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Sample records for interno analisis por

  1. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pantcheva, Mina B.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior chamber drainage angle surgery, namely trabeculotomy and goniotomy, has been commonly utilized in children for many years. Its’ reported success has ranged between 68% and 100% in infants and young children with congenital glaucoma. However, the long-term success of these procedures has been limited in adults presumably due to the formation of anterior synechiae (AS) in the postoperative phase. Recently, ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome™ has emerged as a novel surgical approach to effectively and selectively remove and ablate the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of the Schlemm’s canal in an attempt to avoid AS formation or other forms of wound healing with resultant closure of the cleft. This procedure seems to have an appealing safety profile with respect to early hypotony or infection if compared to trabeculectomy or glaucoma drainage device implantation. This might be advantageous in some of the impoverish regions of the Middle East and Africa where patients experience difficulties keeping up with their postoperative visits. It is important to note that no randomized trial comparing the Trabectome to other glaucoma procedures appears to have been published to date. Trabectome surgery is not a panacea, however, and it is associated with early postoperative intraocular pressure spikes that may require additional glaucoma surgery as well as a high incidence of hyphema. Reported results show that postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) remains, at best, in the mid-teen range making it undesirable in patients with low-target IOP goals. A major advantage of Trabectome surgery is that it does not preclude further glaucoma surgery involving the conjunctiva, such as a trabeculectomy or drainage device implantation. As prospective randomized long-term clinical data become available, we will be better positioned to elucidate the exact role of this technique in the glaucoma surgical armamentarium. PMID:21180426

  2. Ab interno trabeculectomy: patient selection and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Ab interno trabeculectomy is one among several recently introduced minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries that avoid a conjunctival incision and full-thickness sclerostomy involved in traditional glaucoma surgery. Ablation of the trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm's canal is performed in an arcuate fashion via a clear corneal incision, alone or in combination with phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Intraocular pressure reduction following ab interno trabeculectomy is limited by resistance in distal outflow pathways and generally stabilizes in the mid-to-high teens. Relief of medication burden has been demonstrated by some studies. A very low rate of complications, most commonly transient hyphema and intraocular pressure elevations in the immediate postoperative period, have been reported. However, available data are derived from small retrospective and prospective case series. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to better elucidate the potential merits of ab interno trabeculectomy in the combined setting versus phacoemulsification cataract surgery alone and to compare it with other minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries.

  3. Ab interno trabeculectomy: patient selection and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, Kateki; Gedde, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Ab interno trabeculectomy is one among several recently introduced minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries that avoid a conjunctival incision and full-thickness sclerostomy involved in traditional glaucoma surgery. Ablation of the trabecular meshwork and inner wall of Schlemm’s canal is performed in an arcuate fashion via a clear corneal incision, alone or in combination with phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Intraocular pressure reduction following ab interno trabeculectomy is limited by resistance in distal outflow pathways and generally stabilizes in the mid-to-high teens. Relief of medication burden has been demonstrated by some studies. A very low rate of complications, most commonly transient hyphema and intraocular pressure elevations in the immediate postoperative period, have been reported. However, available data are derived from small retrospective and prospective case series. Randomized, controlled trials are needed to better elucidate the potential merits of ab interno trabeculectomy in the combined setting versus phacoemulsification cataract surgery alone and to compare it with other minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries. PMID:27574396

  4. Ab interno trabeculectomy in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R; Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient.

  5. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy in the Adult Patient

    PubMed Central

    SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Seibold, Leonard K.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a potentially blinding disease that affects millions of people worldwide. The mainstay of treatment is lowering of intraocular pressure (IOP) through the use of medications, laser and/or incisional surgery. The trabecular meshwork (TM) is thought to be the site of significant resistance to aqueous outflow in open angle glaucoma. Theoretically, an incision through TM or TM removal should decrease this resistance and lead to a significant reduction in IOP. This approach, commonly referred to as goniotomy or trabeculotomy, has been validated in the pediatric population and has been associated with long-term IOP control. In adults, however, removal of TM tissue has been historically associated with more limited and short-lived success. More recent evidence, reveals that even adult patients may benefit significantly from removal of diseased TM tissue and can lead to a significant reduction in IOP that is long-lasting and safe. In this review, we discuss current evidence and techniques for ab interno trabeculectomy using various devices in the adult patient. PMID:25624670

  6. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    PubMed

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) <21 mm Hg and at least a 20% reduction from baseline on the same or fewer number of pretrephination medications, 30/40 eyes (75%) fit these criteria over the entire course of follow-up. Among all 40 eyes, there was a significant reduction of IOP from pretrephination to 3 months (P<.001). The percentage of patients requiring 2 or more medications declined from 90% pretrephination to 21% at 3 months (P<.0001), and was stable thereafter. Some patients were able to eliminate all medications. Patients who did not meet the criteria of success regained successful IOP control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  7. Ab interno trabeculectomy: ultrastructural evidence and early tissue response in a human eye.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ettore; Ortolani, Fulvia; Petrelli, Lucia; Contin, Magali; Pognuz, Derri Roman; Marchini, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2007-10-01

    To report the results of ultrastructural analysis of the postoperative effects of ab interno trabeculectomy in a human eye. Department of Ophthalmology, Palmanova Hospital, Palmanova, Udine, Italy. A 60-year-old woman with cataract and glaucoma had enucleation for a choroidal melanoma 10 days after ab interno trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification. A second ab interno trabeculectomy was performed after enucleation to evaluate the outcomes of the previous trabeculectomy. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed on samples excised from areas (1) not subjected to a procedure (control samples), (2) that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, and (3) that had ab interno trabeculectomy immediately after enucleation. Control samples showed normal trabecular features. Semithin sections of all ab interno trabeculectomy samples showed full-thickness removal of trabeculum segments, with Schlemm's canal lumen opening into the anterior chamber and apparent preservation of the adjacent structures. On ultrathin sections of samples that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, the endothelium lining the outer wall of Schlemm's canal and other angle components showed intact ultrastructural features. In trabecular beams that were not removed, the extracellular matrix appeared to have maintained its fine texture and was free of activated fibroblasts or leucocyte infiltrates. Observations confirm that ab interno trabeculectomy causes direct communication between Schlemm's canal lumen and the anterior chamber in vivo and immediately after enucleation during the early postoperative period. The absence of an evident inflammatory reaction in the examined case should be considered with caution because of possible tumor-induced immune suppression.

  8. Cyclodialysis ab interno as a surgical approach to intractable glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens F; Dietlein, Thomas S; Dinslage, Sven; Lüke, Christoph; Konen, Walter; Krieglstein, Günter K

    2007-08-01

    In glaucoma filtration surgery, the problem of subconjunctival scarring has still not been satisfactorily solved. Suprachoroidal drainage of aqueous humour offers a promising, alternative option for intractable glaucoma. We here present a clinical study on the surgical approach of gonioscopic cyclodialysis ab interno. Twenty-eight eyes of 20 patients with intractable glaucoma were included in this prospective, consecutive, case-control study. The eyes had had a mean of 4.4 +/- 2.4 previous antiglaucomatous interventions. Baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was 34.3 +/- 10.5 mmHg despite maximum therapy. Under gonioscopic control, cyclodialysis ab interno was performed over two clock times to gain access to the suprachoroidal space. No additional trabecular meshwork surgery was performed. Success was defined as a lowering of IOP to below 21 mmHg without the need for further medication or intervention. Mean postoperative IOP was 14.6 +/- 12.4 mmHg. Mean follow-up (FU) for all eyes was 121.8 days. After a mean of 60 days, 21 eyes (75%) needed further surgical intervention. Qualified success was seen in four eyes (14.3%), with a mean FU of 383.6 days. Three eyes (10.7%) showed absolute success after a mean FU period of 202.7 days. In our series, we obtained the best results for phakic eyes, followed by pseudophakic and aphakic eyes. The results of this study do not provide convincing evidence of the functional efficacy of cyclodialysis ab interno. Nevertheless, the technique is easy to perform and offers safe and atraumatic access to the resorptive capability of the choroid. Conjunctival manipulation is avoided. Contrary to reports in the current literature, in our series, the best results were obtained for phakic eyes, though the small number of eyes included does not allow reliable statistics. Further studies will need to focus on the use of different space-retaining substances or a widening of the cyclodialysis cleft to improve surgical outcome.

  9. Ab interno sclerostomy with a high-powered argon endolaser.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, G J; Williams, G A; Mieler, W F; Radius, R L

    1988-10-15

    We used a high-energy argon blue-green laser (15-W maximum power output) to create full-thickness sclerostomies from the region of the anterior chamber angle to the subconjunctival space in pigmented rabbits using an ab interno approach. One to four laser pulses delivered through a 300-micron noncontact fiberoptic probe produced patent sclerostomies in all 20 eyes treated using 0.1-second pulse duration and 5 to 14 W of power. No intraoperative complications were encountered. Intraocular pressure, measured in 12 animals, decreased an average of 12 mm Hg in the treated eye relative to the fellow eye on the first postoperative day. The drop in intraocular pressure was associated with formation of a functioning filtration bleb. Intraocular pressure returned to preoperative levels in ten of 12 (83%) of the animals by the fourth postoperative day, and there was an associated flattening of the filtration bleb. Histologic and radioautographic analysis indicated that the effect of the laser was focal. Tissue damage and cellular proliferative response were limited to within approximately 200 micron of the wound margin.

  10. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Comparison of Ab Interno and Ab Externo Intraocular Lens Scleral Fixation.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Lie; Garcia, Patricia Novita; Malavazzi, Gustavo Ricci; Allemann, Norma; Gomes, Rachel L R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare ab interno and ab externo scleral fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCIOL) using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods. Randomized patients underwent ab externo or ab interno scleral fixation of a PCIOL. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was performed 3 to 6 months postoperatively, to determine PCIOL centration, IOL distance to the iris at 12, 3, 6, and 9 hours, and haptics placement in relation to the ciliary sulcus. Results. Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The ab externo technique was used in 7 eyes (46.6%) and the ab interno in 8 eyes (53.3%). In the ab externo technique, 14 haptics were located: 4 (28.57%) in the ciliary sulcus; 2 (14.28%) anterior to the sulcus; and 8 (57.14%) posterior to the sulcus, 6 in the ciliary body and 2 posterior to the ciliary body. In the ab interno group, 4 haptics (25.0%) were in the ciliary sulcus, 2 (12.50%) anterior to the sulcus, and 10 (75.0%) posterior to the sulcus, 4 in the ciliary body and 6 posterior to the ciliary body. Conclusions. Ab externo and ab interno scleral fixation techniques presented similar results in haptic placement. Ab externo technique presented higher vertical tilt when compared to the ab interno.

  11. Adjuvant Ab Interno Tumor Treatment After Proton Beam Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Ira; Riechardt, Aline I; Heufelder, Jens; Cordini, Dino; Joussen, Antonia M

    2017-06-01

    This study was performed to show long-term outcomes concerning globe preservation in uveal melanoma patients after proton beam therapy with the main focus on outcomes according to different adjuvant ab interno surgical procedures. Retrospective cohort study. All patients treated with primary proton beam therapy for choroidal or ciliary body melanoma between June 1998 and June 2015 were included. A total of 2499 patients underwent primary proton beam therapy, with local tumor control and globe preservation rates of 95.9% and 94.8% after 5 years, respectively. A total of 110 (4.4%) patients required secondary enucleation. Unresponsive neovascular glaucoma was the leading cause of secondary enucleation in 78 of the 2499 patients (3.1%). The 5-year enucleation-free survival rate was 94.8% in the endoresection group, 94.3% in the endodrainage group, and 93.5% in the comparator group. The log-rank test showed P = .014 (comparator group vs endoresection group) and P = .06 (comparator group vs endodrainage-vitrectomy group). Patients treated with endoresection or endodrainage-vitrectomy developed less radiation retinopathy (30.5% and 37.4% after 5 years, P = .001 and P = .048 [Kaplan-Meier], respectively) and less neovascular glaucoma (11.6% and 21.3% after 5 years, P = .001 and P = .01 [Kaplan-Meier], respectively) compared with the comparator group (52.3% radiation retinopathy and 57.8% neovascular glaucoma after 5 years). This study suggests that in larger tumors the enucleation and neovascular glaucoma rates might be reduced by adjuvant surgical procedures. Although endoresection is the most promising adjuvant treatment option, the endodrainage-vitrectomy is recommended in patients who are ineligible for endoresection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined clear corneal phacoemulsification and ab interno trabeculectomy: three-year case series.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Ettore; Bandello, Francesco; Roman-Pognuz, Derri; Menchini, Francesca

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel surgical approach, ab interno trabeculectomy, in a combined procedure (clear corneal phacoemulsification + ab interno trabeculectomy) for the management of concurrent cataract and glaucoma with prognostic factors for filtration failure. Department of Ophthalmology, Palmanova Hospital, Udine, Italy. A prospective noncomparative case series of 11 eyes of 11 consecutive cataract patients with medically uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma was performed. Each patient had phacoemulsification + intraocular lens implantation + ab interno trabeculectomy, which consisted of a gonioscopically controlled ab interno removal of a quadrant (3 clock hours) of the trabecular meshwork. The main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of antiglaucomatous medications used, and complications. Ten patients completed a 3-year follow-up. One patient had further surgery because of poor IOP control; in this case, the last valid observation was carried forward for IOP calculation. Mean preoperative IOP and IOPs measured 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery were 25.0, 15.8, 15.4, 15.4, 15.2, 15.0, and 15.3 (-38.56%) mm Hg respectively. The number of medications averaged 2.4 before surgery and dropped to 0.8 at the end of follow-up. No major complications occurred during the follow-up period. The new surgical procedure combining phacoemulsification with ab interno trabeculectomy can induce a clinically relevant decrease in IOP in eyes with cataract and glaucoma with poor prognosis for filtering surgery. However, a randomized controlled clinical trial with a more extended follow-up and a larger series of patients is needed to ascertain the actual effectiveness and safety of this procedure.

  13. L'eliosismologia: onde sismiche per studiare l'interno del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Negli ultimi cinquanta anni siamo stati testimoni di una straordinaria rivoluzione della conoscenza e comprensione della nostra stella grazie alla nascita dell'Eliosismologia, lo studio delle oscillazioni solari. Analogamente a ciò che accade nella Terra durante i terremoti, anche l'interno del Sole è pervaso continuamente da onde sismiche che provocano piccole oscillazioni, ovvero deformazioni della fotosfera. Le oscillazioni sono la manifestazione di diversi processi che avvengono all'interno della struttura del Sole e le frequenze sismiche dei modi osservati e misurati sulla superficie sono legate direttamente ai parametri fisici degli strati interni attraversati dalle onde sismiche. Lo studio delle oscillazioni rappresenta, quindi, l'unico metodo diretto per studiare la struttura e la dinamica interna del Sole. In questo articolo verranno illustrate le caratteristiche generali delle oscillazioni solari e verranno presentati i risultati importanti e i progressi notevoli raggiunti grazie all'Eliosismologia.

  14. Ab interno laser sclerostomy in aphakic patients with glaucoma and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R P; Javitt, J C

    1990-08-15

    Five patients with aphakia, glaucoma, and chronic inflammation were treated with ab interno sclerostomy by using the continuous wave Nd:YAG laser focused through a sapphire probe. After a follow-up period of 24 to 28 months, three of five patients had good intraocular pressure control. The sclerostomy failed in one patient when it was occluded by vitreous. The second failure was attributed to closure of the sclerostomy because of chronic intraocular inflammation.

  15. Combined Ab Interno Glaucoma Surgery Does not Increase the Risk of Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular Edema in Uncomplicated Eyes.

    PubMed

    Schaub, Friederike; Adler, Werner; Koenig, Meike C; Enders, Philip; Dietlein, Thomas S; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M

    2017-03-01

    To assess the risk of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) following cataract surgery (bimanual phacoemulsification with posterior chamber lens implantation) combined with ab interno glaucoma surgery (trabecular aspiration or ab interno trabeculotomy) compared with solely cataract extraction. In total, 360 consecutive eyes of 180 patients with age-related cataract, and thereof 162 with coexistent glaucoma, who underwent sole cataract surgery or in combination with ab interno glaucoma surgery (trabecular aspiration or ab interno trabeculotomy) were compared retrospectively regarding PCME development. Patients with known risk factors of PCME were excluded. Macular examination was performed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography before and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after surgery. Main outcome measure was the incidence of PCME. In total, 126 eyes (35%) underwent cataract surgery combined with ab interno glaucoma surgery (96 trabecular aspiration (76.2%), 30 ab interno trabeculotomy (23.8%), and 234 eyes (65%) received cataract surgery alone. PCME overall occurred in 23 eyes (6.4%). Following combined trabecular aspiration 5 eyes (5.2%) developed PCME, following ab interno trabeculotomy 2 eyes (6.7%), and following sole cataract surgery 16 eyes (6.8%), reaching no significant difference (P=0.676). Risk of PCME in fellow eye was significantly increased (P=0.025; odds ratio 7.177; 95% confidence interval, 5.667-8.687). Additional ab interno glaucoma surgery combined with phacoemulsification does not seem to increase the risk of PCME in uncomplicated eyes. However, in patients with history of PCME a significantly increased risk of PCME in fellow eye should be taken into account.

  16. Diode laser surgery. Ab interno and ab externo versus conventional surgery in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Karp, C L; Higginbotham, E J; Edward, D P; Musch, D C

    1993-10-01

    Fibroblastic proliferation of subconjunctival tissues remains a primary mechanism of failure in filtration surgery. Minimizing the surgical manipulation of episcleral tissues may reduce scarring. Laser sclerostomy surgery involves minimal tissue dissection, and is gaining attention as a method of potentially improving filter duration in high-risk cases. Twenty-five New Zealand rabbits underwent filtration surgery in one eye, and the fellow eye remained as the unoperated control. Ten rabbits underwent ab externo diode laser sclerostomy surgery, ten underwent ab interno diode sclerostomy surgery, and five had posterior sclerostomy procedures. Filtration failure was defined as a less-than-4-mmHg intraocular pressure (IOP) difference between the operative and control eyes. The mean time to failure for the ab externo, ab interno, and conventional posterior sclerostomy techniques measured 17.4 +/- 11.5, 13.1 +/- 6.7, and 6.0 +/- 3.1 days, respectively. In a comparison of the laser-treated groups with the conventional procedure, the time to failure was significantly longer (P = 0.02) for the ab externo filter. The mean ab interno sclerostomy duration was longer than the posterior lip procedure, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.15). The overall level of IOP reduction was similar in the three groups. These data suggest that diode laser sclerostomy is a feasible technique in rabbits, and the ab externo approach resulted in longer filter duration than the conventional posterior lip procedure in this model.

  17. Outcomes for Ab Interno Bleb Revision With a Novel Translimbal Sclerostomy Spatula.

    PubMed

    Grover, Davinder S; Fellman, Ronald L

    2017-07-01

    To report outcomes for a novel ab interno bleb revision technique and spatula. This is a retrospective chart review. A total of 21 eyes of 21 patients underwent ab interno bleb revision with the Grover-Fellman biplanar sclerostomy spatula. Mitomycin C was given at least 1 week preoperation. The mean age of the patients and blebs were 67 and 6.75 years, respectively. The mean follow-up is 10.6 months (range: 3 to 17 mo). Mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) (SD) was 21.9 (9.1) mm Hg on 3.7 (1.2) glaucoma medications. At 12 months follow-up, the mean IOP was 12.1 mm Hg on 0.86 medications. Four eyes failed due to uncontrolled IOP needing a tube shunt. One eye failed due to uncontrolled IOP but was lost to follow-up before a tube shunt could be performed. All failures occurred within 3 months. Two eyes had an IOP of <5 mm Hg after 1 month with no evidence of hypotony maculopathy. These cases resolved after 3 months without surgical intervention. All successful cases had blebs that were low, diffuse, and posterior. After a failed filtration surgery, a low-diffuse bleb was reestablished by pretreating with subconjunctival mitomycin C followed by ab interno bleb revision with the Grover-Fellman biplanar sclerostomy spatula, decreasing further more invasive glaucoma procedures.

  18. Ab interno approach to the subconjunctival space using a collagen glaucoma stent.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    This review considers a minimally invasive ab interno approach to glaucoma filtration surgery. Glaucoma filtration surgery can be defined as an attempt to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by the surgical formation of an artificial drainage pathway from the anterior chamber to the subconjunctival space. Subconjunctival drainage of aqueous fluid has been a cornerstone of glaucoma surgery for more than a century. Varying techniques have been deployed to provide access to this space. Yet, despite numerous innovations in filtering surgery to achieve safe IOP reduction, too many short-term and long-term complications are associated with this surgery. This article describes the development of a new, soft, and permanent ab interno collagen implant (XEN gel stent) to optimize aqueous drainage to the subconjunctival space. Specific characteristics are critical in designing such an implant. Determining the optimum size of the device lumen to avoid hypotony while maximizing long-term outflow is crucial. Other topics discussed include material, length, diameter, flexibility, stability, and biocompatibility of the implant. Preclinical and human eye testing shows that the implant does not seem to occlude inside the lumen and the implant material does not appear to cause tissue reaction in the eye. The ab interno placement of the stent offers an alternative for lowering IOP with a minimally invasive procedure, minimum conjunctival tissue disruption, restricted flow to avoid hypotony, and long-term safety. Dr. Lewis received financial support from Aquesys, Inc. as a consultant. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Deep Sclerectomy with Goniosynechiolysis Ab Interno for Chronic Glaucoma Associated with Peripheral Anterior Synechiae

    PubMed Central

    Raak, Peter; Ponto, Katharina; Stoffelns, Bernhard; Lorenz, Katrin; Scharioth, Gábor B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report one-year results of phacoemulsification combined with deep sclerectomy and goniosynechiolysis ab interno for chronic glaucoma associated with peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS). Methods. We retrospectively analyzed medical charts of 16 patients (20 eyes) treated by one-site combined phacoemulsification and deep sclerectomy with goniosynechiolysis ab interno. PAS were transected by a spatula introduced into the anterior chamber through a paracentesis. To account for the correlation of right and left eyes a linear mixed model with unstructured covariance structure was calculated. Results. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was 20.3 ± 5.2 mmHg with 2.4 ± 1.0 medications. One year postoperatively, the mean IOP was 15.3 ± 3.3 mmHg (P = 0.004, paired t-test) with 0.6 ± 1.0 medications. A postoperative IOP of ≤21 mmHg without medication was achieved in 17 of 19 eyes (89.5%) and in 12/19 eyes (63.2%) at 3 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. In the remaining eyes (10.5% at 3 months and 36.8% at 12 months), additional medication led to an IOP ≤21 mmHg or the target pressure. No case required further glaucoma surgery. In one eye, conversion of the surgery to trabeculectomy was necessary due to Descemet's window rupture. Conclusions. With goniosynechiolysis ab interno, effective and safe nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery is possible in presence of PAS. PMID:26199738

  20. Intraoperative optical coherence tomography and ab interno trabecular meshwork surgery with the Trabectome

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Bernd; Jordan, Jens F; Framme, Carsten; Pielen, Amelie

    2017-01-01

    Importance This study is the first description of the use of the intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) for trabecular meshwork surgery with the Trabectome in a regular clinical setting. Background The aim of this study is to evaluate intraoperatively the immediate success of ab interno trabeculotomy with the Trabectome defined as a removal of the trabecular meshwork. Design This is a retrospective clinical study performed in the University Eye Hospital, Medical School Hannover. Participants A total of nine consecutive Caucasian patients suffering from primary open angle glaucoma, pigment dispersion glaucoma, or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma took part in the study. Methods All patients underwent ab interno trabeculotomy surgery with the Trabectome using a commercially available iOCT to visualize the anterior chamber angle (ACA) before and after the procedure. The visualization was done using a modified Swan-Jacobs lens (all nine patients) or without lens (view from above, five patients). Main outcome measures The main outcome of this study is the success of visualization of the ACA on iOCT, especially the postprocedural visualization of the wound gap after removal of the trabecular meshwork. Results Using the view from above, the ACA could be visualized before and after the procedure in only two of the five cases. Using the modified Swan-Jacobs lens, the ACA could be visualized before the procedure and the trabecular meshwork opening after the procedure in all nine patients. Conclusion The iOCT can be used to objectify the immediate success of the surgical procedure, ie, the removal of the trabecular meshwork, of ab interno trabeculotomy with the Trabectome. The procedure itself cannot be captured sufficiently via iOCT.

  1. Ab-interno scleral suture loop fixation with cow-hitch knot in posterior chamber intraocular lens decentration

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ertuğrul; Koçak, Nurullah; Yücel, Özlem Eşki; Gül, Adem; Öztürk, Hilal Eser; Sayın, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Aim of Study: To describe a simplified ab-interno cow-hitch suture fixation technique for repositioning decentered posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC IOL). Materials and Methods: Two cases are presented with the surgical correction of decentered and subluxated IOL. Ab-interno scleral suture fixation technique with hitch-cow knot in the eye was performed with a ciliary sulcus guide instrument and 1 year follow-up was completed. Results: Both of the patients had well centered lenses postoperatively. Corrected distant and near visual acuities of the patients were improved. There was no significant postoperative complication. In the follow-up period of 1 year, no evidence of suture erosion was found. Conclusions: Ab-interno scleral suture loop fixation with hitch-cow knot in the eye was effective in repositioning decentered or subluxated PC IOLs with excellent postoperative centered lenses and visual outcomes. PMID:27050346

  2. [Trabeculotomy ab interno combined with extracapsular cataract extraction and IOL implantation].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, B N; Ermolaev, A P

    2003-01-01

    We made a total of 96 surgeries of extracapsular cataract extraction and IOL implantation combined with trabeculotomy ab interno during a period of 7 years. Patients with both open-angle and narrow-angle glaucoma of stages I and II and with the intraocular pressure (IOP) below or equal to 23 mm Hg according to Goldman under the conditions of hypotensive medicamental regimen were selected for surgery. After IOL was implanted into the lens bag, trabeculotomy ab interno was implemented as stage 2. A special mirror, introduced through the cataract incision, was used for direct gonioscopic monitoring. The trabecula was incised by the edge of a curved surgical knife under direct visual control. We regarded bleeding from the opened sinus as a favorable sign indicative of that the intrascleral collectors were intact. Only minor hyphemas were registered as postoperative complications; there was not a single case of ciliary-and-choroidal detachment. IOP was compensated for, in 6 months after surgery, in 94% of patients--69.8% of them did not use any hypotensive drops.

  3. Ab interno management of blocked Ahmed valve in the posterior segment.

    PubMed

    Odrich, Steven; Wald, Kenneth; Sperber, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of late failure of a posterior segment placed Ahmed valve in a uveitic eye with a corneal graft and a minimally invasive, ab interno approach in restoring valve function, pressure control, and preservation of vision. Case report. A 25 gauge trans-conjunctival 3-port pars plana vitrectomy was performed to inspect and clean the ostium of the Ahmed valve of any vitreous debris. The Ahmed valve was not disturbed externally and conjunctival dissection was not performed. A 27-gauge blunt cannula was introduced through the vitrector site and used to cannulate the tube and flush it with balanced salt solution. A bleb was immediately re-established and all instruments were removed requiring no sutures. Intraocular pressure returned to target levels and a filtration bleb was re-established. Corneal graft clarity was restored with resolution of preoperative microcystic edema. Postoperative inflammation was minimal and vision was restored. A nonfunctioning tube shunt residing in the vitreous cavity may be revised ab interno without disturbing the shunt placement or the conjunctiva under which it resides to re-establish filtration.

