Znamenskiy, Petr; Hofer, Sonja B
Parvalbumin interneurons in the cortex are believed to pool inputs from most surrounding excitatory cells independent of their functional properties. Response properties of interneurons in columnar visual cortex of ferrets, described by Wilson et al. (2017) in this issue of Neuron, challenge this view.
Crow, Terry; Jin, Nan Ge; Tian, Lian-Ming
In the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda, ciliary locomotion contributes to the generation of two tactic behaviors. Light elicits a positive phototaxis, and graviceptive stimulation evokes a negative gravitaxis. Two classes of light-responsive premotor interneurons in the network contributing to ciliary locomotion have been recently identified in the cerebropleural ganglia. Aggregates of type I interneurons receive monosynaptic excitatory (I(e)) or inhibitory (I(i)) input from identified photoreceptors. Type II interneurons receive polysynaptic excitatory (II(e)) or inhibitory (II(i)) input from photoreceptors. The ciliary network also includes type III inhibitory (III(i)) interneurons, which form monosynaptic inhibitory connections with ciliary efferent neurons (CENs). Illumination of the eyes evokes a complex inhibitory postsynaptic potential, a decrease of I(i) spike activity, a complex excitatory postsynaptic potential, and an increase of I(e) spike activity. Here, we characterized the contribution of identified I, II, and III(i) interneurons to the neural network supporting visually guided locomotion. In dark-adapted preparations, light elicited an increase in the tonic spike activity of II(e) interneurons and a decrease in the tonic spike activity of II(i) interneurons. Fluorescent dye-labeled type II interneurons exhibited diverse projections within the circumesophageal nervous system. However, a subclass of type II interneurons, II(e(cp)) and II(i(cp)) interneurons, were shown to terminate within the ipsilateral cerebropleural ganglia and indirectly modulate the activity of CENs. Type II interneurons form monosynaptic or polysynaptic connections with previously identified components of the ciliary network. The identification of a monosynaptic connection between I(e) and III(i) interneurons shown here suggest that they provide a major role in the light-dependent modulation of CEN spike activity underlying ciliary locomotion.
Large, Adam M.; Kunz, Nicholas A.; Mielo, Samantha L.; Oswald, Anne-Marie M.
Inhibitory circuitry plays an integral role in cortical network activity. The development of transgenic mouse lines targeting unique interneuron classes has significantly advanced our understanding of the functional roles of specific inhibitory circuits in neocortical sensory processing. In contrast, considerably less is known about the circuitry and function of interneuron classes in piriform cortex, a paleocortex responsible for olfactory processing. In this study, we sought to utilize transgenic technology to investigate inhibition mediated by somatostatin (SST) interneurons onto pyramidal cells (PCs), parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, and other interneuron classes. As a first step, we characterized the anatomical distributions and intrinsic properties of SST and PV interneurons in four transgenic lines (SST-cre, GIN, PV-cre, and G42) that are commonly interbred to investigate inhibitory connectivity. Surprisingly, the distributions SST and PV cell subtypes targeted in the GIN and G42 lines were sparse in piriform cortex compared to neocortex. Moreover, two-thirds of interneurons recorded in the SST-cre line had electrophysiological properties similar to fast spiking (FS) interneurons rather than regular (RS) or low threshold spiking (LTS) phenotypes. Nonetheless, like neocortex, we find that SST-cells broadly inhibit a number of unidentified interneuron classes including putatively identified PV cells and surprisingly, other SST cells. We also confirm that SST-cells inhibit pyramidal cell dendrites and thus, influence dendritic integration of afferent and recurrent inputs to the piriform cortex. Altogether, our findings suggest that SST interneurons play an important role in regulating both excitation and the global inhibitory network during olfactory processing. PMID:27582691
Tepper, James M.; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Koós, Tibor; Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo
The canonical view of striatal GABAergic interneurons has evolved over several decades of neuroanatomical/neurochemical and electrophysiological studies. From the anatomical studies, three distinct GABAergic interneuronal subtypes are generally recognized. The best-studied subtype expresses the calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin. The second best known interneuron type expresses a number of neuropeptides and enzymes, including neuropeptide Y, somatostatin, and nitric oxide synthase. The last GABAergic interneuron subtype expresses the calcium binding protein, calretinin. There is no overlap or co-localization of these three different sets of markers. The parvalbumin-immunoreactive GABAergic interneurons have been recorded in vitro and shown to exhibit a fast-spiking phenotype characterized by short duration action potentials with large and rapid spike AHPs. They often fire in a stuttering pattern of high frequency firing interrupted by periods of silence. They are capable of sustained firing rates of over 200 Hz. The NPY/SOM/NOS interneurons have been identified as PLTS cells, exhibiting very high input resistances, low threshold spike and prolonged plateau potentials in response to intracellular depolarization or excitatory synaptic stimulation. Thus far, no recordings from identified CR interneurons have been obtained. Recent advances in technological approaches, most notably the generation of several BAC transgenic mouse strains which express a fluorescent marker, enhanced green fluorescent protein, specifically and selectively only in neurons of a certain genetic makeup (e.g., parvalbumin-, neuropeptide Y-, or tyrosine hydroxylase-expressing neurons etc.) have led to the ability of electrophysiologists to visualize and patch specific neuron types in brain slices with epifluorescence illumination. This has led to a rapid expansion of the number of neurochemically and/or electrophysiologically identified interneuronal cell types in the striatum and elsewhere
Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Khalilov, Ilgam; Represa, Alfonso; Gozlan, Henri
Despite a rather long migratory journey, interneurons are functional before vertically migrating pyramidal neurons and they constitute the source and target of the first functional synapses in the developing hippocampus. Interneuron-driven network patterns are already present in utero while principal cells are mostly quiescent. At that early stage, GABAergic synapses--which are formed before glutamatergic ones--are excitatory, suggesting that GABA is a pioneer, much like the neurons from which it is released. This review discusses this sequence of events, its functional significance and the role that interneurons might play in the construction of cortical networks.
Inhibitory interneurons participate in all neuronal circuits in the mammalian brain, including the circadian clock system, and are indispensable for their effective function. Although the clock neurons have different molecular and electrical properties, their main function is the generation of circadian oscillations. Here we review the circadian plasticity of GABAergic interneurons in several areas of the mammalian brain, suprachiasmatic nucleus, neocortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, cerebellum, striatum, and in the retina. PMID:28367335
Yang, Ellen J; Harris, Alexander Z; Pettit, Diana L
Hippocampal interneuron activity has been linked to epileptogenesis, seizures and the oscillatory synaptic activity detected in behaving rats. Interneurons fire at specific times in the rhythmic cycles that comprise these oscillations; however, the mechanisms controlling these firing patterns remain unclear. We have examined the role of synaptic input in modulating the firing of spontaneously active rat hippocampal interneurons. We find that synaptic glutamate receptor currents of 20–30 pA increase instantaneous firing frequency and reset the phase of spontaneously firing CA1 stratum oriens interneurons. Kainate receptor (KAR)-mediated currents are particularly effective at producing this phase reset, while AMPA receptor currents are relatively ineffective. The efficacy of KAR-mediated currents is probably due to their 3-fold longer decay. Given the small amplitude of the currents needed for this phase reset, coincident activation of only a few KAR-containing synapses could synchronize firing in groups of interneurons. These data suggest that KARs are potent modulators of circuit behaviour and their activation alters hippocampal interneuron output. PMID:17068102
Tanaka, Daisuke H; Nakajima, Kazunori
Inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric-acid-containing interneurons play important roles in the functions of the neocortex. During rodent development, most neocortical interneurons are generated in the subpallium and migrate tangentially toward the neocortex. They migrate through multiple pathways to enter the neocortex. Failure of interneuron migration through these pathways during development leads to an abnormal distribution and abnormal functions of interneurons in the postnatal brain. Because of recent discoveries regarding the novel origins and migratory pathways of neocortical interneurons, in this article we review the literature on the migratory pathways of interneurons when they enter the neocortex.
Xenias, Harry S; Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Koós, Tibor; Tepper, James M
Striatal GABAergic interneurons that express the gene for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) have been identified previously by several methods. Although generally assumed to be dopaminergic, possibly serving as a compensatory source of dopamine (DA) in Parkinson's disease, this assumption has never been tested directly. In TH-Cre mice whose nigrostriatal pathway had been eliminated unilaterally with 6-hydroxydopamine, we injected a Cre-dependent virus coding for channelrhodopsin-2 and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein unilaterally into the unlesioned midbrain or bilaterally into the striatum. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in striatal slices revealed that both optical and electrical stimulation readily elicited DA release in control striata but not from contralateral striata when nigrostriatal neurons were transduced. In contrast, neither optical nor electrical stimulation could elicit striatal DA release in either the control or lesioned striata when the virus was injected directly into the striatum transducing only striatal TH interneurons. This demonstrates that striatal TH interneurons do not release DA. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry in enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-TH mice revealed colocalization of DA, l-amino acid decarboxylase, the DA transporter, and vesicular monoamine transporter-2 with EGFP in midbrain dopaminergic neurons but not in any of the striatal EGFP-TH interneurons. Optogenetic activation of striatal EGFP-TH interneurons produced strong GABAergic inhibition in all spiny neurons tested. These results indicate that striatal TH interneurons are not dopaminergic but rather are a type of GABAergic interneuron that expresses TH but none of the other enzymes or transporters necessary to operate as dopaminergic neurons and exert widespread GABAergic inhibition onto direct and indirect spiny neurons.
Li, Tun; Tian, Cuiping; Scalmani, Paolo; Frassoni, Carolina; Mantegazza, Massimo; Wang, Yonghong; Yang, Mingpo; Wu, Si; Shu, Yousheng
Action potential (AP) generation in inhibitory interneurons is critical for cortical excitation-inhibition balance and information processing. However, it remains unclear what determines AP initiation in different interneurons. We focused on two predominant interneuron types in neocortex: parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SST)-expressing neurons. Patch-clamp recording from mouse prefrontal cortical slices showed that axonal but not somatic Na+ channels exhibit different voltage-dependent properties. The minimal activation voltage of axonal channels in SST was substantially higher (∼7 mV) than in PV cells, consistent with differences in AP thresholds. A more mixed distribution of high- and low-threshold channel subtypes at the axon initial segment (AIS) of SST cells may lead to these differences. Surprisingly, NaV1.2 was found accumulated at AIS of SST but not PV cells; reducing NaV1.2-mediated currents in interneurons promoted recurrent network activity. Together, our results reveal the molecular identity of axonal Na+ channels in interneurons and their contribution to AP generation and regulation of network activity. PMID:25203314
Chohan, Muhammad O.; Moore, Holly
Due to the inadequacy of endogenous repair mechanisms diseases of the nervous system remain a major challenge to scientists and clinicians. Stem cell based therapy is an exciting and viable strategy that has been shown to ameliorate or even reverse symptoms of CNS dysfunction in preclinical animal models. Of particular importance has been the use of GABAergic interneuron progenitors as a therapeutic strategy. Born in the neurogenic niches of the ventral telencephalon, interneuron progenitors retain their unique capacity to disperse, integrate and induce plasticity in adult host circuitries following transplantation. Here we discuss the potential of interneuron based transplantation strategies as it relates to CNS disease therapeutics. We also discuss mechanisms underlying their therapeutic efficacy and some of the challenges that face the field. PMID:27582692
Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter
Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?
Amilhon, Bénédicte; Huh, Carey Y L; Manseau, Frédéric; Ducharme, Guillaume; Nichol, Heather; Adamantidis, Antoine; Williams, Sylvain
Hippocampal theta rhythm arises from a combination of recently described intrinsic theta oscillators and inputs from multiple brain areas. Interneurons expressing the markers parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) are leading candidates to participate in intrinsic rhythm generation and principal cell (PC) coordination in distal CA1 and subiculum. We tested their involvement by optogenetically activating and silencing PV or SOM interneurons in an intact hippocampus preparation that preserves intrinsic connections and oscillates spontaneously at theta frequencies. Despite evidence suggesting that SOM interneurons are crucial for theta, optogenetic manipulation of these interneurons modestly influenced theta rhythm. However, SOM interneurons were able to strongly modulate temporoammonic inputs. In contrast, activation of PV interneurons powerfully controlled PC network and rhythm generation optimally at 8 Hz, while continuously silencing them disrupted theta. Our results thus demonstrate a pivotal role of PV but not SOM interneurons for PC synchronization and the emergence of intrinsic hippocampal theta.
Ma, Tong; Wang, Congmin; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Xing; Tian, Miao; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Yue; Li, Jiwen; Liu, Zhidong; Cai, Yuqun; Liu, Fang; You, Yan; Chen, Chao; Campbell, Kenneth; Song, Hongjun; Ma, Lan; Rubenstein, John L; Yang, Zhengang
Cortical GABAergic inhibitory interneurons have crucial roles in the development and function of the cerebral cortex. In rodents, nearly all neocortical interneurons are generated from the subcortical ganglionic eminences. In humans and nonhuman primates, however, the developmental origin of neocortical GABAergic interneurons remains unclear. Here we show that the expression patterns of several key transcription factors in the developing primate telencephalon are very similar to those in rodents, delineating the three main subcortical progenitor domains (the medial, lateral and caudal ganglionic eminences) and the interneurons tangentially migrating from them. On the basis of the continuity of Sox6, COUP-TFII and Sp8 transcription factor expression and evidence from cell migration and cell fate analyses, we propose that the majority of primate neocortical GABAergic interneurons originate from ganglionic eminences of the ventral telencephalon. Our findings reveal that the mammalian neocortex shares basic rules for interneuron development, substantially reshaping our understanding of the origin and classification of primate neocortical interneurons.
Guo, Daqing; Chen, Mingming; Perc, Matjaž; Wu, Shengdun; Xia, Chuan; Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong
Fast-spiking (FS) interneurons in the brain are self-innervated by powerful inhibitory GABAergic autaptic connections. By computational modelling, we investigate how autaptic inhibition regulates the firing response of such interneurons. Our results indicate that autaptic inhibition both boosts the current threshold for action potential generation and modulates the input-output gain of FS interneurons. The autaptic transmission delay is identified as a key parameter that controls the firing patterns and determines multistability regions of FS interneurons. Furthermore, we observe that neuronal noise influences the firing regulation of FS interneurons by autaptic inhibition and extends their dynamic range for encoding inputs. Importantly, autaptic inhibition modulates noise-induced irregular firing of FS interneurons, such that coherent firing appears at an optimal autaptic inhibition level. Our results reveal the functional roles of autaptic inhibition in taming the firing dynamics of FS interneurons.
Hu, Hua; Gan, Jian; Jonas, Peter
The success story of fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) GABAergic interneurons (GABA, γ-aminobutyric acid) in the mammalian central nervous system is noteworthy. In 1995, the properties of these interneurons were completely unknown. Twenty years later, thanks to the massive use of subcellular patch-clamp techniques, simultaneous multiple-cell recording, optogenetics, in vivo measurements, and computational approaches, our knowledge about PV(+) interneurons became more extensive than for several types of pyramidal neurons. These findings have implications beyond the "small world" of basic research on GABAergic cells. For example, the results provide a first proof of principle that neuroscientists might be able to close the gaps between the molecular, cellular, network, and behavioral levels, representing one of the main challenges at the present time. Furthermore, the results may form the basis for PV(+) interneurons as therapeutic targets for brain disease in the future. However, much needs to be learned about the basic function of these interneurons before clinical neuroscientists will be able to use PV(+) interneurons for therapeutic purposes.
McGarry, Laura M.; Packer, Adam M.; Fino, Elodie; Nikolenko, Volodymyr; Sippy, Tanya; Yuste, Rafael
Deciphering the circuitry of the neocortex requires knowledge of its components, making a systematic classification of neocortical neurons necessary. GABAergic interneurons contribute most of the morphological, electrophysiological and molecular diversity of the cortex, yet interneuron subtypes are still not well defined. To quantitatively identify classes of interneurons, 59 GFP-positive interneurons from a somatostatin-positive mouse line were characterized by whole-cell recordings and anatomical reconstructions. For each neuron, we measured a series of physiological and morphological variables and analyzed these data using unsupervised classification methods. PCA and cluster analysis of morphological variables revealed three groups of cells: one comprised of Martinotti cells, and two other groups of interneurons with short asymmetric axons targeting layers 2/3 and bending medially. PCA and cluster analysis of electrophysiological variables also revealed the existence of these three groups of neurons, particularly with respect to action potential time course. These different morphological and electrophysiological characteristics could make each of these three interneuron subtypes particularly suited for a different function within the cortical circuit. PMID:20617186
Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Unal, Bengi; Shah, Fulva; Koós, Tibor; Tepper, James M
We investigated the properties of neostriatal neuropeptide Y (NPY)-expressing interneurons in transgenic GFP (green fluorescent protein)-NPY reporter mice. In vitro whole-cell recordings and biocytin staining demonstrated the existence of a novel class of neostriatal NPY-expressing GABAergic interneurons that exhibit electrophysiological, neurochemical, and morphological properties strikingly different from those of previously described NPY-containing, plateau-depolarization low-threshold spike (NPY-PLTS) interneurons. The novel NPY interneuron type (NPY-neurogliaform) differed from previously described NPY-PLTS interneurons by exhibiting a significantly lower input resistance and hyperpolarized membrane potential, regular, nonaccommodating spiking in response to depolarizing current injections, and an absence of plateau depolarizations or low-threshold spikes. NPY-neurogliaform interneurons were also easily distinguished morphologically by their dense, compact, and highly branched dendritic and local axonal arborizations that contrasted sharply with the sparse and extended axonal and dendritic arborizations of NPY-PLTS interneurons. Furthermore, NPY-neurogliaform interneurons did not express immunofluorescence for somatostatin or nitric oxide synthase that was ubiquitous in NPY-PLTS interneurons. IPSP/Cs could only rarely be elicited in spiny projection neurons (SPNs) in paired recordings with NPY-PLTS interneurons. In contrast, the probability of SPN innervation by NPY-neurogliaform interneurons was extremely high, the synapse very reliable (no failures were observed), and the resulting postsynaptic response was a slow, GABA(A) receptor-mediated IPSC that has not been previously described in striatum but that has been elicited from NPY-GABAergic neurogliaform interneurons in cortex and hippocampus. These properties suggest unique and distinctive roles for NPY-PLTS and NPY-neurogliaform interneurons in the integrative properties of the neostriatum.
Miyawaki, Takahiro; Tsubokawa, Hiroshi; Yokota, Hidenori; Oguro, Keiji; Konno, Katsuhiro; Masuzawa, Toshio; Kawai, Nobuhumi
We studied the effects of a wasp toxin beta-pompilidotoxin (beta-PMTX) on rat hippocampal CA1 interneurons by the current-clamp technique. The firing patterns of pyramidal neurons and pyramidale interneurons were not affected by beta-PMTX, but in oriens and radiatum interneurons, beta-PMTX converted the action potentials to prolonged depolarizing potentials by slowing the inactivation of Na(+) channels. In lacunosum moleculare interneurons, beta-PMTX induced initial bursting spikes followed by block of succeeding spikes. Comparison of beta-PMTX with a sea anemone toxin, ATX II, revealed that ATX II altered the firing properties of pyramidal neurons and pyramidale interneurons that were unchanged by beta-PMTX. Our results suggest that beta-PMTX modulates Na(+) currents in CA1 interneurons differently in various CA1 neurons and the toxin is useful to classify Na(+) channel subtypes.
Ciceri, Gabriele; Dehorter, Nathalie; Sols, Ignasi; Huang, Z Josh; Maravall, Miguel; Marín, Oscar
In the cerebral cortex, pyramidal cells and interneurons are generated in distant germinal zones, and so the mechanisms that control their precise assembly into specific microcircuits remain an enigma. Here we report that cortical interneurons labeled at the clonal level do not distribute randomly but rather have a strong tendency to cluster in the mouse neocortex. This behavior is common to different classes of interneurons, independently of their origin. Interneuron clusters are typically contained within one or two adjacent cortical layers, are largely formed by isochronically generated neurons and populate specific layers, as revealed by unbiased hierarchical clustering methods. Our results suggest that different progenitor cells give rise to interneurons populating infra- and supragranular cortical layers, which challenges current views of cortical neurogenesis. Thus, specific lineages of cortical interneurons seem to be produced to primarily mirror the laminar structure of the cerebral cortex, rather than its columnar organization.
Trigo, Federico F; Bouhours, Brice; Rostaing, Philippe; Papageorgiou, George; Corrie, John E T; Triller, Antoine; Ogden, David; Marty, Alain
Miniature synaptic currents have long been known to represent random transmitter release under resting conditions, but much remains to be learned about their nature and function in central synapses. In this work, we describe a new class of miniature currents ("preminis") that arise by the autocrine activation of axonal receptors following random vesicular release. Preminis are prominent in gabaergic synapses made by cerebellar interneurons during the development of the molecular layer. Unlike ordinary miniature postsynaptic currents in the same cells, premini frequencies are strongly enhanced by subthreshold depolarization, suggesting that the membrane depolarization they produce belongs to a feedback loop regulating neurotransmitter release. Thus, preminis could guide the formation of the interneuron network by enhancing neurotransmitter release at recently formed synaptic contacts.
Wittner, Lucia; Henze, Darrell A; Záborszky, László; Buzsáki, György
The specific connectivity among principal cells and interneurons determines the flow of activity in neuronal networks. To elucidate the connections between hippocampal principal cells and various classes of interneurons, CA3 pyramidal cells were intracellularly labelled with biocytin in anaesthetized rats and the three-dimensional distribution of their axon collaterals was reconstructed. The sections were double-stained for substance P receptor (SPR)- or metabotropic glutamate receptor 1alpha (mGluR-1alpha)-immunoreactivity to investigate interneuron targets of the CA3 pyramidal cells. SPR-containing interneurons represent a large portion of the GABAergic population, including spiny and aspiny classes. Axon terminals of CA3 pyramidal cells contacted SPR-positive interneuron dendrites in the hilus and in all hippocampal strata in both CA3 and CA1 regions (7.16% of all boutons). The majority of axons formed single contacts (87.5%), but multiple contacts (up to six) on single target neurons were also found. CA3 pyramidal cell axon collaterals innervated several types of morphologically different aspiny SPR-positive interneurons. In contrast, spiny SPR-interneurons or mGluR-1alpha-positive interneurons in the hilus, CA3 and CA1 regions were rarely contacted by the filled pyramidal cells. These findings indicate a strong target selection of CA3 pyramidal cells favouring the activation of aspiny classes of interneurons.
Pakhotin, Pavel; Bracci, Enrico
How the extent and time course of presynaptic inhibition depend on the action potentials of the neuron controlling the terminals is unknown. We investigated this issue in the striatum using paired recordings from cholinergic interneurons and projection neurons. Glutamatergic EPSCs were evoked in projection neurons and cholinergic interneurons by stimulation of afferent fibers in the cortex and the striatum, respectively. A single spike in a cholinergic interneuron caused significant depression of the evoked glutamatergic EPSC in 34% of projection neurons located within 100 microm and 41% of cholinergic interneurons located within 200 microm. The time course of these effects was similar in the two cases, with EPSC inhibition peaking 20-30 ms after the spike and disappearing after 40-80 ms. Maximal depression of EPSC amplitude was up to 27% in projection neurons and to 19% in cholinergic interneurons. These effects were reversibly blocked by muscarinic receptor antagonists (atropine or methoctramine), which also significantly increased baseline EPSC (evoked without a preceding spike in the cholinergic interneuron), suggesting that some tonic cholinergic presynaptic inhibition was present. This was confirmed by the fact that lowering extracellular potassium, which silenced spontaneously active cholinergic interneurons, also increased baseline EPSC amplitude, and these effects were occluded by previous application of muscarinic receptor antagonists. Collectively, these results show that a single spike in a cholinergic interneuron exerts a fast and powerful inhibitory control over the glutamatergic input to striatal neurons.
Lévesque, Maxime; Herrington, Rochelle; Hamidi, Shabnam; Avoli, Massimo
Excessive neuronal synchronization is presumably involved in epileptiform synchronization. However, the respective roles played by interneurons (GABAergic) and principal (glutamatergic) cells during interictal and ictal discharges remain unclear. Here, we employed tetrode wire recordings to establish the involvement of these two cell types in 4-aminopyridine-induced interictal- and low-voltage fast (LVF) onset ictal-like discharges in the rat entorhinal cortex in an in vitro slice preparation. We recorded a total of 90 single units (69 putative interneurons, 17 putative principal and 4 unclassified cells) from 36 slices, and found that: (i) interneurons (66.7%) were more likely to fire during interictal discharges than principal cells (35.3%); (ii) interneuron activity increased shortly before LVF ictal onset, whereas principal cell activity did not change; (iii) interneurons and principal cells fired at high rates throughout the tonic phase of the ictal discharge; however, (iv) only interneurons showed phase-locked relationship with LVF activity at 5-15Hz during the tonic phase. Finally, the association of interneuron firing with interictal discharges was maintained during blockade of ionotropic glutamatergic transmission. Our findings demonstrate the prominent involvement of interneurons in interictal discharge generation and in the transition to LVF ictal activity in this in vitro model of epileptiform synchronization.
Casale, Amanda E.; Foust, Amanda J.; Bal, Thierry
The role of interneurons in cortical microcircuits is strongly influenced by their passive and active electrical properties. Although different types of interneurons exhibit unique electrophysiological properties recorded at the soma, it is not yet clear whether these differences are also manifested in other neuronal compartments. To address this question, we have used voltage-sensitive dye to image the propagation of action potentials into the fine collaterals of axons and dendrites in two of the largest cortical interneuron subtypes in the mouse: fast-spiking interneurons, which are typically basket or chandelier neurons; and somatostatin containing interneurons, which are typically regular spiking Martinotti cells. We found that fast-spiking and somatostatin-expressing interneurons differed in their electrophysiological characteristics along their entire dendrosomatoaxonal extent. The action potentials generated in the somata and axons, including axon collaterals, of somatostatin-expressing interneurons are significantly broader than those generated in the same compartments of fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons. In addition, action potentials back-propagated into the dendrites of somatostatin-expressing interneurons much more readily than fast-spiking interneurons. Pharmacological investigations suggested that axonal action potential repolarization in both cell types depends critically upon Kv1 channels, whereas the axonal and somatic action potentials of somatostatin-expressing interneurons also depend on BK Ca2+-activated K+ channels. These results indicate that the two broad classes of interneurons studied here have expressly different subcellular physiological properties, allowing them to perform unique computational roles in cortical circuit operations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons in the cerebral cortex are of two major types: excitatory and inhibitory. The proper balance of excitation and inhibition in the brain is critical for its operation. Neurons
Harwell, Corey C; Fuentealba, Luis C; Gonzalez-Cerrillo, Adrian; Parker, Phillip R L; Gertz, Caitlyn C; Mazzola, Emanuele; Garcia, Miguel Turrero; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cepko, Constance L; Kriegstein, Arnold R
The mammalian neocortex is composed of two major neuronal cell types with distinct origins: excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons, generated in dorsal and ventral progenitor zones of the embryonic telencephalon, respectively. Thus, inhibitory neurons migrate relatively long distances to reach their destination in the developing forebrain. The role of lineage in the organization and circuitry of interneurons is still not well understood. Utilizing a combination of genetics, retroviral fate mapping, and lineage-specific retroviral barcode labeling, we find that clonally related interneurons can be widely dispersed while unrelated interneurons can be closely clustered. These data suggest that migratory mechanisms related to the clustering of interneurons occur largely independent of their clonal origin.
Britto, Joanne M; Johnston, Leigh A; Tan, Seong-Seng
Migration is a dynamic process in which a cell searches the environment and translates acquired information into somal advancement. In particular, interneuron migration during development is accomplished by two distinct processes: the extension of neurites tipped with growth cones; and nucleus translocation, termed nucleokinesis. The primary purpose of our study is to investigate neurite branching and nucleokinesis using high-resolution time-lapse confocal microscopy and computational modeling. We demonstrate that nucleokinesis is accurately modeled by a spring-dashpot system and that neurite branching is independent of the nucleokinesis event, and displays the dynamics of a stochastic birth-death process. This is in contrast to traditional biological descriptions, which suggest a closer relationship between the two migratory mechanisms. Our models are validated on independent data sets acquired using two different imaging protocols, and are shown to be robust to alterations in guidance cues and cellular migratory mechanisms, through treatment with brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neurotrophin-4, and blebbistatin. We postulate that the stochastic branch dynamics exhibited by interneurons undergoing guidance-directed migration permit efficient exploration of the environment.
Ledri, Marco; Madsen, Marita Grønning; Nikitidou, Litsa; Kirik, Deniz; Kokaia, Merab
Optogenetic techniques provide powerful tools for bidirectional control of neuronal activity and investigating alterations occurring in excitability disorders, such as epilepsy. In particular, the possibility to specifically activate by light-determined interneuron populations expressing channelrhodopsin-2 provides an unprecedented opportunity of exploring their contribution to physiological and pathological network activity. There are several subclasses of interneurons in cortical areas with different functional connectivity to the principal neurons (e.g., targeting their perisomatic or dendritic compartments). Therefore, one could optogenetically activate specific or a mixed population of interneurons and dissect their selective or concerted inhibitory action on principal cells. We chose to explore a conceptually novel strategy involving simultaneous activation of mixed populations of interneurons by optogenetics and study their impact on ongoing epileptiform activity in mouse acute hippocampal slices. Here we demonstrate that such approach results in a brief initial action potential discharge in CA3 pyramidal neurons, followed by prolonged suppression of ongoing epileptiform activity during light exposure. Such sequence of events was caused by massive light-induced release of GABA from ChR2-expressing interneurons. The inhibition of epileptiform activity was less pronounced if only parvalbumin- or somatostatin-expressing interneurons were activated by light. Our data suggest that global optogenetic activation of mixed interneuron populations is a more effective approach for development of novel therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, but the initial action potential generation in principal neurons needs to be taken in consideration.
Drake, Carrie T; Milner, Teresa A
In the rat hippocampal formation, application of mu opioid receptor (MOR) agonists disinhibits principal cells, promoting excitation-dependent processes such as epileptogenesis and long-term potentiation. However, the precise location of MORs in particular inhibitory circuits, has not been determined, and the roles of MORs in endogenous functioning are unclear. To address these issues, the distribution of MOR-like immunoreactivity (-li) was examined in several populations of inhibitory hippocampal neurons in the CA1 region using light and electron microscopy. We found that MOR-li was present in many parvalbumin-containing basket cells, but absent from cholecystokinin-labeled basket cells. MOR-li was also commonly in interneurons containing somatostatin-li or neuropeptide Y-li that resembled the "oriens-lacunosum-moleculare" (O-LM) interneurons innervating pyramidal cell distal dendrites. Finally, MOR-li was in some vasoactive intestinal peptide- or calretinin-containing profiles resembling interneurons that primarily innervate other interneurons. These findings indicate that MOR-containing neurons form a neurochemically and functionally heterogeneous subset of hippocampal GABAergic neurons. MORs are most frequently on interneurons that are specialized to inhibit pyramidal cells, and are on a limited number of interneurons that target other interneurons. Moreover, the distribution of MORs to different neuronal types in several laminae, some relatively far from endogenous opioids, suggests normal functional roles that are different from the actions seen with exogenous agonists such as morphine.
Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Kappeler, Caroline; Nóbrega-Pereira, Sandrina; Henkemeyer, Mark; Rago, Luciano; Nieto, M Angela; Marín, Oscar
In the developing telencephalon, the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) generates many cortical and virtually all striatal interneurons. While the molecular mechanisms controlling the migration of interneurons to the cortex have been extensively studied, very little is known about the nature of the signals that guide interneurons to the striatum. Here we report that the allocation of MGE-derived interneurons in the developing striatum of the mouse relies on a combination of chemoattractive and chemorepulsive activities. Specifically, interneurons migrate toward the striatum in response to Nrg1/ErbB4 chemoattraction, and avoid migrating into the adjacent cortical territories by a repulsive activity mediated by EphB/ephrinB signaling. Our results also suggest that the responsiveness of MGE-derived striatal interneurons to these cues is at least in part controlled by the postmitotic activity of the transcription factor Nkx2-1. This study therefore reveals parallel mechanisms for the migration of MGE-derived interneurons to the striatum and the cerebral cortex.
Jiang, Xiaolong; Wang, Guangfu; Lee, Alice J; Stornetta, Ruth L; Zhu, J Julius
Deciphering the interneuronal circuitry is central to understanding brain functions, yet it remains a challenging task in neurobiology. Using simultaneous quadruple-octuple in vitro and dual in vivo whole-cell recordings, we found two previously unknown interneuronal circuits that link cortical layer 1-3 (L1-3) interneurons and L5 pyramidal neurons in the rat neocortex. L1 single-bouquet cells (SBCs) preferentially formed unidirectional inhibitory connections on L2/3 interneurons that inhibited the entire dendritic-somato-axonal axis of ∼1% of L5 pyramidal neurons located in the same column. In contrast, L1 elongated neurogliaform cells (ENGCs) frequently formed mutual inhibitory and electric connections with L2/3 interneurons, and these L1-3 interneurons inhibited the distal apical dendrite of >60% of L5 pyramidal neurons across multiple columns. Functionally, SBC→L2/3 interneuron→L5 pyramidal neuronal circuits disinhibited and ENGC↔L2/3 interneuron→L5 pyramidal neuronal circuits inhibited the initiation of dendritic complex spikes in L5 pyramidal neurons. As dendritic complex spikes can serve coincidence detection, these cortical interneuronal circuits may be essential for salience selection.
Vida, I; Frotscher, M
Network properties of the hippocampus emerge from the interaction of principal cells and a heterogeneous population of interneurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To understand these interactions, the synaptic connections of different types of interneurons need to be elucidated. Here we describe a type of inhibitory interneuron of the hippocampal CA3 region that has an axon coaligned with the mossy fibers. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, in combination with intracellular biocytin filling, were made from nonpyramidal cells of the stratum lucidum under visual control. Mossy fiber-associated (MFA) interneurons generated brief action potentials followed by a prominent after-hyperpolarization. Subsequent visualization revealed an extensive axonal arbor which was preferentially located in the stratum lucidum of CA3 and often invaded the hilus. The dendrites of MFA interneurons were mainly located in the strata radiatum and oriens, suggesting that these cells are primarily activated by associational and commissural fibers. Electron microscopic analysis showed that axon terminals of MFA interneurons established symmetric synaptic contacts predominantly on proximal apical dendritic shafts, and to a lesser degree, on somata of pyramidal cells. Synaptic contacts were also found on GABAergic interneurons of the CA3 region and putative mossy cells of the hilus. Inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) elicited by MFA interneurons in simultaneously recorded pyramidal cells had fast kinetics (half duration, 3.6 ms) and were blocked by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline. Thus, MFA interneurons are GABAergic cells in a position to selectively suppress the mossy fiber input, an important requirement for the recall of memory traces from the CA3 network.
A dysfunction of cortical and limbic GABAergic circuits has been postulated to contribute to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, including schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy. In the current paper, I summarize the characteristics that underlie the great diversity of cortical GABAergic interneurons and explore how the multiple roles of these cells in developing and mature circuits might contribute to the aforementioned disorders. Furthermore, I review the tightly controlled genetic cascades that determine the fate of cortical interneurons and summarize how the dysfunction of genes important for the generation, specification, maturation, and function of cortical interneurons might contribute to these disorders. PMID:21876820
Acsády, L; Görcs, T J; Freund, T F
The postsynaptic targets of three vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing GABAergic interneuron types were examined in the rat hippocampus. Two of them showed remarkable target selectivity for other GABAergic neurons, while the third contacted the somata and proximal dendrites of pyramidal cells. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneurons innervating the stratum oriens/alveus border in the CA1 region were shown to establish multiple contacts with horizontal GABAergic interneurons immunoreactive for type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor. Similarly, identified axons of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneurons projecting to stratum radiatum were found to establish symmetrical synapses largely on GABAergic dendrites. The majority of these postsynaptic GABAergic neurons were shown to contain calbindin or vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. In contrast to the first two vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing cell populations, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneurons arborizing in stratum pyramidale formed baskets around pyramidal cells. These results revealed a new element in cortical microcircuits, interneurons which are specialized to innervate other GABAergic interneurons. The role of this new component may be the synchronization of dendritic inhibition, or an input-specific disinhibition of pyramidal cells in various dendritic domains. In contrast, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing basket cells are likely to be involved in perisomatic inhibition of pyramidal neurons, and represents a new basket cell type different from that containing parvalbumin.
Bikoff, Jay B.; Gabitto, Mariano I.; Rivard, Andre F.; Drobac, Estelle; Machado, Timothy A.; Miri, Andrew; Brenner-Morton, Susan; Famojure, Erica; Diaz, Carolyn; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Mentis, George Z.; Jessell, Thomas M.
SUMMARY Animals generate movement by engaging spinal circuits that direct precise sequences of muscle contraction, but the identity and organizational logic of local interneurons that lie at the core of these circuits remain unresolved. Here we show that V1 interneurons, a major inhibitory population that controls motor output, fractionate into highly diverse subsets on the basis of the expression of nineteen transcription factors. Transcriptionally defined V1 subsets exhibit distinct physiological signatures and highly structured spatial distributions with mediolateral and dorsoventral positional biases. These positional distinctions constrain patterns of input from sensory and motor neurons, arguing that interneuron position is a determinant of microcircuit organization. Moreover, V1 diversity indicates that different inhibitory microcircuits exist for motor pools controlling hip, ankle, and foot muscles, revealing a variable circuit architecture for interneurons that control limb movement. PMID:26949184
Batista-Brito, Renata; Fishell, Gord
The central goal of this manuscript is to survey our present knowledge of how cortical interneuron subtypes are generated. To achieve this, we will first define what is meant by subtype diversity. To this end, we begin by considering the mature properties that differentiate between the different populations of cortical interneurons. This requires us to address the difficulties involved in determining which characteristics allow particular interneurons to be assigned to distinct subclasses. Having grappled with this thorny issue, we will then proceed to review the progressive events in development involved in the generation of interneuron diversity. Starting with their origin and specification within the subpallium, we will follow them up through the first postnatal weeks during their integration into a functional network. Finally, we will conclude by calling the readers attention to the devastating consequences that result from developmental failures in the formation of inhibitory circuits within the cortex. PMID:19427517
Tanaka, Daisuke H; Nakajima, Kazunori
A neocortex is present in all mammals but is not present in other classes of vertebrates, and the neocortex is extremely elaborate in humans. Changes in excitatory projection neurons and their progenitors within the developing dorsal pallium in the most recent common ancestor of mammals are thought to have been involved in the evolution of the neocortex. Our recent findings suggest that changes in the migratory ability of inhibitory interneurons derived from outside the neocortex may also have been involved in the evolution of the neocortex. In this article we review the literature on the migratory profile of inhibitory interneurons in several different species and the literature on comparisons between the intrinsic migratory ability of interneurons derived from different species. Finally, we propose a hypothesis about the mammalian-specific evolution of the migratory ability of interneurons and its potential contribution to the establishment of a functional neocortex.
Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Varga, Csaba; Lee, Sang-Hun; Soltesz, Ivan
While the diversity of neocortical and hippocampal GABAergic interneurons is recognized in terms of their anatomical, molecular, and functional properties, principal cells are usually assumed to constitute homogenous populations. However, even within a single layer, subpopulations of principal cells can often be differentiated by their distinct long-range projection targets. Such subpopulations of principal cells can have different local connection properties and excitatory inputs, forming subnetworks that may serve as separate information-processing channels. Interestingly, as reviewed here, recent evidence has revealed specific instances where interneuron cell types selectively innervated distinct subpopulations of principal cells, targeting only those with particular long-distance projection targets. This organization represents a novel form of interneuron specialization, providing interneurons with the potential to selectively regulate specific information-processing streams. PMID:22119146
Liang, Bo; Schroeder, David; Zhang, Zhong-wei; Cox, Gregory A.; Li, Yun; Lin, Da-Ting
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are overlapping neurodegenerative disorders whose pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Here using TDP-43A315T mice, an ALS and FTD model with profound cortical pathology, we demonstrated that hyperactive somatostatin interneurons disinhibited layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5-PN) and contributed to their excitotoxicity. Focal ablation of somatostatin interneurons efficiently restored normal excitability of L5-PN and alleviated neurodegeneration, suggesting a novel therapeutic target for ALS and FTD. PMID:26900927
Ramirez, J M; Pearson, K G
1. The contribution of bursting properties to the generation of the flight motor pattern was examined for two identified interneurons (interneurons 566 and 567) in the flight system of the locust Locusta migratoria by means of intracellular recording and stimulation techniques. These interneurons are important elements in transmitting proprioceptive information from the hindwing tegula to wing elevator motoneurons. 2. Offset currents injected into these neurons revealed that bursts are triggered in the intact flying animal by synaptic input from tegula afferents (n = 10). These bursts lead to an amplification of proprioceptive input that is crucial for the generation of the intact flight motor pattern. In the absence of afferent input the activity of these neurons remained subthreshold for triggering a burst. This explains why these neurons exhibit only weak rhythmic oscillations in deafferented animals. 3. The property of interneuron 566 to burst was conditional, always being expressed during flight (n = 14) and occurring only occasionally in the quiescent animal. In the absence of flight, stimulation of tegula afferents never evoked bursts in interneuron 566 (n = 7) and depolarizing current pulses evoked weak bursts in only three of nine preparations. In 2 of 14 animals, bursting property of interneuron 566 was enhanced just after the termination of flight. 4. Variability in the bursting property was also found for interneuron 567. In the quiescent animal, tegula-evoked compound excitatory postsynaptic potentials were not sufficient to trigger bursts (n = 3) but depolarizing current pulses evoked always weak rhythmic bursting activity (n = 4). This bursting property was also variable and in one animal we found long-lasting plateau potentials that could be evoked by current injection after flight was elicited several times. 5. The data presented demonstrate that the capacity to burst is conditional in the interneurons 566 and 567. Bursting properties are always
Björnfors, E Rebecka; El Manira, Abdeljabbar
Flexibility in the bilateral coordination of muscle contraction underpins variable locomotor movements or gaits. While the locomotor rhythm is generated by ipsilateral excitatory interneurons, less is known about the commissural excitatory interneurons. Here we examined how the activity of the V0v interneurons – an important commissural neuronal class – varies with the locomotor speed in adult zebrafish. Although V0v interneurons are molecularly homogenous, their activity pattern during locomotion is not uniform. They consist of two distinct types dependent on whether they display rhythmicity or not during locomotion. The rhythmic V0v interneurons were further subdivided into three sub-classes engaged sequentially, first at slow then intermediate and finally fast locomotor speeds. Their order of recruitment is defined by scaling their synaptic current with their input resistance. Thus we uncover, in an adult vertebrate, a novel organizational principle for a key class of commissural interneurons and their recruitment pattern as a function of locomotor speed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18579.001 PMID:27559611
Lee, Vallent; Maguire, Jamie
Tonic inhibition is thought to dampen the excitability of principal neurons; however, little is known about the role of tonic GABAergic inhibition in interneurons and the impact on principal neuron excitability. In many brain regions, tonic GABAergic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic, δ-subunit-containing GABAA receptors (GABAARs). In the present study we demonstrate the importance of GABAAR δ-subunit-mediated tonic inhibition in interneurons. Selective elimination of the GABAAR δ-subunit from interneurons was achieved by crossing a novel floxed Gabrd mouse model with GAD65-Cre mice (Gabrd/Gad mice). Deficits in GABAAR δ-subunit expression in GAD65-positive neurons result in a decrease in tonic GABAergic inhibition and increased excitability of both molecular layer (ML) and stratum radiatum (SR) interneurons. Disinhibition of interneurons results in robust alterations in the neuronal excitability of principal neurons and decreased seizure susceptibility. Gabrd/Gad mice have enhanced tonic and phasic GABAergic inhibition in both CA1 pyramidal neurons and dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGCs). Consistent with alterations in hippocampal excitability, CA1 pyramidal neurons and DGGCs from Gabrd/Gad mice exhibit a shift in the input-output relationship toward decreased excitability compared with those from Cre(-/-) littermates. Furthermore, seizure susceptibility, in response to 20 mg/kg kainic acid, is significantly decreased in Gabrd/Gad mice compared with Cre(-/-) controls. These data demonstrate a critical role for GABAAR δ-subunit-mediated tonic GABAergic inhibition of interneurons on principal neuronal excitability and seizure susceptibility.
Cossart, R; Tyzio, R; Dinocourt, C; Esclapez, M; Hirsch, J C; Ben-Ari, Y; Bernard, C
We report that kainate receptors are present on presynaptic GABAergic terminals contacting interneurons and that their activation increases GABA release. Application of kainate increased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents recorded in CA1 interneurons. Local applications of glutamate but not of AMPA or NMDA also increased GABA quantal release. Application of kainate as well as synaptically released glutamate reduced the number of failures of GABAergic neurotransmission between interneurons. Thus, activation of presynaptic kainate receptors increases the probability of GABA release at interneuron-interneuron synapses. Glutamate may selectively control the communication between interneurons by increasing their mutual inhibition.
Wang, Qi; Hong, Peiwei; Gao, Hui; Chen, Yuntian; Yang, Qi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Hedong
Dysfunction of cortical GABAergic interneurons are involved in numerous neurological disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism; and replenishment of these cells by transplantation strategy has proven to be a feasible and effective method to help revert the symptoms in several animal models. To develop methodology of generating transplantable GABAergic interneurons for therapy, we previously reported the isolation of a v-myc-induced GABAergic interneuron progenitor clone GE6 from embryonic ganglionic eminence (GE). These cells can proliferate and form functional inhibitory synapses in culture. Here, we tested their differentiation behavior in vivo by transplanting them into the postnatal rat forebrain. We found that GE6 cells migrate extensively in the neonatal forebrain and differentiate into both neurons and glia, but preferentially into neurons when compared with a sister progenitor clone CTX8. The neurogenic potential of GE6 cells is also maintained after transplantation into a non-permissive environment such as adult cortex or when treated with inflammatory cytokine in culture. The GE6-derived neurons were able to mature in vivo as GABAergic interneurons expressing GABAergic, not glutamatergic, presynaptic puncta. Finally, we propose that v-myc-induced human interneuron progenitor clones could be an alternative cell source of transplantable GABAergic interneurons for treating related neurological diseases in future clinic.
Gulyás, A I; Hájos, N; Freund, T F
Spine-free calretinin-immunoreactive (CR-IR) interneurons form a subpopulation of GABAergic cells in the rat hippocampus. A characteristic feature of these cells--located in all areas and layers--is the frequent dendro-dendritic and axo-dendritic contacts they form with each other. In this study we examined in detail the connectivity of these neurons by reconstructing their dendritic and axonal arbor and by identifying their postsynaptic targets. Radially running dendrites of CR-IR cells, located in different layers, intermingled into long braids. An average cell was in contact with dendrites of three to seven other CR-IR cells. Reconstruction of the dendritic trees from six consecutive sections demonstrated that at least 15 cells may participate in a dendro-dendritically connected cluster. Electron microscopical examination revealed that regularly spaced zonula adherentia connect the touching dendrites. The postsynaptic targets of CR-IR neurons have been examined using postembedding immunogold staining for GABA. CR-containing GABA-immunoreactive axons of local origin formed multiple symmetrical synaptic contacts (two to five) exclusively on GABAergic dendrites (CR-negative as well as CR-positive). Two to 10 CR-IR axons may converge onto a single CR-IR neuron, often from cells belonging to the same dendro-dendritically connected cluster. Using double immunocytochemistry, CR-IR cells were shown to heavily innervate calbindin D28k-containing interneurons and VIP-containing basket cells but avoided the parvalbumin-containing basket and axo-axonic cells. The unique connectivity of CR-IR cells may enable them to play a crucial role in the generation of synchronous, rhythmic hippocampal activity by controlling other interneurons terminating on different dendritic and somatic compartments of principal cells.
Lee, Alice J; Wang, Guangfu; Jiang, Xiaolong; Johnson, Seraphina M; Hoang, Elizabeth T; Lanté, Fabien; Stornetta, Ruth L; Beenhakker, Mark P; Shen, Ying; Julius Zhu, J
Interneurons play a key role in cortical function and dysfunction, yet organization of cortical interneuronal circuitry remains poorly understood. Cortical Layer 1 (L1) contains 2 general GABAergic interneuron groups, namely single bouquet cells (SBCs) and elongated neurogliaform cells (ENGCs). SBCs predominantly make unidirectional inhibitory connections (SBC→) with L2/3 interneurons, whereas ENGCs frequently form reciprocal inhibitory and electric connections (ENGC↔) with L2/3 interneurons. Here, we describe a systematic investigation of the pyramidal neuron targets of L1 neuron-led interneuronal circuits in the rat barrel cortex with simultaneous octuple whole-cell recordings and report a simple organizational scheme of the interneuronal circuits. Both SBCs→ and ENGC ↔ L2/3 interneuronal circuits connect to L2/3 and L5, but not L6, pyramidal neurons. SBC → L2/3 interneuronal circuits primarily inhibit the entire dendritic-somato-axonal axis of a few L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons located within the same column. In contrast, ENGC ↔ L2/3 interneuronal circuits generally inhibit the distal apical dendrite of many L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons across multiple columns. Finally, L1 interneuron-led circuits target distinct subcellular compartments of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons in a L2/3 interneuron type-dependent manner. These results suggest that L1 neurons form canonical interneuronal circuits to control information processes in both supra- and infragranular cortical layers.
Sik, A; Penttonen, M; Ylinen, A; Buzsáki, G
Fast spiking interneurons in the CA1 area of the dorsal hippocampus were recorded from and filled with biocytin in anesthetized rats. The full extent of their dendrites and axonal arborizations as well as their calcium binding protein content were examined. Based on the spatial extent of axon collaterals, local circuit cells (basket and O-LM neurons) and long-range cells (bistratified, trilaminar, and backprojection neurons) could be distinguished. Basket cells were immunoreactive for parvalbumin and their axon collaterals were confined to the pyramidal layer. A single basket cell contacted more than 1500 pyramidal neurons and 60 other parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Commissural stimulation directly discharged basket cells, followed by an early and late IPSPs, indicating interneuronal inhibition of basket cells. The dendrites of another local circuit neuron (O-LM) were confined to stratum oriens and it had a small but high-density axonal terminal field in stratum lacunosum-moleculare. The fastest firing cell of all interneurons was a calbindin-immunoreactive bistratified neuron with axonal targets in stratum oriens and radiatum. Two neurons with their cell bodies in the alveus innervated the CA3 region (backprojection cells), in addition to rich axon collaterals in the CA1 region. The trilaminar interneuron had axon collaterals in strata radiatum, oriens and pyramidale with its dendrites confined to stratum oriens. Commissural stimulation evoked an early EPSP-IPSP-late depolarizing potential sequence in this cell. All interneurons formed symmetric synapses with their targets at the electron microscopic level. These findings indicate that interneurons with distinct axonal targets have differential functions in shaping the physiological patterns of the CA1 network.
Petrie, Kimberly A; Schmidt, Dennis; Bubser, Michael; Fadel, Jim; Carraway, Robert E; Deutch, Ariel Y
Converging data suggest a dysfunction of prefrontal cortical GABAergic interneurons in schizophrenia. Morphological and physiological studies indicate that cortical GABA cells are modulated by a variety of afferents. The peptide transmitter neurotensin may be one such modulator of interneurons. In the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC), neurotensin is exclusively localized to dopamine axons and has been suggested to be decreased in schizophrenia. However, the effects of neurotensin on cortical interneurons are poorly understood. We used in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats to assess whether neurotensin regulates PFC GABAergic interneurons. Intra-PFC administration of neurotensin concentration-dependently increased extracellular GABA levels; this effect was impulse dependent, being blocked by treatment with tetrodotoxin. The ability of neurotensin to increase GABA levels in the PFC was also blocked by pretreatment with 2-[1-(7-chloro-4-quinolinyl)-5-(2,6-dimethoxyphenyl)pyrazole-3-yl)carbonylamino]tricyclo(126.96.36.199 [EC] .3.7)decan-2-carboxylic acid (SR48692), a high-affinity neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) antagonist. This finding is consistent with our observation that NTR1 was localized to GABAergic interneurons in the PFC, particularly parvalbumin-containing interneurons. Because neurotensin is exclusively localized to dopamine axons in the PFC, we also determined whether neurotensin plays a role in the ability of dopamine agonists to increase extracellular GABA levels. We found that D2 agonist-elicited increases in PFC GABA levels were blocked by pretreatment with SR48692, consistent with data indicating that D2 autoreceptor agonists increase neurotensin release from dopamine-neurotensin axons in the PFC. These findings suggest that neurotensin plays an important role in regulating prefrontal cortical interneurons and that it may be useful to consider neurotensin agonists as an adjunct in the treatment of schizophrenia.
Lim, Sean Austin O.; Kang, Un Jung; McGehee, Daniel S.
The striatum plays a central role in motor control and motor learning. Appropriate responses to environmental stimuli, including pursuit of reward or avoidance of aversive experience all require functional striatal circuits. These pathways integrate synaptic inputs from limbic and cortical regions including sensory, motor and motivational information to ultimately connect intention to action. Although many neurotransmitters participate in striatal circuitry, one critically important player is acetylcholine (ACh). Relative to other brain areas, the striatum contains exceptionally high levels of ACh, the enzymes that catalyze its synthesis and breakdown, as well as both nicotinic and muscarinic receptor types that mediate its postsynaptic effects. The principal source of striatal ACh is the cholinergic interneuron (ChI), which comprises only about 1–2% of all striatal cells yet sends dense arbors of projections throughout the striatum. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the factors affecting the excitability of these neurons through acute effects and long term changes in their synaptic inputs. In addition, we discuss the physiological effects of ACh in the striatum, and how changes in ACh levels may contribute to disease states during striatal dysfunction. PMID:25374536
Karagiannis, Anastassios; Gallopin, Thierry; Dávid, Csaba; Battaglia, Demian; Geoffroy, Hélène; Rossier, Jean; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Staiger, Jochen F.; Cauli, Bruno
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an abundant neuropeptide of the neocortex involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Because of the large electrophysiological, molecular, and morphological diversity of NPY-expressing neurons their precise identity remains unclear. To define distinct populations of NPY neurons we characterized, in acute slices of rat barrel cortex, 200 cortical neurons of layers I–IV by means of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, biocytin labeling, and single-cell reverse transcriptase-PCR designed to probe for the expression of well established molecular markers for cortical neurons. To classify reliably cortical NPY neurons, we used and compared different unsupervised clustering algorithms based on laminar location and electrophysiological and molecular properties. These classification schemes confirmed that NPY neurons are nearly exclusively GABAergic and consistently disclosed three main types of NPY-expressing interneurons. (1) Neurogliaform-like neurons exhibiting a dense axonal arbor, were the most frequent and superficial, and substantially expressed the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase. (2) Martinotti-like cells characterized by an ascending axon ramifying in layer I coexpressed somatostatin and were the most excitable type. (3) Among fast-spiking and parvalbumin-positive basket cells, NPY expression was correlated with pronounced spike latency. By clarifying the diversity of cortical NPY neurons, this study establishes a basis for future investigations aiming at elucidating their physiological roles. PMID:19295167
Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael
In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits.
Santana, Roberto; McGarry, Laura M.; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Yuste, Rafael
In spite of over a century of research on cortical circuits, it is still unknown how many classes of cortical neurons exist. In fact, neuronal classification is a difficult problem because it is unclear how to designate a neuronal cell class and what are the best characteristics to define them. Recently, unsupervised classifications using cluster analysis based on morphological, physiological, or molecular characteristics, have provided quantitative and unbiased identification of distinct neuronal subtypes, when applied to selected datasets. However, better and more robust classification methods are needed for increasingly complex and larger datasets. Here, we explored the use of affinity propagation, a recently developed unsupervised classification algorithm imported from machine learning, which gives a representative example or exemplar for each cluster. As a case study, we applied affinity propagation to a test dataset of 337 interneurons belonging to four subtypes, previously identified based on morphological and physiological characteristics. We found that affinity propagation correctly classified most of the neurons in a blind, non-supervised manner. Affinity propagation outperformed Ward's method, a current standard clustering approach, in classifying the neurons into 4 subtypes. Affinity propagation could therefore be used in future studies to validly classify neurons, as a first step to help reverse engineer neural circuits. PMID:24348339
Yao, Xing-Hua; Wang, Min; He, Xiang-Nan; He, Fei; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Lu, Wenlian; Qiu, Zi-Long; Yu, Yong-Chun
The coexistence of electrical and chemical synapses among interneurons is essential for interneuron function in the neocortex. However, it remains largely unclear whether electrical coupling between interneurons influences chemical synapse formation and microcircuit assembly during development. Here, we show that electrical and GABAergic chemical connections robustly develop between interneurons in neocortical layer 1 over a similar time course. Electrical coupling promotes action potential generation and synchronous firing between layer 1 interneurons. Furthermore, electrically coupled interneurons exhibit strong GABA-A receptor-mediated synchronous synaptic activity. Disruption of electrical coupling leads to a loss of bidirectional, but not unidirectional, GABAergic connections. Moreover, a reduction in electrical coupling induces an increase in excitatory synaptic inputs to layer 1 interneurons. Together, these findings strongly suggest that electrical coupling between neocortical interneurons plays a critical role in regulating chemical synapse development and precise formation of circuits. PMID:27510304
Kim, Jinsook; Lee, Soojung; Tsuda, Sachiko; Zhang, Xuying; Asrican, Brent; Gloss, Bernd; Feng, Guoping; Augustine, George J
We used high-speed optogenetic mapping technology to examine the spatial organization of local inhibitory circuits formed by cerebellar interneurons. Transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 exclusively in molecular layer interneurons allowed us to focally photostimulate these neurons, while measuring resulting responses in postsynaptic Purkinje cells. This approach revealed that interneurons converge upon Purkinje cells over a broad area and that at least seven interneurons form functional synapses with a single Purkinje cell. The number of converging interneurons was reduced by treatment with gap junction blockers, revealing that electrical synapses between interneurons contribute substantially to the spatial convergence. Remarkably, gap junction blockers affected convergence in sagittal slices, but not in coronal slices, indicating a sagittal bias in electrical coupling between interneurons. We conclude that electrical synapse networks spatially coordinate interneurons in the cerebellum and may also serve this function in other brain regions.
Schmidt, MJ; Horvath, S; Ebert, P; Norris, JL; Seeley, EH; Brown, J; Gellert, L; Everheart, M; Garbett, KA; Grice, TW; Caprioli, RM; Mirnics, K
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic disturbances are hallmark features of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders and encompass multiple interneuronal cell types. Using bacterial artificial chromosome-driven, miRNA silencing technology we generated transgenic mouse lines that suppress glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (GAD1) in either cholecystokinin (CCK)- or neuropeptide Y (NPY)-expressing interneurons. In situ lipidomic and proteomic analyses on brain tissue sections revealed distinct, brain region-specific profiles in each transgenic line. Behavioral analyses revealed that suppression of GAD1 in CCK+ interneurons resulted in locomotor and olfactory sensory changes, whereas suppression in NPY+ interneurons affected anxiety-related behaviors and social interaction. Both transgenic mouse lines had altered sensitivity to amphetamine albeit in opposite directions. Together, these data argue that reduced GAD1 expression leads to altered molecular and behavioral profiles in a cell type-dependent manner, and that these subpopulations of interneurons are strong and opposing modulators of dopamine system function. Furthermore, our findings also support the hypothesis that neuronal networks are differentially controlled by diverse inhibitory subnetworks. PMID:24322205
Hosp, Jonas A; Strüber, Michael; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Obata, Kunihiko; Vida, Imre; Jonas, Peter; Bartos, Marlene
GABAergic inhibitory interneurons control fundamental aspects of neuronal network function. Their functional roles are assumed to be defined by the identity of their input synapses, the architecture of their dendritic tree, the passive and active membrane properties and finally the nature of their postsynaptic targets. Indeed, interneurons display a high degree of morphological and physiological heterogeneity. However, whether their morphological and physiological characteristics are correlated and whether interneuron diversity can be described by a continuum of GABAergic cell types or by distinct classes has remained unclear. Here we perform a detailed morphological and physiological characterization of GABAergic cells in the dentate gyrus, the input region of the hippocampus. To achieve an unbiased and efficient sampling and classification we used knock-in mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-positive neurons and performed cluster analysis. We identified five interneuron classes, each of them characterized by a distinct set of anatomical and physiological parameters. Cross-correlation analysis further revealed a direct relation between morphological and physiological properties indicating that dentate gyrus interneurons fall into functionally distinct classes which may differentially control neuronal network activity.
Murray, Andrew J; Sauer, Jonas-Frederic; Riedel, Gernot; McClure, Christina; Ansel, Laura; Cheyne, Lesley; Bartos, Marlene; Wisden, William; Wulff, Peer
Parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneurons in cortical circuits are hypothesized to control cognitive function. To test this idea directly, we functionally removed parvalbumin-positive interneurons selectively from hippocampal CA1 in mice. We found that parvalbumin-positive interneurons are dispensable for spatial reference, but are essential for spatial working memory.
Brown, Chelsea R; Butts, Jessica C; McCreedy, Dylan A; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E
V2a interneurons of the ventral spinal cord and hindbrain play an important role in the central pattern generators (CPGs) involved in locomotion, skilled reaching, and respiration. However, sources of V2a interneurons for in vitro studies are limited. In this study, we developed a differentiation protocol for V2a interneurons from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Cells were induced in a 2(-)/4(+) induction protocol with varying concentrations of retinoic acid (RA) and the mild sonic hedgehog (Shh) agonist purmorphamine (Pur) in order to increase the expression of V2a interneuron transcription factors (eg, Chx10). Notch signaling, which influences the commitment of p2 progenitor cells to V2a or V2b interneurons, was inhibited in cell cultures to increase the percentage of V2a interneurons. At the end of the induction period, cell commitment was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and flow cytometry to quantify expression of transcription factors specific to V2a interneurons and the adjacent ventral spinal cord regions. Low concentrations of RA and high concentrations of Pur led to greater expression of transcription factors specific for V2a interneurons. Notch inhibition favored V2a interneuron over V2b interneuron differentiation. The protocol established in this study can be used to further elucidate the pathways involved in V2a interneuron differentiation and help produce sources of V2a interneurons for developmental neurobiology, electrophysiology, and transplantation studies.
Mihaljević, Bojan; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Bielza, Concha; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro
An accepted classification of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex is a major goal in neuroscience. A recently proposed taxonomy based on patterns of axonal arborization promises to be a pragmatic method for achieving this goal. It involves characterizing interneurons according to five axonal arborization features, called F1-F5, and classifying them into a set of predefined types, most of which are established in the literature. Unfortunately, there is little consensus among expert neuroscientists regarding the morphological definitions of some of the proposed types. While supervised classifiers were able to categorize the interneurons in accordance with experts' assignments, their accuracy was limited because they were trained with disputed labels. Thus, here we automatically classify interneuron subsets with different label reliability thresholds (i.e., such that every cell's label is backed by at least a certain (threshold) number of experts). We quantify the cells with parameters of axonal and dendritic morphologies and, in order to predict the type, also with axonal features F1-F4 provided by the experts. Using Bayesian network classifiers, we accurately characterize and classify the interneurons and identify useful predictor variables. In particular, we discriminate among reliable examples of common basket, horse-tail, large basket, and Martinotti cells with up to 89.52% accuracy, and single out the number of branches at 180 μm from the soma, the convex hull 2D area, and the axonal features F1-F4 as especially useful predictors for distinguishing among these types. These results open up new possibilities for an objective and pragmatic classification of interneurons.
Tricoire, Ludovic; Pelkey, Kenneth A.; Erkkila, Brian E.; Jeffries, Brian W.; Yuan, Xiaoqing; McBain, Chris J.
Though vastly outnumbered inhibitory interneurons critically pace and synchronize excitatory principal cell populations to coordinate cortical information processing. Precision in this control relies upon a remarkable diversity of interneurons primarily determined during embryogenesis by genetic restriction of neuronal potential at the progenitor stage. Like their neocortical counterparts, hippocampal interneurons arise from medial and caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE and CGE) precursors. However, while studies of the early specification of neocortical interneurons are rapidly advancing, similar lineage analyses of hippocampal interneurons have lagged. A “hippocampocentric” investigation is necessary as several hippocampal interneuron subtypes remain poorly represented in the neocortical literature. Thus, we investigated the spatiotemporal origins of hippocampal interneurons using transgenic mice that specifically report MGE- and CGE-derived interneurons either constitutively or inducibly. We found that hippocampal interneurons are produced in two neurogenic waves between E9–12 and E12–16 from MGE and CGE respectively and invade the hippocampus by E14. In the mature hippocampus CGE-derived interneurons primarily localize to superficial layers in strata lacunosum moleculare and deep radiatum while MGE-derived interneurons readily populate all layers with preference for strata pyramidale and oriens. Combined molecular, anatomical, and electrophysiological interrogation of MGE-/CGE-derived interneurons revealed that MGE produces parvalbumin, somatostatin, and nitric oxide synthase expressing interneurons including fast-spiking basket, bistratified, axo-axonic, oriens-lacunosum moleculare, neurogliaform and ivy cells. In contrast CGE-derived interneurons contain cholecystokinin, calretinin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and reelin including non-fast-spiking basket, Schaffer collateral associated, mossy fiber associated, trilaminar and additional neurogliaform
Porseva, V V; Shilkin, V V; Strelkov, A A; Masliukov, P M
In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the plates I-IV on the thoracic and lumbar levels different subpopulations of interneurons immunoreactive for calbindin 28 kDa (CAB IR), which are specific to each plate. In the area of the medial edge of the dorsal horn, we have found a special subpopulation of CAB IR interneurons whose morphometric characteristics differ from CAB IR interneurons subpopulations of said plates. The number of CAB IR interneurons was maximal in the plate II at all levels of the spinal cord. Leveled differences are more CAB IR interneurons and larger area of the cross sections at the lumbar level.
Stanley, Dirk P; Shetty, Ashok K
Increased excitability of principal excitatory neurons is one of the hallmarks of aging in the hippocampus, signifying a diminution in the number and/or function of inhibitory interneurons with aging. To elucidate this, we performed comprehensive GABA-ergic interneuron cell counts in all layers of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 and CA3 subfields, using serial sections from adult, middle-aged and aged Fischer 344 rats. Sections were immunostained for glutamate decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67, a synthesizing enzyme of GABA) and GAD-67 immunopositive interneurons were counted using an unbiased cell counting method, the optical fractionator. Substantial declines in the absolute number of GAD-67 immunopositive interneurons were found in all hippocampal layers/subfields of middle-aged and aged animals, in comparison with the adult animals. However, the counts were comparable between the middle-aged and aged groups for all regions. Interestingly, determination of the absolute number of interneurons using neuron-specific nuclear antigen (NeuN) expression in the strata oriens and radiatum of CA1 and CA3 subfields revealed an analogous number of interneurons across the three age groups. Furthermore, the ratio of GAD-67 immunopositive and NeuN positive interneurons decreased from adult age to middle age but remained relatively static between middle age and old age. Collectively, the results underscore that aging in the hippocampus is associated with wide-ranging decreases in the number of GAD-67 immunopositive interneurons and most of the age-related changes in GAD-67 immunopositive interneuron numbers transpire by middle age. Additionally, this study provides novel evidence that age-related reductions in hippocampal GAD-67 immunopositive interneuron numbers are due to loss of GAD-67 expression in interneurons rather than interneuron degeneration.
Zechel, Sabrina; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Ibáñez, Carlos F
Neocortical GABAergic interneuron migration and thalamo-cortical axon (TCA) pathfinding follow similar trajectories and timing, suggesting they may be interdependent. The mechanisms that regulate the radial dispersion of neocortical interneurons are incompletely understood. Here we report that disruption of TCA innervation, or TCA-derived glutamate, affected the laminar distribution of GABAergic interneurons in mouse neocortex, resulting in abnormal accumulation in deep layers of interneurons that failed to switch from tangential to radial orientation. Expression of the KCC2 cotransporter was elevated in interneurons of denervated cortex, and KCC2 deletion restored normal interneuron lamination in the absence of TCAs. Disruption of interneuron NMDA receptors or pharmacological inhibition of calpain also led to increased KCC2 expression and defective radial dispersion of interneurons. Thus, although TCAs are not required to guide the tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons, they provide crucial signals that restrict interneuron KCC2 levels, allowing coordinated neocortical invasion of TCAs and interneurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20770.001 PMID:27935475
Figueroa Velez, Dario X; Ellefsen, Kyle L; Hathaway, Ethan R; Carathedathu, Mathew C; Gandhi, Sunil P
The maturation of cortical parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons depends on the interaction of innate and experience-dependent factors. Dark-rearing experiments suggest that visual experience determines when broad orientation selectivity emerges in visual cortical PV interneurons. Here, using neural transplantation and in vivo calcium imaging of mouse visual cortex, we investigated whether innate mechanisms contribute to the maturation of orientation selectivity in PV interneurons. First, we confirmed earlier findings showing that broad orientation selectivity emerges in PV interneurons by 2 weeks after vision onset, ∼35 d after these cells are born. Next, we assessed the functional development of transplanted PV (tPV) interneurons. Surprisingly, 25 d after transplantation (DAT) and >2 weeks after vision onset, we found that tPV interneurons have not developed broad orientation selectivity. By 35 DAT, however, broad orientation selectivity emerges in tPV interneurons. Transplantation does not alter orientation selectivity in host interneurons, suggesting that the maturation of tPV interneurons occurs independently from their endogenous counterparts. Together, these results challenge the notion that the onset of vision solely determines when PV interneurons become broadly tuned. Our results reveal that an innate cortical mechanism contributes to the emergence of broad orientation selectivity in PV interneurons.
