT. The complete case and intention-to-treat (ITT) perspectives were used for the analyses. The results demonstrated that both Internet-based CBT interventions exhibited cost utility and cost effectiveness compared with a control group. The complete case analyses revealed an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €-169.50 and an incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of €-11389.66 for the TSG group and an ICER of €-104.63 and an ICUR of €-6380.86 for the LITG group. The ITT analyses found an ICER of €-98.37 and an ICUR of €-5160.40 for the TSG group and an ICER of €-9.91 and an ICUR of €496.72 for the LITG group. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the two Internet-based CBT interventions are appropriate from both economic and clinical perspectives for depressed patients in the Spanish primary care system. These interventions not only help patients to improve clinically but also generate societal savings. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT01611818 PMID:28241025
Lehr, Dirk; Berking, Matthias; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Ebert, David Daniel
Background Nonadherence to treatment is a prevalent issue in Internet interventions. Guidance from health care professionals has been found to increase treatment adherence rates in Internet interventions for a range of physical and mental disorders. Evaluating different guidance formats of varying intensity is important, particularly with respect to improvement of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Identifying predictors of nonadherence allows for the opportunity to better adapt Internet interventions to the needs of participants especially at risk for discontinuing treatment. Objective The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of different guidance formats (content-focused guidance, adherence-focused guidance, and administrative guidance) on adherence and to identify predictors of nonadherence in an Internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention (ie, GET.ON Stress) for employees. Methods The data from the groups who received the intervention were pooled from three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy of the same Internet-based mobile-supported stress management intervention (N=395). The RCTs only differed in terms of the guidance format (content-focused guidance vs waitlist control, adherence-focused guidance vs waitlist control, administrative guidance vs waitlist control). Adherence was defined by the number of completed treatment modules (0-7). An ANOVA was performed to compare the adherence rates from the different guidance formats. Multiple hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate predictors of nonadherence, which included gender, age, education, symptom-related factors, and hope for improvement. Results In all, 70.5% (93/132) of the content-focused guidance sample, 68.9% (91/132) of the adherence-focused guidance sample, and 42.0% (55/131) of the participants in the administrative guidance sample completed all treatment modules. Guidance had a significant effect on treatment
Feng, Li; Xu, Yanjun; Zhang, Yunpeng; Sun, Zeguo; Han, Junwei; Zhang, Chunlong; Yang, Haixiu; Shang, Desi; Su, Fei; Shi, Xinrui; Li, Shang; Li, Chunquan; Li, Xia
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate disease-relevant metabolic pathways. However, most current pathway identification methods fail to consider miRNAs in addition to genes when analyzing pathways. We developed a powerful method called Subpathway-GMir to construct miRNA-regulated metabolic pathways and to identify miRNA-mediated subpathways by considering condition-specific genes, miRNAs, and pathway topologies. We used Subpathway-GMir to analyze two liver hepatocellular carcinomas (LIHC), one stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD), and one type 2 diabetes (T2D) data sets. Results indicate that Subpathway-GMir is more effective in identifying phenotype-associated metabolic pathways than other methods and our results are reproducible and robust. Subpathway-GMir provides a flexible platform for identifying abnormal metabolic subpathways mediated by miRNAs, and may help to clarify the roles that miRNAs play in a variety of diseases. The Subpathway-GMir method has been implemented as a freely available R package.
Conditioning-specific reflex modification of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response and heart rate: behavioral rules, neural substrates, and potential applications to posttraumatic stress disorder.
Burhans, Lauren B; Smith-Bell, Carrie; Schreurs, Bernard G
Interest in classical conditioning is usually focused on anticipatory responses to a stimulus associated with a significant event, and it is assumed that responses to the event itself are reflexive, involuntary, and relatively invariant. However, there is compelling evidence that both the rabbit nictitating membrane response (NMR) and heart rate response (HR), well-known reflexive reactions to aversive events, can change quite dramatically as a function of learning when measured in the absence of the conditioned stimulus. In the case of NMR conditioning, a simple blink is transformed into a larger and more complex response. For HR conditioning, reflexive heart rate acceleration can actually change to heart rate deceleration. In both cases, the reflex comes to resemble the conditioned response and follows some of the same behavioral laws. This change in response to the aversive event itself or weaker forms of that event is called conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM). CRM may force us to reevaluate the behavioral and neural consequences of classical conditioning and may have important consequences for the treatment of conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder.
Myers, Candice A; Keller, Jeffrey N; Allen, H Raymond; Brouillette, Robert M; Foil, Heather; Davis, Allison B; Greenway, Frank L; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K
Dementia is a chronic condition in the elderly and depression is often a concurrent symptom. As populations continue to age, accessible and useful tools to screen for cognitive function and its associated symptoms in elderly populations are needed. The aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of a new internet-based assessment battery for screening mood and cognitive function in an elderly population. Specifically, the Helping Hand Technology (HHT) assessments for depression (HHT-D) and global cognitive function (HHT-G) were evaluated in a sample of 57 elderly participants (22 male, 35 female) aged 59-85 years. The study sample was categorized into three groups: 1) dementia (n = 8; Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) score 10-24), 2) mild cognitive impairment (n = 24; MMSE score 25-28), and 3) control (n = 25; MMSE score 29-30). Test-retest reliability (Pearson correlation coefficient, r) and internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha, α) of the HHT-D and HHT-G were assessed. Validity of the HHT-D and HHT-G was tested via comparison (Pearson r) to commonly used pencil-and-paper based assessments: HHT-D versus the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and HHT-G versus the MMSE. Good test-retest (r = 0.80; p < 0.0001) and acceptable internal consistency reliability (α= 0.73) of the HHT-D were established. Moderate support for the validity of the HHT-D was obtained (r = 0.60 between the HHT-D and GDS; p < 0.0001). Results indicated good test-retest (r = 0.87; p < 0.0001) and acceptable internal consistency reliability (α= 0.70) of the HHT-G. Validity of the HHT-G was supported (r = 0.71 between the HHT-G and MMSE; p < 0.0001). In summary, the HHT-D and HHT-G were found to be reliable and valid computerized assessments to screen for depression and cognitive status, respectively, in an elderly sample.