  4. Ab interno sclerostomy with a high-powered argon endolaser. Clinicopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, G J; Mieler, W F; Radius, R L; Kincaid, M C; Massaro, B M; Abrams, G W

    1989-08-01

    A high-powered argon blue-green laser coupled to a 300-microns quartz fiberoptic probe was used to create an ab interno sclerostomy in a patient undergoing enucleation for a blind painful eye. Despite the presence of diffuse rubeosis, 360 degrees peripheral anterior synechiae, and superior conjunctival scarring, it was possible to create a full-thickness defect from the anterior chamber angle to the subconjunctival space without operative complications. Six laser applications were required using 8 W of power per pulse and 0.1-second pulse duration. The eye was enucleated immediately after the laser procedure, prepared for light microscopy, and sectioned serially. Histologic analysis demonstrated a patent fistula approximately 300 microns in diameter with sharp wound margins. Tissue damage was localized to within 150 microns of the sclerostomy. The overlying conjunctiva was intact.

  5. Combined ab externo and ab interno revision of failed filtering blebs with adjunctive mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Magacho, Leopoldo; Shetty, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    To report the results of combined ab externo and ab interno revision with mitomycin C (MMC) of failed filtering blebs in glaucoma patients. Glaucoma patients with a failed trabeculectomy who had undergone internal and external revision with MMC in the last 6 years with at least 12 months of follow-up were considered. All study patients followed the same protocol in the operating room: injection of 0.2 mL of MMC (0.4 mg/mL) 2 cm lateral from the bleb followed by internal revision with an iris spatula and external revision with a 26-G × ½" needle. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥6 mm Hg and ≤18 mm Hg with (qualified) or without (absolute) any ocular hypotensive drugs. The study included 25 eyes of 22 glaucoma patients. Mean age was 65.2 ± 10.5 years. Mean follow-up was 26.9 ± 10.3 months. The IOP was reduced from 24.5 ± 6.0 mm Hg preoperatively to 10.0 ± 3.3 mm Hg at the last visit (p<0.001). The number of ocular hypotensive medications was reduced from 1.8 ± 1.0 to 0.2 ± 0.6 (p<0.001). There was no change in visual acuity (0.83 ± 0.75 vs 0.83 ± 0.74, p = 0.7). Three patients developed choroidal detachment, another eye had a transient hypotony with maculopathy, and 2 patients developed cataract. Absolute success was achieved in 80% of eyes, and qualified success in 16% of eyes. Combined ab externo and ab interno revision with MMC can be an effective technique to revitalize failed filtering blebs in glaucoma patients with minimal complications.

  6. Performance and Safety of a New Ab Interno Gelatin Stent in Refractory Glaucoma at 12 Months.

    PubMed

    Grover, Davinder S; Flynn, William J; Bashford, Kent P; Lewis, Richard A; Duh, Yi-Jing; Nangia, Rupali S; Niksch, Barbara

    2017-08-04

    To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering performance and safety of an ab interno gelatin stent (XEN® 45 Gel Stent, Allergan plc), a minimally invasive glaucoma surgery device, in refractory glaucoma. Single-arm, open-label, multicenter clinical study. Following mitomycin pretreatment, the stent was placed ab interno in patients who failed prior filtering/cilioablative procedure or had uncontrolled IOP on maximum-tolerated medical therapy, with medicated IOP ≥20 and ≤35 mmHg and visual field mean deviation ≤-3 dB. Primary performance outcomes: patients (%) achieving ≥20% IOP reduction from baseline on the same or fewer medications and mean IOP change from baseline at month 12. Procedure-related complications and ocular adverse events (AEs) were assessed. Sixty-five patients were implanted (intent-to-treat/safety population). At 12 months, 75.4% (46/61; observed data) reported ≥20% IOP lowering from baseline on the same or fewer medications. Mean IOP change from baseline was -9.1 mmHg (95% CI: -10.7, -7.5) (n=52; observed data) at 12 months, excluding patients with missing data (n=4) and those requiring a glaucoma-related secondary surgical intervention (n=9). Mean medication count decreased from 3.5 (baseline) to 1.7 (12 months). No intraoperative complications or unexpected postoperative AEs were reported. Most AEs were mild/moderate; common AEs included needling (without sight-threatening complications), non-persistent loss of best-corrected visual acuity, and transient hypotony (requiring no surgical intervention). The gelatin stent reduced IOP and medication use without raising unexpected safety concerns, offering a minimally invasive surgical option for refractory glaucoma patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Training strategies and outcomes of ab interno trabeculectomy with the trabectome

    PubMed Central

    Fallano, Katherine; Bussel, Igor; Kagemann, Larry; Lathrop, Kira L.; Loewen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Plasma-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy with the trabectome was first approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2004 for use in adult and pediatric glaucomas. Since then, increased clinical experience and updated outcome data have led to its expanded use, including a range of glaucomas and angle presentations, previously deemed to be relatively contraindicated. The main benefits are a high degree of safety, ease, and speed compared to traditional filtering surgery and tube shunts. The increasing burden of glaucoma and expanding life expectancy has resulted in demand for well-trained surgeons. In this article, we discuss the results of trabectome surgery in standard and nonstandard indications. We present training strategies of the surgical technique that include a pig eye model, and visualization exercises that can be performed before and at the conclusion of standard cataract surgery in patients who do not have glaucoma. We detail the mechanism of enhancing the conventional outflow pathway and describe methods of visualization and function testing. PMID:28529695

  8. Differential Canalograms Detect Outflow Changes from Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents and Ab Interno Trabeculectomy

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Hardik A.; Loewen, Ralitsa T.; Roy, Pritha; Schuman, Joel S.; Lathrop, Kira L.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Recently introduced microincisional glaucoma surgeries that enhance conventional outflow offer a favorable risk profile over traditional surgeries, but can be unpredictable. Two paramount challenges are the lack of an adequate training model for angle surgeries and the absence of an intraoperative quantification of surgical success. To address both, we developed an ex vivo training system and a differential, quantitative canalography method that uses slope-adjusted fluorescence intensities of two different chromophores to avoid quenching. We assessed outflow enhancement by trabecular micro-bypass (TMB) implantation or by ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT). In this porcine model, TMB resulted in an insignificant (p > 0.05) outflow increase of 13 ± 5%, 14 ± 8%, 9 ± 3%, and 24 ± 9% in the inferonasal, superonasal, superotemporal, and inferotemporal quadrant, respectively. AIT caused a 100 ± 50% (p = 0.002), 75 ± 28% (p = 0.002), 19 ± 8%, and 40 ± 21% increase in those quadrants. The direct gonioscopy and tactile feedback provided a surgical experience that was very similar to that in human patients. Despite the more narrow and discontinuous circumferential drainage elements in the pig with potential for underperformance or partial stent obstruction, unequivocal patterns of focal outflow enhancement by TMB were seen in this training model. AIT achieved extensive access to outflow pathways beyond the surgical site itself. PMID:27811973

  9. Angle stability and outflow in dual blade ab interno trabeculectomy with active versus passive chamber management

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Dang, Yalong; Waxman, Susannah; Xia, Xiaobo; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare intraoperative angle stability and postoperative outflow of two ab interno trabeculectomy devices that excise the trabecular meshwork with or without active aspiration and irrigation. We hypothesized that anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) allows for a quantitative comparison of intraoperative angle stability in a microincisional glaucoma surgery (MIGS) pig eye training model. Methods Twelve freshly enucleated porcine eyes were measured with AS-OCT at baseline, at the beginning of the procedure and at its conclusion to determine the anterior chamber depth (ACD) and the nasal angle α in degrees. The right and left eye of pairs were randomly assigned to an active dual blade goniectome (aDBG) and a passive dual blade goniectome (pDBG) group, respectively. The aDBG had irrigation and aspiration ports while the pDBG required surgery under viscoelastic. We performed the procedures using our MIGS training system with a standard, motorized ophthalmic operating microscope. We estimated outflow by obtaining canalograms with fluorescent spheres. Results In aDBG, the nasal angle remained wide open during the procedure at above 90° and did not change towards the end (100±10%, p = 0.9). In contrast, in pDBG, ACD decreased by 51±19% to 21% below baseline (p<0.01) while the angle progressively narrowed by 40±12% (p<0.001). Canalograms showed a similar extent of access to the outflow tract with the aDBG and the pDBG (p = 0.513). The average increase for the aDBG in the superonasal and inferonasal quadrants was between 27 to 31% and for the pDBG between 15 to 18%. Conclusion AS-OCT demonstrated that active irrigation and aspiration improved anterior chamber maintenance and ease of handling with the aDBG in this MIGS training model. The immediate postoperative outflow was equally good with both devices. PMID:28486513

  10. Comparison of intraocular pressure fluctuations before and after ab interno trabeculectomy in pseudoexfoliation glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Naoki; Abe, Shinya; Miyakoshi, Mari; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT) with the Trabectome has been shown to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) glaucoma. Here, we examined the change of IOP fluctuations before and after only AIT or AIT with cataract surgery in PEX patients using the contact lens sensor Triggerfish®. Methods This was a prospective open-label study. Twenty-four consecutive patients with PEX glaucoma were included. Twelve patients underwent cataract surgery and AIT (triple-surgery group), and 12 patients underwent only AIT (single-surgery group). In each eye, IOP fluctuations over 24 h were measured with the contact lens sensor before and at 3 months after the surgery. We compared the change of IOP fluctuation before and after operation. We also evaluated the difference in IOP changes between the triple- and single-surgery groups. Results At 3 months after the surgeries, the mean IOP was significantly reduced from 23.5±6.5 mmHg to 14.6±2.8 mmHg in the single-surgery group and from 22.5±3.0 mmHg to 11.5±2.9 mmHg in the triple-surgery group. The mean IOP reduction rate was significantly higher in the triple-surgery group compared to the single-surgery group (p=0.0358). In both groups, the mean range of IOP fluctuations was significantly decreased during nocturnal periods. The mean range of 24 h IOP fluctuations was decreased in the triple-surgery group (p=0.00425), not in the single-surgery group (p=0.970). Conclusion Triple surgery could decrease IOP value and the IOP fluctuations to a greater extent than single surgery in PEX glaucoma patients. PMID:28979095

  11. Gonioscopic ab interno laser sclerostomy. A pilot study in glaucoma patients.

    PubMed

    Latina, M A; Melamed, S; March, W F; Kass, M A; Kolker, A E

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of gonioscopic ab interno laser sclerostomy (GLS) in patients with glaucoma. The technique of GLS involves iontophoresis of methylene blue dye (1%) at the limbus to focally dye the sclera and to provide subsequent delivery of 10-microsecond pulsed laser energy to the dyed area through a goniolens. The laser emits at 660 nm, a wavelength that is maximally absorbed by the methylene blue dye. Patients were evaluated for fistula formation, intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, and adverse sequelae. Thirty-eight treatments were performed in 35 eyes. Successful complete sclerostomies were achieved in 21 eyes (55%), which was associated with an acute mean reduction in IOP of 23 mmHg. Mean preoperative IOP for all patients was 35 mmHg, and 1 hour after treatment it was reduced to 18.5 mmHg. In 4 of the 38 treatments, there was no acute IOP reduction, and these eyes were judged as failures. The mean follow-up time was 8.2 months with a maximum follow-up of 15 months. By 9 months, 50% of patients had an IOP of 22 mmHg or lower. The number of antiglaucoma medications decreased from 3.1 to 1.7 for all eyes over the 15-month follow-up period. Hyphemas (13%) were the only major complication, and these resolved spontaneously. In only one case did the IOP increase after the procedure. The results of this trial indicate that GLS is technically feasible, and preliminary results of IOP control are promising.

  12. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy With the Trabectome as a Valuable Therapeutic Option for Failed Filtering Blebs.

    PubMed

    Wecker, Thomas; Neuburger, Matthias; Bryniok, Laura; Bruder, Kathrin; Luebke, Jan; Anton, Alexandra; Jordan, Jens F

    2016-09-01

    Uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) after glaucoma filtration surgery is a challenging problem in the management of glaucoma patients. The Trabectome is a device for selective electroablation of the trabecular meshwork through a clear cornea incision without affecting the conjunctiva. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery using the Trabectome is safe and effective as primary glaucoma surgery. Here we investigate the results of ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome for IOP control in patients with a failed filtering bleb. A total of 60 eyes of 60 consecutive patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) were enrolled in this single center observational study. Trabectome surgery was performed alone or in combination with phacoemulsification by 2 experienced surgeons. IOP readings and number of IOP lowering medication as primary outcome parameters were taken by an independent examiner. Intraoperative and postoperative medication were recorded systematically. Mean IOP before surgery was 24.5±3.5 mm Hg and decreased to 15.7±3.4 (-36%) after mean follow-up of 415 days. The number of necessary IOP lowering medication dropped from 2.1±1.3 to 1.8±1.2 (14% reduction from baseline). A total of 25% (n=15) of cases reported here needed additional surgery after 517 days (range: 6 to 1563 d). No major complications were observed. After mean follow-up, we found a qualified success rate for PXG of 87% and 50% for POAG as revealed by the Kaplan-Meier analysis according to the definitions for success in advanced glaucoma cases according to the World Glaucoma Association (40% reduction from baseline IOP and maximum IOP of 15 mm Hg). Trabectome surgery for uncontrolled IOP after trabeculectomy is safe and effective especially in PXG patients. Given the demanding subgroup of patients studied here, it is not surprising that success rates are lower compared with previous studies investigating the Trabectome for primary glaucoma surgery

  13. Transconjunctival orbital decompression in Graves' ophthalmopathy: lateral wall approach ab interno

    PubMed Central

    Paridaens, D.; Verhoeff, K.; Bouwens, D.; van den Bosch, W. A

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—A modified surgical technique is described to perform a one, two, or three wall orbital decompression in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy.
METHODS—The lateral wall was approached ab interno through a "swinging eyelid" approach (lateral canthotomy and lower fornix incision) and an extended periosteum incision along the inferior and lateral orbital margin. In addition, the orbital floor and medial wall were removed when indicated. To minimise the incidence of iatrogenic diplopia, the lateral and medial walls were used as the first surfaces of decompression, leaving the "medial orbital strut" intact. During 1998, this technique was used in a consecutive series of 19 patients (35 orbits) with compressive optic neuropathy (six patients), severe exposure keratopathy (one patient), or disfiguring/congestive Graves' ophthalmopathy (12 patients).
RESULTS—The preoperative Hertel value (35 eyes) was on average 25 mm (range 19-31 mm). The mean proptosis reduction at 2 months after surgery was 5.5 mm (range 3-7 mm). Of the total group of 19 patients, iatrogenic diplopia occurred in two (12.5%) of 16 patients who had no preoperative diplopia or only when tired. The three other patients with continuous preoperative diplopia showed no improvement of double vision after orbital decompression, even when the ocular motility (ductions) had improved. In the total group, there was no significant change of ductions in any direction at 2 months after surgery. All six patients with recent onset compressive optic neuropathy showed improvement of visual acuity after surgery. No visual deterioration related to surgery was observed in this study. A high satisfaction score (mean 8.2 on a scale of 1 to 10) was noted following the operation.
CONCLUSION—This versatile procedure is safe and efficacious, patient and cost friendly. Advantages are the low incidence of induced diplopia and periorbital hypaesthesia, the hidden and small incision, the minimal surgical

  14. Clinical results of ab interno trabeculotomy using the trabectome for open-angle glaucoma: the Mayo Clinic series in Rochester, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Yachna; Ma Khin Pyi, Son; Malihi, Mehrdad; Hodge, David O; Sit, Arthur J

    2013-11-01

    To determine outcomes of ab interno trabeculotomy for treatment of open-angle glaucoma (OAG). Retrospective interventional single-surgeon, single-center case series. Data were collected from 246 patients undergoing ab interno trabeculotomy between September 1, 2006, and December 1, 2010, with 3 months' follow-up or longer. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed using Criteria A (postoperative intraocular pressure [IOP] ≤21 mm Hg or ≥20% reduction from preoperative IOP) and Criteria B (IOP ≤18 mm Hg and ≥20% reduction in IOP). Failure included increased glaucoma medications or subsequent surgery. Failure risk factors were identified using Cox proportional hazards ratio (HR). Of 88 cases of ab interno trabeculotomy-only and 158 cases of ab interno trabeculotomy with cataract extraction, the retention rate was 70% for 1 year and 62% for 2 years. Preoperative mean IOP was 21.6 ± 8.6 mm Hg; the number of glaucoma medications was 3.1 ± 1.1. At 24 months postoperatively, mean IOP was reduced 29% to 15.3 ± 4.6 mm Hg (P < 0.001) and the number of glaucoma medications was reduced 38% to 1.9 ± 1.3 (P < 0.001) with a success rate of 62% (95% CI, 56%-68%) using Criteria A and 22% (95% CI, 16%-29%) using Criteria B. Failure risk factors using Criteria A included primary OAG (HR 3.14, P < 0.01, 95% CI, 1.91-5.17) and past argon laser trabeculoplasty (HR 1.81, P < 0.01, 95% CI, 1.18-2.77). Using Criteria B, the HR for pseudoexfoliative glaucoma was 0.43 (P < 0.01, 95% CI 0.27-0.67). Of the cases, 66 (26.8%) required subsequent surgery on an average of 10 months (2 days to 3.2 years) after ab interno trabeculotomy. For criteria involving IOP ≤18 mm Hg, the 24-month survival of ab interno trabeculotomy is low. This surgery is appropriate for patients requiring a target IOP of 21 mm Hg or above. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy, Safety, and Risk Factors for Failure of Standalone Ab Interno Gelatin Microstent Implantation versus Standalone Trabeculectomy.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Matthew B; Gulamhusein, Husayn; Conrad-Hengerer, Ina; Somers, Alix; Lenzhofer, Markus; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Reitsamer, Herbert; Hengerer, Fritz H; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2017-06-07

    To compare the efficacy, safety, and risk factors for failure of standalone ab interno gelatin microstent implantation with mitomycin C (MMC) versus trabeculectomy with MMC. International, multicenter, retrospective interventional cohort study. Three hundred fifty-four eyes of 293 patients (185 microstent and 169 trabeculectomy) with no prior incisional surgery. Consecutive eyes with uncontrolled glaucoma underwent microstent or trabeculectomy surgery from January 1, 2011 through July 31, 2015 at 4 academic ophthalmology centers: Toronto, Canada; Frankfurt, Germany; Salzburg, Austria; and Leuven, Belgium. Primary outcome measure was hazard ratio (HR) of failure, with failure defined as 2 consecutive intraocular pressure (IOP) readings of <6 mmHg with vision loss or >17 mmHg without glaucoma medications (complete success) at least 1 month after surgery despite in-clinic interventions (including needling). Secondary outcome measures included IOP thresholds of 6 to 14 mmHg and 6 to 21 mmHg and same thresholds allowing for medications (qualified success), interventions, complications, and reoperations. Baseline characteristics were similar, except more men (56% vs. 43%), younger patients (average, by 3 years), better preoperative visual acuity (22% vs. 32% with 0.4 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution vision or worse), and more trabeculoplasty (52% vs. 30%) among microstent eyes. The adjusted HR of failure of the microstent relative to trabeculectomy was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-2.0) for complete success and 1.3 (95% CI, 0.6-2.8) for qualified success, and similar for other outcomes. Time to 25% failure was 11.2 months (95% CI, 6.9-16.1 months) and 10.6 months (95% CI, 6.8-16.2 months) for complete success and 30.3 months (95% CI, 19.0-∞ months) and 33.3 months (95% CI, 25.7-46.2 months) for qualified success. Overall, white ethnicity was associated with decreased risk of failure (adjusted HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25-0.96), and diabetes was

  16. Ab-interno goniotrabeculotomy versus mitomycin C trabeculectomy for adult open-angle glaucoma: a 2-year randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, L; Hitchings, R A; Quaranta, C A

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of ab-interno goniotrabeculotomy (AIGT) on the intraocular pressure (IOP) in adult patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), compared with the effects of mitomycin C trabeculectomy (MT). Prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients with medically uncontrolled POAG. Standard limbus-based trabeculectomy with adjunct mitomycin C (0.3 mg/mL for 3 minutes) in 16 eyes of 16 patients; AIGT was performed in 16 eyes of 16 patients. The groups were matched for age, preoperative IOP, duration of preoperative antiglaucoma treatment, use of preoperative beta-blockers and parasympathomimetics, and use of beta-blockers in the fellow eye. The IOP (average of the two highest values measured in the diurnal curve, from 8 AM to 6 PM, every 2 hours) and complications were recorded 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after surgery. Identification of complications and IOP. All patients were followed up for 24 months. More postoperative complications occurred in the MT group during the 2-year follow-up. One month after surgery, IOP was 10 +/- 1.46 mmHg (range, 8-13) in the MT group and 12.12 +/- 1.63 mmHg (range, 8-14) in the AIGT group (Student's t test, P = 0.001). Three months after surgery, IOP was 11.5 +/- 1.59 mmHg (range, 8-14) and 12.75 +/- 1.57 mmHg (range, 10-16) in the MT and AIGT groups, respectively (Student's t test, P = 0.033). From the 6th to the 24th postoperative month, no statistically significant difference in IOP was found between the two groups. At the end of follow-up, 14 of 16 eyes (87.5%) of the AIGT group and 13 of the 16 eyes (81.25%) of the MT group showed an IOP < or = 14 mmHg. Ab-interno goniotrabeculotomy appears to be a viable and safe surgical treatment for adult POAG. More extended follow-up, however, and a larger series of patients are needed to ascertain the actual effectiveness of this procedure in adult POAG.

  17. The results of ab interno laser thermal sclerostomy combined with cataract surgery versus trabeculectomy combined with cataract surgery 6 to 12 months postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, R; Kollarits, C R; Khan, N

    1996-07-01

    When cataract surgery and glaucoma surgery are combined, the theoretical advantages of pressure control, removal of the visual impairment, and protection against an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) in the immediate postoperative period are gained. The authors' objective was to determine whether ab interno laser thermal sclerostomy (LTS) combined with cataract surgery would be as effective as trabeculectomy combined with cataract surgery. Ab interno LTS was compared with trabeculectomy, retrospectively, for patients who had undergone combined cataract and glaucoma surgery. There was no significant difference in the numbers of patients using no medications or fewer medications at 6 and 12 months. There was a greater reduction in IOP in the LTS group. LTS may be better than trabeculectomy in combined cataract and glaucoma surgery because it reduces the IOP more. Compared with trabeculectomy, LTS is simpler to perform and adds less operating time to cataract surgery. Continued follow-up is recommended.

  18. Combined ab interno trabeculotomy and lens extraction: a novel management option for combined uveitic and chronic narrow angle raised intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Siying; Gupta, Bhaskar; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery is a developing area that has the potential to replace traditional glaucoma surgery, with its known risk profile, but at present there are no randomised controlled data to validate its use. We report on a case where sequential bilateral combined ab interno trabeculotomy and lens extraction surgery was performed on a 45-year-old woman with combined uveitic and chronic narrow angle raised intraocular pressure. Maximal medical management alone could not control the intraocular pressure. At 12-month follow-up, the patient had achieved stable intraocular pressure in both eyes on a combination of topical ocular antiglaucomatous and steroid therapies. This case demonstrates the effectiveness of trabecular meshwork ablation via ab interno trabeculotomy in a case of complex mixed mechanism glaucoma. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Revision curricular a partir de un analisis comparativo de las discrepancias en los curriculos de una escuela de optometria en Puerto Rico con las competencias requeridas para las agencias de revalida y acreditacion 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera Pacheco, Andres

    El proposito de esta investigacion, un estudio cualitativo de caso, fue comparar y contrastar el curriculo vigente de la Escuela de Optometria de la UIAPR con las competencias y estandares requeridos por las agencias de acreditacion y de revalida. Con este proposito, decidimos realizar una revision y un analisis de documentos: el prontuario de cada uno de los cursos de los curriculos implantados en el 1993 y en el 2001; las competencias y estandares establecidos por las agencias de revalida y de acreditacion; y las estadisticas en las que se analiza el porcentaje de estudiantes que aprueban cada una de las partes de los examenes de revalida entre el 1998 al 2003. Se realizaron entrevistas dirigidas para dar apoyo y complementar la revision y el analisis de estos documentos. Los participantes de las entrevistas fueron tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2004 (ultima clase del curriculo del 1993); tres estudiantes de la clase de optometria del 2005 (primera clase graduanda del curriculo vigente) y tres profesores y/o directores de los Departamentos de Ciencias Basicas, Ciencias Clinicas y Cuidado al Paciente. Esta investigacion se enmarco en el modelo de evaluacion curricular de discrepancia de Malcolm Provus y en el modelo de desarrollo basado en competencias. Uno de los hallazgos mas importantes del estudio es que los cambios que se implantaron al curriculo del 2001 no han logrado que los estudiantes mejoren su ejecucion en los examenes de revalida. Por otro lado, se encontro que el curriculo vigente atiende completamente los estandares de la practica de Optometria, pero no las competencias. Esta informacion fue validada mediante el uso de una tabla de cotejo para el analisis de los cursos y de la informacion obtenida de las entrevistas. El estudio determina y concluye que existen discrepancias entre los prontuarios de los cursos del curriculo y las competencias requeridas por la agencia de revalida. Segundo, que el Departamento de Ciencias Basicas es el

  20. Riesgos psicosociales y estrés como predictores del burnout en médicos internos residentes en el Servicio de Urgencias.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Prada, María; González-Cabrera, Joaquín; Iribar-Ibabe, Concepción; Peinado, José María

    2017-01-01

    Evaluar el estrés, los riesgos psicosociales asociados al puesto de trabajo y el burnout en un grupo de residentes en el servicio de urgencias; y analizar qué variables se relacionan y predicen mejor el burnout. Estudio analítico y transversal en el que han participado 42 médicos internos residentes que hacen guardias en el servicio de urgencias del Hospital Universitario San Cecilio, Granada. Se han utilizado la versión adaptada al español de la Perceived Stress Scale para evaluar el estrés, el Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) para valorar el desgaste profesional, y el cuestionario adaptado y baremado para la autoevaluación de riesgos psicosociales en el trabajo (CopSoQ-ISTAS21). El 78% de los residentes evaluados se encuentra en la categoría desfavorable o intermedia en todas las dimensiones del CopSoQ-ISTAS21, y destaca que el 90% presenta una puntuación desfavorable en exigencias psicológicas. Además, en el MBI el 45% presenta conjuntamente un alto agotamiento emocional y una elevada despersonalización. La dimensión de exigencias psicológicas del ISTAS21 (b = 0.393; p < 0.003) y las puntuaciones de estrés (b = 0.451; p < 0.001) predicen significativamente el agotamiento emocional (r(2) = 0.443). Por último, el 38% ha sufrido una amenaza/agresión en el servicio de urgencias. La situación de los residentes parece perjudicial para su desempeño profesional debido a los altos riesgos psicosociales asociados al puesto de trabajo. Las exigencias psicológicas se proponen como un importante predictor del burnout. Se recomiendan intervenciones psicológicas y estructurales con las que mejorar la situación de los residentes que realizan guardias en el servicio de urgencias. To study the stress, the psychosocial risks associated to the job and the burnout, in a group of junior doctors working at the emergency ward; and to analyze what of those variables could predict and are better related with burnout. Cross-sectional study, with a sample of 42 junior

  1. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  2. Transient Ciliochoroidal Detachment After Ab Interno Trabeculotomy for Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Prospective Anterior-Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Tadamichi; Nakano, Eri; Nakanishi, Hideo; Uji, Akihito; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2016-03-01

    Although trabeculotomy is a glaucoma surgical procedure for modest intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction, some eyes exhibit very low IOP during the early postoperative period. To our knowledge, the reason and its effect have not been investigated. To investigate ciliochoroidal detachment (CCD) immediately after ab interno trabeculotomy and evaluate its effect on IOP immediately after surgery. This prospective, observational, case series was conducted at Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan. Patients with open-angle glaucoma who underwent ab interno trabeculotomy using a microsurgical device by a single surgeon between July 1, 2014, and May 31, 2015, were included. Thirty-seven consecutive patients were enrolled, 33 of whom were included in the analysis. The dates of the analysis were August 1 to August 15, 2015. Imaging of CCD using anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). The incidence of CCD immediately after ab interno trabeculotomy and its effect on IOP in the early postoperative period. The study cohort comprised 33 patients. Their mean (SD) age was 69.4 (13.2) years, and 19 (58%) were male. At postoperative day 3, CCD was detected in 14 of 33 eyes (42%) (CCD group) using AS-OCT. The CCD group had shorter axial length (mean [SD], 23.66 [1.67] vs 25.16 [1.59] mm) and thinner central corneal thickness (mean [SD], 505.9 [35.8] vs 533.9 [39.1] μm) than the non-CCD group. Only 5 eyes had CCD at postoperative day 10, and 4 of these eyes had CCD at 1 month after surgery. The postoperative IOPs at all follow-up periods were lower in the CCD group than in the non-CCD group, but the difference in the postoperative IOPs between the groups decreased as time passed. The mean (SD) IOPs for the CCD group vs the non-CCD group were 9.1 (3.0) vs 14.2 (5.8) mm Hg at day 1, 8.4 (2.4) vs 13.4 (5.0) mm Hg at day 3, 11.0 (3.0) vs 15.5 (6.3) mm Hg at day 10, 13.4 (2.4) vs 15.5 (3.3) mm Hg at 1 month, and 13.9 (3.4) vs 15.5 (4.0) mm Hg at 3 months. In several eyes in

  3. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  4. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  5. Short-term results of microhook ab interno trabeculotomy, a novel minimally invasive glaucoma surgery in Japanese eyes: initial case series.