Cossart, Rosa; Petanjek, Zdravko; Dumitriu, Dani; Hirsch, June C; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Esclapez, Monique; Bernard, Christophe
GABAergic interneurons play diverse and important roles in controlling neuronal network dynamics. They are characterized by an extreme heterogeneity morphologically, neurochemically, and physiologically, but a functionally relevant classification is still lacking. Present taxonomy is essentially based on their postsynaptic targets, but a physiological counterpart to this classification has not yet been determined. Using a quantitative analysis based on multidimensional clustering of morphological and physiological variables, we now demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of glutamate and GABA miniature synaptic currents received by CA1 hippocampal interneurons and the laminar distribution of their axons: neurons that project to the same layer(s) receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics distributions. In contrast, the kinetics distributions of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic events received by a given interneuron do not depend upon its somatic location or dendritic arborization. Although the mechanisms responsible for this unexpected observation are still unclear, our results suggest that interneurons may be programmed to receive synaptic currents with specific temporal dynamics depending on their targets and the local networks in which they operate.
Yoshikawa, Shingo; Long, Hong; Thomas, John B.
Efforts to define the neural circuits generating locomotor behavior have produced an initial understanding of some of the components within the spinal cord, as well as a basic understanding of several invertebrate motor pattern generators. However, how these circuits are assembled during development is poorly understood. We are defining the neural circuit that generates larval locomotion in the genetically tractable fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to study locomotor circuit development. Forward larval locomotion involves a stereotyped posterior-to-anterior segmental translocation of body wall muscle contraction and is generated by a relatively small number of identified muscles, motor and sensory neurons, plus an unknown number of the ~270 bilaterally-paired interneurons per segment of the 1st instar larva. To begin identifying the relevant interneurons, we have conditionally inactivated synaptic transmission of interneuron subsets and assayed for the effects on locomotion. From this screen we have identified a subset of 25 interneurons per hemisegment, called the lateral locomotor neurons (LLNs), that are required for locomotion. Both inactivation and constitutive activation of the LLNs disrupt locomotion, indicating that patterned output of the LLNs is required. By expressing a calcium indicator in the LLNs, we found that they display a posterior-to-anterior wave of activity within the CNS corresponding to the segmental translocation of the muscle contraction wave. Identification of the LLNs represents the first step toward elucidating the circuit generating larval locomotion. PMID:26621406
Al-Jaberi, Nahidh; Lindsay, Susan; Sarma, Subrot; Bayatti, Nadhim; Clowry, Gavin J
GABAergic interneurons are crucial to controlling the excitability and responsiveness of cortical circuitry. Their developmental origin may differ between rodents and human. We have demonstrated the expression of 12 GABAergic interneuron-associated genes in samples from human neocortex by quantitative rtPCR from 8 to 12 postconceptional weeks (PCW) and shown a significant anterior to posterior expression gradient, confirmed by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry for GAD1 and 2, DLX1, 2, and 5, ASCL1, OLIG2, and CALB2. Following cortical plate (CP) formation from 8 to 9 PCW, a proportion of cells were strongly stained for all these markers in the CP and presubplate. ASCL1 and DLX2 maintained high expression in the proliferative zones and showed extensive immunofluorescent double-labeling with the cell division marker Ki-67. CALB2-positive cells increased steadily in the SVZ/VZ from 10 PCW but were not double-labeled with Ki-67. Expression of GABAergic genes was generally higher in the dorsal pallium than in the ganglionic eminences, with lower expression in the intervening ventral pallium. It is widely accepted that the cortical proliferative zones may generate CALB2-positive interneurons from mid-gestation; we now show that the anterior neocortical proliferative layers especially may be a rich source of interneurons in the early neocortex.
Yoshikawa, Shingo; Long, Hong; Thomas, John B
Efforts to define the neural circuits generating locomotor behavior have produced an initial understanding of some of the components within the spinal cord, as well as a basic understanding of several invertebrate motor pattern generators. However, how these circuits are assembled during development is poorly understood. We are defining the neural circuit that generates larval locomotion in the genetically tractable fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to study locomotor circuit development. Forward larval locomotion involves a stereotyped posterior-to-anterior segmental translocation of body wall muscle contraction and is generated by a relatively small number of identified muscles, motor and sensory neurons, plus an unknown number of the ~270 bilaterally-paired interneurons per segment of the 1st instar larva. To begin identifying the relevant interneurons, we have conditionally inactivated synaptic transmission of interneuron subsets and assayed for the effects on locomotion. From this screen we have identified a subset of 25 interneurons per hemisegment, called the lateral locomotor neurons (LLNs), that are required for locomotion. Both inactivation and constitutive activation of the LLNs disrupt locomotion, indicating that patterned output of the LLNs is required. By expressing a calcium indicator in the LLNs, we found that they display a posterior-to-anterior wave of activity within the CNS corresponding to the segmental translocation of the muscle contraction wave. Identification of the LLNs represents the first step toward elucidating the circuit generating larval locomotion.
Park, Silvia J.H.; Borghuis, Bart G.; Rahmani, Pouyan; Zeng, Qiang
Visual processing in the retina depends on coordinated signaling by interneurons. Photoreceptor signals are relayed to ∼20 ganglion cell types through a dozen excitatory bipolar interneurons, each responsive to light increments (ON) or decrements (OFF). ON and OFF bipolar cell pathways become tuned through specific connections with inhibitory interneurons: horizontal and amacrine cells. A major obstacle for understanding retinal circuitry is the unknown function of most of the ∼30–40 amacrine cell types, each of which synapses onto a subset of bipolar cell terminals, ganglion cell dendrites, and other amacrine cells. Here, we used a transgenic mouse line in which vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-expressing (VIP+) GABAergic interneurons express Cre recombinase. Targeted whole-cell recordings of fluorescently labeled VIP+ cells revealed three predominant types: wide-field bistratified and narrow-field monostratified cells with somas in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and medium-field monostratified cells with somas in the ganglion cell layer (GCL). Bistratified INL cells integrated excitation and inhibition driven by both ON and OFF pathways with little spatial tuning. Narrow-field INL cells integrated excitation driven by the ON pathway and inhibition driven by both pathways, with pronounced hyperpolarizations at light offset. Monostratified GCL cells integrated excitation and inhibition driven by the ON pathway and showed center-surround spatial tuning. Optogenetic experiments showed that, collectively, VIP+ cells made strong connections with OFF δ, ON-OFF direction-selective, and W3 ganglion cells but weak, inconsistent connections with ON and OFF α cells. Revealing VIP+ cell morphologies, receptive fields and synaptic connections advances our understanding of their role in visual processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The retina is a model system for understanding nervous system function. At the first stage, rod and cone photoreceptors encode light and
Pinard, Courtney R.; Muller, Jay F.; Mascagni, Franco; McDonald, Alexander J.
The basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala (BLC) receives a dense dopaminergic innervation that plays a critical role in the formation of emotional memory. Dopamine has been shown to influence the activity of BLC GABAergic interneurons, which differentially control the activity of pyramidal cells. However, little is known about how dopaminergic inputs interface with different interneuronal subpopulations in this region. To address this question, dual-labeling immunohistochemical techniques were used at the light and electron microscopic levels to examine inputs from tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH+) dopaminergic terminals to two different interneuronal populations in the rat basolateral nucleus labeled using antibodies to parvalbumin (PV) or calretinin (CR). The basolateral nucleus exhibited a dense innervation by TH+ axons. Partial serial section reconstruction of TH+ terminals found that at least 43–50% of these terminals formed synaptic junctions in the basolateral nucleus. All of the synapses examined were symmetrical. In both TH/PV and TH/CR preparations the main targets of TH+ terminals were spines and distal dendrites of unlabeled cells. In sections dual-labeled for TH/PV 59% of the contacts of TH+ terminals with PV+ neurons were synapses, whereas in sections dual-labeled for TH/CR only 13% of the contacts of TH+ terminals with CR+ cells were synapses. In separate preparations examined in complete serial sections for TH+ basket-like innervation of PV+ perikarya, most (76.2%) of TH+ terminal contacts with PV+ perikarya were synapses. These findings suggest that PV+ interneurons, but not CR+ interneurons, are prominent synaptic targets of dopaminergic terminals in the BLC. PMID:18948174
Namba, H; Nagayama, T
Nonspiking local interneurones are the important premotor elements in arthropod motor control systems. We have analyzed the synaptic interactions between nonspiking interneurones in the crayfish terminal (6th) abdominal ganglion using simultaneous intracellular recordings. Only 15% of nonspiking interneurones formed bi-directional excitatory connections. In 77% of connections, however, the nonspiking interneurones showed a one-way inhibitory interaction. In these cases, the presynaptic nonspiking interneurones received excitatory synaptic inputs from the sensory afferents innervating hairs on the surface of the uropods and the postsynaptic nonspiking interneurones received inhibitory synaptic inputs that were partly mediated by the inputs to the presynaptic nonspiking interneurones. The membrane hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic nonspiking interneurones mediated by the presynaptic nonspiking interneurones was reduced in amplitude when the hyperpolarizing current was injected into the postsynaptic interneurones, or when the external bathing solution was replaced with one containing low calcium and high magnesium concentrations. The role of these interactions in the circuits controlling the movements of the terminal appendages is discussed.
Tsui, David; Voronova, Anastassia; Gallagher, Denis; Kaplan, David R; Miller, Freda D; Wang, Jing
The mechanisms that regulate appropriate genesis and differentiation of interneurons in the developing mammalian brain are of significant interest not only because interneurons play key roles in the establishment of neural circuitry, but also because when they are deficient, this can cause epilepsy. In this regard, one genetic syndrome that is associated with deficits in neural development and epilepsy is Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), where the transcriptional activator and histone acetyltransferase CBP is mutated and haploinsufficient. Here, we have asked whether CBP is necessary for the appropriate genesis and differentiation of interneurons in the murine forebrain, since this could provide an explanation for the epilepsy that is associated with RTS. We show that CBP is expressed in neural precursors within the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), an area that generates the vast majority of interneurons for the cortex. Using primary cultures of MGE precursors, we show that knockdown of CBP causes deficits in differentiation of these precursors into interneurons and oligodendrocytes, and that overexpression of CBP is by itself sufficient to enhance interneuron genesis. Moreover, we show that levels of the neurotransmitter synthesis enzyme GAD67, which is expressed in inhibitory interneurons, are decreased in the dorsal and ventral forebrain of neonatal CBP(+/-) mice, indicating that CBP plays a role in regulating interneuron development in vivo. Thus, CBP normally acts to ensure the differentiation of appropriate numbers of forebrain interneurons, and when its levels are decreased, this causes deficits in interneuron development, providing a potential explanation for the epilepsy seen in individuals with RTS.
Cottam, James C H; Smith, Spencer L; Häusser, Michael
A diverse array of interneuron types regulates activity in the mammalian neocortex. Two of the most abundant are the fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive (PV(+)) interneurons, which target the axosomatic region of pyramidal cells, and the somatostatin-positive (SOM(+)) interneurons, which target the dendrites. Recent work has focused on the influence of PV(+) and SOM(+) interneurons on pyramidal cells. However, the connections among PV(+) and SOM(+) interneurons are poorly understood and could play an important role in cortical circuitry, since their interactions may alter the net influence on pyramidal cell output. We used an optogenetic approach to investigate the effect of SOM(+) interneurons on pyramidal cells and PV(+) interneurons during visual stimulation in mouse primary visual cortex. We find that SOM(+) interneuron activation suppresses PV(+) cell spiking at least twice as potently as pyramidal cell spiking during visual stimulation. This differential effect of SOM(+) cell stimulation is detectable even when only two to three SOM(+) cells are activated. Importantly, the remaining responses to oriented gratings in PV(+) cells are more orientation tuned and temporally modulated, suggesting that SOM(+) activity unmasks this tuning by suppressing untuned input. Our results highlight the importance of SOM(+) inhibition of PV(+) interneurons during sensory processing. This prominent competitive inhibition between interneuron types leads to a reconfiguration of inhibition along the somatodendritic axis of pyramidal cells, and enhances the orientation selectivity of PV(+) cells.
Larimer, Phillip; Spatazza, Julien; Stryker, Michael P; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Hasenstaub, Andrea Rayne
Interneuron precursors transplanted into visual cortex induce network plasticity during their heterochronic maturation. Such plasticity can have a significant impact on the function of the animal, and is normally present only during a brief critical period in early postnatal development. Elucidating the synaptic and physiological properties of interneuron precursors as they mature is key to understanding how long-term circuit changes are induced by transplants. We studied the development of transplant-derived interneurons and compared it to endogenously-developing interneurons (those which are born and develop in the same animal) at parallel developmental time points using patch-clamp recordings in acute cortical slices. We found that transplant-derived interneurons develop into fast-spiking and nonfast-spiking neurons characteristic of the MGE lineage. Transplant-derived interneurons matured more rapidly than endogenously-developing interneurons, as shown by more hyperpolarized membrane potentials, smaller input resistances, and narrower action potentials at a juvenile age. In addition, transplant-derived fast-spiking interneurons have more quickly saturating input-output relationships and lower maximal firing rates in adulthood, indicating a possible divergence in function. Transplant-derived interneurons both form inhibitory synapses onto host excitatory neurons and receive excitatory synapses from host pyramidal cells. Unitary connection properties are similar to those of host interneurons. These transplant-derived interneurons, however, were less densely functionally connected onto host pyramidal cells than were host interneurons and received fewer spontaneous excitatory inputs from host cells. These findings suggest that many physiological characteristics of interneurons are autonomously determined, while some factors impacting their circuit function may be influenced by the environment in which they develop.
Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Muddanna S.
Abstract Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons expressing glutamate decarboxylase‐67 (GAD‐67) considerably decline in number during old age. Studies in young adult animals further suggest that hippocampal GAD‐67+ interneuron population is highly vulnerable to excitotoxic injury. However, the relative susceptibility of residual GAD‐67+ interneurons in the aged hippocampus to excitotoxic injury is unknown. To elucidate this, using both adult and aged F344 rats, we performed stereological counting of GAD‐67+ interneurons in different layers of the dentate gyrus and CA1 & CA3 sub‐fields, at 3 months post‐excitotoxic hippocampal injury inflicted through an intracerebroventricular administration of kainic acid (KA). Substantial reductions of GAD‐67+ interneurons were found in all hippocampal layers and sub‐fields after KA‐induced injury in adult animals. Contrastingly, there was no significant change in GAD‐67+ interneuron population in any of the hippocampal layers and sub‐fields following similar injury in aged animals. Furthermore, the stability of GAD‐67+ interneurons in aged rats after KA was not attributable to milder injury, as the overall extent of KA‐induced hippocampal principal neuron loss was comparable between adult and aged rats. Interestingly, because of the age‐related disparity in vulnerability of interneurons to injury, the surviving GAD‐67+ interneuron population in the injured aged hippocampus remained comparable to that observed in the injured adult hippocampus despite enduring significant reductions in interneuron number with aging. Thus, unlike in the adult hippocampus, an excitotoxic injury to the aged hippocampus does not result in significantly decreased numbers of GAD‐67+ interneurons. Persistence of GAD‐67+ interneuron population in the injured aged hippocampus likely reflects an age‐related change in the response of GAD‐67+ interneurons to excitotoxic hippocampal injury. These results have implications
Shetty, Ashok K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Rao, Muddanna S
Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons expressing glutamate decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67) considerably decline in number during old age. Studies in young adult animals further suggest that hippocampal GAD-67+ interneuron population is highly vulnerable to excitotoxic injury. However, the relative susceptibility of residual GAD-67+ interneurons in the aged hippocampus to excitotoxic injury is unknown. To elucidate this, using both adult and aged F344 rats, we performed stereological counting of GAD-67+ interneurons in different layers of the dentate gyrus and CA1 & CA3 sub-fields, at 3 months post-excitotoxic hippocampal injury inflicted through an intracerebroventricular administration of kainic acid (KA). Substantial reductions of GAD-67+ interneurons were found in all hippocampal layers and sub-fields after KA-induced injury in adult animals. Contrastingly, there was no significant change in GAD-67+ interneuron population in any of the hippocampal layers and sub-fields following similar injury in aged animals. Furthermore, the stability of GAD-67+ interneurons in aged rats after KA was not attributable to milder injury, as the overall extent of KA-induced hippocampal principal neuron loss was comparable between adult and aged rats. Interestingly, because of the age-related disparity in vulnerability of interneurons to injury, the surviving GAD-67+ interneuron population in the injured aged hippocampus remained comparable to that observed in the injured adult hippocampus despite enduring significant reductions in interneuron number with aging. Thus, unlike in the adult hippocampus, an excitotoxic injury to the aged hippocampus does not result in significantly decreased numbers of GAD-67+ interneurons. Persistence of GAD-67+ interneuron population in the injured aged hippocampus likely reflects an age-related change in the response of GAD-67+ interneurons to excitotoxic hippocampal injury. These results have implications towards understanding mechanisms underlying the
Tikidji-Hamburyan, Ruben A.; Martínez, Joan José; White, John A.
Gamma oscillations are believed to play a critical role in in information processing, encoding, and retrieval. Inhibitory interneuronal network gamma (ING) oscillations may arise from a coupled oscillator mechanism in which individual neurons oscillate or from a population oscillator in which individual neurons fire sparsely and stochastically. All ING mechanisms, including the one proposed herein, rely on alternating waves of inhibition and windows of opportunity for spiking. The coupled oscillator model implemented with Wang–Buzsáki model neurons is not sufficiently robust to heterogeneity in excitatory drive, and therefore intrinsic frequency, to account for in vitro models of ING. Similarly, in a tightly synchronized regime, the stochastic population oscillator model is often characterized by sparse firing, whereas interneurons both in vivo and in vitro do not fire sparsely during gamma, but rather on average every other cycle. We substituted so-called resonator neural models, which exhibit class 2 excitability and postinhibitory rebound (PIR), for the integrators that are typically used. This results in much greater robustness to heterogeneity that actually increases as the average participation in spikes per cycle approximates physiological levels. Moreover, dynamic clamp experiments that show autapse-induced firing in entorhinal cortical interneurons support the idea that PIR can serve as a network gamma mechanism. Furthermore, parvalbumin-positive (PV+) cells were much more likely to display both PIR and autapse-induced firing than GAD2+ cells, supporting the view that PV+ fast-firing basket cells are more likely to exhibit class 2 excitability than other types of inhibitory interneurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Gamma oscillations are believed to play a critical role in information processing, encoding, and retrieval. Networks of inhibitory interneurons are thought to be essential for these oscillations. We show that one class of interneurons with an
Bagnall, Martha W; Hull, Court; Bushong, Eric A; Ellisman, Mark H; Scanziani, Massimo
Thalamic afferents supply the cortex with sensory information by contacting both excitatory neurons and inhibitory interneurons. Interestingly, thalamic contacts with interneurons constitute such a powerful synapse that even one afferent can fire interneurons, thereby driving feedforward inhibition. However, the spatial representation of this potent synapse on interneuron dendrites is poorly understood. Using Ca imaging and electron microscopy we show that an individual thalamic afferent forms multiple contacts with the interneuronal proximal dendritic arbor, preferentially near branch points. More contacts are correlated with larger amplitude synaptic responses. Each contact, consisting of a single bouton, can release up to seven vesicles simultaneously, resulting in graded and reliable Ca transients. Computational modeling indicates that the release of multiple vesicles at each contact minimally reduces the efficiency of the thalamic afferent in exciting the interneuron. This strategy preserves the spatial representation of thalamocortical inputs across the dendritic arbor over a wide range of release conditions.
Maroof, Asif M; Keros, Sotirios; Tyson, Jennifer A; Ying, Shui-Wang; Ganat, Yosif M; Merkle, Florian T; Liu, Becky; Goulburn, Adam; Stanley, Edouard G; Elefanty, Andrew G; Widmer, Hans Ruedi; Eggan, Kevin; Goldstein, Peter A; Anderson, Stewart A; Studer, Lorenz
Human pluripotent stem cells are a powerful tool for modeling brain development and disease. The human cortex is composed of two major neuronal populations: projection neurons and local interneurons. Cortical interneurons comprise a diverse class of cell types expressing the neurotransmitter GABA. Dysfunction of cortical interneurons has been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia, autism, and epilepsy. Here, we demonstrate the highly efficient derivation of human cortical interneurons in an NKX2.1::GFP human embryonic stem cell reporter line. Manipulating the timing of SHH activation yields three distinct GFP+ populations with specific transcriptional profiles, neurotransmitter phenotypes, and migratory behaviors. Further differentiation in a murine cortical environment yields parvalbumin- and somatostatin-expressing neurons that exhibit synaptic inputs and electrophysiological properties of cortical interneurons. Our study defines the signals sufficient for modeling human ventral forebrain development in vitro and lays the foundation for studying cortical interneuron involvement in human disease pathology.
Donegan, Jennifer J.; Tyson, Jennifer A.; Branch, Sarah Y.; Beckstead, Michael J.; Anderson, Stewart A.; Lodge, Daniel J.
An increasing literature suggests that schizophrenia is associated with a reduction in hippocampal interneuron function. Thus, we posit that stem cell-derived interneuron transplants may be an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce hippocampal hyperactivity and attenuate behavioral deficits in schizophrenia. Here we used a dual-reporter embryonic stem cell line to generate enriched populations of parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SST)-positive interneurons, which were transplanted into the ventral hippocampus of the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) rodent model of schizophrenia. These interneuron transplants integrate within the existing circuitry, reduce hippocampal hyperactivity, and normalize aberrant dopamine neuron activity. Further, interneuron transplants alleviate behaviors that model negative and cognitive symptoms, including deficits in social interaction and cognitive inflexibility. Interestingly, PV- and SST-enriched transplants produced differential effects on behavior, with PV-enriched populations effectively normalizing all the behaviors examined. These data suggest that stem cell-derived interneuron transplants may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. PMID:27480492
Booker, Sam A; Song, Jie; Vida, Imre
GABAergic inhibitory interneurons play a central role within neuronal circuits of the brain. Interneurons comprise a small subset of the neuronal population (10-20%), but show a high level of physiological, morphological, and neurochemical heterogeneity, reflecting their diverse functions. Therefore, investigation of interneurons provides important insights into the organization principles and function of neuronal circuits. This, however, requires an integrated physiological and neuroanatomical approach for the selection and identification of individual interneuron types. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording from acute brain slices of transgenic animals, expressing fluorescent proteins under the promoters of interneuron-specific markers, provides an efficient method to target and electrophysiologically characterize intrinsic and synaptic properties of specific interneuron types. Combined with intracellular dye labeling, this approach can be extended with post-hoc morphological and immunocytochemical analysis, enabling systematic identification of recorded neurons. These methods can be tailored to suit a broad range of scientific questions regarding functional properties of diverse types of cortical neurons.
Mayer, Christian; Jaglin, Xavier H; Cobbs, Lucy V; Bandler, Rachel C; Streicher, Carmen; Cepko, Constance L; Hippenmeyer, Simon; Fishell, Gord
The medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) gives rise to the majority of mouse forebrain interneurons. Here, we examine the lineage relationship among MGE-derived interneurons using a replication-defective retroviral library containing a highly diverse set of DNA barcodes. Recovering the barcodes from the mature progeny of infected progenitor cells enabled us to unambiguously determine their respective lineal relationship. We found that clonal dispersion occurs across large areas of the brain and is not restricted by anatomical divisions. As such, sibling interneurons can populate the cortex, hippocampus striatum, and globus pallidus. The majority of interneurons appeared to be generated from asymmetric divisions of MGE progenitor cells, followed by symmetric divisions within the subventricular zone. Altogether, our findings uncover that lineage relationships do not appear to determine interneuron allocation to particular regions. As such, it is likely that clonally related interneurons have considerable flexibility as to the particular forebrain circuits to which they can contribute.
Gualtieri, Fabio; Marinelli, Carla; Longo, Daniela; Pugnaghi, Matteo; Nichelli, Paolo F; Meletti, Stefano; Biagini, Giuseppe
An early but transient decrease in oxygen availability occurs during experimentally induced seizures. Using pimonidazole, which probes hypoxic insults, we found that by increasing the duration of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) from 30 to 120 min, counts of pimonidazole-immunoreactive neurons also increased (P < 0.01, 120 vs 60 and 30 min). All the animals exposed to SE were immunopositive to pimonidazole, but a different scenario emerged during epileptogenesis when a decrease in pimonidazole-immunostained cells occurred from 7 to 14 days, so that only 1 out of 4 rats presented with pimonidazole-immunopositive cells. Pimonidazole-immunoreactive cells robustly reappeared at 21 days post-SE induction when all animals (7 out of 7) had developed spontaneous recurrent seizures. Specific neuronal markers revealed that immunopositivity to pimonidazole was present in cells identified by neuropeptide Y (NPY) or somatostatin antibodies. At variance, neurons immunopositive to parvalbumin or cholecystokinin were not immunopositive to pimonidazole. Pimonidazole-immunopositive neurons expressed remarkable immunoreactivity to hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). Interestingly, surgical samples obtained from pharmacoresistant patients showed neurons co-labeled by HIF-1α and NPY antibodies. These interneurons, along with parvalbumin-positive interneurons that were negative to HIF-1α, showed immunopositivity to markers of cell damage, such as high-mobility group box 1 in the cytoplasm and cleaved caspase-3 in the nucleus. These findings suggest that interneurons are continuously endangered in rodent and human epileptogenic tissue. The presence of hypoxia and cell damage markers in NPY interneurons of rats and patients presenting with recurrent seizures indicates a mechanism of selective vulnerability in a specific neuronal subpopulation.
Sheffield, Mark E J; Edgerton, Gabrielle B; Heuermann, Robert J; Deemyad, Tara; Mensh, Brett D; Spruston, Nelson
We recently described a new form of neural integration and firing in a subset of interneurons, in which evoking hundreds of action potentials over tens of seconds to minutes produces a sudden barrage of action potentials lasting about a minute beyond the inciting stimulation. During this persistent firing, action potentials are generated in the distal axon and propagate retrogradely to the soma. To distinguish this from other forms of persistent firing, we refer to it here as ‘retroaxonal barrage firing’, or ‘barrage firing’ for short. Its induction is blocked by chemical inhibitors of gap junctions and curiously, stimulation of one interneuron in some cases triggers barrage firing in a nearby, unstimulated interneuron. Beyond these clues, the mechanisms of barrage firing are unknown. Here we report new results related to these mechanisms. Induction of barrage firing was blocked by lowering extracellular calcium, as long as normal action potential threshold was maintained, and it was inhibited by blocking L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Despite its calcium dependence, barrage firing was not prevented by inhibiting chemical synaptic transmission. Furthermore, loading the stimulated/recorded interneuron with BAPTA did not block barrage firing, suggesting that the required calcium entry occurs in other cells. Finally, barrage firing was normal in mice with deletion of the primary gene for neuronal gap junctions (connexin36), suggesting that non-neuronal gap junctions may be involved. Together, these findings suggest that barrage firing is probably triggered by a multicellular mechanism involving calcium signalling and gap junctions, but operating independently of chemical synaptic transmission. PMID:23878372
Song, Juan; Sun, Jiaqi; Moss, Jonathan; Wen, Zhexing; Sun, Gerald J; Hsu, Derek; Zhong, Chun; Davoudi, Heydar; Christian, Kimberly M; Toni, Nicolas; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun
Using immunohistology, electron microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, we found that proliferating adult mouse hippocampal neural precursors received immature GABAergic synaptic inputs from parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. Recently shown to suppress adult quiescent neural stem cell activation, parvalbumin interneuron activation promoted newborn neuronal progeny survival and development. Our results suggest a niche mechanism involving parvalbumin interneurons that couples local circuit activity to the diametric regulation of two critical early phases of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.
Jones, Daniel L; Howard, MacKenzie A; Stanco, Amelia; Rubenstein, John L R; Baraban, Scott C
Dlx transcription factors are important in the differentiation of GABAergic interneurons. In mice lacking Dlx1, early steps in interneuron development appear normal. Beginning at ∼ 1 mo of age, primarily dendrite-innervating interneuron subtypes begin to undergo apoptosis in Dlx1(-/-) mice; this is accompanied by a reduction in GABAergic transmission and late-onset epilepsy. The reported reduction of synaptic inhibition is greater than might be expected given that interneuron loss is relatively modest in Dlx1(-/-) mice. Here we report that voltage-clamp recordings of CA1 interneurons in hippocampal slices prepared from Dlx1(-/-) animals older than postnatal day 30 (>P30) revealed a significant reduction in excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitude. No changes in EPSCs onto interneurons were observed in cells recorded from younger animals (P9-12). Current-clamp recordings from interneurons at these early postnatal ages showed that interneurons in Dlx1(-/-) mutants were immature and more excitable, although membrane properties normalized by P30. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP-mediated nick-end labeling, caspase-3, and NeuN staining did not reveal frank cell damage or loss in area CA3 of hippocampal sections from adult Dlx1(-/-) mice. Delayed interneuron maturation may lead to interneuron hyperexcitability, followed by a compensatory reduction in the strength of excitatory transmission onto interneurons. This reduced excitation onto surviving interneurons, coupled with the loss of a significant fraction of GABAergic inputs to excitatory neurons starting at P30, may underlie cortical dysrhythmia and seizures previously observed in adult Dlx1(-/-) mice.
Yu, Jiandong; Swietek, Bogumila; Proddutur, Archana; Santhakumar, Vijayalakshmi
Activity of the dentate gyrus, which gates information flow to the hippocampus, is under tight inhibitory regulation by interneurons with distinctive axonal projections, intrinsic and synaptic characteristics and neurochemical identities. Total molecular layer cells (TML-Cs), a class of morphologically distinct GABAergic neurons with axonal projections across the molecular layer, are among the most frequent interneuronal type in the dentate subgranular region. However, little is known about their synaptic and neurochemical properties. We demonstrate that synapses from morphologically identified TML-Cs to dentate interneurons are characterized by low release probability, facilitating short-term dynamics and asynchronous release. TML-Cs consistently show somatic and axonal labeling for the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 R) yet fail to express cholecystokinin (CCK) indicating their distinctive neurochemical identity. In paired recordings, the release probability at synapses between TML-Cs was increased by the CB1 R antagonist AM251, demonstrating baseline endocannabinoid regulation of TML-C synapses. Apart from defining the synaptic and neurochemical features of TML-Cs, our findings reveal the morphological identity of a class of dentate CB1 R-positive neurons that do not express CCK. Our findings indicate that TML-Cs can mediate cannabinoid sensitive feed-forward and feedback inhibition of dentate perforant path inputs.
Cauli, Bruno; Porter, James T.; Tsuzuki, Keisuke; Lambolez, Bertrand; Rossier, Jean; Quenet, Brigitte; Audinat, Etienne
A classification of fusiform neocortical interneurons (n = 60) was performed with an unsupervised cluster analysis based on the comparison of multiple electrophysiological and molecular parameters studied by patch-clamp and single-cell multiplex reverse transcription–PCR in rat neocortical acute slices. The multiplex reverse transcription–PCR protocol was designed to detect simultaneously the expression of GAD65, GAD67, calbindin, parvalbumin, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), somatostatin (SS), cholecystokinin, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, kainate, N-methyl-d-aspartate, and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes. Three groups of fusiform interneurons with distinctive features were disclosed by the cluster analysis. The first type of fusiform neuron (n = 12), termed regular spiking nonpyramidal (RSNP)-SS cluster, was characterized by a firing pattern of RSNP cells and by a high occurrence of SS. The second type of fusiform neuron (n = 32), termed RSNP-VIP cluster, predominantly expressed VIP and also showed firing properties of RSNP neurons with accommodation profiles different from those of RSNP-SS cells. Finally, the last type of fusiform neuron (n = 16) contained a majority of irregular spiking-VIPergic neurons. In addition, the analysis of glutamate receptors revealed cell-type-specific expression profiles. This study shows that combinations of multiple independent criteria define distinct neocortical populations of interneurons potentially involved in specific functions. PMID:10823957
Phillips, Elizabeth AK; Hasenstaub, Andrea R
Bidirectional manipulations – activation and inactivation – are widely used to identify the functions supported by specific cortical interneuron types. Implicit in much of this work is the notion that tonic activation and inactivation will both produce valid, internally consistent insights into interneurons’ computational roles. Here, using single-unit recordings in auditory cortex of awake mice, we show that this may not generally hold true. Optogenetically manipulating somatostatin-positive (Sst+) or parvalbumin-positive (Pvalb+) interneurons while recording tone-responses showed that Sst+ inactivation increased response gain, while Pvalb+ inactivation weakened tuning and decreased information transfer, implying that these neurons support delineable computational functions. But activating Sst+ and Pvalb+ interneurons revealed no such differences. We used a simple network model to understand this asymmetry, and showed how relatively small changes in key parameters, such as spontaneous activity or strength of the light manipulation, determined whether activation and inactivation would produce consistent or paradoxical conclusions regarding interneurons’ computational functions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18383.001 PMID:27719761
Dawson, V.L.; Dawson, T.M.; Wamsley, J.K. )
Unilateral stereotaxic injection of small amounts of the cholinotoxin, AF64A, caused minimal nonselective tissue damage and resulted in a significant loss of the presynaptic cholinergic markers (3H)hemicholinium-3 (45% reduction) and choline acetyltransferase (27% reduction). No significant change from control was observed in tyrosine hydroxylase or tryptophan hydroxylase activity; presynaptic neuronal markers for dopamine- and serotonin-containing neurons, respectively. The AF64A lesion resulted in a significant reduction of dopamine D2 receptors as evidenced by a decrease in (3H)sulpiride binding (42% reduction) and decrease of muscarinic non-M1 receptors as shown by a reduction in (3H)QNB binding in the presence of 100 nM pirenzepine (36% reduction). Saturation studies revealed that the change in (3H)sulpiride and (3H)QNB binding was due to a change in Bmax not Kd. Intrastriatal injection of AF64A failed to alter dopamine D1 or muscarinic M1 receptors labeled with (3H)SCH23390 and (3H)pirenzepine, respectively. In addition, no change in (3H)forskolin-labeled adenylate cyclase was observed. These results demonstrate that a subpopulation of muscarinic receptors (non-M1) are presynaptic on cholinergic interneurons (hence, autoreceptors), and a subpopulation of dopamine D2 receptors are postsynaptic on cholinergic interneurons. Furthermore, dopamine D1, muscarinic M1 and (3H)forskolin-labeled adenylate cyclase are not localized to striatal cholinergic interneurons.
Lau, Troy; Gage, Gregory J.; Berke, Joshua D.; Zochowski, Michal
Interneurons coupled by both electrical gap-junctions (GJs) and chemical GABAergic synapses are major components of forebrain networks. However, their contributions to the generation of specific activity patterns, and their overall contributions to network function, remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate, using computational methods, that the topological properties of interneuron networks can elicit a wide range of activity dynamics, and either prevent or permit local pattern formation. We systematically varied the topology of GJ and inhibitory chemical synapses within simulated networks, by changing connection types from local to random, and changing the total number of connections. As previously observed we found that randomly coupled GJs lead to globally synchronous activity. In contrast, we found that local GJ connectivity may govern the formation of highly spatially heterogeneous activity states. These states are inherently temporally unstable when the input is uniformly random, but can rapidly stabilize when the network detects correlations or asymmetries in the inputs. We show a correspondence between this feature of network activity and experimental observations of transient stabilization of striatal fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), in electrophysiological recordings from rats performing a simple decision-making task. We suggest that local GJ coupling enables an active search-and-select function of striatal FSIs, which contributes to the overall role of cortical-basal ganglia circuits in decision-making.
Ratnadurai-Giridharan, Shivakeshavan; Khargonekar, Pramod P.; Talathi, Sachin S.
We investigate the emergence of in-phase synchronization in a heterogeneous network of coupled inhibitory interneurons in the presence of spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP). Using a simple network of two mutually coupled interneurons (2-MCI), we first study the effects of STDP on in-phase synchronization. We demonstrate that, with STDP, the 2-MCI network can evolve to either a state of stable 1:1 in-phase synchronization or exhibit multiple regimes of higher order synchronization states. We show that the emergence of synchronization induces a structural asymmetry in the 2-MCI network such that the synapses onto the high frequency firing neurons are potentiated, while those onto the low frequency firing neurons are de-potentiated, resulting in the directed flow of information from low frequency firing neurons to high frequency firing neurons. Finally, we demonstrate that the principal findings from our analysis of the 2-MCI network contribute to the emergence of robust synchronization in the Wang-Buzsaki network (Wang and Buzsáki, 1996) of all-to-all coupled inhibitory interneurons (100-MCI) for a significantly larger range of heterogeneity in the intrinsic firing rate of the neurons in the network. We conclude that STDP of inhibitory synapses provide a viable mechanism for robust neural synchronization. PMID:26528174
Sessolo, Michele; Marcon, Iacopo; Bovetti, Serena; Losi, Gabriele; Cammarota, Mario; Ratto, Gian Michele; Fellin, Tommaso; Carmignoto, Giorgio
Parvalbumin (Pv)-positive inhibitory interneurons effectively control network excitability, and their optogenetic activation has been reported to block epileptic seizures. An intense activity in GABAergic interneurons, including Pv interneurons, before seizures has been described in different experimental models of epilepsy, raising the hypothesis that an increased GABAergic inhibitory signal may, under certain conditions, initiate seizures. It is therefore unclear whether the activity of Pv interneurons enhances or opposes epileptiform activities. Here we use a mouse cortical slice model of focal epilepsy in which the epileptogenic focus can be identified and the role of Pv interneurons in the generation and propagation of seizure-like ictal events is accurately analyzed by a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and imaging techniques. We found that a selective activation of Pv interneurons at the focus failed to block ictal generation and induced postinhibitory rebound spiking in pyramidal neurons, enhancing neuronal synchrony and promoting ictal generation. In contrast, a selective activation of Pv interneurons distant from the focus blocked ictal propagation and shortened ictal duration at the focus. We revealed that the reduced ictal duration was a direct consequence of the ictal propagation block, probably by preventing newly generated afterdischarges to travel backwards to the original focus of ictal initiation. Similar results were obtained upon individual Pv interneuron activation by intracellular depolarizing current pulses. The functional dichotomy of Pv interneurons here described opens new perspectives to our understanding of how local inhibitory circuits govern generation and spread of focal epileptiform activities.
Batista-Brito, Renata; Machold, Robert; Klein, Corinna
At present little is known about the developmental mechanisms that give rise to inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons of the neocortex or the timing of their subtype specification. As such, we performed a gene expression microarray analysis on cortical interneuron precursors isolated through their expression of a Dlx5/6Cre-IRES-EGFP transgene. We purified these precursors from the embryonic mouse neocortex at E13.5 and E15.5 by sorting of enhanced green fluorescent protein-expressing cells. We identified novel transcription factors, neuropeptides, and cell surface genes whose expression is highly enriched in embryonic cortical interneuron precursors. Our identification of many of the genes known to be selectively enriched within cortical interneurons validated the efficacy of our approach. Surprisingly, we find that subpopulations of migrating cortical interneurons express genes encoding for proteins characteristic of mature interneuron subtypes as early as E13.5. These results provide support for the idea that many of the genes characteristic of specific cortical interneuron subtypes are evident prior to their functional integration into cortical microcircuitry. They suggest interneurons are already relegated to specific genetic subtypes shortly after they become postmitotic. Moreover, our work has revealed that many of the genes expressed in cortical interneuron precursors have been independently linked to neurological disorders in both mice and humans PMID:18250082
Tivodar, Simona; Kalemaki, Katerina; Kounoupa, Zouzana; Vidaki, Marina; Theodorakis, Kostas; Denaxa, Myrto; Kessaris, Nicoletta; de Curtis, Ivan; Pachnis, Vassilis; Karagogeos, Domna
Cortical interneurons are characterized by extraordinary functional and morphological diversity. Although tremendous progress has been made in uncovering molecular and cellular mechanisms implicated in interneuron generation and function, several questions still remain open. Rho-GTPases have been implicated as intracellular mediators of numerous developmental processes such as cytoskeleton organization, vesicle trafficking, transcription, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Specifically in cortical interneurons, we have recently shown a cell-autonomous and stage-specific requirement for Rac1 activity within proliferating interneuron precursors. Conditional ablation of Rac1 in the medial ganglionic eminence leads to a 50% reduction of GABAergic interneurons in the postnatal cortex. Here we examine the additional role of Rac3 by analyzing Rac1/Rac3 double-mutant mice. We show that in the absence of both Rac proteins, the embryonic migration of medial ganglionic eminence-derived interneurons is further impaired. Postnatally, double-mutant mice display a dramatic loss of cortical interneurons. In addition, Rac1/Rac3-deficient interneurons show gross cytoskeletal defects in vitro, with the length of their leading processes significantly reduced and a clear multipolar morphology. We propose that in the absence of Rac1/Rac3, cortical interneurons fail to migrate tangentially towards the pallium due to defects in actin and microtubule cytoskeletal dynamics.
Cox, David J; Racca, Claudia; LeBeau, Fiona E N
Noradrenaline (NA) acting via beta-adrenergic receptors (betaARs) plays an important role in the modulation of memory in the hippocampus. betaARs have been shown to be expressed in principal cells, but their distribution across different interneuron classes is unknown. We have used specific interneuron markers including calcium binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin) and neuropeptides (somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, and cholecystokinin) together with either beta1AR or beta2AR to determine the distribution of these receptors in all major subfields of the hippocampus. We found that beta1AR-expressing interneurons were more prevalent in the CA3 and CA1 regions of the hippocampus than in the dentate gyrus, where they were relatively sparse. beta2AR-expressing interneurons were more uniformly distributed between all three regions of the hippocampus. A high proportion of neuropeptide Y-containing interneurons in the dentate gyrus co-expressed beta2AR. beta1AR labeling was common in interneurons expressing somatostatin and parvalbumin in the CA3 and CA1 regions, particularly in the stratum oriens of these regions. beta2AR labeling was more likely to be found than beta1AR labeling in cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons. In contrast, calretinin-containing interneurons were virtually devoid of beta1AR or beta2AR labeling. These regional and interneuron type-specific differences suggest functionally distinct roles for NA in modulating hippocampal activity via activation of betaARs.
Quevedo, J; Eguibar, J R; Lomeli, J; Rudomin, P
A technique was developed to measure, in the anesthetized and paralyzed cat under artificial ventilation, changes of excitability to intraspinal stimulation simultaneously in two different afferent fibers or in two collaterals of the same afferent fiber. Intraspinal stimulation reduced the threshold of single muscle afferent fibers ending in the intermediate nucleus. This effect was seen with strengths below those required to activate the afferent fiber tested (1.5-12 microA), occurred at a short latency (1.5-2.0 ms), reached a maximum between 15 and 30 ms, and lasted up to 100 ms. The effects produced by graded stimulation applied at the shortest conditioning-testing stimulus time intervals increased by fixed steps, suggesting recruitment of discrete elements, most likely of last-order interneurons mediating primary afferent depolarization (PAD). The short-latency increases in excitability produced by the weakest effective intraspinal stimuli were usually detected only in the collateral closest to the stimulating micropipette, indicating that the stimulated interneurons mediating PAD have spatially restricted actions. The short-latency PAD produced by intraspinal stimuli, as well as the PAD produced by stimulation of the posterior biceps and semitendinosus (PBSt) nerve or by stimulation of the bulbar reticular formation (RF), was depressed 19-30 min after the i.v. injection of 0.5 mg/kg of picrotoxin, suggesting that all these effects were mediated by GABAergic mechanisms. The PAD elicited by stimulation of muscle and/or cutaneous nerves was depressed following the i.v. injection of (-)-baclofen, whereas the PAD elicited in the same collateral by stimulation of the RF was baclofen-resistant. The short-latency PAD produced by intraspinal stimulation was not always depressed by i.v. injections of (-)-baclofen. Baclofen-sensitive and baclofen-resistant monosynaptic PADs could be produced in different collaterals of the same afferent fiber. The results suggest that
Hennou, Sonia; Khalilov, Ilgam; Diabira, Diabé; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Gozlan, Henri
During postnatal development of CA1 pyramidal neurons, GABAergic synapses are excitatory and established prior to glutamatergic synapses. As interneurons are generated before pyramidal cells, we have tested the hypothesis that the GABAergic interneuronal network is operative before glutamate pyramidal neurons and provides the initial patterns of activity. We patch-clamp recorded interneurons in foetal (69 neurons) and neonatal P0 (162 neurons) hippocampal slices and performed a morphofunctional analysis of biocytin-filled neurons. At P0, three types of interneurons were found: (i) non-innervated "silent" interneurons (5%) with no spontaneous or evoked synaptic currents; (ii) G interneurons (17%) with GABA(A) synapses only; and (iii) GG interneurons with GABA and glutamatergic synapses (78%). Relying on the neuronal capacitance, cell body size and arborization of dendrites and axons, the three types of interneurons correspond to three stages of development with non-innervated neurons and interneurons with GABA(A) and glutamatergic synapses being, respectively, the least and the most developed. Recordings from both pyramidal neurons and interneurons in foetuses (E18-20) revealed that the majority of interneurons (65%) had functional synapses whereas nearly 90% of pyramidal neurons were quiescent. Therefore, interneurons follow the same GABA-glutamate sequence of synapse formation but earlier than the principal cells. Interneurons are the source and the target of the first synapses formed in the hippocampus and are thus in a position to modulate the development of the hippocampus in the foetal stage.
van Hooft, J A; Giuffrida, R; Blatow, M; Monyer, H
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) have been proposed to be involved in oscillatory rhythmic activity in the hippocampus. However, the subtypes of mGluRs involved and their precise distribution in different populations of interneurons is unclear. In this study, we combined functional analysis of mGluR-mediated inward currents in CA1 oriens-alveus interneurons with anatomical and immunocytochemical identification of these interneurons and expression analysis of group I mGluR using single-cell reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Four major interneuron subtypes could be distinguished based on the mGluR-mediated inward current induced by the application of 100 microm trans-(1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) under voltage-clamp conditions and the action potential firing pattern under current-clamp conditions. Type I interneurons responded with a large inward current of approximately 224 pA, were positive for somatostatin, and the majority expressed both mGluR1 and mGluR5. Type II interneurons responded with an inward current of approximately 80 pA, contained calbindin, and expressed mainly mGluR1. Type III interneurons responded with an inward current of approximately 60 pA. These interneurons were fast-spiking, contained parvalbumin, and expressed mainly mGluR5. Type IV interneurons did not respond with an inward current upon application of ACPD, yet they expressed group I mGluRs. Activation of group I mGluRs under current-clamp conditions increased spike frequency and resulted in rhythmic firing activity in type I and II, but not in type III and IV, interneurons. RT-PCR results suggest that activation of mGluR1 in the subsets of GABAergic interneurons, classified here as type I and II, may play an important role in mediating synchronous activity.
Jin, Nan Ge; Tian, Lian-Ming; Crow, Terry
The sensory neurons (photoreceptors) in the visual system of Hermissenda are one site of plasticity produced by Pavlovian conditioning. A second site of plasticity produced by conditioning is the type I interneurons in the cerebropleural ganglia. Both photoreceptors and statocyst hair cells of the graviceptive system form monosynaptic connections with identified type I interneurons. Two proposed neurotransmitters in the graviceptive system, serotonin (5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have been shown to modify synaptic strength and intrinsic neuronal excitability in identified photoreceptors. However, the potential role of 5-HT and GABA in plasticity of type I interneurons has not been investigated. Here we show that 5-HT increased the peak amplitude of light-evoked complex excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), enhanced intrinsic excitability, and increased spike activity of identified type I(e(A)) interneurons. In contrast, 5-HT decreased spike activity and intrinsic excitability of type I(e(B)) interneurons. The classification of two categories of type I(e) interneurons was also supported by the observation that 5-HT produced opposite effects on whole cell steady-state outward currents in type I(e) interneurons. Serotonin produced a reduction in the amplitude of light-evoked complex inhibitory PSPs (IPSPs), increased spontaneous spike activity, decreased intrinsic excitability, and depolarized the resting membrane potential of identified type I(i) interneurons. In contrast to the effects of 5-HT, GABA produced inhibition in both types of I(e) interneurons and type I(i) interneurons. These results show that 5-HT and GABA can modulate the intrinsic excitability of type I interneurons independent of the presynaptic effects of the same transmitters on excitability and synaptic efficacy of photoreceptors.
Gavrilovici, Cezar; Pollock, Emily; Everest, Michelle; Poulter, Michael O
Interneuronal functional diversity is thought to be an important factor in the control of neural network oscillations in many brain regions. Specifically, interneuron action potential firing patterns are thought to modulate brain rhythms. In neurological disorders such as epilepsy where brain rhythms are significantly disturbed interneuron function is largely unexplored. Thus the purpose of this study was to examine the functional diversity of piriform cortex interneurons (PC; an area of the brain that easily supports seizures) before and after kindling-induced epilepsy. Using cluster analysis, we found five control firing behaviors. These groups were termed: non-adapting very high frequency (NAvHF), adapting high frequency (AHF), adapting low frequency (ALF), strongly adapting low frequency (sALF), and weakly adapting low frequency (wALF). A morphological analysis showed these spiking patterns were not associated with any specific interneuronal morphology although we found that most of the cells displaying NAvHF firing pattern were multipolar. After kindling about 40% of interneuronal firing pattern changed, and neither the NAvHF nor the wALF phenotypes were found. We also found that in multipolar interneurons a long-lasting potassium current was increased. A qPCR analysis indicated Kv1.6 subtype was up-regulated after kindling. An immunocytochemical analysis showed that Kv1.6 protein expression on parvalbumin (multipolar) interneurons increased by greater than 400%. We also examined whether these changes could be due to the selective death of a subset of interneurons but found that there was no change in cell number. These data show an important loss of the functional diversity of interneurons in the PC. Our data suggest that under pathophysiological condition interneurons are plastic resulting in the attenuation of high frequency network oscillations in favor of low frequency network activity. This may be an important new mechanism by which network synchrony is
Bernácer, Javier; Prensa, Lucía; Giménez-Amaya, José Manuel
Background The afferent projections of the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) are segregated in three territories: associative, sensorimotor and limbic. Striatal interneurons are in part responsible for the integration of these different types of information. Among them, GABAergic interneurons are the most abundant, and can be sorted in three populations according to their content in the calcium binding proteins calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB). Conversely, striatal dopaminergic cells (whose role as interneurons is still unclear) are scarce. This study aims to analyze the interneuron distribution in the striatal functional territories, as well as their organization regarding to the striosomal compartment. Methodology/Principal Findings We used immunohistochemical methods to visualize CR, PV, CB and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive striatal neurons. The interneuronal distribution was assessed by stereological methods applied to every striatal functional territory. Considering the four cell groups altogether, their density was higher in the associative (2120±91 cells/mm3) than in the sensorimotor (959±47 cells/mm3) or limbic (633±119 cells/mm3) territories. CB- and TH-immunoreactive(-ir) cells were distributed rather homogeneously in the three striatal territories. However, the density of CR and PV interneurons were more abundant in the associative and sensorimotor striatum, respectively. Regarding to their compartmental organization, CR-ir interneurons were frequently found in the border between compartments in the associative and sensorimotor territories, and CB-ir interneurons abounded at the striosome/matrix border in the sensorimotor domain. Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrates that the architecture of the human striatum in terms of its interneuron composition varies in its three functional territories. Furthermore, our data highlight the importance of CR-ir striatal interneurons in the integration of associative
Qu, G-J; Ma, J; Yu, Y-C; Fu, Y
The subplate (SP) plays important roles in developmental and functional events in the neocortex, such as thalamocortical and corticofugal projection, cortical oscillation generation and corticocortical connectivity. Although accumulated evidence indicates that SP interneurons are crucial for SP function, the molecular composition of SP interneurons as well as their developmental profile and distribution remain largely unclear. In this study, we systematically investigated dynamic development of SP thickness and chemical marker expression in SP interneurons in distinct cortical regions during the first postnatal month. We found that, although the relative area of the SP in the cerebral cortex significantly declined with postnatal development, the absolute thickness did not change markedly. We also found that somatostatin (SOM), the ionotropic serotonin receptor 3A (5HT3AR), and parvalbumin (PV) reliably identify three distinct non-overlapping subpopulations of SP interneurons. The SOM group, which represents ~30% of total SP interneurons, expresses neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and calbindin (CB) and colocalizes entirely with neuropeptide Y (NPY). The 5HT3AR group, which accounts for ~60% of the total interneuronal population, expresses calretinin (CR) and GABA-A receptor subunit delta (GABAARδ). The PV group accounts for ~10% of total SP interneurons and coexpressed GABAARδ. Moreover, distinct interneuron subtypes show characteristic temporal and spatial distribution in the SP. nNOS(+) interneurons in the SP increase from the anterior motor cortex to posterior visual cortex, while CR(+) and CB(+) interneurons the opposite. Interestedly, the majority of GABAARδ(+) neurons in SP are non-GABAergic neurons in contrast to other cortical layers. These findings clarify and extend our understanding of SP interneurons in the developing cerebral cortex and will underpin further study of SP function.
Mihaljević, Bojan; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro
Interneuron classification is an important and long-debated topic in neuroscience. A recent study provided a data set of digitally reconstructed interneurons classified by 42 leading neuroscientists according to a pragmatic classification scheme composed of five categorical variables, namely, of the interneuron type and four features of axonal morphology. From this data set we now learned a model which can classify interneurons, on the basis of their axonal morphometric parameters, into these five descriptive variables simultaneously. Because of differences in opinion among the neuroscientists, especially regarding neuronal type, for many interneurons we lacked a unique, agreed-upon classification, which we could use to guide model learning. Instead, we guided model learning with a probability distribution over the neuronal type and the axonal features, obtained, for each interneuron, from the neuroscientists' classification choices. We conveniently encoded such probability distributions with Bayesian networks, calling them label Bayesian networks (LBNs), and developed a method to predict them. This method predicts an LBN by forming a probabilistic consensus among the LBNs of the interneurons most similar to the one being classified. We used 18 axonal morphometric parameters as predictor variables, 13 of which we introduce in this paper as quantitative counterparts to the categorical axonal features. We were able to accurately predict interneuronal LBNs. Furthermore, when extracting crisp (i.e., non-probabilistic) predictions from the predicted LBNs, our method outperformed related work on interneuron classification. Our results indicate that our method is adequate for multi-dimensional classification of interneurons with probabilistic labels. Moreover, the introduced morphometric parameters are good predictors of interneuron type and the four features of axonal morphology and thus may serve as objective counterparts to the subjective, categorical axonal features.
Mihaljević, Bojan; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro
Interneuron classification is an important and long-debated topic in neuroscience. A recent study provided a data set of digitally reconstructed interneurons classified by 42 leading neuroscientists according to a pragmatic classification scheme composed of five categorical variables, namely, of the interneuron type and four features of axonal morphology. From this data set we now learned a model which can classify interneurons, on the basis of their axonal morphometric parameters, into these five descriptive variables simultaneously. Because of differences in opinion among the neuroscientists, especially regarding neuronal type, for many interneurons we lacked a unique, agreed-upon classification, which we could use to guide model learning. Instead, we guided model learning with a probability distribution over the neuronal type and the axonal features, obtained, for each interneuron, from the neuroscientists' classification choices. We conveniently encoded such probability distributions with Bayesian networks, calling them label Bayesian networks (LBNs), and developed a method to predict them. This method predicts an LBN by forming a probabilistic consensus among the LBNs of the interneurons most similar to the one being classified. We used 18 axonal morphometric parameters as predictor variables, 13 of which we introduce in this paper as quantitative counterparts to the categorical axonal features. We were able to accurately predict interneuronal LBNs. Furthermore, when extracting crisp (i.e., non-probabilistic) predictions from the predicted LBNs, our method outperformed related work on interneuron classification. Our results indicate that our method is adequate for multi-dimensional classification of interneurons with probabilistic labels. Moreover, the introduced morphometric parameters are good predictors of interneuron type and the four features of axonal morphology and thus may serve as objective counterparts to the subjective, categorical axonal features
Jin, Nan Ge; Tian, Lian-Ming
The sensory neurons (photoreceptors) in the visual system of Hermissenda are one site of plasticity produced by Pavlovian conditioning. A second site of plasticity produced by conditioning is the type I interneurons in the cerebropleural ganglia. Both photoreceptors and statocyst hair cells of the graviceptive system form monosynaptic connections with identified type I interneurons. Two proposed neurotransmitters in the graviceptive system, serotonin (5-HT) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have been shown to modify synaptic strength and intrinsic neuronal excitability in identified photoreceptors. However, the potential role of 5-HT and GABA in plasticity of type I interneurons has not been investigated. Here we show that 5-HT increased the peak amplitude of light-evoked complex excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), enhanced intrinsic excitability, and increased spike activity of identified type Ie(A) interneurons. In contrast, 5-HT decreased spike activity and intrinsic excitability of type Ie(B) interneurons. The classification of two categories of type Ie interneurons was also supported by the observation that 5-HT produced opposite effects on whole cell steady-state outward currents in type Ie interneurons. Serotonin produced a reduction in the amplitude of light-evoked complex inhibitory PSPs (IPSPs), increased spontaneous spike activity, decreased intrinsic excitability, and depolarized the resting membrane potential of identified type Ii interneurons. In contrast to the effects of 5-HT, GABA produced inhibition in both types of Ie interneurons and type Ii interneurons. These results show that 5-HT and GABA can modulate the intrinsic excitability of type I interneurons independent of the presynaptic effects of the same transmitters on excitability and synaptic efficacy of photoreceptors. PMID:19710377
Lane, Michael A.; White, Todd E.; Coutts, Marcella A.; Jones, Alex L.; Sandhu, Milapjit S.; Bloom, David C.; Bolser, Donald C.; Yates, Bill J.; Fuller, David D.; Reier, Paul J.
While monosynaptic bulbospinal projections to phrenic motoneurons have been extensively described, little is known about the organization of phrenic premotor neurons in the adult rat spinal cord. As interneurons may play an important role in normal breathing and recovery following spinal cord injury, the present study has used anterograde and transneuronal retrograde tracing to study their distribution and synaptic relations. Exclusive unilateral, first-order labeling of the phrenic motoneuron pool with pseudorabies virus demonstrated a substantial number of second-order, bilaterally-distributed cervical interneurons predominantly in the dorsal horn and around the central canal. Combined transneuronal and anterograde tracing revealed ventral respiratory column projections to pre-phrenic interneurons suggesting some propriospinal relays exist between medullary neurons and the phrenic nucleus. Dual-labeling studies with pseudorabies virus recombinants also showed pre-phrenic interneurons integrated with either contralateral phrenic or intercostal motoneuron pools. The stability of interneuronal pseudorabies virus labeling patterns following lateral cervical hemisection was then addressed. Except for fewer infected contralateral interneurons at the level of the central canal, the number and distribution of phrenic-associated interneurons was not significantly altered two weeks post-hemisection (i.e. when the earliest post-injury recovery of phrenic activity has been reported). These results demonstrate a heterogeneous population of phrenic-related interneurons. Their connectivity and relative stability after cervical hemisection raises speculation for potentially diverse roles in modulating phrenic function normally and post-injury. PMID:18924146
Spampanato, Jay; Sullivan, Robert K P; Perumal, Madhusoothanan B; Sah, Pankaj
We have previously shown that in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), action potentials in one type of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneuron can evoke a disynaptic feedback excitatory postsynaptic potential (fbEPSP) onto the same presynaptic interneuron. Here, using whole-cell recordings from PV-expressing interneurons in acute brain slices we expand on this finding to show that this response is first detectable at 2-week postnatal, and is most prevalent in animals beyond 3 weeks of age (>P21). This circuit has a very high fidelity, and single action potential evoked fbEPSPs display few failures. Reconstruction of filled neurons, and electron microscopy show that interneurons that receive feedback excitation make symmetrical synapses on both the axon initial segments (AIS), as well as the soma and proximal dendrites of local pyramidal neurons, suggesting fbEPSP interneurons are morphologically distinct from the highly specialized chandelier neurons that selectively target the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons. Single PV interneurons could trigger very large (~ 1 nA) feedback excitatory postsynaptic currents (fbEPSCs) suggesting that these neurons are heavily reciprocally connected to local glutamatergic principal cells. We conclude that in the BLA, a subpopulation of PV interneurons forms a distinct neural circuit in which a single action potential can recruit multiple pyramidal neurons to discharge near simultaneously and feed back onto the presynaptic interneuron.
Dong, Hongxin; Csernansky, Cynthia A; Chu, Yunxiang; Csernansky, John G
The effects of neonatal exposure to excitotoxins on the development of interneurons have not been well characterized, but may be relevant to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, the excitotoxin, kainic acid (KA) was administered to rats at postnatal day 7 (P7) by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion. At P14, P25, P40 and P60, Nissl staining and immunohistochemical studies with the interneuron markers, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), calbindin-D28k (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) were performed in the hippocampus. In control animals, the total number of interneurons, as well as the number of interneurons stained with GAD-67, CB and PV, was nearly constant from P14 through P60. In KA-treated rats, Nissl staining, GAD-67 staining, and CB staining revealed a progressive decline in the overall number of interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields from P14 to P60. In contrast, PV staining in KA-treated rats showed initial decreases in the number of interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields at P14 followed by increases that approached control levels by P60. These results suggest that, in general, early exposure to the excitotoxin KA decreases the number of hippocampal interneurons, but has a more variable effect on the specific population of interneurons labeled by PV. The functional impact of these changes may be relevant to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.
Zhou, Fu-Wen; Roper, Steven N
Cortical dysplasia (CD) is associated with severe epilepsy in humans, and the in utero irradiation of fetal rats provides a model of this disorder. These animals show a selective loss of inhibitory interneurons, and the surviving interneurons have a reduced excitatory synaptic drive. The current study was undertaken to see how alterations in synaptic input would affect spontaneous firing of interneurons in dysplastic cortex. We recorded spontaneous action potentials and excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs, respectively) from somatostatin (SST)-, parvalbumin (PV)-, and calretinin (CR)-immunoreactive (ir) interneurons. We found that SST- and PV-ir interneurons fired less frequently and with less regularity than controls. This corresponded to a relative imbalance in the ratio of EPSCs to IPSCs that favored inhibition. In contrast, CR-ir interneurons from CD showed no differences from controls in spontaneous firing or ratio of EPSCs to IPSCs. Additional studies demonstrated that synaptic input had a powerful effect on spontaneous firing in all interneurons. These findings demonstrate that a relative reduction in excitatory drive results in less active SST- and PV-ir interneurons in irradiated rats. This would further impair cortical inhibition in these animals and may be an important mechanism of epileptogenesis.
Govindaiah, G; Wang, Yanyan; Cox, Charles L
Substance P (SP) is co-localized and co-released with gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from approximately 50% of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum. MSNs innervate several cellular targets including neighboring MSNs and cholinergic interneurons via collaterals. However, the functional role of SP release onto striatal interneurons is unknown. Here we examined SP-mediated actions on inhibitory synaptic transmission in cholinergic interneurons using whole-cell recordings in mouse corticostriatal slices. We found that SP selectively suppressed GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs), but not excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in cholinergic interneurons. In contrast, SP did not alter IPSCs in fast-spiking interneurons and MSNs. SP suppressed IPSC amplitude in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner, and the NK1 receptor antagonist RP67580 attenuated the SP-mediated suppression. In addition, RP67580 alone enhanced the evoked IPSC amplitude in cholinergic interneurons, suggesting an endogenous action of SP on regulation of inhibitory synaptic transmission. SP did not alter the paired-pulse ratio, but reduced the amplitudes of GABA(A) agonist muscimol-induced outward currents and miniature IPSCs in cholinergic interneurons, suggesting SP exerts its effects primarily at the post-synaptic site. Our results indicate that the physiological effects of SP are to enhance the activity of striatal cholinergic interneurons and provide a rationale for designing potential new antiparkinsonian agents.
Ritter, A; Wenner, P; Ho, S; Whelan, P J; O'Donovan, M J
To investigate the origin of spontaneous activity in developing spinal networks, we examined the activity patterns and synaptic organization of ventrally located lumbosacral interneurons, including those whose axons project into the ventrolateral funiculus (VLF), in embryonic day 9 (E9)-E12 chick embryos. During spontaneous episodes, rhythmic synaptic potentials were recorded from the VLF and from spinal interneurons that were synchronized, cycle by cycle, with rhythmic ventral root potentials. At the beginning of an episode, ventral root potentials started before the VLF discharge and the firing of individual interneurons. However, pharmacological blockade of recurrent motoneuron collaterals did not prevent or substantially delay interneuron recruitment during spontaneous episodes. The synaptic connections of interneurons were examined by stimulating the VLF and recording the potentials evoked in the ventral roots, in the VLF, or in individual interneurons. Low-intensity stimulation of the VLF evoked a short-latency depolarizing potential in the ventral roots, or in interneurons, that was probably mediated mono- or disynaptically. At higher intensities, long-latency responses were recruited in a highly nonlinear manner, eventually culminating in the activation of an episode. VLF-evoked potentials were reversibly blocked by extracellular Co2+, indicating that they were mediated by chemical synaptic transmission. Collectively, these findings indicate that ventral interneurons are rhythmically active, project to motoneurons, and are likely to be interconnected by recurrent excitatory synaptic connections. This pattern of organization may explain the synchronous activation of spinal neurons and the regenerative activation of spinal networks when provided with a suprathreshold stimulus.
Li, P; Huntsman, M M
Cortical fast spiking (FS) interneurons possess autaptic, synaptic, and electrical synapses that serve to mediate a fast, coordinated response to their postsynaptic targets. While FS interneurons are known to participate in numerous and diverse actions, functional subgroupings within this multi-functional interneuron class remain to be identified. In the present study, we examined parvalbumin-positive FS interneurons in layer 4 of the primary somatosensory (barrel) cortex - a brain region well-known for specialized inhibitory function. Here we show that FS interneurons fall into two broad categories identified by the onset of the first action potential in a depolarizing train as: "delayed firing FS interneurons (FSD) and early onset firing FS interneurons (FSE). Subtle variations in action potential firing reveal six subtypes within these two categories: delayed non-accommodating (FSD-NAC), delayed stuttering (FSD-STUT), early onset stuttering (FSE-STUT), early onset-late spiking (FSE-LS), early onset early-spiking (FSE-ES), and early onset accommodating (FSE-AC). Using biophysical criteria previously employed to distinguish neuronal cell types, the FSD and FSE categories exhibit several shared biophysical and synaptic properties that coincide with the notion of specificity of inhibitory function within the cortical FS interneuron class.
Anastasiades, Paul G; Marques-Smith, Andre; Lyngholm, Daniel; Lickiss, Tom; Raffiq, Sayda; Kätzel, Dennis; Miesenböck, Gero; Butt, Simon J B
GABAergic interneurons play key roles in cortical circuits, yet little is known about their early connectivity. Here we use glutamate uncaging and a novel optogenetic strategy to track changes in the afferent and efferent synaptic connections of developing neocortical interneuron subtypes. We find that Nkx2-1-derived interneurons possess functional synaptic connections before emerging pyramidal cell networks. Subsequent interneuron circuit maturation is both subtype and layer dependent. Glutamatergic input onto fast spiking (FS), but not somatostatin-positive, non-FS interneurons increases over development. Interneurons of both subtype located in layers (L) 4 and 5b engage in transient circuits that disappear after the somatosensory critical period. These include a pathway mediated by L5b somatostatin-positive interneurons that specifically targets L4 during the first postnatal week. The innervation patterns of immature cortical interneuron circuits are thus neither static nor progressively strengthened but follow a layer-specific choreography of transient connections that differ from those of the adult brain.
Sang, Qian; Tan, Seong-Seng
When juvenile interneurons arrive at the cortical environment following tangential migration, they are faced with the task of positioning themselves in cortical space in preparation for local circuit wiring. This includes integration into different cortical layers and cessation of migration at various positions to ensure adequate coverage. Little is known about the signals or mechanisms that initiate a conversion from the migratory phenotype to the arborization phenotype. This study looks at the immediate changes in interneuron morphology after culturing for 24 h in a three-dimensional collagen gel. Immature interneurons taken from different stages of corticogenesis showed increased neurite branching and outgrowth after interneuronal contacts were made. These responses were suppressed in the presence of Slit and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) if the interneurons were sourced from early to mid-stages of corticogenesis. However, interneurons taken from the late period of corticogenesis responded to Slit and BDNF by increasing branching and neurite outgrowth. These results suggest an initial interneuronal cell contact as a stimulus for propagating neuronal arborization that may lead to the formation of inhibitory neuronal circuits. In addition, we have identified the late corticogenetic period when interneurons are most sensitive to the neurite promoting effects of Slit and BDNF.
Packer, Adam M; Yuste, Rafael
GABAergic interneurons play a major role in the function of the mammalian neocortex, but their circuit connectivity is still poorly understood. We used two-photon RuBi-Glutamate uncaging to optically map how the largest population of cortical interneurons, the parvalbumin-positive cells (PV+), are connected to pyramidal cells (PCs) in mouse neocortex. We found locally dense connectivity from PV+ interneurons onto PCs across cortical areas and layers. In many experiments, all nearby PV+ cells were connected to every local PC sampled. In agreement with this, we found no evidence for connection specificity, as PV+ interneurons contacted PC pairs similarly regardless of whether they were synaptically connected or not. We conclude that the microcircuit architecture for PV+ interneurons, and probably neocortical inhibition in general, is an unspecific, densely homogenous matrix covering all nearby pyramidal cells.
Apostolides, Pierre F; Trussell, Laurence O
Electrical coupling of inhibitory interneurons can synchronize activity across multiple neurons, thereby enhancing the reliability of inhibition onto principal cell targets. It is unclear whether downstream activity in principal cells controls the excitability of such inhibitory networks. Using paired patch-clamp recordings, we show that excitatory projection neurons (fusiform cells) and inhibitory stellate interneurons of the dorsal cochlear nucleus form an electrically coupled network through gap junctions containing connexin36 (Cxc36, also called Gjd2). Remarkably, stellate cells were more strongly coupled to fusiform cells than to other stellate cells. This heterologous coupling was functionally asymmetric, biasing electrical transmission from the principal cell to the interneuron. Optogenetically activated populations of fusiform cells reliably enhanced interneuron excitability and generated GABAergic inhibition onto the postsynaptic targets of stellate cells, whereas deep afterhyperpolarizations following fusiform cell spike trains potently inhibited stellate cells over several hundred milliseconds. Thus, the excitability of an interneuron network is bidirectionally controlled by distinct epochs of activity in principal cells.