Ros, Wynand JG; Schrijvers, Guus
Background In support of professional practice, asynchronous communication between the patient and the provider is implemented separately or in combination with Internet-based self-management interventions. This interaction occurs primarily through electronic messaging or discussion boards. There is little evidence as to whether it is a useful tool for chronically ill patients to support their self-management and increase the effectiveness of interventions. Objective The aim of our study was to review the use and usability of patient-provider asynchronous communication for chronically ill patients and the effects of such communication on health behavior, health outcomes, and patient satisfaction. Methods A literature search was performed using PubMed and Embase. The quality of the articles was appraised according to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) criteria. The use and usability of the asynchronous communication was analyzed by examining the frequency of use and the number of users of the interventions with asynchronous communication, as well as of separate electronic messaging. The effectiveness of asynchronous communication was analyzed by examining effects on health behavior, health outcomes, and patient satisfaction. Results Patients’ knowledge concerning their chronic condition increased and they seemed to appreciate being able to communicate asynchronously with their providers. They not only had specific questions but also wanted to communicate about feeling ill. A decrease in visits to the physician was shown in two studies (P=.07, P=.07). Increases in self-management/self-efficacy for patients with back pain, dyspnea, and heart failure were found. Positive health outcomes were shown in 12 studies, where the clinical outcomes for diabetic patients (HbA1c level) and for asthmatic patients (forced expiratory volume [FEV]) improved. Physical symptoms improved in five studies. Five studies generated a variety of positive
Uhlig, Constantin E.; Seitz, Berthold; Eter, Nicole; Promesberger, Julia; Busse, Holger
Aims To evaluate the relative efficiencies of five Internet-based digital and three paper-based scientific surveys and to estimate the costs for different-sized cohorts. Methods Invitations to participate in a survey were distributed via e-mail to employees of two university hospitals (E1 and E2) and to members of a medical association (E3), as a link placed in a special text on the municipal homepage regularly read by the administrative employees of two cities (H1 and H2), and paper-based to workers at an automobile enterprise (P1) and college (P2) and senior (P3) students. The main parameters analyzed included the numbers of invited and actual participants, and the time and cost to complete the survey. Statistical analysis was descriptive, except for the Kruskal-Wallis-H-test, which was used to compare the three recruitment methods. Cost efficiencies were compared and extrapolated to different-sized cohorts. Results The ratios of completely answered questionnaires to distributed questionnaires were between 81.5% (E1) and 97.4% (P2). Between 6.4% (P1) and 57.0% (P2) of the invited participants completely answered the questionnaires. The costs per completely answered questionnaire were $0.57–$1.41 (E1–3), $1.70 and $0.80 for H1 and H2, respectively, and $3.36–$4.21 (P1–3). Based on our results, electronic surveys with 10, 20, 30, or 42 questions would be estimated to be most cost (and time) efficient if more than 101.6–225.9 (128.2–391.7), 139.8–229.2 (93.8–193.6), 165.8–230.6 (68.7–115.7), or 188.2–231.5 (44.4–72.7) participants were required, respectively. Conclusions The study efficiency depended on the technical modalities of the survey methods and engagement of the participants. Depending on our study design, our results suggest that in similar projects that will certainly have more than two to three hundred required participants, the most efficient way of conducting a questionnaire-based survey is likely via the Internet with a digital
Internet-Based Implementation of Non-Pharmacological Interventions of the "People Getting a Grip on Arthritis" Educational Program: An International Online Knowledge Translation Randomized Controlled Trial Design Protocol
Thomas, Roanne; De Angelis, Gino
Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects 2.1% of the Australian population (1.5% males; 2.6% females), with the highest prevalence from ages 55 to over 75 years (4.4-6.1%). In Canada, RA affects approximately 0.9% of adults, and within 30 years that is expected to increase to 1.3%. With an aging population and a greater number of individuals with modifiable risk factors for chronic diseases, such as arthritis, there is an urgent need for co-care management of arthritic conditions. The increasing trend and present shifts in the health services and policy sectors suggest that digital information delivery is becoming more prominent. Therefore, it is necessary to further investigate the use of online resources for RA information delivery. Objective The objective is to examine the effect of implementing an online program provided to patients with RA, the People Getting a Grip on Arthritis for RA (PGrip-RA) program, using information communication technologies (ie, Facebook and emails) in combination with arthritis health care professional support and electronic educational pamphlets. We believe this can serve as a useful and economical method of knowledge translation (KT). Methods This KT randomized controlled trial will use a prospective randomized open-label blinded-endpoint design to compare four different intervention approaches of the PGrip-RA program to a control group receiving general electronic educational pamphlets self-management in RA via email. Depending on group allocation, links to the Arthritis Society PGrip-RA material will be provided either through Facebook or by email. One group will receive feedback online from trained health care professionals. The intervention period is 6 weeks. Participants will have access to the Internet-based material after the completion of the baseline questionnaires until the final follow-up questionnaire at 6 months. We will invite 396 patients from Canadian and Australian Arthritis Consumers’ Associations to
Budak, Gungor; Srivastava, Rajneesh; Janga, Sarath Chandra
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) control the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic genomes at post-transcriptional level by binding to their cognate RNAs. Although several variants of CLIP (crosslinking and immunoprecipitation) protocols are currently available to study the global protein-RNA interaction landscape at single nucleotide resolution in a cell, currently there are very few tools which can facilitate understanding and dissecting the functional associations of RBPs from the resulting binding maps. Here, we present Seten, a web-based and a command line tool, which can identify and compare processes, phenotypes and diseases associated with RBPs from condition-specific CLIP-seq profiles. Seten uses BED files resulting from most peak calling algorithms which include scores reflecting the extent of binding of an RBP on the target transcript, to provide both traditional functional enrichment as well as gene set enrichment results for a number of gene set collections including BioCarta, KEGG, Reactome, Gene Ontology (GO), Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) and MalaCards Disease Ontology for several organisms including fruit fly, human, mouse, rat, worm, and yeast. It also provides an option to dynamically compare the associated gene sets across datasets as bubble charts, to facilitate comparative analysis. Benchmarking of Seten using eCLIP data for IGF2BP1, SRSF7 and PTBP1 against their corresponding CRISPR RNA-seq in K562 cells as well as randomized negative controls, demonstrated that its gene set enrichment method outperforms functional enrichment, with scores significantly contributing to the discovery of true annotations. Comparative performance analysis using these CRISPR control datasets revealed significantly higher precision and comparable recall to that observed using ChIP-Enrich. Seten's web interface currently provides precomputed results for about 200 CLIP-seq datasets and both command line as well as web interfaces can be used to analyze CLIP
van der Wouden, Johannes C; Bosmans, Judith E; Smalbrugge, Martin; van Diest, Willianne; Essery, Rosie; Yardley, Lucy; van der Horst, Henriëtte E; Maarsingh, Otto R
Introduction Dizziness is a common symptom in general practice with a high prevalence among older adults. The most common cause of dizziness in general practice is peripheral vestibular disease. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is a safe and effective treatment for peripheral vestibular disease that entails specific exercises to maximise the central nervous system compensation for the effects of vestibular pathology. An internet-based VR intervention has recently been shown to be safe and effective. Online interventions are low cost and easily accessible, but prone to attrition and non-adherence. A combination of online and face-to-face therapy, known as blended care, may balance these advantages and disadvantages. Methods and analysis A single-blind, three-arm, randomised controlled trial among patients aged 50 years and over presenting with dizziness of vestibular origin in general practice will be performed. In this study, we will compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of stand-alone internet-based VR and internet-based VR with physiotherapeutic support (‘blended care’) with usual care during 6 months of follow-up. We will use a translated Dutch version of a British online VR intervention. Randomisation will be stratified by dizziness severity. The primary outcome measure is the Vertigo Symptoms Scale—Short Form. Intention-to-treat analysis will be performed, adjusting for confounders. The economic evaluation will be conducted from a societal perspective. We will perform an additional analysis on the data to identify predictors of successful treatment in the same population to develop a clinical decision rule for general practitioners. Ethics and dissemination The ethical committee of the VU University Medical Center approved ethics and dissemination of the study protocol. The insights and results of this study will be widely disseminated through international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. Trial registration number Pre
Craig Rushing, Stephanie; Jessen, Cornelia; Gorman, Gwenda; Torres, Jennifer; Lambert, William E; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Miller, Leslie; Allums-Featherston, Kelly; Addy, Robert C; Peskin, Melissa F; Shegog, Ross
previously established measures. Results Sites had sufficient computer access and Internet connectivity to implement the 6 programs with adequate fidelity; however, variable bandwidth (ranging from 0.24 to 93.5 megabits per second; mean 25.6) and technical issues led some sites to access programs via back-up modalities (eg, uploading the programs from a Universal Serial Bus drive). The number of youth providing engagement ratings varied by program (n=40-191; 48-60% female, 85-90% self-identified AI/AN). Across programs, youth rated the programs as easy to use (68-91%), trustworthy (61-89%), likeable (59-87%), and impactful (63-91%). Most youth understood the words in the programs (60-83%), although some needed hints to complete the programs (16-49%). Overall, 37-66% of the participants would recommend the programs to a classmate, and 62-87% found the programs enjoyable when compared to other school lessons. Conclusions Findings demonstrate the potential of the Internet to enhance the reach and implementation of evidence-based health promotion programs, and to engage AI/AN youth. Provision of back-up modalities is recommended to address possible connectivity or technical issues. The dissemination of Internet-based health promotion programs may be a promising strategy to address health disparities for this underserved population. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01303575; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01303575 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6m7DO4g7c) PMID:27872037
Effects of Adding an Internet-Based Pain Coping Skills Training Protocol to a Standardized Education and Exercise Program for People With Persistent Hip Pain (HOPE Trial): Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol
Rini, Christine; Keefe, Francis; French, Simon; Nelligan, Rachel; Kasza, Jessica; Forbes, Andrew; Dobson, Fiona; Haxby Abbott, J.; Dalwood, Andrew; Vicenzino, Bill; Harris, Anthony; Hinman, Rana S.