    PubMed

    Tanito, Masaki; Sano, Ichiya; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Fujihara, Etsuko

    2017-08-01

    To report the first early postoperative results and safety profile after microhook ab interno trabeculotomy (μLOT). This initial retrospective observational case series included 24 consecutive glaucomatous eyes of 17 Japanese patients (7 men, 10 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 66.7 ± 17.9 years) who underwent μLOT. The trabeculotomy extent, surgical time, perioperative complications, interventions for complications and additional glaucoma surgeries during the follow-up for more than 3 months were collected by reviewing the medical and surgical records. The intraocular pressure (IOP), numbers of antiglaucoma medications, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (VA), anterior chamber (AC) flare and corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) were compared preoperatively and postoperatively. The trabecular meshwork was incised for a mean of 3.6 ± 0.5 clock hours temporally, 3.7 ± 0.5 clock hours nasally and total 7.3 ± 0.6 clock hours during the 6.2 ± 1.6-min surgery. The mean preoperative IOP of 25.9 ± 14.3 mmHg and number of antiglaucoma medication of 3.3 ± 1.0 decreased significantly (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.005, respectively) to 14.7 ± 3.6 mmHg and 2.8 ± 0.8 at the final visit at 188.6 ± 68.8 days postoperatively. Compared with preoperatively, the final VA, AC flare and CECD did not change significantly. Hyphema with niveau formation (nine eyes, 38%) and washout of hyphema (two eyes, 8%) were the most common postoperative complication and intervention, respectively. At the final visit, 19 eyes (79%) achieved successful IOP control of 18 mmHg or less and a 15% reduction or greater. Microhook trabeculotomy normalizes the IOP during the early postoperative period in patients with glaucoma. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effectiveness and safety of combined cataract surgery and microhook ab interno trabeculotomy in Japanese eyes with glaucoma: report of an initial case series.

    PubMed

    Tanito, Masaki; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Fujihara, Etsuko

    2017-09-19

    To report the early postoperative results and safety profile of ab interno microhook trabeculotomy (μLOT) combined with cataract surgery. This retrospective observational case series included 68 consecutive glaucomatous eyes of 23 Japanese men and 25 Japanese women [mean (SD) age, 76.0 ± 8.5 years] who underwent μLOT for intraocular pressure (IOP) and visually relevant cataracts. The LOT site/extent, perioperative complications, and complication treatments were collected from the medical and surgical records. The preoperative and postoperative IOP, numbers of antiglaucoma medications, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (VA), anterior chamber (AC) flare, and corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) were compared. After small incisional cataract surgery, the trabecular meshwork was incised in the nasal (6 eyes, 3.6 ± 0.5 clock hours), temporal (6 eyes, 3.8 ± 0.8 clock hours), or both nasal and temporal (56 eyes, 6.5 ± 0.6 clock hours) angles. The mean preoperative IOP (16.4 ± 2.9 mmHg) and number of antiglaucoma medications (2.4 ± 1.2) decreased significantly (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0039, respectively) to 11.8 ± 4.5 and 2.1 ± 1.0 mmHg at 9.5 months postoperatively. Compared with the preoperative conditions, the final VA improved (P = 0.0002), the AC flare increased by 6.3 pc/ms (P = 0.0157), and the CECD decreased by 6% (P = 0.0005). Hyphema with niveau formation (28 eyes, 41%) and hyphema washout (6 eyes, 9%) were the most common postoperative complication and intervention, respectively. At the final visit, 54 eyes (79%) had achieved successful IOP control of 15 mmHg or less and IOP reduction of 15% or greater. Combined μLOT and cataract surgery improves IOP and VA during the early postoperative period in patients with glaucoma and cataract.

  7. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  9. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  10. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Analisis de Alteraciones EN la Imagen Debidas a Descolimacion de un Telescopio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    Podemos considerar, en términos generales, que los espejos de un telescopio tienen una calidad óptica intrínseca, entendiendo por ésta la que se ha obtenido como resultado, fundamentalmente, de la destreza del personal del Taller Optico, que considerará terminadas las superficies ópticas cuando éstas satisfagan los requisitos de diseño y las pruebas de evaluación pertinentes. Debemos esperar que, una vez instalados los espejos en el telescopio, no se altere esta calidad de la óptica por un funcionamiento inadecuado de partes mecánicas del mismo. En los últimos años, en la medida que los problemas de infraestructuratura de nuestros Observatorios se han ido resolviendo, se ha hecho más patente la necesidad de llevar a la instrumentación existente al máximo de su potencial y parte esencial de ésta la conforman los mismos te lescopios. Mejorar la calidad óptica de las imágenes obtenidas con ellos ha hecho que sea prioritario el realizar una investigación más sistemática de sus características. Este trabajo ha tenido como objetivo primordial el usar un programa de diseño óptico, en el caso particular del telescopio UNAM212, con el fin de calcular y obtener gráficamente los diagramas de manchas de imagenes en foco y extrafocales, tanto con la óptica perfectamente alineada como descolimándola (mediante pequenos giros y descentramientos de los espejos). De esta manera, se hizo una evaluación de los efectos que estas alteraciones simuladas producirían en las imágenes focales y extra focales para así poder compararlas con las que realmente se han observado. Asimismo, se ha buscado información bibliográfica, en particular sobre los efectos de giros y descentramientos en las imágenes extrafocales, en lo que se ref iere a la falta de concentricidad de los círculos que forman la "dona" y a la distribución de intensidad luminosa en la misma. De ésta, l futuro un proceso que, haciendo uso de los detectores bidimensionales, nos permita Ilevar a

  12. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  13. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  14. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  15. [Analisis of the budget impact of adalimumab and etanercept in rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathies].

    PubMed

    González Álvarez, A; Gómez Barrera, M; Borrás Blasco, J; Giner Serret, E J

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto económico derivado de la ampliación de los intervalos de administración de adalimumab (ADA) y etanercept (ETN), en el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide (AR) y espondiloartropatias (EAP) en nuestro ámbito de trabajo. Material y método: Se desarrolló un modelo de impacto presupuestario (MIP) para estimar la repercusión económica que tendría la ampliación en los intervalos habituales de administración de ADA 40 mg cada dos semanas y ETN 50 mg semanal (escenario A), por ADA 40 mg cada tres semanas y ETN 50 mg cada dos semanas (escenario B) de acuerdo a las guías y recomendaciones que se aplican a estos estudios, especificando la población diana, la perspectiva del estudio, el horizonte temporal y analizando la robustez del estudio a través de un análisis de sensibilidad univariante de tipo umbral. Resultados: Se incluyeron un total de 71 pacientes en el estudio. La aplicación del MIP mostró unos ahorros anuales para ADA y ETN de 19.784??y 38.271 ??respectivamente. El coste neto, es decir, el ahorro que esto supuso en el horizonte temporal considerado (dos años) ascendió a 116.110 ?. El análisis de sensibilidad realizado mostró que el MIP estimado para el periodo de estudio fue muy robusto ya que el resultado neto en diferentes escenarios apenas variaba, manteniéndose negativo en los nuevos escenarios. Conclusiones: La ampliación de los intervalos de administración de ADA y ETN cada tres semanas y dos semanas respectivamente, sería una estrategia que permitiría generar ahorros en el presupuesto hospitalario cercanos a los 116.110 ??en el horizonte temporal considerado, consiguiendo así una optimización del tratamiento con estos fármacos.

  16. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  17. Seguridad del paciente en Radioterapia Intraoperatoria: Impacto de los elementos controlados por el Radiofisico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjuelo, Juan Lopez

    Introduccion: En la administracion de la radioterapia intervienen profesionales y equipos de tratamiento, por lo que existe el riesgo de error y se precisa que dicho equipamiento funcione conforme a lo esperado. A los radiofisicos les corresponde participar en las actividades de garantia o aseguramiento de la calidad, incluyendo el control de calidad de los equipos, y en la evaluacion de los riesgos asociados. La radioterapia intraoperatoria (RIO) es una tecnica radioterapica de intensificacion de dosis, altamente selectiva, dirigida a volumenes anatomicos restringidos durante el tratamiento quirurgico oncologico, basada en la administracion de una dosis absorbida alta por medio de un haz de electrones tras el examen visual directo del lecho tumoral. Como incorporar los ultimos avances en el refuerzo de la seguridad en radioterapia es una tarea ambiciosa y compleja, resulta mas concreta y de inmediata aplicacion su introduccion en la RIO. El objetivo es analizar los elementos que reducen los riesgos y aumentan la seguridad en la RIO y su dosimetria, y valorar la funcion del radiofisico en esta labor. Material y metodos: Se emplearon el planificador Radiance de GMV y el acelerador lineal de los tratamientos de RIO Elekta Precise, controlado con el verificador diario de haces Daily QA Check 1090 y medido con las camaras de ionizacion PPC 40, FC65-G y FC65-P de PTW-Freiburg, a su vez verificadas con fuentes radiactivas adecuadas de estroncio-90 modelos CDP y CDC de IBA Dosimetry. Se realizo un analisis de modos de fallo y efectos (failure mode and effect analysis, FMEA) con el fin de identificar los elementos que forman la RIO y aplicar las herramientas necesarias para la minimizacion de los riesgos y la mejora de la seguridad en la tecnica. Se estudiaron las verificaciones diarias de dicho acelerador Precise con el control estadistico de procesos (statistical process control, SPC) y se simularon intervenciones para devolverlo al estado llamado en control. El SPC

  18. Hydrogen-atom transfer in reactions of organic radicals with [Co(II)(por)]* (por = porphyrinato) and in subsequent addition of [Co(H)(por)] to olefins.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Bas; Dzik, Wojciech I; Li, Shan; Wayland, Bradford B

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms for hydrogen-atom transfer from the cyanoisopropyl radical (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) (yielding [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))(CN); por = porphyrinato) and the insertion of vinyl acetate (CH(2)=CHOAc) into the Co-H bond of [Co(H)(por)] (giving [Co(III){CH(OAc)CH(3)}(por)]) were investigated by DFT calculations. The results are compared with experimental data. These reactions are relevant to catalytic chain transfer (CCT) in radical polymerization of olefins mediated by [Co(II)(por)](*), the formation and homolysis of organo-cobalt complexes that mediate living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate, and cobalt-mediated hydrogenation of olefins. Hydrogen transfer from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) proceeds via a single transition state that has structural features resembling the products [Co(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. The separated radicals approach to form a close-contact radical pair and then pass through the transition state for hydrogen-atom transfer to form [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. This process provides a very low overall barrier for the hydrogen-atom transfer reaction (DeltaG(double dagger) = +3.8 kcal mol(-1)). The reverse reaction corresponding to the addition of [Co(H)(por)] to CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN has a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +8.9 kcal mol(-1)) as well. Insertion of vinyl acetate into the Co-H bond of [Co(III)(H)(por)] also proceeds over a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +11.4 kcal mol(-1)) hydrogen-transfer step from [Co(III)(H)(por)] to a carbon atom of the alkene to produce a close-contact radical pair. Dissociation of the radical pair, reorientation, and radical-radical coupling to form an organo-cobalt complex are the culminating steps in the net insertion of an olefin into the Co-H bond. The computed energies obtained for the hydrogen-atom transfer reactions from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) and from [Co(H)(por)] to olefins, as well as the organo-cobalt bond homolysis

  19. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  20. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  1. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  2. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 'Carbene radicals' in Co(II)(por)-catalyzed olefin cyclopropanation.

    PubMed

    Dzik, Wojciech I; Xu, Xue; Zhang, X Peter; Reek, Joost N H; de Bruin, Bas

    2010-08-11

    The mechanism of cobalt(II)-porphyrin-mediated cyclopropanation of olefins with diazoesters was studied. The first step--reaction of cobalt(II)-porphyrin with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA)--was examined using EPR and ESI-MS techniques. EDA reacts with cobalt(II)-porphyrin to form a 1:1 Co(por)(CHCOOEt) adduct that exists as two isomers: the 'bridging carbene' C' in which the 'carbene' is bound to the metal and the pyrrolic nitrogen of the porphyrin that has a d(7) configuration on the metal, and the 'terminal carbene' C in which the 'carbene' behaves as a redox noninnocent ligand having a d(6) cobalt center and the unpaired electron residing on the 'carbene' carbon atom. The subsequent reactivities of the thus formed 'cobalt carbene radical' with propene, styrene, and methyl acrylate were studied using DFT calculations. The calculations suggest that the formation of the carbene is the rate-limiting step for the unfunctionalized Co(II)(por) and that the cyclopropane ring formation proceeds via a stepwise radical process: Radical addition of the 'carbene radical' C to the C=C double bonds of the olefins results in formation of the gamma-alkyl radical intermediates D. Species D then easily collapse in almost barrierless ring-closure reactions (TS3) to form the cyclopropanes. This radical mechanism readily explains the high activity of Co(II)(por) species in the cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins such as methyl acrylate.

  4. Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a porB porC double mutant.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy N; Mason, Mary E; Lima, Daniel F; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2010-03-01

    In angiosperms the strictly light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated POR genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening. In contrast, PORB and PORC are not only expressed during seedling development but also throughout the later life of the plant, during which they are responsible for bulk chlorophyll synthesis. The Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 mutant displays a severe xantha (highly chlorophyll-deficient) phenotype characterized by smaller prolamellar bodies in etioplasts and decreased thylakoid stacking in chloroplasts. Here we have demonstrated the ability of an ectopic PORA overexpression construct to restore prolamellar body formation in the porB-1 porC-1 double mutant background. In response to illumination, light-dependent chlorophyll production, thylakoid stacking and photomorphogenesis are also restored in PORA-overexpressing porB-1 porC-1 seedlings and adult plants. An Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 double mutant can therefore be functionally rescued by the addition of ectopically expressed PORA, which suffices in the absence of either PORB or PORC to direct bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal plant development.

  5. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  6. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  7. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  8. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  9. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  10. Nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery with goniosynechiolysis ab interno: a surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Mirshahi, A; Scharioth, G B

    2009-01-01

    To present a surgical technique for treatment of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS or goniosynechiae) at the operative field during nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. After usual preparation of a superficial and a deep scleral flap with externalization of the Schlemm's canal and peeling the juxtacanalicular trabecular meshwork, the goniosynechia is transected by a spatula introduced to the anterior chamber through a paracentesis. A Descemet's window provides full visual control at the peripheral cornea at the basis of the superficial scleral flap. With this surgical technique, selective treatment of goniosynechiae is possible exactly at the area where creation of low outflow resistance is intended by the surgeon during nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. This technique enables the surgeon to perform nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery even in the presence of peripheral anterior synechiae.

  11. Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) expression in hepatoma cells replicates the hepatic lipidosis observed in hepatic POR-null mice.

    PubMed

    Porter, Todd D; Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I; Zou, Ling

    2011-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis.

  12. Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) Expression in Hepatoma Cells Replicates the Hepatic Lipidosis Observed in Hepatic POR-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I.; Zou, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis. PMID:21368239

  13. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  14. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-12-16

    Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks' gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for "malposition of the inferior limbs". The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment.

  15. [Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Han

    2011-07-01

    To construct a fused expression vector of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, express the fusion protein in the prokaryotic system, and obtain a gene recombination protein, for the purpose of preparing the ground for further research on the pathopoiesis and immune protective response of PorB. A pair of primers were designed according to the known sequence of the PorB gene, and the PorB gene was amplified by PCR from the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae 29403 and cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-4T-1 to generate pGEX-4T-PorB recombinants. The recombinant plasmid pGEX4T-PorB was transferred into competent cells E. coli BL21. After confirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR and DNA sequencing analysis, the recombinant protein was induced to express by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the PorB gene of 1 047 bp was amplified from Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA, and the recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and highly expressed in E. coli. The prokaryotic expression vector of pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and efficiently expressed in the prokaryotic system, which has provided a basis for further study on the biological activity of the PorB protein, as well as animal immune experiment and detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and its application as a mucosal immune vaccine.

  16. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations.

  17. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  18. Impact of POR*28 on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Hesselink, Dennis A; Bouamar, Rachida; Budde, Klemens; de Fijter, Johannes W; De Meyer, Martine; Mourad, Michel; Kuypers, Dirk R J; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2014-02-01

    The P450 oxidoreductase (POR)*28 variant allele has been associated with altered cytochrome P450 3A enzyme activities. Both CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 are involved in the metabolism of calcineurin inhibitors and recent data show that POR*28 may explain part of the variability observed in tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the POR*28 allele on Tac and cyclosporine A (CsA) immunosuppressive therapies. Kidney transplant recipients receiving either Tac (n = 184) or CsA (n = 174), participating in a prospective multicenter trial, were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3. CYP3A5 expressers that were carriers of at least 1 POR*28 allele had a 16.9% decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations when compared CYP3A5 expressers that carried the POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.03), indicating an increased CYP3A5 activity for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5, nonexpressers carrying 2 POR*28 alleles, a 24.1% (confidence interval95% = -39.4% to -4.9%; P = 0.02) decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations was observed for Tac, suggesting higher CYP3A4 activity. For CsA, POR*28/*28 patients not expressing CYP3A5 and not carrying the CYP3A4*22 decrease-of-function allele showed 15% lower CsA dose-adjusted predose concentrations (P = 0.01), indicating also increased CYP3A4 activity. In both cohorts (ie, Tac and CsA), the POR*28 allele was neither associated with the incidence of delayed graft function nor with biopsy-proven acute rejection. These results were further confirmed in 2 independent cohorts. Our results show that the POR*28 allele is associated with increased in vivo CYP3A5 activity for Tac in CYP3A5 expressers, whereas POR*28 homozygosity was associated with a significant higher CYP3A4 activity in CYP3A5 nonexpressers for both Tac and CsA.

  19. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  20. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  1. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  2. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  3. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  4. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  5. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  6. Impact of POR*28 on the clinical pharmacokinetics of CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Nieuweboer, Annemieke J M; Clarke, Stephen J; Charles, Kellie A; de Graan, Anne-Joy M; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; Mathijssen, Ron H J; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2013-03-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is essential for cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in humans. The POR*28 allele (A503V) has been shown to impact on in-vitro CYP-mediated metabolism, including CYP3A isoenzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo impact of the POR*28 allele on the pharmacokinetics of the classic CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin. Whereas midazolam is metabolized by both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, erythromycin is exclusively oxidized by CYP3A4. To assess CYP3A activity, 108 cancer patients received midazolam and 45 others underwent the erythromycin breath test. Patients were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3. In patients expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 carriers showed 45% lower midazolam metabolic ratios compared with POR*1/*1 patients (P<0.001). This is in line with a lower CYP3A5 activity toward midazolam for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, POR*28 had no influence on midazolam pharmacokinetics. For erythromycin, POR*28 carriership did not influence its metabolism. Our data show that the POR*28 allele is associated with a lower in vivo CYP3A5 activity, but has no effects on CYP3A4-mediated erythromycin and midazolam metabolism.

  7. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032ΔporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA. PMID:12896997

  8. Hexacoordinate oxy-globin models Fe(Por)(NH3)(O2) react with NO to form only the nitrato analogs Fe(Por)(NH3)(η1-ONO2), even at ~100 K.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

    2010-12-07

    The oxy-globin models Fe(Por)(NH(3))(O(2)), prepared by sequential reactions of O(2) ((18)O(2)) and NH(3) with thin porous layers of Fe(II)(Por), react with NO ((15)NO) at 80-100 K to form only the low-spin nitrato complexes Fe(Por)(NH(3))(η(1)-ONO(2)), thus implying that peroxynitrite intermediates, if formed, must undergo very facile isomerization to the nitrato analog.

  9. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  10. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant.

  11. Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-05-01

    One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (Por) was examined and compared to the related PorB antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal PorB and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.

  12. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  13. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…

  14. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  15. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  16. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  17. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  18. Delayed diagnosis of disorder of sex development (DSD) due to P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Koika, Vasiliki; Armeni, Anastasia K; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2016-04-01

    A 36-year old man, operated on for cryptorchidism at the age of 8 years, was referred to the Outpatient Clinic of Reproductive Endocrinology for investigation of infertility. Clinical examination revealed ambiguous genitalia: penis 4-5 cm, testicular volume 2-3 ml, hypospadias, hypertrophic foreskin and scrotum bifida. Mild hypertension was confirmed. No skeletal malformations were detected. Hormonal and electrolytic determinations as well as semen analysis were conducted. PCR of the coding regions of 17-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (P450c17) and of P450 oxidoreductase (POR) genes was also performed. Normal levels of electrolytes, low levels of androgens, high levels of gonadotropins and 17-hydroxyprogesterone as well as azoospermia were detected. Karyotype was shown to be 46,XY. Both hCG and ACTH stimulation significantly increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone with no increase in androgens. The diagnosis was congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined P450c17 and P450c21 deficiency due to mutations in the POR gene. Sequencing of the POR gene revealed: one deletion in exon 12 (Del 1696_1698delGTC >del531Valine) and one missense mutation in exon 7 (A259G) as well as two polymorphisms: rs1057868 (C/T A503V) and rs1057870 (G/A S572S) in exons 12 and 13, respectively. No nucleotide changes were detected in the 8 exons of P450c17. Molecular findings were consistent with the diagnosis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. Despite this severe deficiency, skeletal malformations simulating Antley-Bixler syndrome, which usually characterize the most severe forms, were not confirmed. This discrepancy could be attributed to the differential impact of a POR variant on each one of the P450 enzymes.

  19. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  20. A Lack of Significant Effect of POR*28 Allelic Variant on Tacrolimus Exposure in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Vuillemin, Xavier; Etienne, Isabelle; Buchler, Mathias; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Choukroun, Gabriel; Colosio, Charlotte; Thierry, Antoine; Vigneau, Cécile; Moulin, Bruno; Rerolle, Jean-Philippe; Heng, Anne-Elizabeth; Subra, Jean-Francois; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Loriot, Marie Anne; Thervet, Eric; Pallet, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    POR*28 is a recently newly described allelic variant of the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), which might be associated with an increased metabolic activity of P450 cytochromes (CYP) 3A5 and 3A4. Consequently, carriers of at least 1 allele of this polymorphism could require increased calcineurin inhibitors doses to reach the target residual concentrations (C0). The objective of this study was to test whether the allelic variant of POR, which is associated with an increased metabolic activity of CYP3A, impacts tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. We tested this hypothesis in a population of 229 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) from a large, multicenter, prospective and randomized study. We have analyzed the association between POR*28 genotype and the proportion of individuals reaching the target Tac residual concentration (Tac C0) 10 days after transplantation. We have also measured the association between POR*28 and the Tac C0, and adjusted Tac C0 (Tac C0/Tac dose) over time using generalized mixed linear models. Ten days after transplantation, there was no difference of frequencies of KTR within the target range of Tac C0 (C0 10-15 ng/mL) according to the POR*28 genotype (P = 0.8). The mean Tac C0 at day 10 in the POR*1/*1 group was 15.3 ± 9.7 ng/mL compared with 15.7 ± 7.8 ng/mL in the POR*1/*28 group and 14.2 ± 6.8 ng/mL, in the POR*28/*28 group, P = 0.8. The adjusted Tac C0 was not associated with POR*28 genotype over time (random effects model, P = 0.9). When restricted to KTR expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 genotype did not impact the proportion of individuals within the Tac C0 target range neither the adjusted Tac C0 (random effects model, P = 0.1). POR*28 does not significantly influence Tac pharmacokinetic parameters in a large cohort of KTR. This study does not confirm recent findings indicating that POR*28 carriers require more Tac to reach target C0.

  1. P450 oxidoreductase *28 (POR*28) and tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gijsen, Violette M G J; van Schaik, Ron H N; Soldin, Offie P; Soldin, Steven J; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2014-04-01

    Both age and CYP3A5 genotype are important determinants of tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. In a recent study in adults, POR*28 was associated with increased dosing requirements early after transplant of CYP3A5-expressing kidney transplant recipients. The authors aimed to evaluate the additional contribution of POR*28 to early tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Retrospective data of 43 pediatric kidney transplant recipients up to 14 days posttransplant were evaluated on tacrolimus dose and tacrolimus predose blood concentrations. Recipient POR*28 and CYP3A5 genotype were determined. CYP3A5 expressers carrying at least 1 POR*28 allele had on average 18.3% lower tacrolimus predose concentrations and 20.2% lower concentration/dose ratios compared with CYP3A5 expressers with POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, tacrolimus disposition did not significantly differ between POR genotypes. In this small cohort of pediatric kidney transplant recipients, POR*28 genotype seems to explain part of the variability found in tacrolimus disposition, in addition to age and CYP3A5 genotype. This finding should be validated in a larger population, and it would be worthwhile to evaluate the clinical impact of this genotype.