Yang, Q; Michelson, H B
The convulsant 4-aminopyridine (4AP) facilitates the synchronous firing of interneurons in the hippocampus, eliciting giant inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in CA3 pyramidal cells. We used the gap junction blocker carbenoxolone to investigate the role of electrotonic coupling in both the initiation and the maintenance of 4AP-facilitated inhibitory circuit oscillations. Carbenoxolone abolished all synchronized IPSPs in CA3 cells elicited by 4AP in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor blockers. Carbenoxolone also blocked the isolated synchronized GABA(B) IPSPs generated in CA3 cells by a subpopulation of interneurons. These data confirm that: (1) the interneurons producing GABA(B) responses in CA3 cells are electrotonically coupled, and (2) gap junctions among interneurons are essential for initiating synchronized interneuron oscillatory firing in 4AP.
Azim, Eiman; Jabaudon, Denis; Fame, Ryann M; Macklis, Jeffrey D
The neuronal diversity of the CNS emerges largely from controlled spatial and temporal segregation of cell type-specific molecular regulators. We found that the transcription factor SOX6 controls the molecular segregation of dorsal (pallial) from ventral (subpallial) telencephalic progenitors and the differentiation of cortical interneurons, regulating forebrain progenitor and interneuron heterogeneity. During corticogenesis in mice, SOX6 and SOX5 were largely mutually exclusively expressed in pallial and subpallial progenitors, respectively, and remained mutually exclusive in a reverse pattern in postmitotic neuronal progeny. Loss of SOX6 from pallial progenitors caused their inappropriate expression of normally subpallium-restricted developmental controls, conferring mixed dorsal-ventral identity. In postmitotic cortical interneurons, loss of SOX6 disrupted the differentiation and diversity of cortical interneuron subtypes, analogous to SOX5 control over cortical projection neuron development. These data indicate that SOX6 is a central regulator of both progenitor and cortical interneuron diversity during neocortical development.
Shenoda, Botros B
GABAergic Interneuronal migration constitutes an essential process during corticogenesis. Derived from progenitor cells located in the proliferative zones of the ventral telencephalon, newly generated GABAergic Interneuron migrate to their cortical destinations. Cortical dysfunction associated with defects in neuronal migration results in severe developmental consequences. There is growing evidence linking prenatal ethanol exposure to abnormal GABAergic interneuronal migration and subsequent cortical dysfunction. Investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms behind disrupted GABAergic interneuronal migration encountered with prenatal alcohol exposure is crucial for understanding and managing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. This review explores the molecular pathways regulating GABAergic interneuronal cortical migration that might be altered by prenatal ethanol exposure thus opening new avenues for further research in this topic.
Stefanelli, Thomas; Bertollini, Cristina; Lüscher, Christian; Muller, Dominique; Mendez, Pablo
Hippocampal neurons activated during encoding drive the recall of contextual fear memory. Little is known about how such ensembles emerge during acquisition and eventually form the cellular engram. Manipulating the activity of granule cells (GCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG), we reveal a mechanism of lateral inhibition that modulates the size of the cellular engram. GCs engage somatostatin-positive interneurons that inhibit the dendrites of surrounding GCs. Our findings reveal a microcircuit within the DG that controls the size of the cellular engram and the stability of contextual fear memory.
Nassar, Mérie; Simonnet, Jean; Lofredi, Roxanne; Cohen, Ivan; Savary, Etienne; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Miles, Richard; Fricker, Desdemona
The presubiculum, located between hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, plays a fundamental role in representing spatial information, notably head direction. Little is known about GABAergic interneurons of this region. Here, we used three transgenic mouse lines, Pvalb-Cre, Sst-Cre, and X98, to examine distinct interneurons labeled with tdTomato or green fluorescent protein. The distribution of interneurons in presubicular lamina for each animal line was compared to that in the GAD67-GFP knock-in animal line. Labeling was specific in the Pvalb-Cre line with 87% of labeled interneurons immunopositive for parvalbumin (PV). Immunostaining for somatostatin (SOM) revealed good specificity in the X98 line with 89% of fluorescent cells, but a lesser specificity in Sst-Cre animals where only 71% of labeled cells were immunopositive. A minority of ∼6% of interneurons co-expressed PV and SOM in the presubiculum of Sst-Cre animals. The electrophysiological and morphological properties of fluorescent interneurons from Pvalb-Cre, Sst-Cre, and X98 mice differed. Distinct physiological groups of presubicular interneurons were resolved by unsupervised cluster analysis of parameters describing passive properties, firing patterns and AP shapes. One group consisted of SOM-positive, Martinotti type neurons with a low firing threshold (cluster 1). Fast spiking basket cells, mainly from the Pvalb-Cre line, formed a distinct group (cluster 3). Another group (cluster 2) contained interneurons of intermediate electrical properties and basket-cell like morphologies. These labeled neurons were recorded from both Sst-Cre and Pvalb-Cre animals. Thus, our results reveal a wide variation in anatomical and physiological properties for these interneurons, a real overlap of interneurons immuno-positive for both PV and SOM as well as an off-target recombination in the Sst-Cre line, possibly linked to maternal cre inheritance.
Zhou, Fu-Wen; Roper, Steven N
Aberrant neural connections are regarded as a principal factor contributing to epileptogenesis. This study examined chemical and electrical connections between fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-immunoreactive (FS-PV) interneurons and regular-spiking (RS) neurons (pyramidal neurons or spiny stellate neurons) in a rat model of prenatal irradiation-induced cortical dysplasia. Presynaptic action potentials were evoked by current injection and the elicited unitary inhibitory or excitatory postsynaptic potentials (uIPSPs or uEPSPs) were recorded in the postsynaptic cell. In dysplastic cortex, connection rates between presynaptic FS-PV interneurons and postsynaptic RS neurons and FS-PV interneurons, and uIPSP amplitudes were significantly smaller than controls, but both failure rates and coefficient of variation of uIPSP amplitudes were larger than controls. In contrast, connection rates from RS neurons to FS-PV interneurons and uEPSPs amplitude were similar in the two groups. Assessment of the paired pulse ratio showed a significant decrease in synaptic release probability at FS-PV interneuronal terminals, and the density of terminal boutons on axons of biocytin-filled FS-PV interneurons was also decreased, suggesting presynaptic dysfunction in chemical synapses formed by FS-PV interneurons. Electrical connections were observed between FS-PV interneurons, and the connection rates and coupling coefficients were smaller in dysplastic cortex than controls. In dysplastic cortex, we found a reduced synaptic efficiency for uIPSPs originating from FS-PV interneurons regardless of the type of target cell, and impaired electrical connections between FS-PV interneurons. This expands our understanding of the fundamental impairment of inhibition in this model and may have relevance for certain types of human cortical dysplasia.
Alba-Delgado, Cristina; El Khoueiry, Corinne; Peirs, Cédric; Dallel, Radhouane; Artola, Alain; Antri, Myriam
Mechanical allodynia, a cardinal symptom of persistent pain, is associated with the unmasking of usually blocked local circuits within the superficial spinal or medullary dorsal horn (MDH) through which low-threshold mechanical inputs can gain access to the lamina I nociceptive output neurons. Specific interneurons located within inner lamina II (IIi) and expressing the gamma isoform of protein kinase C (PKCγ⁺) have been shown to be key elements for such circuits. However, their morphologic and electrophysiologic features are still unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and immunohistochemical techniques in slices of adult rat MDH, we characterized such lamina IIi PKCγ⁺ interneurons and compared them with neighboring PKCγ⁻ interneurons. Our results reveal that PKCγ⁺ interneurons display very specific activity and response properties. Compared with PKCγ⁻ interneurons, they exhibit a smaller membrane input resistance and rheobase, leading to a lower threshold for action potentials. Consistently, more than half of PKCγ⁺ interneurons respond with tonic firing to step current. They also receive a weaker excitatory synaptic drive. Most PKCγ⁺ interneurons express Ih currents. The neurites of PKCγ⁺ interneurons arborize extensively within lamina IIi, can spread dorsally into lamina IIo, but never reach lamina I. In addition, at least 2 morphologically and functionally different subpopulations of PKCγ⁺ interneurons can be identified: central and radial PKCγ⁺ interneurons. The former exhibit a lower membrane input resistance, rheobase and, thus, action potential threshold, and less PKCγ⁺ immunoreactivity than the latter. These 2 subpopulations might thus differently contribute to the gating of dorsally directed circuits within the MDH underlying mechanical allodynia.
Xiang, Hui; Chen, Huan-Xin; Yu, Xin-Xin; King, Michael A; Roper, Steven N
Cortical dysplasia (CD) is strongly associated with epilepsy. Enhanced excitability in dysplastic neuronal networks is believed to contribute to epileptogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms for the hyperexcitability are poorly understood. Cortical GABAergic interneurons provide the principal inhibition in the neuronal networks by forming inhibitory synapses on excitatory neurons. The aim of the present study was to determine if the function of interneurons in CD is compromised. In a rat model of CD, in utero irradiation, we studied spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and mEPSCs) in cortical interneurons using whole cell recording techniques. Two types of interneurons, type I and type II, were identified based on their distinctive spike patterns and short-term synaptic plasticity. We found that the frequencies of sEPSCs and mEPSCs were significantly decreased in both types of interneurons in CD. However, the amplitude and kinetics of sEPSCs and mEPSCs were not different. Five-pulse, 20-Hz stimulation produced short-term depression in type I interneurons in both CD and control tissue. Type II interneurons showed a robust short-term facilitation in both CD and control tissue. Morphological analysis of biocytin-filled neurons revealed that dendritic trees of both types of interneurons were not altered in CD. Our results demonstrate that the excitatory drive, namely sEPSCs and mEPSCs, in two main types of interneuron is largely attenuated in CD, probably due to a reduction in the number of excitatory synapses on both types of interneurons in CD.
Toyoda, Izumi; Fujita, Satoshi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K.
Mechanisms of seizure initiation are unclear. To evaluate the possible roles of inhibitory neurons, unit recordings were obtained in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and subiculum of epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Most interneurons in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and subiculum increased their firing rate before seizures, and did so with significant consistency from seizure to seizure. Identification of CA1 interneuron subtypes based on firing characteristics during theta and sharp waves suggested that a parvalbumin-positive basket cell and putative bistratified cells, but not oriens lacunosum moleculare cells, were activated preictally. Preictal changes occurred much earlier than those described by most previous in vitro studies. Preictal activation of interneurons began earliest (>4 min before seizure onset), increased most, was most prevalent in the subiculum, and was minimal in CA3. Preictal inactivation of interneurons was most common in CA1 (27% of interneurons) and included a putative ivy cell and parvalbumin-positive basket cell. Increased or decreased preictal activity correlated with whether interneurons fired faster or slower, respectively, during theta activity. Theta waves were more likely to occur before seizure onset, and increased preictal firing of subicular interneurons correlated with theta activity. Preictal changes by other hippocampal interneurons were largely independent of theta waves. Within seconds of seizure onset, many interneurons displayed a brief pause in firing and a later, longer drop that was associated with reduced action potential amplitude. These findings suggest that many interneurons inactivate during seizures, most increase their activity preictally, but some fail to do so at the critical time before seizure onset. PMID:25904809
Nassar, Mérie; Simonnet, Jean; Lofredi, Roxanne; Cohen, Ivan; Savary, Etienne; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Miles, Richard; Fricker, Desdemona
The presubiculum, located between hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, plays a fundamental role in representing spatial information, notably head direction. Little is known about GABAergic interneurons of this region. Here, we used three transgenic mouse lines, Pvalb-Cre, Sst-Cre, and X98, to examine distinct interneurons labeled with tdTomato or green fluorescent protein. The distribution of interneurons in presubicular lamina for each animal line was compared to that in the GAD67-GFP knock-in animal line. Labeling was specific in the Pvalb-Cre line with 87% of labeled interneurons immunopositive for parvalbumin (PV). Immunostaining for somatostatin (SOM) revealed good specificity in the X98 line with 89% of fluorescent cells, but a lesser specificity in Sst-Cre animals where only 71% of labeled cells were immunopositive. A minority of ∼6% of interneurons co-expressed PV and SOM in the presubiculum of Sst-Cre animals. The electrophysiological and morphological properties of fluorescent interneurons from Pvalb-Cre, Sst-Cre, and X98 mice differed. Distinct physiological groups of presubicular interneurons were resolved by unsupervised cluster analysis of parameters describing passive properties, firing patterns and AP shapes. One group consisted of SOM-positive, Martinotti type neurons with a low firing threshold (cluster 1). Fast spiking basket cells, mainly from the Pvalb-Cre line, formed a distinct group (cluster 3). Another group (cluster 2) contained interneurons of intermediate electrical properties and basket-cell like morphologies. These labeled neurons were recorded from both Sst-Cre and Pvalb-Cre animals. Thus, our results reveal a wide variation in anatomical and physiological properties for these interneurons, a real overlap of interneurons immuno-positive for both PV and SOM as well as an off-target recombination in the Sst-Cre line, possibly linked to maternal cre inheritance. PMID:26005406
Jackson, Jesse; Ayzenshtat, Inbal; Hamzehei Sichani, Azadeh; Manoocheri, Kasra; Kim, Samuel; Yuste, Rafael
Inhibitory interneurons in the neocortex often connect in a promiscuous and extensive fashion, extending a “blanket of inhibition” on the circuit. This raises the problem of how can excitatory activity propagate in the midst of this widespread inhibition. One solution to this problem could be the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) interneurons, which disinhibit other interneurons. To explore how VIP interneurons affect the local circuits, we use two-photon optogenetics to activate them individually in mouse visual cortex in vivo while measuring their output with two-photon calcium imaging. We find that VIP interneurons have narrow axons and inhibit nearby somatostatin interneurons, which themselves inhibit pyramidal cells. Moreover, via this lateral disinhibition, VIP cells in vivo make local and transient “holes” in the inhibitory blanket extended by SOM cells. VIP interneurons, themselves regulated by neuromodulators, may therefore enable selective patterns of activity to propagate through the cortex, by generating a “spotlight of attention”. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Most inhibitory interneurons have axons restricted to a nearby area and target excitatory neighbors indiscriminately, raising the issue of how neuronal activity can propagate through cortical circuits. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-expressing interneurons (VIPs) disinhibit cortical pyramidal cells through inhibition of other inhibitory interneurons, and they have very focused, “narrow” axons. By optogenetically activating single VIPs in live mice while recording the activity of nearby neurons, we find that VIPs break open a hole in blanket inhibition with an effective range of ∼120 μm in lateral cortical space where excitatory activity can propagate. PMID:27013676
Wenner, P; O'Donovan, M J; Matise, M P
A number of homeodomain transcription factors have been implicated in controlling the differentiation of various types of neurons including spinal motoneurons. Some of these proteins are also expressed in spinal interneurons, but their function is unknown. Progress in understanding the role of transcription factors in interneuronal development has been slow because the synaptic connections of interneurons, which in part define their identity, are difficult to establish. Using whole cell recording in the isolated spinal cord of chick embryos, we assessed the synaptic connections of lumbosacral interneurons expressing the Engrailed-1 (En1) transcription factor. Specifically we established whether En1-expressing interneurons made direct connections with motoneurons and whether they constitute a single interneuron class. Cells were labeled with biocytin and subsequently processed for En1 immunoreactivity. Our findings indicate that the connections of En1-expressing cells with motoneurons and with sensory afferents were diverse, suggesting that the population was heterogeneous. In addition, the synaptic connections we tested were similar in interneurons that expressed the En1 protein and in many that did not. The majority of sampled En1 cells did, however, exhibit a direct synaptic connection to motoneurons that is likely to be GABAergic. Because our physiological methods underestimate the number of direct connections with motoneurons, it is possible that the great majority, perhaps all, En1-expressing cells make direct synaptic connections with motoneurons. Our results raise the possibility that En1 could be involved in interneuron-motoneuron connectivity but that its expression is not restricted to a distinct functional subclass of ventral interneuron. These findings constrain hypotheses about the role of En-1 in interneuron development and function.
Braz, Joao M.; Skinner, Kate; Llewellyn-Smith, Ida J.; Basbaum, Allan I.
Protein kinase C γ (PKCγ), which is concentrated in interneurons of the inner part of lamina II of the dorsal horn, has been implicated in injury-induced allodynia, a condition wherein pain is produced by innocuous stimuli. Although it is generally assumed that these interneurons receive input from the nonpeptidergic, IB4-positive subset of nociceptors, the fact that PKCγ cells do not express Fos in response to noxious stimulation suggests otherwise. Here, we demonstrate that the terminal field of the nonpeptidergic population of nociceptors, in fact, lies dorsal to that of PKCγ interneurons. There was also no overlap between the PKCγ-expressing interneurons and the transganglionic tracer wheat germ agglutinin which, after sciatic nerve injection, labels all unmyelinated nociceptors. However, transganglionic transport of the β-subunit of cholera toxin, which marks the medium-diameter and large-diameter myelinated afferents that transmit non-noxious information, revealed extensive overlap with the layer of PKCγ interneurons. Furthermore, expression of a transneuronal tracer in myelinated afferents resulted in labeling of PKCγ interneurons. Light and electron microscopic double labeling further showed that the VGLUT1 subtype of vesicular glutamate transmitter, which is expressed in myelinated afferents, marks synapses that are presynaptic to the PKCγ interneurons. Finally, we demonstrate that a continuous non-noxious input, generated by walking on a rotarod, induces Fos in the PKCγ interneurons. These results establish that PKCγ interneurons are activated by myelinated afferents that respond to innocuous stimuli, which suggests that injury-induced mechanical allodynia is transmitted through a circuit that involves PKCγ interneurons and non-nociceptive, VGLUT1-expressing myelinated primary afferents. PMID:18685019
Toyoda, Izumi; Fujita, Satoshi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K; Buckmaster, Paul S
Mechanisms of seizure initiation are unclear. To evaluate the possible roles of inhibitory neurons, unit recordings were obtained in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and subiculum of epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Most interneurons in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and subiculum increased their firing rate before seizures, and did so with significant consistency from seizure to seizure. Identification of CA1 interneuron subtypes based on firing characteristics during theta and sharp waves suggested that a parvalbumin-positive basket cell and putative bistratified cells, but not oriens lacunosum moleculare cells, were activated preictally. Preictal changes occurred much earlier than those described by most previous in vitro studies. Preictal activation of interneurons began earliest (>4 min before seizure onset), increased most, was most prevalent in the subiculum, and was minimal in CA3. Preictal inactivation of interneurons was most common in CA1 (27% of interneurons) and included a putative ivy cell and parvalbumin-positive basket cell. Increased or decreased preictal activity correlated with whether interneurons fired faster or slower, respectively, during theta activity. Theta waves were more likely to occur before seizure onset, and increased preictal firing of subicular interneurons correlated with theta activity. Preictal changes by other hippocampal interneurons were largely independent of theta waves. Within seconds of seizure onset, many interneurons displayed a brief pause in firing and a later, longer drop that was associated with reduced action potential amplitude. These findings suggest that many interneurons inactivate during seizures, most increase their activity preictally, but some fail to do so at the critical time before seizure onset.
Myers, Abigail K.; Meechan, Daniel W.; Adney, Danielle R.
Proper assembly of cortical circuitry relies on the correct migration of cortical interneurons from their place of birth in the ganglionic eminences to their place of terminal differentiation in the cerebral cortex. Although molecular mechanisms mediating cortical interneuron migration have been well studied, intracellular signals directing their migration are largely unknown. Here we illustrate a novel and essential role for c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in guiding the pioneering population of cortical interneurons into the mouse cerebral cortex. Migrating cortical interneurons express Jnk proteins at the entrance to the cortical rudiment and have enriched expression of Jnk1 relative to noninterneuronal cortical cells. Pharmacological blockade of JNK signaling in ex vivo slice cultures resulted in dose-dependent and highly specific disruption of interneuron migration into the nascent cortex. Time-lapse imaging revealed that JNK-inhibited cortical interneurons advanced slowly and assumed aberrant migratory trajectories while traversing the cortical entry zone. In vivo analyses of JNK-deficient embryos supported our ex vivo pharmacological data. Deficits in interneuron migration were observed in Jnk1 but not Jnk2 single nulls, and those migratory deficits were further exacerbated when homozygous loss of Jnk1 was combined with heterozygous reduction of Jnk2. Finally, genetic ablation of Jnk1 and Jnk2 from cortical interneurons significantly perturbed migration in vivo, but not in vitro, suggesting JNK activity functions to direct their guidance rather than enhance their motility. These data suggest JNK signaling, predominantly mediated by interneuron expressed Jnk1, is required for guiding migration of cortical interneurons into and within the developing cerebral cortex. PMID:24899703
Himeda, Toshiki; Hayakawa, Natsumi; Tounai, Hiroko; Sakuma, Mio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu
We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils in comparison with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing interneurons. We also examined the effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pitavastatin against the damage of neurons and interneurons in the hippocampus after cerebral ischemia. Severe neuronal damage was observed in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons 5 and 14 days after ischemia. The PV immunoreactivity was unchanged up to 2 days after ischemia. At 5 and 14 days after ischemia, in contrast, a conspicuous reduction of PV immunoreactivity was observed in interneurons of the hippocampal CA1 sector. Furthermore, a significant decrease of PV immunoreactivity was found in interneurons of the hippocampal CA3 sector. No damage of nNOS-immunopositive interneurons was detected in the gerbil hippocampus up to 1 day after ischemia. Thereafter, a decrease of nNOS immunoreactive interneurons was found in the hippocampal CA1 sector up to 14 days after ischemia. Pitavastatin significantly prevented the neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 sector 5 days after ischemia. Our immunohistochemical study also showed that pitavastatin prevented significant decrease of PV- and nNOS-positive interneurons in the hippocampus after ischemia. Double-labeled immunostainings showed that PV immunoreactivity was not found in nNOS-immunopositive interneurons of the brain. The present study demonstrates that cerebral ischemia can cause a loss of both PV- and nNOS-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 sector. Our findings also show that the damage to nNOS-immunopositive interneurons may precede the neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 sector after ischemia and nNOS-positive interneurons may play some role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic diseases. Furthermore, our present study indicates that pitavastatin can
Dougherty, Kimberly J.; Sawchuk, Michael A.; Hochman, Shawn
Lamina I is a sensory relay region containing projection cells and local interneurons involved in thermal and nociceptive signaling. These neurons differ in morphology, sensory response modality, and firing characteristics. We examined intrinsic properties of mouse lamina I GABAergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). GABAergic neuron identity was confirmed by a high correspondence between GABA immunolabeling and EGFP fluorescence. Morphologies of these EGFP+/GABA+ cells were multipolar (65%), fusiform (31%), and pyramidal (4%). In whole cell recordings, cells fired a single spike (44%), tonically (35%), or an initial burst (21%) in response to current steps, representing a subset of reported lamina I firing properties. Membrane properties of tonic and initial burst cells were indistinguishable and these neurons may represent one functional population because, in individual neurons, their firing patterns could interconvert. Single spike cells were less excitable with lower membrane resistivity and higher rheobase. Most fusiform cells (64%) fired tonically while most multipolar cells (56%) fired single spikes. In summary, lamina I inhibitory interneurons are functionally divisible into at least two major groups both of which presumably function to limit excitatory transmission. PMID:16014799
Varga, Csaba; Oijala, Mikko; Lish, Jonathan; Szabo, Gergely G; Bezaire, Marianne; Marchionni, Ivan; Golshani, Peyman; Soltesz, Ivan
Fast spiking, parvalbumin (PV) expressing hippocampal interneurons are classified into basket, axo-axonic (chandelier), and bistratified cells. These cell classes play key roles in regulating local circuit operations and rhythmogenesis by releasing GABA in precise temporal patterns onto distinct domains of principal cells. In this study, we show that each of the three major PV cell classes further splits into functionally distinct sub-classes during fast network events in vivo. During the slower (<10 Hz) theta oscillations, each cell class exhibited its own characteristic, relatively uniform firing behavior. However, during faster (>90 Hz) oscillations, within-class differences in PV interneuron discharges emerged, which segregated along specific features of dendritic structure or somatic location. Functional divergence of PV sub-classes during fast but not slow network oscillations effectively doubles the repertoire of spatio-temporal patterns of GABA release available for rapid circuit operations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04006.001 PMID:25375253
Courtin, Julien; Chaudun, Fabrice; Rozeske, Robert R; Karalis, Nikolaos; Gonzalez-Campo, Cecilia; Wurtz, Hélène; Abdi, Azzedine; Baufreton, Jerome; Bienvenu, Thomas C M; Herry, Cyril
Synchronization of spiking activity in neuronal networks is a fundamental process that enables the precise transmission of information to drive behavioural responses. In cortical areas, synchronization of principal-neuron spiking activity is an effective mechanism for information coding that is regulated by GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-ergic interneurons through the generation of neuronal oscillations. Although neuronal synchrony has been demonstrated to be crucial for sensory, motor and cognitive processing, it has not been investigated at the level of defined circuits involved in the control of emotional behaviour. Converging evidence indicates that fear behaviour is regulated by the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). This control over fear behaviour relies on the activation of specific prefrontal projections to the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), a structure that encodes associative fear memories. However, it remains to be established how the precise temporal control of fear behaviour is achieved at the level of prefrontal circuits. Here we use single-unit recordings and optogenetic manipulations in behaving mice to show that fear expression is causally related to the phasic inhibition of prefrontal parvalbumin interneurons (PVINs). Inhibition of PVIN activity disinhibits prefrontal projection neurons and synchronizes their firing by resetting local theta oscillations, leading to fear expression. Our results identify two complementary neuronal mechanisms mediated by PVINs that precisely coordinate and enhance the neuronal activity of prefrontal projection neurons to drive fear expression.
Mizrahi, A; Libersat, F
Independent coding of wind direction in cockroach giant interneurons. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2655-2661, 1997. In this study we examined the possible role of cell-to-cell interactions in the localization processing of a wind stimulus by the cockroach cercal system. Such sensory processing is performed primarily by pairs of giant interneurons (GIs), a group of highly directional cells. We have studied possible interactions among these GIs by comparing the wind sensitivity of a given GI before and after removing another GI with the use of photoablation. Testing various combinations of GI pairs did not reveal any suprathreshold interactions. This was true for all unilateral GI pairs on the left or right side as well as all the bilateral GI pairs (left and right homologues). Those experiments in which we were able to measure synaptic activity did not reveal subthreshold interactions between the GIs either. We conclude that the GIs code independently for a given wind direction without local GI-GI interactions. We discuss the possible implications of the absence of local interactions on information transfer in the first station of the escape circuit.
Ibáñez-Sandoval, Osvaldo; Xenias, Harry S.; Tepper, James M.; Koós, Tibor
The recent electrophysiological characterization of TH-expressing GABAergic interneurons (THINs) in the neostriatum revealed an unexpected degree of diversity of interneurons in this brain area (Ibáñez-Sandoval et al., 2010, Unal et al., 2011, 2013). Despite being relatively few in number, THINs may play a significant role in transmitting and distributing extra- and intrastriatal neuromodulatory signals in the striatal circuitry. Here we investigated the dopaminergic and cholinergic regulation of THINs in vitro. We found that the dominant effect of dopamine was a dramatic enhancement of the ability of THINs to generate long-lasting depolarizing plateau potentials (PPs). Interestingly, the same effect could also be elicited by amphetamine-induced release of endogenous dopamine suggesting that THINs may exhibit similar responses to changes in extracellular dopamine concentration in vivo. The enhancement of PPs in THINs is perhaps the most pronounced effect of dopamine on the intrinsic excitability of neostriatal neurons described to date. Further, we demonstrate that all subtypes of THINSs tested also express nicotinic cholinergic receptors. All THIS responded, albeit differentially, with depolarization, PPs and spiking to brief application of nicotinic agonists. Powerful modulation of the nonlinear integrative properties of THINs by dopamine and the direct depolarization of these neurons by acetylcholine may play important roles in mediating the effects of these neuromodulators in the neostriatum with potentially important implications for understanding the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disorders affecting the basal ganglia. PMID:25908399
Yavorska, Iryna; Wehr, Michael
Cortical inhibitory neurons exhibit remarkable diversity in their morphology, connectivity, and synaptic properties. Here, we review the function of somatostatin-expressing (SOM) inhibitory interneurons, focusing largely on sensory cortex. SOM neurons also comprise a number of subpopulations that can be distinguished by their morphology, input and output connectivity, laminar location, firing properties, and expression of molecular markers. Several of these classes of SOM neurons show unique dynamics and characteristics, such as facilitating synapses, specific axonal projections, intralaminar input, and top-down modulation, which suggest possible computational roles. SOM cells can be differentially modulated by behavioral state depending on their class, sensory system, and behavioral paradigm. The functional effects of such modulation have been studied with optogenetic manipulation of SOM cells, which produces effects on learning and memory, task performance, and the integration of cortical activity. Different classes of SOM cells participate in distinct disinhibitory circuits with different inhibitory partners and in different cortical layers. Through these disinhibitory circuits, SOM cells help encode the behavioral relevance of sensory stimuli by regulating the activity of cortical neurons based on subcortical and intracortical modulatory input. Associative learning leads to long-term changes in the strength of connectivity of SOM cells with other neurons, often influencing the strength of inhibitory input they receive. Thus despite their heterogeneity and variability across cortical areas, current evidence shows that SOM neurons perform unique neural computations, forming not only distinct molecular but also functional subclasses of cortical inhibitory interneurons. PMID:27746722
Murthy, Sahana; Niquille, Mathieu; Hurni, Nicolas; Limoni, Greta; Frazer, Sarah; Chameau, Pascal; van Hooft, Johannes A.; Vitalis, Tania; Dayer, Alexandre
Neuronal excitability has been shown to control the migration and cortical integration of reelin-expressing cortical interneurons (INs) arising from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), supporting the possibility that neurotransmitters could regulate this process. Here we show that the ionotropic serotonin receptor 3A (5-HT3AR) is specifically expressed in CGE-derived migrating interneurons and upregulated while they invade the developing cortex. Functional investigations using calcium imaging, electrophysiological recordings and migration assays indicate that CGE-derived INs increase their response to 5-HT3AR activation during the late phase of cortical plate invasion. Using genetic loss-of-function approaches and in vivo grafts, we further demonstrate that the 5-HT3AR is cell autonomously required for the migration and proper positioning of reelin-expressing CGE-derived INs in the neocortex. Our findings reveal a requirement for a serotonin receptor in controlling the migration and laminar positioning of a specific subtype of cortical IN. PMID:25409778
Kharazia, V N; Wenthold, R J; Weinberg, R J
Recent in vitro studies suggest that inhibitory interneurons in cortex may express the GluR1 glutamate receptor subunit in the absence of GluR2, leading to calcium-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) channels. We performed a study of rat somatic sensory cortex to confirm and extend these observations, using quantitative immunocytochemistry for multiple antigens. A morphologically distinct subpopulation of nonpyramidal neurons in neocortex was intensely immunoreactive for GluR1. Electron microscopic analysis of these cells revealed somatic staining for GluR1, mainly in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Dendritic staining was concentrated at the synaptic active zone and in the adjacent subsynaptic cytoplasm. Double immunostaining revealed that the large majority of intensely GluR1-positive cells contained gamma-aminobutyric acid or its synthetic enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase, but little or no GluR2. Thus, AMPA receptors on a subpopulation of inhibitory interneurons in cortex are likely to be calcium permeable. This calcium permeability is likely to influence functional properties of these neurons; it may underlie the high levels of calcium-binding proteins they contain; and may render them liable to excitotoxic injury
Anton-Sanchez, Laura; Bielza, Concha; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; DeFelipe, Javier; Larrañaga, Pedro
The way in which a neuronal tree expands plays an important role in its functional and computational characteristics. We aimed to study the existence of an optimal neuronal design for different types of cortical GABAergic neurons. To do this, we hypothesized that both the axonal and dendritic trees of individual neurons optimize brain connectivity in terms of wiring length. We took the branching points of real three-dimensional neuronal reconstructions of the axonal and dendritic trees of different types of cortical interneurons and searched for the minimal wiring arborization structure that respects the branching points. We compared the minimal wiring arborization with real axonal and dendritic trees. We tested this optimization problem using a new approach based on graph theory and evolutionary computation techniques. We concluded that neuronal wiring is near-optimal in most of the tested neurons, although the wiring length of dendritic trees is generally nearer to the optimum. Therefore, wiring economy is related to the way in which neuronal arborizations grow irrespective of the marked differences in the morphology of the examined interneurons.
Wang, Yanling; Dye, Catherine A; Sohal, Vikaas; Long, Jason E; Estrada, Rosanne C; Roztocil, Tomas; Lufkin, Thomas; Deisseroth, Karl; Baraban, Scott C; Rubenstein, John L R
Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes are expressed in developing and mature cortical interneurons. Simultaneous deletion of Dlx5 and 6 results in exencephaly of the anterior brain; despite this defect, prenatal basal ganglia differentiation appeared largely intact, while tangential migration of Lhx6(+) and Mafb(+) interneurons to the cortex was reduced and disordered. The migration deficits were associated with reduced CXCR4 expression. Transplantation of mutant immature interneurons into a wild-type brain demonstrated that loss of either Dlx5 or Dlx5&6 preferentially reduced the number of mature parvalbumin(+) interneurons; those parvalbumin(+) interneurons that were present had increased dendritic branching. Dlx5/6(+/-) mice, which appear normal histologically, show spontaneous electrographic seizures and reduced power of gamma oscillations. Thus, Dlx5&6 appeared to be required for development and function of somal innervating (parvalbumin(+)) neocortical interneurons. This contrasts with Dlx1, whose function is required for dendrite innervating (calretinin(+), somatostatin(+), and neuropeptide Y(+)) interneurons (Cobos et al., 2005).
Tang, Yunshuo; Stryker, Michael P; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Espinosa, Juan Sebastian
GABAergic inhibition has been shown to play an important role in the opening of critical periods of brain plasticity. We recently have shown that transplantation of GABAergic precursors from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), the source of neocortical parvalbumin- (PV(+)) and somatostatin-expressing (SST(+)) interneurons, can induce a new period of ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) after the endogenous period has closed. Among the diverse subtypes of GABAergic interneurons PV(+) cells have been thought to play the crucial role in ODP. Here we have used MGE transplantation carrying a conditional allele of diphtheria toxin alpha subunit and cell-specific expression of Cre recombinase to deplete PV(+) or SST(+) interneurons selectively and to investigate the contributions of each of these types of interneurons to ODP. As expected, robust plasticity was observed in transplants containing PV(+) cells but in which the majority of SST(+) interneurons were depleted. Surprisingly, transplants in which the majority of PV(+) cells were depleted induced plasticity as effectively as those containing PV(+) cells. In contrast, depleting both cell types blocked induction of plasticity. These findings reveal that PV(+) cells do not play an exclusive role in ODP; SST(+) interneurons also can drive cortical plasticity and contribute to the reshaping of neural networks. The ability of both PV(+) and SST(+) interneurons to induce de novo cortical plasticity could help develop new therapeutic approaches for brain repair.
Buetfering, Christina; Allen, Kevin; Monyer, Hannah
Grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) generate metric spatial representations. Recent attractor-network models suggest an essential role for GABAergic interneurons in the emergence of the grid-cell firing pattern through recurrent inhibition dependent on grid-cell phase. To test this hypothesis, we studied identified parvalbumin-expressing (PV(+)) interneurons that are the most likely candidate for providing this recurrent inhibition onto grid cells. Using optogenetics and tetrode recordings in mice, we found that PV(+) interneurons exhibited high firing rates, low spatial sparsity and no spatial periodicity. PV(+) interneurons inhibited all functionally defined cell types in the MEC and were in turn recruited preferentially by grid cells. To our surprise, we found that individual PV(+) interneurons received input from grid cells with various phases, which most likely accounts for the broadly tuned spatial firing activity of PV(+) interneurons. Our data argue against the notion that PV(+) interneurons provide phase-dependent recurrent inhibition and challenge recent attractor-network models of grid cells.
Garas, Farid N; Shah, Rahul S; Kormann, Eszter; Doig, Natalie M; Vinciati, Federica; Nakamura, Kouichi C; Dorst, Matthijs C; Smith, Yoland; Magill, Peter J; Sharott, Andrew
Corticostriatal afferents can engage parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons to rapidly curtail the activity of striatal projection neurons (SPNs), thus shaping striatal output. Schemes of basal ganglia circuit dynamics generally consider striatal PV+ interneurons to be homogenous, despite considerable heterogeneity in both form and function. We demonstrate that the selective co-expression of another calcium-binding protein, secretagogin (Scgn), separates PV+ interneurons in rat and primate striatum into two topographically-, physiologically- and structurally-distinct cell populations. In rats, these two interneuron populations differed in their firing rates, patterns and relationships with cortical oscillations in vivo. Moreover, the axons of identified PV+/Scgn+ interneurons preferentially targeted the somata of SPNs of the so-called ‘direct pathway’, whereas PV+/Scgn- interneurons preferentially targeted ‘indirect pathway’ SPNs. These two populations of interneurons could therefore provide a substrate through which either of the striatal output pathways can be rapidly and selectively inhibited to subsequently mediate the expression of behavioral routines. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16088.001 PMID:27669410
Matta, Jose A; Pelkey, Kenneth A; Craig, Michael T; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Jeffries, Brian W; McBain, Chris J
Disrupted excitatory synapse maturation in GABAergic interneurons may promote neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. However, establishing developmental programs for nascent synapses in GABAergic cells is confounded by their sparsity, heterogeneity and late acquisition of subtype-defining characteristics. We investigated synaptic development in mouse interneurons targeting cells by lineage from medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) or caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) progenitors. MGE-derived interneuron synapses were dominated by GluA2-lacking AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), with little contribution from NMDA-type receptors (NMDARs) throughout development. In contrast, CGE-derived cell synapses had large NMDAR components and used GluA2-containing AMPARs. In neonates, both MGE- and CGE-derived interneurons expressed primarily GluN2B subunit-containing NMDARs, which most CGE-derived interneurons retained into adulthood. However, MGE-derived interneuron NMDARs underwent a GluN2B-to-GluN2A switch that could be triggered acutely with repetitive synaptic activity. Our findings establish ganglionic eminence-dependent rules for early synaptic integration programs of distinct interneuron cohorts, including parvalbumin- and cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells.
Cosgrove, Kathleen E.; Galvan, Emilio J.; Meriney, Stephen D.; Barrionuevo, German
Area CA3 receives two extrinsic excitatory inputs, the mossy fibers (MF) and the perforant path (PP). Interneurons with somata in str. lacunosum moleculare (L-M) of CA3 modulate the influence of the MF and PP on pyramidal cell activity by providing strong feed-forward inhibitory influence to pyramidal cells. Here we report that L-M interneurons receive two separate MF inputs, one to the dorsal dendrites from the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus (MFSDG), and a second to ventral dendrites from the str. lucidum (MFSL). Responses elicited from MFSDG and MFSL stimulation sites have strong paired-pulse facilitation, similar DCG-IV sensitivity, amplitude, and decay kinetics but target spatially segregated domains on the interneuron dendrites. These data demonstrate that certain interneuron subtypes are entrained by two convergent MF inputs to spatially separated regions of the dendritic tree. This anatomical arrangement could make these interneurons considerably more responsive to the excitatory drive from dentate granule cells. Furthermore, temporal summation is linear or slightly sublinear between PP and MFSL but supralinear between PP and MFSDG. This specific boosting of the excitatory drive to interneurons from the SDG location may indicate that L-M interneurons could be specifically involved in the processing of the associational component of the recognition memory. PMID:19830814
The mammalian neocortex contains many distinct inhibitory neuronal populations to balance excitatory neurotransmission. A correct excitation/inhibition equilibrium is crucial for normal brain development, functioning, and controlling lifelong cortical plasticity. Knowledge about how the inhibitory network contributes to brain plasticity however remains incomplete. Somatostatin- (SST-) interneurons constitute a large neocortical subpopulation of interneurons, next to parvalbumin- (PV-) and vasoactive intestinal peptide- (VIP-) interneurons. Unlike the extensively studied PV-interneurons, acknowledged as key components in guiding ocular dominance plasticity, the contribution of SST-interneurons is less understood. Nevertheless, SST-interneurons are ideally situated within cortical networks to integrate unimodal or cross-modal sensory information processing and therefore likely to be important mediators of experience-dependent plasticity. The lack of knowledge on SST-interneurons partially relates to the wide variety of distinct subpopulations present in the sensory neocortex. This review informs on those SST-subpopulations hitherto described based on anatomical, molecular, or electrophysiological characteristics and whose functional roles can be attributed based on specific cortical wiring patterns. A possible role for these subpopulations in experience-dependent plasticity will be discussed, emphasizing on learning-induced plasticity and on unimodal and cross-modal plasticity upon sensory loss. This knowledge will ultimately contribute to guide brain plasticity into well-defined directions to restore sensory function and promote lifelong learning. PMID:27403348
Freedman, R; Wetmore, C; Strömberg, I; Leonard, S; Olson, L
The nicotinic cholinergic antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BT) binds throughout the rat hippocampal formation. The binding is displaceable by d-tubocurarine. The most heavily labeled cells are GABA-containing interneurons in the dentate and in Ammon's horn. These neurons have several different morphologies and contain several neuropeptides. alpha-BT-labeled interneurons in the dentate are small cells between the granular and molecular layers that often contain neuropeptide Y. alpha-BT-labeled interneurons in CA1 are medium-sized interneurons, occasionally found in stratum pyramidale, but more often found in stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum moleculare. These neurons often contain cholecystokinin. The largest alpha-BT-labeled interneurons are found in CA3, in both stratum radiatum and stratum lucidum. These neurons are multipolar and frequently are autofluorescent. They often contain somatostatin or cholecystokinin. These large interneurons have been found to receive medial septal innervation and may also have projections that provide inhibitory feedback directly to the medial septal nucleus. The cholinergic innervation of the hippocampus from the medial septal nucleus is under the trophic regulation of NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, even in adult life. Expression of mRNA for both these factors is increased in CA3 and the dentate after intraventricular administration of alpha-BT, but not after administration of the muscarinic antagonist atropine. alpha-BT-sensitive cholinergic receptors on inhibitory interneurons may be critical to medial septal regulation of the hippocampal activity, including the habituation of response to sensory input.
Wohleb, Eric S.; Wu, Min; Gerhard, Danielle M.; Taylor, Seth R.; Picciotto, Marina R.; Alreja, Meenakshi; Duman, Ronald S.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a recurring psychiatric illness that causes substantial health and socioeconomic burdens. Clinical reports have revealed that scopolamine, a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in individuals with MDD. Preclinical models suggest that these rapid antidepressant effects can be recapitulated with blockade of M1-type muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1-AChR); however, the cellular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic and behavioral responses to scopolamine have not been determined. Here, we demonstrate that the antidepressant-like effects of scopolamine are mediated by GABA interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Both GABAergic (GAD67+) interneurons and glutamatergic (CaMKII+) interneurons in the mPFC expressed M1-AChR. In mice, viral-mediated knockdown of M1-AChR specifically in GABAergic neurons, but not glutamatergic neurons, in the mPFC attenuated the antidepressant-like effects of scopolamine. Immunohistology and electrophysiology showed that somatostatin (SST) interneurons in the mPFC express M1-AChR at higher levels than parvalbumin interneurons. Moreover, knockdown of M1-AChR in SST interneurons in the mPFC demonstrated that M1-AChR expression in these neurons is required for the rapid antidepressant-like effects of scopolamine. These data indicate that SST interneurons in the mPFC are a promising pharmacological target for developing rapid-acting antidepressant therapies. PMID:27270172
Müller, Christina; Remy, Stefan
In the CA1 region of the hippocampus pyramidal neurons and GABAergic interneurons form local microcircuits. CA1 interneurons are a diverse group consisting of many subtypes, some of which provide compartment-specific inhibition specifically onto pyramidal neuron dendrites. In fact, the majority of inhibitory synapses on pyramidal neurons is found on their dendrites. The specific role of a dendrite-innervating interneuron subtype is primarily determined by its innervation pattern on the distinct dendritic domains of pyramidal neurons. The efficacy of dendritic inhibition in reducing dendritic excitation depends on the relative timing and location of the activated excitatory and inhibitory synapses. In vivo, synaptic properties such as short-term plasticity and neuro-modulation by the basal forebrain, govern the degree of inhibition in distinct dendritic domains in a dynamic, behavior dependent manner, specifically during network oscillation such as the theta rhythm. In this review we focus on two subtypes of dendrite-innervating interneurons: the oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneuron and the bistratified interneuron. Their molecular marker profile, morphology, and function in vivo and in vitro are well studied. We strive to integrate this diverse information from the cellular to the network level, and to provide insight into how the different characteristics of O-LM and bistratified interneurons affect dendritic excitability, network activity, and behavior. PMID:25324774
Witts, Emily C.; Nascimento, Filipe
Neuromodulation allows neural networks to adapt to varying environmental and biomechanical demands. Purinergic signaling is known to be an important modulatory system in many parts of the CNS, including motor control circuitry. We have recently shown that adenosine modulates the output of mammalian spinal locomotor control circuitry (Witts EC, Panetta KM, Miles GB. J Neurophysiol 107: 1925–1934, 2012). Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this adenosine-mediated modulation. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on ventral horn interneurons and motoneurons within in vitro mouse spinal cord slice preparations. We found that adenosine hyperpolarized interneurons and reduced the frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to interneurons. Both effects were blocked by the A1-type adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX. Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents recorded from interneurons revealed that adenosine reduced their frequency but not amplitude, suggesting that adenosine acts on presynaptic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission. In contrast to interneurons, recordings from motoneurons revealed an adenosine-mediated depolarization. The frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to motoneurons were again reduced by adenosine, but we saw no effect on miniature postsynaptic currents. Again these effects on motoneurons were blocked by DPCPX. Taken together, these results demonstrate differential effects of adenosine, acting via A1 receptors, in the mouse spinal cord. Adenosine has a general inhibitory action on ventral horn interneurons while potentially maintaining motoneuron excitability. This may allow for adaptation of the locomotor pattern generated by interneuronal networks while helping to ensure the maintenance of overall motor output. PMID:26311185
De Luca, A; Parmigiani, E; Tosatto, G; Martire, S; Hoshino, M; Buffo, A; Leto, K; Rossi, F
All cerebellar GABAergic interneurons were derived from a common pool of precursor cells residing in the embryonic ventricular zone (VZ) and migrating in the prospective white matter (PWM) after birth, where both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to regulate their amplification. Among the environmental factors, we focused on Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a morphogen well known to regulate neural progenitor cell proliferation. We asked if and how exogenous Shh treatment affects the lineage of cerebellar GABAergic interneurons. To address these issues, exogenous Shh was administered to embryonic and postnatal organotypic slices. We found that Shh is able to expand the pool of interneuron progenitors residing in the embryonic epithelium and in the postnatal PWM. In particular, Shh signalling pathway was highly mitogenic at early developmental stages of interneuron production, whereas its effect decreased after the first postnatal week. Gene expression analysis of sorted cells and in situ hybridization further showed that immature interneurons express both the Shh receptor patched and the Shh target gene Gli1. Thus, within the interneuron lineage, Shh might exert regulatory functions also in postmitotic cells. On the whole, our data enlighten the role of Shh during cerebellar maturation and further broaden our knowledge on the amplification mechanisms of the interneuron progenitor pool.
Adler, Avital; Katabi, Shiran; Finkes, Inna; Prut, Yifat; Bergman, Hagai
The striatum is populated by a single projection neuron group, the medium spiny neurons (MSNs), and several groups of interneurons. Two of the electrophysiologically well-characterized striatal interneuron groups are the tonically active neurons (TANs), which are presumably cholinergic interneurons, and the fast spiking interneurons (FSIs), presumably parvalbumin (PV) expressing GABAergic interneurons. To better understand striatal processing it is thus crucial to define the functional relationship between MSNs and these interneurons in the awake and behaving animal. We used multiple electrodes and standard physiological methods to simultaneously record MSN spiking activity and the activity of TANs or FSIs from monkeys engaged in a classical conditioning paradigm. All three cell populations were highly responsive to the behavioral task. However, they displayed different average response profiles and a different degree of response synchronization (signal correlation). TANs displayed the most transient and synchronized response, MSNs the most diverse and sustained response and FSIs were in between on both parameters. We did not find evidence for direct monosynaptic connectivity between the MSNs and either the TANs or the FSIs. However, while the cross correlation histograms of TAN to MSN pairs were flat, those of FSI to MSN displayed positive asymmetrical broad peaks. The FSI-MSN correlogram profile implies that the spikes of MSNs follow those of FSIs and both are driven by a common, most likely cortical, input. Thus, the two populations of striatal interneurons are probably driven by different afferents and play complementary functional roles in the physiology of the striatal microcircuit. PMID:24027501
Xu, Meiyu; Kobets, Andrew; Du, Jung-Chieh; Lennington, Jessica; Li, Lina; Banasr, Mounira; Duman, Ronald S; Vaccarino, Flora M; DiLeone, Ralph J; Pittenger, Christopher
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, which are transiently worsened by stress, acute administration of dopaminergic drugs, and by subtle deficits in motor coordination and sensorimotor gating. It represents the most severe end of a spectrum of tic disorders that, in aggregate, affect ∼ 5% of the population. Available treatments are frequently inadequate, and the pathophysiology is poorly understood. Postmortem studies have revealed a reduction in specific striatal interneurons, including the large cholinergic interneurons, in severe disease. We tested the hypothesis that this deficit is sufficient to produce aspects of the phenomenology of TS, using a strategy for targeted, specific cell ablation in mice. We achieved ∼ 50% ablation of the cholinergic interneurons of the striatum, recapitulating the deficit observed in patients postmortem, without any effect on GABAergic markers or on parvalbumin-expressing fast-spiking interneurons. Interneuron ablation in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), corresponding roughly to the human putamen, led to tic-like stereotypies after either acute stress or d-amphetamine challenge; ablation in the dorsomedial striatum, in contrast, did not. DLS interneuron ablation also led to a deficit in coordination on the rotorod, but not to any abnormalities in prepulse inhibition, a measure of sensorimotor gating. These results support the causal sufficiency of cholinergic interneuron deficits in the DLS to produce some, but not all, of the characteristic symptoms of TS.
Kelsch, Wolfgang; Li, Zhijun; Wieland, Sebastian; Senkov, Oleg; Herb, Anne; Göngrich, Christina; Monyer, Hannah
In postnatal development, GluN2B-containing NMDARs are critical for the functional maturation of glutamatergic synapses. GluN2B-containing NMDARs prevail until the second postnatal week when GluN2A subunits are progressively added, conferring mature properties to NMDARs. In cortical principal neurons, deletion of GluN2B results in an increase in functional AMPAR synapses, suggesting that GluN2B-containing NMDARs set a brake on glutamate synapse maturation. The function of GluN2B in the maturation of glutamatergic inputs to cortical interneurons is not known. To examine the function of GluN2B in interneurons, we generated mutant mice with conditional deletion of GluN2B in interneurons (GluN2B(ΔGAD67)). In GluN2B(ΔGAD67) mice interneurons distributed normally in cortical brain regions. After the second postnatal week, GluN2B(ΔGAD67) mice developed hippocampal seizures and died shortly thereafter. Before the onset of seizures, GluN2B-deficient hippocampal interneurons received fewer glutamatergic synaptic inputs than littermate controls, indicating that GluN2B-containing NMDARs positively regulate the maturation of glutamatergic input synapses in interneurons. These findings suggest that GluN2B-containing NMDARs keep the circuit activity under control by promoting the maturation of excitatory synapses in interneurons.
Witts, Emily C; Nascimento, Filipe; Miles, Gareth B
Neuromodulation allows neural networks to adapt to varying environmental and biomechanical demands. Purinergic signaling is known to be an important modulatory system in many parts of the CNS, including motor control circuitry. We have recently shown that adenosine modulates the output of mammalian spinal locomotor control circuitry (Witts EC, Panetta KM, Miles GB. J Neurophysiol 107: 1925-1934, 2012). Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this adenosine-mediated modulation. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on ventral horn interneurons and motoneurons within in vitro mouse spinal cord slice preparations. We found that adenosine hyperpolarized interneurons and reduced the frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to interneurons. Both effects were blocked by the A1-type adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX. Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents recorded from interneurons revealed that adenosine reduced their frequency but not amplitude, suggesting that adenosine acts on presynaptic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission. In contrast to interneurons, recordings from motoneurons revealed an adenosine-mediated depolarization. The frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to motoneurons were again reduced by adenosine, but we saw no effect on miniature postsynaptic currents. Again these effects on motoneurons were blocked by DPCPX. Taken together, these results demonstrate differential effects of adenosine, acting via A1 receptors, in the mouse spinal cord. Adenosine has a general inhibitory action on ventral horn interneurons while potentially maintaining motoneuron excitability. This may allow for adaptation of the locomotor pattern generated by interneuronal networks while helping to ensure the maintenance of overall motor output.
Insausti, T C; Lazzari, C R; Casas, J
The structural and ultrastructural characteristics of giant interneurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cricket Nemobius sylvestris were investigated by means of cobalt and fluorescent dye backfilling and transmission electron microscopy. The projections of the 8 eight pairs of the biggest ascending interneurons (giant interneurons) are described in detail. The somata of all interneurons analyzed are located contralateral to their axons, which project to the posterior region of the terminal ganglion and arborise in the cercal glomerulus. Neuron 7-1a is an exception, because its arborisation is restricted to the anterior region of the ganglion. The fine structure of giant interneurons shows typical features of highly active cells. We observed striking indentations in the perineural layer, enabling the somata of the giant interneurons to be very close to the haemolymph. The cercal glomerulus exhibits a high diversity of synaptic contacts (i.e. axo-dendritic, axo-axonic, dendro-axonic, and dendro-dendritic), as well as areas of tight junctions. Electrical synapses seem to be present, as well as mixed synapses. The anatomical organization of the giant interneurons is finally discussed in terms of functional implications and on a comparative basis.
Peyre, Elise; Silva, Carla G.; Nguyen, Laurent
During embryogenesis, cortical interneurons are generated by ventral progenitors located in the ganglionic eminences of the telencephalon. They travel along multiple tangential paths to populate the cortical wall. As they reach this structure they undergo intracortical dispersion to settle in their final destination. At the cellular level, migrating interneurons are highly polarized cells that extend and retract processes using dynamic remodeling of microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. Different levels of molecular regulation contribute to interneuron migration. These include: (1) Extrinsic guidance cues distributed along migratory streams that are sensed and integrated by migrating interneurons; (2) Intrinsic genetic programs driven by specific transcription factors that grant specification and set the timing of migration for different subtypes of interneurons; (3) Adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal elements/regulators that transduce molecular signalings into coherent movement. These levels of molecular regulation must be properly integrated by interneurons to allow their migration in the cortex. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the interplay between microenvironmental signals and cell autonomous programs that drive cortical interneuron porduction, tangential migration, and intergration in the developing cerebral cortex. PMID:25926769
Cosgrove, Kathleen E; Galván, Emilio J; Meriney, Stephen D; Barrionuevo, Germán
Area CA3 receives two extrinsic excitatory inputs, the mossy fibers (MF), and the perforant path (PP). Interneurons with somata in str. lacunosum moleculare (L-M) of CA3 modulate the influence of the MF and PP on pyramidal cell activity by providing strong feed-forward inhibitory influence to pyramidal cells. Here we report that L-M interneurons receive two separate MF inputs, one to the dorsal dendrites from the suprapyramidal blade of the dentate gyrus (MF(SDG)), and a second to ventral dendrites from the str. lucidum (MF(SL)). Responses elicited from MF(SDG) and MF(SL) stimulation sites have strong paired-pulse facilitation, similar DCG-IV sensitivity, amplitude, and decay kinetics but target spatially segregated domains on the interneuron dendrites. These data demonstrate that certain interneuron subtypes are entrained by two convergent MF inputs to spatially separated regions of the dendritic tree. This anatomical arrangement could make these interneurons considerably more responsive to the excitatory drive from dentate granule cells. Furthermore, temporal summation is linear or slightly sublinear between PP and MF(SL) but supralinear between PP and MF(SDG). This specific boosting of the excitatory drive to interneurons from the SDG location may indicate that L-M interneurons could be specifically involved in the processing of the associational component of the recognition memory.
Galván, Emilio J; Cosgrove, Kathleen E; Barrionuevo, Germán
The hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) pathway originates from the dentate gyrus granule cells and provides a powerful excitatory synaptic drive to neurons in the dentate gyrus hilus and area CA3. Much of the early work on the MF pathway focused on its electrophysiological properties, and ability to drive CA3 pyramidal cell activity. Over the last ten years, however, a new focus on the synaptic interaction between granule cells and inhibitory interneurons has emerged. These data have revealed an immense heterogeneity of long-term plasticity at MF synapses on various interneuron targets. Interestingly, these studies also indicate that the mechanisms of MF long-term plasticity in some interneuron subtypes may be more similar to pyramidal cells than previously appreciated. In this review, we first define the synapse types at each of the interneuron targets based on the receptors present. We then describe the different forms of long-term plasticity observed, and the mechanisms underlying each form as they are currently understood. Finally we highlight various open questions surrounding MF long-term plasticity in interneurons, focusing specifically on the induction and maintenance of LTP, and what the functional impact of persistent changes in efficacy at MF-interneuron synapses might be on the emergent properties of the inhibitory network dynamics in area CA3. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Synaptic Plasticity & Interneurons'.
Tukker, John J; Fuentealba, Pablo; Hartwich, Katja; Somogyi, Peter; Klausberger, Thomas
Cortical gamma oscillations contribute to cognitive processing and are thought to be supported by perisomatic-innervating GABAergic interneurons. We performed extracellular recordings of identified interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 area of anesthetized rats, revealing that the firing patterns of five distinct interneuron types are differentially correlated to spontaneous gamma oscillations. The firing of bistratified cells, which target dendrites of pyramidal cells coaligned with the glutamatergic input from hippocampal area CA3, is strongly phase locked to field gamma oscillations. Parvalbumin-expressing basket, axo-axonic, and cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons exhibit moderate gamma modulation, whereas the spike timing of distal dendrite-innervating oriens-lacunosum moleculare interneurons is not correlated to field gamma oscillations. Cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons fire earliest in the gamma cycle, a finding that is consistent with their suggested function of thresholding individual pyramidal cells. Furthermore, we show that field gamma amplitude correlates with interneuronal spike-timing precision and firing rate. Overall, our recordings suggest that gamma synchronization in vivo is assisted by temporal- and domain-specific GABAergic inputs to pyramidal cells and is initiated in pyramidal cell dendrites in addition to somata and axon initial segments.
Meng, Hui; Laurens, Jean; Blázquez, Pablo M; Angelaki, Dora E
The cerebellar cortex is among the brain’s most well-studied circuits and includes distinct classes of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons. Several studies have attempted to characterize the in vivo properties of cerebellar interneurons, yet little is currently known about their stimulus-driven properties. Here we quantify both spontaneous and stimulus-driven responses of interneurons in lobules X (nodulus) and IXc,d (ventral uvula) of the macaque caudal vermis during vestibular stimulation. Interneurons were identified as cells located >100 μm from the Purkinje cell layer that did not exhibit complex spikes. Based on baseline firing, three types of interneurons could be distinguished. First, there was a group of very regular firing interneurons with high mean discharge rates, which consistently encoded tilt, rather than translational head movements. Second, there was a group of low firing interneurons with a range of discharge regularity. This group had more diverse vestibular properties, where most were translation-selective and a few tilt- or gravitoinertial acceleration-selective. Third, we also encountered interneurons that were similar to Purkinje cells in terms of discharge regularity and mean firing rate. This group also encoded mixtures of tilt and translation signals. A few mossy fibres showed unprocessed, otolith afferent-like properties, encoding the gravitoinertial acceleration. We conclude that tilt- and translation-selective signals, which reflect neural computations transforming vestibular afferent information, are not only encountered in Purkinje cell responses. Instead, upstream interneurons within the cerebellar cortex are also characterized by similar properties, thus implying a widespread network computation. PMID:25556803
Tóth, Kinga; Maglóczky, Zsófia
This review focuses on the vulnerability of a special interneuron type—the calretinin (CR)-containing interneurons—in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). CR is a calcium-binding protein expressed mainly by GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus. Despite their morphological heterogeneity, CR-containing interneurons form a distinct subpopulation of inhibitory cells, innervating other interneurons in rodents and to some extent principal cells in the human. Their dendrites are strongly connected by zona adherentiae and presumably by gap junctions both in rats and humans. CR-containing interneurons are suggested to play a key role in the hippocampal inhibitory network, since they can effectively synchronize dendritic inhibitory interneurons. The sensitivity of CR-expressing interneurons to epilepsy was discussed in several reports, both in animal models and in humans. In the sclerotic hippocampus the density of CR-immunopositive cells is decreased significantly. In the non-sclerotic hippocampus, the CR-containing interneurons are preserved, but their dendritic tree is varicose, segmented, and zona-adherentia-type contacts can be less frequently observed among dendrites. Therefore, the dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells may be less effective in TLE. This can be partially explained by the impairment of the CR-containing interneuron ensemble in the epileptic hippocampus, which may result in an asynchronous and thus less effective dendritic inhibition of the principal cells. This phenomenon, together with the sprouting of excitatory pathway axons and enhanced innervation of principal cells, may be involved in seizure generation. Preventing the loss of CR-positive cells and preserving the integrity of CR-positive dendrite gap junctions may have antiepileptic effects, maintaining proper inhibitory function and helping to protect principal cells in epilepsy. PMID:25324731
Zou, D; Chen, L; Deng, D; Jiang, D; Dong, F; McSweeney, C; Zhou, Y; Liu, L; Chen, G; Wu, Y; Mao, Y
Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in the hippocampus play a critical role in animal memory, such as spatial working memory. However, how PV-positive interneurons in the subregions of the hippocampus affect animal behaviors remains poorly defined. Here, we achieved specific and reversible activation of PV-positive interneurons using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology. Inducible DREADD expression was demonstrated in vitro in cultured neurons, in which co-transfection of the hM3D-Gq-mCherry vector with a Cre plasmid resulted in a cellular response to hM3Dq ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) stimulation. In addition, the dentate gyrus (DG) of PV-Cre mice received bilateral injection of control lentivirus or lentivirus expressing double floxed hM3D-Gq-mCherry. Selective activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG did not affect locomotor activity or depression-related behavior in mice. Interestingly, stimulation of PV-positive interneurons induced an anxiolytic effect. Activation of PVpositive interneurons appears to impair social interaction to novelty, but has no effect on social motivation. However, this defect is likely due to the anxiolytic effect as the exploratory behavior of mice expressing hM3DGq is significantly increased. Mice expressing hM3D-Gq did not affect novel object recognition. Activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG maintains intact cued and contextual fear memory but facilitates fear extinction. Collectively, our results demonstrated that proper control of PV interneurons activity in the DG is critical for regulation of the anxiety, social interaction and fear extinction. These results improve our fundamental understanding of the physiological role of PV-positive interneurons in the hippocampus.
Abe, Philipp; Molnár, Zoltán; Tzeng, Yi-Shiuan; Lai, Dar-Ming; Arnold, Sebastian J; Stumm, Ralf
Glutamatergic principal neurons, GABAergic interneurons and thalamocortical axons (TCAs) are essential elements of the cerebrocortical network. Principal neurons originate locally from radial glia and intermediate progenitors (IPCs), whereas interneurons and TCAs are of extrinsic origin. Little is known how the assembly of these elements is coordinated. C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12), which is known to guide axons outside the neural tube and interneurons in the cortex, is expressed in the meninges and IPCs. Using mouse genetics, we dissected the influence of IPC-derived CXCL12 on TCAs and interneurons by showing that Cxcl12 ablation in IPCs, leaving meningeal Cxcl12 intact, attenuates intracortical TCA growth and disrupts tangential interneuron migration in the subventricular zone. In accordance with strong CXCR4 expression in the forming thalamus and TCAs, we identified a CXCR4-dependent growth-promoting effect of CXCL12 on TCAs in thalamus explants. Together, our findings indicate a cell-autonomous role of CXCR4 in promoting TCA growth. We propose that CXCL12 signals from IPCs link cortical neurogenesis to the progression of TCAs and interneurons spatially and temporally. Significance statement: The cerebral cortex exerts higher brain functions including perceptual and emotional processing. Evolutionary expansion of the mammalian cortex is mediated by intermediate progenitors, transient amplifying cells generating cortical excitatory neurons. During the peak period of cortical neurogenesis, migrating precursors of inhibitory interneurons originating in subcortical areas and thalamic axons invade the cortex. Although defects in the assembly of cortical network elements cause neurological and mental disorders, little is known how neurogenesis, interneuron recruitment, and axonal ingrowth are coordinated. We demonstrate that intermediate progenitors release the chemotactic cytokine CXCL12 to promote intracortical interneuron migration and growth of thalamic axons
Zou, D.; Chen, L.; Deng, D.; Jiang, D.; Dong, F.; McSweeney, C.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, L.; Chen, G.; Wu, Y.; Mao, Y.
Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in the hippocampus play a critical role in animal memory, such as spatial working memory. However, how PV-positive interneurons in the subregions of the hippocampus affect animal behaviors remains poorly defined. Here, we achieved specific and reversible activation of PV-positive interneurons using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) technology. Inducible DREADD expression was demonstrated in vitro in cultured neurons, in which co-transfection of the hM3D-Gq-mCherry vector with a Cre plasmid resulted in a cellular response to hM3Dq ligand clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) stimulation. In addition, the dentate gyrus (DG) of PV-Cre mice received bilateral injection of control lentivirus or lentivirus expressing double floxed hM3D-Gq-mCherry. Selective activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG did not affect locomotor activity or depression-related behavior in mice. Interestingly, stimulation of PV-positive interneurons induced an anxiolytic effect. Activation of PV-positive interneurons appears to impair social interaction to novelty, but has no effect on social motivation. However, this defect is likely due to the anxiolytic effect as the exploratory behavior of mice expressing hM3D-Gq is significantly increased. Mice expressing hM3D-Gq did not affect novel object recognition. Activation of PV-positive interneurons in the DG maintains intact cued and contextual fear memory but facilitates fear extinction. Collectively, our results demonstrated that proper control of PV interneurons activity in the DG is critical for regulation of the anxiety, social interaction and fear extinction. These results improve our fundamental understanding of the physiological role of PV-positive interneurons in the hippocampus. PMID:26733123
Wester, Jason C.
Spontaneously generated network activity is a hallmark of developing neural circuits, and plays an important role in the formation of synaptic connections. In the rodent hippocampus, this activity is observed in vitro as giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) during the first postnatal week. Interneurons importantly contribute to GDPs, due to the depolarizing actions of GABA early in development. While they are highly diverse, cortical interneurons can be segregated into two distinct groups based on their embryonic lineage from either the medial or caudal ganglionic eminences (MGE and CGE). There is evidence suggesting CGE-derived interneurons are important for GDP generation; however, their contribution relative to those from the MGE has never been directly tested. Here, we optogenetically inhibited either MGE- or CGE-derived interneurons in a region-specific manner in mouse neonatal hippocampus in vitro. In CA1, where interneurons are the primary source of recurrent excitation, we found that those from the MGE strongly and preferentially contributed to GDP generation. Furthermore, in dual whole-cell patch recordings in neonatal CA1, MGE interneurons formed synaptic connections to and from neighboring pyramidal cells at a much higher rate than those from the CGE. These MGE interneurons were commonly perisomatic targeting, in contrast to those from the CGE, which were dendrite targeting. Finally, inhibiting MGE interneurons in CA1 suppressed GDPs in CA3 and vice versa; conversely, they could also trigger GDPs in CA1 that propagated to CA3 and vice versa. Our data demonstrate a key role for MGE-derived interneurons in both generating and coordinating GDPs across the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT During nervous system development, immature circuits internally generate rhythmic patterns of electrical activity that promote the establishment of synaptic connections. Immature interneurons are excitatory rather than inhibitory and actively contribute to the generation
DeFelipe, Javier; López-Cruz, Pedro L; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Anderson, Stewart; Burkhalter, Andreas; Cauli, Bruno; Fairén, Alfonso; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Fishell, Gord; Fitzpatrick, David; Freund, Tamás F; González-Burgos, Guillermo; Hestrin, Shaul; Hill, Sean; Hof, Patrick R; Huang, Josh; Jones, Edward G; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kisvárday, Zoltán; Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Lewis, David A; Marín, Oscar; Markram, Henry; McBain, Chris J; Meyer, Hanno S; Monyer, Hannah; Nelson, Sacha B; Rockland, Kathleen; Rossier, Jean; Rubenstein, John L R; Rudy, Bernardo; Scanziani, Massimo; Shepherd, Gordon M; Sherwood, Chet C; Staiger, Jochen F; Tamás, Gábor; Thomson, Alex; Wang, Yun; Yuste, Rafael; Ascoli, Giorgio A
A systematic classification and accepted nomenclature of neuron types is much needed but is currently lacking. This article describes a possible taxonomical solution for classifying GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex based on a novel, web-based interactive system that allows experts to classify neurons with pre-determined criteria. Using Bayesian analysis and clustering algorithms on the resulting data, we investigated the suitability of several anatomical terms and neuron names for cortical GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, we show that supervised classification models could automatically categorize interneurons in agreement with experts' assignments. These results demonstrate a practical and objective approach to the naming, characterization and classification of neurons based on community consensus.