Background Persistent hip pain in older people is usually due to hip osteoarthritis (OA), a major cause of pain, disability, and psychological dysfunction. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether adding an Internet-based pain coping skills training (PCST) protocol to a standardized intervention of education followed by physical therapist–instructed home exercise leads to greater reductions in pain and improvements in function. Design An assessor-, therapist-, and participant-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted. Setting The study will be conducted in a community setting. Participants The participants will be 142 people over 50 years of age with self-reported hip pain consistent with hip OA. Intervention Participants will be randomly allocated to: (1) a control group receiving a 24-week standardized intervention comprising an 8-week Internet-based education package followed by 5 individual physical therapy exercise sessions plus home exercises (3 times weekly) or (2) a PCST group receiving an 8-week Internet-based PCST protocol in addition to the control intervention. Measurements Outcomes will be measured at baseline and 8, 24, and 52 weeks, with the primary time point at 24 weeks. Primary outcomes are hip pain on walking and self-reported physical function. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, participant-perceived treatment response, self-efficacy for pain management and function, pain coping attempts, pain catastrophizing, and physical activity. Measurements of adherence, adverse events, use of health services, and process measures will be collected at 24 and 52 weeks. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed at 52 weeks. Limitations A self-reported diagnosis of persistent hip pain will be used. Conclusions The findings will help determine whether adding an Internet-based PCST protocol to standardized education and physical therapist–instructed home exercise is more effective than education and exercise
Zhang, Junpeng; Le, Thuc Duy; Liu, Lin; He, Jianfeng; Li, Jiuyong
. The PPI enrichment analyses of the tumor and normal CoRePPI networks suggest that the co-regulating TFs and miRNAs are significantly associated with the specific biological processes, diseases and pathways. In addition, comparing with the two non-condition-specific approaches, the tumor CoRePPI network is found to have the most enriched cancer-related PPIs. Altogether, the results uncover the combined regulatory patterns of TFs and miRNAs on the PPIs, and may provide new insights for research in cancer-associated TFs and miRNAs.
Randomized controlled trial of primary care physician motivational interviewing versus brief advice to engage adolescents with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention: 6-month outcomes and predictors of improvement.
Hoek, Willemijn; Marko, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Schuurmans, Josien; Gladstone, Tracy; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Bell, Carl; Reinecke, Mark A; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W
We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We conducted a randomized comparison of two approaches in engaging adolescents with the Internet intervention: primary care physician (PCP) motivational interview + CATCH-IT Internet program (MI) vs PCP brief advice + CATCH-IT Internet program (BA). The participants (N = 84) were recruited by screening for risk of depression in 13 primary care practices. We compared depressive disorder outcomes between groups and within groups over 6 months and examined the potential predictors and moderators of outcomes across both study arms. Depressive symptom scores declined from baseline to 6 weeks with these statistically significant reductions sustained at the 6 months follow-up in both groups. No significant interactions with treatment condition were found. However, by 6 months, the MI group demonstrated significantly fewer depressive episodes and reported less hopelessness as compared with the BA group. Hierarchical linear modeling regressions showed higher ratings of ease of use of the Internet program predicting lower depressive symptom levels over 6 months. In conclusion, a primary care/Internet-based intervention model among adolescents demonstrated reductions in depressed mood over 6 months and may result in fewer depressive episodes.
Hofmann, Megan; Dack, Charlotte; Barker, Chris; Murray, Elizabeth
This mixed-method study assessed the impact of an internet-based, self-management intervention (“HeLP-Diabetes”) on the psychological well-being of adults with type 2 diabetes. Nineteen participants were recruited from 3 general practices. Data were collected at baseline and at 6 weeks follow-up. Access to HeLP-Diabetes was associated with a significant decrease in participants' diabetes-related distress (Z = 2.04, p = 0.04, and d = 0.28). No significant differences were found in emotional distress or self-efficacy. The qualitative data found that participants reported improvements including increased self-efficacy and support, better management of low mood, greater diabetes awareness, and taking the condition more seriously. Participants also reported making improvements to their eating habits, exercise routine, and medical management. Some negative experiences associated with using the intervention were mentioned including feelings of guilt for not using the intervention as suggested or not making any behavioral changes, as well as technical and navigational frustrations with the intervention. Internet-based self-management interventions may have the potential to decrease diabetes-related distress in people with type 2 diabetes. The qualitative data also suggests internet interventions can positively impact both psychological and behavioural outcomes of adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26682226
Alkhateeb, A; Singer, H; Yakami, M; Takahashi, T
The rapid development of the Internet and the increasing interest in Internet-based solutions has promoted the idea of creating Internet-based health information applications. This will force a change in the role of IC cards in healthcare card systems from a data carrier to an access key medium. At the Medical Informatics Department of Kyoto University Hospital we are developing a smart card patient information project where patient databases are accessed via the Internet. Strong end-to-end data encryption is performed via Secure Socket Layers, transparent to transmit patient information. The smart card is playing the crucial role of access key to the database: user authentication is performed internally without ever revealing the actual key. For easy acceptance by healthcare professionals, the user interface is integrated as a plug-in for two familiar Web browsers, Netscape Navigator and MS Internet Explorer.