  2. Effectiveness of the Brazilian Conditional Cash Transfer Program--Bolsa Alimentação--on the variation of linear and ponderal increment in children from northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Costa, Priscila Ribas de Farias; Silva, Maria da Conceição Monteiro da; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela de; Pitangueira, Jacqueline Costa Dias; Fonseca, Nedja Silva dos Santos; Pinheiro, Sandra Maria da Conceição; Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves dos

    2014-10-03

    Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia del programa de transferencia de ingreso brasileno - Bolsa Alimentacao (PBA) sobre la variacion media del incremento del peso e de la talla de ninos. Métodos: Cohorte de 1.847 ninos fue seguida durante 12 meses: 1.615 eran ninos PBA; 232 eran ninos no PBA. Se han registrado la pierda de 316 (14,6%) ninos durante el estudio. Se adopta el diseno casi-experimental y la estrategia antes-despues con el enfoque de eficacia para evaluar el impacto del programa sobre el estado antropometrico de los ninos. La regresion lineal multinivel fue usada en el analisis estadistico. La variacion media del incremento del crecimiento de la talla y del peso para la edad fueron los outcomes and la participacion en el programa la variable de exposicion principal. Se establecieron cuatro grupos de participacion en el programa: ninos no expuesto al programa (control interno; expuestos al programa durante 12 meses de acompanamiento, expuesto al programa solo en los ultimos 6; ninos expuestos al programa solo en los primeros 6 meses. Las medidas repetidas se obtuvieron al inicio y a los 12 meses del seguimiento. Resultados: Despues de ajustar los efectos por los factores de confusion, la exposicion al programa se asocio a una variacion media de peso por edad de 0,34 Z-score (IC = -0,44- 0,63) y talla para la edad de 0,38 Z-score (IC = 0,05-0,70) para los ninos que fueron expuestos al programa durante los 12 meses. La exposicion al programa en otros periodos de seguimiento no fue estadisticamente asociado con una variacion media de peso o la talla para la edad. Conclusiones: Transferencias directas de ingreso a la familia se asociaron con la reduccion de los deficits antropometricos en la infancia.

  3. Two NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase (POR) Isoforms Play Distinct Roles in Environmental Adaptation in Rice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Choon-Tak; Kim, Suk-Hwan; Song, Giha; Kim, Dami; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2017-12-01

    NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two POR isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts. To investigate whether the function of OsPORA can complement that of OsPORB, we constitutively overexpressed OsPORA in fgl mutant. In the 35S:OsPORA/fgl (termed OPAO) transgenic plants, the necrotic lesions of the mutant disappeared and the levels of photosynthetic pigments and proteins, as well as plastid structure, were recovered in developing leaves under natural long days in the paddy field and under short days in an artificially controlled growth room. Under constant light conditions, however, total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels in the developing leaves of OPAO plants were lower than those of wild type. Moreover, the OPAO plants exhibited mild defects in mature leaves beginning at the early reproductive stage in the paddy field. The physiological function of OsPORB in response to constant light or during reproductive growth cannot be completely replaced by constitutive activity of OsPORA, although the biochemical functions of OsPORA and OsPORB are redundant. Therefore, we suggest that the two OsPORs have differentiated over the course of evolution, playing distinct roles in the adaptation of rice to the environment.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of por, encoding cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase, in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Noboru; Katori, Noriko; Maekawa, Keiko; Fukushima-Uesaka, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Daisuke; Kurose, Kouichi; Sai, Kimie; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ohe, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Okuda, Haruhiro; Tamura, Tomohide

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and is necessary for microsomal CYP activities. In this study, to find genetic variations and to elucidate the haplotype structures of POR, we comprehensively screened the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region, all the exons and their flanking introns of POR for 235 Japanese subjects. Seventy-five genetic variations including 26 novel ones were found: 7 were in the 5'-flanking region, 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR, non-coding exon 1), 16 in the coding exons (10 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous), 45 in the introns, 4 in the 3'-UTR and 1 in the 3'-flanking region. Of these, 4 novel nonsynonymous variations, 86C>T (T29M), 1648C>T (R550W), 1708C>T (R570C) and 1975G>A (A659T), were detected with allele frequencies of 0.002. We also detected known nonsynonymous SNPs 683C>T (P228L), 1237G>A (G413S), 1453G>A (A485T), 1508C>T (A503V), 1510G>A (G504R) and 1738G>C (E580Q) with frequencies of 0.002, 0.009, 0.002, 0.434, 0.002 and 0.002, respectively. Based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) profiles, the analyzed region could be divided into two LD blocks. For Blocks 1 and 2, 14 and 46 haplotypes were inferred, respectively, and 2 and 6 common haplotypes found in more than 0.03 frequencies accounted for more than 81% of the inferred haplotypes. This study provides fundamental and useful information for the pharmacogenetic studies of drugs metabolized by CYPs in the Japanese population.

  5. Zinc finger nuclease knock-out of NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in human tumor cell lines demonstrates that hypoxia-activated prodrugs differ in POR dependence.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Guise, Christopher P; Wilson, William R

    2013-12-27

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development.

  6. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  7. Analisis evolutivo del cumulo abierto NGC2527

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovos, F.; Gonzalez, J. F.; Veramendi, M. E.

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of 13 (V ) stars in the open cluster NGC2527. We carried out a study of radial velocity variability and kinematic membership. We detected three double-lined spectroscopic binaries; two of which are cluster members. One of the binaries is a blue straggler; for which we discuss possible formation scenarios. We conclude that this system would have been formed dynamically through a binary-binary or binary-single encounter; being the blue straggler the result of the merger of the companions of the original binary. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  8. Comparison of Serologic and Genetic porB-Based Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Consequences for Future Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Unemo, Magnus; Olcén, Per; Albert, Jan; Fredlund, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Due to temporal changes in the epidemiology of gonorrhea, a precise characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is essential. In the present study genetic heterogeneity in the porB genes of N. gonorrhoeae was examined, and serovar determination was compared to porB gene sequencing. Among 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, phylogenetic analysis of the entire porB alleles (924 to 993 bp) identified 87 unique sequences. By analyzing only the four to six most heterogeneous porB gene regions (174 to 363 bp), 86 out of these 87 genetic variants were identified. Consequently, analysis of shorter highly variable regions of the porB gene generates high-level discriminatory ability as well as fast, objective, reproducible, and portable data for epidemiological characterization of N. gonorrhoeae. Regarding putative antigenic epitopes of PorB for Genetic Systems monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), some of the previous findings were confirmed, but new findings were also observed. For several of the MAbs, however, the precise amino acid residues of PorB critical for single-MAb reactivity were difficult to identify. In addition, repeated serovar determination of 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates revealed discrepancies for 34 isolates, mostly due to nonreproducible reactivity with single MAbs. Thus, the prospects of a genetic typing system with congruent translation of the serovar determination seem to be limited. In conclusion, analysis of short highly variable regions of the porB gene could form the basis for a fast molecular epidemiological tool for the examination of emergence and transmission of N. gonorrhoeae strains within the community. PMID:12958238

  9. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    PubMed

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  10. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  11. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  12. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.

  13. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-05-01

    CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe(3+) and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe(3+) or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) or addition of 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). 5-ALA and Fe(3+) increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression.

  14. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  15. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  16. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.

  17. Interaction of nitrogen bases with iron-porphyrin nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(ONO) in sublimed solids.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Gulyan, Gurgen M; Ford, Peter C

    2007-08-20

    The reactions of the nitrogen Lewis bases (B) 1-methylimidazole (1-MeIm), pyridine (Py), and NH3 as gases with sublimed layers containing the 5-coordinate nitrito iron(III)-porphyrinato complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) (1) are described (Por = meso-tetraphenyl-porphyrinato or meso-tetra-p-tolyl-porphyrinato dianions). In situ FTIR and optical spectra are used to characterize the formation of the 6-coordinate nitro complexes formed by the reaction of 1 with B = 1-MeIm, Py, or NH3. These represent the first examples of 6-coordinate amino-nitro complexes with sterically unprotected iron-porphyrins. The interaction of ammonia with Fe(Por)(ONO) at 140 K initially led to the nitrito species Fe(Por)(NH3)(eta1-ONO), and this species isomerized to the nitro complexes Fe(Por)(NH3)(eta1-NO2) upon warming to 180 K. When the latter were warmed to room temperature under intense pumping, the initial nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) were restored. Assignments of vibrational frequencies for the coordinated nitro group in 6-coordinate iron-porphyrin complexes are given and confirmed using 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide to identify characteristic infrared bands. For M(Por)(B)(NO2) complexes (M = Fe or Co), an inverse correlation between the net charge transfer from the axial ligand B to the nitro group and the value of Deltanu = nua(NO2) - nus(NO2) is proposed. These observations are discussed in the context of growing interest in potential physiological roles of nitrite ion reactions with ferro- and ferri-heme proteins.

  18. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  19. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  20. Impact of PPARA and POR polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and new-onset diabetes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Malinowski, Damian; Dziewanowski, Krzysztof; Droździk, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Recent efforts have been made to identify genetic markers of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity within genes encoding for regulatory elements. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of polymorphism of PPARA and POR genes on tacrolimus (TAC) dose-adjusted trough concentration and risk of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). A total of 241 White kidney transplant patients were genotyped for three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs1057868 (*28) in POR, rs4253728:G>A, and rs4823613:A>G in PPARA. No significant genotype-dependent differences in TAC dose-adjusted trough concentration were observed for either POR or PPARA variants. No significant differences in the incidence of NODAT were observed between patients stratified by PPARA and POR genotypes. The frequency of NODAT among PPARA rs4253728 AA homozygotes (42%) was higher compared with heterozygotes (22%) and GG homozygotes (19%), but the difference was not significant. Testing TAC-medicated renal transplant recipients for POR and PPARA variants seems to have limited clinical application.

  1. POR*28 SNP is associated with lipid response to atorvastatin in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Drogari, Euridiki; Ragia, Georgia; Mollaki, Vasiliki; Elens, Laure; Van Schaik, Ron H N; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G

    2014-12-01

    In children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) pharmacotherapy with statins is the cornerstone in the current regimen to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and premature coronary heart disease risk. There is, however, a great interindividual variation in response to therapy, partially attributed to genetic factors. The polymorphic enzyme POR transfers electrons from NADPH to CYP450 enzymes including CYP3A, which metabolize atorvastatin. POR*28 polymorphism is associated with increased CYP3A enzyme activity. We analyzed the association of POR*28 allele with response to atorvastatin. One hundred and five FH children and adolescents treated with atorvastatin at doses 10-40 mg were included in the study. Total cholesterol (TChol) and LDLc were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. POR*28 allele was analyzed with TaqMan assay. CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G genotypes were also determined with TaqMan or PCR-RFLP methods. POR*28 carriers had significantly lower percent mean reduction of TChol (33.1% in *1/*1, 29.8% in *1/*28 and 25.9% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.045) and of LDLc (43.9% in *1/*1, 40.9% in *1/*28 and 30.8% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.013). In multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors, POR*28 genotypes, additionally to baseline cholesterol level, accounted for an estimated 8.3% and 7.3% of overall variability in % TChol and LDLc reduction (β: 4.05; 95% CI: 1.73-6.37; p = 0.001 and β: 5.08; 95% CI: 1.62-8.54; p = 0.004, respectively). CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G polymorphisms were not associated with lipid reductions and did not modify the effect of POR*28 on atorvastatin response. In children with FH, carriage of POR*28 allele is associated with reduced effect of atorvastatin on TChol and LDLc and therefore identifies FH children that may require higher atorvastatin doses to achieve full therapeutic benefits. Additional studies in

  2. Interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and lipid lowering response with atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kan-kan; Zhang, Li-rong

    2015-09-01

    The polymorphic enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzyme s, which metabolize atorvastatin. This suggests that variations in the CYP3A5 and POR genes may influence the response to statins. We aimed to investigate the association and interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and the lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin in a Chinese population. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and by PCR with direct sequencing analysis for 179 hyperlipidaemic patients treated with atorvastatin 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Serum levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined before and after treatment. For the 179 patients (including 100 males), the variant allele frequencies of CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 were 73.75 and 41.62 %, respectively. Among all patients, no significant association was found between CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms and TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels before and after treatment with 20 mg of atorvastatin daily for 4 weeks. Homozygotes for the POR*28 T allele showed a significantly lower mean concentration of LDL-C than homozygotes for the POR*28 C allele (POR*28 TT vs POR*28 CC: 2.46 ± 0.37 vs 2.69 ± 0.49 mmol/L, P = 0.019) after treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg daily for 4 weeks. After adjustment for age, sex and body mass index, CYP3A5 non-expressors who were POR*28 wild-type homozygotes showed significantly higher mean TC and LDL-C levels than those who were POR*28 variant homozygotes, both at baseline (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 7.30 ± 0.73 vs 6.94 ± 0.36 mmol/L, P = 0.026; LDL-C: 3.88 ± 0.70 vs 3.47 ± 0.46 mmol/L, P = 0.009) and after atorvastatin treatment (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 6.03 ± 0.64 vs 5.69 ± 0.34 mmol/L, P = 0

  3. [Control of Aedes aegypti breeding sites with the program Recicla por tu bienestar in Merida, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Pérez, Mario A; Pavía-Ruz, Norma; Mendoza-Mezquita, Jorge Eduardo; Torres-Arcila, Nerio; Hernández-Hernández, Ramón; Castro-Gamboa, Francisco; Geded-Moreno, Eduardo; Cohuo-Rodríguez, Azael; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Koyoc-Cardeña, Edgar; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Kroeger, Axel; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the importance of Ae. aegypti breeding-sites in Merida;to evaluate the impact of Recicla por tu bienestar (RxB, a recycling program) on the reduction of breeding sites and the perception of participants. The relative importance for pupae production of the different types of breeding-sites was determined. Pre-and post-RxB entomological surveys were performed in participant neighborhoods to evaluate the impact on total containers and positive breeding-sites. A survey on the perception of participating people about dengue prevention and control and RxB was applied. Buckets/pots and "small diverse items" were the most important breeding-sites. RxB had a significant impact in the reduction of total containers (IRR = 0.74), positive containers (IRR = 0.33) and the risk of a house being positive for Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.41). All the interviewed participants referred RxB as needed and most consider it useful. RxB should be considered as a good practice for the dengue vector control.

  4. Mujeres felices por ser saludables: a breast cancer risk reduction program for Latino women.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J

    2003-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality among Latino women. Several behavioral factors such as early detection and dietary practices could help decrease morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this population. Unfortunately, there are few data regarding the efficacy of health-related interventions for young Latino women. Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables is a randomized intervention project designed to assess breast cancer risk reduction behavior among Latino women ages 20-40 years. The primary objectives of the project were to determine whether an 8-month integrated dietary/breast health intervention could lead to a greater reduction in dietary fat, increase in dietary fiber, increase in the frequency and proficiency of breast self examination (BSE), and reduction in anxiety related to BSE compared to controls. Herein we describe the overall design of the project and present baseline characteristics of the 256 randomized women. Our results suggest that the average daily intake of dietary fat (percentage of total energy) was slightly below 30% (percentage of total energy) among the women randomized. While over half of these women reported that they practice BSE, and few reported anxiety related to BSE, less than 27% of women were proficient in the recommended BSE technique. There are few data on the dietary and breast health behaviors of young low-acculturated Latino women. This study documents the feasibility of recruiting, randomizing, and obtaining both baseline dietary and breast health data on this unique and underserved population.

  5. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  6. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  7. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  8. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  9. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  10. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-06-30

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57-0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer.

  11. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  12. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs.

  13. Determinacion del error sistematico del momentum de muones producidos por interacciones neutrino-nucleon en el detector MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Bautista, Gonzalo A.

    2015-11-29

    El Modelo Estandar describe todas las partculas observadas en el naturaleza hasta el momento as como las caractersticas que gobiernan a las interacciones fundamentales entre ellas. En especial es posible identicar a las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, las cuales bajo determinadas condiciones de temperatura y energa pueden ser descritas a traves de una sola teora que engloba a ambas. A esta teora se le denomina electrodebil y tiene como nalidad caracterizar las propiedades de la interaccion maniesta a partir de la mezcla de las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, la que tambien lleva como nombre interaccion electrodebil. Particularmente, los neutrinos son de especial interes ya que, por un lado, interactuan por medio de la interaccion debil muy raramente en comparacion con otras partculas y, por el otro, no son acertadamente descritos por el Modelo Estandar. Por medio de observaciones experimentales que demostraban que los neutrinos cambian de sabor al propagarse, fenomeno llamado oscilaciones de neutrinos, se pudo llegar a la conclusion de que la implicancia de este fenomeno da como consecuencia que los neutrinos efectivamente s tienen masa, algo que entra en contradiccion con la descripcion inicial del Modelo Estandar, el cual los describe como partculas sin masa. Es de esta manera que las oscilaciones de neutrinos han sido y siguen siendo en la actualidad objeto de interes en la Fsica de Altas Energas tanto teorica como experimental. A n de poder realizar mediciones precisas de oscilaciones de neutrinos, los experimentos encargados de estas mediciones deben tratar de reducir sus incertidumbres en lo posible. Una de estas proviene de la caracterizacion de las secciones de choque de los neutrinos cuando interactuan con la materia, particularmente los nucleones al interior de los nucleos atomicos. El experimento MINERA esta orientado, entre otras cosas, a hacer una correcta caracterizacion de secciones de choque neutrino-nucleon por medio del estudio de

  14. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  15. The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.

    PubMed

    Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

  16. Thermal properties and phase composition of water for frozen rocks of Por-Bajin island (Republic of Tuva, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, Daria; Motenko, Rimma; Buldovich, Sergey; Koshurnikov, Andrey; Prosuncov, Kirill

    2010-05-01

    We investigated current permafrost state, thermal properties and phase composition of water for frozen rocks of Por-Bajin Island (Tere-Hol Lake, south-east part of Tuva republic, Russia). Rocks of the island are represented by dispersing grounds in permafrost state. The architectural monument Por-Bajin fortress (the middle of the VIII century) located at the island can be destructed due to thawing of frozen rocks resulted by water level rising in the surrounding Por-Bajin lake. Seasonally thawed layer on the island varies from 1.1 to 1.8 meters based on drilling observations from 13 drill holes the. Measured in the field the thermal conductivity indicates the low values in seasonally thawed layer (from 0.14 to 0.19 Wm-1K-1). Twenty most typical for the studied area frozen handsamples were collected from several holes in the depth interval from 1.5 to 10.15 meters. The humidity of sampled specimens varies from 13 to 270 percents and density varies from 1.21 to 2.17 g/cm3. Investigations of grain-size composition, thermal properties and liquid phase composition were undertaken using laboratory methods. The grain-size composition of Por-Bajin grounds varies from clays to gritstones and gravelites with clay-silt matrix. Phase composition of water in the frozen grounds was studied by contact and cryoscopic methods. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter). Based on obtained data computer model allowed to forecast the evolution of permafrost at the island and predict the destiny of Por-Bajin monument. This work was supported by grant from President of the Russian Federation NSh - 4078.2008.5

  17. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  18. Outcome of primary trabeculotomy ab interno (Trabectome) surgery in patients with steroid-induced glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Philip; Kim, Grace; Chak, Garrick; Lin, Ken; Maeda, Masahiro; Mosaed, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the efficacy and safety of Trabectome surgery on patients with steroid response, ranging from ocular hypertension refractory to maximal medical therapy to the development of steroid-induced glaucoma. A nonrandomized, nonblinded, retrospective study of 20 subjects with steroid response was conducted. All 20 eyes underwent Trabectome surgery alone. Nine subjects had steroid response with unremarkable visual field, 3 had mild steroid-induced glaucoma, and 8 had advanced steroid-induced glaucoma. Outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, need for secondary glaucoma surgery, and steroid regimen. Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare postoperative IOP and number of medications to preoperative IOP and number of medications. Kaplan–Meier was used for survival analysis, and success was defined as: IOP reduced by 20% or more on any 2 consecutive visits after 3 months; IOP ≤21 mm Hg on any 2 consecutive visits after 3 months; and no secondary glaucoma surgery. The average preoperative IOP was 33.8 ± 6.9 mm Hg and average preoperative glaucoma medication usage was 3.85 ± 0.75 medications. At 12 months, the IOP was reduced to 15.00 ± 3.46 mm Hg (P = 0.03) and glaucoma medication was reduced to 2.3 ± 1.4 (P < 0.01). The survival rate at 12 months was 93%. At 12 months, 10 patients were continued on their preoperative steroid treatments, 5 were on tapered steroid treatments, and 5 had ceased steroid treatments entirely. One patient required secondary glaucoma surgery (glaucoma drainage device). No other complications were noted. The Trabectome procedure is safe and highly effective for steroid-response glaucoma, even in the context of continued steroid treatment. PMID:27977576

  19. [Experimental hypertony caused by obstruction of the anterior chamber angle ab interno (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Maguritsas, N; Vikas, C; Theodossiadis, G; Vergados, I; Velissaropoulos, P

    1976-07-01

    In 30 rabbits, separated into 3 groups (A, B and C), the entire area (A), three quarters (B) half of the anterior chamber angle (C) was experimentally obstructed by means of a homologous scleral graft. In groups A and B a statistically significant change of the intraocular pressure and of the cornea diameter was shown as compared with the control eye and group C. This change is due to the obstructed area of the angle. The increased intraocular pressure lasted for some months. The graft was well tolerated by the tissue of the angle and the obstruction of the angle was total, as was confirmed by means of the histological preparations.

  20. Outcome of primary trabeculotomy ab interno (Trabectome) surgery in patients with steroid-induced glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Philip; Kim, Grace; Chak, Garrick; Lin, Ken; Maeda, Masahiro; Mosaed, Sameh

    2016-12-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of Trabectome surgery on patients with steroid response, ranging from ocular hypertension refractory to maximal medical therapy to the development of steroid-induced glaucoma.A nonrandomized, nonblinded, retrospective study of 20 subjects with steroid response was conducted. All 20 eyes underwent Trabectome surgery alone. Nine subjects had steroid response with unremarkable visual field, 3 had mild steroid-induced glaucoma, and 8 had advanced steroid-induced glaucoma. Outcome measures included intraocular pressure (IOP), number of glaucoma medications, need for secondary glaucoma surgery, and steroid regimen. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare postoperative IOP and number of medications to preoperative IOP and number of medications. Kaplan-Meier was used for survival analysis, and success was defined as: IOP reduced by 20% or more on any 2 consecutive visits after 3 months; IOP ≤21 mm Hg on any 2 consecutive visits after 3 months; and no secondary glaucoma surgery.The average preoperative IOP was 33.8 ± 6.9 mm Hg and average preoperative glaucoma medication usage was 3.85 ± 0.75 medications. At 12 months, the IOP was reduced to 15.00 ± 3.46 mm Hg (P = 0.03) and glaucoma medication was reduced to 2.3 ± 1.4 (P < 0.01). The survival rate at 12 months was 93%. At 12 months, 10 patients were continued on their preoperative steroid treatments, 5 were on tapered steroid treatments, and 5 had ceased steroid treatments entirely. One patient required secondary glaucoma surgery (glaucoma drainage device). No other complications were noted.The Trabectome procedure is safe and highly effective for steroid-response glaucoma, even in the context of continued steroid treatment.

  1. The effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua workers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Hua-Wei; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Aromatherapy is widely used around the world for stress relief. Whether exposure to essential oil increases the risk of cardiovascular events is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua (spa) workers. We recruited 100 healthy workers from various spa centres in Taipei, Taiwan. Between July and August of 2010, three repeated measurements - resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) - were taken of each spa worker in our study room. Participants were exposed to essential oil vapour generated from an ultrasonic atomizer in the study room for two consecutive hours. The total volatile organic compound (VOC) level in the study room was measured during the study period. We used a linear mixed-effect model to determine the association between the total VOC level and the participants' HR, SBP, and DBP. For the times from 15 to 60 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC level was significantly associated with reduced 15-min mean BP and HR. After exposure for more than 1 hour, from 75 to 120 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC levels were associated with increased 15-min mean BP and HR. Exposure to essential oil for 1 hour was found to be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by decreases in the HR and BP. Prolonged exposure for longer than 1 hour to essential oils may be harmful to cardiovascular health among spa workers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.

  2. The Sangre Por Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community.

    PubMed

    Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; Montes de Oca, Gregorio; Levey, Sharon; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Latino adults (ages 18-85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center's internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in precision medicine initiatives and biomedical

  3. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  4. Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0).

    PubMed

    Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The PorB porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola

    2008-02-06

    Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) PorB, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The PorB porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme PorB. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac PorB in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac PorB/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme PorB and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac PorB, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac PorB/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac PorB was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme PorB.

  6. Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (POR) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, N.; Van Cleve, B.; Armstrong, G.; Apel, K.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (PORs), one (POR A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (POR B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that POR A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the POR A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks POR A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, POR B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in POR A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by POR B and does not require POR A. PMID:12242369

  7. CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in POR*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, assigned as POR*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of POR*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of POR*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). POR*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. POR*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In POR*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and POR*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that POR*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, POR*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas.

  8. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS.

  9. Polymorphisms of POR, SULT2A1 and HSD11B1 in children with premature adrenarche.

    PubMed

    Utriainen, Pauliina; Laakso, Saila; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Voutilainen, Raimo

    2012-09-01

    Premature adrenarche (PA) refers to an earlier than normal increase in adrenocortical androgen production. The pathogenesis of PA remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms at P450 oxidoreductase (POR), steroid sulfotransferase (SULT2A1), or 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1) genes could contribute to the polygenic pathogenesis of PA. We performed a case-control study on the polymorphisms rs1057868 at POR, rs182420 at SULT2A1, and rs12086634 at HSD11B1. The study cohort comprised 73 prepubertal children with PA (defined by clinical signs) and 97 age- and gender-matched healthy controls from a Finnish Caucasian population. Genotype distributions and clinical and metabolic phenotypes were determined. The genotype distributions of the polymorphisms were similar between the study groups. No variant was associated with alterations in serum adrenal steroid concentrations. The minor C variant at SULT2A1 was associated with higher serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (T/T, n=64 vs T/C&C/C, n=33; mean 94 vs 116 nmol/L; P=.001) and a trend for lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate/dehydroepiandrosterone ratios in the controls (P=.06), and with higher plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the PA subjects (T/T, n=42 vs T/C&C/C, n=31; 4.0 vs 4.6 mmol/L; P<.001). The minor G variant at HSD11B1 was associated with lower plasma triglyceride concentration in the controls (T/T, n=65 vs T/G&G/G, n=32; 0.61 vs 0.49 mmol/L; P=.013). Common polymorphisms at POR, SULT2A1 or HSD11B1 were not associated with PA in a Finnish Caucasian population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-yan; Liu, Xiao-man; Huang, Hong-bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-xi; Li, Jia-li

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Results: Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Conclusion: The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868–rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese

  11. The POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-Xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-Ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Hong-Bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-Xi; Li, Jia-Li

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868-rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  12. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate with a N. meningitidis porA gene and no prolyliminopeptidase activity, Sweden, 2011: danger of false-negative genetic and culture diagnostic results.

    PubMed

    Golparian, D; Johansson, E; Unemo, M

    2012-03-01

    We describe a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain, found in Sweden in 2011, that harbours a N. meningitidis porA gene causing false-negative results in PCRs targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Furthermore, the strain had no prolyliminopeptidase (PIP) activity that many commercial biochemical kits for species verification in culture rely on. Enhanced awareness of the spread of such strains and screening for them can be crucial.

  13. Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) in Nanodiscs*

    PubMed Central

    Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction. PMID:22891242

  14. Monitoring shifts in the conformation equilibrium of the membrane protein cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) in nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité

    2012-10-05

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm(2) patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction.

  15. Structural and functional probing of PorZ, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase PorU during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, PorZ, which is essential for surface exposure of PorU and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of PorZ revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that PorZ is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of PorU. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039

  16. Influence of various polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) on drug metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Pan, Li Qiang; Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.