Jankowska, E; Riddell, J S
1. Properties of dorsal horn interneurones that process information from group II muscle afferents in the sacral segments of the spinal cord have been investigated in the cat using both intracellular and extracellular recording. 2. The interneurones were excited by group II muscle afferents and cutaneous afferents but not by group I muscle afferents. They were most effectively excited by group II afferents of the posterior biceps, semitendinosus, triceps surae and quadriceps muscle nerves and by cutaneous afferents running in the cutaneous femoris, pudendal and sural nerves. The earliest synaptic actions were evoked monosynaptically and were very tightly locked to the stimuli. 3. EPSPs evoked monosynaptically by group II muscle afferents and cutaneous afferents of the most effective nerves were often cut short by disynaptic IPSPs. As a consequence of this negative feedback the EPSPs gave rise to single or double spike potentials and only a minority of interneurones responded with repetitive discharges. However, the neurones that did respond repetitively did so at a very high frequency of discharges (0.8-1.2 ms intervals between the first 2-3 spikes). 4. Sacral dorsal horn group II interneurones do not appear to act directly upon motoneurones because: (i) these interneurones are located outside the area within which last order interneurones have previously been found and (ii) the latencies of PSPs evoked in motoneurones by stimulation of the posterior biceps and semitendinosus, cutaneous femoris and pudendal nerves (i.e. the main nerves providing input to sacral interneurones) are compatible with a tri- but not with a disynaptic coupling. Spatial facilitation of EPSPs and IPSPs following synchronous stimulation of group II and cutaneous afferents of these nerves shows, however, that sacral interneurones may induce excitation or inhibition of motoneurones via other interneurones. 5. Comparison of the properties of group II interneurones in the sacral segments with
Kato, Hiroyuki K; Gillet, Shea N; Peters, Andrew J; Isaacson, Jeffry S; Komiyama, Takaki
In the olfactory bulb, odor representations by principal mitral cells are modulated by local inhibitory circuits. While dendrodendritic synapses between mitral and granule cells are typically thought to be a major source of this modulation, the contributions of other inhibitory neurons remain unclear. Here we demonstrate the functional properties of olfactory bulb parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV cells) and identify their important role in odor coding. Using paired recordings, we find that PV cells form reciprocal connections with the majority of nearby mitral cells, in contrast to the sparse connectivity between mitral and granule cells. In vivo calcium imaging in awake mice reveals that PV cells are broadly tuned to odors. Furthermore, selective PV cell inactivation enhances mitral cell responses in a linear fashion while maintaining mitral cell odor preferences. Thus, dense connections between mitral and PV cells underlie an inhibitory circuit poised to modulate the gain of olfactory bulb output.
Coddington, Luke T.; Rudolph, Stephanie; Lune, Patrick Vande; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda; Wadiche, Jacques I.
Summary Neurotransmitter spillover represents a form of neural transmission not restricted to morphologically defined synaptic connections. Communication between climbing fibers (CFs) and molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) in the cerebellum is mediated exclusively by glutamate spillover. Here, we show how CF stimulation functionally segregates MLIs based on their location relative to glutamate release. Excitation of MLIs that reside within the domain of spillover diffusion coordinates inhibition of MLIs outside the diffusion limit. CF excitation of MLIs is dependent on extrasynaptic NMDA receptors that enhance the spatial and temporal spread of CF signaling. Activity mediated by functionally segregated MLIs converges onto neighboring Purkinje cells (PCs) to generate a long-lasting biphasic change in inhibition. These data demonstrate how glutamate release from single CFs modulates excitability of neighboring PCs, thus expanding the influence of CFs on cerebellar cortical activity in a manner not predicted by anatomical connectivity. PMID:23707614
Martins, Gabriela J; Plachez, Céline; Powell, Elizabeth M
Hippocampal interneurons arise in the ventral forebrain and migrate dorsally in response to cues, including hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor which signals via its receptor MET. Examination of the hippocampus in adult mice in which MET had been inactivated in the embryonic proliferative zones showed an increase in parvalbumin-expressing cells in the dentate gyrus, but a loss of these cells in the CA3 region. An overall loss of calretinin-expressing cells was seen throughout the hippocampus. A similar CA3 deficit of parvalbumin and calretinin cells was observed when MET was eliminated only in postmitotic cells. These data suggest that MET is required for the proper hippocampal development, and embryonic perturbations lead to long-term anatomical defects with possible learning and memory dysfunction.
Across species, the performance of vocal signals can be modulated by the social environment. Zebra finches, for example, adjust their song performance when singing to females (‘female-directed’ or FD song) compared to when singing in isolation (‘undirected’ or UD song). These changes are salient, as females prefer the FD song over the UD song. Despite the importance of these performance changes, the neural mechanisms underlying this social modulation remain poorly understood. Previous work in finches has established that expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 is increased during singing and modulated by social context within the vocal control circuitry. Here, we examined whether particular neural subpopulations within those vocal control regions exhibit similar modulations of EGR1 expression. We compared EGR1 expression in neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer that modulates network plasticity and homeostasis, among males that performed FD song, males that produced UD song, or males that did not sing. We found that, overall, singing but not social context significantly affected EGR1 expression in PV neurons throughout the vocal control nuclei. We observed differences in EGR1 expression between two classes of PV interneurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X. Additionally, we found that singing altered the amount of PV expression in neurons in HVC and Area X and that distinct PV interneuron types in Area X exhibited different patterns of modulation by singing. These data indicate that throughout the vocal control circuitry the singing-related regulation of EGR1 expression in PV neurons may be less influenced by social context than in other neuron types and raise the possibility of cell-type specific differences in plasticity and calcium buffering. PMID:28235074
Chitwood, R A; Hubbard, A; Jaffe, D B
1. The linear membrane responses of CA3 interneurones were determined with the use of whole-cell patch recording methods. The mean input resistance (RN) for all cells in this study was 526 +/- 16 MOmega and the slowest membrane time constant (tau0) was 73 +/- 3 ms. 2. The three-dimensional morphology of 63 biocytin-labelled neurones was used to construct compartmental models. Specific membrane resistivity (Rm) and specific membrane capacitance (Cm) were estimated by fitting the linear membrane response. Acceptable fits were obtained for 24 CA3 interneurones. The mean Rm was 61.9 +/- 34.2 Omega cm2 and the mean Cm was 0.9 +/- 0.3 microF cm-2. Intracellular resistance (Ri) could not be resolved in this study. 3. Examination of voltage attenuation revealed a significantly low synaptic efficiency from most dendritic synaptic input locations to the soma. 4. Simulations of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were analysed at both the site of synaptic input and at the soma. There was little variability in the depolarization at the soma from synaptic inputs placed at different locations along the dendritic tree. The EPSP amplitude at the site of synaptic input was progressively larger with distance from the soma, consistent with a progressive increase in input impedance. 5. The 'iso-efficiency' of spatially different synaptic inputs arose from two opposing factors: an increase in EPSP amplitude at the synapse with distance from the soma was opposed by a nearly equivalent increase in voltage attenuation. These simulations suggest that, in these particular neurones, the amplitude of EPSPs measured at the soma will not be significantly affected by the location of synaptic inputs.
Autism and epilepsy are two associated disorders that are highly prevalent, share common developmental origins, and demonstrate substantial heritability. In this review, cross-disciplinary data in a rapidly evolving field that bridges neurology and psychiatry are synthesized to identify shared biologic mechanisms. The relationship between these debilitating, lifelong conditions is examined at the clinical, genetic, and neurophysiologic levels in humans and in animal models. Scopus and PubMed searches were used to identify relevant literature. Clinical observations have prompted speculation about the interdependence of autism and epilepsy, but causal relationships have proved difficult to determine. Despite their heritability, the genetic basis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy has remained largely elusive until the advent of next-generation sequencing. This approach has revealed that mutations that are either causal or confer an increased disease risk are found in numerous different genes, any one of which accounts for only a small percentage of cases. Conversely, even cases with identical clinical phenotypes can be genetically heterogeneous. Candidate gene identification has facilitated the development of mouse genetic models, which in parallel with human studies have implicated shared brain regions and circuits that mediate disease expression. Diverse genetic causes of ASD and epilepsy converge on cortical interneuron circuits as one important mediator of both disorders. Cortical interneurons are among the most diverse cell types in the brain and their unique chemical and electrical coupling exert a powerful inhibitory influence on excitatory neurons via the release of the neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These multifaceted approaches have validated theories derived from the field of developmental neurobiology, which propose that the neurologic and neuropsychiatric manifestations are caused by an altered ratio of excitation to
Chitwood, Raymond A; Hubbard, Aida; Jaffe, David B
The linear membrane responses of CA3 interneurones were determined with the use of whole-cell patch recording methods. The mean input resistance (RN) for all cells in this study was 526 ± 16 MΩ and the slowest membrane time constant (τ0) was 73 ± 3 ms. The three-dimensional morphology of 63 biocytin-labelled neurones was used to construct compartmental models. Specific membrane resistivity (Rm) and specific membrane capacitance (Cm) were estimated by fitting the linear membrane response. Acceptable fits were obtained for 24 CA3 interneurones. The mean Rmwas 61.9 ± 34.2 Ω cm2 and the mean Cm was 0.9 ± 0.3 μF cm−2. Intracellular resistance (Ri) could not be resolved in this study. Examination of voltage attenuation revealed a significantly low synaptic efficiency from most dendritic synaptic input locations to the soma. Simulations of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were analysed at both the site of synaptic input and at the soma. There was little variability in the depolarization at the soma from synaptic inputs placed at different locations along the dendritic tree. The EPSP amplitude at the site of synaptic input was progressively larger with distance from the soma, consistent with a progressive increase in input impedance. The ‘iso-efficiency’ of spatially different synaptic inputs arose from two opposing factors: an increase in EPSP amplitude at the synapse with distance from the soma was opposed by a nearly equivalent increase in voltage attenuation. These simulations suggest that, in these particular neurones, the amplitude of EPSPs measured at the soma will not be significantly affected by the location of synaptic inputs. PMID:10066901
Varga, Csaba; Tamas, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Olah, Szabolcs; Somogyi, Peter
Transcription factors contribute to the differentiation of cortical neurons, orchestrate specific interneuronal circuits, and define synaptic relationships. We have investigated neurons expressing chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII), which plays a role in the migration of GABAergic neurons. Whole-cell, patch-clamp recording in vitro combined with colocalization of molecular cell markers in the adult cortex differentiates distinct interneurons. The majority of strongly COUP-TFII-expressing neurons were in layers I-III. Most calretinin (CR) and/or cholecystokinin- (CCK) and/or reelin-positive interneurons were also COUP-TFII-positive. CR-, CCK-, or reelin-positive neurons formed 80%, 20%, or 17% of COUP-TFII-positive interneurons, respectively. About half of COUP-TFII-/CCK-positive interneurons were CR-positive, a quarter of them reelin-positive, but none expressed both. Interneurons positive for COUP-TFII fired irregular, accommodating and adapting trains of action potentials (APs) and innervated mostly small dendritic shafts and rarely spines or somata. Paired recording showed that a calretinin-/COUP-TFII-positive interneuron elicited inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in a reciprocally connected pyramidal cell. Calbindin, somatostatin, or parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons and most pyramidal cells express no immunohistochemically detectable COUP-TFII. In layers V and VI, some pyramidal cells expressed a low level of COUP-TFII in the nucleus. In conclusion, COUP-TFII is expressed in a diverse subset of GABAergic interneurons predominantly innervating small dendritic shafts originating from both interneurons and pyramidal cells.
Li, Xiaosu; Sun, Chifei; Lin, Chao; Ma, Tong; Madhavan, Mayur C; Campbell, Kenneth; Yang, Zhengang
Interneurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) represent a heterogeneous population, which are first produced at embryonic stages and persisting into adulthood. Using the BrdU birthdating method combined with immunostaining for several different neuronal markers, we provide the integrated temporal patterns of distinct mouse OB interneuron production from embryonic day 14 to postnatal day 365. We show that although the majority of OB interneuron subtypes continue to be generated throughout life, most subtypes show a similar "bell-like" temporal production pattern with a peak around birth. Tyrosine hydroxylase and calretinin-expressing interneurons are produced at a relatively low rate in the adult OB, while parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneuron production is confined to later embryonic and early postnatal stages. We also show that Dlx5/6-expressing progenitors contribute to PV+ interneurons in the OB. Interestingly, all PV+ interneurons in the external plexiform layer (EPL) express the transcription factor Sp8. Genetic ablation of Sp8 by cre/loxP-based recombination severely reduces the number of PV+ interneurons in the EPL of the OB. Our results suggest that Sp8 is required for the normal production of PV+ interneurons in the EPL of the OB. These data expand our understanding of the temporal and molecular regulation of OB interneuron neurogenesis.
Gozlan, Henri; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel
In hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, GABAergic synapses are established before glutamatergic synapses. GABAergic interneurons should therefore develop and acquire synapses at an earlier stage to provide the source for GABAergic synapses. We now report that this is indeed the case. At birth and in utero, when nearly all pyramidal neurons are not yet functional, most interneurons have already either GABAergic only or GABAergic and glutamatergic postsynaptic currents. At birth, the morphological maturation of interneurons parallels their individual functional responses. In addition, the formation of functional interneurons types appears to be a sequential process. Interneurons that innervate other interneurons acquire GABA(A) synapses before peridendritic interneurons, but also before perisomatic interneurons that are not yet functional at birth. Therefore, interneurons are the source and the targets of the first synapses formed in the developing circuit. Since GABA was shown to be excitatory in utero, interneurons provide all the excitatory drive at a time when the principal cells are silent. They could therefore play a central role in the formation of the cortical circuit at early developmental stages.
Chertok, V M; Kotsyuba, A E; Startseva, M S
Immunohistochemical examination with the antiserum against neuronal NO synthase and cystathionine β-synthase was used to study the following two pools of interneurons in Wistar rats at various periods after the development of renovascular hypertension: intranuclear interneurons (lying in the projection of the solitary nucleus, reticular gigantocellular nucleus, and parvocellular nucleus) and 2 groups of internuclear interneurons (small interneurons, area 50-300 μ(2); and large interneurons, area above 350 μ(2)). Intranuclear and internuclear interneurons probably play a role in the central mechanisms of hemodynamics regulation. These interneurons differ by not only in topochemical parameters, but also functional properties (different resistances to BP changes). Intranuclear interneurons are characterized by high sensitivity of the gas transmitter systems to a continuous increase in BP, which results in remodeling and dysfunction of the bulbar part of the cardiovascular center. Large internuclear interneurons demonstrate a strong reaction to BP rise, which confirms their involvement into hemodynamics regulation. By contrast, small internuclear interneurons retain their characteristics in arterial hypertension and probably perform an integrative function.
De Marco García, Natalia V; Priya, Rashi; Tuncdemir, Sebnem N; Fishell, Gord; Karayannis, Theofanis
Neuronal microcircuits in the superficial layers of the mammalian cortex provide the substrate for associative cortical computation. Inhibitory interneurons constitute an essential component of the circuitry and are fundamental to the integration of local and long-range information. Here we report that, during early development, superficially positioned Reelin-expressing neurogliaform interneurons in the mouse somatosensory cortex receive afferent innervation from both cortical and thalamic excitatory sources. Attenuation of ascending sensory, but not intracortical, excitation leads to axo-dendritic morphological defects in these interneurons. Moreover, abrogation of the NMDA receptors through which the thalamic inputs signal results in a similar phenotype, as well as in the selective loss of thalamic and a concomitant increase in intracortical connectivity. These results suggest that thalamic inputs are critical in determining the balance between local and long-range connectivity and are fundamental to the proper integration of Reelin-expressing interneurons into nascent cortical circuits.
Howard, MacKenzie Allen; Rubenstein, John L R; Baraban, Scott C
Chronic changes in excitability and activity can induce homeostatic plasticity. These perturbations may be associated with neurological disorders, particularly those involving loss or dysfunction of GABA interneurons. In distal-less homeobox 1 (Dlx1(-/-)) mice with late-onset interneuron loss and reduced inhibition, we observed both excitatory synaptic silencing and decreased intrinsic neuronal excitability. These homeostatic changes do not fully restore normal circuit function, because synaptic silencing results in enhanced potential for long-term potentiation and abnormal gamma oscillations. Transplanting medial ganglionic eminence interneuron progenitors to introduce new GABAergic interneurons, we demonstrate restoration of hippocampal function. Specifically, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, input resistance, hippocampal long-term potentiation, and gamma oscillations are all normalized. Thus, in vivo homeostatic plasticity is a highly dynamic and bidirectional process that responds to changes in inhibition.
Tóth, K; McBain, C J
Using the polyamine toxin philanthotoxin, which selectively blocks calcium-permeable AMPA receptors, we show that synaptic transmission onto single hippocampal interneurons occurs by afferent-specific activation of philanthotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive AMPA receptors. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors are found exclusively at synapses from mossy fibers. In contrast, synaptic responses evoked by stimulation of CA3 pyramidal neurons are mediated by calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors. Both pathways converge onto single interneurons and can be discriminated with Group II mGluR agonists. Thus, single interneurons target AMPA receptors of different subunit composition to specific postsynaptic sites, providing a mechanism to increase the synapse-specific computational properties of hippocampal interneurons.
Vann, Nikolas C.; Pham, Francis D.; Hayes, John A.; Kottick, Andrew; Del Negro, Christopher A.
Interneurons derived from Dbx1-expressing precursors located in the brainstem preBötzinger complex (preBötC) putatively form the core oscillator for inspiratory breathing movements. We tested this Dbx1 core hypothesis by expressing archaerhodopsin in Dbx1-derived interneurons and then transiently hyperpolarizing these neurons while measuring respiratory rhythm in vitro or breathing in vagus-intact adult mice. Transient illumination of the preBötC interrupted inspiratory rhythm in both slice preparations and sedated mice. In awake mice, light application reduced breathing frequency and prolonged the inspiratory duration. Support for the Dbx1 core hypothesis previously came from embryonic and perinatal mouse experiments, but these data suggest that Dbx1-derived preBötC interneurons are rhythmogenic in adult mice too. The neural origins of breathing behavior can be attributed to a localized and genetically well-defined interneuron population. PMID:27611210
Vann, Nikolas C; Pham, Francis D; Hayes, John A; Kottick, Andrew; Del Negro, Christopher A
Interneurons derived from Dbx1-expressing precursors located in the brainstem preBötzinger complex (preBötC) putatively form the core oscillator for inspiratory breathing movements. We tested this Dbx1 core hypothesis by expressing archaerhodopsin in Dbx1-derived interneurons and then transiently hyperpolarizing these neurons while measuring respiratory rhythm in vitro or breathing in vagus-intact adult mice. Transient illumination of the preBötC interrupted inspiratory rhythm in both slice preparations and sedated mice. In awake mice, light application reduced breathing frequency and prolonged the inspiratory duration. Support for the Dbx1 core hypothesis previously came from embryonic and perinatal mouse experiments, but these data suggest that Dbx1-derived preBötC interneurons are rhythmogenic in adult mice too. The neural origins of breathing behavior can be attributed to a localized and genetically well-defined interneuron population.
Bonzano, Sara; Bovetti, Serena; Gendusa, Claudio; Peretto, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia
The olfactory bulb (OB) is a highly plastic brain region involved in the early processing of olfactory information. A remarkably feature of the OB circuits in rodents is the constitutive integration of new neurons that takes place during adulthood. Newborn cells in the adult OB are mostly inhibitory interneurons belonging to chemically, morphologically and functionally heterogeneous types. Although there is general agreement that adult neurogenesis in the OB plays a key role in sensory information processing and olfaction-related plasticity, the contribution of each interneuron subtype to such functions is far to be elucidated. Here, we focus on the dopaminergic (DA) interneurons: we highlight recent findings about their morphological features and then describe the molecular factors required for the specification/differentiation and maintenance of the DA phenotype in adult born neurons. We also discuss dynamic changes of the DA interneuron population related to age, environmental stimuli and lesions, and their possible functional implications. PMID:27199651
De Marco García, Natalia V; Priya, Rashi; Tuncdemir, Sebnem N; Fishell, Gord; Karayannis, Theofanis
Neuronal microcircuits in the superficial layers of the mammalian cortex provide the substrate for associative cortical computation. Inhibitory interneurons constitute an essential component of the circuitry and are fundamental to the integration of local and long-range information. Here we report that, during early development, superficially positioned Reelin-expressing neurogliaform interneurons in the mouse somatosensory cortex receive afferent innervation from both cortical and thalamic excitatory sources. Attenuation of ascending sensory, but not intracortical, excitation leads to axo-dendritic morphological defects in these interneurons. Moreover, abrogation of the NMDA receptors through which the thalamic inputs signal results in a similar phenotype, as well as in the selective loss of thalamic and a concomitant increase in intracortical connectivity. These results suggest that thalamic inputs are critical in determining the balance between local and long-range connectivity and are fundamental to the proper integration of Reelin-expressing interneurons into nascent cortical circuits. PMID:25664912
Ellender, Tommas J; Nissen, Wiebke; Colgin, Laura L; Mann, Edward O; Paulsen, Ole
Hippocampal population bursts ("sharp wave-ripples") occur during rest and slow-wave sleep and are thought to be important for memory consolidation. The cellular mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the initiation of sharp waves using a hippocampal slice model. To this end, we used a combination of field recordings with planar multielectrode arrays and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of individual anatomically identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons. We found that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition is necessary for sharp wave generation. Moreover, the activity of individual perisomatic-targeting interneurons can both suppress, and subsequently enhance, the local generation of sharp waves. Finally, we show that this is achieved by the tight control of local excitation and inhibition by perisomatic-targeting interneurons. These results suggest that perisomatic-targeting interneurons assist in selecting the subset of pyramidal neurons that initiate each hippocampal sharp wave-ripple.
Khazipov, R; Leinekugel, X; Khalilov, I; Gaiarsa, J L; Ben-Ari, Y
1. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings from interneurons localized in the stratum radiatum of the CA3 subfield (SR-CA3) of neonatal (postnatal days 2-5) rat hippocampal slices were performed to study their activity during the generation of GABAergic giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) in CA3 pyramidal cells. 2. Dual recordings revealed that during the generation of GDPs in CA3 pyramidal cells, the interneurons fire bursts of spikes, on average 4.5 +/- 1.4 spikes per burst (cell-attached mode). There bursts were induced by periodical large inward currents (interneuronal GDPs) recorded in whole-cell mode. 3. Interneuronal GDPs revealed typical features of polysynaptic neuronal network-driven events: they were blocked by TTX and by high divalent cation medium and they could be evoked in an all-or-none manner by electrical stimulation in different regions of the hippocampus. The network elements required for the generation of GDPs are present in local CA3 circuits since spontaneous GDPs were present in the isolated CA3 subfield of the hippocampal slice. 4. Interneuronal GDPs were mediated by GABAA and glutamate receptors, since: (i) their reversal potential strongly depended on [Cl-]i; (ii) at the reversal potential of GABAA postsynaptic currents an inward component of GDPs was composed of events with the same kinetics as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated EPSCs; and (iii) once GABAA receptors were blocked intracellularly by dialysis with F(-)-MgATP-free solution, the remaining component of interneuronal GDPs reversed near 0 mV and rectified at membrane potentials more negative than -20 mV, suggesting an important contribution of NMDA receptors in addition to AMPA receptors. 5. In cell-attached recordings from interneurons, electrical stimulation in the stratum radiatum evoked a burst of spikes that corresponded to evoked GDPs. Pharmacological study of this response revealed that excitation of SR-CA3 interneurons during
Khazipov, R; Leinekugel, X; Khalilov, I; Gaiarsa, J L; Ben-Ari, Y
1. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings from interneurons localized in the stratum radiatum of the CA3 subfield (SR-CA3) of neonatal (postnatal days 2-5) rat hippocampal slices were performed to study their activity during the generation of GABAergic giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) in CA3 pyramidal cells. 2. Dual recordings revealed that during the generation of GDPs in CA3 pyramidal cells, the interneurons fire bursts of spikes, on average 4.5 +/- 1.4 spikes per burst (cell-attached mode). There bursts were induced by periodical large inward currents (interneuronal GDPs) recorded in whole-cell mode. 3. Interneuronal GDPs revealed typical features of polysynaptic neuronal network-driven events: they were blocked by TTX and by high divalent cation medium and they could be evoked in an all-or-none manner by electrical stimulation in different regions of the hippocampus. The network elements required for the generation of GDPs are present in local CA3 circuits since spontaneous GDPs were present in the isolated CA3 subfield of the hippocampal slice. 4. Interneuronal GDPs were mediated by GABAA and glutamate receptors, since: (i) their reversal potential strongly depended on [Cl-]i; (ii) at the reversal potential of GABAA postsynaptic currents an inward component of GDPs was composed of events with the same kinetics as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor-mediated EPSCs; and (iii) once GABAA receptors were blocked intracellularly by dialysis with F(-)-MgATP-free solution, the remaining component of interneuronal GDPs reversed near 0 mV and rectified at membrane potentials more negative than -20 mV, suggesting an important contribution of NMDA receptors in addition to AMPA receptors. 5. In cell-attached recordings from interneurons, electrical stimulation in the stratum radiatum evoked a burst of spikes that corresponded to evoked GDPs. Pharmacological study of this response revealed that excitation of SR-CA3 interneurons during
Dutton, Stacey B; Makinson, Christopher D; Papale, Ligia A; Shankar, Anupama; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nakazawa, Kazu; Escayg, Andrew
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials in electrically excitable cells. Dominant mutations in SCN1A, which encodes the Nav1.1 VGSC α-subunit, underlie several forms of epilepsy, including Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Electrophysiological analyses of DS and GEFS+ mouse models have led to the hypothesis that SCN1A mutations reduce the excitability of inhibitory cortical and hippocampal interneurons. To more directly examine the relative contribution of inhibitory interneurons and excitatory pyramidal cells to SCN1A-derived epilepsy, we first compared the expression of Nav1.1 in inhibitory parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and excitatory neurons from P22 mice using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. In the hippocampus and neocortex, 69% of Nav1.1 immunoreactive neurons were also positive for PV. In contrast, 13% and 5% of Nav1.1 positive cells in the hippocampus and neocortex, respectively, were found to co-localize with excitatory cells identified by CaMK2α immunoreactivity. Next, we reduced the expression of Scn1a in either a subset of interneurons (mainly PV interneurons) or excitatory cells by crossing mice heterozygous for a floxed Scn1a allele to either the Ppp1r2-Cre or EMX1-Cre transgenic lines, respectively. The inactivation of one Scn1a allele in interneurons of the neocortex and hippocampus was sufficient to reduce thresholds to flurothyl- and hyperthermia-induced seizures, whereas thresholds were unaltered following inactivation in excitatory cells. Reduced interneuron Scn1a expression also resulted in the generation of spontaneous seizures. These findings provide direct evidence for an important role of PV interneurons in the pathogenesis of Scn1a-derived epilepsies.
De-May, C L; Ali, A B
To investigate the involvement of N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in local neocortical synaptic transmission, dual whole-cell recordings - combined with biocytin labelling - were obtained from bitufted adapting, multipolar adapting or multipolar non-adapting interneurons and pyramidal cells in layers II-V of rat (postnatal days 17-22) sensorimotor cortex. The voltage dependency of the amplitude of Excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) received by the three types of interneuron appeared to coincide with the interneuron subclass; upon depolarisation, EPSPs received by multipolar non-adapting interneurons either decreased in amplitude or appeared insensitive, multipolar adapting interneuron EPSP amplitudes increased or appeared insensitive, whereas bitufted interneuron EPSP amplitudes increased or decreased. Connections were challenged with the NMDA receptor antagonist d-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (d-AP5) (50μM) revealing NMDA receptors to contribute to EPSPs received by all cell types, this also abolished the non-conventional voltage dependency. Reciprocal connections were frequent between pyramidal cells and multipolar interneurons, and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) elicited in pyramidal cells by both multipolar adapting and multipolar non-adapting interneurons were sensitive to a significant reduction in amplitude by d-AP5. The involvement of presynaptic NMDA receptors was indicated by coefficient of variation analysis and an increase in the failures of transmission. Furthermore, by loading MK-801 into the pre- or postsynaptic neurons, we observed that a reduction in inhibition requires presynaptic and not postsynaptic NMDA receptors. These results suggest that NMDA receptors possess pre- and postsynaptic roles at selective neocortical synapses that are probably important in governing spike-timing and information flow.
Muller, Jay F; Mascagni, Franco; McDonald, Alexander J
The basolateral amygdala contains several subpopulations of inhibitory interneurons that can be distinguished on the basis of their content of calcium-binding proteins or peptides. Although previous studies have shown that interneuronal subpopulations containing parvalbumin (PV) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) innervate distinct postsynaptic domains of pyramidal cells as well as other interneurons, very little is known about the synaptic outputs of the interneuronal subpopulation that expresses somatostatin (SOM). The present study utilized dual-labeling immunocytochemical techniques at the light and electron microscopic levels to analyze the innervation of pyramidal cells, PV+ interneurons, and VIP+ interneurons in the anterior basolateral amygdalar nucleus (BLa) by SOM+ axon terminals. Pyramidal cell somata and dendrites were selectively labeled with antibodies to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK); previous studies have shown that the vast majority of dendritic spines, whether CAMK+ or not, arise from pyramidal cells. Almost all SOM+ axon terminals formed symmetrical synapses. The main postsynaptic targets of SOM+ terminals were small-caliber CaMK+ dendrites and dendritic spines, some of which were CaMK+. These SOM+ synapses with dendrites were often in close proximity to asymmetrical (excitatory) synapses to these same structures formed by unlabeled terminals. Few SOM+ terminals formed synapses with CaMK+ pyramidal cell somata or large-caliber (proximal) dendrites. Likewise, only 15% of SOM+ terminals formed synapses with PV+, VIP+, or SOM+ interneurons. These findings suggest that inhibitory inputs from SOM+ interneurons may interact with excitatory inputs to pyramidal cell distal dendrites in the BLa. These interactions might affect synaptic plasticity related to emotional learning.
Guo, Qingchun; Wang, Daqing; He, Xiaobin; Feng, Qiru; Lin, Rui; Xu, Fuqiang; Fu, Ling; Luo, Minmin
The dorsal striatum integrates inputs from multiple brain areas to coordinate voluntary movements, associative plasticity, and reinforcement learning. Its projection neurons consist of the GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that express dopamine receptor type 1 (D1) or dopamine receptor type 2 (D2). Cholinergic interneurons account for a small portion of striatal neuron populations, but they play important roles in striatal functions by synapsing onto the MSNs and other local interneurons. By combining the modified rabies virus with specific Cre- mouse lines, a recent study mapped the monosynaptic input patterns to MSNs. Because only a small number of extrastriatal neurons were labeled in the prior study, it is important to reexamine the input patterns of MSNs with higher labeling efficiency. Additionally, the whole-brain innervation pattern of cholinergic interneurons remains unknown. Using the rabies virus-based transsynaptic tracing method in this study, we comprehensively charted the brain areas that provide direct inputs to D1-MSNs, D2-MSNs, and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum. We found that both types of projection neurons and the cholinergic interneurons receive extensive inputs from discrete brain areas in the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other subcortical areas, several of which were not reported in the previous study. The MSNs and cholinergic interneurons share largely common inputs from areas outside the striatum. However, innervations within the dorsal striatum represent a significantly larger proportion of total inputs for cholinergic interneurons than for the MSNs. The comprehensive maps of direct inputs to striatal MSNs and cholinergic interneurons shall assist future functional dissection of the striatal circuits. PMID:25830919
Dutton, Stacey B.; Makinson, Christopher D.; Papale, Ligia A.; Shankar, Anupama; Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nakazawa, Kazu; Escayg, Andrew
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials in electrically excitable cells. Dominant mutations in SCN1A, which encodes the Nav1.1 VGSC α-subunit, underlie several forms of epilepsy, including Dravet syndrome (DS) and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Electrophysiological analyses of DS and GEFS+ mouse models have led to the hypothesis that SCN1A mutations reduce the excitability of inhibitory cortical and hippocampal interneurons. To more directly examine the relative contribution of inhibitory interneurons and excitatory pyramidal cells to SCN1A-derived epilepsy, we first compared the expression of Nav1.1 in inhibitory parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and excitatory neurons from P22 mice using fluorescent immunohistochemistry. In the hippocampus and neocortex, 69% of Nav1.1 immunoreactive neurons were also positive for PV. In contrast, 13% and 5% of Nav1.1 positive cells in the hippocampus and neocortex, respectively, were found to co-localize with excitatory cells identified by CaMK2α immunoreactivity. Next, we reduced the expression of Scn1a in either a subset of interneurons (mainly PV interneurons) or excitatory cells by crossing mice heterozygous for a floxed Scn1a allele to either the Ppp1r2-Cre or EMX1-Cre transgenic lines, respectively. The inactivation of one Scn1a allele in interneurons of the neocortex and hippocampus was sufficient to reduce thresholds to flurothyl- and hyperthermia-induced seizures, whereas thresholds were unaltered following inactivation in excitatory cells. Reduced interneuron Scn1a expression also resulted in the generation of spontaneous seizures. These findings provide direct evidence for an important role of PV interneurons in the pathogenesis of Scn1a-derived epilepsies. PMID:22926190
Bissonette, Gregory B.; Bae, Mihyun H.; Suresh, Tejas; Jaffe, David E.; Powell, Elizabeth M.
Alterations of inhibitory GABAergic neurons are implicated in multiple psychiatric and neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and epilepsy. In particular, interneuron deficits in prefrontal areas, along with presumed decreased inhibition, have been reported in several human patients. The majority of forebrain GABAergic interneurons arise from a single subcortical source before migrating to their final regional destination. Factors that govern the interneuron populations have been identified, demonstrating that a single gene mutation may globally affect forebrain structures or a single area. In particular, mice lacking the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (Plaur) gene have decreased GABAergic interneurons in frontal and parietal, but not caudal, cortical regions. Plaur assists in the activation of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF), and several of the interneuron deficits are correlated with decreased levels of HGF/SF. In some cortical regions, the interneuron deficit can be remediated by endogenous overexpression of HGF/SF. In this study, we demonstrate decreased parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the medial frontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus or basal lateral amygdala in the Plaur null mouse. The Plaur null mouse demonstrates impaired medial frontal cortical function in extinction of cued fear conditioning and the inability to form attentional sets. Endogenous HGF/SF overexpression increased the number of PV-expressing cells in medial frontal cortical areas to levels greater than found in wildtype mice, but did not remediate the behavioral deficits. These data suggest that proper medial frontal cortical function is dependent upon optimum levels of inhibition and that a deficit or excess of interneuron numbers impairs normal cognition. PMID:24211452
Guo, Qingchun; Wang, Daqing; He, Xiaobin; Feng, Qiru; Lin, Rui; Xu, Fuqiang; Fu, Ling; Luo, Minmin
The dorsal striatum integrates inputs from multiple brain areas to coordinate voluntary movements, associative plasticity, and reinforcement learning. Its projection neurons consist of the GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that express dopamine receptor type 1 (D1) or dopamine receptor type 2 (D2). Cholinergic interneurons account for a small portion of striatal neuron populations, but they play important roles in striatal functions by synapsing onto the MSNs and other local interneurons. By combining the modified rabies virus with specific Cre- mouse lines, a recent study mapped the monosynaptic input patterns to MSNs. Because only a small number of extrastriatal neurons were labeled in the prior study, it is important to reexamine the input patterns of MSNs with higher labeling efficiency. Additionally, the whole-brain innervation pattern of cholinergic interneurons remains unknown. Using the rabies virus-based transsynaptic tracing method in this study, we comprehensively charted the brain areas that provide direct inputs to D1-MSNs, D2-MSNs, and cholinergic interneurons in the dorsal striatum. We found that both types of projection neurons and the cholinergic interneurons receive extensive inputs from discrete brain areas in the cortex, thalamus, amygdala, and other subcortical areas, several of which were not reported in the previous study. The MSNs and cholinergic interneurons share largely common inputs from areas outside the striatum. However, innervations within the dorsal striatum represent a significantly larger proportion of total inputs for cholinergic interneurons than for the MSNs. The comprehensive maps of direct inputs to striatal MSNs and cholinergic interneurons shall assist future functional dissection of the striatal circuits.
Cavdar, Safiye; Bay, Hüsniye Hacioğlu; Yildiz, Sercan D; Akakin, Dilek; Sirvanci, Serap; Onat, Filiz
The inhibitory sources in the thalamic nuclei are local interneurons and neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus. Studies of models of absence epilepsy have shown that the seizures are associated with an excess of inhibitory neurotransmission in the thalamus. In the present study, we used light-microscopic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunocytochemistry to quantify the interneurons in the lateral geniculate (LGN), ventral posteromedial (VPM), and ventral posterolateral (VPL) thalamic nuclei, and compared the values from normal Wistar rats and genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). We found that in both Wistar rats and GAERS, the proportion of interneurons was significantly higher in the LGN than in the VPM and VPL. In the LGN of Wistar rats, 16.4% of the neurons were interneurons and in the GAERS, the value was 15.1%. In the VPM, the proportion of interneurons was 4.2% in Wistar and 14.9% in GAERS; in the VPL the values were 3.7% for Wistar and 11.1% for the GAERS. There was no significant difference between Wistar rats and the GAERS regarding the counts of interneurons in the LGN, whereas the VPM and VPL showed significantly higher counts in GAERS. Comparison of the mean areas of both relay cells and interneuronal profiles showed no significant differences between Wistar rats and GAERS. These findings show that in the VPL and the VPM there are relatively more GABAergic interneurons in GAERS than in Wistar rats. This may represent a compensatory response of the thalamocortical circuitry to the absence seizures or may be related to the production of absence seizures.
Graham, Devon L; Durai, Heather H; Garden, Jamie D; Cohen, Evan L; Echevarria, Franklin D; Stanwood, Gregg D
Disruption to dopamine homeostasis during brain development has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Inappropriate expression or activity of GABAergic interneurons are common features of many of these disorders. We discovered a persistent upregulation of GAD67+ and parvalbumin+ neurons within the anterior cingulate cortex of dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice, while other GABAergic interneuron markers were unaffected. Interneuron distribution and number were not altered in the striatum or in the dopamine-poor somatosensory cortex. The changes were already present by postnatal day 14, indicating a developmental etiology. D2eGFP BAC transgenic mice demonstrated the presence of D2 receptor expression within a subset of parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons, suggesting the possibility of a direct cellular mechanism through which D2 receptor stimulation regulates interneuron differentiation or survival. D2 receptor knockout mice also exhibited decreased depressive-like behavior compared with wild-type controls in the tail suspension test. These data indicate that dopamine signaling modulates interneuron number and emotional behavior and that developmental D2 receptor loss or blockade could reveal a potential mechanism for the prodromal basis of neuropsychiatric disorders.
Zhu, Z Q; Armstrong, D L; Hamilton, W J; Grossman, R G
We studied differences in the number and morphology of parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) interneurons in 43 hippocampal specimens from patients with classical Ammon's horn sclerosis (AHS) who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy, as compared with 14 autopsy and non-AHS surgical control specimens. PV-IR neuronal loss in the AHS specimens varied significantly from that expected based on overall AHS-associated pyramidal and granule neuron loss. Most striking was the loss of PV-IR interneurons in CA4 of the AHS specimens, which was 12 times greater than AHS-associated pyramidal neuron loss, and significantly exceeded the PV-IR interneuron loss observed in the other sectors of the hippocampus. In addition, the PV-IR interneurons in the AHS specimens had markedly smaller and less defined cell bodies and shortened and simplified dendritic arbors compared with the PV-IR interneurons in the control specimens. Other differences noted in the AHS specimens included prominent dendritic varicosities; the loss or interruption of a band formed by PV-IR terminals in the dentate gyrus; and the virtual absence of a small, intensely staining PV-IR interneuron with a short, exuberant dendritic arbor that was readily identified in the autopsy specimens. We discuss these findings in relationship to the development of classical AHS and complex partial seizures (CPS).
Santos, Sónia F A; Rebelo, Sandra; Derkach, Victor A; Safronov, Boris V
Substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) is a spinal cord region where most unmyelinated primary afferents terminate and the central nociceptive processing begins. It is formed by several distinct groups of interneurons whose functional properties and synaptic connections are poorly understood, in part, because recordings from synaptically coupled pairs of SG neurons are quite challenging due to a very low probability of finding connected cells. Here, we describe an efficient method for identifying synaptically coupled interneurons in rat spinal cord slices and characterizing their excitatory or inhibitory function. Using tight-seal whole-cell recordings and a cell-attached stimulation technique, we routinely tested about 1500 SG interneurons, classifying 102 of them as monosynaptically connected to neurons in lamina I-III. Surprisingly, the vast majority of SG interneurons (n = 87) were excitatory and glutamatergic, while only 15 neurons were inhibitory. According to their intrinsic firing properties, these 102 SG neurons were also classified as tonic (n = 49), adapting (n = 17) or delayed-firing neurons (n = 36). All but two tonic neurons and all adapting neurons were excitatory interneurons. Of 36 delayed-firing neurons, 23 were excitatory and 13 were inhibitory. We conclude that sensory integration in the intrinsic SG neuronal network is dominated by excitatory interneurons. Such organization of neuronal circuitries in the spinal SG can be important for nociceptive encoding.
Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A; Semyanov, Alexey
The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns.
Le Magueresse, Corentin; Alfonso, Julieta; Khodosevich, Konstantin; Arroyo Martín, Angel A; Bark, Christine; Monyer, Hannah
GABAergic interneurons of the mouse cortex are generated embryonically in the ventral telencephalon. Recent evidence, however, indicated that a subset of cortical cells expressing interneuronal markers originate in the neonatal subventricular zone. This has raised interest in the functional development and incorporation of these postnatally generated cells into cortical circuits. Here we demonstrate that these cells integrate in the cortex, and that they constitute two distinct GABAergic interneuronal classes. Whereas one class reflects the tail end of embryonic interneuron genesis, the other class comprises interneurons that are exclusively generated perinatally and postnatally. The latter constitute a novel subclass of interneurons. They are preferentially located in the deeper layers of the olfactory and orbital cortices, exhibit a unique firing pattern and slow functional maturation. Based on their distinct morphology we termed them "small axonless neurons" and indeed, unlike other cortical neurons, they communicate with their neuronal partners via dendrodendritic synapses. Finally, we provide evidence that the number of small axonless neurons is enhanced by odor enrichment, a further indication that they integrate into neural circuits and participate to olfactory processing.
Neske, Garrett T.; Connors, Barry W.
During cortical network activity, recurrent synaptic excitation among pyramidal neurons is approximately balanced by synaptic inhibition, which is provided by a vast diversity of inhibitory interneurons. The relative contributions of different interneuron subtypes to inhibitory tone during cortical network activity is not well-understood. We previously showed that many of the major interneuron subtypes in mouse barrel cortex are highly active during Up states (Neske et al., 2015); while fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells were the most active interneuron subtype, many non-fast-spiking (NFS), PV-negative interneurons were as active or more active than neighboring pyramidal cells. This suggests that the NFS cells could play a role in maintaining or modulating Up states. Here, using optogenetic techniques, we further dissected the functional roles during Up states of two major NFS, PV-negative interneuron subtypes: somatostatin (SOM)-positive cells and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-positive cells. We found that while pyramidal cell excitability during Up states significantly increased when SOM cells were optogenetically silenced, VIP cells did not influence pyramidal cell excitability either upon optogenetic silencing or activation. VIP cells failed to contribute to Up states despite their ability to inhibit SOM cells strongly. We suggest that the contribution of VIP cells to the excitability of pyramidal cells may vary with cortical state. PMID:27507936
Galván, Emilio J.; Cosgrove, Kathleen E.; Barrionuevo, Germán
The hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) pathway originates from the dentate gyrus granule cells and provides a powerful excitatory synaptic drive to neurons in the dentate gyrus hilus and area CA3. Much of the early work on the MF pathway focused on its electrophysiological properties, and ability to drive CA3 pyramidal cell activity. Over the last ten years, however, a new focus on the synaptic interaction between granule cells with inhibitory interneurons has emerged. These data have revealed an immense heterogeneity of long-term plasticity at MF synapses on various interneuron targets. Interestingly, these studies also indicate that the mechanisms of MF long-term plasticity in some interneuron subtypes may be more similar to pyramidal cells than previously appreciated. In this review, we first define the synapse types at each of the interneuron targets based on the receptors present. We then describe the different forms of long-term plasticity observed, and the mechanisms underlying each form as they are currently understood. Finally we highlight various open questions surrounding MF long-term plasticity in interneurons, focusing specifically on the induction and maintenance of LTP, and what the functional impact of persistent changes in efficacy at MF – interneuron synapses might be on the emergent properties of the inhibitory network dynamics in area CA3. PMID:21093459
Santos, Sónia F A; Rebelo, Sandra; Derkach, Victor A; Safronov, Boris V
Substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) is a spinal cord region where most unmyelinated primary afferents terminate and the central nociceptive processing begins. It is formed by several distinct groups of interneurons whose functional properties and synaptic connections are poorly understood, in part, because recordings from synaptically coupled pairs of SG neurons are quite challenging due to a very low probability of finding connected cells. Here, we describe an efficient method for identifying synaptically coupled interneurons in rat spinal cord slices and characterizing their excitatory or inhibitory function. Using tight-seal whole-cell recordings and a cell-attached stimulation technique, we routinely tested about 1500 SG interneurons, classifying 102 of them as monosynaptically connected to neurons in lamina I–III. Surprisingly, the vast majority of SG interneurons (n = 87) were excitatory and glutamatergic, while only 15 neurons were inhibitory. According to their intrinsic firing properties, these 102 SG neurons were also classified as tonic (n = 49), adapting (n = 17) or delayed-firing neurons (n = 36). All but two tonic neurons and all adapting neurons were excitatory interneurons. Of 36 delayed-firing neurons, 23 were excitatory and 13 were inhibitory. We conclude that sensory integration in the intrinsic SG neuronal network is dominated by excitatory interneurons. Such organization of neuronal circuitries in the spinal SG can be important for nociceptive encoding. PMID:17331995
Fu, Cary; Cawthon, Bryan; Clinkscales, William; Bruce, Adrienne; Winzenburger, Peggy; Ess, Kevin C
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disease with severe neurologic and psychiatric manifestations including epilepsy, developmental delay, and autism. Despite much progress in defining abnormal signaling pathways including the contribution of increased mTORC1 signaling, specific abnormalities that underlie the severe neurologic features in TSC remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that epilepsy and autism in TSC result from abnormalities of γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) interneurons. To test this hypothesis, we generated conditional knockout mice with selective deletion of the Tsc1 gene in GABAergic interneuron progenitor cells. These interneuron-specific Tsc1 conditional knockout (CKO) mice have impaired growth and decreased survival. Cortical and hippocampal GABAergic interneurons of CKO mice are enlarged and show increased mTORC1 signaling. Total numbers of GABAergic cells are reduced in the cortex with differential reduction of specific GABAergic subtypes. Ectopic clusters of cells with increased mTORC1 signaling are also seen suggesting impaired interneuron migration. The functional consequences of these cellular changes are evident in the decreased seizure threshold on exposure to the proconvulsant flurothyl. These findings support an important role for the Tsc1 gene during GABAergic interneuron development, function, and possibly migration.
Booker, Sam A.; Song, Jie; Vida, Imre
GABAergic inhibitory interneurons play a central role within neuronal circuits of the brain. Interneurons comprise a small subset of the neuronal population (10-20%), but show a high level of physiological, morphological, and neurochemical heterogeneity, reflecting their diverse functions. Therefore, investigation of interneurons provides important insights into the organization principles and function of neuronal circuits. This, however, requires an integrated physiological and neuroanatomical approach for the selection and identification of individual interneuron types. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording from acute brain slices of transgenic animals, expressing fluorescent proteins under the promoters of interneuron-specific markers, provides an efficient method to target and electrophysiologically characterize intrinsic and synaptic properties of specific interneuron types. Combined with intracellular dye labeling, this approach can be extended with post-hoc morphological and immunocytochemical analysis, enabling systematic identification of recorded neurons. These methods can be tailored to suit a broad range of scientific questions regarding functional properties of diverse types of cortical neurons. PMID:25350149
Muller, K J; Scott, S A
1. Touch sensory neurones in the leech excite a rapidly conducting interneurone called the S-cell. Although the electrical synaptic connexion between the two cells is monosynaptic by physiological criteria, intracellular staining reveals that the touch cells and the S-cell do not make contact, but instead are linked by a pair of small interneurones. 2. The electrical coupling between touch cells and S-cells rectifies, in that depolarizing current but not hyperpolarizing current passes from the touch cell into the S-cell. The rectifying junction is between the touch cells and coupling interneurones, while the connexion between coupling interneurones and the S-cell passes current in both directions. 3. Selective destruction of the coupling interneurones by intracellular injection of a protease interrupts the disynaptic electrical connexion between touch and S-cells. 4. The touch cell's geometry and membrane properties account for the failure of impulses that are generated in certain portions of the receptive field in the skin to propagate beyond the first branch-points of the touch cell axon within the ganglion. Conduction block at branch-points is used to examine physiologically the spatial distribution of contacts between the touch cell and the coupling interneurones. In addition, it is shown that under natural conditions branch-point failure presynaptically reduces the effectiveness of the electrical synaptic connexions. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 PMID:6267257
Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P.; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Semyanov, Alexey
The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns. PMID:24344272
Orduz, David; Maldonado, Paloma P; Balia, Maddalena; Vélez-Fort, Mateo; de Sars, Vincent; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Emiliani, Valentina; Angulo, Maria Cecilia
NG2 cells, oligodendrocyte progenitors, receive a major synaptic input from interneurons in the developing neocortex. It is presumed that these precursors integrate cortical networks where they act as sensors of neuronal activity. We show that NG2 cells of the developing somatosensory cortex form a transient and structured synaptic network with interneurons that follows its own rules of connectivity. Fast-spiking interneurons, highly connected to NG2 cells, target proximal subcellular domains containing GABAA receptors with γ2 subunits. Conversely, non-fast-spiking interneurons, poorly connected with these progenitors, target distal sites lacking this subunit. In the network, interneuron-NG2 cell connectivity maps exhibit a local spatial arrangement reflecting innervation only by the nearest interneurons. This microcircuit architecture shows a connectivity peak at PN10, coinciding with a switch to massive oligodendrocyte differentiation. Hence, GABAergic innervation of NG2 cells is temporally and spatially regulated from the subcellular to the network level in coordination with the onset of oligodendrogenesis.
Unal, Gunes; Paré, Jean-Francois; Smith, Yoland; Paré, Denis
The present study was undertaken to shed light on the synaptic organization of the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA). The BLA contains multiple types of GABAergic interneurons that are differentially connected with extrinsic afferents and other BLA cells. Previously, it was reported that parvalbumin immunoreactive (PV(+) ) interneurons receive strong excitatory inputs from principal BLA cells but very few cortical inputs, implying a prevalent role in feedback inhibition. However, because prior physiological studies indicate that cortical afferents do trigger feedforward inhibition in principal cells, the present study aimed to determine whether a numerically important subtype of interneurons, expressing calbindin (CB(+) ), receives cortical inputs. Rats received injections of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHAL) in the perirhinal cortex or adjacent temporal neocortex. Light and electron microscopic observations of the relations between cortical inputs and BLA neurons were performed in the lateral (LA) and basolateral (BL) nuclei. Irrespective of the injection site (perirhinal or temporal neocortex) and target nucleus (LA or BL), ~90% of cortical axon terminals formed asymmetric synapses with dendritic spines of principal BLA neurons, while 10% contacted the dendritic shafts of presumed interneurons, half of which were CB(+) . Given the previously reported pattern of CB coexpression among GABAergic interneurons of the BLA, these results suggest that a subset of PV-immunonegative cells that express CB, most likely the somatostatin-positive interneurons, are important mediators of cortically evoked feedforward inhibition in the BLA.
Disruption to dopamine homeostasis during brain development has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Inappropriate expression or activity of GABAergic interneurons are common features of many of these disorders. We discovered a persistent upregulation of GAD67+ and parvalbumin+ neurons within the anterior cingulate cortex of dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice, while other GABAergic interneuron markers were unaffected. Interneuron distribution and number were not altered in the striatum or in the dopamine-poor somatosensory cortex. The changes were already present by postnatal day 14, indicating a developmental etiology. D2eGFP BAC transgenic mice demonstrated the presence of D2 receptor expression within a subset of parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons, suggesting the possibility of a direct cellular mechanism through which D2 receptor stimulation regulates interneuron differentiation or survival. D2 receptor knockout mice also exhibited decreased depressive-like behavior compared with wild-type controls in the tail suspension test. These data indicate that dopamine signaling modulates interneuron number and emotional behavior and that developmental D2 receptor loss or blockade could reveal a potential mechanism for the prodromal basis of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25393953
Berghuis, Paul; Dobszay, Marton B; Wang, Xinyu; Spano, Sabrina; Ledda, Fernanda; Sousa, Kyle M; Schulte, Gunnar; Ernfors, Patrik; Mackie, Ken; Paratcha, Gustavo; Hurd, Yasmin L; Harkany, Tibor
In utero exposure to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the active component from marijuana, induces cognitive deficits enduring into adulthood. Although changes in synaptic structure and plasticity may underlie Delta(9)-THC-induced cognitive impairments, the neuronal basis of Delta(9)-THC-related developmental deficits remains unknown. Using a Boyden chamber assay, we show that agonist stimulation of the CB(1) cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)R) on cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons induces chemotaxis that is additive with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced interneuron migration. We find that Src kinase-dependent TrkB receptor transactivation mediates endocannabinoid (eCB)-induced chemotaxis in the absence of BDNF. Simultaneously, eCBs suppress the BDNF-dependent morphogenesis of interneurons, and this suppression is abolished by Src kinase inhibition in vitro. Because sustained prenatal Delta(9)-THC stimulation of CB(1)Rs selectively increases the density of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons in the hippocampus in vivo, we conclude that prenatal CB(1)R activity governs proper interneuron placement and integration during corticogenesis. Moreover, eCBs use TrkB receptor-dependent signaling pathways to regulate subtype-selective interneuron migration and specification.
Canetta, Sarah; Bolkan, Scott; Padilla-Coreano, Nancy; Song, LouJin; Sahn, Ryan; Harrison, Neil; Gordon, Joshua A.; Brown, Alan; Kellendonk, Christoph
Summary Abnormalities in prefrontal GABAergic transmission, particularly in fast-spiking interneurons that express parvalbumin (PV), are hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and depression. While primarily histological abnormalities have been observed in patients and in animal models of psychiatric disease, evidence for abnormalities in functional neurotransmission at the level of specific interneuron populations has been lacking in animal models and is difficult to establish in human patients. Using an animal model of a psychiatric disease risk factor, prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA), we found reduced functional GABAergic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult MIA offspring. Decreased transmission was selective for interneurons expressing PV, and was not observed in calretinin-expressing neurons. This deficit in PV function in MIA offspring was associated with increased anxiety-like behavior and impairments in attentional set shifting, but did not affect working memory. Furthermore, cell-type specific optogenetic inhibition of mPFC PV interneurons was sufficient to impair attentional set shifting and enhance anxiety levels. Finally, we found that in vivo mPFC gamma oscillations, which are supported by PV interneuron function, were linearly correlated with the degree of anxiety displayed in adult mice, and that this correlation was disrupted in MIA offspring. These results demonstrate a selective functional vulnerability of PV interneurons to maternal immune activation, leading to affective and cognitive symptoms that have high relevance for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:26830140
Orduz, David; Maldonado, Paloma P; Balia, Maddalena; Vélez-Fort, Mateo; de Sars, Vincent; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Emiliani, Valentina; Angulo, Maria Cecilia
NG2 cells, oligodendrocyte progenitors, receive a major synaptic input from interneurons in the developing neocortex. It is presumed that these precursors integrate cortical networks where they act as sensors of neuronal activity. We show that NG2 cells of the developing somatosensory cortex form a transient and structured synaptic network with interneurons that follows its own rules of connectivity. Fast-spiking interneurons, highly connected to NG2 cells, target proximal subcellular domains containing GABAA receptors with γ2 subunits. Conversely, non-fast-spiking interneurons, poorly connected with these progenitors, target distal sites lacking this subunit. In the network, interneuron-NG2 cell connectivity maps exhibit a local spatial arrangement reflecting innervation only by the nearest interneurons. This microcircuit architecture shows a connectivity peak at PN10, coinciding with a switch to massive oligodendrocyte differentiation. Hence, GABAergic innervation of NG2 cells is temporally and spatially regulated from the subcellular to the network level in coordination with the onset of oligodendrogenesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06953.001 PMID:25902404
Sizemore, Rachel J; Reynolds, John N J; Oorschot, Dorothy E
Knowledge of the innervation of interneurons within the striatum is critical to determining their role in the functioning of the striatal network. To this end, the synaptic innervation of a distal dendrite of a rat striatal cholinergic interneuron was quantified for the first time. These synaptic data were compared to three other dendrites from rat striatal interneurons and to published data from dendrites in the mammalian cerebral cortex. To label the cholinergic interneurons and their distal dendrites, a male Wistar rat was perfused and the striatum was double-immunolabelled with an antibody to choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and an antibody to m2 muscarinic receptor. After processing for transmission electron microscopy, a cholinergic interneuron was located and an m2-labelled distal dendrite identified by tracing it through serial ultrathin sections to this double-immunolabelled soma. Two interneuronal distal dendrites in the same tissue, and another from a second rat, were used for comparison. The widths and lengths of the four distal dendrites, the total number and type of synapses, and the number of synapses per mum for each distal dendrite were measured. Symmetric synapses were the most common type on all four dendrites. There were 0.73 synapses per mum on the distal dendrite of the identified striatal cholinergic interneuron. Two other interneuronal dendrites that were positive for the m2 muscarinic receptor antibody showed similar synaptic densities of 0.62 and 0.83 synapses per microm of distal dendrite, respectively. On a third unlabelled interneuronal distal dendrite located in the lateral striatum, there were 2.17 synapses per microm. This interneuron was thought to be a parvalbumin interneuron rather than a calretinin interneuron, which would more likely be medially located. These data suggest that the number of synapses per microm on the distal dendrite of the cholinergic interneuron, and possibly two other cholinergic interneurons, is three times
Heckscher, Ellie S; Zarin, Aref Arzan; Faumont, Serge; Clark, Matthew Q; Manning, Laurina; Fushiki, Akira; Schneider-Mizell, Casey M; Fetter, Richard D; Truman, James W; Zwart, Maarten F; Landgraf, Matthias; Cardona, Albert; Lockery, Shawn R; Doe, Chris Q
Bilaterally symmetric motor patterns--those in which left-right pairs of muscles contract synchronously and with equal amplitude (such as breathing, smiling, whisking, and locomotion)--are widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the underlying neural circuits. We performed a thermogenetic screen to identify neurons required for bilaterally symmetric locomotion in Drosophila larvae and identified the evolutionarily conserved Even-skipped(+) interneurons (Eve/Evx). Activation or ablation of Eve(+) interneurons disrupted bilaterally symmetric muscle contraction amplitude, without affecting the timing of motor output. Eve(+) interneurons are not rhythmically active and thus function independently of the locomotor CPG. GCaMP6 calcium imaging of Eve(+) interneurons in freely moving larvae showed left-right asymmetric activation that correlated with larval behavior. TEM reconstruction of Eve(+) interneuron inputs and outputs showed that the Eve(+) interneurons are at the core of a sensorimotor circuit capable of detecting and modifying body wall muscle contraction.
Shetty, A K; Turner, D A
Aging leads to alterations in the function and plasticity of hippocampal circuitry in addition to behavioral changes. To identify critical alterations in the substrate for inhibitory circuitry as a function of aging, we evaluated the numbers of hippocampal interneurons that were positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase and those that expressed calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin) in young adult (4-5 months old) and aged (23-25 months old) male Fischer 344 rats. Both the overall interneuron population and specific subpopulations of interneurons demonstrated a commensurate decline in numbers throughout the hippocampus with aging. Interneurons positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase were significantly depleted in the stratum radiatum of CA1, the strata oriens, radiatum and pyramidale of CA3, the dentate molecular layer, and the dentate hilus. Parvalbumin interneurons showed significant reductions in the strata oriens and pyramidale of CA1, the stratum pyramidale of CA3, and the dentate hilus. The reductions in calbindin interneurons were more pronounced than other calcium-binding protein-positive interneurons and were highly significant in the strata oriens and radiatum of both CA1 and CA3 subfields and in the dentate hilus. Calretinin interneurons were decreased significantly in the strata oriens and radiatum of CA3, in the dentate granule cell and molecular layers, and in the dentate hilus. However, the relative ratio of parvalbumin-, calbindin-, and calretinin-positive interneurons compared with glutamic acid decarboxylase-positive interneurons remained constant with aging, suggesting actual loss of interneurons expressing calcium-binding proteins with age. This loss contrasts with the reported preservation of pyramidal neurons with aging in the hippocampus. Functional decreases in inhibitory drive throughout the hippocampus may occur due to this loss, particularly alterations in the processing of feed-forward information through the
Faust, Thomas W; Assous, Maxime; Shah, Fulva; Tepper, James M; Koós, Tibor
Previous work suggests that neostriatal cholinergic interneurons control the activity of several classes of GABAergic interneurons through fast nicotinic receptor-mediated synaptic inputs. Although indirect evidence has suggested the existence of several classes of interneurons controlled by this mechanism, only one such cell type, the neuropeptide-Y-expressing neurogliaform neuron, has been identified to date. Here we tested the hypothesis that in addition to the neurogliaform neurons that elicit slow GABAergic inhibitory responses, another interneuron type exists in the striatum that receives strong nicotinic cholinergic input and elicits conventional fast GABAergic synaptic responses in projection neurons. We obtained in vitro slice recordings from double transgenic mice in which Channelrhodopsin-2 was natively expressed in cholinergic neurons and a population of serotonin receptor-3a-Cre-expressing GABAergic interneurons were visualized with tdTomato. We show that among the targeted GABAergic interneurons a novel type of interneuron, termed the fast-adapting interneuron, can be identified that is distinct from previously known interneurons based on immunocytochemical and electrophysiological criteria. We show using optogenetic activation of cholinergic inputs that fast-adapting interneurons receive a powerful supra-threshold nicotinic cholinergic input in vitro. Moreover, fast adapting neurons are densely connected to projection neurons and elicit fast, GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic current responses. The nicotinic receptor-mediated activation of fast-adapting interneurons may constitute an important mechanism through which cholinergic interneurons control the activity of projection neurons and perhaps the plasticity of their synaptic inputs when animals encounter reinforcing or otherwise salient stimuli.
Chittajallu, Ramesh; Kunze, Albrecht; Mangin, Jean-Marie; Gallo, Vittorio
The dentate gyrus (DG) undergoes continued reorganization and lamination during early postnatal development. Interneurons with anatomically identified synaptic contacts migrate from the outer to the inner regions of the molecular layer (ML) of the DG. By using the 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP)-enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse, we were able to target and physiologically characterize Dlx2(+) developing ML interneurons. We investigated whether synapses on migrating ML interneurons were functional and defined properties of synaptic inputs onto interneurons that were located in the outer ML (OML) or inner ML (IML). Consistent with ongoing maturation, IML interneurons displayed lower input resistances and more hyperpolarized resting membrane potentials than OML interneurons. Both OML and IML interneurons received a direct excitatory monosynaptic input from the entorhinal cortex via the perforant paths, but this input was differentially sensitive to activation of presynaptic group II and III metabotropic glutamate receptors. Furthermore, only IML interneurons also received significant synaptic input from the CA3/hilar region, especially under conditions of experimentally induced disinhibition. These changes are attributed to a significant reorganization of dendritic fields. GABA(A) receptor-mediated innervation of OML and IML interneurons also displayed significant differences in miniature IPSC amplitude, frequency, and decay kinetics. Finally, cell-attached recordings indicated that GABA(A) receptor activation was depolarizing in OML interneurons but predominantly shunting in IML interneurons. Our data provide evidence that developing ML interneurons receive functional glutamatergic and GABAergic inputs and undergo significant changes in synaptic integration during migration from the OML to the IML.
Marking, Sarah; Krosnowski, Kurt; Ogura, Tatsuya; Lin, Weihong
Sensory information processing in the olfactory bulb (OB) relies on diverse populations of bulbar interneurons. In rodents, the accessory OB (AOB) is divided into two bulbar regions, the anterior (aAOB) and posterior (pAOB), which differ substantially in their circuitry connections and associated behaviors. We previously identified and characterized a large number of morphologically diverse cholinergic interneurons in the main OB (MOB) using transgenic mice to visualize the cell bodies of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons and immunolabeling (Krosnowski et al., 2012)). However, whether there are cholinergic neurons in the AOB is controversial and there is no detailed characterization of such neurons. Using the same line of ChAT(bacterial artificial chromosome, BAC)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic mice, we investigated cholinergic neurons in the AOB. We found significant differences in the number and location of GFP-expressing (GFP+), putative cholinergic interneurons between the aAOB and pAOB. The highest numbers of GFP+ interneurons were found in the aAOB glomerular layer (aGL) and pAOB mitral/tufted cell layer (pMCL). We also noted a high density of GFP+ interneurons encircling the border region of the pMCL. Interestingly, a small subset of glomeruli in the middle of the GL receives strong MCL GFP+ nerve processes. These local putative cholinergic-innervated glomeruli are situated just outside the aGL, setting the boundary between the pGL and aGL. Many but not all GFP+ neurons in the AOB were weakly labeled with antibodies against ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). We further determined if these GFP+ interneurons differ from other previously characterized interneuron populations in the AOB and found that AOB GFP+ interneurons express neither GABAergic nor dopaminergic markers and most also do not express the glutamatergic marker. Similar to the cholinergic interneurons of the MOB, some AOB GFP+ interneurons
Eto, Risa; Abe, Manami; Kimoto, Hiroki; Imaoka, Eri; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Jiro; Araki, Tsutomu
We investigated the postnatal alterations of neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive neurons, parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive interneurons, and neurotrophic factors in the mouse striatum and frontal cortex using immunohistochemistry. NeuN, PV, nNOS, nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) immunoreactivity were measured in 1-, 2-, 4- and 8-week-old mice. Total number of NeuN-positive neurons was unchanged in the mouse striatum and frontal cortex from 1 up to 8 weeks of age. In contrast, a significant decrease in the number of PV-positive interneurons was observed in the striatum and frontal cortex of 1-, 2- and 4-week-old mice. Furthermore, a significant increase of nNOS-positive interneurons was found in the striatum and frontal cortex of 1- and/or 2-week-old mice. NGF-positive neurons were unchanged in the mouse striatum from 1 up to 8 weeks of age. In the frontal cortex, a significant increase in the number of NGF-positive neurons was observed only in 1-week-old mice. In contrast, a significant increase in the number of NGF-positive glia 1 cells was found in the striatum and frontal cortex of 4-week-old mice. Our double-labeled immunostaining showed that nNOS immunoreactivity was not found in PV-immunopositive interneurons. Furthermore, BDNF immunoreactivity was observed in both nNOS-positive and PV-positive interneurons in the striatum of 1- or 2-week-old mice. These results show that the maturation of nNOS-immunopositive interneurons precedes the maturation of PV-immunopositive interneurons in the striatum and frontal cortex during postnatal development. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the expression of BDNF may play some role in the maturation of interneurons in the striatum and frontal cortex during postnatal development. Moreover, our findings suggest that the expression of NGF in glia cells may play some role in the maturation of glial cells and PV-positive interneurons
Huang, Longwen; Ung, Kevin; Garcia, Isabella; Quast, Kathleen B.; Cordiner, Keith; Saggau, Peter
Elucidating patterns of functional synaptic connectivity and deciphering mechanisms of how plasticity influences such connectivity is essential toward understanding brain function. In the mouse olfactory bulb (OB), principal neurons (mitral/tufted cells) make reciprocal connections with local inhibitory interneurons, including granule cells (GCs) and external plexiform layer (EPL) interneurons. Our current understanding of the functional connectivity between these cell types, as well as their experience-dependent plasticity, remains incomplete. By combining acousto-optic deflector-based scanning microscopy and genetically targeted expression of Channelrhodopsin-2, we mapped connections in a cell-type-specific manner between mitral cells (MCs) and GCs or between MCs and EPL interneurons. We found that EPL interneurons form broad patterns of connectivity with MCs, whereas GCs make more restricted connections with MCs. Using an olfactory associative learning paradigm, we found that these circuits displayed differential features of experience-dependent plasticity. Whereas reciprocal connectivity between MCs and EPL interneurons was nonplastic, the connections between GCs and MCs were dynamic and adaptive. Interestingly, experience-dependent plasticity of GCs occurred only in certain stages of neuronal maturation. We show that different interneuron subtypes form distinct connectivity maps and modes of experience-dependent plasticity in the OB, which may reflect their unique functional roles in information processing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Deducing how specific interneuron subtypes contribute to normal circuit function requires understanding the dynamics of their connections. In the olfactory bulb (OB), diverse interneuron subtypes vastly outnumber principal excitatory cells. By combining acousto-optic deflector-based scanning microscopy, electrophysiology, and genetically targeted expression of Channelrhodopsin-2, we mapped the functional connectivity between mitral
Long, Lili; Xiao, Bo; Feng, Li; Yi, Fang; Li, Guoliang; Li, Shuyu; Mutasem, M Abuhamed; Chen, Si; Bi, Fangfang; Li, Yi
In this study, we performed immunohistochemistry for somatostatin (SS), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and parvalbumin (PV) in LiCl-pilocarpine-treated rats to observe quantitative changes and axonal sprouting of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus, especially in the sclerotic hippocampus. Fluoro-Jade B (FJB) was performed to detect the specific degeneration of GABAergic interneurons. Compared with age-matched control rats, there were fewer SS/NPY/PV-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons in the hilus of the sclerotic hippocampus in pilocarpine-treated rats; hilar dentritic inhibitory interneurons were most vulnerable. FJB stain revealed degeneration was evident at 2 months after status epilepticus. Some SS-IR and NPY-IR interneurons were also stained for FJB, but there was no evidence of degeneration of PV-IR interneurons. Axonal sprouting of GABAergic interneurons was present in the hippocampus of epileptic rats, and a dramatic increase of SS-IR fibers was observed throughout all layers of CA1 region in the sclerotic hippocampus. These results confirm selective loss and degeneration of a specific subset of GABAergic interneurons in specific subfields of the hippocampus. Axonal sprouting of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, especially numerous increase of SS-IR neutrophils within CA1 region of the sclerotic hippocampus, may constitute the aberrant inhibitory circum and play a significant role in the generation and compensation of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Wenner, P; O'Donovan, M J
Studies on the development of synaptic specificity, embryonic activity, and neuronal specification in the spinal cord have all been limited by the absence of a functionally identified interneuron class (defined by its unique set of connections). Here, we identify an interneuron population in the embryonic chick spinal cord that appears to be the avian equivalent of the mammalian Renshaw cell (R-interneurons). These cells receive monosynaptic nicotinic, cholinergic input from motoneuron recurrent collaterals. They make predominately GABAergic connections back onto motoneurons and to other R-interneurons but project rarely to other spinal interneurons. The similarity between the connections of the developing R-interneuron, shortly after circuit formation, and the mature mammalian Renshaw cell raises the possibility that R-interneuronal connections are formed precisely from the onset. Using a newly developed optical approach, we identified the location of R-interneurons in a column, dorsomedial to the motor nucleus. Functional characterization of the R-interneuron population provides the basis for analyses that have so far only been possible for motoneurons.