Background. Chronic pain is prevalent, disabling, costly, and undertreated. There is clearly a need to improve patient understanding of ways to manage their pain. Internet-based programs are continually being developed to facilitate mental health improvement, providing tailored content for patients to manage their pain, anxiety, and depression. Objective. To evaluate the impact of Internet-based patient self-management education and activities on patients' pain, anxiety, and quality of life in patients who could not access multidisciplinary pain management. Design. Observational study. Subjects. Two hundred (200) patients (61% females, 39% males, between 18 and 75 years old) from one community pain clinic in Toronto, Canada (Toronto Poly Clinic), participated. Patients had moderate to severe pain, depression, and anxiety. These patients committed to study from a group of 515 patients with chronic noncancer pain of different origins who were stable on their levels of pain, anxiety, and depression for 12 consecutive months before start of study and could not afford noninsured treatment modalities like physiotherapy, psychology, nutrition, or exercise therapy consultation. Methods. Patients were encouraged to visit two Internet sites (a blog and Twitter postings) for educational postings written by the author about exercise, nutrition, mindfulness meditation, disease management methods, evidence-based supplements, daily relaxation exercises, and overall self-management methods 15 minutes per day for six months. Patients were also encouraged to share their ideas and comments on a blog. Activity logs were kept by patients and reviewed by physician at follow-up visits. Compliance was encouraged via weekly email reminders and phone calls during the observation period. Results. Modest improvements were noted in pain, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Of the patients with moderate or severe pain before treatment, 45% reported mild levels of pain after treatment
Pilot Study of Implementation of an Internet-Based Depression Prevention Intervention (CATCH-IT) for Adolescents in 12 US Primary Care Practices: Clinical and Management/Organizational Behavioral Perspectives
Eisen, Jeffrey C.; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Cardenas, Alonso; Bahn, My; Bradford, Nathan; Fagan, Blake; Wiedmann, Peggy
Objective: To explore the implementation of CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive-behavioral Humanistic and Interpersonal Training), an Internet-based depression intervention program in 12 primary care sites, occurring as part of a randomized clinical trial comparing 2 versions of the intervention (motivational interview + Internet program versus brief advice + Internet program) in 83 adolescents aged 14 to 21 years recruited from February 1, 2007, to November 31, 2007. Method: The CATCH-IT intervention model consists of primary care screening to assess risk, a primary care physician interview to encourage participation, and 14 online modules of Internet training to teach adolescents how to reduce behaviors that increase vulnerability to depressive disorders. Specifically, we evaluated this program from both a management/organizational behavioral perspective (provider attitudes and demonstrated competence) and a clinical outcomes perspective (depressed mood scores) using the RE-AIM model (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance of the intervention). Results: While results varied by clinic, overall, clinics demonstrated satisfactory reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of the CATCH-IT depression prevention program. Measures of program implementation and management predicted clinical outcomes at practices in exploratory analyses. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary approaches may be essential to evaluating the impact of complex interventions to prevent depression in community settings. Primary care physicians and nurses can use Internet-based programs to create a feasible and cost-effective model for the prevention of mental disorders in adolescents in primary care settings. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00152529 and NCT00145912 PMID:24800110
Barton, Paul; Bracht, Marianne; Cranis, Marilyn; O'Doherty, Brenda; Dennis, Marguerite; James, Andrew; O'Brien, Karel
The success of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis programs is partially dependent upon meticulous tracking of at risk infants, and excellent data management. We designed and built an integrated, shared, user-driven but infant-centric data management application that enables an infants healthcare provider to determine an infants RSV prophylaxis status throughout the RSV season. The security and confidentiality of each infants information is protected by rigorous integrity constraints that have been integrated into the database schema.
Pajtók-Tari, Ilona; Mika, János
The information and communication technology (ICT) is a tool of development for acting or prospective teachers. In geography, however, this competence often needs directed improvement, especially for the students less information and motivation for using the full potential of this tool. In the MA program for prospective teachers of geography there is a course held by one of the authors (PTI) to introduce the students into all possibilities of ICT. The course is focused at and widely illustrated by the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT, which is a homepage, first published in Hungarian still in 2006 (http://netszkozkeszlet.ektf.hu), to help in orientation among the rapidly growing information on the Internet. The main objective of the GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT is to convey structured information to teachers and pupils, as well as, professors and students of geography. It can be used free after registration. The homepage counts ca. three thousand registered users. The English version is available from the same entry. The set of appliances is based on Dreamweaver MX program. Development of the students' ICT-competence was measured in 2008 during the course. Before the course 38 students answered 110 questions and, after the course, the same questions were answered by 29 students. The questions were related to their attitude to ICT, technical abilities in using a PC and projections on application in a school environment. In 31 cases the answers fell into one category not allowing the chi2 test. From the 79 remained questions, there where not any which were reflected significant step-back in the ICT-competence. At the same time, significant improvement of the competence appeared in 29, 41 and 48 % of the questions at the 1, 5 and 10 % level. The course and the homepage also improved their ability to (i) memorise and reconstruct the pieces of knowledge, (ii) reconstruct the patterns in space from their 2D-images, (iii) explain the images and documents in their own words, and (iv) co
Kajiyama, Bruno; Thompson, Larry W.; Eto-Iwase, Tamiko; Yamashita, Mio; Di Mario, John; Tzuang, Yuan Marian; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
OBJECTIVE Determine if the online iCare Stress Management e-Training Program reduces stress, bother depression and poor life quality for dementia family caregivers (CGs). METHOD CGs (N=150) were randomly assigned to the iCare Condition (ICC) or to the Education/Information-Only Condition (EOC) for a 3-month periodChange in self-report measures of stress (PSS) (primary outcome), caregiver bother(RMBPC), depression (CES-D) and quality of life (PQOL) (secondary outcomes) was determined, along with usage of new information in one’s own caregiving. RESULTS A mixed ANOVA revealed that change in perceived stress was significant for the ICC but not the EOC (p = .017). Changes in the other measures were not significant. More caregivers in the ICC used the materials in their own caregiving situation than those in the EOC. Roughly one-third of the caregivers enrolled in the study dropped prior to completion. CONCLUSION Results are promising, but the high dropout is a concern. Future efforts to improve dropout rate and increase participant engagement are warranted. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to present an evidence-based intervention for CGs via the Internet. PMID:23461355
Zhang, X.-S.; Xie, Hua
This paper presents a learning-by-doing method in the Internet environment to enhance the results of information technology education by experimental work in the classroom of colleges. In this research, an practical approach to apply the "learning by doing" paradigm in Internet-based learning, both for higher educational environments and life-long training systems, taking into account available computer and network resources, such as blogging, podcasting, social networks, wiki etc. We first introduce the different phases in the learning process, which aimed at showing to the readers that the importance of the learning by doing paradigm, which is not implemented in many Internet-based educational environments. Secondly, we give the concept of learning by doing in the different perfective. Then, we identify the most important trends in this field, and give a real practical case for the application of this approach. The results show that the attempt methods are much better than traditional teaching methods.