  17. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  18. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  19. The genetic polymorphisms of POR*28 and CYP3A5*3 significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Liu, Shuai-Bing; Xue, Ling; Ding, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Hua; Miao, Li-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the influence of the polymorphism of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) as well as other relevant genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1) on individual variability of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and perform population pharmacokinetic analysis of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations and clinical details were retrospectively collected from 83 renal recipients. CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, and ABCB1 C3435T were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), POR*28 and CYP3A4*22 were genotyped by sequencing method. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM program. The significant influences of CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and POR*28 polymorphisms on tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentrations (C0/D) were observed in 83 renal recipients. Subgroup analysis showed that POR*28 polymorphisms significantly decreased tacrolimus C0/D by 1.50 - 1.84-fold (p < 0.05) in patients who were CYP3A5 expressers (CYP3A5*1 carriers, n = 46), while similar results could not be obtained from CYP3A5 non-expressers (CYP3A5*3/*3 carriers, n = 37). Additionally, population pharmacokinetic analysis identified that the combined genotype of CYP3A5-POR was the only covariant for the apparent clearance of tacrolimus (CL/F). The study demonstrated that the POR*28 C>T mutation could decrease the C0/D of tacrolimus in renal recipients who were CYP3A5 expressers. The population pharmacokinetic model showed that the combined genotype of CYP3A5-POR was associated with the CL/F of tacrolimus which might provide references for personalized use of tacrolimus in clinic.

  20. Reactions of nitrogen oxides with the five-coordinate Fe(III)(porphyrin) nitrito intermediate Fe(Por)(ONO) in sublimed solids.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Hakobyan, Manya E; Patterson, James C; Iretskii, Alexei; Ford, Peter C

    2007-03-28

    Detailed experimental studies are described for reactions of several nitrogen oxides with iron porphyrin models for heme/NxOy systems. It is shown by FTIR and optical spectroscopy and by isotope labeling experiments that reaction of small increments of NO2 with sublimed thin layers of the iron(II) complex Fe(Por) (Por = meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion, TPP, or meso-tetra-p-tolylporphyrinato dianion, TTP) leads to formation of the 5-coordinate nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) (1), which are fairly stable but very slowly decompose under vacuum giving mostly the corresponding nitrosyl complexes Fe(Por)(NO). Further reaction of 1 with new NO2 increments leads to formation of the nitrato complex Fe(Por)(eta2-O2NO) (2). The interaction of NO with 1 at low temperature involves ligand addition to give the nitrito-nitrosyl complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO)(NO) (3); however, these isomerize to the nitro-nitrosyl analogs Fe(Por)(eta1-NO2)(NO) (4) upon warming. Experiments with labeled nitrogen oxides argue for an intramolecular isomerization ("flipping") mechanism rather than one involving dissociation and rebinding of NO2. The Fe(III) centers in the 6-coordinate species 3 and 4 are low spin in contrast to 1, which appears to be high-spin, although DFT computations of the porphinato models Fe(P)(nitrite) suggest that the doublet nitro species and the quartet and sextet nitrito complexes are all relatively close in energy. The nitro-nitrosyl complex 4 is stable under an NO atmosphere but decomposes under intense pumping to give a mixture of the ferrous nitrosyl complex Fe(Por)(NO) and the ferric nitrito complex Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) indicating the competitive dissociation of NO and NO2. Hence, loss of NO from 4 is accompanied with nitro --> nitrito isomerization consistent with 1 being the more stable of the 5-coordinate NO2 complexes of iron porphyrins.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  2. Most but not all laboratories can detect the recently emerged Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA mutants - results from the QCMD 2013 N. gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme.

    PubMed

    Luijt, D; Di Lorenzo, C; van Loon, A M; Unemo, M

    2014-02-27

    We describe the results of the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 Neisseria gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme that included an N. gonorrhoeae strain harbouring an N. meningitidis porA gene which causes false-negative results in molecular diagnostic assays targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Enhanced awareness of the international transmission of such gonococcal strains is needed to avoid false-negative results in both in-house and commercial molecular diagnostic assays used in laboratories worldwide, but particularly in Europe.

  3. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  4. Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children <2 years of age. Severe RSV infection requiring hospitalization is linked to gestational age, chronic cardiopulmonary conditions and immunosuppression. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis.

  5. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention.

  6. Avidity maturation following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine in UK infants.

    PubMed

    Longworth, Emma; Borrow, Ray; Goldblatt, David; Balmer, Paul; Dawson, Maureen; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth; Cartwright, Keith

    2002-06-07

    To date, there are no data assessing the utility of avidity indices as a surrogate marker for the induction of immunological memory following meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccination. We studied infants who had been immunized with three doses of a recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine at ages 2-4 months, together with a fourth dose at age 12-18 months. A control group had received a single dose of the same vaccine at age 12-18 months. As previously reported, serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titres increased after each of the first three doses, with a significant increase observed from 6 months post third dose to 1 month post fourth dose. The geometric mean avidity indices (GMAI), against strain H44/76 OMVs, increased from 1 month post first dose to 1 month post third dose. Significant increases in GMAI were observed at 6 months post third dose and again following the fourth dose. At 32-42 months of age, though the SBA titres had returned to post first dose levels, the GMAI remained elevated. No increase in avidity was observed in the control group. Antibody avidity indices are useful laboratory markers for the priming of immunological memory following vaccination with meningococcal serogroup B OMV vaccines.

  7. Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Derren J; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C Neil

    2006-02-15

    The enzyme POR [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four 'dark' steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway.

  8. Examination of P-OR bridging bond orders in phosphate monoesters using (18)O isotope shifts in 31P NMR.

    PubMed

    Sorensen-Stowell, Kerensa; Hengge, Alvan C

    2005-06-10

    Evidence indicates that phosphate monoesters undergo hydrolysis by a loose transition state with extensive bond fission to the leaving group. It has been proposed that part of the high dependence of the rate on the leaving group pKa (betalg = -1.23) arises from weaker ester bonds in the reactants as the pKa of the leaving group decreases, on the basis of X-ray structures and calculations. In contrast, IR and Raman studies suggest that the leaving group has little effect on the length of the P-OR bridging bond in solution. To gather additional data on this issue, we have used (18)O isotopic shifts in 31P NMR to monitor the bond order of P-O bonds in a range of phosphate esters with different leaving groups. Using this technique, we have been able to evaluate whether significant changes are observed in the P-O bond orders for the bridging and nonbridging positions of methyl, ethyl, phenethyl, propargyl, phenyl, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate using [(16)O(18)O] labeled species in deuterium oxide. The results indicate that the bridging and nonbridging bond orders to phosphorus in phosphate monoesters are not significantly altered by differences in the pKa of the leaving group or by the counterion of the phosphate ester dianion.

  9. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity.

  10. Interaction between variants in the CYP2C9 and POR genes and the risk of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia: A GoDARTS Study.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Tanja; Zhou, Kaixin; Donnelly, Louise A; Leese, Graham; Palmer, Colin N A; Pearson, Ewan R

    2017-06-28

    Data on the association of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms with sulfonylurea (SU)-induced hypoglycaemia (SH) are inconsistent. Recent studies showed that variants in the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene could affect CYP2C9 activity. In this study, we explored the effects of POR*28 and combined CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genotypes on SH and the efficacy of SU treatment in type 2 diabetes. A total of 1770 patients were included in the analysis of SU efficacy, assessed as the combined outcome of the HbA1c reduction and the prescribed SU daily dose. Sixty-nine patients with severe SH were compared with 311 control patients. The number of CYP2C9 deficient alleles was associated with nearly three-fold higher odds of hypoglycaemia (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.30-6.09; P = .009) and better response to SU treatment (β, -0.218; SE, 0.074; P = .003) only in patients carrying the POR*1/*1 genotype. Our results indicate that interaction between CYP2C9 and POR genes may be an important determinant of efficacy and severe adverse effects of SU treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  12. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  13. Recombinant PorA, the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter jejuni, provides heterologous protection in an adult mouse intestinal colonization model.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anjum; Raghupathy, Raj; Albert, M John

    2010-11-01

    Immunity against Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing diarrhea, is largely serotype specific. The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. jejuni, PorA, is a common antigen with the potential to provide broad protection. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fused to PorA prepared from Campylobacter jejuni C31 (O:6,7) (GST-PorA) combined with a modified heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as an adjuvant and later orally challenged with C31 strain or three heterologous strains: 48 (O:19), 75 (O:3), and 111 (O:1,44). Protection from colonization with the challenge organism was studied by fecal screening daily for 9 days. Serum and intestinal lavage fluid antibodies against the vaccine and Sarkosyl-purified MOMP from C31 were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The vaccine produced robust antibody responses against both antigens in serum and secretion. Since strain C31 was a poor colonizer, homologous protection could not be studied. The protective efficacies of heterologous strains were 43% (for strain 48, P < 0.001), 29% (for strain 75, P < 0.005), and 42% (for strain 111, P < 0.001) for the 9-day period compared to control mice given phosphate-buffered saline. Thus, PorA provided appreciable protection against colonization with heterologous serotypes.

  14. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  15. The influence of CYP3A, PPARA, and POR genetic variants on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Ingrid; Bremer, Sara; Midtvedt, Karsten; Mohebi, Beata; Dahl, Miriam; Bergan, Stein; Åsberg, Anders; Christensen, Hege

    2014-06-01

    Tacrolimus (Tac) and cyclosporine (CsA) are mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Several studies have demonstrated an association between the CYP3A5 genotype and Tac dose requirements. Recently, CYP3A4, PPARA, and POR gene variants have been shown to influence CYP3A metabolism. The present study investigated potential associations between CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*22, PPARA c.209- 1003G>A and c.208+3819A>G, and POR*28 alleles and dose-adjusted concentrations (C/D) of Tac and CsA in 177 renal transplant patients early post-transplant. All patients (n=177) were genotyped for CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, PPARA c.209-1003G>A, and PPARA c.208+3819A>G using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and melting curve analysis with allelespecific hybridization probes or PCR restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) methods. Drug concentrations and administered doses were retrospectively collected from patient charts at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway. One steady-state concentration was collected for each patient. We confirmed a significant impact of the CYP3A5*3 allele on Tac exposure. Patients with POR*28 and PPARA variant alleles demonstrated 15 % lower (P=0.04) and 19 % higher (P=0.01) Tac C0/D respectively. CsA C2/D was 53 % higher among CYP3A4*22 carriers (P=0.03). The results support the use of pre-transplant CYP3A5 genotyping to improve initial dosing of Tac, and suggest that Tac dosing may be further individualized by additional POR and PPARA genotyping. Furthermore, initial CsA dosing may be improved by pre-transplant CYP3A4*22 determination.

  16. Compound heterozygosity of a paternal submicroscopic deletion and a maternal missense mutation in POR gene: Antley-bixler syndrome phenotype in three sibling fetuses.

    PubMed

    Tzetis, Maria; Konstantinidou, Anastasia; Sofocleous, Christalena; Kosma, Konstantina; Mitrakos, Anastasios; Tzannatos, Christina; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sofia

    2016-07-01

    Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) is an exceptionally rare craniosynostosis syndrome that can be accompanied by disordered steroidogenesis, and is mainly caused by mutations in the POR gene, inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Here we report the prenatal and postmortem findings of three sibling fetuses with ABS as a result of compound heterozygosity of a paternal submicroscopic deletion and a maternal missense mutation in the POR gene. Prenatal ultrasound and postmortem examination were performed in three sibling fetuses with termination of pregnancy at 22, 23, and 17 weeks of gestation, respectively. Molecular analysis of fetus 2 and 3 included (a) bidirectional sequencing of exon 8 of the POR gene after amplification of the specific locus by polymerase chain reaction, to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and (b) high resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) positive single nucleotide polymorphism array CGH (aCGH) analysis to detect copy number variants (CNVs), copy neutral areas of loss of heterozygosity and uniparental disomy. The diagnosis of ABS was suggested by the postmortem examination findings. The combination of the POR gene molecular analysis and aCGH revealed a compound heterozygous genotype of a maternal SNV (p.A287P) and a paternal CNV (NC_000007.13:g.(?_75608488)_(75615534_?)del). To the best of our knowledge, these sibling fetuses add to the few reported cases of ABS, caused by a combination of a SNV and a CNV in the POR gene. The detailed description of the pathologic and radiographic findings of second trimester fetuses affected with ABS adds novel knowledge concerning the early ABS phenotype, in lack of previous relevant reports. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:536-541, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Analisis espacial de las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    M. Quinones; W.A. Gould; J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi

    2013-01-01

    En este mapa de investigacion describimos las areas protegidas terrestres de Puerto Rico basado en elementos naturales y antropogenicos del paisaje. Utilizamos datos geoespaciales para calcular la extension y representatividad de elementos del paisaje dentro de las areas protegidas de Puerto Rico, i.e., cobertura del terreno (Gould et al. 2007), asentamientos urbanos...

  18. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  19. Results of Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables: a dietary/breast health randomized clinical trial for Latino women.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J

    2004-10-01

    Data are limited on the efficacy of health-focused interventions for young, low-acculturated Latino women. Because breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality in this population, combined interventions that address both early detection and dietary patterns could help reduce both morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this underserved population. Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables was randomized intervention study designed to assess the efficacy of an 8-month combined dietary and breast health intervention to reduce fat and increase fiber intake as well as to increase the frequency and proficiency of breast self-examination (BSE) and reduce anxiety related to BSE among Latinas. Blocked randomization in blocks of 6 was used to randomize 256 20- to 40-year-old Latinas to the intervention (n = 127) or control group (n = 129). The intervention group attended an 8-month multicomponent education program designed specifically for low-acculturated Latinas. The control group received mailed health education material on a schedule comparable to the intervention. A total of 195 women (76.2%) completed both the baseline and 8-month follow-up interviews. The intervention and control groups were similar on baseline sociodemographic characteristics. At the 8-month follow up, the intervention group reported lower dietary fat (P < .001) and higher fiber intake (p = .06); a higher proportion reported practicing BSE at the recommended interval (p < .001) and showed improved BSE proficiency (p < .001) compared to the control group. BSE-related anxiety was low for both groups at baseline, and no difference in reduction was observed. This project provides a successful model for achieving dietary change and improving breast health behavior in young, low-acculturated Latinas.

  20. Assessment of Anterior Segment Measurements with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography before and after Ab Interno Trabeculotomy (Trabectome) Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the changes of anterior segment parameters, assessed by swept source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) after combined Trabectome-cataract surgery and Trabectome-only surgery in open angle glaucoma patients. Methods. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open angle glaucoma were scanned with swept source AS-OCT before and 4 weeks after combined Trabectome-cataract or Trabectome-only surgery. Intraocular pressure, number of medications, and AS-OCT parameters, such as angle opening distance at 500 and 750 μm from the scleral spur (AOD500 and AOD750), trabecular-iris space area at 500 and 750 mm2 (TISA500, TISA750), angle recess area at 500 and 750 mm2 (ARA500, ARA750), trabecular iris angle (TIA), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber width (ACW), and anterior chamber volume (ACV), were obtained before the surgery. These parameters were compared to evaluate whether the outcome of the surgery differed among the patients after the surgery. The width of the trabecular cleft was also measured for both groups. Results. The reduction of IOP and number of medications was found to be statistically significant in both groups (p < 0.001). ACD, ACV, and angle parameters such as AOD 500/750, TISA 500/750, ARA 500/750, and TIA500 showed significantly greater changes from the preoperative values to postoperative 1st month values in combined Trabectome-cataract surgery group (p < 0.05), whereas Trabectome-only group did not show statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between two groups for the width of the trabecular cleft (p = 0.7). Conclusion. Anterior chamber angle parameters measured with swept source AS-OCT may be useful for evaluating glaucoma patients before and after Trabectome surgery with or without cataract surgery. PMID:27795855

  1. Trabeculectomy ab interno (trabectome): yet another possibility in the treatment of uncontrolled glaucomatocyclitic crisis under systemic valganciclovir therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Pahlitzsch, M; Torun, N; Gonnermann, J; Maier, A-K B; Pleyer, U; Bertelmann, E; Joussen, A; Klamann, M K J

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the outcome of trabectome surgery in the treatment of glaucomatocyclitic crisis (Posner–Schlossman syndrome) in patients with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP). Patients/Methods Trabectome surgery was performed in seven patients with diagnosed glaucomatocyclitic crisis and uncontrolled IOP where cytomegalovirus DNA was verified by polymerase chain reaction in aqueous humour samples. All patients were treated with oral valganciclovir. After surgery the patients were followed-up for 12 months. Results Mean IOP before trabectome surgery was 40±10 mm Hg (range 33–58 mm Hg). The mean number of antiglaucoma medication prior to surgery was 3.1±0.4. By the end of the 12 months, IOP in all patients was reduced to normal level (13±1 mm Hg) and their antiglaucoma medication was decreased to 0.8±1.1. No recurring attack of glaucomatocyclitic crisis occurred. Discussion In addition to oral valganciclovir therapy, trabectome surgery seems to be a reliable and effective tool for the management of glaucomatocyclitic crisis with uncontrolled IOP. PMID:26139050

  2. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  3. Adjuvant effects elicited by novel oligosaccharide variants of detoxified meningococcal lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis recombinant PorA protein: a comparison in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ojas H; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J Claire; Rollier, Christine S; Nagaputra, Jerry C; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J P; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P; Pollard, Andrew J; Moxon, E Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.

  4. IgG antibody subclass responses determined by immunoblot in infants' sera following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Sadler, F; Borrow, R; Dawson, M; Fox, A; Cartwright, K

    2001-08-14

    The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines into the UK immunisation schedule has led to the decline of serogroup C disease in those vaccinated but there is no imminent vaccine solution for serogroup B disease. The PorA outer membrane protein (OMP) is a potential serogroup B vaccine candidate and an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine containing six different PorA OMPs (each representing a different serosubtype) has been evaluated in phase II trials with encouraging results. Little is known about the IgG subclass response to the various antigens contained within this vaccine. These responses are important due to the different half-lives and complement fixing abilities of these antibodies. In this study, immunoblotting was undertaken with infants' sera following either three or four doses of vaccine, and OMVs from six isogenic meningococcal strains differing only in their PorA serosubtype. Following either three or four doses of the vaccine, IgG(3) and IgG(1) subclass antibodies were induced to all six of the isogenic strains, although sera collected after four doses of vaccine showed stronger antibody levels. IgG(3) was found in more sera than IgG(1). For both sets of sera, the two isogenic strains expressing P1.5,2 and P1.5(c),10 induced stronger IgG subclass antibody responses than the other four meningococcal strains. The recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine stimulates both IgG(1) and IgG(3) subclass antibodies, the subclasses that are most effective in activating the complement system.

  5. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  6. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  7. [Optimization of tri-expression of human CYP3A4 with POR and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhangming; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Yingchun; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the optimal conditions of tri-expression of CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells. The Sf 9 cells expressing CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 were cultured in shaker flasks. The optimized conditions, including the temperature and rotation speed, the culture volume, the amount of surfactant and the culture time were studied. The expressed products in microsomes were used to metabolize the testosterone and their metabolic activity was determined. When the temperature and rotation speed of the shaker were 27 degree and 90 r/min, the cell density and culture volume were 5X105 cells/ml and 80-120 ml per 250 ml shaker flasks, respectively. When Pluronic F-68 was 0.1% and the culture time was 72 h, the condition was most suitable for culture of Sf 9 cells and expression of targeted proteins. When the ratio of the volume of three added viruses was 1:1:1, the expression condition was optimal, under which the Km, Vmax, and CLint for testosterone metabolism were 119.6 μmol/L,0.52 μmol/(min*g protein) and 4.34 ml/(min*g protein), respectively. The conditions of tri-expressing of CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 have been optimized in the study and the product CYP3A4 is obtained with higher metabolic activity.

  8. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  9. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  10. CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 genetic variants influence the required dose of tacrolimus in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lesche, Dorothea; Sigurdardottir, Vilborg; Setoud, Raschid; Oberhänsli, Markus; Carrel, Thierry; Fiedler, Georg M; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Mohacsi, Paul; Sistonen, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    After heart transplantation (HTx), the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability of immunosuppressive drugs represents a major therapeutic challenge due to the narrow therapeutic window between over-immunosuppression causing toxicity and under-immunosuppression leading to graft rejection. Although genetic polymorphisms have been shown to influence pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressants, data in the context of HTx are scarce. We thus assessed the role of genetic variation in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, POR, NR1I2, and ABCB1 acting jointly in immunosuppressive drug pathways in tacrolimus (TAC) and ciclosporin (CSA) dose requirement in HTx recipients. Associations between 7 functional genetic variants and blood dose-adjusted trough (C0) concentrations of TAC and CSA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after HTx were evaluated in cohorts of 52 and 45 patients, respectively. Compared with CYP3A5 nonexpressors (*3/*3 genotype), CYP3A5 expressors (*1/*3 or *1/*1 genotype) required around 2.2- to 2.6-fold higher daily TAC doses to reach the targeted C0 concentration at all studied time points (P ≤ 0.003). Additionally, the POR*28 variant carriers showed higher dose-adjusted TAC-C0 concentrations at all time points resulting in significant differences at 3 (P = 0.025) and 6 months (P = 0.047) after HTx. No significant associations were observed between the genetic variants and the CSA dose requirement. The CYP3A5*3 variant has a major influence on the required TAC dose in HTx recipients, whereas the POR*28 may additionally contribute to the observed variability. These results support the importance of genetic markers in TAC dose optimization after HTx.

  11. Spatial and stimulus-type tuning in the LEC, MEC, POR, PrC, CA1, and CA3 during spontaneous item recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Beer, Zachery; Chwiesko, Caroline; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2013-12-01

    According to the "two streams" hypothesis, the lateral entorhinal (LEC) and the perirhinal (PrC) cortices process information related to items (a "what" stream), the postrhinal (POR) and the medial entorhinal cortices (MEC) process spatial information (a "where" stream), and both types of information are integrated in the hippocampus (HIP). However, within the framework of memory function, only the HIP is reliably shown to preferentially process spatial information, and the PrC items' features. In contrast, the role of the LEC and MEC in memory is virtually unexplored, and conflicting results emerge for the POR. Moreover, the specific contribution of the hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 to spatial and non-spatial memory is not thoroughly understood. To investigate which of these areas is specifically tuned to spatial demands or stimulus identity (odor or object), we assessed the pattern of activation of these areas during recognition memory by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation. We report that all MTL areas were recruited during the spatial and the non-spatial tasks. However, the LEC, MEC, POR, and CA1 were activated to a comparable level in spatial and non-spatial tasks, while the PrC was tuned to stimulus-type, not spatial demands, and CA3 to spatial demands but not stimulus-type. Results are discussed within the frame of a recent model suggesting that the MTL could be segregated in terms of memory processes, such as recollection and familiarity, rather than information content. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency caused by R457H mutation in POR gene in Chinese: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-03-14

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a rare disease exhibiting a variety of clinical manifestations. It can be difficult to differentiate with other diseases such as 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). Nearly 100 cases of PORD have been reported worldwide. However, the genetic characters and clinical management are still unclear, especially in China. In this study, we report a 27-year-old female Chinese patient who first presented with amenorrhea and recurrence of large ovary cyst. She was misdiagnosed with PCOS and non-classical 21-OHD due to ovary cysts and elevated 17-hydroxy-progesterone. The patient's complaining of a mild difficulty of bending the metacarpophalangeal joints reminded us to consider PORD, which usually presents with skeletal deformities and sexual dysfunction. The diagnosis of PORD was confirmed by genetic analyses, which showed the patient harboring a homozygous missense mutation in the POR gene (R457H) and her parents carrying the heterozygous mutation. The patient was treated with low-dose corticosteroids and estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy, and her ovarian cyst gradually reduced with regular menstruation in the follow-up. Moreover, the clinical and genetic characteristics of 104 previously reported PORD cases were also summarized and analyzed. PORD is a very rare disease which can be easily misdiagnosed in mild cases. Clinicians should keep in mind of this disease in patients with sexual dysfunction, especially combined with special skeletal deformities. Our data could provide a consciously understanding of this disease for clinic practicers. Low-dose corticosteroids combined with estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy will be effective in PORD patients with recurrence of large ovary cyst. The fact that the reported PORD patients in China carrying an identical variant R457H in POR gene also give us a viewpoint that R457H mutation in POR gene maybe

  13. Preclinical safety and immunogenicity evaluation of a nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Kaaijk, Patricia; van Straaten, Ineke; van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Boot, Elmieke P J; Levels, Lonneke M A R; van Dijken, Harry H; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M

    2013-02-04

    An improved nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine was developed with intrinsic adjuvating activity due to presence of less-toxic (lpxL1) LPS. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of this next-generation NonaMen vaccine were evaluated following repeated vaccination in rabbits and mice. A repeated-dose toxicology study was performed in rabbits. Immunogenicity of next-generation NonaMen was evaluated by determining the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against meningococcal serogroup B strains containing several PorA subtypes. Release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), by the human monocytic cell line (MM6) was measured to estimate pyrogenic activity. No toxicologically relevant findings were noted in vaccinated rabbits receiving plain next-generation NonaMen. In agreement, next-generation NonaMen induced reduced amounts of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, released by human monocyte cell line. In both rabbits and mice, next-generation NonaMen induced high SBA titers against all tested MenB strains regardless of whether or not aluminium phosphate adjuvant is used. The data suggest that next-generation NonaMen is a safe vaccine with the potential to develop a broadly protective immune response and encourage the start of the first clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists.

  15. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  16. Classificação geométrica de galáxias bianeladas através do metódo CART (Classification And Regression Trees)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormeño, M. I.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Cavada, G.