Papp, E C; Hajos, N; Acsády, L; Freund, T F
Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive interneurons are known to form three anatomically and neurochemically well-characterized neuron populations in the hippocampus. Two of these establish synaptic contacts selectively with other GABAergic cells (interneuron-selective cells), whereas the third type innervates pyramidal cell bodies and proximal dendrites like a conventional basket cell. Our aim was to examine which of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing interneuron populations are among the targets of GABAergic septohippocampal and serotonergic raphe-hippocampal pathways. Anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin combined with double immunocytochemistry for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was used at the light and electron microscopic levels. Our results show that both interneuron-selective cells and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing basket cells receive synaptic input from the medial septum and median raphe nucleus. The GABAergic component of the septohippocampal pathway establishes multiple contacts on both cell types. In the case of the raphe-hippocampal projection, single or double contacts were more frequent on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-positive interneuron selective cells (76%), whereas multiple contacts predominated on basket cells (83%). The extrinsic GABAergic innervation of interneuron-selective cells in the hippocampus indicates a complex interaction among GABAergic systems, which might ensure the timing and rhythmic synchronization of inhibitory processes in the hippocampus. On the other hand, our results suggest that the serotonergic effect on perisomatic inhibition is exerted via vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-containing basket cells that are functionally distinct from their parvalbumin-positive relatives, which appear to escape control of serotonergic as well as local interneuron-selective cells.
Konstantoudaki, X; Chalkiadaki, K; Tivodar, S; Karagogeos, D; Sidiropoulou, K
Interneurons are inhibitory neurons, which protect neural tissue from excessive excitation. They are interconnected with glutamatergic pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex and regulate their function. Particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), interneurons have been strongly implicated in regulating pathological states which display deficits in the PFC. The aim of this study is to investigate the adaptations in the adult glutamatergic system, when defects in interneuron development do not allow adequate numbers of interneurons to reach the cerebral cortex. To this end, we used a mouse model that displays ~50% fewer cortical interneurons due to the Rac1 protein loss from Nkx2.1/Cre expressing cells (Rac1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice), to examine how the developmental loss of interneurons may affect basal synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and neuronal morphology in the adult PFC. Despite the decrease in the number of interneurons, basal synaptic transmission, as examined by recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) from layer II networks, is not altered in the PFC of Rac1 cKO mice. However, there is decreased paired-pulse ratio (PPR) and decreased long-term potentiation (LTP), in response to tetanic stimulation, in the layer II PFC synapses of Rac1 cKO mice. Furthermore, expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subunits is decreased and dendritic morphology is altered, changes that could underlie the decrease in LTP in the Rac1 cKO mice. Finally, we find that treating Rac1 cKO mice with diazepam in early postnatal life can reverse changes in dendritic morphology observed in non-treated Rac1 cKO mice. Therefore, our data show that disruption in GABAergic inhibition alters glutamatergic function in the adult PFC, an effect that could be reversed by enhancement of GABAergic function during an early postnatal period.
Precise spike synchrony has been widely reported in the central nervous system, but its functional role in encoding, processing, and transmitting information is yet unresolved. Of particular interest is firing synchrony between inhibitory cortical interneurons, thought to drive various cortical rhythms such as gamma oscillations, the hallmark of cognitive states. Precise synchrony can arise between two interneurons connected electrically, through gap junctions, chemically, through fast inhibitory synapses, or dually, through both types of connections, but the properties of synchrony generated by these different modes of connectivity have never been compared in the same data set. In the present study we recorded in vitro from 152 homotypic pairs of two major subtypes of mouse neocortical interneurons: parvalbumin-containing, fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and somatostatin-containing (SOM) interneurons. We tested firing synchrony when the two neurons were driven to fire by long, depolarizing current steps and used a novel synchrony index to quantify the strength of synchrony, its temporal precision, and its dependence on firing rate. We found that SOM-SOM synchrony, driven solely by electrical coupling, was less precise than FS-FS synchrony, driven by inhibitory or dual coupling. Unlike SOM-SOM synchrony, FS-FS synchrony was strongly firing rate dependent and was not evident at the prototypical 40-Hz gamma frequency. Computer simulations reproduced these differences in synchrony without assuming any differences in intrinsic properties, suggesting that the mode of coupling is more important than the interneuron subtype. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms and properties of interneuron synchrony and point out important caveats in current models of cortical oscillations. PMID:25972585
Lasztóczi, Bálint; Tukker, John J; Somogyi, Peter; Klausberger, Thomas
Hippocampal oscillations reflect coordinated neuronal activity on many timescales. Distinct types of GABAergic interneuron participate in the coordination of pyramidal cells over different oscillatory cycle phases. In the CA3 area, which generates sharp waves and gamma oscillations, the contribution of identified GABAergic neurons remains to be defined. We have examined the firing of a family of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons during network oscillations in urethane-anesthetized rats and compared them with firing of CA3 pyramidal cells. The position of the terminals of individual visualized interneurons was highly diverse, selective, and often spatially coaligned with either the entorhinal or the associational inputs to area CA3. The spike timing in relation to theta and gamma oscillations and sharp waves was correlated with the innervated pyramidal cell domain. Basket and dendritic-layer-innervating interneurons receive entorhinal and associational inputs and preferentially fire on the ascending theta phase, when pyramidal cell assemblies emerge. Perforant-path-associated cells, driven by recurrent collaterals of pyramidal cells fire on theta troughs, when established pyramidal cell assemblies are most active. In the CA3 area, slow and fast gamma oscillations occurred on opposite theta oscillation phases. Perforant-path-associated and some COUP-TFII-positive interneurons are strongly coupled to both fast and slow gamma oscillations, but basket and dendritic-layer-innervating cells are weakly coupled to fast gamma oscillations only. During sharp waves, different interneuron types are activated, inhibited, or remain unaffected. We suggest that specialization in pyramidal cell domain and glutamatergic input-specific operations, reflected in the position of GABAergic terminals, is the evolutionary drive underlying the diversity of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons.
Fujiwara, Nana; Cave, John W
The mammalian main olfactory bulb (OB) has a large population of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons that contains several subtypes defined by the co-expression other neurotransmitters and calcium binding proteins. The three most commonly studied OB interneuron subtypes co-express either Calretinin, Calbindin, or Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th). Combinations of transcription factors used to specify the phenotype of progenitors are referred to as transcription factor codes, and the current understanding of transcription factor codes that specify OB inhibitory neuron phenotypes are largely based on studies in mice. The conservation of these transcription factor codes in the human OB, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether transcription factor codes in OB interneurons are conserved between mice and humans. This study compared the co-expression of Foxp2, Meis2, Pax6, and Sp8 transcription factors with Calretinin, Calbindin, or Th in human and mouse OB interneurons. This analysis found strong conservation of Calretinin co-expression with Sp8 and Meis2 as well as Th co-expression with Pax6 and Meis2. This analysis also showed that selective Foxp2 co-expression with Calbindin was conserved between mice and humans, which suggests Foxp2 is a novel determinant of the OB Calbindin interneuron phenotype. Together, the findings in this study provide insight into the conservation of transcription codes for OB interneuron phenotypes between humans and mice, as well as reveal some important differences between the species. This advance in our understanding of transcription factor codes in OB interneurons provides an important complement to the codes that have been established for other regions within the mammalian central nervous system, such as the cortex and spinal cord.
Botterill, J J; Nogovitsyn, N; Caruncho, H J; Kalynchuk, L E
The vulnerability and plasticity of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons is a topic of broad interest and debate in the field of epilepsy. In this experiment, we used the electrical kindling model of epilepsy to determine whether seizures that originate in different brain regions have differential effects on hippocampal interneuron subpopulations. Long-Evans rats received 99 electrical stimulations of the hippocampus, amygdala, or caudate nucleus, followed by sacrifice and immunohistochemical or western blot analyses. We analyzed markers of dendritic (somatostatin), perisomatic (parvalbumin), and interneuron-selective (calretinin) inhibition, as well as an overall indicator (GAD67) of interneuron distribution across all major hippocampal subfields. Our results indicate that kindling produces selective effects on the number and morphology of different functional classes of GABAergic interneurons. In particular, limbic kindling appears to enhance dendritic inhibition, indicated by a greater number of somatostatin-immunoreactive (-ir) cells in the CA1 pyramidal layer and robust morphological sprouting in the dentate gyrus. We also found a reduction in the number of interneuron-selective calretinin-ir cells in the dentate gyrus of hippocampal-kindled rats, which suggests a possible reduction of synchronized dendritic inhibition. In contrast, perisomatic inhibition indicated by parvalbumin immunoreactivity appears to be largely resilient to the effects of kindling. Finally, we found a significant induction in the number of GAD67-cells in caudate-kindled rats in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subfields. Taken together, our results demonstrate that kindling has subfield-selective effects on the different functional classes of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:389-406, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fujiwara, Nana; Cave, John W.
The mammalian main olfactory bulb (OB) has a large population of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons that contains several subtypes defined by the co-expression other neurotransmitters and calcium binding proteins. The three most commonly studied OB interneuron subtypes co-express either Calretinin, Calbindin, or Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th). Combinations of transcription factors used to specify the phenotype of progenitors are referred to as transcription factor codes, and the current understanding of transcription factor codes that specify OB inhibitory neuron phenotypes are largely based on studies in mice. The conservation of these transcription factor codes in the human OB, however, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to establish whether transcription factor codes in OB interneurons are conserved between mice and humans. This study compared the co-expression of Foxp2, Meis2, Pax6, and Sp8 transcription factors with Calretinin, Calbindin, or Th in human and mouse OB interneurons. This analysis found strong conservation of Calretinin co-expression with Sp8 and Meis2 as well as Th co-expression with Pax6 and Meis2. This analysis also showed that selective Foxp2 co-expression with Calbindin was conserved between mice and humans, which suggests Foxp2 is a novel determinant of the OB Calbindin interneuron phenotype. Together, the findings in this study provide insight into the conservation of transcription codes for OB interneuron phenotypes between humans and mice, as well as reveal some important differences between the species. This advance in our understanding of transcription factor codes in OB interneurons provides an important complement to the codes that have been established for other regions within the mammalian central nervous system, such as the cortex and spinal cord. PMID:27489533
Tillakaratne, Niranjala J K; Duru, Paul; Fujino, Hidemi; Zhong, Hui; Xiao, Mei Si; Edgerton, V Reggie; Roy, Roland R
By using c-fos as an activity-dependent marker, we identified the cholinergic interneurons around the central canal and lumbar interneurons throughout the gray matter that were activated after a 30-min bout of quadrupedal treadmill stepping at a 0° or 25° incline in adult rats. Increased loading (elevated treadmill incline) imposed during treadmill stepping activated more cholinergic interneurons in the proximity of the central canal, i.e., central canal cluster cells and partition neurons. Since cholinergic central canal cells are thought to modulate motoneuron excitability, these data suggest that increased load during stepping may increase motoneuronal activity through activating more cholinergic central canal cells. We identified the muscle-specific motoneurons and afferent terminals in the spinal cord by injecting cholera toxin subunit B in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles. The number of interneurons in lumbar segments L4 (tibialis anterior) and L5 (soleus) was higher in both groups that stepped on the treadmill compared with control and was highest in rats that stepped at a 25° incline. In a majority of laminae, the distribution of total and muscle-specific activated interneurons was highest in the 25° incline group and lowest in the control group for both muscles. These data could reflect increased peripheral (proprioceptive) input as well as supraspinal drive associated with stepping and demonstrate the differences in 1) the activation of cholinergic interneurons near the central canal and 2) the laminar and segmental location of interneurons throughout the gray matter that play a role in generating stepping under different loading conditions in adult rats.
Hu, Hang; Agmon, Ariel
Precise spike synchrony has been widely reported in the central nervous system, but its functional role in encoding, processing, and transmitting information is yet unresolved. Of particular interest is firing synchrony between inhibitory cortical interneurons, thought to drive various cortical rhythms such as gamma oscillations, the hallmark of cognitive states. Precise synchrony can arise between two interneurons connected electrically, through gap junctions, chemically, through fast inhibitory synapses, or dually, through both types of connections, but the properties of synchrony generated by these different modes of connectivity have never been compared in the same data set. In the present study we recorded in vitro from 152 homotypic pairs of two major subtypes of mouse neocortical interneurons: parvalbumin-containing, fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and somatostatin-containing (SOM) interneurons. We tested firing synchrony when the two neurons were driven to fire by long, depolarizing current steps and used a novel synchrony index to quantify the strength of synchrony, its temporal precision, and its dependence on firing rate. We found that SOM-SOM synchrony, driven solely by electrical coupling, was less precise than FS-FS synchrony, driven by inhibitory or dual coupling. Unlike SOM-SOM synchrony, FS-FS synchrony was strongly firing rate dependent and was not evident at the prototypical 40-Hz gamma frequency. Computer simulations reproduced these differences in synchrony without assuming any differences in intrinsic properties, suggesting that the mode of coupling is more important than the interneuron subtype. Our results provide novel insights into the mechanisms and properties of interneuron synchrony and point out important caveats in current models of cortical oscillations.
Maurer, Andrew P; Cowen, Stephen L; Burke, Sara N; Barnes, Carol A; McNaughton, Bruce L
Although hippocampal interneurons typically do not show discrete regions of elevated firing in an environment, such as seen in pyramidal cell place fields, they do exhibit significant spatial modulation (McNaughton et al., 1983a). Strong monosynaptic coupling between pyramidal neurons and nearby interneurons in the CA1 stratum pyramidale has been strongly implicated on the basis of significant, short-latency peaks in cross-correlogram plots (Csicsvari et al., 1998). Furthermore, interneurons receiving a putative monosynaptic connection from a simultaneously recorded pyramidal cell appear to inherit the spatial modulation of the latter (Marshall et al., 2002). Buzsaki and colleagues hypothesize that interneurons may also adopt the firing phase dynamics of their afferent place cells, which show a phase shift relative to the hippocampal theta rhythm as a rat passes through the place field ("phase precession"). This study confirms and extends the previous reports by showing that interneurons in the dorsal and middle hippocampus with putative monosynaptic connections with place cells recorded on the same tetrode share other properties with their pyramidal cell afferents, including the spatial scale of the place field of pyramidal cell, a characteristic of the septotemporal level of the hippocampus from which the cells are recorded, and the rate of phase precession, which is slower in middle regions. Furthermore, variations in pyramidal cell place field scale within each septotemporal level attributable to task variations are similarly associated with variations in interneuron place field scale. The available data strongly suggest that spatial selectivity of CA1 stratum pyramidale interneurons is inherited from a small cluster of local pyramidal cells and is not a consequence of spatially selective synaptic input from CA3 or other sources.
Lasztóczi, Bálint; Tukker, John J.; Somogyi, Peter; Klausberger, Thomas
Hippocampal oscillations reflect coordinated neuronal activity on many timescales. Distinct types of GABAergic interneuron participate in the coordination of pyramidal cells over different oscillatory cycle phases. In the CA3 area, which generates sharp waves and gamma oscillations, the contribution of identified GABAergic neurons remains to be defined. We have examined the firing of a family of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons during network oscillations in urethane-anesthetized rats and compared them with firing of CA3 pyramidal cells. The position of the terminals of individual visualized interneurons was highly diverse, selective, and often spatially coaligned with either the entorhinal or the associational inputs to area CA3. The spike timing in relation to theta and gamma oscillations and sharp waves was correlated with the innervated pyramidal cell domain. Basket and dendritic-layer-innervating interneurons receive entorhinal and associational inputs and preferentially fire on the ascending theta phase, when pyramidal cell assemblies emerge. Perforant-path-associated cells, driven by recurrent collaterals of pyramidal cells fire on theta troughs, when established pyramidal cell assemblies are most active. In the CA3 area, slow and fast gamma oscillations occurred on opposite theta oscillation phases. Perforant-path-associated and some COUP-TFII-positive interneurons are strongly coupled to both fast and slow gamma oscillations, but basket and dendritic-layer-innervating cells are weakly coupled to fast gamma oscillations only. During sharp waves, different interneuron types are activated, inhibited, or remain unaffected. We suggest that specialization in pyramidal cell domain and glutamatergic input-specific operations, reflected in the position of GABAergic terminals, is the evolutionary drive underlying the diversity of cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons. PMID:22159120
Steinecke, André; Gampe, Christin; Nitzsche, Falk; Bolz, Jürgen
Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk gene for a spectrum of major mental disorders. It has been shown to regulate radial migration as well as dendritic arborization during neurodevelopment and corticogenesis. In a previous study we demonstrated through in vitro experiments that DISC1 also controls the tangential migration of cortical interneurons originating from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE). Here we first show that DISC1 is necessary for the proper tangential migration of cortical interneurons in the intact brain. Expression of EGFP under the Lhx6 promotor allowed us to analyze exclusively interneurons transfected in the MGE after in utero electroporation. After 3 days in utero, DISC1 deficient interneurons displayed prolonged leading processes and, compared to control, fewer neurons reached the cortex. Time-lapse video microscopy of cortical feeder-layers revealed a decreased migration velocity due to a reduction of soma translocations. Immunostainings indicated that DISC1 is co-localized with F-actin in the growth cone-like structure of the leading process. DISC1 knockdown reduced F-actin levels whereas the overall actin level was not altered. Moreover, DISC1 knockdown also decreased levels of phosphorylated Girdin, which cross-links F-actin, as well as the Girdin-activator pAkt. In contrast, using time-lapse video microscopy of fluorescence-tagged tubulin and EB3 in fibroblasts, we found no effects on microtubule polymerization when DISC1 was reduced. However, DISC1 affected the acetylation of microtubules in the leading processes of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. Together, our results provide a mechanism how DISC1 might contribute to interneuron migration thereby explaining the reduced number of specific classes of cortical interneurons in some DISC1 mouse models. PMID:25071449
Chadwick, Angus; van Rossum, Mark CW; Nolan, Matthew F
Encoding of behavioral episodes as spike sequences during hippocampal theta oscillations provides a neural substrate for computations on events extended across time and space. However, the mechanisms underlying the numerous and diverse experimentally observed properties of theta sequences remain poorly understood. Here we account for theta sequences using a novel model constrained by the septo-hippocampal circuitry. We show that when spontaneously active interneurons integrate spatial signals and theta frequency pacemaker inputs, they generate phase precessing action potentials that can coordinate theta sequences in place cell populations. We reveal novel constraints on sequence generation, predict cellular properties and neural dynamics that characterize sequence compression, identify circuit organization principles for high capacity sequential representation, and show that theta sequences can be used as substrates for association of conditioned stimuli with recent and upcoming events. Our results suggest mechanisms for flexible sequence compression that are suited to associative learning across an animal’s lifespan. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20349.001 PMID:27929374
Kosillo, Polina; Zhang, Yan-Feng; Threlfell, Sarah; Cragg, Stephanie J.
Corticostriatal regulation of striatal dopamine (DA) transmission has long been postulated, but ionotropic glutamate receptors have not been localized directly to DA axons. Striatal cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) are emerging as major players in striatal function, and can govern DA transmission by activating nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) on DA axons. Cortical inputs to ChIs have historically been perceived as sparse, but recent evidence indicates that they strongly activate ChIs. We explored whether activation of M1/M2 corticostriatal inputs can consequently gate DA transmission, via ChIs. We reveal that optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-expressing corticostriatal axons can drive striatal DA release detected with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and requires activation of nAChRs on DA axons and AMPA receptors on ChIs that promote short-latency action potentials. By contrast, DA release driven by optogenetic activation of intralaminar thalamostriatal inputs involves additional activation of NMDA receptors on ChIs and action potential generation over longer timescales. Therefore, cortical and thalamic glutamate inputs can modulate DA transmission by regulating ChIs as gatekeepers, through ionotropic glutamate receptors. The different use of AMPA and NMDA receptors by cortical versus thalamic inputs might lead to distinct input integration strategies by ChIs and distinct modulation of the function of DA and striatum. PMID:27566978
Barnett, William; Anquez, Martin; Harris, Torrey; Cymbalyuk, Gennady
The network controlling heartbeat in the medicinal leech contains leech heart interneurons (HNs). We modeled them under specific pharmacological conditions. The Ca^2+ currents were blocked by Co^2+. The K^+ currents, apart from the non-inactivating current, IK2, were blocked by 4AP. The hyperpolarization-activated current, Ih, was blocked by Cs^+. Under these conditions, epileptiform bursting characterized by long interburst intervals (IBI) has been shown. We considered three distinct cases. Model 1 included IK2, Ih, and the fast Na^+ current, INa. Model 2 was characterized by INa, IK2, and the persistent Na^+ current, INaP. Model 3 consisted of INa, IK2, Ih, and INaP. We also investigated the bi-stability of bursting and silence as the leak conductance, gleak, was varied. We showed that in 1 and 3, model HNs demonstrated bi-stability of silence and bursting. We analyzed how IBI and burst duration are controlled by the manipulation of Ih and INaP. In 1, as V1/2 of Ih decreased, IBI grew towards infinity one over the square root of the parameter difference. In 2, we showed that as gNaP decreased from 6.156 nS to 6.155 nS, IBI grew in accordance with the one over square root law. The system underwent a saddle-node bifurcation just below 6.155 nS. Supported by NSF PHY-0750456.
Losonczy, Attila; Biró, Agota A; Nusser, Zoltan
Cortical information processing requires an orchestrated interaction between a large number of pyramidal cells and albeit fewer, but highly diverse GABAergic interneurons (INs). The diversity of INs is thought to reflect functional and structural specializations evolved to control distinct network operations. Consequently, specific cortical functions may be selectively modified by altering the input-output relationship of unique IN populations. Here, we report that persistently active cannabinoid receptors, the site of action of endocannabinoids, and the psychostimulants marijuana and hashish, switch off the output (mute) of a unique class of hippocampal INs. In paired recordings between cholecystokinin-immunopositive, mossy fiber-associated INs, and their target CA3 pyramidal cells, no postsynaptic currents could be evoked with single presynaptic action potentials or with repetitive stimulations at frequencies <25 Hz. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists converted these "mute" synapses into high-fidelity ones. The selective muting of specific GABAergic INs, achieved by persistent presynaptic cannabinoid receptor activation, provides a state-dependent switch in cortical networks.
Chen, Jen-Yung; Chauvette, Sylvain; Skorheim, Steven; Timofeev, Igor; Bazhenov, Maxim
The signature of slow-wave sleep in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is large-amplitude fluctuation of the field potential, which reflects synchronous alternation of activity and silence across cortical neurons. While initiation of the active cortical states during sleep slow oscillation has been intensively studied, the biological mechanisms which drive the network transition from an active state to silence remain poorly understood. In the current study, using a combination of in vivo electrophysiology and thalamocortical network simulation, we explored the impact of intrinsic and synaptic inhibition on state transition during sleep slow oscillation. We found that in normal physiological conditions, synaptic inhibition controls the duration and the synchrony of active state termination. The decline of interneuron-mediated inhibition led to asynchronous downward transition across the cortical network and broke the regular slow oscillation pattern. Furthermore, in both in vivo experiment and computational modelling, we revealed that when the level of synaptic inhibition was reduced significantly, it led to a recovery of synchronized oscillations in the form of seizure-like bursting activity. In this condition, the fast active state termination was mediated by intrinsic hyperpolarizing conductances. Our study highlights the significance of both intrinsic and synaptic inhibition in manipulating sleep slow rhythms. PMID:22641778
Dougherty, K D; Milner, T A
Septal cholinergic neurons may affect hippocampal memory encoding and retrieval by differentially targeting parvalbumin (PARV)-containing basket cells and neuropeptide Y (NPY) interneurons. Thus, the cellular associations of cholinergic efferents, identified by the low-affinity, p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), with interneurons containing either PARV or NPY in the hilus of the rat dentate gyrus were examined in single sections using dual labeling immunoelectron microscopy. Most profiles immunoreactive (IR) for PARV and NPY were perikaryal and dendritic and found within the infragranular and central hilar regions, respectively, whereas most profiles with p75(NTR)-labeling were unmyelinated axons and axon terminals. Although PARV-labeled profiles were more numerous, p75(NTR)-labeled axons and terminals contacted few PARV-IR profiles compared to NPY-labeled profiles (2% of 561 for PARV vs 12% of 433 for NPY). Moreover, structures targeted by p75(NTR)-IR axon terminals varied depending on the presence of PARV or NPY immunoreactivity. p75(NTR)-IR terminals primarily contacted PARV-IR dendrites (87%) compared to somata (13%); however, they contacted more NPY-IR somata (57%) than dendrites (43%). p75(NTR)-labeled terminals formed exclusively symmetric (inhibitory-type) synapses with PARV-IR somata and dendrites; however, they formed mostly symmetric but also asymmetric (excitatory-type) synapses with NPY-IR somata and dendrites. These results suggest that septal cholinergic efferents in the dentate gyrus: (1) preferentially innervate NPY-containing interneurons compared to PARV-containing basket cells; and (2) may provide a more powerful (i.e., somatic contacts), yet functionally diverse (i.e., asymmetric and symmetric synapses), modulation of NPY-containing interneurons. Moreover, they provide evidence that neurochemical subsets of hippocampal interneurons can be distinguished by afferent input.
Smith, Karen Müller; Maragnoli, Maria Elisabetta; Phull, Pooja M; Tran, Kathy May; Choubey, Lisha; Vaccarino, Flora M
Fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and their receptors (Fgfr) are expressed in the developing and adult CNS. Previous studies demonstrated a decrease in cortical interneurons and locomotor hyperactivity in mice with a conditional Fgfr1 deletion generated in radial glial cells during midneurogenesis (Fgfr1(f/f);hGfapCre+). Here, we report earlier and more extensive inactivation of Fgfr1 in neuroepithelial cells of the CNS (Fgfr1(f/f);NesCre+). Similar to findings in Fgfr1(f/f);hGfapCre+ mice, parvalbumin positive (PV+) cortical interneurons are also decreased in the neocortex of Fgfr1(f/f);NesCre+ mice when compared to control littermates (Fgfr1(f/f)). Fgfr1(f/f);NesCre+ embryos do not differ from controls in the initial specification of GABAergic cells in the ganglionic eminence (GE) as assessed by in situ hybridization for Dlx2, Mash1 and Nkx2. Equal numbers of GABAergic neuron precursors genetically labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were observed at P0 in Fgfr1(f/f);hGfapCre+;Gad1-GFP mutant mice. However, fewer GFP+ and GFP+/PV+ interneurons were observed in these mutants at adulthood, indicating that a decrease in cortical interneuron markers is occurring postnatally. Fgfr1 is expressed in cortical astrocytes in the postnatal brain. To test whether the astrocytes of mice lacking Fgfr1 are less capable of supporting interneurons, we co-cultured wild type Gad1-GFP+ interneuron precursors isolated from the medial GE (MGE) with astrocytes from Fgfr1(f/f) control or Fgfr1(f/f);hGfapCre+ mice. Interneurons grown on Fgfr1 deficient astrocytes had small soma size and fewer neurites per cell, but no differences in cell survival. Decreased soma size of Gad67 immunopositive interneurons was also observed in the cortex of adult Fgfr1(f/f);NesCre+ mice. Our data indicate that astrocytes from Fgfr1 mutants are impaired in supporting the maturation of cortical GABAergic neurons in the postnatal period. This model may elucidate potential mechanisms of impaired PV
Katona, Gergely; Kaszás, Attila; Turi, Gergely F.; Hájos, Norbert; Tamás, Gábor; Vizi, E. Sylvester; Rózsa, Balázs
Inhibitory interneurons are considered to be the controlling units of neural networks, despite their sparse number and unique morphological characteristics compared with excitatory pyramidal cells. Although pyramidal cell dendrites have been shown to display local regenerative events—dendritic spikes (dSpikes)—evoked by artificially patterned stimulation of synaptic inputs, no such studies exist for interneurons or for spontaneous events. In addition, imaging techniques have yet to attain the required spatial and temporal resolution for the detection of spontaneously occurring events that trigger dSpikes. Here we describe a high-resolution 3D two-photon laser scanning method (Roller Coaster Scanning) capable of imaging long dendritic segments resolving individual spines and inputs with a temporal resolution of a few milliseconds. By using this technique, we found that local, NMDA receptor-dependent dSpikes can be observed in hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons during spontaneous network activities in vitro. These NMDA spikes appear when approximately 10 spatially clustered inputs arrive synchronously and trigger supralinear integration in dynamic interaction zones. In contrast to the one-to-one relationship between computational subunits and dendritic branches described in pyramidal cells, here we show that interneurons have relatively small (∼14 μm) sliding interaction zones. Our data suggest a unique principle as to how interneurons integrate synaptic information by local dSpikes. PMID:21224413
Helm, Jessica; Akgul, Gulcan; Wollmuth, Lonnie P
The input, processing, and output characteristics of inhibitory interneurons help shape information flow through layers 2/3 of the visual cortex. Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons modulate and synchronize the gain and dynamic responsiveness of pyramidal neurons. To define the diversity of PV interneurons in layers 2/3 of the developing visual cortex, we characterized their passive and active membrane properties. Using Ward's and k-means multidimensional clustering, we identified four PV interneuron subgroups. The most notable difference between the subgroups was their firing patterns in response to moderate stimuli just above rheobase. Two subgroups showed regular and continuous firing at all stimulus intensities above rheobase. The difference between these two continuously firing subgroups was that one fired at much higher frequencies and transitioned into this high-frequency firing rate at or near rheobase. The two other subgroups showed irregular, stuttering firing patterns just above rheobase. Both of these subgroups typically transitioned to regular and continuous firing at intense stimulations, but one of these subgroups, the strongly stuttering subgroup, showed irregular firing across a wider range of stimulus intensities and firing frequencies. The four subgroups also differed in excitatory synaptic input, providing independent support for the classification of subgroups. The subgroups of PV interneurons identified here would respond differently to inputs of varying intensity and frequency, generating diverse patterns of PV inhibition in the developing neural circuit.
Kataoka, Yuko; Kalanithi, Paul S A; Grantz, Heidi; Schwartz, Michael L; Saper, Clifford; Leckman, James F; Vaccarino, Flora M
Corticobasal ganglia neuronal ensembles bring automatic motor skills into voluntary control and integrate them into ongoing motor behavior. A 5% decrease in caudate (Cd) nucleus volume is the most consistent structural finding in the brain of patients with Tourette syndrome (TS), but the cellular abnormalities that underlie this decrease in volume are unclear. In this study the density of different types of interneurons and medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum was assessed in the postmortem brains of 5 TS subjects as compared with normal controls (NC) by unbiased stereological analyses. TS patients demonstrated a 50%-60% decrease of both parvalbumin (PV)+ and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)+ cholinergic interneurons in the Cd and the putamen (Pt). Cholinergic interneurons were decreased in TS patients in the associative and sensorimotor regions but not in the limbic regions of the striatum, such that the normal gradient in density of cholinergic cells (highest in associative regions, intermediate in sensorimotor and lowest in limbic regions) was abolished. No significant difference was present in the densities of medium-sized calretinin (CR)+ interneurons, MSNs, and total neurons. The selective deficit of PV+ and cholinergic striatal interneurons in TS subjects may result in an impaired cortico/thalamic control of striatal neuron firing in TS.
Carlén, M; Meletis, K; Siegle, J H; Cardin, J A; Futai, K; Vierling-Claassen, D; Rühlmann, C; Jones, S R; Deisseroth, K; Sheng, M; Moore, C I; Tsai, L-H
Synchronous recruitment of fast-spiking (FS) parvalbumin (PV) interneurons generates gamma oscillations, rhythms that emerge during performance of cognitive tasks. Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists alters gamma rhythms, and can induce cognitive as well as psychosis-like symptoms in humans. The disruption of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling specifically in FS PV interneurons is therefore hypothesized to give rise to neural network dysfunction that could underlie these symptoms. To address the connection between NMDAR activity, FS PV interneurons, gamma oscillations and behavior, we generated mice lacking NMDAR neurotransmission only in PV cells (PV-Cre/NR1f/f mice). Here, we show that mutant mice exhibit enhanced baseline cortical gamma rhythms, impaired gamma rhythm induction after optogenetic drive of PV interneurons and reduced sensitivity to the effects of NMDAR antagonists on gamma oscillations and stereotypies. Mutant mice show largely normal behaviors except for selective cognitive impairments, including deficits in habituation, working memory and associative learning. Our results provide evidence for the critical role of NMDAR in PV interneurons for expression of normal gamma rhythms and specific cognitive behaviors.
Guirado, Ramon; Perez-Rando, Marta; Sanchez-Matarredona, David; Castrén, Eero; Nacher, Juan
Novel hypotheses suggest that antidepressants, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, induce neuronal structural plasticity, resembling that of the juvenile brain, although the underlying mechanisms of this reopening of the critical periods still remain unclear. However, recent studies suggest that inhibitory networks play an important role in this structural plasticity induced by fluoxetine. For this reason we have analysed the effects of a chronic fluoxetine treatment in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of transgenic mice displaying eGFP labelled interneurons. We have found an increase in the expression of molecules related to critical period plasticity, such as the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), GAD67/65 and synaptophysin, as well as a reduction in the number of parvalbumin expressing interneurons surrounded by perineuronal nets. We have also described a trend towards decrease in the perisomatic inhibitory puncta on pyramidal neurons in the mPFC and an increase in the density of inhibitory puncta on eGFP interneurons. Finally, we have found that chronic fluoxetine treatment affects the structure of interneurons in the mPFC, increasing their dendritic spine density. The present study provides evidence indicating that fluoxetine promotes structural changes in the inhibitory neurons of the adult cerebral cortex, probably through alterations in plasticity-related molecules of neurons or the extracellular matrix surrounding them, which are present in interneurons and are known to be crucial for the development of the critical periods of plasticity in the juvenile brain.
Araki, T; Kato, H; Liu, X H; Kogure, K; Kato, K; Itoyama, Y
We investigated postischemic changes of non-pyramidal neurons in the gerbil hippocampus 1 h - 7 days after 10 min of cerebral ischemia, with parvalbumin and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-immunohistochemistry. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus were unaffected up to 24 h after ischemia. A slight reduction of the immunoreactivity in neuronal processes was seen in the hippocampal CA1 sector 48 h after ischemia. Seven days after ischemia, a marked loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons was observed in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 sectors. Furthermore, reduced staining in the dentate granular and molecular layers was observed. MAP2-immunoreactive pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus were unchanged up to 48 h after ischemia. Seven days after ischemia, a severe loss of MAP2 immunoreactivity was found in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 neurons and dentate hilar neurons. However, scattered CA1 neurons, most likely interneurons, preserved MAP2 immunoreactivity. The results demonstrate that transient cerebral ischemia can cause a loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus. Furthermore, some interneurons seem to lose parvalbumin synthesis. Although dentate granule cells are resistant to ischemia, considerable reductions of afferent input was suggested by parvalbumin staining.
Katona, I; Acsády, L; Freund, T F
Two characteristic interneuron types in the hippocampus, the so-called hilar perforant path-associated cells in the dentate gyrus and stratum oriens/lacunosum-moleculare neurons in the CA3 and CA1 regions, were suggested to be involved in feedback circuits. In the present study, interneurons identical to these cell populations were visualized by somatostatin-immunostaining, then reconstructed, and processed for double-immunostaining and electron microscopy to establish their postsynaptic target selectivity. A combination of somatostatin-immunostaining with immunostaining for GABA or other interneuron markers revealed a quasi-random termination pattern. The vast majority of postsynaptic targets were GABA-negative dendritic shafts and spines of principal cells (76%), whereas other target elements contained GABA (8%). All of the examined neurochemically defined interneuron types (parvalbumin-, calretinin-, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-, cholecystokinin-, substance P receptor-immunoreactive neurons) received innervation from somatostatin-positive boutons. Recent anatomical and electrophysiological data showed that the main excitatory inputs of somatostatin-positive interneurons originate from local principal cells. The present data revealed a massive GABAergic innervation of distal dendrites of local principal cells by these feedback driven neurons, which are proposed to control the efficacy and plasticity of entorhinal synaptic input as a function of local principal cell activity and synchrony.
Berghuis, Paul; Dobszay, Marton B; Ibanez, Raquel Martin; Ernfors, Patrik; Harkany, Tibor
The amazing morphological and electrophysiological diversity of cortical GABAergic interneurons subserves the broad diversity of processes these cells modulate in neuronal networks. Until recently, interneuron development and functions have been extensively studied in heterogeneous in vitro and in vivo systems containing both excitatory and inhibitory components. However, mechanisms of interneuron specification during development, key signaling mechanisms controlling the establishment of particular inhibitory neuron subsets, and the spatial and temporal regulation of their integration in neuronal microcircuits remain poorly understood. Selective isolation of particular interneuron subsets may significantly extend our knowledge on the scenario of neurochemical and electrophysiological specification of developing interneurons, identification of signaling cues directing their axon growth, and principles of their anterograde and retrograde synaptic communication with other cell types. Here, we show that selective isolation of perisomatic inhibitory cells containing either parvalbumin or cholecystokinin reveals major differences in the temporal dynamics of their functional differentiation, and their dependence on target-derived signals like brain-derived neurotrophic factor and endocannabinoids. In addition, we discuss therapeutic prospects of modulating increased excitatory output in the hippocampus and subthalamic nucleus by re-adjusting the inhibitory control of principal cells.
Doherty, J; Dingledine, R
Regulation of synaptic transmission by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) was examined at two excitatory inputs to interneurons with cell bodies at the granule cell-hilus border in hippocampal slices taken from neonatal rats. Subgroup-selective mGluR agonists altered the reliability, or probability of transmitter release, of evoked minimal excitatory synaptic inputs and decreased the amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) evoked with conventional stimulation. The group II-selective agonist, (2S,1R',2R',3R')-2-(2, 3-dicarboxylcyclopropyl) glycine (DCG-IV; 1 microM), reversibly depressed the reliability of EPSCs evoked by stimulation of the dentate granule cell layer. However, DCG-IV had no significant effect on EPSCs evoked by CA3 stimulation in the majority (82%) of hilar border interneurons. Both the group III-selective agonist, -(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (-AP4; 3 microM), and the group I-selective agonist, (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG; 20 microM) reversibly depressed synaptic input to interneurons from both CA3 and the granule cell layer. We conclude that multiple pharmacologically distinct mGluRs presynaptically regulate synaptic transmission at two excitatory inputs to hilar border interneurons. Further, the degree of mGluR-meditated depression of excitatory drive is greater at synapses from dentate granule cells onto interneurons than at synapses from CA3 pyramidal cells.
Katona, Gergely; Kaszás, Attila; Turi, Gergely F; Hájos, Norbert; Tamás, Gábor; Vizi, E Sylvester; Rózsa, Balázs
Inhibitory interneurons are considered to be the controlling units of neural networks, despite their sparse number and unique morphological characteristics compared with excitatory pyramidal cells. Although pyramidal cell dendrites have been shown to display local regenerative events--dendritic spikes (dSpikes)--evoked by artificially patterned stimulation of synaptic inputs, no such studies exist for interneurons or for spontaneous events. In addition, imaging techniques have yet to attain the required spatial and temporal resolution for the detection of spontaneously occurring events that trigger dSpikes. Here we describe a high-resolution 3D two-photon laser scanning method (Roller Coaster Scanning) capable of imaging long dendritic segments resolving individual spines and inputs with a temporal resolution of a few milliseconds. By using this technique, we found that local, NMDA receptor-dependent dSpikes can be observed in hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons during spontaneous network activities in vitro. These NMDA spikes appear when approximately 10 spatially clustered inputs arrive synchronously and trigger supralinear integration in dynamic interaction zones. In contrast to the one-to-one relationship between computational subunits and dendritic branches described in pyramidal cells, here we show that interneurons have relatively small (∼14 μm) sliding interaction zones. Our data suggest a unique principle as to how interneurons integrate synaptic information by local dSpikes.
Kim, Jennifer A.; Connors, Barry W.
Temperature has multiple effects on neurons, yet little is known about the effects of high temperature on the physiology of mammalian central neurons. Hyperthermia can influence behavior and cause febrile seizures. We studied the effects of acute hyperthermia on the immature hippocampus in vitro by recording from pyramidal neurons and inhibitory oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons (identified by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in the GIN mouse line). Warming to 41°C caused depolarization, spontaneous action potentials, reduced input resistance and membrane time constant, and increased spontaneous synaptic activity of most pyramidal cells and O-LM interneurons. Pyramidal neurons of area CA3 were more strongly excited by hyperthermia than those of area CA1. About 90% of O-LM interneurons in both CA1 and CA3 increased their firing rates at hyperthermic temperatures; interneurons in CA3 fired faster than those in CA1 on average. Blockade of fast synaptic transmission did not abolish the effect of hyperthermia on neuronal excitability. Our results suggest that hyperthermia increases hippocampal excitability, particularly in seizure-prone area CA3, by altering the intrinsic membrane properties of pyramidal cells and interneurons. PMID:22783167
Dehorter, Nathalie; Guigoni, Celine; Lopez, Catherine; Hirsch, June; Eusebio, Alexandre; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Hammond, Constance
Striatal GABAergic microcircuits modulate cortical responses and movement execution in part by controlling the activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs). How this is altered by chronic dopamine depletion, such as in Parkinson's disease, is not presently understood. We now report that, in dopamine-depleted slices of the striatum, MSNs generate giant spontaneous postsynaptic GABAergic currents (single or in bursts at 60 Hz) interspersed with silent episodes, rather than the continuous, low-frequency GABAergic drive (5 Hz) observed in control MSNs. This shift was observed in one-half of the MSN population, including both "D(1)-negative" and "D(1)-positive" MSNs. Single GABA and NMDA channel recordings revealed that the resting membrane potential and reversal potential of GABA were similar in control and dopamine-depleted MSNs, and depolarizing, but not excitatory, actions of GABA were observed. Glutamatergic and cholinergic antagonists did not block the GABAergic oscillations, suggesting that they were generated by GABAergic neurons. In support of this, cell-attached recordings revealed that a subpopulation of intrastriatal GABAergic interneurons generated bursts of spikes in dopamine-deprived conditions. This subpopulation included low-threshold spike interneurons but not fast-spiking interneurons, cholinergic interneurons, or MSNs. Therefore, a population of local GABAergic interneurons shifts from tonic to oscillatory mode when dopamine deprived and gives rise to spontaneous repetitive giant GABAergic currents in one-half the MSNs. We suggest that this may in turn alter integration of cortical signals by MSNs.
Helm, Jessica; Akgul, Gulcan
The input, processing, and output characteristics of inhibitory interneurons help shape information flow through layers 2/3 of the visual cortex. Parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons modulate and synchronize the gain and dynamic responsiveness of pyramidal neurons. To define the diversity of PV interneurons in layers 2/3 of the developing visual cortex, we characterized their passive and active membrane properties. Using Ward's and k-means multidimensional clustering, we identified four PV interneuron subgroups. The most notable difference between the subgroups was their firing patterns in response to moderate stimuli just above rheobase. Two subgroups showed regular and continuous firing at all stimulus intensities above rheobase. The difference between these two continuously firing subgroups was that one fired at much higher frequencies and transitioned into this high-frequency firing rate at or near rheobase. The two other subgroups showed irregular, stuttering firing patterns just above rheobase. Both of these subgroups typically transitioned to regular and continuous firing at intense stimulations, but one of these subgroups, the strongly stuttering subgroup, showed irregular firing across a wider range of stimulus intensities and firing frequencies. The four subgroups also differed in excitatory synaptic input, providing independent support for the classification of subgroups. The subgroups of PV interneurons identified here would respond differently to inputs of varying intensity and frequency, generating diverse patterns of PV inhibition in the developing neural circuit. PMID:23274311
Litwin-Kumar, Ashok; Rosenbaum, Robert; Doiron, Brent
Recent anatomical and functional characterization of cortical inhibitory interneurons has highlighted the diverse computations supported by different subtypes of interneurons. However, most theoretical models of cortex do not feature multiple classes of interneurons and rather assume a single homogeneous population. We study the dynamics of recurrent excitatory-inhibitory model cortical networks with parvalbumin (PV)-, somatostatin (SOM)-, and vasointestinal peptide-expressing (VIP) interneurons, with connectivity properties motivated by experimental recordings from mouse primary visual cortex. Our theory describes conditions under which the activity of such networks is stable and how perturbations of distinct neuronal subtypes recruit changes in activity through recurrent synaptic projections. We apply these conclusions to study the roles of each interneuron subtype in disinhibition, surround suppression, and subtractive or divisive modulation of orientation tuning curves. Our calculations and simulations determine the architectural and stimulus tuning conditions under which cortical activity consistent with experiment is possible. They also lead to novel predictions concerning connectivity and network dynamics that can be tested via optogenetic manipulations. Our work demonstrates that recurrent inhibitory dynamics must be taken into account to fully understand many properties of cortical dynamics observed in experiments.
Rosenbaum, Robert; Doiron, Brent
Recent anatomical and functional characterization of cortical inhibitory interneurons has highlighted the diverse computations supported by different subtypes of interneurons. However, most theoretical models of cortex do not feature multiple classes of interneurons and rather assume a single homogeneous population. We study the dynamics of recurrent excitatory-inhibitory model cortical networks with parvalbumin (PV)-, somatostatin (SOM)-, and vasointestinal peptide-expressing (VIP) interneurons, with connectivity properties motivated by experimental recordings from mouse primary visual cortex. Our theory describes conditions under which the activity of such networks is stable and how perturbations of distinct neuronal subtypes recruit changes in activity through recurrent synaptic projections. We apply these conclusions to study the roles of each interneuron subtype in disinhibition, surround suppression, and subtractive or divisive modulation of orientation tuning curves. Our calculations and simulations determine the architectural and stimulus tuning conditions under which cortical activity consistent with experiment is possible. They also lead to novel predictions concerning connectivity and network dynamics that can be tested via optogenetic manipulations. Our work demonstrates that recurrent inhibitory dynamics must be taken into account to fully understand many properties of cortical dynamics observed in experiments. PMID:26740531
Azim, Eiman; Jabaudon, Denis; Fame, Ryann; Macklis, Jeffrey D.
Summary The extraordinary neuronal diversity of the central nervous system emerges largely from controlled spatial and temporal segregation of cell type-specific molecular regulators. Here, we report that the transcription factor SOX6 controls the molecular segregation of dorsal (pallial) from ventral (subpallial) telencephalic progenitors, and the differentiation of cortical interneurons, regulating forebrain progenitor and interneuron heterogeneity. During corticogenesis in mice, SOX6 and highly related SOX5 expression is largely mutually exclusive in pallial and subpallial progenitors, respectively, and remains mutually exclusive in a reverse pattern in postmitotic neuronal progeny. Loss of SOX6 from pallial progenitors causes their inappropriate expression of normally subpallium-restricted developmental controls, conferring mixed dorsal-ventral identity. In postmitotic cortical interneurons, loss of SOX6 dramatically disrupts the differentiation and diversity of cortical interneuron subtypes, analogous to SOX5 control over cortical projection neuron development. These data reveal SOX6 as a novel transcription factor regulator of both progenitor and cortical interneuron diversity during neocortical development. PMID:19657336
Ladas, Thomas P.; Chiang, Chia-Chu; Gonzalez-Reyes, Luis E.; Nowak, Theodore; Durand, Dominique M.
Low frequency electrical stimulation (LFS) can reduce neural excitability and suppress seizures in animals and patients with epilepsy. However the therapeutic outcome could benefit from the determination of the cell types involved in seizure suppression. We used optogenetic techniques to investigate the role of interneurons in LFS (1Hz) in the epileptogenic hippocampus. Optical low frequency stimulation (oLFS) was first used to activate the cation channel channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in the Thy1-ChR2 transgenic mouse that expresses ChR2 in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons. We found that oLFS could effectively reduce epileptiform activity in the hippocampus through the activation of GAD-expressing hippocampal interneurons. This was confirmed using the VGAT-ChR2 transgenic mouse, allowing for selective optical activation of only GABA interneurons. Activating hippocampal interneurons through oLFS was found to cause entrainment of neural activity similar to electrical stimulation, but through a GABAA-mediated mechanism. These results confirm the robustness of the LFS paradigm and indicate that GABA interneurons play an unexpected role of shaping inter-ictal activity to decrease neural excitability in the hippocampus. PMID:25863022
Kim, Tae-Gon; Yao, Ruiqin; Monnell, Travis; Cho, Jun-Hyeong; Vasudevan, Anju; Koh, Alice; Peeyush, Kumar T; Moon, Minho; Datta, Debkanya; Bolshakov, Vadim Y; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Chung, Sangmi
GABAergic interneurons regulate cortical neural networks by providing inhibitory inputs, and their malfunction, resulting in failure to intricately regulate neural circuit balance, is implicated in brain diseases such as Schizophrenia, Autism, and Epilepsy. During early development, GABAergic interneuron progenitors arise from the ventral telencephalic area such as medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) by the actions of secreted signaling molecules from nearby organizers, and migrate to their target sites where they form local synaptic connections. In this study, using combinatorial and temporal modulation of developmentally relevant dorsoventral and rostrocaudal signaling pathways (SHH, Wnt, and FGF8), we efficiently generated MGE cells from multiple human pluripotent stem cells. Most importantly, modulation of FGF8/FGF19 signaling efficiently directed MGE versus CGE differentiation. Human MGE cells spontaneously differentiated into Lhx6-expressing GABAergic interneurons and showed migratory properties. These human MGE-derived neurons generated GABA, fired action potentials, and displayed robust GABAergic postsynaptic activity. Transplantation into rodent brains results in well-contained neural grafts enriched with GABAergic interneurons that migrate in the host and mature to express somatostatin or parvalbumin. Thus, we propose that signaling modulation recapitulating normal developmental patterns efficiently generate human GABAergic interneurons. This strategy represents a novel tool in regenerative medicine, developmental studies, disease modeling, bioassay, and drug screening.
Guirado, Ramon; Perez-Rando, Marta; Sanchez-Matarredona, David; Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Liberia, Teresa; Rovira-Esteban, Laura; Varea, Emilio; Crespo, Carlos; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Nacher, Juan
Excitatory neurons undergo dendritic spine remodeling in response to different stimuli. However, there is scarce information about this type of plasticity in interneurons. The polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is a good candidate to mediate this plasticity as it participates in neuronal remodeling and is expressed by some mature cortical interneurons, which have reduced dendritic arborization, spine density, and synaptic input. To study the connectivity of the dendritic spines of interneurons and the influence of PSA-NCAM on their dynamics, we have analyzed these structures in a subpopulation of fluorescent spiny interneurons in the hippocampus of glutamic acid decarboxylase-enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic mice. Our results show that these spines receive excitatory synapses. The depletion of PSA in vivo using the enzyme Endo-Neuraminidase-N (Endo-N) increases spine density when analyzed 2 days after, but decreases it 7 days after. The dendritic spine turnover was also analyzed in real time using organotypic hippocampal cultures: 24 h after the addition of EndoN, we observed an increase in the apparition rate of spines. These results indicate that dendritic spines are important structures in the control of the synaptic input of hippocampal interneurons and suggest that PSA-NCAM is relevant in the regulation of their morphology and connectivity.
Carlén, M; Meletis, K; Siegle, J H; Cardin, J A; Futai, K; Vierling-Claassen, D; Rühlmann, C; Jones, S R; Deisseroth, K; Sheng, M; Moore, C I; Tsai, L-H
Synchronous recruitment of fast-spiking (FS) parvalbumin (PV) interneurons generates gamma oscillations, rhythms that emerge during performance of cognitive tasks. Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists alters gamma rhythms, and can induce cognitive as well as psychosis-like symptoms in humans. The disruption of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling specifically in FS PV interneurons is therefore hypothesized to give rise to neural network dysfunction that could underlie these symptoms. To address the connection between NMDAR activity, FS PV interneurons, gamma oscillations and behavior, we generated mice lacking NMDAR neurotransmission only in PV cells (PV-Cre/NR1f/f mice). Here, we show that mutant mice exhibit enhanced baseline cortical gamma rhythms, impaired gamma rhythm induction after optogenetic drive of PV interneurons and reduced sensitivity to the effects of NMDAR antagonists on gamma oscillations and stereotypies. Mutant mice show largely normal behaviors except for selective cognitive impairments, including deficits in habituation, working memory and associative learning. Our results provide evidence for the critical role of NMDAR in PV interneurons for expression of normal gamma rhythms and specific cognitive behaviors. PMID:21468034
Banke, Tue G; McBain, Chris J
In hippocampus, the net flow of excitability is controlled by inhibitory input provided by the many populations of local circuit inhibitory interneurons. In principal cells, GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic input undergoes a highly coordinated shift from depolarizing early in life to a more conventional hyperpolarizing inhibition on maturation. This switch in inhibitory input polarity is controlled by the developmental regulation of two chloride cotransporters (NKCC1 and KCC2) that results in a net shift from high to low intracellular Cl(-). Whether inhibitory input onto inhibitory interneurons demonstrates a similar developmental shift in intracellular Cl(-) is unexplored. Using the gramicidin perforated-patch configuration, we recorded from CA3 hippocampal stratum lucidum interneurons and pyramidal cells to monitor inhibitory input across a broad developmental range. GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic input onto stratum lucidum inhibitory interneurons was shunting in nature across the entire developmental age range tested, as resting membrane potential and the IPSC reversal potential remained within a few millivolts (1-4 mV) between postnatal day 5 (P5) and P31. Furthermore, sensitivity to block of the two chloride cotransporters KCC2 and NKCC1 did not differ across the same age range, suggesting that their relative expression is fixed across development. In contrast, pyramidal cell synaptic inhibition demonstrated the well described switch from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing over the same age range. Thus, in contrast to principal cells, inhibitory synaptic input onto CA3 interneurons remains shunting throughout development.
Kim, Jennifer A; Connors, Barry W
Temperature has multiple effects on neurons, yet little is known about the effects of high temperature on the physiology of mammalian central neurons. Hyperthermia can influence behavior and cause febrile seizures. We studied the effects of acute hyperthermia on the immature hippocampus in vitro by recording from pyramidal neurons and inhibitory oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons (identified by green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in the GIN mouse line). Warming to 41°C caused depolarization, spontaneous action potentials, reduced input resistance and membrane time constant, and increased spontaneous synaptic activity of most pyramidal cells and O-LM interneurons. Pyramidal neurons of area CA3 were more strongly excited by hyperthermia than those of area CA1. About 90% of O-LM interneurons in both CA1 and CA3 increased their firing rates at hyperthermic temperatures; interneurons in CA3 fired faster than those in CA1 on average. Blockade of fast synaptic transmission did not abolish the effect of hyperthermia on neuronal excitability. Our results suggest that hyperthermia increases hippocampal excitability, particularly in seizure-prone area CA3, by altering the intrinsic membrane properties of pyramidal cells and interneurons.
Yekhlef, Latefa; Breschi, Gian Luca; Lagostena, Laura; Russo, Giovanni; Taverna, Stefano
GABAergic interneurons are thought to play a critical role in eliciting interictal spikes (IICs) and triggering ictal discharges in temporal lobe epilepsy, yet the contribution of different interneuronal subtypes to seizure initiation is still largely unknown. Here we took advantage of optogenetic techniques combined with patch-clamp and field recordings to selectively stimulate parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SOM)-positive interneurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (CHR-2) in layers II-III of adult mouse medial entorhinal cortical slices during extracellular perfusion with the proconvulsive compound 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 100-200 μM). In control conditions, blue laser photostimulation selectively activated action potential firing in either PV or SOM interneurons and, in both cases, caused a robust GABAA-receptor-mediated inhibition in pyramidal cells (PCs). During perfusion with 4-AP, brief photostimuli (300 ms) activating either PV or SOM interneurons induced patterns of epileptiform activity that closely replicated spontaneously occurring IICs and tonic-clonic ictal discharges. Laser-induced synchronous firing in both interneuronal types elicited large compound GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) correlating with IICs and preictal spikes. In addition, spontaneous and laser-induced epileptic events were similarly initiated in concurrence with a large increase in extracellular potassium concentration. Finally, interneuron activation was unable to stop or significantly shorten the progression of seizurelike episodes. These results suggest that entorhinal PV and SOM interneurons are nearly equally effective in triggering interictal and ictal discharges that closely resemble human temporal lobe epileptic activity.
Tansey, Emily Phillips; Chow, Alan; Rudy, Bernardo; McBain, Chris J
The developmental expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, Kv3.2, and its localization within specific mouse hippocampal inhibitory interneuron populations were determined using immunoblotting and immunohistochemical techniques. Using immunoblotting techniques, the Kv3.2 protein was weakly detected at postnatal age day 7 (P7), and full expression was attained at P21 in tissue extracts from homogenized hippocampal preparations. A similar developmental profile was observed using immunohistochemical techniques in hippocampal tissue sections. Kv3.2 protein expression was clustered on the somata and proximal dendrites of presumed inhibitory interneurons. Using double immunofluorescence, Kv3.2 subunit expression was detected on subpopulations of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. Kv3.2 was detected in approximately 100% of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, 86% of interneurons expressing nitric oxide synthase, and approximately 50% of somatostatin-immunoreactive cells. Kv3.2 expression was absent from both calbindin- and calretinin-containing interneurons. Using immunoprecipitation, we further demonstrate that Kv3.2 and its related subunit Kv3.1b are coexpressed within the same protein complexes in the hippocampus. These data demonstrate that potassium channel subunit Kv3.2 expression is developmentally regulated in a specific set of interneurons. The vast majority of these interneuron subpopulations possess a "fast-spiking" phenotype, consistent with a role for currents through Kv3.2 containing channels in determining action potential kinetics in these cells.
Francius, Cédric; Hidalgo-Figueroa, María; Debrulle, Stéphanie; Pelosi, Barbara; Rucchin, Vincent; Ronellenfitch, Kara; Panayiotou, Elena; Makrides, Neoklis; Misra, Kamana; Harris, Audrey; Hassani, Hessameh; Schakman, Olivier; Parras, Carlos; Xiang, Mengqing; Malas, Stavros; Chow, Robert L.; Clotman, Frédéric
Spinal ventral interneurons regulate the activity of motor neurons, thereby controlling motor activities. Interneurons arise during embryonic development from distinct progenitor domains distributed orderly along the dorso-ventral axis of the neural tube. A single ventral progenitor population named p2 generates at least five V2 interneuron subsets. Whether the diversification of V2 precursors into multiple subsets occurs within the p2 progenitor domain or involves a later compartment of early-born V2 interneurons remains unsolved. Here, we provide evidence that the p2 domain produces an intermediate V2 precursor compartment characterized by the transient expression of the transcriptional repressor Vsx1. These cells display an original repertoire of cellular markers distinct from that of any V2 interneuron population. They have exited the cell cycle but have not initiated neuronal differentiation. They coexpress Vsx1 and Foxn4, suggesting that they can generate the known V2 interneuron populations as well as possible additional V2 subsets. Unlike V2 interneurons, the generation of Vsx1-positive precursors does not depend on the Notch signaling pathway but expression of Vsx1 in these cells requires Pax6. Hence, the p2 progenitor domain generates an intermediate V2 precursor compartment, characterized by the presence of the transcriptional repressor Vsx1, that contributes to V2 interneuron development. PMID:28082864
Rubin, Anna N; Alfonsi, Fabienne; Humphreys, Michael P; Choi, Christina K P; Rocha, Susana F; Kessaris, Nicoletta
Cortical interneurons originate from subpallial precursors and migrate into the cortex during development. Using genetic lineage tracing in transgenic mice we examine the contribution of two germinal zones, the septum and the lateral ganglionic eminence/caudal ganglionic eminence (LGE/CGE) to interneurons of the cortex. We find that the septal neuroepithelium does not generate interneurons for the neocortex. There is, however, clear migration of cells from the LGE/CGE to the cortex. Comparison of the dynamics of cortical colonization by the two major cohorts of interneurons originating in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and the LGE/CGE has shown differences in the timing of migration and initial route of entry into the cortex. LGE/CGE-derived interneurons enter the cortex later than the MGE-derived ones. They invade the cortex through the subventricular/intermediate zone route and only later disperse within the cortical plate and the marginal zone. During the first postnatal week MGE interneurons move extensively to acquire their laminar position within the cortical plate whereas LGE/CGE-derived cells remain largely within the upper layers of the cortex. The two populations intermingle in the adult cortex but have distinct neurochemical properties and different overall distributions. LGE/CGE-derived interneurons account for one third of the total GABAergic interneuron population in the adult cortex.
Steinecke, André; Gampe, Christin; Zimmer, Geraldine; Rudolph, Judith; Bolz, Jürgen
Inhibitory interneurons control the flow of information and synchronization in the cerebral cortex at the circuit level. During embryonic development, multiple subtypes of cortical interneurons are generated in different regions of the ventral telencephalon, such as the medial and caudal ganglionic eminence (MGE and CGE), as well as the preoptic area (POA). These neurons then migrate over long distances towards their cortical target areas. Diverse families of diffusible and cell-bound signaling molecules, including the Eph/ephrin system, regulate and orchestrate interneuron migration. Ephrin A3 and A5, for instance, are expressed at the borders of the pathway of MGE-derived interneurons and prevent these cells from entering inappropriate regions via EphA4 forward signaling. We found that MGE-derived interneurons, in addition to EphA4, also express ephrin A and B ligands, suggesting Eph/ephrin forward and reverse signaling in the same cell. In vitro and in vivo approaches showed that EphA4-induced reverse signaling in MGE-derived interneurons promotes their migration and that this effect is mediated by ephrin A2 ligands. In EphA4 mutant mice, as well as after ephrin A2 knockdown using in utero electroporation, we found delayed interneuron migration at embryonic stages. Thus, besides functions in guiding MGE-derived interneurons to the cortex through forward signaling, here we describe a novel role of the ephrins in driving these neurons to their target via reverse signaling.
Frazer, Sarah; Prados, Julien; Niquille, Mathieu; Cadilhac, Christelle; Markopoulos, Foivos; Gomez, Lucia; Tomasello, Ugo; Telley, Ludovic; Holtmaat, Anthony; Jabaudon, Denis; Dayer, Alexandre
Cortical GABAergic interneurons constitute a highly diverse population of inhibitory neurons that are key regulators of cortical microcircuit function. An important and heterogeneous group of cortical interneurons specifically expresses the serotonin receptor 3A (5-HT3AR) but how this diversity emerges during development is poorly understood. Here we use single-cell transcriptomics to identify gene expression patterns operating in Htr3a-GFP+ interneurons during early steps of cortical circuit assembly. We identify three main molecular types of Htr3a-GFP+ interneurons, each displaying distinct developmental dynamics of gene expression. The transcription factor Meis2 is specifically enriched in a type of Htr3a-GFP+ interneurons largely confined to the cortical white matter. These MEIS2-expressing interneurons appear to originate from a restricted region located at the embryonic pallial–subpallial boundary. Overall, this study identifies MEIS2 as a subclass-specific marker for 5-HT3AR-containing interstitial interneurons and demonstrates that the transcriptional and anatomical parcellation of cortical interneurons is developmentally coupled. PMID:28134272
Scholl, Benjamin; Pattadkal, Jagruti J; Dilly, Geoffrey A; Priebe, Nicholas J; Zemelman, Boris V
Dissecting the functional roles of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in cortical circuits is a fundamental goal in neuroscience. Of particular interest are their roles in emergent cortical computations such as binocular integration in primary visual cortex (V1). We measured the binocular response selectivity of genetically defined subpopulations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Parvalbumin (PV+) interneurons received strong inputs from both eyes but lacked selectivity for binocular disparity. Because broad selectivity could result from heterogeneous synaptic input from neighboring neurons, we examined how individual PV+ interneuron selectivity compared to that of the local neuronal network, which is primarily composed of excitatory neurons. PV+ neurons showed functional similarity to neighboring neuronal populations over spatial distances resembling measurements of synaptic connectivity. On the other hand, excitatory neurons expressing CaMKIIα displayed no such functional similarity with the neighboring population. Our findings suggest that broad selectivity of PV+ interneurons results from nonspecific integration within local networks. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Leão, Richardson N; Mikulovic, Sanja; Leão, Katarina E; Munguba, Hermany; Gezelius, Henrik; Enjin, Anders; Patra, Kalicharan; Eriksson, Anders; Loew, Leslie M; Tort, Adriano B L; Kullander, Klas
The vast diversity of GABAergic interneurons is believed to endow hippocampal microcircuits with the required flexibility for memory encoding and retrieval. However, dissection of the functional roles of defined interneuron types has been hampered by the lack of cell-specific tools. We identified a precise molecular marker for a population of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons known as oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells. By combining transgenic mice and optogenetic tools, we found that OLM cells are important for gating the information flow in CA1, facilitating the transmission of intrahippocampal information (from CA3) while reducing the influence of extrahippocampal inputs (from the entorhinal cortex). Furthermore, we found that OLM cells were interconnected by gap junctions, received direct cholinergic inputs from subcortical afferents and accounted for the effect of nicotine on synaptic plasticity of the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results suggest that acetylcholine acting through OLM cells can control the mnemonic processes executed by the hippocampus.
Jager, Polona; Ye, Zhiwen; Yu, Xiao; Zagoraiou, Laskaro; Prekop, Hong-Ting; Partanen, Juha; Jessell, Thomas M.; Wisden, William; Brickley, Stephen G.; Delogu, Alessio
The release of GABA from local interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN-INs) provides inhibitory control during visual processing within the thalamus. It is commonly assumed that this important class of interneurons originates from within the thalamic complex, but we now show that during early postnatal development Sox14/Otx2-expressing precursor cells migrate from the dorsal midbrain to generate dLGN-INs. The unexpected extra-diencephalic origin of dLGN-INs sets them apart from GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus. Using optogenetics we show that at increased firing rates tectal-derived dLGN-INs generate a powerful form of tonic inhibition that regulates the gain of thalamic relay neurons through recruitment of extrasynaptic high-affinity GABAA receptors. Therefore, by revising the conventional view of thalamic interneuron ontogeny we demonstrate how a previously unappreciated mesencephalic population controls thalamic relay neuron excitability. PMID:27929058
The spinal dorsal horn receives input from primary afferent axons, which terminate in a modality-specific fashion in different laminae. The incoming somatosensory information is processed through complex synaptic circuits involving excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, before being transmitted to the brain via projection neurons for conscious perception. The dorsal horn is important, firstly because changes in this region contribute to chronic pain states, and secondly because it contains potential targets for the development of new treatments for pain. However, at present, we have only a limited understanding of the neuronal circuitry within this region, and this is largely because of the difficulty in defining functional populations among the excitatory and inhibitory interneurons. The recent discovery of specific neurochemically defined interneuron populations, together with the development of molecular genetic techniques for altering neuronal function in vivo, are resulting in a dramatic improvement in our understanding of somatosensory processing at the spinal level. PMID:28326935
DeFelipe, Javier; López-Cruz, Pedro L.; Benavides-Piccione, Ruth; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Anderson, Stewart; Burkhalter, Andreas; Cauli, Bruno; Fairén, Alfonso; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Fishell, Gord; Fitzpatrick, David; Freund, Tamás F.; González-Burgos, Guillermo; Hestrin, Shaul; Hill, Sean; Hof, Patrick R.; Huang, Josh; Jones, Edward G.; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Kisvárday, Zoltán; Kubota, Yoshiyuki; Lewis, David A.; Marín, Oscar; Markram, Henry; McBain, Chris J.; Meyer, Hanno S.; Monyer, Hannah; Nelson, Sacha B.; Rockland, Kathleen; Rossier, Jean; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Rudy, Bernardo; Scanziani, Massimo; Shepherd, Gordon M.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Staiger, Jochen F.; Tamás, Gábor; Thomson, Alex; Wang, Yun; Yuste, Rafael; Ascoli, Giorgio A.