Dunn, Tamara L; Casey, Leanne M; Sheffield, Jeanie K; Petsky, Helen; Anderson-James, Sophie; Chang, Anne B
Background Chronic respiratory illnesses are the most common group of childhood chronic health conditions and are overrepresented in socially isolated groups. Objective To conduct a randomized controlled pilot trial to evaluate the efficacy of Breathe Easier Online (BEO), an Internet-based problem-solving program with minimal facilitator involvement to improve psychosocial well-being in children and adolescents with a chronic respiratory condition. Methods We randomly assigned 42 socially isolated children and adolescents (18 males), aged between 10 and 17 years to either a BEO (final n = 19) or a wait-list control (final n = 20) condition. In total, 3 participants (2 from BEO and 1 from control) did not complete the intervention. Psychosocial well-being was operationalized through self-reported scores on depression symptoms and social problem solving. Secondary outcome measures included self-reported attitudes toward their illness and spirometry results. Paper-and-pencil questionnaires were completed at the hospital when participants attended a briefing session at baseline (time 1) and in their homes after the intervention for the BEO group or a matched 9-week time period for the wait-list group (time 2). Results The two groups were comparable at baseline across all demographic measures (all F < 1). For the primary outcome measures, there were no significant group differences on depression (P = .17) or social problem solving (P = .61). However, following the online intervention, those in the BEO group reported significantly lower depression (P = .04), less impulsive/careless problem solving (P = .01), and an improvement in positive attitude toward their illness (P = .04) compared with baseline. The wait-list group did not show these differences. Children in the BEO group and their parents rated the online modules very favorably. Conclusions Although there were no significant group differences on primary outcome measures, our pilot data provide tentative support
The Feasibility, Acceptability, and Efficacy of Delivering Internet-Based Self-Help and Guided Self-Help Interventions for Generalized Anxiety Disorder to Indian University Students: Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial
Newman, Michelle G; Ruzek, Josef I; Kuhn, Eric; Manjula, M; Jones, Megan; Thomas, Neil; Abbott, Jo-Anne M; Sharma, Smita; Taylor, C. Barr
Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common mental disorders among university students; however, many students go untreated due to treatment costs, stigma concerns, and limited access to trained mental health professionals. These barriers are heightened in universities in India, where there are scant mental health care services and severe stigma surrounding help seeking. Objective To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of Internet-based, or “online,” cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based unguided and guided self-help interventions (using the programs GAD Online and Lantern, respectively) to reduce GAD symptoms in students with clinical and subthreshold GAD and, ultimately, reduce the prevalence and incidence of GAD among the student population. Methods Students will be recruited via 3 colleges in Hyderabad, India, and referred for a campus-wide online screening. Self-report data will be collected entirely online. A total of 300 qualifying students will be randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive GAD Online, Lantern, or to be in a wait-list control condition, stratified by clinical and subthreshold GAD symptomatology. Students will complete a postintervention assessment after 3 months and a follow-up assessment 6 months later, at which point students in the wait-list control condition will receive one of the programs. The primary outcome is GAD symptom severity at 3 months postintervention. Secondary outcomes include GAD caseness at 9 months, other anxiety and depression symptoms, self-efficacy, and functional measures (eg, sleep, social functioning) at 3 and 9 months, respectively. Primary analyses will be differences between each of the intervention groups and the wait-list control group, analyzed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis using mixed-design ANOVA. Results The study commenced in February 2015. The sample was recruited over a 3-week period at each college. The trial is expected to end in December 2015
Haag, Devon; Hottes, Travis Salway; Bondyra, Mark; Elliot, Elizabeth; Chabot, Cathy; Farrell, Janine; Bonnell, Amanda; Kopp, Shannon; Andruschak, John; Shoveller, Jean; Ogilvie, Gina
Background Testing for sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBI) is an effective public health strategy that can promote personal control of one’s health and prevent the spread of these infections. Multiple barriers deter access to testing including fear of stigmatization, inaccurate health care provider perceptions of risk, and reduced availability of clinic services and infrastructure. Concurrent increases in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates and demands on existing clinical services make this an even more pressing concern. Web-based testing offers several advantages that may alleviate existing clinical pressures and facilitate appropriate testing access. Objective This paper describes the planning, development, and usability testing of a novel Web-based testing service, GetCheckedOnline (GCO), as a complementary testing option integrated within existing sexual health services within British Columbia (BC). Methods From 2009 to 2014, we engaged a multidisciplinary team in the design and development of GCO. We conducted 3 initial research studies to ascertain the opinions of youth, men who have sex with men (MSM), and STI clinic clients regarding Web-based testing and elicited perspectives of sexual health care providers through focus groups. We developed an informed consent process, risk assessment questions, and test recommendations based on provincial and national guidelines and evaluated these through consultations with clinical and community stakeholders. We also conducted a preliminary health equity impact assessment whose findings also informed the GCO program mode. Finally, from April 2011 to December 2012 we gathered qualitative data from 25 participants on the functionality and usability of a GCO prototype and incorporated their recommendations into a final model. Results GCO launched in the fall of 2014 across 6 pilot sites in Vancouver, BC. The service involves 3 main steps: (1) create an account, complete an assessment, and
Logie, C H; Alaggia, R; Rwigema, M J
Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health outcomes, individual, social and structural factors. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with LBQ women in Toronto, Canada. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess correlates of lifetime sexual assault (LSA). Almost half (42%) of participants (n = 415) reported experiences of LSA. Participants identifying as queer were more likely to have experienced LSA than those identifying as lesbian. When controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, experiencing LSA was associated with higher rates of depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), receiving an STI test, belief that healthcare providers were not comfortable with their LBQ sexual orientation, and sexual stigma (overall, perceived and enacted). A history of sexual violence was associated with lower: self-rated health, overall social support, family social support and self-esteem. This research highlights the salience of a social ecological framework to inform interventions for health promotion among LBQ women and to challenge sexual stigma and sexual violence.
Salaffi, Fausto; Mozzani, Flavio; Draghessi, Antonella; Atzeni, Fabiola; Catellani, Rosita; Ciapetti, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Marco; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo
Objective The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the usefulness of using an Internet survey of patients with fibromyalgia in order to obtain information concerning symptoms and functionality and identify clusters of clinical features that can distinguish patient subsets. Methods An Internet website has been used to collect data. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised version, self-administered Fibromyalgia Activity Score, and Self-Administered Pain Scale were used as questionnaires. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was applied to the data obtained in order to identify symptoms and functional-based subgroups. Results Three hundred and fifty-three patients completed the study (85.3% women). The highest scored items were those related to sleep quality, fatigue/energy, pain, stiffness, degree of tenderness, balance problems, and environmental sensitivity. A high proportion of patients reported pain in the neck (81.4%), upper back (70.1%), and lower back (83.2%). A three-cluster solution best fitted the data. The variables were significantly different (P<0.0001) among the three clusters: cluster 1 (117 patients) reflected the lowest average scores across all symptoms, cluster 3 (116 patients) the highest scores, and cluster 2 (120 patients) captured moderate symptom levels, with low depression and anxiety. Conclusion Three subgroups of fibromyalgia samples in a large cohort of patients have been identified by using an Internet survey. This approach could provide rationale to support the study of individualized clinical evaluation and may be used to identify optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27257392
Poltawski, Leon; Allison, Rhoda; Briscoe, Simon; Freeman, Jennifer; Kilbride, Cherry; Neal, Debbie; Turton, Ailie J.; Dean, Sarah
Abstract Purpose: Upper limb disability following stroke may have multiple effects on the individual. Existing assessment instruments tend to focus on impairment and function and may miss other changes that are personally important. This study aimed to identify personally significant impacts of upper limb disability following stroke. Methods: Accounts by stroke survivors, in the form of web-based diaries (blogs) and stories, were sought using a blog search engine and in stroke-related web-sites. Thematic analysis using the World Health Organisation’s International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) was used to identify personal impacts of upper limb disability following stroke. Results: Ninety-nine sources from at least four countries were analysed. Many impacts were classifiable using the ICF, but a number of additional themes emerged, including emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes. Blogs and other web-based accounts were easily accessible and rich sources of data, although using them raised several methodological issues, including potential sample bias. Conclusions: A range of impacts was identified, some of which (such as use of information technology and alienation from the upper limb) are not addressed in current assessment instruments. They should be considered in post-stroke assessments. Blogs may help in the development of more comprehensive assessments.Implications for RehabilitationA comprehensive assessment of the upper limb following stroke should include the impact of upper limb problems on social participation, as well as associated emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes.Using personalised assessment instruments alongside standardised measures may help ensure that these broader domains are considered in discussions between clinicians and patients.Rehabilitation researchers should investigate whether and how these domains could be addressed and operationalised in standard upper limb assessment instruments. PMID
Breakey, V R; Ignas, D M; Warias, A V; White, M; Blanchette, V S; Stinson, J N
Adolescents with haemophilia must assume responsibility for their health and management of their disease. An online self-management program was developed to support adolescents during this transition. To determine the feasibility of the program using a randomized control trial (RCT) design in terms of accrual/attrition rates, willingness to be randomized, compliance with the program/outcome measures and satisfaction. Adolescents, ages 13-18, were enrolled in a pilot RCT (NCT01477437) and randomized to either the intervention (8-week program with telephone coaching) or the control arm (no access to the website, weekly telephone call as attention-strategy). All participants completed pre/post-outcome measures. Twenty-nine teens participated (intervention n = 16, control n = 13). Participants in the intervention arm spent an average of 50 min on the website per week and completed the modules in an average of 14 weeks (SD = 4.9). Attrition was higher in the control group compared to the intervention group (54% vs. 25%). 17/18 (94%) who completed the program also completed the poststudy measures. Teens on the intervention arm showed significant improvement in disease-specific knowledge (P = 0.004), self-efficacy (P = 0.007) and transition preparedness (P = 0.046). There was a statistically significant improvement in knowledge in the intervention group when compared to the control group (P = 0.01). Overall, the teens found the website to be informative, comprehensive and easy to use and were satisfied with the program. This pilot RCT study suggests benefit to the program and indicates an RCT design to be feasible with minor adjustments to the protocol.