    2003-08-01

    A importância deste trabalho deve-se à seleção de objetos ainda não tratados particularmente como uma família e ao emprego de procedimento estatístico robusto que não precisa de pressupostos ou condições de contorno. Contribui, assim, ao melhor entendimento do cenário das Galáxias Aneladas do diagrama de Hubble via classificação e estudo de subclasses. Selecionaram-se 100 galáxias possuidoras de dois anéis do Catalog of Southern Ringed Galaxies compilado por Ronald Buta, de modo a construir uma amostra completa em termos de conhecimento dos semi-eixos dos anéis interno e externo projetados no plano do céu. Visando uma possível classificação destas galáxias aneladas normais em famílias de acordo com as características geométricas dos anéis, empregou-se primeiramente a Análise de Aglomerados (ferramenta de classificação: medições de semelhança em um espaço bidimensional) para explorar a possível existência de famílias. As variáveis analisadas foram: os diâmetros interiores menores d(I) e maiores D(I), os diâmetros exteriores menores d(E) e maiores D(E), e os ângulos de inclinação dos semi-eixos maiores interiores q(I) e exteriores q(E) dos anéis. Como metodologia de discriminação, empregou-se a construção de Árvores de Classificação. As árvores de classificação constituem um método de discriminação alternativo aos modelos clássicos, tais como a Análise Discriminante e a Regressão Logística, onde uma base de dados é dividida em partições (subgrupos) da árvore por ação de um predictor (variável específica). Os pacotes estatísticos utilizados para o processamento da informação foram: SAS versão 8.0 (Statistical Analisys System) e CART versão 3.6.3. Esta análise estatística sugere a existência de três possíveis famílias de galáxias bianeladas, com base apenas na geometria dos anéis. Como forma exploratória inicial deste resultado, a construção de um diagrama BT (magnitude total) versus o

  17. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  18. Effect of CYP3A4*22, POR*28, and PPARA rs4253728 on sirolimus in vitro metabolism and trough concentrations in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Kamar, Nassim; Coste, Sandra; Rostaing, Lionel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have identified new candidate polymorphisms in the genes related to CYP3A activity or calcineurin inhibitor dose requirements in kidney transplant recipients. These genes and polymorphisms are CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4) (rs35599367-C>T; *22); POR [P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase] (rs1057868-C>T; *28); and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) (rs4253728-G>A). We investigated the impact of these polymorphisms on sirolimus (SRL) in vitro hepatic metabolism, SRL trough concentrations (C0), and SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients. The clinical study included 113 stable kidney transplant patients switched from a calcineurin inhibitor to SRL (SRL C0 measured at 1, 3, and 6 months thereafter). We investigated SRL metabolism in vitro using human liver microsomes derived from individual donors (n = 31). Microsomes and patients were genotyped by use of Taqman® allelic discrimination assays. The effects of polymorphisms and covariates were studied using multilinear regression imbedded in linear mixed-effect models or logistic regressions. In vitro, the CYP3A4*22 allele resulted in approximately 20% lower metabolic rates of SRL (P = 0.0411). No significant association was found between CYP3A4, CYP3A5, or PPARA genotypes and SRL dose, C0, or C0/dose in kidney transplant patients. POR*28 was associated with a minor but significant decrease in SRL log-transformed C0 [CT/TT vs CC, β = -0.15 (0.05); P = 0.0197] but this did not have any impact on the dose administered, which limited the relevance of the finding. After adjustment for nongenetic covariates and correction for false discovery finding, none of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested showed significant association with SRL adverse events. These recently described polymorphisms do not seem to substantially influence the pharmacokinetics of SRL or the occurrence of SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients.

  19. Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Meghan J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Sanderson Cox, Lisa; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-03-01

    The rates of nicotine metabolism differ widely, even after controlling for genetic variation in the major nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2A6. Genetic variants in an additional nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3, and an obligate microsomal CYP-supportive enzyme, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), were investigated. We examined the impact of FMO3 E158K and POR A503V before and after stratifying by CYP2A6 metabolism group. In 130 nonsmokers of African descent who received 4 mg oral nicotine, FMO3 158K trended toward slower nicotine metabolism in reduced CYP2A6 metabolizers (P=0.07) only, whereas POR 503V was associated with faster CYP2A6 activity (nicotine metabolite ratio) in normal (P=0.03), but not reduced, CYP2A6 metabolizers. Neither FMO3 158K nor POR 503V significantly altered the nicotine metabolic ratio (N=659), cigarette consumption (N=667), or urine total nicotine equivalents (N=418) in smokers of African descent. Thus, FMO3 E158K and POR A503V are minor sources of nicotine metabolism variation, insufficient to appreciably alter smoking.

  20. Effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1 C3435T on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Yan, Liang; Cao, Hui-Min; Wei, Lu-Man; Yang, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Li-Rong

    2015-09-01

    Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker that is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, significant individual variances in the disposition of nifedipine have been reported, and genetic factors are considered to play an important role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, ABCB1-C3435T, and POR*28 genetic polymorphisms on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers. 45 healthy Chinese volunteers enrolled in this study received a single oral dose of 90 mg nifedipine after providing written informed consent. Volunteers were genotyped for CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1-C3435T. The blood concentrations of nifedipine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. There were significant differences of AUC00-∞ and AUC0-48h in the different CYP3A5*3 genotype groups (p = 0.043 and p = 0.048, respectively). The CYP3A5*3 GG group and POR*28 CT/TT group were found to have lower AUC00-∞ and Cmax compared with the POR*28 CC group (p = 0.046 and p = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the POR*28 CT/TT group was found to have longer t1/2 but lower Cmax than the CYP3A4*1G GG group (p = 0.032 and p = 0.002, respectively) as well as the CYP3A4*1G GG and the CYP3A5*3 GG group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.036, respectively) compared with the POR*28 CC group. No significant associations were found between CYP3A4*1G/ABCB1-C3435T polymorphism and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Both CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms are found to be associated with the difference in disposition of nifedipine; POR*28 is considered to have an impact on CYP3A4 activity.

  1. Unique combined penA/mtrR/porB mutations and NG-MAST strain types associated with ceftriaxone and cefixime MIC increases in a 'susceptible' Neisseria gonorrhoeae population.

    PubMed

    Thakur, S D; Starnino, S; Horsman, G B; Levett, P N; Dillon, J R

    2014-06-01

    To determine which mutations in penA, mtrR and porB are implicated in increasing minimum MICs of ceftriaxone and cefixime in a susceptible gonococcal population and to ascertain associations with gonococcal strain types (STs). One hundred and forty-six Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates formed two extended-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility groups: group 1 isolates with cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.0005-0.016 mg/L; and group 2 isolates with cefixime MICs of 0.03-0.125 mg/L (n = 24) and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.03-0.06 mg/L (n = 23). Mutation patterns in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2; penA), multiple transfer resistance repressor (MtrR; mtrR) and porin B (PorB; porB) were ascertained by DNA sequence and bioinformatic analysis. STs were determined using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Most isolates carried PBP2 mutation pattern IX (D345a, F504L, A510V, A516G and P551L; 50/146, 34.2%), a G45D substitution in MtrR (37.7%) and a wild-type (WT) sequence for PorB (43.2%). Group 2 gonococcal isolates were significantly associated with: penA pattern IX; dual mutations in the promoter (A-) and DNA dimerization domain (H105Y) of MtrR; and G120K;A121D substitutions in PorB. There were 50 combined penA/mtrR/porB mutation patterns, with corresponding patterns I/WT/WT and IX/G45D/G120K;A121D predominating. Gonococci susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefixime were significantly associated with NG-MAST ST 25 (33/36; 92%) and the combined penA/mtrR/porB mutation pattern I/WT/WT. No combined mutation pattern or specific ST was associated with elevated ceftriaxone MICs. NG-MAST ST 3654 was significantly associated with the pattern IX/G45D/G120K;A121D and cefixime group 2 isolates. Specific single or combined mutation patterns in penA, mtrR and porB and specific STs were associated with differences in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  2. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  3. Weight of ABCB1 and POR genes on oral tacrolimus exposure in CYP3A5 nonexpressor pediatric patients with stable kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paulo, G N; Dapía García, I; Lubomirov, R; Borobia, A M; Alonso-Sánchez, N L; Espinosa, L; Carcas-Sansuán, A J

    2017-01-17

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial. CYP3A5, ABCB1 and two POR genotypes were assessed by real-time PCR. The impact on TAC pharmacokinetics of individual genetic variants on CYP3A5 nonexpressors was evaluated by genetic score. Explicative models for TAC AUC0-24h, Cmax and Cmin after Advagraf were developed by linear regression. The built genetic scores explain 13.7 and 26.5% of the total AUC0-24h and Cmin total variability, respectively. Patients genetic information should be considered to monitorizate and predict TAC exposure.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.93.

  4. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  5. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance.

    PubMed

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-07-01

    A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h(-1) with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  7. Psychiatry training towards a global future: trainees' perspective in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Guerra, Cátia; Malta, Rui; Moura, Manuela; Carvalho, Serafim; Mendonça, Denisa

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A psiquiatria é influenciada pelas mudanças que ocorrem na sociedade, devendo estar em constante renovação, antevendo futuros comportamentos e doenças. Este estudo pretende descrever a opinião dos internos de psiquiatria em Portugal relativamente ao seu internato e às modificações que nele gostariam de assistir no futuro próximo.Material e Métodos: Um questionário estruturado de 26 perguntas foi desenvolvido pela Associação Portuguesa de Internos de Psiquiatria e enviado por email.Resultados: A percentagem de respostas obtidas foi de 41,5%. A maioria dos internos estava satisfeita com a sua formação. Contudo, algumas mudanças foram sugeridas no que diz respeitos aos estágios obrigatórios e opcionais. A maior parte dos internos requer que as psicoterapias sejam incluídas no âmbito do internato, solicitando também um acesso mais fácil à investigação e a oportunidades de estágio no estrangeiro.Discussão e Conclusão: Esta perspectiva detalhada pode facilitar a transformação dos currículos do internato em Portugal e naEuropa, permitindo a melhoria do internato de psiquiatria, bem como dos cuidados de saúde mental.

  8. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates That Express Frequently Recovered PorB PIA Variable Region Types Suggest that Certain P1a Porin Sequences Confer a Selective Advantage for Urogenital Tract Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Lotisha E.; Bash, Margaret C.; Keys, Christine; Warner, Douglas M.; Ram, Sanjay; Shafer, William M.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Typing of the porB variable region (VR) is an epidemiological tool that classifies gonococcal strains based on sequence differences in regions of the porB gene that encode surface-exposed loops. The frequent isolation of certain porB VR types suggests that some porin sequences confer a selective advantage during infection and/or transmission. Alternatively, certain porin types may be markers of strains that are successful due to factors unrelated to porin. In support of the first hypothesis, here we show urogenital tract isolates representing the most common PIA VR types identified in an urban clinic in Baltimore, MD, over a 10-year period belonged to several different clonal types, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serum resistance, which was confirmed by factor H and C4b-binding protein binding studies, was more often associated with gonococcal the most common VR types. In contrast, three porin-independent phenotypes, namely, lactoferrin utilization, β-lactamase production, and multiple transferable resistance (Mtr), were segregated with the PFGE cluster and not with the VR type. Data combined with another PIA strain collection showed a strong correlation between serum resistance and the most common VR types. A comparison of VR typing hybridization patterns and nucleotide sequences of 12 porB1a genes suggests that certain porin loop 1, 3, 6, and/or 7 sequences may play a role in the serum resistance phenotype. We conclude that some PorB PIA sequences confer a survival or transmission advantage in the urogenital tract, perhaps via increased resistance to complement-mediated killing. The capacity of some porin types to evade a porin-specific adaptive immune response must also be considered. PMID:18541655

  9. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  10. [Return to work in patients with heart disease after cardiac rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Huichan-Muñoz, Valeria; Justiniano-Cordero, Samuel; Solís-Hernández, José Luis; Rodríguez-Ábrego, Gabriela; Millán-Hernández, Edgar; Rojano-Mejía, David

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: en un estudio observacional, retrospectivo evaluamos la frecuencia, presentación clínica y tratamiento de linfocele en pacientes pediátricos con trasplante renal. Métodos: de enero de 2004 a enero de 2009 se realizaron 242 trasplantes renales, 197 de donantes vivos y 45 trasplantes de donantes cadavéricos. La técnica quirúrgica utilizada fue la habitual y la de los implantes uretrales fue la técnica Ricard modificada. El tratamiento fue por punción cutánea y drenajes internos mediante una ventana peritoneal laparoscópica. Resultados: se diagnosticaron siete pacientes con linfoceles (2.9 % con un IC 95 % 0.6-5.2 %). Una paciente del sexo femenino y seis del sexo masculino, todos fueron sometidos a drenajes por punción cutánea, seis pacientes fueron recidivados y tratados exitosamente por drenaje interno mediante una ventana peritoneal laparoscópica. Conclusiones: nuestra frecuencia es igual a la reportada en otros estudios (0.6-18 %). El drenaje interno mediante la ventana peritoneal laparoscópica parece ser lo más apropiado en pacientes pediátricos.

  11. [Lymphocele surgical treatment in pediatric kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Aurelus, Pierre Jean; Ortiz, Roberto Carlos; Rendón-Macías, Mario Enrique; Ortega-Rodríguez, Ma C; De la Cruz-Yañiz, Hermilo; Yamamoto-Nagano, Alfonso; Torres-Díaz, José Salustiano

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: en un estudio observacional, retrospectivo evaluamos la frecuencia, presentación clínica y tratamiento de linfocele en pacientes pediátricos con trasplante renal. Métodos: de enero de 2004 a enero de 2009 se realizaron 242 trasplantes renales, 197 de donantes vivos y 45 trasplantes de donantes cadavéricos. La técnica quirúrgica utilizada fue la habitual y la de los implantes uretrales fue la técnica Ricard modificada. El tratamiento fue por punción cutánea y drenajes internos mediante una ventana peritoneal laparoscópica. Resultados: se diagnosticaron siete pacientes con linfoceles (2.9 % con un IC 95 % 0.6-5.2 %). Una paciente del sexo femenino y seis del sexo masculino, todos fueron sometidos a drenajes por punción cutánea, seis pacientes fueron recidivados y tratados exitosamente por drenaje interno mediante una ventana peritoneal laparoscópica. Conclusiones: nuestra frecuencia es igual a la reportada en otros estudios (0.6-18 %). El drenaje interno mediante la ventana peritoneal laparoscópica parece ser lo más apropiado en pacientes pediátricos.

  12. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu(4)NHSO(5)), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu(4)NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols=CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, i-C(3)H(7)OH, t-C(4)H(9)OH) in CH(2)Cl(2), were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C(4)H(9)OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO(5)(-) to O(2) and HSO(4)(-), through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  13. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  14. Impact of the CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus metabolism in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang; Lin, Li; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Zhong, Ze-Yan; Li, Wei-Mo; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Ping; Tan, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1-3, days 6-8 and days 12-14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C 0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C 0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C 0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C 0 range was greater (p = 0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  15. Legal Knowledge as a Tool for Social Change: La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de las Mujeres as an Expert on Colombian Abortion Law.

    PubMed

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina

    2017-06-01

    In May 2006, Colombia's Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman's health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court's ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa por la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision's implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region. We argue that La Mesa's strategy is an innovative one in the field of legal mobilization insofar as it presumes that law can be shaped not just by public officials and universities but also by social actors engaged in the creation and diffusion of legal knowledge. In this regard, La Mesa has become a legal expert on abortion by accumulating knowledge about the multiple legal rules affecting the practice of abortion and about the situations in which these rules are to be applied. In addition, by becoming a legal expert, La Mesa has been able to persuade health providers that they will not risk criminal prosecution or being fired if they perform abortions. We call this effect of legal mobilization a "pedagogical effect" insofar as it involves the production of expertise and appropriation of knowledge by health professionals. We conclude by discussing La Mesa's choice to become a legal expert on abortion as opposed to recruiting academics to do this work or encouraging women to produce and disseminate this knowledge.

  16. Abstracts of Papers Submitted in 1975 for Publication,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    Organizado por el Programa de Analisis de Ecosistemas Marinos, de Los Lab- oratorios de Investigacion Ambiental, de la Administracion Nacional Oceanica y...POLITICA DE ADMINISTRACION DE LA ZONE COSTERA DE CHILE The problems arising from the multiple use of the coastal zone, the coastal seas and its resources...LABORATORIOS DE INVESTI- * GACION AMBIENTAL, DE LA ADMINISTRACION NACIONAL OCEANICA Y ATMOSFERICA DEL DEPART- MENTO DE COMERCIO DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DE

  17. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  18. The P450 oxidoreductase (POR) rs2868177 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6*6 polymorphisms contribute to the interindividual variability in human CYP2B6 activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Chen; Liu, Fang-Qun; Yang, Li; Cheng, Lin; Dai, Hai-Ying; Tao, Ran; Cao, Shi-Peng; Wang, Di; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene were correlated with interindividual variations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 activity. Thirty-six healthy volunteers who tested CYP2B6 and POR polymorphisms were enrolled in the study. CYP2B6 activity was measured by bupropion hydroxylation with LC/MS/MS. The ratio of hydroxybupropion versus bupropion (AUC_hyd/AUC_bup) in terms of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was used to represent the CYP2B6 activity. The volunteers carrying CYP2B6*1/*1 showed a significantly higher mean AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup than those CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 variants (15.66 ± 1.65 vs. 9.25 ± 1.92, P = 0.008 and 15.66 ± 1.65 vs. 8.21 ± 1.74, P = 0.006, respectively). POR rs2868177 (6593 A > G) AA homozygotes showed a significantly lower mean AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup than that of POR rs2868177 AG heterozygotes or GG homozygotes (8.13 ± 1.37 vs. 12.15 ± 2.97, P = 0.005 and 8.13 ± 1.37 vs. 17.59 ± 3.25, P = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, POR rs2868177 AG heterozygotes and GG homozygotes showed a significantly increased mean AUC_hyd/AUC_bup than AA homozygotes in the CYP2B6*1/*1 and CYP2B6*6 carriers (16.40 ± 2.01 vs. 12.40 ± 1.45, P = 0.006 and 10.65 ± 1.47 vs. 6.54 ± 1.25, P = 0.004, respectively). Meanwhile, a strong correlation between the genetic variations (POR rs2868177 and CYP2B6*6) and AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup was found (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the mean AUC_hyd/AUC_bup among different POR *28 genotypes (P > 0.05). POR rs2868177 and CYP2B6*6 variants contribute to the interindividual variability in human CYP2B6 activity, which may affect the disposition and interaction of other CYP2B6 substrate drugs.

  19. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  20. Combined effects of CYP3A5*1, POR*28, and CYP3A4*22 single nucleotide polymorphisms on early concentration-controlled tacrolimus exposure in de-novo renal recipients.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Dirk R J; de Loor, Henriette; Naesens, Maarten; Coopmans, Tamara; de Jonge, Hylke

    2014-12-01

    In a cohort of 298 de-novo renal recipients treated with a standard tacrolimus loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg, the combined effects of the CYP3A5*1, POR*28, and CYP3A4*22 genotypes on early tacrolimus exposure (C0), dose requirements, and achievement of the therapeutic target, C0, were examined. The incidence of clinical events (e.g. acute rejection, diabetes mellitus) was compared between genotypes. Fast metabolizers (CYP3A5*1/POR*28T carriers) had two-fold to three-fold higher tacrolimus dose requirements compared with slow metabolizers (CYP3A5*3/*3/CYP3A4*22 carriers) and needed significantly more time to achieve the target tacrolimus C0 of a minimum 10 ng/ml (3.3±1.7 vs. 1.34±0.75 days; P<0.0001). No differences in acute rejection incidence and time to first rejection were observed. Slow metabolizers more frequently had tacrolimus C0 above the target range early after transplantation (70 vs. 13% on day 3); however, this did not translate into a higher incidence of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus or graft dysfunction. Multivariate analyses identified the CYP3A5*1/POR*28/CYP3A4*22 genotype combination as the single strongest determinant of tacrolimus dose requirements throughout the first year, explaining between 24-40% of its variability, whereas recipient age, hematocrit, and delayed graft function were additional nongenetic determinants of tacrolimus dose. Combining the CYP3A5*1, POR*28 and CYP3A4*22 genotypes allows partial differentiation of early tacrolimus dose requirements and the time to reach therapeutic target concentrations after transplantation, but without obvious clinical implications. Larger prospective studies need to address the clinical relevance of early combined genotype-based tacrolimus dosing in de-novo renal recipients.

  1. Riflessioni e Proposte sulle Unita' di Analisi per l'Analisi del Discorso (Didattico) (Reflections and Suggestions Concerning the Units of Analysis for Discourse Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Liliana

    1995-01-01

    After reviewing units of discourse analysis generally used by sociolinguists, this article reports on a study conducted in university English-as-a-Second-Language classes in Los Angeles to show differences between interactions in and outside of class and proposes a broader frame of analysis to include both the turn and the exchange systems. (CFM)

  2. Riflessioni e Proposte sulle Unita' di Analisi per l'Analisi del Discorso (Didattico) (Reflections and Suggestions Concerning the Units of Analysis for Discourse Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Liliana

    1995-01-01

    After reviewing units of discourse analysis generally used by sociolinguists, this article reports on a study conducted in university English-as-a-Second-Language classes in Los Angeles to show differences between interactions in and outside of class and proposes a broader frame of analysis to include both the turn and the exchange systems. (CFM)

  3. [Theoretical and physical aspects of excimer laser trabeculotomy (ELT) ab interno with the AIDA laser with a wave length of 308 mm].

    PubMed

    Walker, R; Specht, H

    2002-05-01

    Ablation of tissue structures containing and surrounded by water differs from tissue ablation at a surface, not only theoretically, but also in terms of outcome. In contrast to the situation often observed with surface ablation, it is shown that the trabecular meshwork in the anterior chamber of the eye can be ablated cleanly and accurately with the 308 nm Excimer laser without causing collateral thermal damage. The reason for this is that in the trabecular meshwork, the ratio of radiation-absorbing tissue to water--which absorbs very little energy--is very small. A marked cooling effect thus results, which permits the development of only a very small amount of collateral thermal damage at the boundaries of the ablation zone.

  4. Short-Term Clinical Results of Ab Interno Trabeculotomy Using the Trabectome with or without Cataract Surgery for Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients of High Intraocular Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Alex S.; Swamy, Ramya

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the safety and efficacy of Trabectome procedure in patients with preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) of 30 mmHg or higher. Methods. All patients who had underwent Trabectome stand-alone or Trabectome combined with phacoemulsification were included. Survival analysis was performed by using Kaplan-Meier, and success was defined as IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, 20% or more IOP reduction from baseline for any two consecutive visits after 3 months, and no secondary glaucoma surgery. Results. A total of 49 cases were included with an average age of 66 (range: 13–91). 28 cases had Trabectome stand-alone and 21 cases had Trabectome combined with phacoemulsification. Mean IOP was reduced from a baseline of 35.6 ± 6.3 mmHg to 16.8 ± 3.8 mmHg at 12 months (p < 0.01∗), while the number of medications was reduced from 3.1 ± 1.3 to 1.8 ± 1.4 (p < 0.01∗). Survival rate at 12 months was 80%. 9 cases required secondary glaucoma surgery, and 1 case was reported with hypotony at day one, but resolved within one week. Conclusion. Trabectome seems to be safe and effective in patients with preoperative IOP of 30 mmHg or greater. Even in this cohort with high preoperative IOP, the end result is a mean IOP in the physiologic range. PMID:28484649

  5. 'Blue bubble' technique: an ab interno approach for Descemet separation in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using trypan blue stained viscoelastic device.

    PubMed

    Livny, Eitan; Bahar, Irit; Hammel, Naama; Nahum, Yoav

    2017-07-03

    In this study, we examined a novel variant of 'big-bubble' deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using trypan-blue-stained viscoelastic device for the creation of a pre-descemetic bubble. Ten corneoscleral rims were mounted on an artificial anterior chamber (AC). The AC was filled with air through a limbal paracentesis. A Melles' triangulated spatula was inserted through the paracentesis, with its tip penetrating the AC, was then slightly retracted and pushed into the deep stroma above the roof of the paracentesis. A mixture of trypan blue and viscoelastic device (Healon, Abbott Medical Optics, Abbott Park, Illinois) was injected into this intra-stromal pocket using a 27-G cannula to create a pre-descemetic separation bubble. Bubble type and visualization of dyed viscoelastic device were noted. The method was later employed in three cases. In all 10 corneoscleral rims, the technique successfully created a visible pre-descemetic (type 1) bubble that could be expanded up to the predicted diameter of trephination. Subsequent trephination and the removal of corneal stroma were uneventful. In two out of four clinical cases, a type 1 bubble was created, while in two others, visco-dissection failed and dyed viscoelastic was seen in the AC. The presented technique holds promise of being a relatively easy to perform, predictable and well-controlled alternative for achieving a type 1 bubble during deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty surgery. The trypan-blue-stained viscoelastic device facilitates proper visualization and control of the separation bubble and assists in identifying the penetrance to the separation bubble prior to removal of the stromal cap. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.

  7. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  8. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  9. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  10. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  11. Analisis de las distribuciones espectrales de energia de nucleos pre-estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldano, H. P.; Gómez, M. N.

    In this contribution we present the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) modeling of 4 massive stellar objects; in their initial evolutionary stages; obtained from the 1.2 mm catalogue of Beltran_2006 Beltran_2006. The Herschel images at 70 - 500 m; combined with those obtained by WISE; allow us to build the SEDs. We use the code of Whitney_2003a Whitney_2003a to model them. For the youngest objects; instead; we apply a simple modified black body model. We estimate the envelope circumstellar parameters which characterize these massive stars and identify the evolutionary stage of each object according to the sequence proposed by Chambers_2009 Chambers_2009. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  12. Ppp Analisys with GPS and Glonass Integration in Periods Under Ionospheric Scintillation Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, H. A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The GNSS is widely used nowadays either for geodetic positioning or scientific purposes. The GNSS currently includes GPS, GLONASS, Galileo among other emerging systems. The GPS and GLONASS are currently operational with a full satellite constellation. The GPS is still the most used nowadays and both GPS and GLONASS are under a modernization process. The geodetic positioning by using data from multi-constellation can provide better accuracy in positioning and also more reliability. The PPP is benefited once the satellite geometry is crucial in this method, mainly for kinematic scenarios. The satellite geometry can change suddenly for data collected in urban areas or in conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as Ionospheric Scintillation (IS) that causes weakening of signals with cycle slips and even loss of lock. The IS is caused by small irregularities in the ionosphere layer and is characterized by rapid change in amplitude and phase of the signal being stronger in equatorial and high latitudes regions. In this work the PPP is evaluated with GPS and GLONASS data collected by monitoring receivers from Brazilian CIGALA/CALIBRA network under IS conditions. The PPP processing was accomplished by using the GPSPPP software provided by Natural Resources Canadian (NRCAN). The IS effects were analyzed taking account the S4 and PHI60 indices. Considering periods with moderate IS effects, the use of only GPS data in the PPP presented several peaks in the coordinate time series due to cycle slips and loos of lock. In cycle slip conditions the ambiguity parameter are reinitialized by GPSPPP and considering loss of lock few satellites can be available in some epochs affecting the positioning geometry and consequently decreasing accuracy. In such situations, the PPP using GPS and GLONASS data presented improvements in positioning accuracy of the order to 70% in height component when compared with PPP using only GPS data. Analyses of GDOP and ambiguities parameters were also performed.

  13. Analisys of pectoralis major tendon in weightlifting athletes using ultrasonography and elastography

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ferretti, Mario; Kawakami, Eduardo Felipe Kin Ito; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Corrêa; Yamada, Andre Fukunishi; de Oliveira, Gabriela Clemente; Cohen, Moisés; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Ejnisman, Benno

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate tendinopathy of the pectoralis major muscle in weightlifting athletes using ultrasound and elastography. Methods This study included 20 patients, 10 with rupture of the pectoralis major muscle and 10 control patients. We evaluated pectoralis major muscle contralateral tendon with ultrasonographic and elastography examinations. The ultrasonographic examinations were performed using a high-resolution B mode ultrasound device. The elastography evaluation was classified into three patterns: (A), if stiff (more than 50% area with blue staining); (B), if intermediate (more than 50% green); and (C), if softened (more than 50% red). Results Patients’ mean age was 33±5.3 years. The presence of tendinous injury measured by ultrasound had a significant different (p=0.0055), because 80% of cases had tendinous injury versus 10% in the Control Group. No significant differences were seen between groups related with change in elastography (p=0.1409). Conclusion Long-term bodybuilders had ultrasound image with more tendinous injury than those in Control Group. There was no statistical significance regarding change in tendon elasticity compared with Control Group. PMID:26761551

  14. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  15. Analisis de las Condiciones de Salud del Nino de 0-6 anos en Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matamoros, Douglas Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Examines the National Pediatric Service and the research program of the Maternity-Infant-Hospital-School in Honduras. Reports that health conditions of young children (birth to six years) in Honduras are appalling and that available funds for health services are inadequate, reflecting the country's economic and social crisis. (NH)

  16. Una Metodologia de Analisis de la Interaccion Alumno-Orgendaor en la Investigacion Sobre Informatica Educativa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estepa, A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The recording of the interaction between pupil and computer is one of the data sources frequently used in research on the use of computers in teaching. Describes the analysis methodology of these recordings to determine the use of computers in statistics and its adaptation to other research work on the use of computers in education. (Author/MDH)

  17. [NONINVASIVE DIAGNOSTICS OF THE PHENOTYPE OF GASTRITIS: ANALISIS OF THE FIRST THOUSAND OF CASES].