A systematic classification and accepted nomenclature of neuron types is much needed but is currently lacking. This article describes a possible taxonomical solution for classifying GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex based on a novel, web-based interactive system that allows experts to classify neurons with pre-determined criteria. Using Bayesian analysis and clustering algorithms on the resulting data, we investigated the suitability of several anatomical terms and neuron names for cortical GABAergic interneurons. Moreover, we show that supervised classification models could automatically categorize interneurons in agreement with experts’ assignments. These results demonstrate a practical and objective approach to the naming, characterization and classification of neurons based on community consensus. PMID:23385869
Leão, Richardson N; Mikulovic, Sanja; Leão, Katarina E; Munguba, Hermany; Gezelius, Henrik; Enjin, Anders; Patra, Kalicharan; Eriksson, Anders; Loew, Leslie M.; Tort, Adriano BL; Kullander, Klas
The vast diversity of GABAergic interneurons is believed to endow hippocampal microcircuits with the required flexibility for memory encoding and retrieval. However, dissection of the functional roles of defined interneuron types have been hampered by the lack of cell specific tools. Here we report a precise molecular marker for a population of hippocampal GABAergic interneurons known as oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM) cells. By combining novel transgenic mice and optogenetic tools, we demonstrate that OLM cells have a key role in gating the information flow in CA1, facilitating the transmission of intrahippocampal information (from CA3) while reducing the influence of extrahippocampal inputs (from the entorhinal cortex). We further demonstrate that OLM cells are interconnected by gap junctions, receive direct cholinergic inputs from subcortical afferents, and account for the effect of nicotine on synaptic plasticity of the Schaffer collateral pathway. Our results suggest that acetylcholine acting through OLM cells can control the mnemonic processes executed by the hippocampus. PMID:23042082
Radonjić, Nevena V.; Ayoub, Albert E.; Memi, Fani; Yu, Xiaojing; Maroof, Asif; Jakovcevski, Igor; Anderson, Stewart A.; Rakic, Pasko; Zecevic, Nada
Summary Evolutionary elaboration of tissues starts with changes in the genome and location of the stem cells. For example, GABAergic interneurons of the mammalian neocortex are generated in the ventral telencephalon and migrate tangentially to the neocortex, in contrast to the projection neurons originating in the ventricular/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ) of the dorsal telencephalon. In human and nonhuman primates, evidence suggests that an additional subset of neocortical GABAergic interneurons is generated in the cortical VZ and a proliferative niche, the outer SVZ. The origin, magnitude, and significance of this species-specific difference are not known. We use a battery of assays applicable to the human, monkey, and mouse organotypic cultures and supravital tissue to identify neuronal progenitors in the cortical VZ/SVZ niche that produce a subset of GABAergic interneurons. Our findings suggest that these progenitors constitute an evolutionary novelty contributing to the elaboration of higher cognitive functions in primates. PMID:25497090
Guo, Daqing; Wang, Qingyun; Perc, Matjaž
Networks of fast-spiking interneurons are crucial for the generation of neural oscillations in the brain. Here we study the synchronous behavior of interneuronal networks that are coupled by delayed inhibitory and fast electrical synapses. We find that both coupling modes play a crucial role by the synchronization of the network. In addition, delayed inhibitory synapses affect the emerging oscillatory patterns. By increasing the inhibitory synaptic delay, we observe a transition from regular to mixed oscillatory patterns at a critical value. We also examine how the unreliability of inhibitory synapses influences the emergence of synchronization and the oscillatory patterns. We find that low levels of reliability tend to destroy synchronization and, moreover, that interneuronal networks with long inhibitory synaptic delays require a minimal level of reliability for the mixed oscillatory pattern to be maintained.
Golomb, David; Donner, Karnit; Shacham, Liron; Shlosberg, Dan; Amitai, Yael; Hansel, David
Cortical fast-spiking (FS) interneurons display highly variable electrophysiological properties. Their spike responses to step currents occur almost immediately following the step onset or after a substantial delay, during which subthreshold oscillations are frequently observed. Their firing patterns include high-frequency tonic firing and rhythmic or irregular bursting (stuttering). What is the origin of this variability? In the present paper, we hypothesize that it emerges naturally if one assumes a continuous distribution of properties in a small set of active channels. To test this hypothesis, we construct a minimal, single-compartment conductance-based model of FS cells that includes transient Na+, delayed-rectifier K+, and slowly inactivating d-type K+ conductances. The model is analyzed using nonlinear dynamical system theory. For small Na+ window current, the neuron exhibits high-frequency tonic firing. At current threshold, the spike response is almost instantaneous for small d-current conductance, g d, and it is delayed for larger g d. As g d further increases, the neuron stutters. Noise substantially reduces the delay duration and induces subthreshold oscillations. In contrast, when the Na+ window current is large, the neuron always fires tonically. Near threshold, the firing rates are low, and the delay to firing is only weakly sensitive to noise; subthreshold oscillations are not observed. We propose that the variability in the response of cortical FS neurons is a consequence of heterogeneities in their g d and in the strength of their Na+ window current. We predict the existence of two types of firing patterns in FS neurons, differing in the sensitivity of the delay duration to noise, in the minimal firing rate of the tonic discharge, and in the existence of subthreshold oscillations. We report experimental results from intracellular recordings supporting this prediction. PMID:17696606
Rudenko, Andrii; Seo, Jinsoo; Hu, Ji; Su, Susan C; de Anda, Froylan Calderon; Durak, Omer; Ericsson, Maria; Carlén, Marie; Tsai, Li-Huei
Perturbations in fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons are hypothesized to be a major component of various neuropsychiatric disorders; however, the mechanisms regulating PV interneurons remain mostly unknown. Recently, cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) has been shown to function as a major regulator of synaptic plasticity. Here, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of Cdk5 in PV interneurons in mouse brain leads to an increase in GABAergic neurotransmission and impaired synaptic plasticity. PVCre;fCdk5 mice display a range of behavioral abnormalities, including decreased anxiety and memory impairment. Our results reveal a central role of Cdk5 expressed in PV interneurons in gating inhibitory neurotransmission and underscore the importance of such regulation during behavioral tasks. Our findings suggest that Cdk5 can be considered a promising therapeutic target in a variety of conditions attributed to inhibitory interneuronal dysfunction, such as epilepsy, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia.
Jacob, Samson; Sun, Bruce; Prè, Deborah; Sproul, Andrew A.; Hong, Seong Im; Woodard, Chris; Zimmer, Matthew; Chinchalongporn, Vorapin; Arancio, Ottavio; Noggle, Scott A.
Production and isolation of forebrain interneuron progenitors are essential for understanding cortical development and developing cell-based therapies for developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. We demonstrate production of a population of putative calretinin-positive bipolar interneurons that express markers consistent with caudal ganglionic eminence identities. Using serum-free embryoid bodies (SFEBs) generated from human inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we demonstrate that these interneuron progenitors exhibit morphological, immunocytochemical, and electrophysiological hallmarks of developing cortical interneurons. Finally, we develop a fluorescence-activated cell-sorting strategy to isolate interneuron progenitors from SFEBs to allow development of a purified population of these cells. Identification of this critical neuronal cell type within iPSC-derived SFEBs is an important and novel step in describing cortical development in this iPSC preparation. PMID:25394470
Yoshihara, Sei-ichi; Takahashi, Hiroo; Tsuboi, Akio
Inhibitory interneurons in the olfactory bulb are generated continuously throughout life in the subventricular zone and differentiate into periglomerular and granule cells. Neural circuits that undergo reorganization by newborn olfactory bulb interneurons are necessary for odor detection, odor discrimination, olfactory memory, and innate olfactory responses. Although sensory experience has been shown to regulate development in a variety of species and in various structures, including the retina, cortex, and hippocampus, little is known about how sensory experience regulates the dendritic development of newborn olfactory bulb interneurons. Recent studies revealed that the 5T4 oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein and the neuronal Per/Arnt/Sim domain protein 4 (Npas4) transcription factor regulate dendritic branching and dendritic spine formation, respectively, in olfactory bulb interneurons. Here, we summarize the molecular mechanisms that underlie the sensory input-dependent development of newborn interneurons and the formation of functional neural circuitry in the olfactory bulb. PMID:26793053
Marty, S; Berninger, B; Carroll, P; Thoenen, H
Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) switches from enhancing to repressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA synthesis during the maturation of hippocampal neurons in vitro. Interneurons do not produce BDNF themselves, but BDNF enhances their differentiation. Therefore, the question arose whether hippocampal interneurons regulate their phenotype by regulating BDNF expression and release from adjacent cells. The GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol and BDNF increased the size and neuropeptide Y (NPY) immunoreactivity of hippocampal interneurons. However, GABAergic stimulation failed to increase NPY immunoreactivity in cultures from BDNF knockout embryos. At later developmental stages, when GABA represses BDNF synthesis, treatment with muscimol induced a decrease in cell size and NPY immunoreactivity of interneurons. Interneurons might thus control their phenotype through the regulation of BDNF synthesis in, and release from, their target neurons.
Ting, Annie K; Chen, Yongjun; Wen, Lei; Yin, Dong-Min; Shen, Chengyong; Tao, Yanmei; Liu, Xihui; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) and its receptor ErbB4 are both susceptibility genes of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of their malfunction. Although ErbB4 is enriched in GABAergic interneurons, the role of NRG1 in excitatory synapse formation in these neurons remains poorly understood. We showed that NRG1 increased both the number and size of PSD-95 puncta and the frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) in GABAergic interneurons, indicating that NRG1 stimulates the formation of new synapses and strengthens existing synapses. In contrast, NRG1 treatment had no effect on either the number or size of excitatory synapses in glutamatergic neurons, suggesting its synaptogenic effect is specific to GABAergic interneurons. Ecto-ErbB4 treatment diminished both the number and size of excitatory synapses, suggesting that endogenous NRG1 may be critical for basal synapse formation. NRG1 could stimulate the stability of PSD-95 in the manner that requires tyrosine kinase activity of ErbB4. Finally, deletion of ErbB4 in parvalbumin-positive interneurons led to reduced frequency and amplitude of mEPSCs, providing in vivo evidence that ErbB4 is important in excitatory synaptogenesis in interneurons. Together, our findings suggested a novel synaptogenic role of NRG1 in excitatory synapse development, possibly via stabilizing PSD-95, and this effect is specific to GABAergic interneurons. In light of the association of the genes of both NRG1 and ErbB4 with schizophrenia and dysfunction of GABAergic system in this disorder, these results provide insight into its potential pathological mechanism.
Doherty, J; Dingledine, R
Impaired GABAergic inhibition may contribute to the development of hyperexcitability in epilepsy. We used the pilocarpine model of epilepsy to demonstrate that regulation of excitatory synaptic drive onto GABAergic interneurons is impaired during epileptogenesis. Synaptic input from granule cells (GCs), perforant path, and CA3 inputs onto hilar border interneurons of the dentate gyrus were examined in rat hippocampal slices during the latent period (1-8 d) after induction of status epilepticus (SE). Short-term depression (STD) of GC inputs to interneurons induced by brief (500-800 msec), repetitive (5-20 Hz) stimulation, as well as paired-pulse depression at both GC and CA3 inputs to interneurons, were significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced in SE-experienced rats. In contrast, we found no significant differences between SE-experienced and age-matched control rats in the properties of minimal EPSCs evoked at low frequency (0.3 Hz). Consistent with reduced GABAergic inhibition onto granule cells, paired-pulse depression of perforant path-evoked granule cell population spikes was lost in SE-experienced rats. Enhanced STD was partially mediated by group II metabotropic glutamate receptors, because the selective antagonist, 2S-2-amino-2-(1S,2S-2-carboxycyclopropyl-1-yl)-3-(xanth-9-yl)propanoic acid, attenuated STD in SE-experienced rats but had no effect on STD of GC inputs in the normal adult rat. The group II mGluR agonist, (2S',1R',2R',3R')-2-(2,3-dicarboxylcyclopropyl) glycine (1 micrometer), produced a greater depression of GC input to hilar border interneurons in SE-experienced rats than in controls. These results indicate that, in the SE-experienced rat, excitatory drive to hilar border inhibitory interneurons is weakened through a use-dependent mechanism involving group II metabotropic glutamate receptors.
Kum Jew, Stephen
Toxic heavy metals have been implicated in the loss of spinal motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND). Motoneuron loss in the spinal anterior horn is severe in ALS/MND at the time of death, making this tissue unsuitable for examination. We therefore examined spinal cords of people without muscle weakness to look for any presence of heavy metals that could make these neurons susceptible to damage. Spinal cord samples from 50 individuals aged 1–95 y who had no clinical or histopathological evidence of spinal motoneuron loss were studied. Seven μm formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were stained for heavy metals with silver nitrate autometallography (AMGHM) which detects intracellular mercury, silver or bismuth. Neurons in the spinal cord were classified as interneurons or α-motoneurons based on their site and cell body diameter. Spinal interneurons containing heavy metals were present in 8 of 24 people (33%) aged 61–95 y, but not at younger ages. These AMGHM interneurons were most numerous in the lumbar spinal cord, with moderate numbers in the caudal cervical cord, few in the rostral cervical cord, and almost none in the thoracic cord. All people with AMGHM interneurons had occasional AMGHM staining in α-motoneurons as well. In one man AMGHM staining was present in addition in dorsomedial nucleus and sensory neurons. In conclusion, heavy metals are present in many spinal interneurons, and in a few α-motoneurons, in a large proportion of older people. Damage to inhibitory interneurons from toxic metals in later life could result in excitotoxic injury to motoneurons and may underlie motoneuron injury or loss in conditions such as ALS/MND, multiple sclerosis, sarcopenia and calf fasciculations. PMID:27611334
Menegola, Milena; Misonou, Hiroaki; Vacher, Helene; Trimmer, James S.
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are important and diverse determinants of neuronal excitability and exhibit specific expression patterns throughout the brain. Among Kv channels, Kv4 channels are major determinants of somatodendritic A-type current and are essential in controlling the amplitude of backpropagating action potentials (BAPs) into neuronal dendrites. BAPs have been well studied in a variety of neurons, and have been recently described in hippocampal and cortical interneurons, a heterogeneous population of GABAergic inhibitory cells that regulate activity of principal cells and neuronal networks. We used well-characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Kv4.3 and KChIP1 subunits of A-type Kv channels, and antibodies against different interneuron markers in single- and double-label immunohistochemistry experiments to analyze the expression patterns of Kv4.3 and KChIP1 in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 40 μm rat brain sections using nickel-enhanced diaminobenzidine staining or multiple-label immunofluorescence. Our results show that Kv4.3 and KChIP1 component subunits of A-type channels are co-localized in the soma and dendrites of a large number of GABAergic hippocampal interneurons. These subunits co-localize extensively but not completely with markers defining the four major interneuron subpopulations tested (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin). These results suggest that CA1 hippocampal interneurons can be divided in two groups according to the expression of Kv4.3/KChIP1 channel subunits. Antibodies against Kv4.3 and KChIP1 represent an important new tool for identifying a subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons with unique dendritic A-type channel complement and ability to control BAPs. PMID:18495361
Husch, Andreas; Dietz, Shelby B; Hong, Diana N; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M
In mice, most studies of the organization of the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion, and its component neuron classes, have been performed on neonatal [postnatal day (P)2-P4] animals. While the neonatal spinal cord can generate a basic locomotor pattern, it is often argued that the CPG network is in an immature form whose detailed properties mature with postnatal development. Here, we compare intrinsic properties and serotonergic modulation of the V2a class of excitatory spinal interneurons in behaviorally mature (older than P43) mice to those in neonatal mice. Using perforated patch recordings from genetically tagged V2a interneurons, we revealed an age-dependent increase in excitability. The input resistance increased, the rheobase values decreased, and the relation between injected current and firing frequency (F/I plot) showed higher excitability in the adult neurons, with almost all neurons firing tonically during a current step. The adult action potential (AP) properties became narrower and taller, and the AP threshold hyperpolarized. While in neonates the AP afterhyperpolarization was monophasic, most adult V2a interneurons showed a biphasic afterhyperpolarization. Serotonin increased excitability and depolarized most neonatal and adult V2a interneurons. However, in ∼30% of adult V2a interneurons, serotonin additionally elicited spontaneous intrinsic membrane potential bistability, resulting in alternations between hyperpolarized and depolarized states with a dramatically decreased membrane input resistance and facilitation of evoked plateau potentials. This was never seen in younger animals. Our findings indicate a significant postnatal development of the properties of locomotor-related V2a interneurons, which could alter their interpretation of synaptic inputs in the locomotor CPG.
Menegola, M; Misonou, H; Vacher, H; Trimmer, J S
Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are important and diverse determinants of neuronal excitability and exhibit specific expression patterns throughout the brain. Among Kv channels, Kv4 channels are major determinants of somatodendritic A-type current and are essential in controlling the amplitude of backpropagating action potentials (BAPs) into neuronal dendrites. BAPs have been well studied in a variety of neurons, and have been recently described in hippocampal and cortical interneurons, a heterogeneous population of GABAergic inhibitory cells that regulate activity of principal cells and neuronal networks. We used well-characterized mouse monoclonal antibodies against the Kv4.3 and potassium channel interacting protein (KChIP) 1 subunits of A-type Kv channels, and antibodies against different interneuron markers in single- and double-label immunohistochemistry experiments to analyze the expression patterns of Kv4.3 and KChIP1 in hippocampal Ammon's horn (CA1) neurons. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 40 mum rat brain sections using nickel-enhanced diaminobenzidine staining or multiple-label immunofluorescence. Our results show that Kv4.3 and KChIP1 component subunits of A-type channels are co-localized in the soma and dendrites of a large number of GABAergic hippocampal interneurons. These subunits co-localize extensively but not completely with markers defining the four major interneuron subpopulations tested (parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, and somatostatin). These results suggest that CA1 hippocampal interneurons can be divided in two groups according to the expression of Kv4.3/KChIP1 channel subunits. Antibodies against Kv4.3 and KChIP1 represent an important new tool for identifying a subpopulation of hippocampal interneurons with a unique dendritic A-type channel complement and ability to control BAPs.
Karunakaran, Suganya; Grasse, Dane W; Moxon, Karen A
Multiple studies have observed heterogeneous neuronal firing patterns as a local network transitions to spontaneous seizures. We demonstrated that separately examining interneurons and pyramidal cells during this transition in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy elucidates some of this heterogeneity. Recently, it was demonstrated that classifying cells into specific theta-related subtypes further clarified the heterogeneity. Moreover, changes in neuronal synchrony with the local field potential were identified and determined to be specific to interneurons during the transition to seizures. To extend our understanding of the chronic changes in epileptic networks, we examined field potentials and single neuron activity in the CA3 hippocampus of pilocarpine-treated rats during interictal periods and compared these to neuronal activity in healthy controls and during preictal periods. Neurons were classified into theta-subtypes based on changes in firing patterns during theta periods. As previously reported, we find a high probability of theta oscillations before seizure onset and a selective increase in theta-on interneuron firing rate immediately preceding seizure onset. However, we also find overall slower theta rhythm and a general decrease in subtype-specific firing during interictal periods compared to that in control animals. The decrease in subtype specific interneuron activity is accompanied by increases in synchrony. Exceptionally, theta-on interneurons, that selectively increase their firing rate at seizure onset, maintain similar firing rates and synchrony as controls during interictal period. These data suggest that increased synchrony during interictal periods may compensate for low firing rates creating instability during theta that is prone to seizure initiation via a transition to hyper-synchronous activation of theta-on interneurons.
Wu, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Nan; Siniscalchi, Michael J; Perkins, Matthew H; Zheng, Yu-Tong; Yu, Wei; Chen, Song-an; Jia, Ruo-nan; Gu, Jia-Wei; Qian, Yi-Qing; Ye, Yang; Vilim, Ferdinand S; Cropper, Elizabeth C; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Jing, Jian
Motor activity is often initiated by a population of command-like interneurons. Command-like interneurons that reliably drive programs have received the most attention, so little is known about how less reliable command-like interneurons may contribute to program generation. We study two electrically coupled interneurons, cerebral-buccal interneuron-2 (CBI-2) and CBI-11, which activate feeding motor programs in the mollusk Aplysia californica. Earlier work indicated that, in rested preparations, CBI-2, a powerful activator of programs, can trigger ingestive and egestive programs. CBI-2 reliably generated ingestive patterns only when it was repeatedly stimulated. The ability of CBI-2 to trigger motor activity has been attributed to the two program-promoting peptides it contains, FCAP and CP2. Here, we show that CBI-11 differs from CBI-2 in that it contains FCAP but not CP2. Furthermore, it is weak in its ability to drive programs. On its own, CBI-11 is therefore less effective as a program activator. When it is successful, however, CBI-11 is an effective specifier of motor activity; that is, it drives mostly ingestive programs. Importantly, we found that CBI-2 and CBI-11 complement each other's actions. First, prestimulation of CBI-2 enhanced the ability of CBI-11 to drive programs. This effect appears to be partly mediated by CP2. Second, coactivation of CBI-11 with CBI-2 makes CBI-2 programs immediately ingestive. This effect may be mediated by specific actions that CBI-11 exerts on pattern-generating interneurons. Therefore, different classes of command-like neurons in a motor network may make distinct, but potentially complementary, contributions as either activators or specifiers of motor activity.
Varga, Csaba; Tamas, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Olah, Szabolcs; Somogyi, Peter
Transcription factors contribute to the differentiation of cortical neurons, orchestrate specific interneuronal circuits, and define synaptic relationships. We have investigated neurons expressing chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII), which plays a role in the migration of GABAergic neurons. Whole-cell, patch-clamp recording in vitro combined with colocalization of molecular cell markers in the adult cortex differentiates distinct interneurons. The majority of strongly COUP-TFII-expressing neurons were in layers I–III. Most calretinin (CR) and/or cholecystokinin- (CCK) and/or reelin-positive interneurons were also COUP-TFII-positive. CR-, CCK-, or reelin-positive neurons formed 80%, 20%, or 17% of COUP-TFII-positive interneurons, respectively. About half of COUP-TFII-/CCK-positive interneurons were CR-positive, a quarter of them reelin-positive, but none expressed both. Interneurons positive for COUP-TFII fired irregular, accommodating and adapting trains of action potentials (APs) and innervated mostly small dendritic shafts and rarely spines or somata. Paired recording showed that a calretinin-/COUP-TFII-positive interneuron elicited inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in a reciprocally connected pyramidal cell. Calbindin, somatostatin, or parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons and most pyramidal cells express no immunohistochemically detectable COUP-TFII. In layers V and VI, some pyramidal cells expressed a low level of COUP-TFII in the nucleus. In conclusion, COUP-TFII is expressed in a diverse subset of GABAergic interneurons predominantly innervating small dendritic shafts originating from both interneurons and pyramidal cells. PMID:25787832
Akgul, Gulcan; Wollmuth, Lonnie P
Fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons in layers 2/3 of the visual cortex regulate gain control and tuning of visual processing. Synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97) belongs to a family of proteins that have been implicated in regulating glutamatergic synaptic transmission at pyramidal-to-pyramidal connections in the nervous system. For PV interneurons in mouse visual cortex, the expression of SAP97 is developmentally regulated, being expressed in almost all juvenile but only a fraction, ~40%, of adult PV interneurons. Using whole-cell patch-clamping, single-cell RT-PCR to assay endogenous expression of SAP97 and exogenous expression of SAP97, we investigated the functional significance of SAP97 in PV interneurons in layers 2/3 of the visual cortex. PV interneurons expressing SAP97, either endogenously or via exogenous expression, showed distinct membrane properties from those not expressing SAP97. This included an overall decrease in membrane excitability, as indexed by a decrease in membrane resistance and an increase in the stimulus threshold for the first action potential firing. Additionally, SAP97-expressing PV interneurons fired action potentials more frequently and, at moderate stimulus intensities, showed irregular or stuttering firing patterns. Furthermore, SAP97-expressing PV interneurons showed increased glutamatergic input and more extensive dendritic branching when compared with non-expressing PV interneurons. These differences in membrane and synaptic properties would significantly alter how PV interneurons expressing SAP97 compared with those not expressing SAP97 would function in local networks. Thus, our results indicate that the scaffolding protein SAP97 is a critical molecular factor regulating the input-output relationships of cortical PV interneurons.
Jiang, M; Swann, J W
While inhibitory interneurons are well recognized to play critical roles in the brain, relatively little is know about the molecular events that regulate their growth and differentiation. Calcium ions are thought to be important in neuronal development and L-type voltage gated Ca(+2) channels have been implicated in activity-dependent mechanisms of early-life. However, few studies have examined the role of these channels in the maturation of interneurons. The studies reported here were conducted in hippocampal slice cultures and indicate that the L-type Ca(+2) channel agonists and antagonists accelerate and suppress respectively the growth of parvalbumin-containing interneurons. The effects of channel blockade were reversible suggesting they are not the result of interneuronal cell death. Results from immunoblotting showed that these drugs have similar effects on the expression of the GABA synthetic enzymes, glutamic acid decarboxylase65, glutamic acid decarboxylase67 and the vesicular GABA transporter. This suggests that L-type Ca(+2) channels regulate not only parvalbumin expression but also interneuron development. These effects are likely mediated by actions on the interneurons themselves since the alpha subunits of L-type channels, voltage-gated calcium channel subunit 1.2 and voltage-gated calcium channel subunit 1.3 were found to be highly expressed in neonatal mouse hippocampus and co-localized with parvalbumin in interneurons. Results also showed that while these interneurons can contain either subunit, voltage-gated calcium channel subunit 1.3 was more widely expressed. Taken together results suggest that an important subset of developing interneurons expresses L-type Ca(+2) channels alpha subunits, voltage-gated calcium channel subunit 1.2 and especially voltage-gated calcium channel subunit 1.3 and that these channels likely regulate the development of these interneurons in an activity-dependent manner.
Tyson, Jennifer A; Goldberg, Ethan M; Maroof, Asif M; Xu, Qing; Petros, Timothy J; Anderson, Stewart A
Medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived GABAergic cortical interneurons (cINs) consist of multiple subtypes that are involved in many cortical functions. They also have a remarkable capacity to migrate, survive and integrate into cortical circuitry after transplantation into postnatal cortex. These features have engendered considerable interest in generating distinct subgroups of interneurons from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) for the study of interneuron fate and function, and for the development of cell-based therapies. Although advances have been made, the capacity to generate highly enriched pools of subgroup fate-committed interneuron progenitors from PSCs has remained elusive. Previous studies have suggested that the two main MGE-derived interneuron subgroups--those expressing somatostatin (SST) and those expressing parvalbumin (PV)--are specified in the MGE from Nkx2.1-expressing progenitors at higher or lower levels of sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, respectively. To further explore the role of Shh and other factors in cIN fate determination, we generated a reporter line such that Nkx2.1-expressing progenitors express mCherry and postmitotic Lhx6-expressing MGE-derived interneurons express GFP. Manipulations of Shh exposure and time in culture influenced the subgroup fates of ESC-derived interneurons. Exposure to higher Shh levels, and collecting GFP-expressing precursors at 12 days in culture, resulted in the strongest enrichment for SST interneurons over those expressing PV, whereas the strongest enrichment for PV interneurons was produced by lower Shh and by collecting mCherry-expressing cells after 17 days in culture. These findings confirm that fate determination of cIN subgroups is crucially influenced by Shh signaling, and provide a system for the further study of interneuron fate and function.
Hernández-Miranda, Luis R; Parnavelas, John G; Chiara, Francesca
The GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-containing interneurons of the neocortex are largely derived from the ganglionic eminences in the subpallium. Numerous studies have previously defined the migratory paths travelled by these neurons from their origins to their destinations in the cortex. We review here results of studies that have identified many of the genes expressed in the subpallium that are involved in the specification of the subtypes of cortical interneurons, and the numerous transcription factors, motogenic factors and guidance molecules that are involved in their migration. PMID:20360946
Augustinaite, Sigita; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Heggelund, Paul
Neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) process and transmit visual signals from retina to visual cortex. The processing is dynamically regulated by cortical excitatory feedback to neurons in dLGN, and synaptic short-term plasticity (STP) has an important role in this regulation. It is known that corticogeniculate synapses on thalamocortical (TC) projection-neurons are facilitating, but type and characteristics of STP of synapses on inhibitory interneurons in dLGN are unknown. We studied STP at corticogeniculate synapses on interneurons and compared the results with STP-characteristics of corticogeniculate synapses on TC neurons to gain insights into the dynamics of cortical regulation of processing in dLGN. We studied neurons in thalamic slices from glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)–green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice and made whole-cell recordings of responses evoked by electrical paired-pulse and pulse train stimulation of cortical afferents. We found that cortical excitations of interneurons and TC neurons have distinctly different properties. A single pulse evoked larger EPSCs in interneurons than in TC neurons. However, repetitive stimulation induced frequency-dependent depression of interneurons in contrast to the facilitation of TC neurons. Thus, through these differences of STP mechanisms, the balance of cortical excitation of the two types of neurons could change during stimulation from strongest excitation of interneurons to strongest excitation of TC neurons depending on stimulus frequency and duration, and thereby contribute to activity-dependent cortical regulation of thalamocortical transmission between net depression and net facilitation. Studies of postsynaptic response patterns of interneurons to train stimulation demonstrated that cortical input can activate different types of neuronal integration mechanisms that in addition to the STP mechanisms may change the output from dLGN. Lower stimulus intensity, presumably
Hernández-Miranda, Luis R; Parnavelas, John G; Chiara, Francesca
The GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid)-containing interneurons of the neocortex are largely derived from the ganglionic eminences in the subpallium. Numerous studies have previously defined the migratory paths travelled by these neurons from their origins to their destinations in the cortex. We review here results of studies that have identified many of the genes expressed in the subpallium that are involved in the specification of the subtypes of cortical interneurons, and the numerous transcription factors, motogenic factors and guidance molecules that are involved in their migration.
Nissen, Wiebke; Szabo, Andras; Somogyi, Jozsef; Somogyi, Peter; Lamsa, Karri P
Different GABAergic interneuron types have specific roles in hippocampal function, and anatomical as well as physiological features vary greatly between interneuron classes. Long-term plasticity of interneurons has mostly been studied in unidentified GABAergic cells and is known to be very heterogeneous. Here we tested whether cell type-specific plasticity properties in distinct GABAergic interneuron types might underlie this heterogeneity. We show that long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), two common forms of synaptic plasticity, are expressed in a highly cell type-specific manner at glutamatergic synapses onto hippocampal GABAergic neurons. Both LTP and LTD are generated in interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV+), whereas interneurons with similar axon distributions but expressing cannabinoid receptor-1 show no lasting plasticity in response to the same protocol. In addition, LTP or LTD occurs in PV+ interneurons with different efferent target domains. Perisomatic-targeting PV+ basket and axo-axonic interneurons express LTP, whereas glutamatergic synapses onto PV+ bistratified cells display LTD. Both LTP and LTD are pathway specific, independent of NMDA receptors, and occur at synapses with calcium-permeable (CP) AMPA receptors. Plasticity in interneurons with CP-AMPA receptors strongly modulates disynaptic GABAergic transmission onto CA1 pyramidal cells. We propose that long-term plasticity adjusts the synaptic strength between pyramidal cells and interneurons in a cell type-specific manner and, in the defined CA1 interneurons, shifts the spatial pattern of inhibitory weight from pyramidal cell dendrites to the perisomatic region.
Leto, Ketty; Bartolini, Alice; Di Gregorio, Alessandra; Imperiale, Daniele; De Luca, Annarita; Parmigiani, Elena; Filipkowski, Robert K; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Rossi, Ferdinando
The progenitors of cerebellar GABAergic interneurons proliferate up to postnatal development in the prospective white matter, where they give rise to different neuronal subtypes, in defined quantities and according to precise spatiotemporal sequences. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate the specification of distinct interneuron phenotypes, we examined mice lacking the G1 phase-active cyclin D2. It has been reported that these mice show severe reduction of stellate cells, the last generated interneuron subtype. We found that loss of cyclin D2 actually impairs the whole process of interneuron genesis. In the mutant cerebella, progenitors of the prospective white matter show reduced proliferation rates and enhanced tendency to leave the cycle, whereas young postmitotic interneurons undergo severe delay of their maturation and migration. As a consequence, the progenitor pool is precociously exhausted and the number of interneurons is significantly reduced, although molecular layer interneurons are more affected than those of granular layer or deep nuclei. The characteristic inside-out sequence of interneuron placement in the cortical layers is also reversed, so that later born cells occupy deeper positions than earlier generated ones. Transplantation experiments show that the abnormalities of cyclin D2(-/-) interneurons are largely caused by cell-autonomous mechanisms. Therefore, cyclin D2 is not required for the specification of particular interneuron subtypes. Loss of this protein, however, disrupts regulatory mechanisms of cell cycle dynamics that are required to determine the numbers of interneurons of different types and impairs their rhythm of maturation and integration in the cerebellar circuitry.
Zheng, Fang; Seeger, Thomas; Nixdorf-Bergweiler, Barbara E; Alzheimer, Christian
The hippocampus receives a diffuse cholinergic innervation which acts on pre- and postsynaptic sites to modulate neurotransmission and excitability of pyramidal cells and interneurons in an intricate fashion. As one missing piece in this puzzle, we explored how muscarinic receptor activation modulates the somatodendritic processing of glutamatergic input in CA1 interneurons. We performed whole-cell recordings from visually identified interneurons of stratum radiatum (SR) and stratum oriens (SO) and examined the effects of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) on EPSP-like waveforms evoked by brief glutamate pulses onto their proximal dendrites. In SO interneurons, CCh consistently reduced glutamate-induced postsynaptic potentials (GPSPs) in control rat and mice, but not in M₂ muscarinic receptor knockout mice. By contrast, the overwhelming majority of interneurons recorded in SR of control and M₂ receptor-deficient hippocampi exhibited muscarinic enhancement of GPSPs. Interestingly, the non-responding interneurons were strictly confined to the SR subfield closest to the subiculum. Our data suggest that postsynaptic modulation by acetylcholine of excitatory input onto CA1 interneurons occurs in a stratum-specific fashion, which is determined by the absence or presence of M₂ receptors in their (somato-)dendritic compartments. Thus cholinergic projections might be capable of recalibrating synaptic weights in different inhibitory circuits of the CA1 region.
Imbrosci, Barbara; Neitz, Angela; Mittmann, Thomas
A physiological brain function requires neuronal networks to operate within a well-defined range of activity. Indeed, alterations in neuronal excitability have been associated with several pathological conditions, ranging from epilepsy to neuropsychiatric disorders. Changes in inhibitory transmission are known to play a key role in the development of hyperexcitability. However it is largely unknown whether specific interneuronal subpopulations contribute differentially to such pathological condition. In the present study we investigated functional alterations of inhibitory interneurons embedded in a hyperexcitable cortical circuit at the border of chronically induced focal lesions in mouse visual cortex. Interestingly, we found opposite alterations in the excitability of non fast-spiking (Non Fs) and fast-spiking (Fs) interneurons in acute cortical slices from injured animals. Non Fs interneurons displayed a depolarized membrane potential and a higher frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs). In contrast, Fs interneurons showed a reduced sEPSCs amplitude. The observed downscaling of excitatory synapses targeting Fs interneurons may prevent the recruitment of this specific population of interneurons to the hyperexcitable network. This mechanism is likely to seriously affect neuronal network function and to exacerbate hyperexcitability but it may be important to protect this particular vulnerable population of GABAegic neurons from excitotoxicity.
Szabo, Andras; Somogyi, Jozsef; Cauli, Bruno; Lambolez, Bertrand; Somogyi, Peter; Lamsa, Karri P
Glutamatergic synapses on some hippocampal GABAergic interneurons exhibit activity-induced long-term potentiation (LTP). Interneuron types within the CA1 area expressing mutually exclusive molecular markers differ in LTP responses. Potentiation that depends on calcium-permeable (CP) AMPA receptors has been characterized in oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons, which express parvalbumin and somatostatin (SM). However, it is unknown how widely CP-AMPAR-dependent plasticity is expressed among different GABAergic interneuron types. Here we examine synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal O-LM cells and two other interneuron types expressing either nitric oxide synthase (NOS) or cholecystokinin (CCK), which are known to be physiologically and developmentally distinct. We report similar CP-AMPAR-dependent LTP in NOS-immunopositive ivy cells and SM-expressing O-LM cells to afferent fiber theta burst stimulation. The potentiation in both cell types is induced at postsynaptic membrane potentials below firing threshold, and induction is blocked by intense spiking simultaneously with afferent stimulation. The strong inward rectification and calcium permeability of AMPARs is explained by a low level of GluA2 subunit mRNA expression. LTP is not elicited in CCK-expressing Schaffer collateral-associated cells, which lack CP-AMPARs and express high levels of the GluA2 subunit. The results show that CP-AMPAR-mediated synaptic potentiation is common in hippocampal interneuron types and occurs in interneurons of both feedforward and feedback inhibitory pathways.
Zhong, Guisheng; Sharma, Kamal; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M
The principles governing the recruitment of interneurons during acceleration in vertebrate locomotion are unknown. In the mouse, the V2a spinal interneurons are dispensable for left-right coordination at low locomotor frequencies, but their function is essential for maintaining left-right coordination at high frequencies. Here we explore the mechanisms driving this frequency-dependent role using four methods to determine how V2a interneurons are recruited at different locomotor frequencies. We show that half of the V2a interneurons receive rhythmic locomotor synaptic drive, which increases with cycle frequency, recruiting more of the neurons to fire at higher frequencies. The other V2a interneurons do not receive locomotion-related synaptic drive and are not recruited into the locomotor network at any frequency. The increased role of V2a interneurons at higher locomotor frequencies arises from increased synaptic drive to recruit subthreshold oscillating V2a neurons, and not from recruitment of a second set of silent V2a interneurons.
de Curtis, Ivan
Rac GTPases are regulators of the cytoskeleton that play an important role in several aspects of neuronal and brain development. Two distinct Rac GTPases are expressed in the developing nervous system, the widely expressed Rac1 and the neural-specific Rac3 proteins. Recent experimental evidence supports a central role of these two Rac proteins in the development of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, important modulatory elements of the brain circuitry. The combined inactivation of the genes for the two Rac proteins has profound effects on distinct aspects of interneuron development, and has highlighted a synergistic contribution of the two proteins to the postmitotic maturation of specific populations of cortical and hippocampal interneurons. Rac function is modulated by different types of regulators, and can influence the activity of specific effectors. Some of these proteins have been associated to the development and maturation of interneurons. Cortical interneuron dysfunction is implicated in several neurological and psychiatric diseases characterized by cognitive impairment. Therefore the description of the cellular processes regulated by the Rac GTPases, and the identification of the molecular networks underlying these processes during interneuron development is relevant to the understanding of the role of GABAergic interneurons in cognitive functions.
Neves, Guilherme; Shah, Mala M; Liodis, Petros; Achimastou, Angeliki; Denaxa, Myrto; Roalfe, Grant; Sesay, Abdul; Walker, Matthew C; Pachnis, Vassilis
Deletion of LIM homeodomain transcription factor-encoding Lhx6 gene in mice results in defective tangential migration of cortical interneurons and failure of differentiation of the somatostatin (Sst)- and parvalbumin (Pva)-expressing subtypes. Here, we characterize a novel hypomorphic allele of Lhx6 and demonstrate that reduced activity of this locus leads to widespread differentiation defects in Sst(+) interneurons, but relatively minor and localized changes in Pva(+) interneurons. The reduction in the number of Sst-expressing cells was not associated with a loss of interneurons, because the migration and number of Lhx6-expressing interneurons and expression of characteristic molecular markers, such as calretinin or Neuropeptide Y, were not affected in Lhx6 hypomorphic mice. Consistent with a selective deficit in the differentiation of Sst(+) interneurons in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus, we observed reduced expression of metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 in the stratum oriens and characteristic changes in dendritic inhibition, but normal inhibitory input onto the somatic compartment of CA1 pyramidal cells. Moreover, Lhx6 hypomorphs show behavioral, histological, and electroencephalographic signs of recurrent seizure activity, starting from early adulthood. These results demonstrate that Lhx6 plays an important role in the maturation of cortical interneurons and the formation of inhibitory circuits in the mammalian cortex.
Traub, Roger D.; Pais, Isabel; Bibbig, Andrea; Lebeau, Fiona E. N.; Buhl, Eberhard H.; Hormuzdi, Sheriar G.; Monyer, Hannah; Whittington, Miles A.
Electrical coupling between pyramidal cell axons, and between interneuron dendrites, have both been described in the hippocampus. What are the functional roles of the two types of coupling? Interneuron gap junctions enhance synchrony of oscillations (25-70 Hz) in isolated interneuron networks and also in networks containing both interneurons and principal cells, as shown in mice with a knockout of the neuronal (primarily interneuronal) connexin36. We have recently shown that pharmacological gap junction blockade abolishes kainate-induced oscillations in connexin36 knockout mice; without such gap junction blockade, oscillations do occur in the knockout mice, albeit at reduced power compared with wild-type mice. As interneuronal dendritic electrical coupling is almost absent in the knockout mice, these pharmacological data indicate a role of axonal electrical coupling in generating the oscillations. We construct a network model of an experimental oscillation, known to be regulated by both types of electrical coupling. In our model, axonal electrical coupling is required for the oscillation to occur at all; interneuron dendritic gap junctions exert a modulatory effect.
Garrido, Jesús A; Luque, Niceto R; Tolu, Silvia; D'Angelo, Egidio
The majority of operations carried out by the brain require learning complex signal patterns for future recognition, retrieval and reuse. Although learning is thought to depend on multiple forms of long-term synaptic plasticity, the way this latter contributes to pattern recognition is still poorly understood. Here, we have used a simple model of afferent excitatory neurons and interneurons with lateral inhibition, reproducing a network topology found in many brain areas from the cerebellum to cortical columns. When endowed with spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) at the excitatory input synapses and at the inhibitory interneuron-interneuron synapses, the interneurons rapidly learned complex input patterns. Interestingly, induction of plasticity required that the network be entrained into theta-frequency band oscillations, setting the internal phase-reference required to drive STDP. Inhibitory plasticity effectively distributed multiple patterns among available interneurons, thus allowing the simultaneous detection of multiple overlapping patterns. The addition of plasticity in intrinsic excitability made the system more robust allowing self-adjustment and rescaling in response to a broad range of input patterns. The combination of plasticity in lateral inhibitory connections and homeostatic mechanisms in the inhibitory interneurons optimized mutual information (MI) transfer. The storage of multiple complex patterns in plastic interneuron networks could be critical for the generation of sparse representations of information in excitatory neuron populations falling under their control.
Ashby, F. Gregory; Crossley, Matthew J.
An essential component of skill acquisition is learning the environmental conditions in which that skill is relevant. This article proposes and tests a neurobiologically detailed theory of how such learning is mediated. The theory assumes that a key component of this learning is provided by the cholinergic interneurons in the striatum known as…
Szegedi, Viktor; Paizs, Melinda; Csakvari, Eszter; Molnar, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Tamas, Gabor; Lamsa, Karri
In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3-5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices. However, long-term plasticity of the VLE connections and how the plasticity modulates neocortical complex events has not been studied. Using triple and dual whole-cell recordings from synaptically connected human neocortical layers 2-3 neurons, we show that VLEs in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons exhibit robust activity-induced long-term depression (LTD). The LTD by single pyramidal cell 40 Hz spike bursts is specific to connections with VLEs, requires group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, and has a presynaptic mechanism. The LTD of VLE connections alters suprathreshold activation of interneurons in the complex events suppressing the discharge of fast-spiking GABAergic cells. The VLEs triggering the complex events may contribute to cognitive processes in the human neocortex, and their long-term plasticity can alter the discharging cortical cell assemblies by learning.
Moore, Alexandra K; Wehr, Michael
In the auditory cortex, synaptic inhibition is known to be involved in shaping receptive fields, enhancing temporal precision, and regulating gain. Cortical inhibition is provided by local GABAergic interneurons, which comprise 10-20% of the cortical population and can be separated into numerous subclasses. The morphological and physiological diversity of interneurons suggests that these different subclasses have unique roles in sound processing; however, these roles are yet unknown. Understanding the receptive field properties of distinct inhibitory cell types will be critical to elucidating their computational function in cortical circuits. Here we characterized the tuning and response properties of parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, the largest inhibitory subclass. We used channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) as an optogenetic tag to identify PV+ and PV- neurons in vivo in transgenic mice. In contrast to PV+ neurons in mouse visual cortex, which are broadly tuned for orientation, we found that auditory cortical PV+ neurons were well tuned for frequency, although very tightly tuned PV+ cells were uncommon. This suggests that PV+ neurons play a minor role in shaping frequency tuning, and is consistent with the idea that PV+ neurons nonselectively pool input from the local network. PV+ interneurons had shallower response gain and were less intensity-tuned than PV- neurons, suggesting that PV+ neurons provide dynamic gain control and shape intensity tuning in auditory cortex. PV+ neurons also had markedly faster response latencies than PV- neurons, consistent with a computational role in enhancing the temporal precision of cortical responses.
Bartos, Marlene; Vida, Imre; Frotscher, Michael; Meyer, Axel; Monyer, Hannah; Geiger, Jörg R. P.; Jonas, Peter
Networks of GABAergic interneurons are of critical importance for the generation of gamma frequency oscillations in the brain. To examine the underlying synaptic mechanisms, we made paired recordings from “basket cells” (BCs) in different subfields of hippocampal slices, using transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the parvalbumin promoter. Unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) showed large amplitude and fast time course with mean amplitude-weighted decay time constants of 2.5, 1.2, and 1.8 ms in the dentate gyrus, and the cornu ammonis area 3 (CA3) and 1 (CA1), respectively (33–34°C). The decay of unitary IPSCs at BC–BC synapses was significantly faster than that at BC–principal cell synapses, indicating target cell-specific differences in IPSC kinetics. In addition, electrical coupling was found in a subset of BC–BC pairs. To examine whether an interneuron network with fast inhibitory synapses can act as a gamma frequency oscillator, we developed an interneuron network model based on experimentally determined properties. In comparison to previous interneuron network models, our model was able to generate oscillatory activity with higher coherence over a broad range of frequencies (20–110 Hz). In this model, high coherence and flexibility in frequency control emerge from the combination of synaptic properties, network structure, and electrical coupling. PMID:12235359
Abe, Manami; Kimoto, Hiroki; Eto, Risa; Sasaki, Taeko; Kato, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Jiro; Araki, Tsutomu
We investigated postnatal alterations of neurons, interneurons and glial cells in the mouse substantia nigra using immunohistochemistry. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), neuronal nuclei (NeuN), parvalbumin (PV), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba 1), CNPase (2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) immunoreactivity were measured in 1-, 2-, 4- and 8-week-old mice. In the present study, the maturation of NeuN-immunopositive neurons preceded the production of TH in the substantia nigra during postnatal development in mice. Furthermore, the maturation of nNOS-immunopositive interneurons preceded the maturation of PV-immunopositive interneurons in the substantia nigra during postnatal development. Among astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes, in contrast, the development process of oligodendrocytes is delayed in the substantia nigra. Our double-labeled immunohistochemical study suggests that the neurotrophic factors such as BDNF and GDNF secreted by GFAP-positive astrocytes may play some role in maturation of neurons, interneurons and glial cells of the substantia nigra during postnatal development in mice. Thus, our findings provide valuable information on the development processes of the substantia nigra.
Biró, Zoltán; Hill, Russell H; Grillner, Sten
Commissural interneurons in the lamprey coordinate activity of the hemisegmental oscillators to ensure proper left-right alternation during swimming. The activity of interneuronal axons at the ventral commissure was studied together with potential target motoneurons during fictive locomotion in the isolated lamprey spinal cord. To estimate the unperturbed activity of the interneurons, axonal recordings were chosen because soma recordings inevitably will affect the level of membrane depolarization and thereby spike initiation. Of 227 commissural axons recorded during locomotor activity, 14 produced inhibitory and 3 produced excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in target motoneurons. The axons typically fired multiple spikes per locomotor cycle, with approximately 10 Hz sustained frequency. The average shortest spike interval in a burst corresponded to an instantaneous frequency of approximately 50 Hz for both the excitatory and inhibitory axons. The maximum number of spikes per locomotor cycle was inversely related to the locomotor frequency, in accordance with previous observations in the spinal hemicord preparation. In axons that fired multiple spikes per cycle, the mean interspike intervals were in the range in which the amplitude of the slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) is large, providing further support for the role of the sAHP in spike timing. One hundred ninety-five axons (86%) fired rhythmically during fictive locomotion, with preferred phase of firing distributed over either the segmental locomotor burst phase (40% of axons) or the transitional phase (between bursts; 60%). Thus in lamprey commissural interneurons, we found a broad distribution of firing rates and phases during fictive locomotion.
Tao, Yanmei; Chen, Yong-Jun; Shen, Chengyong; Luo, Zhengyi; Bates, C Ryan; Lee, Daehoon; Marchetto, Sylvie; Gao, Tian-Ming; Borg, Jean-Paul; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin
Inhibitory neurons control the firing of glutamatergic neurons and synchronize brain activity. However, little is known about mechanisms of excitatory synapse formation in inhibitory neurons. Here we demonstrate that Erbin is specifically expressed in cortical inhibitory neurons. It localizes at excitatory synapses and regulates AMPA receptor (AMPAR) surface expression. Erbin mutation reduced mEPSCs and AMPAR currents specifically in parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons but not in pyramidal neurons. We found that the AMPAR auxiliary protein TARP γ-2 was specifically expressed in cortical interneurons. Erbin interacts with TARP γ-2 and is crucial for its stability. Deletion of the γ-2-interacting domain in Erbin attenuated surface AMPAR and excitatory transmission in PV-positive interneurons. Furthermore, we observed behavioral deficits in Erbin-null mice and in mice expressing an Erbin truncation mutant that is unable to interact with TARP γ-2. These observations demonstrate a crucial function for Erbin in AMPAR surface expression in cortical PV-positive interneurons and may contribute to a better understanding of psychiatric disorders.
Mann, Edward O; Mody, Istvan
Gamma-frequency oscillations depend on phasic synaptic GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition to synchronize spike timing. The spillover of synaptically released GABA can also activate extrasynaptic GABA(A)Rs, and such tonic inhibition may also contribute to modulating network dynamics. In many neuronal cell types, tonic inhibition is mediated by delta subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs. We found that the frequency of in vitro cholinergically induced gamma oscillations in the mouse hippocampal CA3 region was increased by the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) on interneurons. The NMDAR-dependent increase of gamma oscillation frequency was counteracted by the tonic inhibition of the interneurons mediated by delta subunit-containing GABA(A)Rs. Recordings of synaptic currents during gamma activity revealed that NMDAR-mediated increases in oscillation frequency correlated with a progressive synchronization of phasic excitation and inhibition in the network. Thus, the balance between tonic excitation and tonic inhibition of interneurons may modulate gamma frequency by shaping interneuronal synchronization.
Nomura, Masaki; Fukai, Tomoki; Aoyagi, Toshio
Fast-spiking (FS) interneurons have specific types (Kv3.1/3.2 type) of the delayed potassium channel, which differ from the conventional Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type potassium channel (Kv1.3 type) in several aspects. In this study, we show dramatic effects of the Kv3.1/3.2 potassium channel on the synchronization of the FS interneurons. We show analytically that two identical electrically coupled FS interneurons modeled with Kv3.1/3.2 channel fire synchronously at arbitrary firing frequencies, unlike similarly coupled FS neurons modeled with Kv1.3 channel that show frequency-dependent synchronous and antisynchronous firing states. Introducing GABA(A) receptor-mediated synaptic connections into an FS neuron pair tends to induce an antisynchronous firing state, even if the chemical synapses are bidirectional. Accordingly, an FS neuron pair connected simultaneously by electrical and chemical synapses achieves both synchronous firing state and antisynchronous firing state in a physiologically plausible range of the conductance ratio between electrical and chemical synapses. Moreover, we find that a large-scale network of FS interneurons connected by gap junctions and bidirectional GABAergic synapses shows similar bistability in the range of gamma frequencies (30-70 Hz).
Chen, Si; Yang, Guangqi; Zhu, Yaxi; Liu, Zongwei; Wang, Weiping; Wei, Jiayou; Li, Keyi; Wu, Jiajia; Chen, Zhi; Li, Youlan; Mu, Shuhua; OuYang, Lisi; Lei, Wanlong
Interneurons are involved in the physiological function and the pathomechanism of the spinal cord. Present study aimed to examine and compare the characteristics of Cr+, Calb+ and Parv+ interneurons in morphology and distribution by using immunhistochemical and Western blot techniques. Results showed that 1) Cr-Calb presented a higher co-existence rate than that of Cr-Parv, and both of them were higher in the ventral horn than in the dosal horn; 2) Cr+, Calb+ and Parv+ neurons distributing zonally in the superficial dosal horn were small-sized. Parv+ neuronswere the largest, and Cr+ and Calb+ neurons were higher density among them. In the deep dorsal horn, Parv+ neurons were mainly located in nucleus thoracicus and the remaining scatteredly distributed. Cr+ neuronal size was the largest, and Calb+ neurons were the least among three interneuron types; 3) Cr+, Calb+ and Parv+ neurons of ventral horns displayed polygonal, round and fusiform, and Cr+ and Parv+ neurons were mainly distributed in the deep layer, but Calb+ neurons mainly in the superficial layer. Cr+ neurons were the largest, and distributed more in ventral horns than in dorsal horns; 4) in the dorsal horn of lumbar cords, Calb protein levels was the highest, but Parv protein level in ventral horns was the highest among the three protein types. Present results suggested that the morphological characteristics of three interneuron types imply their physiological function and pathomechanism relevance.
Franchi, Sira A.; Astro, Veronica; Macco, Romina; Tonoli, Diletta; Barnier, Jean-Vianney; Botta, Martina; de Curtis, Ivan
Interneurons are essential modulators of brain activity and their abnormal maturation may lead to neural and intellectual disabilities. Here we show that cultures derived from murine medial ganglionic eminences (MGEs) produce virtually pure, polarized γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons that can form morphologically identifiable inhibitory synapses. We show that Rac GTPases and a protein complex including the GIT family scaffold proteins are expressed during maturation in vitro, and are required for the normal development of neurites. GIT1 promotes neurite extension in a conformation-dependent manner, while affecting its interaction with specific partners reduces neurite branching. Proteins of the GIT network are concentrated at growth cones, and interaction mutants may affect growth cone behavior. Our findings identify the PIX/GIT1/liprin-α1/ERC1 network as critical for the regulation of interneuron neurite differentiation in vitro, and show that these cultures represent a valuable system to identify the molecular mechanisms driving the maturation of cortical/hippocampal interneurons. PMID:28066185
Zhu, Yaxi; Liu, Zongwei; Wang, Weiping; Wei, Jiayou; Li, Keyi; Wu, Jiajia; Chen, Zhi; Li, Youlan; Mu, Shuhua; OuYang, Lisi; Lei, Wanlong
Interneurons are involved in the physiological function and the pathomechanism of the spinal cord. Present study aimed to examine and compare the characteristics of Cr+, Calb+ and Parv+ interneurons in morphology and distribution by using immunhistochemical and Western blot techniques. Results showed that 1) Cr-Calb presented a higher co-existence rate than that of Cr-Parv, and both of them were higher in the ventral horn than in the dosal horn; 2) Cr+, Calb+ and Parv+ neurons distributing zonally in the superficial dosal horn were small-sized. Parv+ neuronswere the largest, and Cr+ and Calb+ neurons were higher density among them. In the deep dorsal horn, Parv+ neurons were mainly located in nucleus thoracicus and the remaining scatteredly distributed. Cr+ neuronal size was the largest, and Calb+ neurons were the least among three interneuron types; 3) Cr+, Calb+ and Parv+ neurons of ventral horns displayed polygonal, round and fusiform, and Cr+ and Parv+ neurons were mainly distributed in the deep layer, but Calb+ neurons mainly in the superficial layer. Cr+ neurons were the largest, and distributed more in ventral horns than in dorsal horns; 4) in the dorsal horn of lumbar cords, Calb protein levels was the highest, but Parv protein level in ventral horns was the highest among the three protein types. Present results suggested that the morphological characteristics of three interneuron types imply their physiological function and pathomechanism relevance. PMID:27658248
Xu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Zijing; Huang, Hao; Zheng, Kang; Hu, Xuemei; Zhang, Zunyi; Qiu, Mengsheng
To date, five AP-2 genes that encode AP-2α, β, γ, δ and ε have been identified in vertebrates and they have been reported to be key regulators of embryonic development. However, the role of AP-2 family members in the development of central nervous system (CNS) has not been characterized. In the present study, we systematically examined the spatiotemporal expression pattern of AP-2 genes in the developing spinal cord of mouse and chick embryos and found that AP-2α and AP-2β are specifically expressed in post-mitotic dorsal interneurons. Loss-of-function analysis using in ovo electroporation in embryonic chick spinal cord preliminarily demonstrated that cAP-2α and cAP-2β regulates dorsal Class A and Class B interneuron specification, respectively. Gain-of-function experiments further revealed that misexpression of cAP-2α, but not cAP-2β, was able to induce the ectopic generation of Class A interneurons. Together, our studies indicated that AP-2 family members, AP-2α and AP-2β, have distinct functions in the regulation of dorsal interneuron development.
Szegedi, Viktor; Paizs, Melinda; Csakvari, Eszter; Molnar, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Tamas, Gabor; Lamsa, Karri
In the human neocortex, single excitatory pyramidal cells can elicit very large glutamatergic EPSPs (VLEs) in inhibitory GABAergic interneurons capable of triggering their firing with short (3–5 ms) delay. Similar strong excitatory connections between two individual neurons have not been found in nonhuman cortices, suggesting that these synapses are specific to human interneurons. The VLEs are crucial for generating neocortical complex events, observed as single pyramidal cell spike-evoked discharge of cell assemblies in the frontal and temporal cortices. However, long-term plasticity of the VLE connections and how the plasticity modulates neocortical complex events has not been studied. Using triple and dual whole-cell recordings from synaptically connected human neocortical layers 2–3 neurons, we show that VLEs in fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons exhibit robust activity-induced long-term depression (LTD). The LTD by single pyramidal cell 40 Hz spike bursts is specific to connections with VLEs, requires group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, and has a presynaptic mechanism. The LTD of VLE connections alters suprathreshold activation of interneurons in the complex events suppressing the discharge of fast-spiking GABAergic cells. The VLEs triggering the complex events may contribute to cognitive processes in the human neocortex, and their long-term plasticity can alter the discharging cortical cell assemblies by learning. PMID:27828957
Wu, Jia-jia; Chen, Si; Ouyang, Li-si; Jia, Yu; Liu, Bing-bing; Mu, Shu-hua; Ma, Yu-xin; Wang, Wei-ping; Wei, Jia-you; Li, You-lan; Chen, Zhi; Lei, Wan-long
Striatal neurons can be either projection neurons or interneurons, with each type exhibiting distinct susceptibility to various types of brain damage. In this study, 6-hydroxydopamine was injected into the right medial forebrain bundle to induce dopamine depletion, and/or ibotenic acid was injected into the M1 cortex to induce motor cortex lesions. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assay showed that dopaminergic depletion results in significant loss of striatal projection neurons marked by dopamine- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, molecular weight 32 kDa, calbindin, and μ-opioid receptor, while cortical lesions reversed these pathological changes. After dopaminergic deletion, the number of neuropeptide Y-positive striatal interneurons markedly increased, which was also inhibited by cortical lesioning. No noticeable change in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons was found in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats. Striatal projection neurons and interneurons show different susceptibility to dopaminergic depletion. Further, cortical lesions inhibit striatal dysfunction and damage induced by 6-hydroxydopamine, which provides a new possibility for clinical treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:28197194
Ognjanovski, Nicolette; Schaeffer, Samantha; Wu, Jiaxing; Mofakham, Sima; Maruyama, Daniel; Zochowski, Michal; Aton, Sara J
Activity in hippocampal area CA1 is essential for consolidating episodic memories, but it is unclear how CA1 activity patterns drive memory formation. We find that in the hours following single-trial contextual fear conditioning (CFC), fast-spiking interneurons (which typically express parvalbumin (PV)) show greater firing coherence with CA1 network oscillations. Post-CFC inhibition of PV+ interneurons blocks fear memory consolidation. This effect is associated with loss of two network changes associated with normal consolidation: (1) augmented sleep-associated delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-12 Hz) and ripple (150-250 Hz) oscillations; and (2) stabilization of CA1 neurons' functional connectivity patterns. Rhythmic activation of PV+ interneurons increases CA1 network coherence and leads to a sustained increase in the strength and stability of functional connections between neurons. Our results suggest that immediately following learning, PV+ interneurons drive CA1 oscillations and reactivation of CA1 ensembles, which directly promotes network plasticity and long-term memory formation.
Lee, Kwang; Holley, Sandra M; Shobe, Justin L; Chong, Natalie C; Cepeda, Carlos; Levine, Michael S; Masmanidis, Sotiris C
The prevailing view is that striatal parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons primarily function to downregulate medium spiny projection neuron (MSN) activity via monosynaptic inhibitory signaling. Here, by combining in vivo neural recordings and optogenetics, we unexpectedly find that both suppressing and over-activating PV cells attenuates spontaneous MSN activity. To account for this, we find that, in addition to monosynaptic coupling, PV-MSN interactions are mediated by a competing disynaptic inhibitory circuit involving a variety of neuropeptide Y-expressing interneurons. Next we use optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches to show that dorsolateral striatal PV interneurons influence the initial expression of reward-conditioned responses but that their contribution to performance declines with experience. Consistent with this, we observe with large-scale recordings in behaving animals that the relative contribution of PV cells on MSN activity diminishes with training. Together, this work provides a possible mechanism by which PV interneurons modulate striatal output and selectively enhance performance early in learning.
Yang, Jing; Chen, Jing; Cai, Guohong; Lu, Rui; Sun, Tingting; Luo, Tingting; Wu, Shengxi; Ling, Shucai
Sevoflurane is widely used in adult and pediatric patients during clinical surgeries. Although studies have shown that exposure to sevoflurane impairs solfactory memory after an operation, the neuropathological changes underlying this effect are not clear. This study detected the effect of sevoflurane exposure on the development of calcium-binding proteins-expressing interneurons in the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We exposed neonatal mice to 2% sevoflurane at two different developmental time points and found that exposing mice to sevoflurane at postnatal day (PD) 7 significantly decreased the expression of GAD67 and parvalbumin (PV) in the olfactory bulb (OB) but did not alter the expression of calretinin (CR) or calbindin D28k (CB). The number and dendritic morphology of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB were impaired by exposure to sevoflurane at PD7. However, exposure to sevoflurane at PD10 had no effect on calcium-binding protein expression or the number and dendritic morphology of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB. These results suggest that exposing neonatal mice to sevoflurane during a critical period of olfactory development affects the development of PV-expressing interneurons in the MOB. PMID:27445710
Figueres-Oñate, Maria; López-Mascaraque, Laura
Neurons are generated during embryonic development and in adulthood, although adult neurogenesis is restricted to two main brain regions, the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles generates neural stem/progenitor cells that continually provide the olfactory bulb (OB) with new granule or periglomerular neurons, cells that arrive from the SVZ via the rostral migratory stream. The continued neurogenesis and the adequate integration of these newly generated interneurons is essential to maintain homeostasis in the olfactory bulb, where the differentiation of these cells into specific neural cell types is strongly influenced by temporal cues. Therefore, identifying the critical features that control the generation of adult OB interneurons at either pre- or post-natal stages is important to understand the dynamic contribution of neural stem cells. Here, we used in utero and neonatal SVZ electroporation along with a transposase-mediated stable integration plasmid, in order to track interneurons and glial lineages in the OB. These plasmids are valuable tools to study the development of OB interneurons from embryonic and post-natal SVZ progenitors. Accordingly, we examined the location and identity of the adult progeny of embryonic and post-natally transfected progenitors by examining neurochemical markers in the adult OB. These data reveal the different cell types in the olfactory bulb that are generated in function of age and different electroporation conditions. PMID:27242400
Qi, Jia; Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Hui-Ling; Barker, David J.; Miranda-Barrientos, Jorge; Morales, Marisela
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is best known for its dopamine neurons, some of which project to nucleus accumbens (nAcc). However, the VTA also has glutamatergic neurons that project to nAcc. The function of the mesoaccumbens-glutamatergic pathway remains unknown. Here, we report that nAcc photoactivation of mesoaccumbens-glutamatergic fibers promotes aversion. Although we found that these mesoaccumbens-glutamate-fibers lack GABA, the aversion evoked by their photoactivation depends on glutamate and GABA receptor signaling, and not on dopamine receptor signaling. We found that mesoaccumbens-glutamatergic-fibers establish multiple asymmetric synapses on single parvalbumin-GABAergic interneurons, and that nAcc photoactivation of these fibers drives AMPA-mediated cellular firing of parvalbumin-GABAergic interneurons. These parvalbumin-GABAergic-interneurons, in turn, inhibit nAcc medium spiny output neurons, as such, controlling inhibitory neurotransmission within nAcc. The mesoaccumbens-glutamatergic pathway is the first glutamatergic input to nAcc shown to mediate aversion, instead of reward, and the first pathway shown to establish excitatory synapses on nAcc parvalbumin-GABAergic interneurons. PMID:27019014
Janssen, Megan J; Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Buonanno, Andres
The Neuregulin 1 (NRG1)/ErbB4 signaling pathway has been genetically and functionally implicated in the etiology underlying schizophrenia, and in the regulation of glutamatergic pyramidal neuron function and plasticity. However, ErbB4 receptors are expressed in subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons, but not in hippocampal or cortical pyramidal neurons, indicating that NRG1 effects on principal neurons are indirect. Consistent with these findings, NRG1 effects on hippocampal long-term potentiation at CA1 pyramidal neuron synapses in slices are mediated indirectly by dopamine. Here we studied whether NRG/ErbB signaling directly regulates interneuron intrinsic excitability by pharmacologically isolating ErbB4-expressing neurons in rat dissociated hippocampal cultures, which lack dopaminergic innervation. We found that NRG1 acutely attenuates ErbB4-expressing interneuron excitability by depolarizing the firing threshold; neurons treated with the pan-ErbB inhibitor PD158780 or negative for ErbB4 were unaffected. These effects of NRG1 are primarily attributable to decreased voltage-gated sodium channel activity, as current density was attenuated by ∼60%. In stark contrast, NRG1 had minor effects on whole-cell potassium currents. Our data reveal the direct actions of NRG1 signaling in ErbB4-expressing interneurons, and offer novel insight into how NRG1/ErbB4 signaling can impact hippocampal activity.
Südhof, Thomas C.
Neuroligins are postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that contribute to synapse specification. However, many other postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules are known and the relative contributions of neuroligins versus other such molecules in different types of synapses and neurons remains largely unknown. Here, we have studied the role of neuroligins in cerebellar stellate interneurons that participate in a well defined circuit that converges on Purkinje cells as the major output neurons of cerebellar cortex. By crossing triple conditional knock-out (cKO) mice targeting all three major neuroligins [neuroligin-1 to neuroligin-3 (NL123)] with parvalbumin-Cre (PV-Cre) transgenic mice, we deleted neuroligins from inhibitory cerebellar interneurons and Purkinje cells, allowing us to study the effects of neuroligin deletions on cerebellar stellate cell synapses by electrophysiology in acute slices. PV-Cre/NL123 cKO mice did not exhibit gross alterations of cerebellar structure or cerebellar interneuron morphology. Strikingly, electrophysiological recordings in stellate cells from these PV-Cre/NL123 cKO mice revealed a large decrease in NMDAR-mediated excitatory synaptic responses, which, in stellate cells, are largely extrasynaptic, without a change in AMPA-receptor-mediated responses. Parallel analyses in PV-Cre/NL1 mice that are single NL1 cKO mice uncovered the same phenotype, demonstrating that NL1 is responsible for recruiting extrasynaptic NMDARs. Moreover, we observed only a modest impairment in inhibitory synaptic responses in stellate cells lacking NL123 despite a nearly complete suppression of inhibitory synaptic transmission in Purkinje cells by the same genetic manipulation. Our results suggest that, unlike other types of neurons investigated, neuroligins are selectively essential in cerebellar stellate interneurons for enabling the function of extrasynaptic NMDARs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neuroligins are postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules genetically linked to
Kameda, Hiroshi; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yasuyo H; Tanaka, Takuma; Sohn, Jaerin; Sonomura, Takahiro; Furuta, Takahiro; Fujiyama, Fumino; Kaneko, Takeshi
To examine inputs to parvalbumin (PV)-producing interneurons, we generated transgenic mice expressing somatodendritic membrane-targeted green fluorescent protein specifically in the interneurons, and completely visualized their dendrites and somata. Using immunolabeling for vesicular glutamate transporter (VGluT)1, VGluT2, and vesicular GABA transporter, we found that VGluT1-positive terminals made contacts 4- and 3.1-fold more frequently with PV-producing interneurons than VGluT2-positive and GABAergic terminals, respectively, in the primary somatosensory cortex. Even in layer 4, where VGluT2-positive terminals were most densely distributed, VGluT1-positive inputs to PV-producing interneurons were 2.4-fold more frequent than VGluT2-positive inputs. Furthermore, although GABAergic inputs to PV-producing interneurons were as numerous as VGluT2-positive inputs in most cortical layers, GABAergic inputs clearly preferred the proximal dendrites and somata of the interneurons, indicating that the sites of GABAergic inputs were more optimized than those of VGluT2-positive inputs. Simulation analysis with a PV-producing interneuron model compatible with the present morphological data revealed a plausible reason for this observation, by showing that GABAergic and glutamatergic postsynaptic potentials evoked by inputs to distal dendrites were attenuated to 60 and 87%, respectively, of those evoked by somatic inputs. As VGluT1-positive and VGluT2-positive axon terminals were presumed to be cortical and thalamic glutamatergic inputs, respectively, cortical excitatory inputs to PV-producing interneurons outnumbered the thalamic excitatory and intrinsic inhibitory inputs more than two-fold in any cortical layer. Although thalamic inputs are known to evoke about two-fold larger unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials than cortical ones, the present results suggest that cortical inputs control PV-producing interneurons at least as strongly as thalamic inputs.