Ybarra, Michele L.; Bull, Sheana S.; Prescott, Tonya L.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Bangsberg, David R.; Kiwanuka, Julius P.
Context Cost-effective, scalable programs are urgently needed in countries deeply affected by HIV. Methods This parallel-group RCT was conducted in four secondary schools in Mbarara, Uganda. Participants were 12 years and older, reported past-year computer or Internet use, and provided informed caregiver permission and youth assent. The intervention, CyberSenga, was a five-hour online healthy sexuality program. Half of the intervention group was further randomized to receive a booster at four-months post-intervention. The control arm received ‘treatment as usual’ (i.e., school-delivered sexuality programming). The main outcome measures were: 1) condom use and 2) abstinence in the past three months at six-months' post-intervention. Secondary outcomes were: 1) condom use and 2) abstinence at three-month's post-intervention; and 6-month outcomes by booster exposure. Analyses were intention to treat. Results All 416 eligible youth were invited to participate, 88% (n = 366) of whom enrolled. Participants were randomized to the intervention (n = 183) or control (n = 183) arm; 91 intervention participants were further randomized to the booster. No statistically significant results were noted among the main outcomes. Among the secondary outcomes: At three-month follow-up, trends suggested that intervention participants (81%) were more likely to be abstinent than control participants (74%; p = 0.08), and this was particularly true among youth who were abstinent at baseline (88% vs. 77%; p = 0.02). At six-month follow-up, those in the booster group (80%) reported higher rates of abstinence than youth in the intervention, no booster (57%) and control (55%) groups (p = 0.15); they also reported lower rates of unprotected sex (5%) compared to youth in the intervention, no booster (24%) and control (21%) groups (p = 0.21) among youth sexually active at baseline. Conclusions The CyberSenga program may affect HIV preventive behavior among abstinent
Background Preventive interventions are developed for children of parents with mental and substance use disorders (COPMI), because these children have a higher risk of developing a psychological or behavioral disorder in the future. Mental health and substance use disorders contribute significantly to the global burden of disease. Although the exact number of parents with a mental illness is unclear, the subject of mentally ill parents is gaining attention. Moreover there is a lack of interventions for COPMI-children, as well of (cost-) effectiveness studies evaluating COPMI interventions. Innovative interventions such as e-health provide a new field for exploration. There is no knowledge about the opportunities for using the internet to prevent problems in children at risk. In the current study we will focus on the (cost-) effectiveness of an online health prevention program for COPMI-children. Methods/Design We designed a randomized controlled trial to examine the (cost-) effectiveness of the Kopstoring intervention. Kopstoring is an online intervention for COPMI-children to strengthen their coping skills and prevent behavioral and psychological problems. We will compare the Kopstoring intervention with (waiting list) care as usual. This trial will be conducted entirely over the internet. An economic evaluation, from a societal perspective will be conducted, to examine the trial's cost-effectiveness. Power calculations show that 214 participants are needed, aged 16-25. Possible participants will be recruited via media announcements and banners on the internet. After screening and completing informed consent procedures, participants will be randomized. The main outcome is internalizing and externalizing symptoms as measured by the Youth Self Report. For the economic evaluation, healthcare costs and costs outside the healthcare sector will be measured at the same time as the clinical measures, at baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months. An extended measure for the intervention
Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R
Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.
Hunter, Judy F.; Generous, Curtis; Duncan, Denise
Access to online information sources of aerospace, scientific, and engineering data, a mission focus for NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Program, has always been limited by factors such as telecommunications, query language syntax, lack of standardization in the information, and the lack of adequate tools to assist in searching. Today, the NASA STI Program's NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) prototype offers a solution to these problems by providing the user with a set of tools that provide a graphical interface to remote, heterogeneous, and distributed information in a manner adaptable to both casual and expert users. Additionally, the NAM provides access to many Internet-based services such as Electronic Mail, the Wide Area Information Servers system, Peer Locating tools, and electronic bulletin boards.
Hunter, Judy; Generous, Curtis; Duncan, Denise
Access to online information sources of aerospace, scientific, and engineering data, a mission focus for NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Program, has always been limited to factors such as telecommunications, query language syntax, lack of standardization in the information, and the lack of adequate tools to assist in searching. Today, the NASA STI Program's NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) prototype offers a solution to these problems by providing the user with a set of tools that provide a graphical interface to remote, heterogeneous, and distributed information in a manner adaptable to both casual and expert users. Additionally, the NAM provides access to many Internet-based services such as Electronic Mail, the Wide Area Information Servers system, Peer Locating tools, and electronic bulletin boards.
Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas
In this paper, a complete concept for Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) - a well-known buzzword in the area of logistics and supply chain management to enable the automation of the interactions between companies and their partners - using XML (eXtensible Markup Language) will be proposed. This approach is based on Internet and XML, because the implementation of traditional EDI (e.g. EDIFACT, ANSI X.12) is mostly too costly for small and medium sized enterprises, which want to integrate their suppliers and customers in a supply chain. The paper will also present the results of the implementation of a prototype for such a system, which has been developed for an industrial partner to improve the current situation of parts delivery. The main functions of this system are an early warning system to detect problems during the parts delivery process as early as possible, and a transport following system to pursue the transportation.
Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao
This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = −0.197, p < 0.001) or waist circumference (r = −0.187, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265–0.972) and 0.389 (0.193–0.783), respectively (all p < 0.05). After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145–0.845) and 0.376 (0.161–0.876), respectively (all p < 0.05). This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults. PMID:26593945
Schaub, Michael P; Blankers, Matthijs; Lehr, Dirk; Boss, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Dekker, Jack; Goudriaan, Anna E; Maier, Larissa J; Haug, Severin; Amann, Manuel; Dey, Michelle; Wenger, Andreas; Ebert, David D
Introduction In the general population, alcohol use disorder and depression more often occur together than any other combination of a mental illness with a substance use disorder. It is important to have a cost-effective intervention that is able to reach at-risk individuals in the early stages of developing alcohol use disorders and depression disorders. Methods and analysis This paper presents the protocol for a 3-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the combined internet-based self-help intervention Take Care of You (TCOY) to reduce alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in comparison with a waiting list control group and a comparable intervention focusing on problematic alcohol use only. The active interventions consist of modules designed to reduce alcohol use, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and methods of cognitive behavioural therapy, together with additional modules in the combined study arm to reduce symptoms of depression. Data will be collected at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months postrandomisation. The primary outcome is the quantity of alcohol used in the past 7 days. A number of secondary outcome measures will be studied. These include the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) and a combined measure with the criteria of values below the cut-off for severe alcohol use disorder and for CES-D. Data analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using (generalised) linear mixed models. In order to investigate the interventions’ cost-utility and cost-effectiveness, a full economic evaluation will be performed. Ethics and dissemination This RCT will be executed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and has been approved by 2 local Ethics Committees. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. Participant-friendly summaries of trial findings will be published on the TCOY websites. Trial registration
Li, Yan-Chuan; Li, Ying; Liu, Li-Yan; Chen, Yang; Zi, Tian-Qi; Du, Shan-Shan; Jiang, Yong-Shuai; Feng, Ren-Nan; Sun, Chang-Hao
This study aims to examine the association between the ratio of dietary branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and risk of obesity among young northern Chinese adults. A total of 948 randomly recruited participants were asked to finish our internet-based dietary questionnaire for the Chinese (IDQC). Associations between dietary BCAA ratio and prevalence of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were analyzed. Furthermore, 90 subjects were randomly selected to explore the possible mechanism. Dietary BCAA ratio in obese participants was significantly lower than non-obese participants. We found negative correlations between the ratio of dietary BCAA and body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.197, p < 0.001) or waist circumference (r = -0.187, p < 0.001). Compared with those in the first quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartiles of dietary BCAA ratio for overweight/obesity were 0.508 (0.265-0.972) and 0.389 (0.193-0.783), respectively (all p < 0.05). After stratification by gender, the significance still existed in the 3rd and 4th quartile in males and the 4th quartile in females. For abdominal obesity, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of the 3rd and 4th quartile of dietary BCAA ratio were 0.351 (0.145-0.845) and 0.376 (0.161-0.876), respectively (all p < 0.05). This significance was stronger in males. Further studies indicated that dietary BCAA ratio was inversely associated with 2-h postprandial glucose (2 h-PG) and status of inflammation. In conclusion, a higher ratio of dietary BCAA is inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, postprandial glucose and status of inflammation in young northern Chinese adults.