    PubMed

    Belkovets, A V; Kurilovich, S A; Reshetnikov, O; Ragino, Yu I; Scherbakova, L V

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of noninvasive diagnostics of a phenotype of gastritis among 1050 people aged from 18 till 80 years which consistently addressed to policlinic is presented in the article. The instrument of diagnostics was a , including a complex of biomarkers - so-called (pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, gastrin-17 and IgG- antibodies to Helicobacter Pylori). High frequency of different variants of atrophic gastritis (25%) with a gastric cancer risk and conditions with a risk of erosive and ulcer damages of the stomach mucous (26 %) was shown. Clinical and economical expediency of noninvasive screening of a phenotype of gastritis is postulated.

  18. Analisys of interplanetary structures associated with cosmic ray precursory anisotropies and intense geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savian, J. F.; da Silva, M. R.; Signori, M. R.; Andrioli, V. F.; dal Lago, A.; Eduardo, L.; Vieira, A.; Munakata, K.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Schuch, N. J.

    Throughout the 11 year solar cycle a number of energetic phenomena such as "flares" and coronal mass ejections (CME) give rise at earth to the so-called magnetic storms. These storms are characterized by a decrease in the H component of terrestrial magnetic field, lasting some dozens of hours. They are associated to interplanetary structures whose interplanetary magnetic field component in the Z direction (Bz) is southward, i.e., antiparalell to the earth's magnetic field direction. Thus, the interplanetary magnetic field interconnects with the geomagnetic field causing energy to be transported inwards. Some of these structures are associated with precursory anisotropy observed in ground cosmic ray data (muons). The objective of this work is to use a set of intense geomagnetic storm events (Dst<-100nT), already studied by Munakata et al (2000) in terms of cosmic ray signatures, and identify their interplanetary structures using observations made by ACE, Wind and IMP-8 satellites. We use the following interplanetary data: plasma (solar wind speed , density and temperature of protons), interplanetary magnetic field (B, Bx, By, Bz), observed by IMP-8, WIND and ACE satellites, and Dst index from Kyoto to characterize the storms.

  19. Il transito di Mercurio osservato da Jean Gambart il 5 maggio 1832: analisi ed eliometria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Jean Gambart (1800-1836) observed the transit of Mercury in 1832 with a Dollond refractor of 67 mm at 100x under optimal meteo conditions and 1" of seeing. The contact times reported on Astron. Nach. 10, 259 (1832) are used to find the solar diameter -0.13'' lower than its standard value.

  20. Analisys of Helium fluxes and Helium Enhancement in 24th solar cycle with PAMELA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mergé, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    The properties of solar energetic particles (SEPs) have long been modeled to constrain the proposed scenarios for particle acceleration. The challenge, however, is that the signatures of acceleration gleaned from SEP observations are modified as a consequence of transport within interplanetary space. PAMELA (Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics) is a space-borne experiment launched in a semi-polar orbit on 15 June 2006 and continuously collecting data since then. On-board instrumentation is built around a permanent magnet with a silicon microstrip tracker, providing charge and track deflection information. The unique observations from PAMELA provide an essential link between highest and lowest energy particles. Several events registered during the 24th solar activity cycle showed an increase in the helium particle density, those events are good candidates to study the helium enhancement phenomena (an increase in H to He ratio at low energies) and to address the charge/mass dependence of acceleration mechanisms.

  1. Peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma in adolescent age: clinico-pathological and immunohistochemical analisys of a case.

    PubMed

    Oteri, Giacomo; Lentini, Maria; Pisano, Michele; Cicciù, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The Extraosseous or Peripheral Ameloblastoma (PA) is a rare and benign odontogenic tumour, representing 1% to 5% of all ameloblastomas. It is usually localized in the soft oral tissues, without deep bone involvement. Its biological behaviour is specific, and several authors define PA as a non-infiltrating hamartomatous lesion. Indeed, recurrences rarely occur and progression in malignant tumors appears to be rare. The PA originates from the tooth-forming apparatus and it consists of proliferating odontogenic epithelium, exhibiting the same histological cell types and patterns of the intraosseous counterpart or infiltrating ameloblastoma. The peripheral desmoplastic ameloblastoma (PDA) can be classified as a newly recognized and very rare histological variant. To our knowledge, only a few cases of adult patients affected by PDA have been published. The aim of this paper is to report a case of PDA affecting an adolescent patient. The clinical-pathological and immunohistological features are discussed in order to improve knowledge regarding a correct diagnosis and to differentiate PDA lesions from similar diseases.

  2. Coastal morphodynamic features/patterns analisys through a video-based system and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Fábio; Pais-Barbosa, Joaquim; Teodoro, Ana C.; Gonçalves, Hernâni; Baptista, Paolo; Moreira, António; Veloso-Gomes, Fernando; Taveira-Pinto, Francisco; Gomes-Costa, Paulo; Lopes, Vítor; Neves-Santos, Filipe

    2012-10-01

    The Portuguese coastline, like many other worldwide coastlines, is often submitted to several types of extreme events resulting in erosion, thus, acquisition of high quality field measurements has become a common concern. The nearshore survey systems have been traditionally based on in situ measurements or in the use of satellite or aircraft mounted remote sensing systems. As an alternative, video-monitoring systems proved to be an economic and efficient way to collect useful and continuous data, and to document extreme events. In this context, is under development the project MoZCo (Advanced Methodologies and Techniques Development for Coastal Zone Monitoring), which intends to develop and implement monitoring techniques for the coastal zone based on a low cost video monitoring system. The pilot study area is Ofir beach (north of Portugal), a critical coastal area. In the beginning of this project (2010) a monitoring video station was developed, collecting snapshots and 10 minutes videos every hour. In order to process the data, several video image processing algorithms were implemented in Matlab®, allowing achieve the main video-monitoring system products, such as, the shoreline detection. An algorithm based on image processing techniques was developed, using the HSV color space, the idea is to select a study and a sample area, containing pixels associated with dry and wet regions, over which a thresholding and some morphological operators are applied. After comparing the results with manual digitalization, promising results were achieved despite the method's simplicity, which is in continuous development in order to optimize the results.

  3. Analisis de las Condiciones de Salud del Nino de 0-6 anos en Honduras.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matamoros, Douglas Alberto

    1987-01-01

    Examines the National Pediatric Service and the research program of the Maternity-Infant-Hospital-School in Honduras. Reports that health conditions of young children (birth to six years) in Honduras are appalling and that available funds for health services are inadequate, reflecting the country's economic and social crisis. (NH)

  4. Dental Wings CAD/CAM system precision: an internal and marginal fit sperimental analisys

    PubMed Central

    SANNINO, G.; GLORIA, F.; SCHIAVETTI, R.; OTTRIA, L.; BARLATTANI, A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Statement of problem. The CAD-CAM technology has been developed to design and manufacture prosthetic structures with constant quality characteristics; in fact procedures are codified, manageable and repeatable. Purpose. The purpose of this in vitro study is to evaluate the internal and marginal gap of zirconia casts made with a new CAD-CAM systematic that use Dental Wings laser scanner and Yenamak milling machine. Material and methods. 6 analogs of solid abutments of Straumann implants were used, fixed in plexiglass bases. The samples were scanned by Dental Wings laser; the file obtained by scanning of each probe was sent to the Yenamak D40 milling machine, then the casts were sintered in Protherm furnace. Then 6 samples were cemented with resin luting agent capsules (Relyx Unicem, 3M ESPE). The samples were incorporated in transparent epoxy resin. After resin hardening, the cylinders obtained were cut with a microtomes. These slices thus obtained were then polished with a Polisher sander with alumina dust decreasing grain. Each section was observed and photographed in reflected light with the aid of an optic microscope type, first at low magnification and then at higher magnification. Results. The overall average fitting of copings on the abutments was 32,87 μ. No differences were found in marginal fit on buccal and lingual sides, it was easily predictable because of the standard form of the used stumps. The recorded values for the marginal fit were lower than those of axial walls. The accuracy of adaptation was always achieved within the limits of clinical acceptability. Conclusions. Within the limitations of this study, the system evaluated represents a valuable alternative to conventional prosthetic rehabilitation techniques. PMID:23285364

  5. The pedagogic evolution in Surgery: the University at the centre of a training which becomes territorialized The model of the region Marche.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, Andrea; Tranà, Cristian; Baldoni, Andrea; Coletta, Pietro; Marmorale, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    La formazione in Chirurgia è un tema di grande interesse in un’epoca di crisi, ma anche di grandi cambiamenti mossi dalla spinta della Comunità Europea di uniformare i Percorsi Formativi di tutti i suoi Stati Membri. I punti principali delle riforme attuate per uniformarci al contesto Comunitario, vertevano sulla riduzione dei tempi e sulla implementazione della multidisciplinarietà della formazione specialistica, con il rischio di adombrare quelli che sono i punti di forza del nostro Sistema Sanitario, tra cui l’alto livello assistenziale dei nostri ospedali territoriali. La Scuola di Specializzazione di Chirurgia Generale dell’UNIVPM da alcuni anni punta su un progetto che vede la Clinica Universitaria al Centro di una Formazione Specialistica che si sviluppa sempre più sul territorio, avvicinando il mondo Ospedaliero a quello Universitario. Questo nuovo modello organizzativo prevede una prima fase all’interno della Clinica Universitaria ed una seconda nella Rete Formativa, nella quale rientrano Centri a differente impatto specialistico, all’interno di Strutture Ospedaliere Italiane ed Estere, e la possibilità di poter collaborare con l’Organizzazione di Emergency. Per testare questa nuova organizzazione del Corso Specialistico, abbiamo preso in analisi l’attività chirurgica svolta dagli specializzandi del nostro Ateneo, che hanno terminato il loro percorso formativo in Chirurgia Generale a Marzo 2014, essendo loro i primi ad aver beneficiato di questo modello. L’attività operatoria è stata, per ciascuno, mediamente di 400 interventi da primo operatore (237-476) distribuiti in chirurgia maggiore 44 (13-80), media 172 (129-268) e minore 209 (70-378), rapportando i loro risultati con gli standard complessivi di addestramento professionalizzante previsti dallo Statuto Nazionale si osserva il buon rendimento di questo sistema, che vede i suoi punti di forza nell’EQUITA dell’offerta, in quanto standardizzabile; nel concetto di RETE

  6. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  7. Evaluating Por Nuestra Salud: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brenda; Gonzales, Gustavo; Kernan, William

    2016-01-01

    This feasibility study evaluated the impact of a culturally consistent diabetes educational program, led by a Latino pastor, on Latino community diabetes knowledge levels. Latino adults were recruited from two churches serving Latino populations, one identified as intervention, the other as nonintervention. Both churches received the American Diabetes Association's booklets on diabetes education, "Four Steps to Control Your Diabetes for Life." The intervention group also received weekly reviews of the booklet's information from the church pastor, who was educated about diabetes by a Latino family nurse practitioner. Pre- and postintervention levels of diabetes knowledge were measured using the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire. Mean changes in the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ-24) survey from pretest to posttest indicated a significant increase in knowledge in both groups. Only the grades for the participants from the pastor-led group, however, moved from failure in knowledge to high levels of passing. One hundred percent of intervention group participants reported having read the literature. This pilot study supports the feasibility of a local Latino pastor, as a culturally consistent diabetes educator, to increase Latino parishioner's knowledge of diabetes. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  8. [Cognitive performance and quality of life in multiple sclerosis in Gipuzkoa].

    PubMed

    Sistiaga, Andone; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Aliri, Jone; Gaztañaga, Mirari; Acha, Joana; Arruti, Maialen; Otaegui, David; Olascoaga, Javier

    2014-04-16

    Introduccion. El deterioro cognitivo y la presencia de sintomas depresivos, comunes en los pacientes con esclerosis multiple, inciden en la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Objetivo. Describir la calidad de vida, la afectacion cognitiva y los niveles de depresion, en relacion con otras variables clinicas, en los pacientes con esclerosis multiple de la provincia de Gipuzkoa. Pacientes y metodos. Se evaluo neuropsicologicamente a 114 pacientes. Se incluyeron el MSQoL-54 y el inventario de depresion de Beck para evaluar la calidad de vida y los niveles de depresion. Se emprendieron tres analisis principales: comparacion del rendimiento cognitivo entre subtipos, analisis de correlacion entre variables clinicas, neuropsicologicas y de calidad de vida, y analisis sobre los efectos del genero en el rendimiento cognitivo. Resultados. Se halla en la esclerosis multiple un patron neuropsicologico caracterizado por enlentecimiento en el procesamiento de la informacion y dificultades atencionales. La calidad de vida se relaciona con sintomas depresivos y con el rendimiento cognitivo global pero no con factores clinicos como la tasa de brote o la duracion de la enfermedad. Los datos confirman un peor rendimiento cognitivo en los hombres, sobre todo en la memoria auditiva verbal. Conclusiones. El genero se presenta como un factor modulador en el impacto de la enfermedad sobre el rendimiento cognitivo, que refuerza el interes de estudios que clarifiquen el origen de dichas diferencias. Ademas, la calidad de vida muestra una mayor relacion con la adaptacion a la enfermedad que con sus sintomas.

  9. [Quantitative gait analysis in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Villadoniga, M; San Millan, A; Cabanes-Martinez, L; Aviles-Olmos, I; Del Alamo-De Pedro, M; Regidor, I

    2016-08-01

    Objetivo. Describir las alteraciones de la marcha e inestabilidad postural en un grupo de pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) avanzada. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizo la marcha de pacientes con EP en estadio avanzado on medicacion. Por medio de un sistema de analisis computarizado del movimiento, se estudiaron las variables cinematicas: cadencia, numero de ciclos con apoyo correcto (ciclos HFPS), numero de ciclos totales, duracion de las fases del ciclo, electromiografia, y goniometria de rodilla y tobillo. La valoracion clinica del equilibrio y la inestabilidad postural se completo con los tests Tinetti y Timed Up and Go. Resultados. El analisis mostro alteraciones en los parametros espaciotemporales con respecto a los rangos de normalidad: disminucion de los ciclos HFPS, aumento del numero total de ciclos y alteracion de la cadencia en muchos pacientes, y conservacion de la cadencia media dentro de los limites de la normalidad, aumento de la duracion de la fase de apoyo, disminucion del apoyo monopodal y alteracion del rango articular de la rodilla y el tobillo. Asimismo, se observo una alteracion en las puntuaciones obtenidas en las escalas clinicas, que mostraban un aumento del factor de riesgo de caidas y dependencia leve. Conclusion. La cuantificacion mediante analisis objetivo de las variables cineticas y cinematicas en los pacientes con EP puede emplearse como herramienta para establecer la influencia de las distintas alternativas terapeuticas en el trastorno de la marcha.

  10. Renal arteriovenous fistula simulating hydronephrosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lusenti, T; Fiorini, F; Barozzi, L

    2011-12-01

    Sommario INTRODUZIONE: Tra le fistole arterovenose (FAV) acquisite vi sono quelle che si formano quale complicanza dell’esecuzione di una biopsia renale. CASO CLINICO: Gli autori riportano il caso di una paziente giunta in ambulatorio di ecografia nefrologica per l’esecuzione di un’ecografia dei reni e delle vie urinarie per un’ipertensione sistolica di I grado di recente insorgenza. Negli esami di laboratorio era presente microematuria con proteinuria <0.5 g/24 ore. La funzionalità renale risultava ai limiti inferiori della norma (FG 58 mL/min secondo la formula MDRD). L’esame ecografico evidenziava una formazione anecogena “arboriforme” centropielica a livello del rene sinistro suggestiva per idronefrosi. Il color Doppler mostrava viceversa presenza di flusso turbolento all’interno dell’area anecogena stessa, con flusso arterioso elevato e arterializzazione del flusso venoso all’analisi spettrale. La successiva angiografia renale selettiva confermava il sospetto ecografico di FAV mediorenale sinistra con pseudoaneurisma, conseguente ad una biopsia renale effettuata più di 10 anni prima presso altro Centro. Essendo la paziente in pieno benessere veniva consigliato un più stretto follow-up clinico-ecografico. DISCUSSIONE: Tra le malformazioni vascolari renali di non rara osservazione sono le FAV. Il caso descritto ribadisce l’importanza dell’impiego dell’eco color Doppler (ECD) nel sospetto di uropatia ostruttiva, per diagnosticare una FAV, specialmente nei pazienti già sottoposti a biopsia renale.

  11. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  12. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray

    2009-11-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster.

  13. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in porB but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N

    2013-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The porB gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays.

  15. Unprecedented peroxidase-like activity of Rhodnius prolixus nitrophorin 2: identification of the [FeIV=O Por•]+ and [FeIV=O Por](Tyr38•) intermediates and their role(s) in substrate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul; Berry, Robert E; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Hongjun; Walker, F Ann; Ivancich, Anabella

    2010-10-19

    We have identified a novel enzymatic reaction for nitrophorin 2 (NP2), a heme protein previously characterized as a nitric oxide carrier in the saliva of the Rhodnius prolixus insect. NP2 exhibited levels of peroxidase activity comparable to those of the bifunctional peroxidases (KatGs), despite their heme pocket structural differences (heme ruffling, Tyr38 and Tyr85 in hydrogen bonding interactions with the propionates in NP2). The intermediates of the peroxidase-like reaction of NP2 were identified by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and electronic absorption spectroscopies. The EPR spectrum consistent with an [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species was detected at pH <7. At pH ≥ 7, the change from a strong to a weak antiferromagnetic coupling interaction for the [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species was accompanied by the subsequent formation of an [Fe(IV)=O Por](Tyr•) intermediate. Tyr38 was shown to be the unique naturally occurring radical site in NP2. The Y38F mutant stabilized the radical on the tyrosine in hydrogen-bonding interaction with the other heme propionate (Tyr85). Kinetic studies using stopped-flow electronic absorption spectrophotometry revealed that the [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species reacts with histamine and norepinephrine in a peroxidase-like manner. Our findings demonstrate that NP2 has pH-dependent dual function: at the acidic pH of the insect saliva the protein behaves as a NO carrier, and, if exposed to the higher pH of the tissues and capillaries of the host, NP2 is able to bind histamine or it can efficiently inactivate norepinephrine through a peroxidase-like reaction, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly, the unprecedented peroxidase-like activity of NP2 is concluded to be a key biological function.

  16. El rol de Ia colaboracion y el Modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) mediante el lente de la Teoria de Actividad (CHAT): un estudio de caso con estudiantes de 9no grado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Isabel C.

    Los modelos de eensenanza y aprendizaje constructivistas conceptualizan el aprendizaje como un proceso activo. El modelo de Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos (ABPr) se distingue por una serie de componentes, entre los cuales se destaca el aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo como un reto al momento de su implantacion. Son pocas las investigaciones que se concentran en este aspecto del modelo. En este estudio, se analizaron las diversas interacciones que surgen durante la implantacion de una unidad curricular sobre el tema de Geologia de Puerto Rico, la cual se diseno con el modelo ABPr cuyo enfoque es orientacion a proyectos. Particularmente, se examinaron las interacciones sociales que surgen entre los pares y entre pares y docente durante el proceso de planificacion y desarrollo de los productos finales, al igual que las interacciones entre los estudiantes y el material didactico en estas etapas del modelo. La investigacion es de tipo cualitativo e incorpora como diseno el estudio de caso. Las diversas interacciones constituyen la unidad de analisis. En el estudio participaron 19 estudiantes de 9no grado, a quienes se organizaron en 5 grupos colaborativos por temas de interes (Pangea, Placas tectonicas, Volcanes, Tsunamis y Terremotos). Las tecnicas que se utilizaron para recopilar los datos fueron: observaciones participativas, grupos focales y analisis de documentos (cuadernos reflexivos y respuestas de los estudiantes a la pregunta central del proyecto). Para el analisis de los datos se aplico la teoria de actividad (CHAT) que concentra la unidad de analisis en la actividad humana en un contexto particular. Los resultados del estudio senalan que las interacciones entre pares, entre pares y docente, asi como entre estudiantes y material didactico son fundamentales en el proceso de aprendizaje. Una mayor interaccion entre pares durante las etapas de planificar y desarrollar los productos finales de la unidad, promueve una mejor comprension de los conceptos de la

  17. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  18. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-06-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%.

  19. Latin America Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Christian Democrat’s Zaldivar on Plebiscite (Mariana Grunefeld; QUE PASA, 8-14 Aug 85) 13 - a - ANALISIS Interviews Andres Zaldivar (Andres...Zaldivar Interview; ANALISIS , 13-20 Aug 85) 16 Declaration Issued at Havana Debt Conference ( ANALISIS , 13-20 Aug 85) 19 Labor Leader Says...LAM-85-075 5 September 1985 CHILE ANALISIS INTERVIEWS ANDRES ZALDIVAR PY180210 Santiago ANALISIS in Spanish 13-20 Aug 85 pp 23, 24 [Interview

  20. Lettura, Scrittura e Analisi dei Grafemi in Prima Elementare (Reading, Writing and Grapheme Analysis in First Grade)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deva, Ferruccio

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses an aspect of the process of learning to read and write which has received little attention, that is, the ability of children to recognize and to distinguish clearly the sounds which correspond to the individual letters within each word. (Text is in Italian.) (CFM)

  1. Analisis parametrico de las variables que influyen en el comportamiento adherente de las armaduras pretesas en el hormigon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbelaez Jaramillo, Cesar Augusto

    Prestressed concrete technique through the use of prestressed reinforcement is extended in the precast concrete industry. This technique consists on casting a concrete element over a previously prestressed reinforcement, proceeding to release once the concrete has reached a determined strength so the prestressed stress introduced to the reinforcement be transmitted, by bond, to concrete. The bond behaviour of prestressed reinforcement includes two phenomena: prestress transmission from the reinforcement to concrete and anchorage of the reinforcement. This bond behaviour is characterized by mean of two lengths: transmission length and anchorage length. The good design of these lengths is a basic and fundamental aspect in the project of precast prestressed concrete elements to guaranty the appropriate transmission of prestress and to allow the anchorage of the reinforcement along the structural element service life. The influence of the parameters related to the concrete dosage on the transmission and anchorage lengths of prestressing strands have been analyzed. The ECADA test method has been applied. With this method the operations of transmission of prestress and anchorage of the reinforcement are sequentially done. The transmission and anchorage lengths are determined from the force control supported by the reinforcement testing series of specimens with different embedment lengths. The differentiation of the concepts of anchorage length without slips and with slips has been proposed. The relationship of the parameters of dosage with the bond stress and the registered slips during the processes of transmission and anchorage has been studied. Expressions to value the slips distribution of the reinforcement in the transmission zone and in the anchorage zone have been proposed. A study on the determination of the transmission length from the free reinforcement slip end has been done and the viability to experimentally determine the transmission length from the slips sequence in the pull-out end as a function of the embedment length has been verified. The experimental results have been compared with results and predictions from other authors and standards, and an expression to calculate the transmission length have been proposed. Finally, the bond behaviour of self-compacting concretes has been compared with the bond behaviour of traditional concretes.

  2. Occurrence of tuberculosis cases in Crato, Ceará, from 2002 to 2011: a spatial analisys of specific standards.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mayrla Lima; da Silva, Talina Carla; Gomes, Lidiane Cristina Félix; Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Villavicencio, Lourdes Milagros Mendoza; Azevedo, Kleane Maria da Fonseca Araújo; de Figueiredo, Tânia Maria Ribeiro Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the spatial distribution of tuberculosis in Crato, Ceará, Brazil, from 2002 to 2011, aiming to check for a point pattern. This is an ecological, temporal trend and hybrid design study, with a quantitative approach. A total of 261 cases of tuberculosis were geo-referenced and 20 (7.1%) were considered as losses due to the lack of address. The profile of patients in 10 years of study was in accordance with the following pattern: men aged between 20 and 59 years, with low schooling, affected by the pulmonary form of tuberculosis and who were cured from the disease. The analysis of the spatial distribution of tuberculosis points out that in the period of study, new cases of the disease were not distributed on a regular basis, indicating a clustered spatial pattern, confirmed by the L-function. The map with the density of new cases estimated by the Kernel method showed that the "hot" areas are more concentrated in the vicinity of the central urban area. The study allowed pointing out areas of higher and lower concentration of tuberculosis, identifying the spatial pattern, but it also recognized that the disease has not reached all of the population groups with the same intensity. Those who were most vulnerable were the ones who lived in regions with higher population densities, precarious living conditions, and with intense flow of people.

  3. Crustal and Upper Mantle S-velocity Structure From Receiver Functions Analisys Around Terra Nova Bay Base, Antartica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, N.; Amato, A.; Cattaneo, M.; de Gori, P.; di Bona, M.

    In the framework of the italian PNRA (Progetto Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide), we have started to re-analize teleseismic waveforms recorded, using three-components seismometers (equipped with 5 seconds sensors, Lennartz 3D-5s), during five summer campaings, from 1993 to 2000. Seismic stations were deployed around Terra Nova Bay (TNB) italian base, from the sea to reach the interior of the Transantartic Moun- tains (TAM), the most striking example of nocontractional mountain belt. During the last campaingn (1999-2000) seismic stations were deployed deep into Northern Vic- toria Land to reach Rennik and Lillie Glaciers Area and George V coast region, the northest part of TAM. Our main goals were: to compute, using frequency-domanin deconvolution method by Di Bona [1998], Receiver Functions covering all the area around TNB italian antartic base; to map of Moho-depth and intercrustal S-waves ve- locity discontinuity from 1-D velocity model computed using Sambridge's inversion scheme [Sambridge,1999]; to analize new teleseimic waveforms recorded near TNB base: continuos recording, from 1999 to present, permits more accurate modelling S-velocity crustal structure in this critical area situated at the edge of the ipothetic rift [Stern and ten Brik, 1989; Stump and Fitzgerald, 1992; ten Brik et al., 1997]; to present final results from BACKTAM expedition.

  4. Lettura, Scrittura e Analisi dei Grafemi in Prima Elementare (Reading, Writing and Grapheme Analysis in First Grade)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deva, Ferruccio

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses an aspect of the process of learning to read and write which has received little attention, that is, the ability of children to recognize and to distinguish clearly the sounds which correspond to the individual letters within each word. (Text is in Italian.) (CFM)

  5. The mythic species Issus analis> Brullé, 1833 (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae): still an enigmatic taxon.

    PubMed

    Gnezdilov, Vladimir M; Bourgoin, Thierry

    2017-01-04

    One Issidae specimen stored in Paris museum historical collections is reported as holotype of Issus analis Brullé, 1833. From the original description, which is confirmed by study of this specimen, the species is moved to the genus Zopherisca Emeljanov, 2001 under a new combination Zopherisca analis (Brullé, 1833), comb. n. Date of description is discussed and modified from 1832 to 1833 accordingly. Unfortunately being a female as type specimen, the species remains quite enigmatic until some molecular analsysis could be undertaken on this old material.