Ma, Yunyong; Hu, Hang; Agmon, Ariel
Excitatory-to-inhibitory cortical synapses exhibit either short-term facilitation or depression, depending on the subtype identity of the postsynaptic interneuron, while the short-term plasticity (STP) of inhibitory-to-excitatory synapses depends on the presynaptic interneuron. However, the rules governing STP of inhibitory-to-inhibitory synapses have not yet been determined. We recorded 109 unitary connections made by the two major inhibitory interneuron subtypes in layer 4 of mouse somatosensory cortex, fast-spiking (FS) and somatostatin-containing (SOM) interneurons, on each other and on excitatory, regular-spiking (RS) neurons. In all pairs, we measured dynamic changes in the postsynaptic response to a 20 Hz train of presynaptic action potentials. In half of our dataset, we also measured kinetic properties of the unitary IPSC: latency, rise time, and decay time constant. We found a pronounced dependency of STP on the presynaptic, but not the postsynaptic, identity: FS interneurons made strongly depressing connections on FS, SOM, and RS targets, while in synapses made by SOM interneurons on FS and RS targets, weak early depression was followed by weak late facilitation. IPSC latency and rise time were also strongly dependent on the presynaptic interneuron subtype, being 1.5-2× slower in output synapses of SOM compared with FS interneurons. In contrast, the IPSC decay time constant depended only on the postsynaptic class, with 1.5× slower decay on excitatory compared with inhibitory targets. The properties of the inhibitory outputs of FS and SOM interneurons reciprocate the properties of their excitatory inputs and imply a dynamic spatiotemporal division of labor between these two major inhibitory subsystems.
Sun, H Y; Bartley, A F; Dobrunz, L E
Schaffer collateral synapses in hippocampus show target-cell specific short-term plasticity. Using GFP-expressing Inhibitory Neuron (GIN) transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in a subset of somatostatin-containing interneurons (SOM interneurons), we previously showed that Schaffer collateral synapses onto SOM interneurons in stratum (S.) radiatum have unusually large (up to 6-fold) paired-pulse facilitation. This results from a low initial release probability and the enhancement of facilitation by synaptic activation of presynaptic kainate receptors. Here we further investigate the properties of these kainate receptors and examine their effects on short-term facilitation during physiologically derived stimulation patterns, using excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded in S. radiatum interneurons during Schaffer collateral stimulation in acute slices from juvenile GIN mice. We find that GluR5 and GluR6 antagonists decrease short-term facilitation at Schaffer collateral synapses onto SOM interneurons with no additive effects, suggesting that the presynaptic kainate receptors are heteromers containing both GluR5 and GluR6 subunits. The calcium-permeable receptor antagonist 1-napthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM) both mimics and occludes the effect of the kainate receptor antagonists, indicating that the presynaptic kainate receptors are calcium permeable. Furthermore, Schaffer collateral synapses onto SOM interneurons show up to 11-fold short-term facilitation during physiologically derived stimulus patterns, in contrast to other interneurons that have less than 1.5-fold facilitation. Blocking the kainate receptors reduces facilitation in SOM interneurons by approximately 50% during the physiologically derived patterns and reduces the dynamic range. Activation of calcium-permeable kainate receptors containing GluR5/GluR6 causes a dramatic increase in short-term facilitation during physiologically derived stimulus patterns, a mechanism
Zhong, Guisheng; Droho, Steven; Crone, Steven A; Dietz, Shelby; Kwan, Alex C; Webb, Watt W; Sharma, Kamal; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M
The V2a class of Chx10-expressing interneurons has been implicated in frequency-dependent control of left-right phase during locomotion in the mouse. We have used the Chx10::CFP mouse line to further investigate the properties and locomotion-related activity of V2a interneurons in the isolated neonatal spinal cord. V2a interneurons can be divided into three classes, based on their tonic, phasic, or delayed-onset responses to step depolarization. Electrical coupling is found only between neurons of same class and helps to synchronize neuronal activity within the class. Serotonin (5-HT) excites isolated tonic V2a interneurons by depolarizing the neurons and increasing their membrane input resistance, with no significant effects on action potential properties, a mechanism distinct from 5-HT excitation of commissural interneurons. During NMDA-/5-HT-induced locomotor-like activity, patch-clamp recordings and two-photon calcium imaging experiments show that approximately half of V2a interneurons fire rhythmically with ventral root-recorded motor activity; the rhythmic V2a interneurons fired during one half of the cycle, in phase with either the ipsilateral or the contralateral L2 ventral root bursts. The percentage of rhythmically firing V2a interneurons increases during higher-frequency fictive locomotion, and they become significantly more rhythmic in their firing during the locomotor cycle; this may help to explain the frequency-dependent shift in left-right coupling in Chx10::DTA mice, which lack these neurons. Our results together with data from the accompanying paper (Dougherty and Kiehn, 2009) reinforce earlier proposals that the V2a interneurons are components of the hindlimb central pattern generator, helping to organize left-right locomotor coordination in the neonatal mouse spinal cord.
Doherty, J; Dingledine, R
The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and adenosine receptors in hypoxia-induced suppression of excitatory synaptic input to interneurons residing at the granule cell-hilus border in the dentate gyrus was investigated with the use of whole cell electrophysiological recording techniques in thin (250 microns) slices of immature rat hippocampus. Minimal stimulation evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in dentate interneurons in 68 +/- 4% (mean +/- SE) of trials during stimulation in the dentate granule cell layer (GCL) and 48 +/- 3% of trials during stimulation in CA3. Hypoxic episodes, produced by switching the perfusing solution from 95% O2-5% CO2 to a solution containing 95% N2-5% CO2 for 3-5 min, rapidly and reversibly decreased the synaptic reliability, or probability of evoking an EPSC, from either input without reducing EPSC amplitude, consistent with a presynaptic suppression of transmitter release. The mGluR antagonist (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine [(+) MCPG; 500 microM] did not alter synaptic reliability or mean EPSC amplitude in either pathway. However, (+) MCPG significantly attenuated hypoxic suppression of input from both pathways, suggesting that mGluRs activated by release of glutamate partially mediate hypoxic suppression of EPSCs to dentate interneurons. The mGluR agonist (1S,3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD; 100 microM) rapidly decreased the reliability of excitatory transmission from both the GCL (19 +/- 5% of control) and CA3 (39 +/- 15% of control). ACPD also increased the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs and evoked a slow inward current in dentate interneurons. Exogenous adenosine (10-300 microM) decreased synaptic reliability for both pathways and reduced the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs, but did not cause a decrease in the mean amplitude of evoked EPSCs, consistent with a presynaptic suppression of excitatory input to dentate interneurons. Conversely, the selective adenosine
Ellender, Tommas J; Raimondo, Joseph V; Irkle, Agnese; Lamsa, Karri P; Akerman, Colin J
Epileptic seizures are characterized by periods of hypersynchronous, hyperexcitability within brain networks. Most seizures involve two stages: an initial tonic phase, followed by a longer clonic phase that is characterized by rhythmic bouts of synchronized network activity called afterdischarges (ADs). Here we investigate the cellular and network mechanisms underlying hippocampal ADs in an effort to understand how they maintain seizure activity. Using in vitro hippocampal slice models from rats and mice, we performed electrophysiological recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons to monitor network activity and changes in GABAergic signaling during epileptiform activity. First, we show that the highest synchrony occurs during clonic ADs, consistent with the idea that specific circuit dynamics underlie this phase of the epileptiform activity. We then show that ADs require intact GABAergic synaptic transmission, which becomes excitatory as a result of a transient collapse in the chloride (Cl(-)) reversal potential. The depolarizing effects of GABA are strongest at the soma of pyramidal neurons, which implicates somatic-targeting interneurons in AD activity. To test this, we used optogenetic techniques to selectively control the activity of somatic-targeting parvalbumin-expressing (PV(+)) interneurons. Channelrhodopsin-2-mediated activation of PV(+) interneurons during the clonic phase generated excitatory GABAergic responses in pyramidal neurons, which were sufficient to elicit and entrain synchronous AD activity across the network. Finally, archaerhodopsin-mediated selective silencing of PV(+) interneurons reduced the occurrence of ADs during the clonic phase. Therefore, we propose that activity-dependent Cl(-) accumulation subverts the actions of PV(+) interneurons to perpetuate rather than terminate pathological network hyperexcitability during the clonic phase of seizures.
Lucas, Elizabeth K; Dougherty, Sarah E; McMeekin, Laura J; Reid, Courtney S; Dobrunz, Lynn E; West, Andrew B; Hablitz, John J; Cowell, Rita M
Accumulating evidence strongly implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in the pathophysiology of multiple neurological disorders, but the downstream gene targets of PGC-1α in the brain have remained enigmatic. Previous data demonstrate that PGC-1α is primarily concentrated in inhibitory neurons and that PGC-1α is required for the expression of the interneuron-specific Ca(2+)-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) throughout the cortex. To identify other possible transcriptional targets of PGC-1α in neural tissue, we conducted a microarray on neuroblastoma cells overexpressing PGC-1α, mined results for genes with physiological relevance to interneurons, and measured cortical gene and protein expression of these genes in mice with underexpression and overexpression of PGC-1α. We observed bidirectional regulation of novel PGC-1α-dependent transcripts spanning synaptic [synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2) and complexin 1 (Cplx1)], structural [neurofilament heavy chain (Nefh)], and metabolic [neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 (Nceh1), adenylate kinase 1 (Ak1), inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase J (Inpp5j), ATP synthase mitochondrial F1 complex O subunit (Atp5o), phytanol-CoA-2hydroxylase (Phyh), and ATP synthase mitrochondrial F1 complex α subunit 1 (Atp5a1)] functions. The neuron-specific genes Syt2, Cplx1, and Nefh were developmentally upregulated in an expression pattern consistent with that of PGC-1α and were expressed in cortical interneurons. Conditional deletion of PGC-1α in PV-positive neurons significantly decreased cortical transcript expression of these genes, promoted asynchronous GABA release, and impaired long-term memory. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PGC-1α is required for normal PV-positive interneuron function and that loss of PGC-1α in this interneuron subpopulation could contribute to cortical dysfunction in disease states.
Caballero, Adriana; Flores-Barrera, Eden; Cass, Daryn K; Tseng, Kuei Y
Determining the normal developmental trajectory of individual GABAergic components in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during the adolescent transition period is critical because local GABAergic interneurons are thought to play an important role in the functional maturation of cognitive control that occurs in this developmental window. Based on the expression of calcium-binding proteins, three distinctive subtypes of interneurons have been identified in the PFC: parvalbumin (PV)-, calretinin (CR)-, and calbindin (CB)-positive cells. Using biochemical and histochemical measures, we found that the protein level of PV is lowest in juveniles [postnatal days (PD) 25-35] and increases during adolescence (PD 45-55) to levels similar to those observed in adulthood (PD 65-75). In contrast, the protein expression of CR is reduced in adults compared to juvenile and adolescent animals, whereas CB levels remain mostly unchanged across the developmental window studied here. Semi-quantitative immunostaining analyses revealed that the periadolescent upregulation of PV and the loss of the CR signal appear to be attributable to changes in PV- and CR-positive innervation, which are dissociable from the trajectory of PV- and CR-positive cell number. At the synaptic level, our electrophysiological data revealed that a developmental facilitation of spontaneous glutamatergic synaptic inputs onto PV-positive/fast-spiking interneurons parallels the increase in prefrontal PV signal during the periadolescent transition. In contrast, no age-dependent changes in glutamatergic transmission were observed in PV-negative/non fast-spiking interneurons. Together, these findings emphasize that GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in the PFC undergo a dynamic, cell type-specific remodeling during adolescence and provide a developmental framework for understanding alterations in GABAergic circuits that occur in psychiatric disorders.
Xia, Y-F; Arai, A C
Positive modulators of AMPA receptors enhance synaptic plasticity and memory encoding. Facilitation of AMPA receptor currents not only results in enhanced activation of excitatory neurons but also increases the activity of inhibitory interneurons by up-modulating their excitatory input. However, little is known about the effects of these modulators on cells other than pyramidal neurons and about their impact on local microcircuits. This study examined the effects of members from three subfamilies of modulators (mainly CX516, CX546 and cyclothiazide) on excitatory synaptic responses in four classes of hippocampal CA1 neurons and on excitatory and disynaptically induced inhibitory field potentials in hippocampal slices. Effects on excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were examined in pyramidal cells, in two types of inhibitory interneurons located in stratum radiatum and oriens, and in stratum radiatum giant cells, a novel type of excitatory neuron. With CX516, increases in EPSC amplitude in pyramidal cells were two to three times larger than in interneurons and six times larger than in radiatum giant cells. The effects of CX546 on response duration similarly were largest in pyramidal cells. However, this drug also strongly differentiated between stratum oriens and radiatum interneurons with increases being four times larger in the latter. In contrast, cyclothiazide had similar effects on response duration in all cell types. In field recordings, CX516 was several times more potent in enhancing excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) than feedback or feedforward circuits, as expected from its larger influence on pyramidal cells. In contrast, BDP-20, a CX546 analog, was more potent in enhancing feedforward inhibition than either EPSPs or feedback inhibition. This preference for feedforward over feedback circuits is probably related to its higher potency in stratum radiatum versus oriens interneurons. Taken together, AMPA receptor modulators differ substantially
Galván, E J; Pérez-Rosello, T; Gómez-Lira, G; Lara, E; Gutiérrez, R; Barrionuevo, G
Inhibitory interneurons with somata in strata radiatum and lacunosum-molecular (SR/L-M) of hippocampal area CA3 receive excitatory input from pyramidal cells via the recurrent collaterals (RCs), and the dentate gyrus granule cells via the mossy fibers (MFs). Here we demonstrate that Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP) at RC synapses on SR/L-M interneurons requires the concomitant activation of calcium-impermeable AMPARs (CI-AMPARs) and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). RC LTP was prevented by voltage clamping the postsynaptic cell during high-frequency stimulation (HFS; 3 trains of 100 pulses delivered at 100 Hz every 10s), with intracellular injections of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA (20mM), and with the NMDAR antagonist D-AP5. In separate experiments, RC and MF inputs converging onto the same interneuron were sequentially activated. We found that RC LTP induction was blocked by inhibitors of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII; KN-62, 10 μM or KN-93, 10 μM) but MF LTP was CaMKII independent. Conversely, the application of the protein kinase A (PKA) activators forskolin/IBMX (50 μM/25 μM) potentiated MF EPSPs but not RC EPSPs. Together these data indicate that the aspiny dendrites of SR/L-M interneurons compartmentalize synapse-specific Ca(2+) signaling required for LTP induction at RC and MF synapses. We also show that the two signal transduction cascades converge to activate a common effector, protein kinase C (PKC). Specifically, LTP at RC and MF synapses on the same SR/LM interneuron was blocked by postsynaptic injections of chelerythrine (10 μM). These data indicate that both forms of LTP share a common mechanism involving PKC-dependent signaling modulation.
Botcher, Nicola A.; Falck, Joanne E.; Thomson, Alex M.; Mercer, Audrey
The CA2 region of the mammalian hippocampus is a unique region with its own distinctive properties, inputs and pathologies. Disruption of inhibitory circuits in this region appears to be linked with the pathology of specific psychiatric disorders, promoting interest in its local circuitry, its role in hippocampal function and its dysfunction in disease. In previous studies, CA2 interneurons, including a novel subclass of CA2 dendrite-preferring interneurons that has not been identified in other CA regions, have been shown to display physiological, synaptic and morphological properties unique to this sub-field and may therefore play a crucial role in the hippocampal circuitry. The distributions of immuno-labeled interneurons in dorsal CA2 were studied and compared with those of interneurons in CA1 and CA3. Like those in CA1 and CA3, the somata of CA2 parvalbumin-immunoperoxidase-labeled interneurons were located primarily in Stratum Pyramidale (SP) and Stratum Oriens (SO), with very few cells in Stratum Radiatum (SR) and none in Stratum Lacunosum Moleculare (SLM). There was, however, a greater proportion of GAD-positive cells were immunopositive for PV in SP in CA2 than in CA1 or CA3. CA2 SP also contained a larger density of somatostatin-, calbindin-, and VIP-immunopositive somata than CA1 and/or CA3. Like those in CA1 and CA3, CCK-immunopositive somata in CA2 were mostly located in SR. Reelin- and NPY- immunolabeled cell bodies were located in all layers of the three CA regions. However, a higher density of Reelin-positive somata was found in SP and SR of CA2 than in CA1 or CA3. PMID:25309345
Galván, Emilio J; Pérez-Rosello, Tamara; Gómez-Lira, Gisela; Lara, Erika; Gutiérrez, Rafael; Barrionuevo, Germán
Inhibitory interneurons with somata in strata radiatum and lacunosun-moleculare (SR/L-M) of hippocampal area CA3 receive excitatory input from pyramidal cells via the recurrent collaterals (RC), and the dentate gyrus granule cells via the mossy fibers (MFs). Here we demonstrate that Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP) at RC synapses on SR/L-M interneurons requires the concomitant activation of calcium-impermeable AMPARs (CI- AMPARs) and NMDARs. RC LTP was prevented by voltage clamping the postsynaptic cell during high-frequency stimulation (HFS; 3 trains of 100 pulses delivered at 100 Hz every 10 s), with intracellular injections of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (20 mM), and with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist D-AP5. In separate experiments, RC and MF inputs converging onto the same interneuron were sequentially activated. We found that RC LTP induction was blocked by inhibitors of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII; KN-62, 10 μM or KN-93, 10 μM) but MF LTP was CaMKII independent. Conversely, the application of the protein kinase A (PKA) activators forskolin/IBMX(50 μM/25 μM) potentiated MF EPSPs but not RC EPSPs. Together these data indicate that the aspiny dendrites of SR/L-M interneurons compartmentalize synaptic-specific Ca2+ signaling required for LTP induction at RC and MF synapses. We also show that the two signal transduction cascades converge to activate a common effector, protein kinase C (PKC). Specifically, LTP at RC and MF synapses on the same SR/LM interneuron was blocked by postsynaptic injections of chelerythrine (10 μM). These data indicate that both forms of LTP share a common mechanism involving PKC-dependent signaling modulation. PMID:25637803
Dougherty, Kimberly J.
Previous studies have shown that a group of ventrally located neurons, designated V2a interneurons, play a key role in maintaining locomotor rhythmicity and in ensuring appropriate left–right alternation during locomotion (Crone et al., 2008, 2009). These V2a interneurons express the transcription factor Chx10. The aim of the present study was to characterize the locomotor-related activity of individual V2a interneurons, their cellular properties, and their detailed anatomical attributes in Chx10-GFP mice. A dorsal horn-removed preparation was developed to allow for visual whole-cell patch recordings from V2a interneurons along the entire lumbar spinal cord while at the same time leaving enough of the spinal cord intact to generate fictive locomotion. During drug-evoked locomotor-like activity, a large proportion of Chx10 cells showed rhythmic firing or membrane potential fluctuations related to either flexor or extensor activity in every lumbar segment. Chx10 cells received predominantly rhythmic excitatory input. Chx10 neurons displayed a wide variety of firing and potential rhythmogenic properties. However, none of these properties was obviously related to the observed rhythmicity during locomotor-like activity. In dual recordings, we found no evidence of Chx10 neuron interconnectivity. Intracellular fills revealed diverse projection patterns with most Chx10 interneurons being local with projections to the central pattern generator and motor neuron regions of the spinal cord and others with long ascending and/or descending branches. These data are compatible with V2a neurons having a role in regulating segmental left–right alternation and ipsilateral motor neuron firing with little effect on rhythm generation. PMID:20053884
Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Liang; Carlen, Peter L
Using the isolated juvenile (7–14 days) mouse whole hippocampus preparation, which contains intact complex local circuitry, 145 dual whole cell recordings were made from stratum oriens (s.o.) interneurones under infrared microscopy. In 11.7% of paired recordings, evidence for direct electrotonic coupling between the s.o. interneurones was obtained from the response of one interneurone to a long (400–600 ms) constant current pulse passed into the coupled interneurone. When specifically orienting the dual recordings in the transectional plane of the hippocampus, 18.5% of paired recordings showed electrotonic coupling. The coupling coefficient, estimated from averaged data, was 6.9 ± 4.7%, ranging from 1.3 to 17.6%. The time constant of the electrotonically transmitted hyperpolarization was inversely related to the coupling coefficient between the two neurones. The electrotonic responses of one neurone to constant current pulses injected into the other coupled neurone were intermittent. Spikes in one of the coupled neurones were associated with small electrotonic EPSPs (spikelets) in the other coupled neurone, in those neuronal pairs with coupling coefficients greater than 10%. Failure of spikelet production following a spike in the coupled cell occurred 5–10% of the time. Electrotonic coupling and spikelets persisted in the presence of chemical synaptic transmission blockade by CNQX, APV and bicuculline, or in zero Ca2+ perfusate, but were abolished by carbenoxolone (100 μm), a gap junctional blocker. These data confirm the existence of electrotonic coupling between s.o. interneurones, presumably via gap junctions located in dendrites. PMID:15194737
Ellender, Tommas J.; Raimondo, Joseph V.; Irkle, Agnese; Lamsa, Karri P.
Epileptic seizures are characterized by periods of hypersynchronous, hyperexcitability within brain networks. Most seizures involve two stages: an initial tonic phase, followed by a longer clonic phase that is characterized by rhythmic bouts of synchronized network activity called afterdischarges (ADs). Here we investigate the cellular and network mechanisms underlying hippocampal ADs in an effort to understand how they maintain seizure activity. Using in vitro hippocampal slice models from rats and mice, we performed electrophysiological recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons to monitor network activity and changes in GABAergic signaling during epileptiform activity. First, we show that the highest synchrony occurs during clonic ADs, consistent with the idea that specific circuit dynamics underlie this phase of the epileptiform activity. We then show that ADs require intact GABAergic synaptic transmission, which becomes excitatory as a result of a transient collapse in the chloride (Cl−) reversal potential. The depolarizing effects of GABA are strongest at the soma of pyramidal neurons, which implicates somatic-targeting interneurons in AD activity. To test this, we used optogenetic techniques to selectively control the activity of somatic-targeting parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) interneurons. Channelrhodopsin-2-mediated activation of PV+ interneurons during the clonic phase generated excitatory GABAergic responses in pyramidal neurons, which were sufficient to elicit and entrain synchronous AD activity across the network. Finally, archaerhodopsin-mediated selective silencing of PV+ interneurons reduced the occurrence of ADs during the clonic phase. Therefore, we propose that activity-dependent Cl− accumulation subverts the actions of PV+ interneurons to perpetuate rather than terminate pathological network hyperexcitability during the clonic phase of seizures. PMID:25392490
Rank, M M; Flynn, J R; Galea, M P; Callister, R; Callister, R J
In the weeks and months following an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) significant spontaneous recovery of function occurs in the absence of any applied therapeutic intervention. The anatomical correlates of this spontaneous plasticity are well characterized, however, the functional changes that occur in spinal cord interneurons after injury are poorly understood. Here we use a T10 hemisection model of SCI in adult mice (9-10 wks old) combined with whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology and a horizontal spinal cord slice preparation to examine changes in intrinsic membrane and synaptic properties of deep dorsal horn (DDH) interneurons. We made these measurements during short-term (4 wks) and long-term (10 wks) spontaneous recovery after SCI. Several important intrinsic membrane properties are altered in the short-term, but recover to values resembling those of uninjured controls in the longer term. AP discharge patterns are reorganized at both short-term and long-term recovery time points. This is matched by reorganization in the expression of voltage-activated potassium and calcium subthreshold-currents that shape AP discharge. Excitatory synaptic inputs onto DDH interneurons are significantly restructured in long-term SCI mice. Plots of sEPSC peak amplitude vs. rise times suggest considerable dendritic expansion or synaptic reorganization occurs especially during long-term recovery from SCI. Connectivity between descending dorsal column pathways and DDH interneurons is reduced in the short-term, but amplified in long-term recovery. Our results suggest considerable plasticity in both intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms occurs spontaneously in DDH interneurons following SCI and takes a minimum of 10 wks after the initial injury to stabilize.
Holmes, Jonathan R; Berkowitz, Ari
Spinal interneurons can integrate diverse propriospinal and supraspinal inputs that trigger or modulate locomotion and other limb movements. These synaptic inputs can occur on distal dendrites and yet must remain effective at the soma. Active dendritic conductances may amplify distal dendritic inputs, but appear to play a minimal role during scratching, at least. Another possibility is that spinal interneurons that integrate inputs on distal dendrites have unusually simple dendritic trees that effectively funnel current to the soma. We previously described a class of spinal interneurons, called transverse interneurons (or T neurons), in adult turtles. T neurons were defined as having dendrites that extend further in the transverse plane than rostrocaudally and a soma that extends further mediolaterally than rostrocaudally. T neurons are multifunctional, as they were activated during both swimming and scratching motor patterns. T neurons had higher peak firing rates and larger membrane potential oscillations during scratching than scratch-activated interneurons with different dendritic morphologies ("non-T" neurons). These characteristics make T neurons good candidates to play an important role in integrating diverse inputs and generating or relaying rhythmic motor patterns. Here, we quantitatively investigated additional dendritic morphological characteristics of T neurons as compared to non-T neurons. We found that T neurons have less total dendritic length, a greater proportion of dendritic length in primary dendrites, and dendrites that are oriented more mediolaterally. Thus, T neuron dendritic trees extend far mediolaterally, yet are unusually simple, which may help channel synaptic current from distal dendrites in the lateral and ventral funiculi to the soma. In combination with T neuron physiological properties, these dendritic properties may help integrate supraspinal and propriospinal inputs and generate and/or modulate rhythmic limb movements.
Hustert, Reinhold; Klug, Rebecca
The evolution of winged stick insects (phasmids) from secondarily wingless ancestors was proposed in recent studies. We explored the cuticle of flying phasmids for wind sensors that could be involved in their flight control, comparable to those known for locusts. Surprisingly, wind-sensitive hairs (wsH) occur on the palps of mouthparts and on the antennae of the winged phasmid Sipyloidea sipylus which can fly in tethered position only when air currents blow over the mouthparts. The present study describes the morphology and major functional properties of these “new” wsH with soft and bulging hair bases which are different from the beaker-like hair bases of the wsH on the cerci of phasmids and the wsH described in other insects. The most sensitive wsH of antennae and palps respond with phasic-tonic afferents to air currents exceeding 0.2 ms-1. The fields of wsH on one side of the animal respond mainly to ventral, lateral, and frontal wind on the ipsilateral side of the head. Afferent inputs from the wsH converge but also diverge to a group of specific interneurons at their branches in the suboesophageal ganglion and can send their integrated input from wsH fields of the palps and antennae to the thoracic central nervous system. Response types of individual wsH-interneurons are either phasic or phasic-tonic to air puffs or constant air currents and also, the receptive fields of individual interneurons differ. We conclude that the “new” wsH system and its interneurons mainly serve to maintain flight activity in airborne phasmids and also, the “new” wsH must have emerged together with the integrating interneurons during the evolution from wingless to the recent winged forms of phasmids.
Vergaño-Vera, Eva; Yusta-Boyo, María J; de Castro, Fernando; Bernad, Antonio; de Pablo, Flora; Vicario-Abejón, Carlos
During the embryonic period, many olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons arise in the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) from precursor cells expressing Dlx2, Gsh2 and Er81 transcription factors. Whether GABAergic and dopaminergic interneurons are also generated within the embryonic OB has not been studied thoroughly. In contrast to abundant Dlx2 and Gsh2 expression in ganglionic eminences (GE), Dlx2 and Gsh2 proteins are not expressed in the E12.5-13.5 mouse OB, whereas the telencephalic pallial domain marker Pax6 is abundant. We found GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons originating from dividing precursor cells in E13.5 OB and in short-term dissociated cultures prepared from the rostral half of E13.5 OB. In OB cultures, 22% of neurons were GAD+, of which 53% were Dlx2+, whereas none expressed Gsh2. By contrast, 70% of GAD+ cells in GE cultures were Dlx2+ and 16% expressed Gsh2. In E13.5 OB slices transplanted with EGFP-labeled E13.5 OB precursor cells, 31.7% of EGFP+ cells differentiated to GABAergic neurons. OB and LGE precursors transplanted into early postnatal OB migrated and differentiated in distinct patterns. Transplanted OB precursors gave rise to interneurons with dendritic spines in close proximity to synaptophysin-positive boutons. Interneurons were also abundant in differentiating OB neural stem cell cultures; the neurons responded to the neurotrophin Bdnf and expressed presynaptic proteins. In vivo, the Bdnf receptor TrkB colocalized with synaptic proteins at the glomeruli. These findings suggest that, in addition to receiving interneurons from the LGE, the embryonic OB contains molecularly distinct local precursor cells that generate mature GABAergic and dopaminergic neurons.
Lucas, Elizabeth K.; Dougherty, Sarah E.; McMeekin, Laura J.; Reid, Courtney S.; Dobrunz, Lynn E.; West, Andrew B.; Hablitz, John J.
Accumulating evidence strongly implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in the pathophysiology of multiple neurological disorders, but the downstream gene targets of PGC-1α in the brain have remained enigmatic. Previous data demonstrate that PGC-1α is primarily concentrated in inhibitory neurons and that PGC-1α is required for the expression of the interneuron-specific Ca2+-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) throughout the cortex. To identify other possible transcriptional targets of PGC-1α in neural tissue, we conducted a microarray on neuroblastoma cells overexpressing PGC-1α, mined results for genes with physiological relevance to interneurons, and measured cortical gene and protein expression of these genes in mice with underexpression and overexpression of PGC-1α. We observed bidirectional regulation of novel PGC-1α-dependent transcripts spanning synaptic [synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2) and complexin 1 (Cplx1)], structural [neurofilament heavy chain (Nefh)], and metabolic [neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 (Nceh1), adenylate kinase 1 (Ak1), inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase J (Inpp5j), ATP synthase mitochondrial F1 complex O subunit (Atp5o), phytanol-CoA-2hydroxylase (Phyh), and ATP synthase mitrochondrial F1 complex α subunit 1 (Atp5a1)] functions. The neuron-specific genes Syt2, Cplx1, and Nefh were developmentally upregulated in an expression pattern consistent with that of PGC-1α and were expressed in cortical interneurons. Conditional deletion of PGC-1α in PV-positive neurons significantly decreased cortical transcript expression of these genes, promoted asynchronous GABA release, and impaired long-term memory. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PGC-1α is required for normal PV-positive interneuron function and that loss of PGC-1α in this interneuron subpopulation could contribute to cortical dysfunction in disease states. PMID:25339750
Botcher, Nicola A; Falck, Joanne E; Thomson, Alex M; Mercer, Audrey
The CA2 region of the mammalian hippocampus is a unique region with its own distinctive properties, inputs and pathologies. Disruption of inhibitory circuits in this region appears to be linked with the pathology of specific psychiatric disorders, promoting interest in its local circuitry, its role in hippocampal function and its dysfunction in disease. In previous studies, CA2 interneurons, including a novel subclass of CA2 dendrite-preferring interneurons that has not been identified in other CA regions, have been shown to display physiological, synaptic and morphological properties unique to this sub-field and may therefore play a crucial role in the hippocampal circuitry. The distributions of immuno-labeled interneurons in dorsal CA2 were studied and compared with those of interneurons in CA1 and CA3. Like those in CA1 and CA3, the somata of CA2 parvalbumin-immunoperoxidase-labeled interneurons were located primarily in Stratum Pyramidale (SP) and Stratum Oriens (SO), with very few cells in Stratum Radiatum (SR) and none in Stratum Lacunosum Moleculare (SLM). There was, however, a greater proportion of GAD-positive cells were immunopositive for PV in SP in CA2 than in CA1 or CA3. CA2 SP also contained a larger density of somatostatin-, calbindin-, and VIP-immunopositive somata than CA1 and/or CA3. Like those in CA1 and CA3, CCK-immunopositive somata in CA2 were mostly located in SR. Reelin- and NPY- immunolabeled cell bodies were located in all layers of the three CA regions. However, a higher density of Reelin-positive somata was found in SP and SR of CA2 than in CA1 or CA3.
Bischofberger, Josef; Jonas, Peter
Mossy fiber (MF) synapses are key stations for flow of information through the hippocampal formation. A major component of the output of the MF system is directed towards inhibitory interneurons. Recent studies have revealed that the functional properties of MF-interneuron synapses differ substantially from those of MF-CA3 pyramidal neuron synapses. Mossy-fiber-interneuron synapses in the stratum lucidum represent a continuum of functional subtypes, in which the subunit composition of postsynaptic AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors appears to be regulated in a coordinated manner.
Wang, Xian; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Yang, Chun; Xu, Jianguo; Yang, Jianjun
The phenotype loss of parvalbumin-containing interneurons, characterized by decreased parvalbumin expression, has been observed in schizophrenic patients. Overproduction of intraneuronal reactive oxygen species leads to such a phenotype loss. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation is both a target and a regulator of intracellular oxidative stress response, suggesting its involvement in the parvalbumin regulation. This study was carried out to investigate the role of the NF-κB activation in the ketamine-induced phenotype loss of parvalbumin-interneurons in vitro. Ketamine was applied to primary neuronal cultures to successfully evoke the production of increased reactive oxygen species and decreased parvalbumin expression in parvalbumin-interneurons, which was invalid in the presence of a NF-κB inhibitor, SN50 or Bay11-7082. These results suggest potential links among NF-κB activation, oxidative stress, and parvalbumin-interneurons in vitro.
Bezaire, Marianne J; Raikov, Ivan; Burk, Kelly; Vyas, Dhrumil; Soltesz, Ivan
The hippocampal theta rhythm plays important roles in information processing; however, the mechanisms of its generation are not well understood. We developed a data-driven, supercomputer-based, full-scale (1:1) model of the rodent CA1 area and studied its interneurons during theta oscillations. Theta rhythm with phase-locked gamma oscillations and phase-preferential discharges of distinct interneuronal types spontaneously emerged from the isolated CA1 circuit without rhythmic inputs. Perturbation experiments identified parvalbumin-expressing interneurons and neurogliaform cells, as well as interneuronal diversity itself, as important factors in theta generation. These simulations reveal new insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the CA1 circuit during theta oscillations.
Bezaire, Marianne J; Raikov, Ivan; Burk, Kelly; Vyas, Dhrumil; Soltesz, Ivan
The hippocampal theta rhythm plays important roles in information processing; however, the mechanisms of its generation are not well understood. We developed a data-driven, supercomputer-based, full-scale (1:1) model of the rodent CA1 area and studied its interneurons during theta oscillations. Theta rhythm with phase-locked gamma oscillations and phase-preferential discharges of distinct interneuronal types spontaneously emerged from the isolated CA1 circuit without rhythmic inputs. Perturbation experiments identified parvalbumin-expressing interneurons and neurogliaform cells, as well as interneuronal diversity itself, as important factors in theta generation. These simulations reveal new insights into the spatiotemporal organization of the CA1 circuit during theta oscillations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18566.001 PMID:28009257
Hale, Matthew W; Johnson, Philip L; Westerman, Alex M; Abrams, Jolane K; Shekhar, Anantha; Lowry, Christopher A
The basolateral amygdala is a nodal structure within a distributed and interconnected network that regulates anxiety states and anxiety-related behavior. Administration of multiple anxiogenic drugs increases cellular responses (i.e., increases c-Fos expression) in a subregion of the basolateral amygdala, but the neurochemical phenotypes of these cells are not known. The basolateral amygdala contains glutamatergic projection neurons and several populations of γ-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing (GABAergic) interneurons, including a population of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing GABAergic interneurons that co-express the excitatory 5-HT(2A) receptor. The role for these PV-expressing GABAergic interneurons in anxiety-states is unclear. In this experiment we examined the effects of multiple anxiogenic drugs including the 5-HT(2C/2A) receptor agonist m-chlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP), the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, the α(2)-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine and the partial inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine allosteric site on the GABA(A) receptor, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142), on c-Fos expression in PV-immunoreactive (PV-ir) interneurons in subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala. All drugs with the exception of mCPP increased c-Fos expression in PV-ir neurons in the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, anterior part (BLA). The numbers of c-Fos-immunoreactive (c-Fos-ir)/PV-ir GABAergic interneurons in the BLA were positively correlated with the numbers of c-Fos-ir serotonergic neurons in the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) and with a measure of anxiety-related behavior. All four drugs increased c-Fos expression in non-PV-ir cells in most of the subdivisions of the basolateral amygdala that were sampled, compared with vehicle-injected controls. Together, these data suggest that the PV/5-HT(2A) receptor expressing GABAergic interneurons in the basolateral amygdala are part of a DR-basolateral amygdala neuronal circuit modulating
Huusko, Noora; Römer, Christine; Ndode-Ekane, Xavier Ekolle; Lukasiuk, Katarzyna; Pitkänen, Asla
Reduced hippocampal GABAergic inhibition is acknowledged to be associated with epilepsy. However, there are no studies that had quantitatively compared the loss of various interneuron populations in different models of epilepsy. We tested a hypothesis that the more severe the loss of hippocampal interneurons, the more severe was the epilepsy. Epileptogenesis was triggered in adult rats by status epilepticus (SE) (56 SE, 24 controls) or by traumatic brain injury (TBI) (45 TBI, 23 controls). The total number of hippocampal parvalbumin (PARV), cholecystokinin (CCK), calretinin (CR), somatostatin (SOM), or neuropeptide Y (NPY) positive neurons was estimated using unbiased stereology at 1 or 6 months post-insult. The rats with TBI had no spontaneous seizures but showed increased seizure susceptibility. Eleven of the 28 rats (39 %) in the SE group had spontaneous seizures. The most affected hippocampal area after TBI was the ipsilateral dentate gyrus, where 62 % of PARV-immunoreactive (ir) (p < 0.001 compared to controls), 77 % of CR-ir (p < 0.05), 46 % of SOM-ir (p < 0.001), and 59 % of NPY-ir (p < 0.001) cells remained at 1 month after TBI. At 6 months post-TBI, only 35 % of PARV-ir (p < 0.001 compared to controls), 63 % of CCK-ir (p < 0.01), 74 % of CR-ir (p < 0.001), 55 % of SOM-ir (p < 0.001), and 51 % of NPY-ir (p < 0.001) cells were remaining. Moreover, the reduction in PARV-ir, CCK-ir, and CR-ir neurons was bilateral (all p < 0.05). Substantial reductions in different neuronal populations were also found in subfields of the CA3 and CA1. In rats with epilepsy after SE, the number of PARV-ir neurons was reduced in the ipsilateral CA1 (80 % remaining, p < 0.05) and the number of NPY-ir neurons bilaterally in the dentate gyrus (33-37 %, p < 0.01) and the CA3 (54-57 %, p < 0.05). Taken together, interneuron loss was substantially more severe, widespread, progressive, and included more interneuron subclasses after TBI than after SE. Interneurons responsible for
Nagel, Katherine I.
Local inhibitory neurons control the timing of neural activity in many circuits. To understand how inhibition controls timing, it is important to understand the dynamics of activity in populations of local inhibitory interneurons, as well as the mechanisms that underlie these dynamics. Here we describe the in vivo response dynamics of a large population of inhibitory local neurons (LNs) in the Drosophila melanogaster antennal lobe, the analog of the vertebrate olfactory bulb, and we dissect the network and intrinsic mechanisms that give rise to these dynamics. Some LNs respond to odor onsets (“ON” cells) and others to offsets (“OFF” cells), whereas still others respond at both times. Moreover, different LNs signal odor concentration fluctuations on different timescales. Some respond rapidly, and can track rapid concentration fluctuations. Others respond slowly, and are best at tracking slow fluctuations. We found a continuous spectrum of preferred stimulation timescales among LNs, as well as a continuum of ON–OFF behavior. Using in vivo whole-cell recordings, we show that the timing of an LN′s response (ON vs OFF) can be predicted from the interplay of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents that it receives. Meanwhile, the preferred timescale of an LN is related to its intrinsic properties. These results illustrate how a population of inhibitory interneurons can collectively encode bidirectional changes in stimulus intensity on multiple timescales, and how this can arise via an interaction between synaptic and intrinsic mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Most neural circuits contain diverse populations of inhibitory interneurons. The way inhibition shapes network activity will depend on the spiking dynamics of the interneuron population. Here we describe the dynamics of activity in a large population of inhibitory interneurons in the first brain relay of the fruit fly olfactory system. Because odor plumes fluctuate on multiple timescales, the drive
Son, Jong-Hyun; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H
Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons are a diverse population of cells widely scattered in the hippocampus, where they regulate hippocampal circuit activity. The hippocampus receives cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain, and functional studies have suggested the presence of different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. Single-cell polymerase chain reaction analysis had confirmed that several nAChR subunit mRNAs are co-expressed with glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), the marker for GABAergic interneurons. In this anatomical study, we systematically investigated the co-expression of GAD67 with different nAChR subunits by using double in situ hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled GAD67 probe and (35)S-labeled probes for nAChR subunits (alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, alpha7, beta2, beta3, and beta4). The results revealed that most GAD67-positive interneurons expressed beta2, and 67 % also expressed alpha7 mRNA. In contrast, mRNA expression of other subunits was limited; only 13 % of GAD67-positive neurons co-expressed alpha4, and less than 10% expressed transcripts for alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, or beta4. Most GAD67/alpha2 co-expression was located in CA1/CA3 stratum oriens, and GAD67/alpha5 co-expression was predominantly detected in CA1/CA3 stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare and the dentate gyrus. Expression of alpha6 and beta3 mRNAs was rarely detected in the hippocampus, and mRNAs were not co-expressed with GAD67. These findings suggest that the majority of nicotinic responses in GABAergic interneurons should be mediated by a homomeric alpha7 or heteromeric alpha7*-containing nAChRs. Other possible combinations such as alpha2beta2*, alpha4beta2*, or alpha5beta2* heteromeric nAChRs could contribute to functional nicotinic response in subsets of GABAergic interneurons but overall would have a minor role.
Pitts, M W; Raman, A V; Hashimoto, A C; Todorovic, C; Nichols, R A; Berry, M J
One of the primary lines of defense against oxidative stress is the selenoprotein family, a class of proteins that contain selenium in the form of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine. Within this class of proteins, selenoprotein P (Sepp1) is unique, as it contains multiple selenocysteine residues and is postulated to act in selenium transport. Recent findings have demonstrated that neuronal selenoprotein synthesis is required for the development of parvalbumin (PV)-interneurons, a class of GABAergic neurons involved in the synchronization of neural activity. To investigate the potential influence of Sepp1 on PV-interneurons, we first mapped the distribution of the Sepp1 receptor, ApoER2, and parvalbumin in the mouse brain. Our results indicate that ApoER2 is highly expressed on PV-interneurons in multiple brain regions. Next, to determine whether PV-interneuron populations are affected by Sepp1 deletion, we performed stereology on several brain regions in which we observed ApoER2 expression on PV-interneurons, comparing wild-type and Sepp1(-/-) mice. We observed reduced numbers of PV-interneurons in the inferior colliculus of Sepp1(-/-) mice, which corresponded with a regional increase in oxidative stress. Finally, as impaired PV-interneuron function has been implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions, we performed multiple behavioral tests on Sepp1(-/-) mice. Our behavioral results indicate that Sepp1(-/-) mice have impairments in contextual fear extinction, latent inhibition, and sensorimotor gating. In sum, these findings demonstrate the important supporting role of Sepp1 on ApoER2-expressing PV-interneurons.
Tai, Chao; Abe, Yasuyuki; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A
Haploinsufficiency of the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1 causes Dravet syndrome, an intractable developmental epilepsy syndrome with seizure onset in the first year of life. Specific heterozygous deletion of NaV1.1 in forebrain GABAergic-inhibitory neurons is sufficient to cause all the manifestations of Dravet syndrome in mice, but the physiological roles of specific subtypes of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex in this disease are unknown. Voltage-clamp studies of dissociated interneurons from cerebral cortex did not detect a significant effect of the Dravet syndrome mutation on sodium currents in cell bodies. However, current-clamp recordings of intact interneurons in layer V of neocortical slices from mice with haploinsufficiency in the gene encoding the NaV1.1 sodium channel, Scn1a, revealed substantial reduction of excitability in fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing interneurons and somatostatin-expressing interneurons. The threshold and rheobase for action potential generation were increased, the frequency of action potentials within trains was decreased, and action-potential firing within trains failed more frequently. Furthermore, the deficit in excitability of somatostatin-expressing interneurons caused significant reduction in frequency-dependent disynaptic inhibition between neighboring layer V pyramidal neurons mediated by somatostatin-expressing Martinotti cells, which would lead to substantial disinhibition of the output of cortical circuits. In contrast to these deficits in interneurons, pyramidal cells showed no differences in excitability. These results reveal that the two major subtypes of interneurons in layer V of the neocortex, parvalbumin-expressing and somatostatin-expressing, both have impaired excitability, resulting in disinhibition of the cortical network. These major functional deficits are likely to contribute synergistically to the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome.
Kuruba, Ramkumar; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Parihar, Vipan K; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K
Acute seizure (AS) activity in old age has an increased predisposition for evolving into temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Furthermore, spontaneous seizures and cognitive dysfunction after AS activity are often intense in the aged population than in young adults. This could be due to an increased vulnerability of inhibitory interneurons in the aged hippocampus to AS activity. We investigated this issue by comparing the survival of hippocampal GABA-ergic interneurons that contain the neuropeptide Y (NPY) or the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV) between young adult (5-months old) and aged (22-months old) F344 rats at 12 days after three-hours of AS activity. Graded intraperitoneal injections of the kainic acid (KA) induced AS activity and a diazepam injection at 3 hours after the onset terminated AS-activity. Measurement of interneuron numbers in different hippocampal subfields revealed that NPY+ interneurons were relatively resistant to AS activity in the aged hippocampus in comparison to the young adult hippocampus. Whereas, PV+ interneurons were highly susceptible to AS activity in both age groups. However, as aging alone substantially depleted these populations, the aged hippocampus after three-hours of AS activity exhibited 48% reductions in NPY+ interneurons and 70% reductions in PV+ interneurons, in comparison to the young hippocampus after similar AS activity. Thus, AS activity-induced TLE in old age is associated with far fewer hippocampal NPY+ and PV+ interneuron numbers than AS-induced TLE in the young adult age. This discrepancy likely underlies the severe spontaneous seizures and cognitive dysfunction observed in the aged people after AS activity.
Megahed, Tarick; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K.
Cognitive dysfunction is amongst the most conspicuous symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Combined exposure to the nerve gas antidote pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides and stress during the Persian Gulf War-1 (PGW-1) are presumed to be among the major causes of GWI. Indeed, our recent studies in rat models have shown that exposure to GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks engenders cognitive impairments accompanied with several detrimental changes in the hippocampus. In this study, we tested whether reduced numbers of hippocampal gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons are among the pathological changes induced by GWIR-chemicals and stress. Animals were exposed to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks. Three months after this exposure, subpopulations of GABA-ergic interneurons expressing the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV), the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin (SS) in the hippocampus were stereologically quantified. Animals exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress for 4 weeks displayed reduced numbers of PV-expressing GABA-ergic interneurons in the dentate gyrus and NPY-expressing interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields. However, no changes in SS+ interneuron population were observed in the hippocampus. Furthermore, GABA-ergic interneuron deficiency in these animals was associated with greatly diminished hippocampus neurogenesis. Because PV+ and NPY+ interneurons play roles in maintaining normal cognitive function and neurogenesis, and controlling the activity of excitatory neurons in the hippocampus, reduced numbers of these interneurons may be one of the major causes of cognitive dysfunction and reduced neurogenesis observed in GWI. Hence, strategies that improve inhibitory neurotransmission in the hippocampus may prove beneficial for reversing cognitive dysfunction in GWI. PMID:25620912
Sillar, K T; Roberts, A
1. In Xenopus embryos, the frequency of natural and fictive swimming usually drops slowly as swimming continues but can increase following stimulation of the skin or dimming of the illumination. We have investigated whether such increases are associated with an increase in the number of neurones active at higher frequencies. 2. Recordings from ventral presumed motoneurones show that these were reliably active at all swimming frequencies. 3. Recordings from more dorsal presumed interneurones showed that in the majority of these firing probability decreased as a function of swimming frequency. Dye-filled microelectrodes were used to show that some of these neurones had the anatomy of known classes of excitatory and inhibitory premotor interneurones. 4. If skin stimulation is given at appropriate phases of the swimming cycle, it can lead to a transient increase in frequency. Recordings from silent premotor interneurones during such stimulation show that they can be recruited to fire during the post-stimulus frequency increases. 5. It was possible that spike failure in the interneurones could have been due to damage by the recording microelectrodes. We therefore measured the amplitudes and probability of occurrence of rhythmic 'on-cycle' IPSPs which occur in sensory interneurones and 'on-cycle' IPSPs which sometimes occur in motoneurones during fictive swimming. Both decreased in amplitude and could fail as frequency dropped, providing further evidence that the number of inhibitory interneurones firing on each cycle of swimming is a function of frequency. 6. We conclude that premotor rhythm-generating interneurones are not active on all cycles of swimming and that their probability of firing action potentials increases with swimming frequency. This suggests that swimming frequency is determined in part by the number of premotor interneurones which are active. PMID:8145161
Young, Allison; Petros, Timothy; Karayannis, Theofanis; McKenzie Chang, Melissa; Lavado, Alfonso; Iwano, Tomohiko; Nakajima, Miho; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Huang, Z. Josh; Heintz, Nathaniel; Oliver, Guillermo; Matsuzaki, Fumio; Machold, Robert P.
Neurogliaform (RELN+) and bipolar (VIP+) GABAergic interneurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex provide critical inhibition locally within the superficial layers. While these subtypes are known to originate from the embryonic caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), the specific genetic programs that direct their positioning, maturation, and integration into the cortical network have not been elucidated. Here, we report that in mice expression of the transcription factor Prox1 is selectively maintained in postmitotic CGE-derived cortical interneuron precursors and that loss of Prox1 impairs the integration of these cells into superficial layers. Moreover, Prox1 differentially regulates the postnatal maturation of each specific subtype originating from the CGE (RELN, Calb2/VIP, and VIP). Interestingly, Prox1 promotes the maturation of CGE-derived interneuron subtypes through intrinsic differentiation programs that operate in tandem with extrinsically driven neuronal activity-dependent pathways. Thus Prox1 represents the first identified transcription factor specifically required for the embryonic and postnatal acquisition of CGE-derived cortical interneuron properties. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite the recognition that 30% of GABAergic cortical interneurons originate from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), to date, a specific transcriptional program that selectively regulates the development of these populations has not yet been identified. Moreover, while CGE-derived interneurons display unique patterns of tangential and radial migration and preferentially populate the superficial layers of the cortex, identification of a molecular program that controls these events is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that the homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is expressed in postmitotic CGE-derived cortical interneuron precursors and is maintained into adulthood. We found that Prox1 function is differentially required during both embryonic and postnatal stages of development to
Megahed, Tarick; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K
Cognitive dysfunction is amongst the most conspicuous symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Combined exposure to the nerve gas antidote pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides and stress during the Persian Gulf War-1 (PGW-1) are presumed to be among the major causes of GWI. Indeed, our recent studies in rat models have shown that exposure to GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks engenders cognitive impairments accompanied with several detrimental changes in the hippocampus. In this study, we tested whether reduced numbers of hippocampal gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons are among the pathological changes induced by GWIR-chemicals and stress. Animals were exposed to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks. Three months after this exposure, subpopulations of GABA-ergic interneurons expressing the calcium binding protein parvalbumin (PV), the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin (SS) in the hippocampus were stereologically quantified. Animals exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress for 4 weeks displayed reduced numbers of PV-expressing GABA-ergic interneurons in the dentate gyrus and NPY-expressing interneurons in the CA1 and CA3 subfields. However, no changes in SS+ interneuron population were observed in the hippocampus. Furthermore, GABA-ergic interneuron deficiency in these animals was associated with greatly diminished hippocampus neurogenesis. Because PV+ and NPY+ interneurons play roles in maintaining normal cognitive function and neurogenesis, and controlling the activity of excitatory neurons in the hippocampus, reduced numbers of these interneurons may be one of the major causes of cognitive dysfunction and reduced neurogenesis observed in GWI. Hence, strategies that improve inhibitory neurotransmission in the hippocampus may prove beneficial for reversing cognitive dysfunction in GWI.
Vehovszky, Agnes; Szabó, Henriette; Elliott, Christopher J H
In the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis octopamine-containing (OC) interneurons trigger and reconfigure the feeding pattern in isolated CNS by excitation of the central pattern generator. In semi-intact (lip-mouth-CNS) preparations, this central pattern generator is activated by chemosensory inputs. We now test if sucrose application to the lips activates the OC neurons independently of the rest of the feeding central pattern generator, or if the OC interneuron is activated by inputs from the feeding network. In 66% of experiments, sucrose stimulated feeding rhythms and OC interneurons received regular synaptic inputs. Only rarely (14%) did the OC interneuron fire action potentials, proving that firing of OC interneurons is not necessary for the sucrose-induced feeding. Prestimulation of OC neurons increased the intensity and duration of the feeding rhythm evoked by subsequent sucrose presentations. One micromolar octopamine in the CNS bath mimicked the effect of OC interneuron stimulation, enhancing the feeding response when sucrose is applied to the lips. We conclude that the modulatory OC neurons are not independently excited by chemosensory inputs to the lips, but rather from the buccal central pattern generator network. However, when OC neurons fire, they release modulatory octopamine, which provides a positive feedback to the network to enhance the sucrose-activated central pattern generator rhythm.
Gilani, Ahmed I; Chohan, Muhammad O; Inan, Melis; Schobel, Scott A; Chaudhury, Nashid H; Paskewitz, Samuel; Chuhma, Nao; Glickstein, Sara; Merker, Robert J; Xu, Qing; Small, Scott A; Anderson, Stewart A; Ross, Margaret Elizabeth; Moore, Holly
GABAergic interneuron hypofunction is hypothesized to underlie hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia. Here, we use the cyclin D2 knockout (Ccnd2(-/-)) mouse model to test potential links between hippocampal interneuron deficits and psychosis-relevant neurobehavioral phenotypes. Ccnd2(-/-) mice show cortical PV(+) interneuron reductions, prominently in hippocampus, associated with deficits in synaptic inhibition, increased in vivo spike activity of projection neurons, and increased in vivo basal metabolic activity (assessed with fMRI) in hippocampus. Ccnd2(-/-) mice show several neurophysiological and behavioral phenotypes that would be predicted to be produced by hippocampal disinhibition, including increased ventral tegmental area dopamine neuron population activity, behavioral hyperresponsiveness to amphetamine, and impairments in hippocampus-dependent cognition. Remarkably, transplantation of cells from the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (the major origin of cerebral cortical interneurons) into the adult Ccnd2(-/-) caudoventral hippocampus reverses these psychosis-relevant phenotypes. Surviving neurons from these transplants are 97% GABAergic and widely distributed within the hippocampus. Up to 6 mo after the transplants, in vivo hippocampal metabolic activity is lowered, context-dependent learning and memory is improved, and dopamine neuron activity and the behavioral response to amphetamine are normalized. These findings establish functional links between hippocampal GABA interneuron deficits and psychosis-relevant dopaminergic and cognitive phenotypes, and support a rationale for targeting limbic cortical interneuron function in the prevention and treatment of schizophrenia.
Koelbl, Christian; Helmstaedter, Moritz; Lübke, Joachim; Feldmeyer, Dirk
Synaptic connections between identified fast-spiking (FS), parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, and excitatory spiny neurons in layer 4 (L4) of the barrel cortex were investigated using patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous biocytin fillings. Three distinct clusters of FS L4 interneurons were identified based on their axonal morphology relative to the barrel column suggesting that these neurons do not constitute a homogeneous interneuron population. One L4 FS interneuron type had an axonal domain strictly confined to a L4 barrel and was therefore named "barrel-confined inhibitory interneuron" (BIn). BIns established reliable inhibitory synaptic connections with L4 spiny neurons at a high connectivity rate of 67%, of which 69% were reciprocal. Unitary IPSPs at these connections had a mean amplitude of 0.9 ± 0.8 mV with little amplitude variation and weak short-term synaptic depression. We found on average 3.7 ± 1.3 putative inhibitory synaptic contacts that were not restricted to perisomatic areas. In conclusion, we characterized a novel type of barrel cortex interneuron in the major thalamo-recipient layer 4 forming dense synaptic networks with L4 spiny neurons. These networks constitute an efficient and powerful inhibitory feedback system, which may serve to rapidly reset the barrel microcircuitry following sensory activation.
Bui, Tuan V; Stifani, Nicolas; Akay, Turgay; Brownstone, Robert M
The spinal cord has the capacity to coordinate motor activities such as locomotion. Following spinal transection, functional activity can be regained, to a degree, following motor training. To identify microcircuits involved in this recovery, we studied a population of mouse spinal interneurons known to receive direct afferent inputs and project to intermediate and ventral regions of the spinal cord. We demonstrate that while dI3 interneurons are not necessary for normal locomotor activity, locomotor circuits rhythmically inhibit them and dI3 interneurons can activate these circuits. Removing dI3 interneurons from spinal microcircuits by eliminating their synaptic transmission left locomotion more or less unchanged, but abolished functional recovery, indicating that dI3 interneurons are a necessary cellular substrate for motor system plasticity following transection. We suggest that dI3 interneurons compare inputs from locomotor circuits with sensory afferent inputs to compute sensory prediction errors that then modify locomotor circuits to effect motor recovery. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21715.001 PMID:27977000
Millar, J. Kirsty; Price, David J.
Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) gene has been linked to schizophrenia and related major mental illness. Mouse Disc1 has been implicated in brain development, mainly in the proliferation, differentiation, lamination, neurite outgrowth and synapse formation and maintenance of cortical excitatory neurons. Here, the effects of two loss-of-function point mutations in the mouse Disc1 sequence (Q31L and L100P) on cortical inhibitory interneurons were investigated. None of the mutations affected the overall number of interneurons. However, the 100P, but not the 31L, mutation resulted in a significant decrease in the numbers of interneurons expressing parvalbumin mRNA and protein across the sensory cortex. To investigate role of Disc1 in regulation of parvalbumin expression, mouse wild-type Disc-1 or the 100P mutant form were electroporated in utero into cortical excitatory neurons. Overexpression of wild-type Disc1 in these cells caused increased densities of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons in the electroporated area and in areas connected with it, whereas expression of Disc1-100P did not. We conclude that the 100P mutation prevents expression of parvalbumin by a normally sized cohort of interneurons and that altering Disc1 function in cortical excitatory neurons indirectly affects parvalbumin expression by cortical interneurons, perhaps as a result of altered functional input from the excitatory neurons. PMID:27244370
Donegan, J J; Tyson, J A; Branch, S Y; Beckstead, M J; Anderson, S A; Lodge, D J
An increasing literature suggests that schizophrenia is associated with a reduction in hippocampal interneuron function. Thus, we posit that stem cell-derived interneuron transplants may be an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce hippocampal hyperactivity and attenuate behavioral deficits in schizophrenia. Here we used a dual-reporter embryonic stem cell line to generate enriched populations of parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SST)-positive interneurons, which were transplanted into the ventral hippocampus of the methylazoxymethanol rodent model of schizophrenia. These interneuron transplants integrate within the existing circuitry, reduce hippocampal hyperactivity and normalize aberrant dopamine neuron activity. Further, interneuron transplants alleviate behaviors that model negative and cognitive symptoms, including deficits in social interaction and cognitive inflexibility. Interestingly, PV- and SST-enriched transplants produced differential effects on behavior, with PV-enriched populations effectively normalizing all the behaviors examined. These data suggest that the stem cell-derived interneuron transplants may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 2 August 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.121.
Stein, Paul S G; Daniels-McQueen, Susan; Lai, Jessica; Liu, Z; Corman, Tanya S
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are neuronal networks in the spinal cord that generate rhythmic patterns of motor activity in the absence of movement-related sensory feedback. For many vertebrate rhythmic behaviors, CPGs generate normal patterns of motor neuron activities as well as variations of the normal patterns, termed deletions, in which bursts in one or more motor nerves are absent from one or more cycles of the rhythm. Prior work with hip-extensor deletions during turtle rostral scratch supports hypotheses of hip-extensor interneurons in a hip-extensor module and of hip-flexor interneurons in a hip-flexor module. We present here single-unit interneuronal recording data that support hypotheses of knee-extensor interneurons in a knee-extensor module and of knee-flexor interneurons in a knee-flexor module. Members of knee-related modules are not members of hip-related modules and vice versa. These results in turtle provide experimental support at the single-unit interneuronal level for the organizational concept that the rostral-scratch CPG for the turtle hindlimb is multipartite, that is, composed of more than two modules. This work, when combined with experimental and computational work in other vertebrates, does not support the classical view that the vertebrate limb CPG is bipartite with only two modules, one controlling all the flexors of the limb and the other controlling all the extensors of the limb. Instead, these results support the general principle that spinal CPGs are multipartite.
Fusca, Debora; Husch, Andreas; Baumann, Arnd; Kloppenburg, Peter
Behavioral and physiological studies have shown that local interneurons are pivotal for processing odor information in the insect antennal lobe. They mediate inhibitory and excitatory interactions between the glomerular pathways and ultimately shape the tuning profile of projection neurons. To identify putative cholinergic local interneurons in the antennal lobe of Periplaneta americana, an antibody raised against the biosynthetic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was applied to individual morphologically and electrophysiologically characterized local interneurons. In nonspiking type IIa1 local interneurons, which were classified in this study, we found ChAT-like immunoreactivity suggesting that they are most likely excitatory. This is a well-defined population of neurons that generates Ca(2+) -driven spikelets upon depolarization and stimulation with odorants, but not Na(+) -driven action potentials, because they lack voltage-activated transient Na(+) currents. The nonspiking type IIa2 and type IIb local interneurons, in which Ca(2+) -driven spikelets were absent, had no ChAT-like immunoreactivity. The GABA-like immunoreactive, spiking type I local interneurons had no ChAT-like immunoreactivity. In addition, we showed that uniglomerular projection neurons with cell bodies located in the ventral portion of the ventrolateral somata group and projections along the inner antennocerebral tract exhibited ChAT-like immunoreactivity. Assigning potential transmitters and neuromodulators to distinct morphological and electrophysiological types of antennal lobe neurons is an important prerequisite for a detailed understanding of odor information processing in insects.
Lu, Cheng B; Hamilton, James B; Powell, Andrew D; Toescu, Emil C; Vreugdenhil, Martin
Normal ageing-associated spatial memory impairment has been linked to subtle changes in the hippocampal network. Here we test whether the age-dependent reduction in gamma oscillations can be explained by the changes in intrinsic properties of hippocampal interneurons. Kainate-induced gamma oscillations, but not spontaneous gamma oscillations, were reduced in slices from aged mice. CA3 interneurons were recorded in slices from young and aged mice using Fura-2-filled pipettes. Passive membrane properties, firing properties, medium- and slow-afterhyperpolarisation amplitudes, basal [Ca(2+)](i) and firing-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients were not different with ageing. Kainate caused a larger depolarisation and increase in [Ca(2+)](i) signal in aged interneurons than in young ones. In contrast to young interneurons, kainate increased the medium- and slow-afterhyperpolarisation and underlying [Ca(2+)](i) transient in aged interneurons. Modulating the slow-afterhyperpolarisation by modulating L-type calcium channels with BAY K 8644 and nimodipine suppressed and potentiated, respectively, kainate-induced gamma oscillations in young slices. The age-dependent and stimulation-dependent increase in basal [Ca(2+)](i), firing-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transient and associated afterhyperpolarisation may reduce interneuron excitability and contribute to an age-dependent impairment of hippocampal gamma oscillations.
Segerstråle, Mikael; Juuri, Juuso; Lanore, Frédéric; Piepponen, Petteri; Lauri, Sari E; Mulle, Christophe; Taira, Tomi
In the neonatal hippocampus, the activity of interneurons shapes early network bursts that are important for the establishment of neuronal connectivity. However, mechanisms controlling the firing of immature interneurons remain elusive. We now show that the spontaneous firing rate of CA3 stratum lucidum interneurons markedly decreases during early postnatal development because of changes in the properties of GluK1 (formerly known as GluR5) subunit-containing kainate receptors (KARs). In the neonate, activation of KARs by ambient glutamate exerts a tonic inhibition of the medium-duration afterhyperpolarization (mAHP) by a G-protein-dependent mechanism, permitting a high interneuronal firing rate. During development, the amplitude of the apamine-sensitive K+ currents responsible for the mAHP increases dramatically because of decoupling between KAR activation and mAHP modulation, leading to decreased interneuronal firing. The developmental shift in the KAR function and its consequences on interneuronal activity are likely to have a fundamental role in the maturation of the synchronous neuronal oscillations typical for adult hippocampal circuitry.
Thomson, A M; West, D C; Hahn, J; Deuchars, J
1. Using dual intracellular recordings in slices of adult rat neocortex, twenty-four IPSPs activated by single presynaptic interneurones were studied in simultaneously recorded pyramidal cells. Fast spiking interneurones inhibited one in four or five of their close pyramidal neighbours. No reciprocal connections were observed. After recordings neurones were filled with biocytin. 2. Interneurones that elicited IPSPs were classified as classical fast spiking (n = 10), as non-classical fast spiking (n = 3, including one burst-firing interneurone), as unclassified, or slow interneurones (n = 8), or as regular spiking interneurones (n = 3), i.e. interneurones whose electrophysiological characteristics were indistinguishable from those of pyramidal cells. 3. All of the seven classical fast spiking cells anatomically fully recovered had aspiny, beaded dendrites. Their partially myelinated axons ramified extensively, varying widely in shape and extent, but randomly selected labelled axon terminals typically innervated somata and large calibre dendrites on electron microscopic examination. One 'autapse' was demonstrated. One presumptive regular spiking interneurone axon made four somatic and five dendritic connections with unlabelled targets. 4. Full anatomical reconstructions of labelled classical fast spiking interneurones and their postsynaptic pyramids (n = 5) demonstrated one to five boutons per connection. The two recorded IPSPs that were fully reconstructed morphologically (3 and 5 terminals) were, however, amongst the smallest recorded (< 0.4 mV). Some connections may therefore involve larger numbers of contacts. 5. Single axon IPSPs were between 0.2 and 3.5 mV in average amplitude at -55 to -60 mV. Extrapolated reversal potentials were between -70 and -82 mV. IPSP time course correlated with the type of presynaptic interneurone, but not with IPSP latency, amplitude, reversal potential, or sensitivity to current injected at the soma. 6. Classical fast spiking
Zhu, Yingjie; Qiao, Wenhui; Liu, Kefei; Zhong, Huiyuan; Yao, Haishan
The responses of visual cortical neurons to natural stimuli are both reliable and sparse. These properties require inhibition, yet the contribution of specific types of inhibitory neurons is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that optogenetic suppression of parvalbumin (PV)- but not somatostatin (SOM)-expressing interneurons reduces response reliability in the primary visual cortex of anaesthetized and awake mice. PV suppression leads to increases in the low firing rates and decreases in the high firing rates of cortical neurons, resulting in an overall reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In contrast, SOM suppression generally increases the overall firing rate for most neurons, without affecting the SNR. Further analysis reveals that PV, but not SOM, suppression impairs neural discrimination of natural stimuli. Together, these results reveal a critical role for PV interneurons in the formation of reliable visual cortical representations of natural stimuli.
Korotkova, Tatiana; Fuchs, Elke C; Ponomarenko, Alexey; von Engelhardt, Jakob; Monyer, Hannah
Activity of parvalbumin-positive hippocampal interneurons is critical for network synchronization but the receptors involved therein have remained largely unknown. Here we report network and behavioral deficits in mice with selective ablation of NMDA receptors in parvalbumin-positive interneurons (NR1(PVCre-/-)). Recordings of local field potentials and unitary neuronal activity in the hippocampal CA1 area revealed altered theta oscillations (5-10 Hz) in freely behaving NR1(PVCre-/-) mice. Moreover, in contrast to controls, in NR1(PVCre-/-) mice the remaining theta rhythm was abolished by the administration of atropine. Gamma oscillations (35-85 Hz) were increased and less modulated by the concurrent theta rhythm in the mutant. Positional firing of pyramidal cells in NR1(PVCre-/-) mice was less spatially and temporally precise. Finally, NR1(PVCre-/-) mice exhibited impaired spatial working as well as spatial short- and long-term recognition memory but showed no deficits in open field exploratory activity and spatial reference learning.
Lei, Saobo; McBain, Chris J
Dentate gyrus granule cells innervate inhibitory interneurons via a continuum of synapses comprised of either Ca(2+)-impermeable (CI) or Ca(2+)-permeable (CP) AMPA receptors. Synapses at the extreme ends of this continuum engage distinct postsynaptic responses, with activity at CI synapses being strongly influenced by NMDA receptor activation. NMDARs at CI synapses have a lower NR2B subunit composition and a higher open probability, which generate larger amplitude and more rapid EPSCs than their CP counterparts. A novel form of NMDAR-dependent long-term depression (iLTD) is associated with CI-mossy fiber synapses, whereas iLTD at CP synapses is dependent on Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptor activation. Induction of both forms of iLTD required elevation of postsynaptic calcium. Thus mossy fibers engage CA3 interneurons via multiple synapse types that will act to expand the computational repertoire of the mossy fiber-CA3 network.
Walker, Harrison C; Lawrence, J Josh; McBain, Chris J
Mossy fiber (MF) and CA3 collateral (CL) axons activate common interneurons via synapses comprised of different AMPA receptors to provide feedforward and feedback inhibitory control of the CA3 hippocampal network. Because synapses potentially occur over variable electrotonic distances that distort somatically recorded synaptic currents, it is not known whether the underlying afferent-specific synaptic conductances are associated with different time courses. Using a somatic voltage jump technique to alter the driving force at the site of the synapse, we demonstrate that MF and CL synapses overlap in electrotonic location yet differ in conductance time course. Thus, afferent-specific conductance time courses allow single interneurons to differentially integrate feedforward and feedback information without the need to segregate distinct AMPA receptor subunits to different electrotonic domains.