Schlarb, Angelika A; Brandhorst, Isabel
Purpose Behavioral sleep problems are highly common in early childhood. These sleep problems have a high tendency to persist, and they may have deleterious effects on early brain development, attention, and mood regulation. Furthermore, secondary effects on parents and their relationship are documented. Negative parental cognition and behavior have been found to be important influencing factors of a child’s behavioral sleep problems. Therefore, in the current study we examined the acceptance and efficacy of a newly developed Internet-based intervention program called Mini-KiSS Online for sleep disturbances for children aged 6 months to 4 years and their parents. Patients and methods Fifty-five children (54.54% female; aged 8–57 months) suffering from psychophysiological insomnia or behavioral insomnia participated in the 6-week online treatment. Sleep problems and treatment acceptance were examined with a sleep diary, anamnestic questionnaires, a child behavior checklist (the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5–5), and treatment evaluation questionnaires. Results The evaluation questionnaires showed a high acceptance of Mini-KiSS Online. Parents would recommend the treatment to other families, were glad to participate, and reported that they were able to deal with sleep-related problems of their child after Mini-KiSS Online. Parental behavior strategies changed with a reduction of dysfunctional strategies, such as staying or soothing the child until they fell asleep, allowing the child to get up again and play or watch TV, or reading them another bedtime story. Frequency and duration of night waking decreased as well as the need for external help to start or maintain sleep. All parameters changed significantly, not only in the questionnaires but also in the sleep diary. Conclusion Mini-KiSS Online is shown to be a highly accepted and effective treatment to change parental behavior and reduce behavioral sleep problems in early childhood. PMID:23620677
Fulcher, Christopher L; Kaukinen, Catherine E
Given changes in the faces of AIDS over the last decade, it is crucial that disparities in health and access to healthcare are addressed. An Internet-based GIS was developed using ESRI's Arc Internet Map Server (Arc IMS) to provide users with a suite of tools to interact with geographic data and conduct spatial analyses related to the characteristics that promote or impede the provision of HIV-related services. Internet Mapping allows those engaged in local decision-making to: (1) geographically visualize information via the Internet; (2) Assess the relationship between the distribution of HIV services and spatially referenced socio-economic data; and (3) generate "what if" scenarios" that may direct the allocation of healthcare resources.
Internet-based cognitive–behavioural writing therapy for reducing post-traumatic stress after intensive care for sepsis in patients and their spouses (REPAIR): study protocol for a randomised-controlled trial
Gawlytta, Romina; Niemeyer, Helen; Böttche, Maria; Scherag, André; Knaevelsrud, Christine
Introduction As a consequence of sepsis and intensive care, considerable proportions of patients but also of their spouses develop a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, only a very small number receive psychotherapeutic treatment. Internet-based cognitive–behavioural writing therapy (IB-CBWT) has proven to be an effective treatment option for PTSD. It seems to fit the specific needs of this cohort and to overcome treatment barriers. Aim of the REPAIR trial is to examine the efficacy, safety and applicability of IB-CBWT for PTSD in patients and their spouses after intensive care for sepsis. Methods and analysis Participants will be assigned randomly either to a treatment or a wait-list (WL) control group. The treatment group receives IB-CBWT for PTSD, actively involving the partners of the participants. IB-CBWT will be guided by a therapist and comprises two written assignments per week over a 5 week period. After completing the assignments, the participants obtain individual responses from the therapist. Participants of the WL control group will receive treatment after a waiting period of 5 weeks. The primary outcome is PTSD symptom severity in self-rated PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Fifth Edition at the end of treatment and waiting time, respectively. Secondary outcomes are remission of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and somatisation measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, marital satisfaction measured by the Relationship Assessment Scale, health-related quality of life measured by the EQ-5D-5L, and the feasibility of IB-CBWT for this cohort (ie, dropout rate). Statistical analysis will be performed according to the intent-to-treat principle. Ethics and dissemination The study is conducted according to the principles of Good Clinical Practice and has been approved by the ethics committee of the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Germany. Results will be disseminated at scientific conferences, published in peer
Kim, H S; Kim, E; Kim, J W
Internet-based health information will enable us to interact with many people despite distance and time constraints. Informational media by computer is expected to become an important factor that affects health behavior. This study was done to develop an accessible multimedia program about breast self-examination on the Internet. This study was designed by using the two steps of need assessment and program development. For the need assessment step, a survey was carried out. The sample consisted of the 82 women of Yonsei University selected by convenient random sampling. At the program development step, screen design took into account perspectives of computer engineering. A storyboard for every screen was made via screen design and then ported to computer using the Netscape Navigator program. A breast self-examination program was developed using Netscape 4.0 on the Windows 98 platform. The multimedia program, including text, graphics, animation, and sound, was constructed with HTML language using Memo Sheet in Netscape Navigator. The contents of health information posted on the Internet included general information about breast cancer, the importance of breast self-examination, self-risk appraisal of breast cancer, the diverse methods about breast self-examination, the monthly check list graph, and social network for consultation. It is possible to interact with clients through the Question and Answer function on screen. This Internet-based health information program provides enough information, which can be accessed using search systems on the Internet.
Background Generic and condition-specific (CS) oral-health-related quality-of-life (OHRQoL) instruments assess the impacts of general oral conditions and specific oral diseases. Focusing schoolchildren from Arusha and Dar es Salaam, in Tanzania, this study compared the discriminative ability of the generic Child OIDP with respect to dental caries and periodontal problems across the study sites. Secondly, the discriminative ability of the generic-and the CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries, periodontal problems and malocclusion was compared with respect to various oral conditions as part of a construct validation. Methods In Arusha, 1077 school children (mean age 14.9 years, range 12-17 years) and 1601 school children in Dar es Salaam (mean age 13.0 years, range 12-14 years) underwent oral clinical examinations and completed the Kiswahili version of the generic and CS Child-OIDP inventories. The discriminative ability was assessed as differences in overall mean and prevalence scores between groups, corresponding effect sizes and odd ratios, OR. Results The differences in the prevalence scores and the overall mean generic Child-OIDP scores were significant between the groups with (DMFT > 0) and without (DMFT = 0) caries experience and with (simplified oral hygiene index [OHI-S] > 1) and without periodontal problems (OHI-S ≤ 1) in Arusha and Dar es Salaam. In Dar es Salaam, differences in the generic and CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without dental caries, differences in the generic Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without periodontal problems, and differences in the CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between malocclusion groups. The adjusted OR for the association between dental caries and the CS Child-OIDP score attributed to dental caries was 5.4. The adjusted OR for the association between malocclusion and CS Child-OIDP attributed to malocclusion varied from 8.8 to 2.5. Conclusion The generic
Schredl, Michael; Dehmlow, Lara; Schmitt, Judith
Study Objectives: Despite the considerable prevalence of the nightmare disorder and its burden on the patient, nightmares are underdiagnosed and undertreated, even in sleep centers. Methods: A total of 1,125 patients in a sleep center undergoing routine diagnostic procedures for their sleep disorders completed a questionnaire about nightmares. Results: About 20% of the sample indicated an interest in more information about nightmare etiology and nightmare therapy—even patients who had never sought professional help previously. Conclusions: From a clinical viewpoint, health care professionals should be encouraged to ask about nightmares and, as a first step, internet-based self-help programs should be implemented for this patient group. Citation: Schredl M, Dehmlow L, Schmitt J. Interest in information about nightmares in patients with sleep disorders. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):973–977. PMID:27070249
Considers whether information science has a theory of information. Highlights include guides to information and its theory; constructivism; information outside information science; process theories; cognitive views of information; measuring information; meaning; and misinformation. (Contains 89 references.) (LRW)
Background: Patients have to acquire information to support their decision on choosing a suitable healthcare provider. But in developing countries like Vietnam, accessibility issues remain an obstacle, thus adversely affect both quality and costliness of healthcare information. Vietnamese use both sources from health professionals and friends/relatives, especially when quality of the Internet-based cheaper sources appear to be still questionable. The search of information from both professionals and friends/relatives incurs some cost, which can be viewed as low or high depending low or high accessibility to the sources. These views potentially affect their choices. Aim and Objectives: To investigate the effects that medical/health services information on perceived expensiveness of patients’ labor costs. Two related objectives are a) establishing empirical relations between accessibility to sources and expensiveness; and, b) probabilistic trends of probabilities for perceived expensiveness. Results: There is evidence for established relations among the variables “Convexp” and “Convrel” (all p’s < 0.01), indicating that both information sources (experts and friends/relatives) have influence on patients perception of information expensiveness. The use of experts source tends to increase the probability of perceived expensiveness. Conclusion: a) Probabilistic trends show Vietnamese patients have propensity to value healthcare information highly and do not see it as “expensive”; b) The majority of Vietnamese households still take non-professional advices at their own risks; c) There is more for the public healthcare information system to do to reduce costliness and risk of information. The Internet-based health service users communities cannot replace this system. PMID:28077894
Escoffery, Cam; Diiorio, Colleen; Yeager, Katherine A; McCarty, Frances; Robinson, Elise; Reisinger, Elizabeth; Henry, Thomas; Koganti, Archana
The purpose of this study was to describe computer and Internet use among an online group and a clinic-based group of people with epilepsy. Greater than 95% of the online group and 60% of the clinic group have access to computers and the Internet. More than 99% of the online group and 57% of the clinic group used the Internet to find health information. A majority of people reported being likely to employ an Internet-based self-management program to control their epilepsy. About 43% reported searching for general information on epilepsy, 30% for medication, 23% for specific types of epilepsy, and 20% for treatment. This study found that people with epilepsy have access to computers and the Internet, desire epilepsy-specific information, and are receptive to online health information on how to manage their epilepsy.
Talati, Kandarp; Upadhyay, Vandana; Gupta, Puneet; Joshi, Ashish
Diabetes is a growing public health concern in Indian subcontinent. More and more people are searching internet for health information, however, the quality of internet-based medical information is extremely variable. This study aims to evaluate quality of health information about type-II diabetes mellitus in an Indian context. We used key words 'diabetes', 'diabetes management', 'diabetes prevention' and 'diabetes monitoring' and searched over Google, Yahoo and Bing during August 2011. Two independent reviewers used DISCERN tool to assess quality of health information of the final 84 websites. Majority of the websites were '.com' and DISCERN scores were highest in 'other' category. Inter-rater reliability analysis suggests 81% (N = 17) DISCERN criteria are in substantial agreement between two reviewers. There is no significant difference between two reviewers as well as among four website categories (.com, .edu, .org and others) for reliability of publication, specific details about treatment choices and overall quality rating.
Golozubov, O. M.; Rozhkov, V. A.; Alyabina, I. O.; Ivanov, A. V.; Kolesnikova, V. M.; Shoba, S. A.
The achievements, problems, and challenges of the modern stage of the development of the Soil-Geographic Database of Russia (SGDBR) and the history of this project are outlined. The structure of the information system of the SGDBR as an internet-based resource to collect data on soil profiles and to integrate the geographic and attribute databases on the same platform is described. The pilot project in Rostov oblast illustrates the inclusion of regional information in the SGDBR and its application for solving practical problems. For the first time in Russia, the GeoRSS standard based on the structured hypertext representation of the geographic and attribute information has been applied in the state system for the agromonitoring of agricultural lands in Rostov oblast and information exchange through the internet.
Baker, D B; Masys, D R
The Internet holds both promise and peril for the communications of person-identifiable health information. Because of technical features designed to promote accessibility and interoperability rather than security, Internet addressing conventions and transport protocols are vulnerable to compromise by malicious persons and programs. In addition, most commonly used personal computer (PC) operating systems currently lack the hardware-based system software protection and process isolation that are essential for ensuring the integrity of trusted applications. Security approaches designed for electronic commerce, that trade known security weaknesses for limited financial liability, are not sufficient for personal health data, where the personal damage caused by unintentional disclosure may be far more serious. To overcome these obstacles, we are developing and evaluating an Internet-based communications system called PCASSO (Patient-centered access to secure systems online) that applies state of the art security to health information. PCASSO includes role-based access control, multi-level security, strong device and user authentication, session-specific encryption and audit trails. Unlike Internet-based electronic commerce 'solutions,' PCASSO secures data end-to-end: in the server; in the data repository; across the network; and on the client. PCASSO is designed to give patients as well as providers access to personal health records via the Internet.
Azadeh, Fereydoon; Ghasemi, Shahrzad
The present research aims to study information seeking behavior of faculty Members of Payame Noor University (PNU) in Mazandaran province of Iran by using Wilson’s model of information seeking behavior. This is a survey study. Participants were 97 of PNU faculty Members in Mazandaran province. An information-seeking behavior inventory was employed to gather information and research data, which had 24 items based on 5-point likert scale. Collected data were analyzed in SPSS software. Results showed that the most important goal of faculty members was publishing a scientific paper, and their least important goal was updating technical information. Also we found that they mostly use internet-based resources to meet their information needs. Accordingly, 57.7% of them find information resources via online search engines (e.g. Google, Yahoo). Also we concluded that there was a significant relationship between English language proficiency, academic rank, and work experience of them and their information- seeking behavior. PMID:27157151
Owens, Jacqueline K; Warner Stidham, Andrea; Owens, Elizabeth L
Disaster preparedness is more complex for persons with chronic illness, who may require specific planning to address unique needs. Research suggests that advance preparation and evacuation during a disaster leads to better health outcomes. Individuals access, and rely on, health information via online sources. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to examine information that persons who may have special needs receive from an Internet based free sharing source, YouTube, related to disaster evacuation procedures. A content analysis of 51 clips using the Health Literacy Skills Framework revealed themes related to quality and region. Findings suggested concerns such as errors, minimal information about management of conditions during evacuation, and lack of diversity.