Neuroscience produces a vast amount of data from an enormous diversity of neurons. A neuronal classification system is essential to organize such data and the knowledge that is derived from them. Classification depends on the unequivocal identification of the features that distinguish one type of neuron from another. The problems inherent in this are particularly acute when studying cortical interneurons. To tackle this, we convened a representative group of researchers to agree on a set of terms to describe the anatomical, physiological and molecular features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex. The resulting terminology might provide a stepping stone towards a future classification of these complex and heterogeneous cells. Consistent adoption will be important for the success of such an initiative, and we also encourage the active involvement of the broader scientific community in the dynamic evolution of this project. PMID:18568015
Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Peters, Marc; Pankratz, Michael J.
Bitter is a taste modality associated with toxic substances evoking aversive behaviour in most animals, and the valence of different taste modalities is conserved between mammals and Drosophila. Despite knowledge gathered in the past on the peripheral perception of taste, little is known about the identity of taste interneurons in the brain. Here we show that hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons in the Drosophila larval brain are necessary for avoidance behaviour to caffeine, and when activated, result in cessation of feeding and mediates a bitter taste signal within the brain. Hugin neuropeptide-containing neurons project to the neurosecretory region of the protocerebrum and functional imaging demonstrates that these neurons are activated by bitter stimuli and by activation of bitter sensory receptor neurons. We propose that hugin neurons projecting to the protocerebrum act as gustatory interneurons relaying bitter taste information to higher brain centres in Drosophila larvae. PMID:27619503
Blatow, Maria; Rozov, Andrei; Katona, Istvan; Hormuzdi, Sheriar G; Meyer, Axel H; Whittington, Miles A; Caputi, Antonio; Monyer, Hannah
GABAergic interneurons can phase the output of principal cells, giving rise to oscillatory activity in different frequency bands. Here we describe a new subtype of GABAergic interneuron, the multipolar bursting (MB) cell in the mouse neocortex. MB cells are parvalbumin positive but differ from fast-spiking multipolar (FS) cells in their morphological, neurochemical, and physiological properties. MB cells are reciprocally connected with layer 2/3 pyramidal cells and are coupled with each other by chemical and electrical synapses. MB cells innervate FS cells but not vice versa. MB to MB cell as well as MB to pyramidal cell synapses exhibit paired-pulse facilitation. Carbachol selectively induced synchronized theta frequency oscillations in MB cells. Synchrony required both gap junction coupling and GABAergic chemical transmission, but not excitatory glutamatergic input. Hence, MB cells form a distinct inhibitory network, which upon cholinergic drive can generate rhythmic and synchronous theta frequency activity, providing temporal coordination of pyramidal cell output.
Lee, Youngsoo; Katyal, Sachin; Li, Yang; El-Khamisy, Sherif F; Russell, Helen R; Caldecott, Keith W; McKinnon, Peter J
Defective responses to DNA single strand breaks underlie various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the exact role of this repair pathway during the development and maintenance of the nervous system is unclear. Using murine neural-specific inactivation of Xrcc1, a factor that is critical for the repair of DNA single strand breaks, we found a profound neuropathology that is characterized by the loss of cerebellar interneurons. This cell loss was linked to p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and occurred as interneuron progenitors commenced differentiation. Loss of Xrcc1 also led to the persistence of DNA strand breaks throughout the nervous system and abnormal hippocampal function. Collectively, these data detail the in vivo link between DNA single strand break repair and neurogenesis and highlight the diverse consequences of specific types of genotoxic stress in the nervous system.
Atzori, M; Lau, D; Tansey, E P; Chow, A; Ozaita, A; Rudy, B; McBain, C J
Histamine-containing neurons of the tuberomammilary nucleus project to the hippocampal formation to innervate H1 and H2 receptors on both principal and inhibitory interneurons. Here we show that H2 receptor activation negatively modulates outward currents through Kv3.2-containing potassium channels by a mechanism involving PKA phosphorylation in inhibitory interneurons. PKA phosphorylation of Kv3.2 lowered the maximum firing frequency of inhibitory neurons, which in turn negatively modulated high-frequency population oscillations recorded in principal cell layers. All these effects were absent in a Kv3.2 knockout mouse. These data reveal a novel pathway for histamine-dependent regulation of high-frequency oscillations within the hippocampal formation.
Ellender, Tommas J.; Paulsen, Ole
The axonal targets of perisomatic targeting interneurons make them ideally suited to synchronize excitatory neurons. As such they have been implicated in rhythm generation of network activity in many brain regions including the hippocampus. However, several recent publications indicate that their roles extend beyond that of rhythm generation. Firstly, it has been shown that, in addition to rhythm generation, GABAergic perisomatic inhibition also serves as a current generator contributing significantly to hippocampal oscillatory EEG signals. Furthermore, GABAergic interneurons have a previously unrecognized role in the initiation of hippocampal population bursts, both in the developing and adult hippocampus. In this review, we describe these new observations in detail and discuss the implications they have for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying physiological and pathological hippocampal network activities. This review is part of the Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience's special topic entitled “GABA signaling in health and disease” based on the meeting at the CNCR Amsterdam. PMID:20740069
Hooper, Andrew; Maguire, Jamie
A subset of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons was previously identified in the hippocampus with unknown function. Here we demonstrate that hippocampal CRH neurons represent a novel subtype of interneurons in the hippocampus, exhibiting unique morphology, electrophysiological properties, molecular markers, and connectivity. This subset of hippocampal CRH neurons in the mouse reside in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer and tract tracing studies using AAV-Flex-ChR2-tdTomato reveal dense back-projections of these neurons onto principal neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. These hippocampal CRH neurons express both GABA and GAD67 and using in vitro optogenetic techniques, we demonstrate that these neurons make functional connections and release GABA onto CA3 principal neurons. The location, morphology, and importantly the functional connectivity of these neurons demonstrate that hippocampal CRH neurons represent a unique subtype of hippocampal interneurons. The connectivity of these neurons has significant implications for hippocampal function. PMID:26135556
Perez, S M; Lodge, D J
Schizophrenia patients exhibit increased hippocampal activity that is correlated with positive symptoms. Although the cause of this hippocampal hyperactivity has not been demonstrated, it likely involves a decrease in GABAergic signaling. Thus, we posit that restoring GABAergic function may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. It has been demonstrated that transplanted GABAergic precursor cells from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) can migrate and differentiate into mature interneurons. Here, we demonstrate that ventral hippocampal MGE transplants can restore hippocampal function and normalize downstream dopamine neuron activity in a rodent model of schizophrenia. Furthermore, MGE transplants also reverse the hyper-responsive locomotor response to amphetamine. Taken together, these data demonstrate that restoring interneuron function reverses neurophysiological and behavioral deficits in a rodent model of schizophrenia and moreover, demonstrate the feasibility of a neuronal transplant procedure as a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of schizophrenia.
He, Qionger; Duguid, Ian; Clark, Beverley; Panzanelli, Patrizia; Patel, Bijal; Thomas, Philip; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Smart, Trevor G.
Inhibitory synaptic plasticity is important for shaping both neuronal excitability and network activity. Here we investigate the input and GABAA receptor subunit specificity of inhibitory synaptic plasticity by studying cerebellar interneuron-Purkinje cell (PC) synapses. Depolarizing PCs initiated a long-lasting increase in GABA-mediated synaptic currents. By stimulating individual interneurons, this plasticity was observed at somatodendritic basket cell synapses, but not at distal dendritic stellate cell synapses. Basket cell synapses predominantly express β2-subunit-containing GABAA receptors; deletion of the β2-subunit ablates this plasticity, demonstrating its reliance on GABAA receptor subunit composition. The increase in synaptic currents is dependent upon an increase in newly synthesized cell surface synaptic GABAA receptors and is abolished by preventing CaMKII phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Our results reveal a novel GABAA receptor subunit- and input-specific form of inhibitory synaptic plasticity that regulates the temporal firing pattern of the principal output cells of the cerebellum.
Whittington, Miles A.; Traub, Roger D.; Jefferys, John G. R.
PARTIALLY synchronous 40-Hz oscillations of cortical neurons have been implicated in cognitive function. Specifically, coherence of these oscillations between different parts of the cortex may provide conjunctive properties1,2 to solve the 'binding problem' associating features detected by the cortex into unified perceived objects. Here we report an emergent 40-Hz oscillation in networks of inhibitory neurons connected by synapses using GABAA (γ-aminobutyric acid) receptors in slices of rat hippocampus and neocortex. These network inhibitory postsynaptic potential oscillations occur in response to the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. The oscillations can entrain pyramidal cell discharges. The oscillation frequency is determined both by the net excitation of interneurons and by the kinetics of the inhibitory postsynaptic potentials between them. We propose that interneuron network oscillations, in conjunction with intrinsic membrane resonances and long-loop (such as thalamocortical) interactions, contribute to 40-Hz rhythms in vivo.
Rutherford, L C; Nelson, S B; Turrigiano, G G
Recently, we have identified a novel form of synaptic plasticity that acts to stabilize neocortical firing rates by scaling the quantal amplitude of AMPA-mediated synaptic inputs up or down as a function of neuronal activity. Here, we show that the effects of activity blockade on quantal amplitude are mediated through the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Exogenous BDNF prevented, and a TrkB-IgG fusion protein reproduced, the effects of activity blockade on pyramidal quantal amplitude. BDNF had opposite effects on pyramidal neuron and interneuron quantal amplitudes and modified the ratio of pyramidal neuron to interneuron firing rates. These data demonstrate a novel role for BDNF in the homeostatic regulation of excitatory synaptic strengths and in the maintenance of the balance of cortical excitation and inhibition.
Lee, Youngsoo; Katyal, Sachin; Li, Yang; El-Khamisy, Sherif F.; Russell, Helen R.; Caldecott, Keith W.; McKinnon, Peter J.
Defective responses to DNA single strand breaks underpin various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the exact role of this repair pathway during development and maintenance of the nervous system is unclear. Using murine neural-specific inactivation of Xrcc1, a factor critical for the repair of DNA single strand breaks, we identified a profound neuropathology characterized by the loss of cerebellar interneurons. This cell loss was linked to p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and occurred as interneuron progenitors commenced differentiation. Loss of Xrcc1 also led to the persistence of DNA strand breaks throughout the nervous system and abnormal hippocampal function. Collectively, these data detail the first in vivo link between DNA single strand break repair and neurogenesis, and highlight the diverse consequences of specific types of genotoxic stress in the nervous system. PMID:19633665
Dimidschstein, Jordane; Chen, Qian; Tremblay, Robin; Rogers, Stephanie L; Saldi, Giuseppe-Antonio; Guo, Lihua; Xu, Qing; Liu, Runpeng; Lu, Congyi; Chu, Jianhua; Grimley, Joshua S; Krostag, Anne-Rachel; Kaykas, Ajamete; Avery, Michael C; Rashid, Mohammad S; Baek, Myungin; Jacob, Amanda L; Smith, Gordon B; Wilson, Daniel E; Kosche, Georg; Kruglikov, Illya; Rusielewicz, Tomasz; Kotak, Vibhakar C; Mowery, Todd M; Anderson, Stewart A; Callaway, Edward M; Dasen, Jeremy S; Fitzpatrick, David; Fossati, Valentina; Long, Michael A; Noggle, Scott; Reynolds, John H; Sanes, Dan H; Rudy, Bernardo; Feng, Guoping; Fishell, Gord
A fundamental impediment to understanding the brain is the availability of inexpensive and robust methods for targeting and manipulating specific neuronal populations. The need to overcome this barrier is pressing because there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive and behavioral differences between mice and higher mammalian species in which it is difficult to specifically target and manipulate genetically defined functional cell types. In particular, it is unclear the degree to which insights from mouse models can shed light on the neural mechanisms that mediate cognitive functions in higher species, including humans. Here we describe a novel recombinant adeno-associated virus that restricts gene expression to GABAergic interneurons within the telencephalon. We demonstrate that the viral expression is specific and robust, allowing for morphological visualization, activity monitoring and functional manipulation of interneurons in both mice and non-genetically tractable species, thus opening the possibility to study GABAergic function in virtually any vertebrate species.
Hooper, Andrew; Maguire, Jamie
A subset of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons was previously identified in the hippocampus with unknown function. Here we demonstrate that hippocampal CRH neurons represent a novel subtype of interneurons in the hippocampus, exhibiting unique morphology, electrophysiological properties, molecular markers, and connectivity. This subset of hippocampal CRH neurons in the mouse reside in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer and tract tracing studies using AAV-Flex-ChR2-tdTomato reveal dense back-projections of these neurons onto principal neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. These hippocampal CRH neurons express both GABA and GAD67 and using in vitro optogenetic techniques, we demonstrate that these neurons make functional connections and release GABA onto CA3 principal neurons. The location, morphology, and importantly the functional connectivity of these neurons demonstrate that hippocampal CRH neurons represent a unique subtype of hippocampal interneurons. The connectivity of these neurons has significant implications for hippocampal function.
Al-Noori, S; Swann, J W
Excitotoxic injury of the dendrites of inhibitory interneurons could lead to decreases in their synaptic activation and explain subsequent local circuit hyperexcitability and epilepsy. A hallmark of dendrotoxicity, at least in principal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, is focal or varicose swellings of dendritic arbors. In experiments reported here, transient (1h) exposure of hippocampal explant cultures to kainic acid produced marked focal swellings of the dendrites of parvalbumin-immunoreactive pyramidal basket cells in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent manner. At 5mM kainic acid, more than half of the immunopositive apical dendrites in area CA(1) had a beaded appearance. However, the somal volumes of these cells were unaltered by the same treatment. The presence of focal swellings was reversible with kainate washout and was not accompanied by interneuronal cell death. In contrast, exposure to much higher concentrations (300mM) of kainic acid resulted in the total loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons from explants. Surprisingly, kainic acid-induced dendritic beading does not appear to be mediated by extracellular calcium. Beading was unaltered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, the L-type calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, cadmium, or by removing extracellular calcium. However, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by either tetrodotoxin or lidocaine abolished dendritic beading, while the activation of existing voltage-gated sodium channels by veratridine mimicked the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading. Finally, the removal of extracellular chloride prevented the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading.Thus, we suggest that the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-), rather than Ca(2+), into cells underlies the focal swellings of interneuron dendrites in hippocampus.
Koscheck, T; Weyer, A; Schilling, R L; Schilling, K
The cerebellar cortex comprises a rather limited variety of interneurons, prominently among them inhibitory basket and stellate cells and Golgi neurons. To identify mechanisms subserving the positioning, morphogenesis, and neurochemical maturation of these inhibitory interneurons, we analyzed their development in primary microexplant cultures of the early postnatal cerebellar cortex. These provide a well-defined, patterned lattice within which the development of individual cells is readily accessible to experimental manipulation and observation. Pax-2-positive precursors of inhibitory interneurons were found to effectively segregate from granule cell perikarya. They emigrate from the core explant and avoid the vicinity of granule cells, which also emigrate and aggregate into small clusters around the explant proper. This contrasts with the behavior of Purkinje neurons, which remain within the explant proper. During migration, a subset of Pax-2-positive cells gradually acquires a GABAergic phenotype, and subsequently also expresses the type 2 metabotropic receptor for glutamate, or parvalbumin, markers for Golgi neurons and basket or stellate cells, respectively. The latter eventually orient their dendrites such that they take a preferentially perpendicular orientation relative to granule cell axons. Both the neurochemical maturation of basket/stellate cells and the specific orientation of their dendrites are independent of their continuous contact with radially oriented glia or Purkinje cell dendrites projecting from the core explant. Numbers of parvalbumin-positive basket/stellate cells and the prevalence of glutamate-positive neurites, which form a dense network preferentially within cell clusters containing granule cell perikarya and their dendrites, are subject to regulation by chronic depolarization. In contrast, brain-derived neurotrophic factor results in a drastic decrease of numbers of basket/stellate cells. These findings document that granule cell axons
de Lima, Ana Dolabela; Opitz, Thoralf; Voigt, Thomas
In the cerebral cortex of mammals, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons represent 15-25% of all neurons, depending on the species and area being examined. Because converging evidence suggests that activity may play an important role in the neuritic maturation and synaptic function of GABAergic neurons, it is feasible that activity plays a role in the regulation of the proportion of GABAergic neurons. Here we provide direct evidence that early in cortical development activity blockade may deplete the network of a subpopulation of GABA immunoreactive neurons characterized by their small size and late generation in vitro. In a period of time coinciding with the emergence of synchronous network activity, the survival and morphological differentiation of GABAergic neurons was influenced by long-term blockade of synaptic activity. While GABA(A) receptor antagonists had a minor promoting effect on interneuronal survival during the second week in vitro, antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors strongly impaired survival and differentiation of immature GABAergic interneurons. Interneuronal loss was more severe when N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors were blocked than after blockade of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors. The decrease in the density of GABAergic neurons was irreversible, but could be prevented by the simultaneous addition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These results suggest that there is a narrow time window during neocortical development when glutamatergic activity, and specially NMDA receptor stimulation, is crucial to assure survival and maturation of a subpopulation of late developing GABAergic interneurons.
Halabisky, Brian; Parada, Isabel; Buckmaster, Paul S; Prince, David A
The density of somatostatin (SOM)-containing GABAergic interneurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus is significantly decreased in both human and experimental temporal lobe epilepsy. We used the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus and temporal lobe epilepsy in mice to study anatomical and electrophysiological properties of surviving somatostatin interneurons and determine whether compensatory functional changes occur that might offset loss of other inhibitory neurons. Using standard patch-clamp techniques and pipettes containing biocytin, whole cell recordings were obtained in hippocampal slices maintained in vitro. Hilar SOM cells containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were identified with fluorescent and infrared differential interference contrast video microscopy in epileptic and control GIN (EGFP-expressing Inhibitory Neurons) mice. Results showed that SOM cells from epileptic mice had 1) significant increases in somatic area and dendritic length; 2) changes in membrane properties, including a small but significant decrease in resting membrane potential, and increases in time constant and whole cell capacitance; 3) increased frequency of slowly rising spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) due primarily to increased mEPSC frequency, without changes in the probability of release; 4) increased evoked EPSC amplitude; and 5) increased spontaneous action potential generation in cell-attached recordings. Results suggest an increase in excitatory innervation, perhaps on distal dendrites, considering the slower rising EPSCs and increased output of hilar SOM cells in this model of epilepsy. In sum, these changes would be expected to increase the inhibitory output of surviving SOM interneurons and in part compensate for interneuronal loss in the epileptogenic hippocampus.
Camiré, Olivier; Topolnik, Lisa
Postsynaptic calcium (Ca2+) nonlinearities allow neuronal coincidence detection and site-specific plasticity. Whether such events exist in dendrites of interneurons and play a role in regulation of synaptic efficacy remains unknown. Here, we used a combination of whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and two-photon Ca2+ imaging to reveal Ca2+ nonlinearities associated with synaptic integration in dendrites of mouse hippocampal CA1 fast-spiking interneurons. Local stimulation of distal dendritic branches within stratum oriens/alveus elicited fast Ca2+ transients, which showed a steep sigmoidal relationship to stimulus intensity. Supralinear Ca2+ events required Ca2+ entry through AMPA receptors with a subsequent Ca2+ release from internal stores. To investigate the functional significance of supralinear Ca2+ signals, we examined activity-dependent fluctuations in transmission efficacy triggered by Ca2+ signals of different amplitudes at excitatory synapses of interneurons. Subthreshold theta-burst stimulation (TBS) produced small amplitude postsynaptic Ca2+ transients and triggered long-term potentiation. In contrast, the suprathreshold TBS, which was associated with the generation of supralinear Ca2+ events, triggered long-term depression. Blocking group I/II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) during suprathreshold TBS resulted in a slight reduction of supralinear Ca2+ events and induction of short-term depression. In contrast, blocking internal stores and supralinear Ca2+ signals during suprathreshold TBS switched the direction of plasticity from depression back to potentiation. These data reveal a novel type of supralinear Ca2+ events at synapses lacking the GluA2 AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors and demonstrate a general mechanism by which Ca2+ -permeable AMPA receptors, together with internal stores and mGluRs, control the direction of plasticity at interneuron excitatory synapses.
Eguchi, Noriomi; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Sora, Ichiro; Mori, Masahiro
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) modulate various neuronal functions in the central nervous system. Many studies reported that mGluRs have linkages to neuronal disorders such as schizophrenia and autism related disorders, indicating that mGluRs are involved in critical functions of the neuronal circuits. To study this possibility further, we recorded mGluR-induced synaptic responses in the interneurons of the CA3 stratum radiatum using rat hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. Electrical stimulation in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer evoked a slow inward current in the interneurons at a holding potential of -70mV in the presence of antagonists for AMPA/kainate receptors, NMDA receptors, GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors. The slow inward current was blocked in the absence of extracellular calcium, suggesting that this was a synaptic response. The slow excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) reversed near 0mV, reflecting an increase in a non-selective cationic conductance. The slow EPSC is mediated by group I mGluRs, as it was blocked by AP3, a group I mGluR antagonist. Neither a calcium chelator BAPTA nor a phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 affected the slow EPSC. La(3+), a general TRP channel blocker or capsazepine, a selective TRPV1 channel antagonist significantly suppressed the slow EPSC. DHPG, a selective group I mGluRs agonist induced an inward current, which was suppressed by capsazepine. These results indicate that in the interneurons of the hippocampal CA3 stratum radiatum group I mGluRs activate TRPV1 channels independently of PLC and intracellular Ca(2+), resulting in the slow EPSC in the interneurons.
Galván, Emilio J; Calixto, Eduardo; Barrionuevo, Germán
Hippocampal area CA3 is critically involved in the formation of nonoverlapping neuronal subpopulations ("pattern separation") to store memory representations as distinct events. Efficient pattern separation relies on the strong and sparse excitatory input from the mossy fibers (MFs) to pyramidal cells and feedforward inhibitory interneurons. However, MF synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells undergo long-term potentiation (LTP), which, if unopposed, will degrade pattern separation because MF activation will now recruit additional CA3 pyramidal cells. Here, we demonstrate MF LTP in stratum lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons induced by the same stimulation protocol that induces MF LTP in pyramidal cells. This LTP was NMDA receptor (NMDAR) independent and occurred at MF Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptor synapses. LTP was prevented by with voltage clamping the postsynaptic cell soma during high-frequency stimulation (HFS), intracellular injections of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA (20 mm), or bath applications of the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nimodipine (10 microm). We propose that MF LTP in L-M interneurons preserves the sparsity of pyramidal cell activation, thus allowing CA3 to maintain its role in pattern separation. In the presence of the mGluR1alpha antagonist LY367385 [(S)-(+)-a-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid] (100 microm), the same HFS that induces MF LTP in naive slices triggered NMDAR-independent MF LTD. This LTD, like LTP, required activation of the L-type Ca(2+) channel and also was induced after blockade of IP(3) receptors with heparin (4 mg/ml) or the selective depletion of receptor-gated Ca(2+) stores with ryanodine (10 or 100 microm). We conclude that L-M interneurons are endowed with Ca(2+) signaling cascades suitable for controlling the polarity of MF long-term plasticity induced by joint presynaptic and postsynaptic activities.
Galván, Emilio J; Calixto, Eduardo; Barrionuevo, Germán
Hippocampal area CA3 is critically involved in the formation of non-overlapping neuronal subpopulations (“pattern separation”) to store memory representations as distinct events. Efficient pattern separation relies on the strong and sparse excitatory input from the mossy fibers (MF) to pyramidal cells and feed-forward inhibitory interneurons. However, MF synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells undergo LTP, which, if unopposed, will degrade pattern separation as MF activation will now recruit additional CA3 pyramidal cells. Here we demonstrate MF LTP in stratum lacunosum-moleculare (L-M) interneurons induced by the same stimulation protocol that induces MF LTP in pyramidal cells. This LTP was NMDAR-independent, and occurred at MF Ca2+-impermeable (CI) AMPAR synapses. LTP was prevented by with voltage clamping the postsynaptic cell soma during HFS, intracellular injections of the Ca2+ chelator BAPTA (20 mM) or bath applications of the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nimodipine (10 µM). We propose that MF LTP in L-M interneurons preserves the sparsity of pyramidal cell activation, thus allowing CA3 to maintain its role in pattern separation. In the presence of the mGluR1α antagonist LY367385 (100 µM) the same HFS that induces MF LTP in naïve slices triggered NMDAR-independent MF LTD. This LTD, like LTP, required activation of the L-type Ca2+ channel, and also was induced following blockade of IP3 receptors with heparin (4mg/mL) or the selective depletion of receptor-gated Ca2+ stores with ryanodine (10 or100 µM). We conclude that L-M interneurons are endowed with Ca2+ signaling cascades suitable for controlling the polarity of MF long-term plasticity induced by joint pre- and postsynaptic activities. PMID:19109487
Morris, Gareth; Jiruska, Premysl; Jefferys, John G. R.; Powell, Andrew D.
Highlights Simultaneous epileptiform LFPs and single-cell activity can be recorded in the membrane chamber.Interneuron firing can be linked to epileptiform high frequency activity.Fast ripples, unique to chronic epilepsy, can be modeled in ex vivo tissue from TeNT-treated rats. Traditionally, visually-guided patch clamp in brain slices using submerged recording conditions has been required to characterize the activity of individual neurons. However, due to limited oxygen availability, submerged conditions truncate fast network oscillations including epileptiform activity. Thus, it is technically challenging to study the contribution of individual identified neurons to fast network activity. The membrane chamber is a submerged-style recording chamber, modified to enhance oxygen supply to the slice, which we use to demonstrate the ability to record single-cell activity during in vitro epilepsy. We elicited epileptiform activity using 9 mM potassium and simultaneously recorded from fluorescently labeled interneurons. Epileptiform discharges were more reliable than in standard submerged conditions. During these synchronous discharges interneuron firing frequency increased and action potential amplitude progressively decreased. The firing of 15 interneurons was significantly correlated with epileptiform high frequency activity (HFA; ~100–500 Hz) cycles. We also recorded epileptiform activity in tissue prepared from chronically epileptic rats, treated with intrahippocampal tetanus neurotoxin. Four of these slices generated fast ripple activity, unique to chronic epilepsy. We showed the membrane chamber is a promising new in vitro environment facilitating patch clamp recordings in acute epilepsy models. Further, we showed that chronic epilepsy can be better modeled using ex vivo brain slices. These findings demonstrate that the membrane chamber facilitates previously challenging investigations into the neuronal correlates of epileptiform activity in vitro. PMID:27881950
Fanselow, Erika E.; Richardson, Kristen A.; Connors, Barry W.
The specific functions of subtypes of cortical inhibitory neurons are not well understood. This is due in part to a dearth of information about the behaviors of interneurons under conditions when the surrounding circuit is in an active state. We investigated the firing behavior of a subset of inhibitory interneurons, identified using mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a subset of somatostatin-expressing inhibitory cells (“GFP-expressing inhibitory neuron” [GIN] cells). The somata of the GIN cells were in layer 2/3 of somatosensory cortex and had dense, layer 1–projecting axons that are characteristic of Martinotti neurons. Interestingly, GIN cells fired similarly during a variety of diverse activating conditions: when bathed in fluids with low-divalent cation concentrations, when stimulated with brief trains of local synaptic inputs, when exposed to group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists, or when exposed to muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonists. During these manipulations, GIN cells fired rhythmically and persistently in the theta-frequency range (3–10 Hz). Synchronous firing was often observed and its strength was directly proportional to the magnitude of electrical coupling between GIN cells. These effects were cell type specific: the four manipulations that persistently activated GIN cells rarely caused spiking of regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal cells or fast-spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons. Our results suggest that supragranular GIN interneurons form an electrically coupled network that exerts a coherent 3- to 10-Hz inhibitory influence on its targets. Because GIN cells are more readily activated than RS and FS cells, it is possible that they act as “first responders” when cortical excitatory activity increases. PMID:18799598
Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P
The spike-triggered averaging of dorsal and ventral root potentials permits the identification of two populations of interneurons in the intermediate nucleus of the cat spinal cord. One produced negative dorsal root potentials and inhibitory ventral root potentials, in some cases with monosynaptic latencies, suggesting that they mediate presynaptic inhibition of group I afferent fibers from muscles and postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons. The other population mediated only nonreciprocal postsynaptic inhibition of motoneurons.
Kubota, Shinji; Hirano, Masato; Morishita, Takuya; Uehara, Kazumasa; Funase, Kozo
Patterned sensory nerve stimulation has been shown to induce plastic changes in the reciprocal Ia inhibitory circuit. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the reactivity of Ia inhibitory interneurons could be altered by patterned sensory nerve stimulation. The degree of reciprocal Ia inhibition, the conditioning effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the soleus (SOL) muscle H-reflex, and the ratio of the maximum H-reflex amplitude versus maximum M-wave (H(max)/M(max)) were examined in 10 healthy individuals. Patterned electrical nerve stimulation was applied to the common peroneal nerve every 1 s (100 Hz-5 train) at the motor threshold intensity of tibialis anterior muscle to induce activity changes in the reciprocal Ia inhibitory circuit. Reciprocal Ia inhibition, the TMS-conditioned H-reflex amplitude, and H(max)/M(max) were recorded before, immediately after, and 15 min after the electrical stimulation. The patterned electrical nerve stimulation significantly increased the degree of reciprocal Ia inhibition and decreased the amplitude of the TMS-conditioned H-reflex in the short-latency inhibition phase, which was presumably mediated by Ia inhibitory interneurons. However, it had no effect on H(max)/M(max). Our results indicated that patterned sensory nerve stimulation could modulate the activity of Ia inhibitory interneurons, and this change may have been caused by the synaptic modification of Ia inhibitory interneuron terminals. These results may lead to a clearer understanding of the spinal cord synaptic plasticity produced by repetitive sensory inputs.
Jia, Yan; Parker, David
The output of a neuronal network depends on the organization and functional properties of its component cells and synapses. While the characterization of synaptic properties has lagged cellular analyses, a potentially important aspect in rhythmically active networks is how network synapses affect, and are in turn affected by, network activity. This could lead to a potential circular interaction where short-term activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is both influenced by and influences the network output. The analysis of synaptic plasticity in the lamprey locomotor network was extended here to characterize the short-term plasticity of connections between network interneurons and to try and address its potential network role. Paired recordings from identified interneurons in quiescent networks showed synapse-specific synaptic properties and plasticity that supported the presence of two hemisegmental groups that could influence bursting: depression in an excitatory interneuron group, and facilitation in an inhibitory feedback circuit. The influence of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity on network activity was investigated experimentally by changing Ringer Ca2+ levels, and in a simple computer model. A potential caveat of the experimental analyses was that changes in Ringer Ca2+ (and compensatory adjustments in Mg2+ in some cases) could alter several other cellular and synaptic properties. Several of these properties were tested, and while there was some variability, these were not usually significantly affected by the Ringer changes. The experimental analyses suggested that depression of excitatory inputs had the strongest influence on the patterning of network activity. The simulation supported a role for this effect, and also suggested that the inhibitory facilitating group could modulate the influence of the excitatory synaptic depression. Short-term activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has not generally been considered in spinal cord models. These results
Desert ants, Cataglyphis bicolor (Hymenoptera), navigate by using compass information provided by skylight polarization. In this study, electrophysiological recordings were made from polarization-sensitive interneurons (POL-neurons) in the optic lobe of Cataglyphis. The POL-neurons exhibit a characteristic polarization opponency. They receive monochromatic input from the UV receptors of the specialized dorsal rim area of the compound eye. Both polarization opponency and monochromacy are features also found in the POL-neurons of crickets (Orthoptera).
Williams, T J; Milner, T A
The hippocampal formation (HF) is an important site at which stress circuits and endogenous opioid systems intersect, likely playing a critical role in the interaction between stress and drug addiction. Prior study findings suggest that the stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR) may localize to similar neuronal populations within HF lamina. Here, hippocampal sections of male and cycling female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were processed for immunolabeling using antisera directed against the DOR and CRF peptide, as well as interneuron subtype markers somatostatin or parvalbumin, and analyzed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Both DOR- and CRF-labeling was observed in interneurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate hilus. Males and normal cycling females displayed a similar number of CRF immunoreactive neurons co-labeled with DOR and a similar average number of CRF-labeled neurons in the dentate hilus and stratum oriens of CA1 and CA3. In addition, 70% of DOR/CRF dual-labeled neurons in the hilar region co-labeled with somatostatin, suggesting a role for these interneurons in regulating perforant path input to dentate granule cells. Ultrastructural analysis of CRF-labeled axon terminals within the hilar region revealed that proestrus females have a similar number of CRF-labeled axon terminals that contain DORs compared to males but an increased number of CRF-labeled axon terminals without DORs. Taken together, these findings suggest that while DORs are anatomically positioned to modulate CRF immunoreactive interneuron activity and CRF peptide release, their ability to exert such regulatory activity may be compromised in females when estrogen levels are high.
Gulyás, A I; Hájos, N; Katona, I; Freund, T F
A subset of GABAergic neurons projecting to the medial septum has long been described in the hippocampus. However, the lack of information about their local connectivity pattern or their correspondence with any of the well-established hippocampal interneuron types has hampered the understanding of their functional role. Retrograde tracing combined with immunostaining for neurochemical markers in the adult rat hippocampus showed that nearly all hippocampo-septal (HS) neurons express somatostatin (>95%) and, in the hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum, many contain calretinin (>45%). In contrast, in stratum oriens of the CA1 and CA3 subfields, the majority of HS neurons contain somatostatin (>86%) and calbindin (>73%), but not calretinin. Because somatostatin-positive hippocampal interneurons have been most extensively characterized in the stratum oriens of CA1, we focused our further analysis on HS cells found in this region. In 18-20-day-old rats, intracellularly filled CA1-HS cells had extensive local axon collaterals crossing subfield boundaries and innervating the CA3 region and the dentate gyrus. Electron microscopic analysis provided evidence that the axon terminals of CA1-HS cells form symmetrical synapses selectively on GABAergic interneurons, both locally and in the CA3 region. In addition, double retrograde labelling experiments revealed that many CA1-HS neurons of the dorsal hippocampus also have collateral projections to the ventral hippocampus. Thus, CA1-HS cells innervate inhibitory interneurons locally and in remote hippocampal regions, in addition to targeting mostly GABAergic neurons in the medial septum. This dual projection with striking target selectivity for GABAergic neurons may be ideally suited to synchronize neuronal activity along the septo-hippocampal axis.
Shetty, A K; Turner, D A
Kainic acid (KA)-induced degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons leads to synaptic reorganization and hyperexcitability in both dentate gyrus and CA1 region of the hippocampus. We hypothesize that the substrate for hippocampal inhibitory circuitry incurs significant and permanent alterations following degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons. We quantified changes in interneuron density (N(v)) in all strata of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 and CA3 subfields of adult rats at 1, 4, and 6 months following intracerebroventricular (icv) KA administration, using glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD-67) immunocytochemistry. At 1 month postlesion, GAD-67-positive interneuron density was significantly reduced in all strata of every hippocampal region except stratum pyramidale of CA1. The reduction in GAD-67-positive interneuron density either persisted or exacerbated at 4 and 6 months postlesion in every stratum of all hippocampal regions. Further, the soma of remaining GAD-67-positive interneurons in dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield showed significant hypertrophy. Thus, both permanent reductions in the density of GAD-67-positive interneurons in all hippocampal regions and somatic hypertrophy of remaining GAD-67-positive interneurons in dentate gyrus and CA3 subfield occur following icv KA. In contrast, the density of interneurons visualized with Nissl in CA1 and CA3 regions was nearly equivalent to that in the intact hippocampus at all postlesion time points. Collectively, these results suggest that persistent reductions in GAD-67-positive interneuron density observed throughout the hippocampus following CA3 lesion are largely due to a permanent loss of GAD-67 expression in a significant fraction of interneurons, rather than widespread degeneration of interneurons. Nevertheless, a persistent decrease in interneuron activity, as evidenced by permanent down-regulation of GAD-67 in a major fraction of interneurons, would likely enhance the degree of hyperexcitability in the CA3
Natan, Ryan G; Briguglio, John J; Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Laetitia; Jones, Sara I; Aizenberg, Mark; Goldberg, Ethan M; Geffen, Maria Neimark
Reliably detecting unexpected sounds is important for environmental awareness and survival. By selectively reducing responses to frequently, but not rarely, occurring sounds, auditory cortical neurons are thought to enhance the brain's ability to detect unexpected events through stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). The majority of neurons in the primary auditory cortex exhibit SSA, yet little is known about the underlying cortical circuits. We found that two types of cortical interneurons differentially amplify SSA in putative excitatory neurons. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) amplify SSA by providing non-specific inhibition: optogenetic suppression of PVs led to an equal increase in responses to frequent and rare tones. In contrast, somatostatin-positive interneurons (SOMs) selectively reduce excitatory responses to frequent tones: suppression of SOMs led to an increase in responses to frequent, but not to rare tones. A mutually coupled excitatory-inhibitory network model accounts for distinct mechanisms by which cortical inhibitory neurons enhance the brain's sensitivity to unexpected sounds. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09868.001 PMID:26460542
Çalışkan, Gürsel; Müller, Iris; Semtner, Marcus; Winkelmann, Aline; Raza, Ahsan S; Hollnagel, Jan O; Rösler, Anton; Heinemann, Uwe; Stork, Oliver; Meier, Jochen C
Parvalbumin-positive (PV) basket cells provide perisomatic inhibition in the cortex and hippocampus and control generation of memory-related network activity patterns, such as sharp wave ripples (SPW-R). Deterioration of this class of fast-spiking interneurons has been observed in neuropsychiatric disorders and evidence from animal models suggests their involvement in the acquisition and extinction of fear memories. Here, we used mice with neuron type-targeted expression of the presynaptic gain-of-function glycine receptor RNA variant GlyR α3L(185L)to genetically enhance the network activity of PV interneurons. These mice showed reduced extinction of contextual fear memory but normal auditory cued fear memory. They furthermore displayed increase of SPW-R activity in area CA3 and CA1 and facilitated propagation of this particular network activity pattern, as determined in ventral hippocampal slice preparations. Individual freezing levels during extinction and SPW-R propagation were correlated across genotypes. The same was true for parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the ventral hippocampus, which was generally augmented in the GlyR mutant mice and correlated with individual freezing levels. Together, these results identify PV interneurons as critical cellular substrate of fear memory persistence and associated SPW-R activity in the hippocampus. Our findings may be relevant for the identification and characterization of physiological correlates for posttraumatic stress and anxiety disorders.
Perova, Zinaida; Delevich, Kristen; Li, Bo
In response to extreme stress, individuals either show resilience or succumb to despair. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is required for coping with stress, and PFC dysfunction has been implicated in stress-related mental disorders, including depression. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which the PFC participates in stress responses remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the medial PFC (mPFC) in shaping behavioral responses to stress induced by the learned helplessness procedure, in which animals are subjected to an unpredictable and inescapable stressor. PV interneurons in the mPFC were probed and manipulated in knock-in mice expressing the Cre recombinase under the endogenous parvalbumin promoter. Notably, we found that excitatory synaptic transmission onto these neurons was decreased in mice showing helplessness, a behavioral state that is thought to resemble features of human depression. Furthermore, selective suppression of PV interneurons in the mPFC using hM4Di, a DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug), promoted helplessness, indicating that activation of these neurons during stress promotes the establishment of resilient behavior. Our results reveal a cellular mechanism of mPFC dysfunction that may contribute to the emergence of maladaptive behavioral responses in the face of adverse life events.
Chu, Hong-Yuan; Ito, Wataru; Li, Jiayang; Morozov, Alexei
Dopamine (DA) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) promotes fear learning by disinhibiting principal neurons (PNs) and enabling synaptic plasticity in their sensory inputs. While BLA interneurons (INs) are heterogeneous, it is unclear which interneuron subtypes decrease GABAergic input to PNs in the presence of DA. Here, using cell type-selective photostimulation by channelrhodopsin 2 in BLA slices from mouse brain, we examined the role of parvalbumin-positive INs (PV-INs), the major interneuronal subpopulation in BLA, in the disinhibitory effect of DA. We found that DA selectively suppressed GABAergic transmission from PV-INs to PNs by acting on presynaptic D(2) receptors, and this effect was mimicked by Rp-cAMP, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent signaling. In contrast, DA did not alter GABA release from PV-INs to INs. Furthermore, neither suppressing cAMP-dependent signaling by Rp-cAMP nor enhancing it by forskolin altered GABA release from PV-INs to BLA INs. Overall, DA disinhibits BLA, at least in part, by suppressing GABA release from PV-INs in the target cell-specific manner that results from differential control of this release by cAMP-dependent signaling.
Brown, J A; Ramikie, T S; Schmidt, M J; Báldi, R; Garbett, K; Everheart, M G; Warren, L E; Gellért, L; Horváth, S; Patel, S; Mirnics, Károly
Reduced expression of the Gad1 gene-encoded 67-kDa protein isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) is a hallmark of schizophrenia. GAD67 downregulation occurs in multiple interneuronal sub-populations, including the parvalbumin-positive (PVALB+) cells. To investigate the role of the PV-positive GABAergic interneurons in behavioral and molecular processes, we knocked down the Gad1 transcript using a microRNA engineered to target specifically Gad1 mRNA under the control of Pvalb bacterial artificial chromosome. Verification of construct expression was performed by immunohistochemistry. Follow-up electrophysiological studies revealed a significant reduction in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release probability without alterations in postsynaptic membrane properties or changes in glutamatergic release probability in the prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons. Behavioral characterization of our transgenic (Tg) mice uncovered that the Pvalb/Gad1 Tg mice have pronounced sensorimotor gating deficits, increased novelty-seeking and reduced fear extinction. Furthermore, NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor antagonism by ketamine had an opposing dose-dependent effect, suggesting that the differential dosage of ketamine might have divergent effects on behavioral processes. All behavioral studies were validated using a second cohort of animals. Our results suggest that reduction of GABAergic transmission from PVALB+ interneurons primarily impacts behavioral domains related to fear and novelty seeking and that these alterations might be related to the behavioral phenotype observed in schizophrenia.
Miyamichi, Kazunari; Shlomai-Fuchs, Yael; Shu, Marvin; Weissbourd, Brandon C; Luo, Liqun; Mizrahi, Adi
In the mouse olfactory bulb, information from sensory neurons is extensively processed by local interneurons before being transmitted to the olfactory cortex by mitral and tufted (M/T) cells. The precise function of these local networks remains elusive because of the vast heterogeneity of interneurons, their diverse physiological properties, and their complex synaptic connectivity. Here we identified the parvalbumin interneurons (PVNs) as a prominent component of the M/T presynaptic landscape by using an improved rabies-based transsynaptic tracing method for local circuits. In vivo two-photon-targeted patch recording revealed that PVNs have exceptionally broad olfactory receptive fields and exhibit largely excitatory and persistent odor responses. Transsynaptic tracing indicated that PVNs receive direct input from widely distributed M/T cells. Both the anatomical and functional extent of this M/T→PVN→M/T circuit contrasts with the narrowly confined M/T→granule cell→M/T circuit, suggesting that olfactory information is processed by multiple local circuits operating at distinct spatial scales.
Karson, Miranda A; Tang, Ai-Hui; Milner, Teresa A; Alger, Bradley E
Cholescystokinin (CCK)- or parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons are the major perisomatic-targeting interneurons in the cerebral cortex, including hippocampus, and are thought to form mutually exclusive networks. We used several techniques to test the alternative hypothesis that CCK and PV cells are coupled by chemical synapses. Triple immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed numerous axosomatic, axodendritic, and axoaxonic contacts stained for CCK, PV, and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. The existence of mutual CCK and PV synapses was supported by dual EM immunolabeling. Paired whole-cell recordings detected unitary GABA(A)ergic synaptic transmission between identified CCK and PV cells, and single CCK cells could transiently inhibit action potential firing of synaptically coupled PV cells. We conclude that the major hippocampal perisomatic-targeting interneurons communicate synaptically. This communication should affect neuronal network activity, including neuronal oscillations, in which the CCK and PV cells have well established roles. The prevalence of CCK and PV networks in other brain regions suggests that internetwork interactions could be generally important.
Fukuda, T; Kosaka, T
The network of GABAergic interneurons connected by chemical synapses is a candidate for the generator of synchronized oscillations in the hippocampus. We present evidence that parvalbumin (PV)-containing GABAergic neurons in the rat hippocampal CA1 region, known to form a network by mutual synaptic contacts, also form another network connected by dendrodendritic gap junctions. Distal dendrites of PV neurons run parallel to the alveus (hippocampal white matter) and establish multiple contacts with one another at the border between the stratum oriens and the alveus. In electron microscopic serial section analysis, gap junctions could be identified clearly at 24% of these contact sites. A dendrodendritic chemical synapse and a mixed synapse also were found between PV-immunoreactive dendrites. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the dendritic arborization revealed that both PV neurons of the well known vertical type (presumptive basket cells and axoaxonic cells) and those of another horizontal type constitute the dendritic network at the light microscopic level. The extent of dendritic fields of single PV neurons in the lateral direction was 538 +/- 201 micrometer (n = 5) in the vertical type and 838 +/- 159 micrometer (n = 6) in the horizontal type. Our previous and present observations indicate that PV-containing GABAergic neurons in the hippocampus form the dual networks connected by chemical and electrical synapses located at axosomatic and dendrodendritic contact sites, respectively. Gap junctions linking the dendritic network may mediate coherent synaptic inputs to distant interneurons and thereby facilitate the synchronization of oscillatory activities generated in the interneuron network.
Çalışkan, Gürsel; Müller, Iris; Semtner, Marcus; Winkelmann, Aline; Raza, Ahsan S.; Hollnagel, Jan O.; Rösler, Anton; Heinemann, Uwe; Stork, Oliver; Meier, Jochen C.
Parvalbumin-positive (PV) basket cells provide perisomatic inhibition in the cortex and hippocampus and control generation of memory-related network activity patterns, such as sharp wave ripples (SPW-R). Deterioration of this class of fast-spiking interneurons has been observed in neuropsychiatric disorders and evidence from animal models suggests their involvement in the acquisition and extinction of fear memories. Here, we used mice with neuron type-targeted expression of the presynaptic gain-of-function glycine receptor RNA variant GlyR α3L185L to genetically enhance the network activity of PV interneurons. These mice showed reduced extinction of contextual fear memory but normal auditory cued fear memory. They furthermore displayed increase of SPW-R activity in area CA3 and CA1 and facilitated propagation of this particular network activity pattern, as determined in ventral hippocampal slice preparations. Individual freezing levels during extinction and SPW-R propagation were correlated across genotypes. The same was true for parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the ventral hippocampus, which was generally augmented in the GlyR mutant mice and correlated with individual freezing levels. Together, these results identify PV interneurons as critical cellular substrate of fear memory persistence and associated SPW-R activity in the hippocampus. Our findings may be relevant for the identification and characterization of physiological correlates for posttraumatic stress and anxiety disorders. PMID:26908632
Owen, Scott F; Tuncdemir, Sebnem N; Bader, Patrick L; Tirko, Natasha N; Fishell, Gord; Tsien, Richard W
Neuromodulatory control by oxytocin is essential to a wide range of social, parental and stress-related behaviours. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with deficiencies in oxytocin levels and with genetic alterations of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR). Thirty years ago, Mühlethaler et al. found that oxytocin increases the firing of inhibitory hippocampal neurons, but it remains unclear how elevated inhibition could account for the ability of oxytocin to improve information processing in the brain. Here we describe in mammalian hippocampus a simple yet powerful mechanism by which oxytocin enhances cortical information transfer while simultaneously lowering background activity, thus greatly improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Increased fast-spiking interneuron activity not only suppresses spontaneous pyramidal cell firing, but also enhances the fidelity of spike transmission and sharpens spike timing. Use-dependent depression at the fast-spiking interneuron-pyramidal cell synapse is both necessary and sufficient for the enhanced spike throughput. We show the generality of this novel circuit mechanism by activation of fast-spiking interneurons with cholecystokinin or channelrhodopsin-2. This provides insight into how a diffusely delivered neuromodulator can improve the performance of neural circuitry that requires synapse specificity and millisecond precision.
Wondolowski, Joyce; Frerking, Matthew
Kainate receptors (KARs) contribute to postsynaptic excitation in only a select subset of neurons. To define the parameters that specify the postsynaptic expression of KARs, we examined the contribution of KARs to EPSCs on hippocampal interneurons in area CA1. Interneurons in stratum radiatum/lacunosum-moleculare express KARs both with and without the GluR5 subunit, but KAR-mediated EPSCs are generated mainly, if not entirely, by GluR5-containing KARs. Extrasynaptic glutamate spillover profoundly recruits AMPA receptors (AMPARs) with little effect on KARs, indicating that KARs are targeted at the synapse more precisely than AMPARs. However, spontaneous EPSCs with a conventional AMPAR component did not have a resolvable contribution of KARs, suggesting that the KARs that contribute to the evoked EPSCs are at a distinct set of synapses. GluR5-containing KARs on interneurons in stratum oriens do not contribute substantially to the EPSC. We conclude that KARs are localized to synapses by cell type-, synapse-, and subunit-selective mechanisms.
Maxwell, David J; Belle, Mino D; Cheunsuang, Ornsiri; Stewart, Anika; Morris, Richard
If we are to stand any chance of understanding the circuitry of the superficial dorsal horn, it is imperative that we can identify which classes of interneuron are excitatory and which are inhibitory. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that there is a correlation between the morphology of an interneuron and its postsynaptic action. We used in vitro slice preparations of the rat spinal cord to characterize and label interneurons in laminae I-III with Neurobiotin. Labelled cells (n = 19) were reconstructed in 3D with Neurolucida and classified according to the scheme proposed by Grudt & Perl (2002). We determined if cells were inhibitory or excitatory by reacting their axon terminals with antibodies to reveal glutamate decrboxylase (for GABAergic cells) or the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (for glutamatergic cells). All five islet cells retrieved were inhibitory. Of the six vertical (stalked) cells analysed, four were excitatory and, surprisingly, two were inhibitory. It was noted that these inhibitory cells had axonal projections confined to lamina II whereas excitatory vertical cells projected to lamina I and II. Of the remaining neurons, three were radial cells (2 inhibitory, 1 excitatory), two were antennae cells (1 inhibitory, 1 excitatory), one was an inhibitory central cell and the remaining two were unclassifiable excitatory cells. Our hypothesis appears to be correct only for islet cells. Other classes of cells have mixed actions, and in the case of vertical cells, the axonal projection appears to be a more important determinant of postsynaptic action.
Shen, Lulu; Hu, Yaou; Cai, Ting; Lin, Xingfeng; Wang, Dayong
In Caenorhabditis elegans, functional ttx-3, sra-11, ceh-10, and ceh-23 genes are required for the functions of AIY interneuron. Compared to wild-type N2, mutations in ttx-3 and ceh-10 significantly decreased lifespan, whereas mutations in sra-11 and ceh-23 did not obviously influence nematode lifespan. Mutations in ttx-3 and ceh-10 were associated closely with lower pumping rates at adult day 8 and caused a more rapid accumulated intestinal autofluorescence than wild-type N2. Mutations in ceh-10 remarkably affected fertility and egg number in the uterus. The regulation of ttx-3 and ceh-10 on longevity was not temperature-dependent, and ttx-3, and ceh-10 mutants all formed very few dauers at 27°C. The shortened lifespan of the ttx-3 or ceh-10 mutants was completely or largely rescued by expression of TTX-3 or CEH-10 in AIY interneurons. Moreover, the long-lived phenotype of the daf-2 mutant could be suppressed by both the ttx-3 and the ceh-10 mutations. Furthermore, ablation of AIY interneurons shortened the longevity of wild-type and the daf-2 mutant. Therefore, ttx-3 and ceh-10 regulate the longevity through influencing the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in C. elegans.
Pax2 is a neural-related transcription factor downstream of Notch signaling and is expressed in the developing spinal cord of zebrafish, including in CiA interneurons. However, the characteristics of pax2-positive neurons are largely unknown. The goal of this study was to characterize Pax2-positive neurons by examining their expression in embryos in which Notch function had been knocked down by mutation or injection of a morpholino or mRNA. I found that Pax2-positive CiA interneurons were late-differentiating primary neurons. pax2.1 was expressed in CoPA commissural neurons and CiA interneurons at 26 hpf. The number of pax2.1-positive cells increased in mind bomb mutant embryos or embryos injected with Su(H)1-MO, but not in cells injected with Xenopus Delta or Delta(stu) mRNA. These observations imply that Notch signaling plays a role in regulating the number of CiA neurons by preventing uncommitted precursors from acquiring a neuronal fate during vertebrate development.
Fry, Amanda L; Laboy, Jocelyn T; Norman, Kenneth R
The complex molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying neuronal control of animal movement are not well understood. Locomotion of Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by a neuronal circuit that produces coordinated sinusoidal movement. Here we utilize this simple, yet elegant, behaviour to show that VAV-1, a conserved guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho-family GTPases, negatively regulates motor circuit activity and the rate of locomotion. While vav-1 is expressed in a small subset of neurons, we find that VAV-1 function is required in a single interneuron, ALA, to regulate motor neuron circuit activity. Furthermore, we show by genetic and optogenetic manipulation of ALA that VAV-1 is required for the excitation and activation of this neuron. We find that ALA signalling inhibits command interneuron activity by abrogating excitatory signalling in the command interneurons, which is responsible for promoting motor neuron circuit activity. Together, our data describe a novel neuromodulatory role for VAV-1-dependent signalling in the regulation of motor circuit activity and locomotion.
Gonzalez-Sulser, Alfredo; Parthier, Daniel; Candela, Antonio; McClure, Christina; Pastoll, Hugh; Garden, Derek; Sürmeli, Gülşen
The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC. Following activation of MS axons, we observed fast monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs in the majority (>60%) of fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold-spiking (LTS) interneurons in all layers of the MEC, but in only 1.5% of nonstellate principal cells (NSPCs) and in no stellate cells. We also observed fast glutamatergic responses to MS activation in a minority (<5%) of NSPCs, FS, and LTS interneurons. During stimulation of MS inputs at theta frequency (10 Hz), the amplitude of GABAergic IPSPs was maintained, and spike output from LTS and FS interneurons was entrained at low (25–60 Hz) and high (60–180 Hz) gamma frequencies, respectively. By demonstrating cell type-specific targeting of the GABAergic projection from the MS to the MEC, our results support the idea that the MS controls theta frequency activity in the MEC through coordination of inhibitory circuits. PMID:25505326
Allene, C.; Picardo, M. A.; Becq, H.; Miyoshi, G.; Fishell, G.; Cossart, R.
During early postnatal development, neuronal networks successively produce various forms of spontaneous patterned activity that provide key signals for circuit maturation. Initially, in both rodent hippocampus and neocortex, coordinated activity emerges in the form of Synchronous Plateau Assemblies (SPAs) that are initiated by sparse groups of gap-junction coupled oscillating neurons. Subsequently, SPAs are replaced by synapse-driven Giant Depolarizing Potentials (GDPs). Whether these sequential changes in mechanistically distinct network activities correlate with modifications in single-cell properties is unknown. To understand this, we have studied the morpho-physiological fate of single SPA-cells as a function of development. We focused on CA3 GABAergic interneurons, which are centrally involved in generating GDPs in the hippocampus. As the network matures, GABAergic neurons are engaged more in GDPs and less in SPAs. Using inducible genetic fate mapping, we show that the individual involvement of GABAergic neurons in SPAs is correlated to their temporal origin. In addition, we demonstrate that the SPA to GDP transition is paralleled by a remarkable maturation in the morpho-physiological properties of GABAergic neurons. Compared to those involved in GDPs, interneurons participating in SPAs possess immature intrinsic properties, receive synaptic inputs spanning a wide amplitude range, and display large somata as well as membrane protrusions. Thus, a developmental switch in the morpho-physiological properties of GABAergic interneurons as they progress from SPA to GDPs marks the emergence of synapse-driven network oscillations. PMID:22573691
Nguyen, Thi-Minh; Schreiner, Dietmar; Xiao, Le; Traunmüller, Lisa; Bornmann, Caroline; Scheiffele, Peter
The unique anatomical and functional features of principal and interneuron populations are critical for the appropriate function of neuronal circuits. Cell type-specific properties are encoded by selective gene expression programs that shape molecular repertoires and synaptic protein complexes. However, the nature of such programs, particularly for post-transcriptional regulation at the level of alternative splicing is only beginning to emerge. We here demonstrate that transcripts encoding the synaptic adhesion molecules neurexin-1,2,3 are commonly expressed in principal cells and interneurons of the mouse hippocampus but undergo highly differential, cell type-specific alternative splicing. Principal cell-specific neurexin splice isoforms depend on the RNA-binding protein Slm2. By contrast, most parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons lack Slm2, express a different neurexin splice isoform and co-express the corresponding splice isoform-specific neurexin ligand Cbln4. Conditional ablation of Nrxn alternative splice insertions selectively in PV+ cells results in elevated hippocampal network activity and impairment in a learning task. Thus, PV-cell-specific alternative splicing of neurexins is critical for neuronal circuit function DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22757.001 PMID:27960072
Chen, He; Li, Huirong; Wang, Dayong
Graphene oxide (GO) can be potentially used in many medical and industrial fields. Using assay system of Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified the NLG-1/Neuroligin-mediated neuronal signaling dysregulated by GO exposure. In nematodes, GO exposure significantly decreased the expression of NLG-1, a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein. Loss-of-function mutation of nlg-1 gene resulted in a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity. Rescue experiments suggested that NLG-1 could act in AIY interneurons to regulate the response to GO exposure. In the AIY interneurons, PKC-1, a serine/threonine protein kinase C (PKC) protein, was identified as the downstream target for NLG-1 in the regulation of response to GO exposure. LIN-45, a Raf protein in ERK signaling pathway, was further identified as the downstream target for PKC-1 in the regulation of response to GO exposure. Therefore, GO may dysregulate NLG-1-mediated molecular signaling in the interneurons, and a neuronal signaling cascade of NLG-1-PKC-1-LIN-45 was raised to be required for the control of response to GO exposure. More importantly, intestinal RNAi knockdown of daf-16 gene encoding a FOXO transcriptional factor in insulin signaling pathway suppressed the resistant property of nematodes overexpressing NLG-1 to GO toxicity, suggesting the possible link between neuronal NLG-1 signaling and intestinal insulin signaling in the regulation of response to GO exposure. PMID:28128356
Chen, He; Li, Huirong; Wang, Dayong
Graphene oxide (GO) can be potentially used in many medical and industrial fields. Using assay system of Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified the NLG-1/Neuroligin-mediated neuronal signaling dysregulated by GO exposure. In nematodes, GO exposure significantly decreased the expression of NLG-1, a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein. Loss-of-function mutation of nlg-1 gene resulted in a susceptible property of nematodes to GO toxicity. Rescue experiments suggested that NLG-1 could act in AIY interneurons to regulate the response to GO exposure. In the AIY interneurons, PKC-1, a serine/threonine protein kinase C (PKC) protein, was identified as the downstream target for NLG-1 in the regulation of response to GO exposure. LIN-45, a Raf protein in ERK signaling pathway, was further identified as the downstream target for PKC-1 in the regulation of response to GO exposure. Therefore, GO may dysregulate NLG-1-mediated molecular signaling in the interneurons, and a neuronal signaling cascade of NLG-1-PKC-1-LIN-45 was raised to be required for the control of response to GO exposure. More importantly, intestinal RNAi knockdown of daf-16 gene encoding a FOXO transcriptional factor in insulin signaling pathway suppressed the resistant property of nematodes overexpressing NLG-1 to GO toxicity, suggesting the possible link between neuronal NLG-1 signaling and intestinal insulin signaling in the regulation of response to GO exposure.
Gonzalez-Sulser, Alfredo; Parthier, Daniel; Candela, Antonio; McClure, Christina; Pastoll, Hugh; Garden, Derek; Sürmeli, Gülşen; Nolan, Matthew F
The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC. Following activation of MS axons, we observed fast monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs in the majority (>60%) of fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold-spiking (LTS) interneurons in all layers of the MEC, but in only 1.5% of nonstellate principal cells (NSPCs) and in no stellate cells. We also observed fast glutamatergic responses to MS activation in a minority (<5%) of NSPCs, FS, and LTS interneurons. During stimulation of MS inputs at theta frequency (10 Hz), the amplitude of GABAergic IPSPs was maintained, and spike output from LTS and FS interneurons was entrained at low (25-60 Hz) and high (60-180 Hz) gamma frequencies, respectively. By demonstrating cell type-specific targeting of the GABAergic projection from the MS to the MEC, our results support the idea that the MS controls theta frequency activity in the MEC through coordination of inhibitory circuits.
Tanaka, Daisuke H; Oiwa, Ryo; Sasaki, Erika; Nakajima, Kazunori
The establishment of the mammalian neocortex is often explained phylogenetically by an evolutionary change in the pallial neuronal progenitors of excitatory projection neurons. It remains unclear, however, whether and how the evolutionary change in inhibitory interneurons, which originate outside the neocortex, has been involved in the establishment of the neocortex. In this study, we transplanted chicken, turtle, mouse, and marmoset medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) cells into the embryonic mouse MGE in utero and compared their migratory behaviors. We found that the MGE cells from all of the species were able to migrate through the mouse neocortical subventricular zone and that both the mouse and marmoset cells subsequently invaded the neocortical cortical plate (CP). However, regardless of their birthdates and interneuron subtypes, most of the chicken and turtle cells ignored the neocortical CP and passed beneath it, although they were able to invade the archicortex and paleocortex, suggesting that the proper responsiveness of MGE cells to guidance cues to enter the neocortical CP is unique to mammals. When chicken MGE cells were transplanted directly into the neocortical CP, they were able to survive and mature, suggesting that the neocortical CP itself is essentially permissive for postmigratory development of chicken MGE cells. These results suggest that an evolutionary change in the migratory ability of inhibitory interneurons, which originate outside the neocortex, was involved in the establishment of the neocortex by supplying inhibitory components to the network.
Cao, Qingqing; Wang, Wei; Gu, Juan; Jiang, Guohui; Bian, Xiling; Wang, Kewei; Xu, Zucai; Li, Jie; Chen, Guojun; Wang, Xuefeng
Recent studies have indicated that acid-sensing ion channels may play a significant role in the termination of epilepsy. In particular, acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is expressed in the central nervous system and is most sensitive to extracellular pH. However, whether ASIC3 plays a role in epilepsy is unknown. In this study, qRT-PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence labeling, and slice recordings were used. We first detected elevated ASIC3 expression patterns in the brains of temporal lobe epilepsy patients and epileptic rats. ASIC3 was expressed in neurons and glia in both humans and in an experimental model of epilepsy, and ASIC3 was colocalized with inhibitory GABAergic interneurons. By blocking ASIC3 with its antagonist APETx2, we observed that injected APETx2 shortened the latency to seizure and increased the incidence of generalized tonic clonic seizure compared to the control group in models of both pilocarpine- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. Additionally, blocking ASIC3 significantly decreased the frequency of action potential (AP) firing in interneurons. Moreover, APETx2 significantly reduced the amplitudes and frequencies of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) while showed no differences with the APETx2 + bicuculline group and the bicuculline group. These findings suggest that elevated levels of ASIC3 may serve as an anti-epileptic mechanism via postsynaptic mechanisms in interneurons. It could represent a novel therapeutic strategy for epilepsy treatment.
Gelperin, Alan; Tank, David W.
DETERMINATION of the dynamical structure of neural circuits—the general principles of how neural activity varies with time and manipulates information—is a prerequisite to understanding their computational function1. Rhythmically active or oscillating neural circuits are particularly interesting dynamical structures, as rhythms and oscillations are a prominent feature of mammalian central nervous system electrophysiology. Coherent oscillations by networks of interneurons are observed in the vertebrate olfactory system2,3 and have recently been described in mammalian visual cortex4-6. These interneuronal networks display oscillations in local field potential (LFP) and probability of producing action potentials that are highly correlated between subcircuits sharing the same stimulus features. Much less is known about the existence and importance of network oscillations in the higher centres of invertebrates7. Here we report that a network of olfactory inter-neurons in the cerebral ganglion of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus also displays coherent oscillations in LFP which are modified by odour input. This dynamical structure could be central to the odour recognition and odour learning ability of Limax8,9.
Karson, Miranda A.; Tang, Aihui; Milner, Teresa A.; Alger, Bradley E.
Cholescystokinin (CCK)- or parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons are the major perisomatic targeting interneurons in the cerebral cortex, including hippocampus and are thought to form mutually exclusive networks. We used several techniques to test the alternative hypothesis that CCK and PV cells are coupled by chemical synapses. Triple immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed numerous axo-somatic, -dendritic and -axonic contacts stained for CCK, PV and the presynaptic marker, synaptophysin. The existence of mutual CCK and PV synapses was supported by dual EM immunolabeling. Paired whole-cell recordings detected unitary GABAAergic synaptic transmission between identified CCK and PV cells, and single CCK cells could transiently inhibit action potential firing of synaptically-coupled PV cells. We conclude that the major hippocampal perisomatic-targeting interneurons communicate synaptically. This communication should affect neuronal network activity, including neuronal oscillations, in which the CCK and PV cells have well-established roles. The prevalence of CCK and PV networks in other brain regions suggests that internetwork interactions could be generally important. PMID:19339609
Wells, Simon; Conran, John G.; Tamme, Richard; Gaudin, Arnaud; Webb, Jonathan; Lardelli, Michael
The molecules and mechanisms involved in patterning the dorsoventral axis of the developing vertebrate spinal cord have been investigated extensively and many are well known. Conversely, knowledge of mechanisms patterning cellular distributions along the rostrocaudal axis is relatively more restricted. Much is known about the rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurons and spinal cord cells derived from neural crest but there is little known about the rostrocaudal patterning of most of the other spinal cord neurons. Here we report data from our analyses of the distribution of dorsal longitudinal ascending (DoLA) interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. We show that, although apparently distributed irregularly, these cells have cryptic organisation. We present a novel cell-labelling technique that reveals that DoLA interneurons migrate rostrally along the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of the spinal cord during development. This cell-labelling strategy may be useful for in vivo analysis of factors controlling neuron migration in the central nervous system. Additionally, we show that DoLA interneurons persist in the developing spinal cord for longer than previously reported. These findings illustrate the need to investigate factors and mechanisms that determine 'irregular' patterns of cell distribution, particularly in the central nervous system but also in other tissues of developing embryos.
Namba, H; Mulloney, B
Coordination of limb movements: three types of intersegmental interneurons in the swimmeret system and their responses to changes in excitation. During forward locomotion, the movements of swimmerets on different segments of the crayfish abdomen are coordinated so that more posterior swimmerets lead their anterior neighbors by approximately 25%. This coordination is accomplished by mechanisms within the abdominal nerve cord. Here we describe three different types of intersegmental swimmeret interneurons that are necessary and sufficient to accomplish this coordination. These interneurons could be identified both by their structures within their home ganglion and by their physiological properties. These interneurons occur as bilateral pairs in each ganglion that innervates swimmerets, and their axons traverse the minuscule tract (MnT) of their home ganglion before leaving to project to neighboring ganglia. Two types, ASCE and ASCL, projected an axon anteriorly; the third type, DSC, projected posteriorly. Each type fires a burst of impulses starting at a different phase of the swimmeret cycle in its home ganglion. In active preparations, excitation of individual ASCE or DSC interneurons at different phases in the cycle affected the timing of the next cycle in the interneuron's target ganglion. The axons of these interneurons that projected between two ganglia ran close together, and their firing often could be recorded by the same electrode. Experiments in which either this tract or the rest of the intersegmental connectives was cut bilaterally showed that these interneurons were both necessary and sufficient for coordination of neighboring swimmerets. When the level of excitation of the swimmeret system was increased by bath application of carbachol, the period of the system's cycle shortened, but the characteristic phase difference within and between ganglia was preserved. Each of these interneurons responded to this increase in excitation by increasing the
Bannatyne, B A; Liu, T T; Hammar, I; Stecina, K; Jankowska, E; Maxwell, D J
The aim of the present study was to compare properties of excitatory and inhibitory spinal intermediate zone interneurons in pathways from group I and II muscle afferents in the cat. Interneurons were labelled intracellularly and their transmitter phenotypes were defined by using immunocytochemistry. In total 14 glutamatergic, 22 glycinergic and 2 GABAergic/glycinergic interneurons were retrieved. All interneurons were located in laminae V-VII of the L3-L7 segments. No consistent differences were found in the location, the soma sizes or the extent of the dendritic trees of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons. However, major differences were found in their axonal projections; excitatory interneurons projected either ipsilaterally, bilaterally or contralaterally, while inhibitory interneurons projected exclusively ipsilaterally. Terminal projections of glycinergic and glutamatergic cells were found within motor nuclei as well as other regions of the grey matter which include the intermediate region, laminae VII and VIII. Cells containing GABA/glycine had more restricted projections, principally within the intermediate zone where they formed appositions with glutamatergic axon terminals and unidentified cells and therefore are likely to be involved in presynaptic as well as postsynaptic inhibition. The majority of excitatory and inhibitory interneurons were found to be coexcited by group I and II afferents (monosynaptically) and by reticulospinal neurons (mono- or disynaptically) and to integrate information from several muscles. Taken together the morphological and electrophysiological data show that individual excitatory and inhibitory intermediate zone interneurons may operate in a highly differentiated way and thereby contribute to a variety of motor synergies.
Rudomin, P; Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I
Spike-triggered averaging of dorsal and ventral root potentials was used in anesthetized cats to disclose possible synaptic connections of spinal interneurons in the intermediate nucleus with afferent fibers and/or motoneurons. With this method we have been able to document the existence of a distinct group of interneurons whose activity was associated with the recording of inhibitory potentials in the ventral roots (iVRPs), but not with negative dorsal root potentials (nDRPs). The iVRPs had mean durations of 60.8 +/- 22.1 ms and latencies between 1.7 and 5.1 ms relative to the onset of the