  6. Estudio general de la region del Lago Titicaca evaluando en forma preliminar un sistema de analisis interactivo de imagenes multiespectrales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brockmann, C.E.; Carter, William D.

    1976-01-01

    ERTS-1 digital data in the form of computer compatible tapes provide the geoscientist with an unusual opportunity to test the maximum flexibility of the satellite system using interactive computers, such as the General Electric Image 100 System. Approximately 9 hours of computer and operator time were used to analyze the Lake Titicaca image, 1443-14073, acquired 9 October 1973. The total area of the lake and associate wetlands was calculated and found to be within 3 percent of previous measurements. The area was subdivided by reflectance characteristics employing cluster analysis of all 4 bands and later compared with density values of band 4. Reflectance variations may be attributed to surface roughness, water depth and bottom characteristics, turbidity, and floating matter. Wetland marsh vegetation, vegetation related to ground-water effluents, natural grasses, and farm crops were separated by cluster analysis. Sandstone, limestone, sand dunes, and several volcanic rock types were similarly separated and displayed by assigned colors and extended through the entire scene. Waste dumps of the Matilde Zinc Mine and smaller mine workings were tentatively identified by signature analysis. Histograms of reflectance values and map printouts were automatically obtained as a record of each of the principal themes. These themes were also stored on a work tape for later display and photographic record as well as to serve in training. The Image 100 System is rapid, extremely flexible and very useful to the investigator in identifying subtle features that may not be noticed by conventional image analysis. The entire scene, which covers 34,225 km2, was analyzed at a scale of 1:600,000, and portions at 1:98,000 and 1:25,000, during a 9-hour period at a rental cost of $250 per hour. Costs to the user can be reduced by restricting its uses to specific areas, objectives, and procedures, rather than undertaking a complete analysis of a total scene.

  7. [Epilepsy in films. A new century and… the same old perspective?].

    PubMed

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2013-07-16

    Introduccion. La epilepsia es una patologia neurologica ampliamente representada en el cine. En las publicaciones sobre el tema, se concluye que la imagen de la enfermedad aparece cargada de sensacionalismo e impregnada de estereotipos como la locura o la posesion. Desarrollo. Se realiza un analisis descriptivo de las crisis que aparecen en 155 peliculas y se comprueba si las producciones realizadas en el nuevo siglo han conseguido modificar las impresiones previas. En nuestra serie, el porcentaje de crisis que no constituyen epilepsia (pseudocrisis y crisis sintomaticas provocadas) alcanza el 37%. El analisis por grupos de edad del tipo de crisis y su etiologia muestra resultados similares a los reales; sin embargo, debe tenerse en cuenta que la distribucion etaria de la muestra no coincide con la de la poblacion real. Conclusiones. La epilepsia no consigue desprenderse del componente espiritual que tradicionalmente la acompaña, y las crisis suelen utilizarse como simple apoyo visual, sin excesivo celo en su correcta representacion y sin demasiado interes argumental en la enfermedad que las provoca. No obstante, en la ultima decada parecen normalizarse algunos estigmas, como la locura, la violencia descontrolada o el victimismo, que se asociaban a esta enfermedad.

  8. [Prefrontal clinical symptoms in daily living: screening assessment by means of the short Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI-20)].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M; Morales-Alonso, Sara; Pedrero-Aguilar, Jara; Fernández-Méndez, Laura M

    2015-05-01

    Introduccion. La estimacion de sintomas cotidianos de disfuncion frontal se considera imprescindible para aportar validez ecologica a las evaluaciones neuropsicologicas. Los cuestionarios disponibles se construyeron para estimar problemas ejecutivos en la vida diaria en poblaciones con daño neurologico. Se requieren instrumentos enfocados a medir estos comportamientos en la poblacion general o en poblaciones clinicas con fallos leves o moderados. Objetivo. Estudiar la validez factorial y encontrar indicios de validez concurrente de la version abreviada del inventario de sintomas prefrontales. Sujetos y metodos. Se obtuvieron tres muestras: la primera, a traves de Internet (n = 504); la segunda, en poblacion no clinica mediante lapiz y papel (n = 1.257), y la tercera, de pacientes en tratamiento por adiccion a sustancias (n = 602). Se utilizo un metodo de analisis factorial sin restricciones sobre la primera muestra y los resultados se sometieron a analisis factorial confirmatorio sobre las otras dos muestras. Resultados. La estructura de tres factores encontrada se confirmo con excelentes indicadores de ajuste en las otras dos muestras. Se hallaron indicios de validez concurrente con pruebas de calidad de vida y salud mental. Conclusiones. Se propone un cuestionario breve para la deteccion de fallos de origen prefrontal en la vida diaria, que mejora las cualidades psicometricas de tests similares, pero orientados a patologias neurologicas graves. La estabilidad estructural de la prueba garantiza la utilidad en la poblacion general, para la deteccion precoz del deterioro cognitivo, y en poblaciones clinicas con deterioro leve o moderado. Se proponen baremos para la interpretacion de resultados.

  9. [The neuroanatomy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: neuropsychological and clinical correlates].

    PubMed

    Albert, J; Fernandez-Jaen, A; Martin Fernandez-Mayoralas, D; Lopez-Martin, S; Fernandez-Perrone, A L; Calleja-Perez, B; Jimenez-De la Pena, M; Recio-Rodriguez, M

    2016-07-16

    Introduccion. El desarrollo de la resonancia magnetica estructural y de nuevos metodos de analisis ha permitido examinar, como nunca antes, las bases neuroanatomicas del trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). No obstante, poco se sabe todavia sobre la relacion de los sintomas clinicos y las disfunciones neuropsicologicas caracteristicas del TDAH con las alteraciones neuroanatomicas observadas. Objetivo. Explorar la relacion entre neuroanatomia, clinica y neuropsicologia en el TDAH. Desarrollo. A nivel de grupo, existen diferencias marcadas entre el cerebro de niños adolescentes y adultos con TDAH y el cerebro de personas con desarrollo tipico. Estas diferencias se observan transversal y longitudinalmente en todas las medidas, tanto de la sustancia gris como de la sustancia blanca. Aunque todavia escasa, cada vez existe mayor evidencia que señala que estas diferencias se relacionan con los sintomas nucleares del trastorno y con el grado de disfuncion clinica. Tambien parecen asociarse con el funcionamiento cognitivo (principalmente, atencion y control inhibitorio). Conclusiones. La relacion entre los distintos niveles de analisis de estudio del TDAH acerca la investigacion a la clinica y permite comprender y tratar mejor el trastorno. Aunque el avance en este campo es innegable, todavia son muchas las cuestiones que hay que explorar y profundizar en mayor detalle. Se requiere comprender mejor la asociacion entre las medidas neuroanatomicas y cada dimension sintomatologica, y la relacion con otros procesos neuropsicologicos tambien implicados en el trastorno.

  10. [External evaluation of gait and functional changes after a single-session multiple myofibrotenotomy in school-aged children with spastic diplegia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Andrés, David; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Martín-Gonzalo, Juan Andrés; López-López, Javier; Martínez-Caballero, Ignacio; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique; Rausell, Estrella

    2014-03-16

    Introduccion. Unos 23.000 pacientes con espasticidad han optado voluntariamente por la miofibrotomia multiple (MFM), una tecnica alternativa consistente en seccionar tejidos blandos para liberar restricciones articulares. Iniciada por Ulzibat (Rusia), se realiza fuera de controles clinicos ortodoxos. Objetivo. Evaluar externamente los efectos de la MFM sobre la funcionalidad motora y la marcha. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio observacional autocontrolado que evalua cambios en variables funcionales –Gross Motor Function Classification System, dimension E de la Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) y Functional Mobility Scale– y 32 parametros de marcha (medidos mediante analisis instrumental) en 22 escolares con diplejia espastica (edad mediana: 9 años y 6 meses; Q1-Q3: 7 años y 11 meses a 11 años y 6 meses) cuyos padres optaron por una MFM (mediana de observacion: 4 meses; rango: 3-7 meses). Resultados. El analisis de conglomerados jerarquicos utilizado para determinar patrones topograficos de cortes en los pacientes detecto que los cirujanos aplicaban a cada paciente uno de tres conjuntos de cortes. Analizados los tres grupos de pacientes, se observo que un grupo empeoro globalmente y una mejora significativa general en la dimension E del GMFM (diferencia de mediana: 4,86%; intervalo de confianza al 95% = 0-6,94%) tras la MFM. Algunos parametros de la marcha se normalizaron significativamente (izquierda: rango flexion-cadera, maxima dorsiflexion en apoyo; derecha: velocidad, rotacion pelvica media en apoyo y maxima dorsiflexion en apoyo). Conclusiones. Estos resultados no apoyan ni justifican el uso de la MFM como opcion para el tratamiento de la espasticidad. Insistimos en que esta tecnica debe evitarse fuera de protocolos de estudio. Sin embargo, los resultados asientan una base objetiva para justificar la realizacion de un ensayo clinico y estudios observacionales a largo plazo.

  11. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  12. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  13. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  14. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…

  15. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  16. [The right to avoid pregnancy] [POR, ENG translation included].

    PubMed

    1981-01-21

    Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use.

  17. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  18. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  19. Descemet membranotomy to treat pre-descemet haematoma after deep sclerectomy and anterior segment-OCT related findings: A presentation of two clinical cases.

    PubMed

    Casas-Llera, P; Arnalich-Montiel, F; Muñoz-Negrete, F J; Rebolleda, G

    2017-01-01

    An 81 year-old woman and a 63 year-old man developed a pre-Descemet haematoma after deep sclerectomy (DS), the former during the surgery itself and the latter during the early post-operative period. The surgical technique is decribed that led to the evacuation of the haematoma and the preservation of the integrity of trabeculo-Descemet membrane. The anterior-segment OCT findings after surgery are also presented. These are the first reported cases of pre-Descemet haematoma after DS that have been successfully repaired by an ab interno Descemet membranotomy. Surgeons should be aware of this rare, but potentially sight-threatening, complication. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Modos de produccion cientifica: Culturas y metodologias de investigacion en la Universidad de Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Ramos, Ana M.

    2004-12-01

    Este trabajo de investigacion supone un modelo teorico de caracter aplicado, que proporciona la oportunidad de evaluar la produccion cientifica de los investigadores. Se encuadra dentro de la tradiccion de la estadistica aplicada y la sociologia del conocimiento. Atiende especialmente a dos conjuntos de temas de interes, por una parte, las caracteristicas principales que determinan el nivel y tipo de produccion academica producida por las unidades de investigacion y por los propios investigadores; por otra, la utilizacion que se hace de los metodos y tecnicas de investigacion puesto que de ello tambien depende el modo de produccion cientifica. Los puntos novedosos de esta tesis son: la medicion cuantitativa del objeto de estudio, la suma de los productos y las condiciones externas a la produccion del conocimiento mas otros elementos internos como las caracteristicas de los investigadores y la metodologia utilizada para desarrollar sus trabajos; y, finalmente, el uso de las nuevas tecnologias. El aprovechamiento de los recursos estadisticos y las fuentes de informacion secundarias se complementan con el diseno propio de una encuesta donde se implementa las caracteristicas descritas en un capitulo anterior sobre los metodos cientificos mas idoneos descritos en los principales manuales y articulos cientificos desde distintas disciplinas de conocimiento. Dicha encuesta ha sido desarrollada como un programa propio y en base a los mas innovadores usos de la tecnologia en la metodologia de encuestas.

  1. A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two PorAs and stabilized OpcA expression.

    PubMed

    Keiser, P B; Biggs-Cicatelli, S; Moran, E E; Schmiel, D H; Pinto, V B; Burden, R E; Miller, L B; Moon, J E; Bowden, R A; Cummings, J F; Zollinger, W D

    2011-02-04

    This phase I clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from an lpxL1(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 8570(B:4:P1.19,15:L8-5) of Neisseria meningitidis. Additional mutations enhance the expression of factor H binding protein variant 1 (fHbp v.1), stabilize expression of OpcA and introduce a second PorA (P1.22,14). Thirty-six volunteers were assigned to one of four dose groups (10, 25, 50 and 75 mcg, based on protein content) to receive three intramuscular injections at six week intervals with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Specific local and systemic adverse events were solicited by diary and at visits on days 2, 7, and 14 after each vaccination. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again 2 and 14 days later. Blood for ELISA and serum bactericidal assays was drawn two and six weeks after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in bactericidal activity to the wild type parent of the vaccine strain at two weeks after the third dose was 27 out of 34 (0.79, 95% C.I. 0.65-0.93). Against four other group B strains the response rate ranged from 41% to 82% indicating a good cross reactive antibody response. Depletion assays show contributions to bactericidal activity from antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), fHbp v.1 and OpcA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: similarities and differences in executive functioning and theory of mind].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Casas, Ana; Baixauli-Fortea, Immaculada; Colomer-Diago, Carla; Roselló-Miranda, Belén

    2013-09-06

    Introduccion. Aunque los criterios diagnosticos del autismo y del trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) en el DSM-IV-TR no se solapan, la presencia de sintomas de TDAH en individuos con un diagnostico clinico de autismo es muy elevada. A su vez, los niños con TDAH pueden tener rasgos autistas, aunque los mas prevalentes son las dificultades sociales y de comunicacion. El analisis del perfil en las funciones ejecutivas y en la teoria de la mente (ToM) podria ayudar a explicar el solapamiento y la diferenciacion entre ambos trastornos. Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de estudios empiricos en los que se ha comparado a niños con TDAH y con autismo en indicadores de funcionamiento ejecutivo y ToM. Desarrollo. La revision de las investigaciones sugiere la existencia de patrones distintos en el trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) y en el TDAH cuando el funcionamiento ejecutivo se segmenta en componentes. Los niños con TDAH experimentan deficit en el control inhibitorio mientras que los niños con TEA tienen mas problemas en flexibilidad cognitiva y en planificacion. En cuanto al dominio de las habilidades mentales se producen diferencias evolutivas, asi como en su gravedad. Los niños mas pequeños con TEA experimentan mayores deficiencias en la ToM en comparacion con los niños con TDAH y un deficit primario en la orientacion social. Conclusiones. Aunque los avances son importantes, quedan asuntos pendientes por aclarar, entre los que destaca el analisis de como afecta un pobre desarrollo de las funciones ejecutivas al desarrollo de la ToM, con estudios longitudinales que analicen las trayectorias evolutivas de niños con TEA y niños con TDAH.

  3. Creation and design of a test for the Evaluation of Upper Limb Apraxia (EULA) based on a cognitive model: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Marmol, José Manuel; Lopez-Alcalde, Samuel; Carnero-Pardo, Cristóbal; Canadas-De la Fuente, Guillermo A; Peralta-Ramirez, M Isabel; Garcia-Rios, M Carmen

    2015-01-16

    Introduccion. La apraxia es un trastorno neurologico caracterizado por la dificultad en la ejecucion de habilidades gestuales aprendidas a pesar de tener preservados los sistemas motores y sensoriales, la coordinacion y la comprension, asi como de una adecuada colaboracion. Actualmente, existen pocas herramientas validadas que evaluen este sindrome de manera global. En el presente estudio, se ha creado y diseñado un test para la evaluacion de la apraxia de los miembros superiores (EULA), basado en modelos teoricos. Sujetos y metodos. Se selecciono una poblacion de 57 pacientes con quejas subjetivas de deterioro cognitivo y 39 personas sin quejas ni deterioro cognitivo, a las cuales se les administro el test EULA, entre otros tests. Se realizo un analisis factorial de componentes principales y un calculo tanto de la fiabilidad como de la validez de dicho instrumento. Resultados. El analisis factorial agrupo en nueve factores todos los items de la prueba, con una varianza total explicada del 69,91%. El test ha mostrado una alta fiabilidad, con un alfa de Cronbach de 0,929 y un coeficiente de Guttman de 0,870 con el metodo de las dos mitades. El test tambien mostro tener una adecuada validez de constructo, al existir correlacion significativa entre seis factores del test y dos subtests de apraxia. Conclusiones. El test EULA, surgido de las propuestas de evaluacion a nivel teorico desarrolladas por diferentes autores, muestra una puntuacion superior en personas sanas respecto a personas con manifestaciones subjetivas de deterioro cognitivo, ademas de tener una alta fiabilidad y validez de constructo.

  4. Mapa Sociolinguistico. Analisis demolinguistico de la Comunidad Autonoma Vasca derivado del padron de 1986 (Sociolinguistic Map. Demolinguistic analysis of the Autonomous Basque Community derived from the 1986 Census).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basque Autonomous Community, Vitoria (Spain). General Secretariat of Linguistic Policy.

    Sociolinguistic data are presented in the form of sophisticated maps and tables in this pioneering study on the status of the Basque language. Based on information collected from the 1986 census, the major demographic characteristics of Basque are examined in order to ascertain the factors and processes that have contributed to its current status.…

  5. Comparison between temperatures pattern from thermal IR time series analisys and deformational pattern from InSAR and GPS data at Campi Flegrei caldera (Naples, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansivero, F.; Vilardo, G.; Borgstrom, S.; De Martino, P.; Siniscalchi, V.; Minet, C.; Goel, K.

    2012-04-01

    Long-term thermal infrared volcanological monitoring is carried out at Campi Flegrei caldera (Naples, Italy) by INGV - Osservatorio Vesuviano by acquiring daily infrared images (LWIR) of fumaroles fields since year 2004. The IR monitoring system (TIIMNet -Thermal Infrared Monitoring Network) includes two permanent automatic infrared (IR) stations installed at Solfatara crater and at Pisciarelli area equipped both with a NEC Thermo Tracer TS7302 IR camera with focal plane array (FPA) uncooled microbolometer measuring systems (320x240 pixel). At Solfatara the station is operative since July 2004 and acquires scenes of the SE inner slope of Solfatara where are located the major fumaroles at an average distance of about 300 m from the IR camera. The camera at Pisciarelli is operative since October 2006 and acquires scenes of the outer eastern flank of the Solfatara tuff-cone (average distance of fumaroles is about 130 m), corresponding to an area characterized by heavy water vapor and CO2 emissions. To obtain as much as possible accurate temperature values which can be representative of surface temperatures of fumaroles fields, time series of raw IR scenes has been processed with integrated methodologies. Briefly these methodologies are based on Standard Deviation filtering (as SD represents a quality parameter), background correction of the temperature values and periodicities removal using Matlab tools. The data representation, using an average moving window, show a pattern without evidence of the major seasonal cyclicity, although it still contains minor cyclicity probably due to endogenous factors and, particularly at Pisciarelli, it evidences significant temperature peak values on August 2009 and a gradual increase of temperatures from November 2010 till now. In order to strengthen the significance of data from IR thermal analysis, a comparison with deformational pattern has been carried out using both High-Resolution Spotlight TerraSAR-X data, processed using the Small Baseline Subset algorithm (SBAS) implemented on the DLR's operational InSAR software GENESIS, and data from continuous GPS stations operated by the INGV - Osservatorio Vesuviano. The comparison has shown similar patterns from InSAR and GPS time series and IR temperature time series, suggesting as ground deformations and surface temperatures of fumaroles fields likely represent comparable responses to volcanic processes of the Campi Flegrei area.

  6. Analisys, processing and validation data from eolic stations of SONDA project (National Organization System of Environmental Data) at Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (CPTEC/INPE) .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junior, A. B.; Nogueira, J. M.; Garcia, S. G.; Andrade, E. S.

    2007-05-01

    Asiel Bomfin Jr. LIM/CPTEC/INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, S.P., Brazil; Eliana Soares de Andrade; Jorge Luiz Martins Nogueira and Silvia Garcia de Castro. The Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Analysis (CPTEC), a division of INPE, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. Several of the INPE´s departments and centers, like the CPTEC, have a variety of valuable datasets, many of them freely available and eolic data from SONDA project are also part of them at Meteorological Instrumental Laboratory (LIM). This paper presents the Analiys, processing and validation method applied to the eolic data in a temporal time of ten minutes, to be used in a PC IBM computer. This method is divided in tree separated programs. The first software called "separa.c" has the capability of divide the ingest data set in mensal files, identified by each station group. The second software called "minuto.c" does a syntactical analysis, verifying and correcting eventual lost data with NAN values. The third one called "validacode.c" generates two principal files, one containing the original data and the other with the codes of each variable for each minute analyzed. These codes is based on BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network), but with some differences in their analyzed method. This method followed the Webmet.com, The Meteorological Resource Center. Table 1:Validation Codes Code Meaning 0 Quality check procedure is not avaiable for this level 2 The data is suspect 5 Quality check procedure is avaiable for this level, but not can be done 9 The data is correct Table 2: Validation levels for WIND SPEED: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of 25 m/s and 0 m/s 1 Can not vary more than 0,1 m/s for 03 consecutive hours 2 Can not vary more than 0,5 m/s for 12 consecutive hours 3 - Table 3: Validation levels for WIND DRECTION: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of 360 and 0 degrees 1 Can not vary more than 01 degree for 03 consecutive hours 2 Can not vary more than 10 degrees for 18 consecutive hours 3 - Table 4: Validation levels for TEMPERATURE: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of local data 1 Must vary more than 5 °C with reference to1 hour before 2 Can not vary more than 0, 5°C for 12 consecutive hours 3 - Output code examples according with the validation levels : Table 5: Output code examples Level 0 (Limit) Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 (final output) 0009 0029 0529 0529 0009 0099 0999 ou 0299 0999 ou 0299 0002 0052 0552 0552 6 Bibliographical references Stull, R. B., Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 666 p, 1988. Vickers, D.; Mahrt, L. Quality control and flux sampling problems for tower and aircraft data. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, v. 14, n. 3, p. 512-526, June 1997.. 7 Electronical references National Organization System of Environmental Data Site http:www.cptec.inpe.br/~sonda/ The Meteorological Resource Center -Webmet.com Site http:www.webmet.com/

  7. Psicolinguistica, psicologia del linguaggio e "Analisi elettroacustica del linguaggio" di P. Agostino Gemelli (Psycholinguistics, Psychology of Language and P. Agostino Gemelli's "Electric-Acoustical Analysis of Language").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Renzo

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of the little-known linguist Gemelli who favors a holistic approach to human language emphasizing the human personality as an essential factor in the expression of speech. Gemelli makes clear the breadth of the field of language psychology in contrast with the narrowness of psycholinguistics. (CFM)

  8. [Comparative description and retrospective analisis of modern methods of surgical wounds closure for intraoperative prophylaxis of development of pathologic cutaneous cicatrices].

    PubMed

    Stavyts'kyĭ, S O; Avetikov, D S; Lokes, K P; Rozkolupa, O O; Boĭko, I V

    2014-05-01

    The experience of application of various methods of closure was presented for the head and neck cutaneous wound surfaces after elective operative interventions. The variant of the postoperative results estimation and optimization of the wounds healing by primary closure was proposed.

  9. Determination and Analysis of the main physical parameters of the asteroid (2717) Tellervo. (Italian Title: Determinazione ed Analisi dei principali parametri fisici dell'asteroide (2717) Tellervo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassini, A.; Scardella, M.; Lacaprara, G.

    2013-02-01

    The "ATA Research Group" has undertaken an observation campaign (started at the end of 2011 with several preliminary sessions) oriented to little-known asteroids main properties determination (synodic period, size, possible taxonomic class). This study has been focused on the asteroid (2717) Tellervo belonging to the Main Belt. This work would be an example and an incentive to other non-professional Association to develop a field where the amateur Astronomers can provide a remarkable role to the knowledge of these more and more interesting Solar System objects.

  10. L'organizzazione di una lezione di traduzione basata sull'approccio dell'analisi testuale (The Organization of a Translation Lesson Based on a Textual Analysis Approach).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrakh, Livio

    1988-01-01

    Describes a three-phase approach to teaching translation: (1) decoding the "macro" (beyond sentence level) and the "micro" (sentence or phrase level) elements of the passage; (2) coordinating the elements of the original language text with the target language text; and (3) producing the text in the target language. (CFM)

  11. Posizione dell'aggettivo nel nominale: Alcune recenti analisi (The Position of the Adjective in the Noun Phrase: Some Recent Analyses).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francesconi, Consuelo

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent analyses of the adjective in Italian and stresses the importance of the position of the Italian adjective for second language learners of Italian and for Italians learning foreign languages. (CFM)

  12. L'organizzazione di una lezione di traduzione basata sull'approccio dell'analisi testuale (The Organization of a Translation Lesson Based on a Textual Analysis Approach).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrakh, Livio

    1988-01-01

    Describes a three-phase approach to teaching translation: (1) decoding the "macro" (beyond sentence level) and the "micro" (sentence or phrase level) elements of the passage; (2) coordinating the elements of the original language text with the target language text; and (3) producing the text in the target language. (CFM)

  13. Posizione dell'aggettivo nel nominale: Alcune recenti analisi (The Position of the Adjective in the Noun Phrase: Some Recent Analyses).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francesconi, Consuelo

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent analyses of the adjective in Italian and stresses the importance of the position of the Italian adjective for second language learners of Italian and for Italians learning foreign languages. (CFM)

  14. Reducing time delay in the thrombolysis of myocardial infarction: an internal quality improvement project. ARIAM Project Group. Analisis del Retraso en Infarto Agudo de Miocardio.

    PubMed

    Saturno, P J; Felices, F; Segura, J; Vera, A; Rodriguez, J J

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to improve thrombolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction by reducing the "door-to-needle" time in a 285-bed university hospital in Spain. A quality management approach was used involving all the relevant staff. Target standard was set at 35 minutes. Baseline data, intervention effect, and continuous monitoring were analyzed using x control charts. Analysis of baseline data showed a wide out-of-control variation and 72 minutes' average delay. Cause analysis revealed organizational and clinical problems that were subjected to intervention. Postintervention data showed a stable process, with an average of 30 minutes. Continuous monitoring showed further improvement in average time and predictable variation. The template of the current control chart has an average of 26 minutes. Quality management methods, particularly staff involvement in problem analysis and intervention design, and the use of control charts were useful to understand, solve, and continuously monitor an important clinical problem whose existence was evident only after it was measured.

  15. Un programma di calcolo per la valutazione della periodicità secondo l'analisi di Fourier. Dati temporali non equidistribuiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianciardi, Giorgio

    2005-12-01

    We present and discuss a software written by us in Visual Basic to allow the search and determination of periodicity by using uneven spaced data (Date-Compensated Discrete Fourier Transform). The technique has been applied to search for the periodicity of the suspected variable star NSV 1444.

  16. Analisi dell'Interazione Verbale Nella Discussione Matematica: Un Approccio Vygotskiano (A Verbal Analysis of Interaction in Mathematics Discussion: The Vygotskiano Approach).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussi, Maria G. Bartolini; Boni, Mara

    1995-01-01

    Presents a methodology for analyzing verbal interaction in mathematical discussion which is both a product and an instrument of a research project in grades one through eight. Analyzes an example of discussion from a first-grade classroom about point of view. (Author/MKR)

  17. Analisi dell'Interazione Verbale Nella Discussione Matematica: Un Approccio Vygotskiano (A Verbal Analysis of Interaction in Mathematics Discussion: The Vygotskiano Approach).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussi, Maria G. Bartolini; Boni, Mara

    1995-01-01

    Presents a methodology for analyzing verbal interaction in mathematical discussion which is both a product and an instrument of a research project in grades one through eight. Analyzes an example of discussion from a first-grade classroom about point of view. (Author/MKR)

  18. Psicolinguistica, psicologia del linguaggio e "Analisi elettroacustica del linguaggio" di P. Agostino Gemelli (Psycholinguistics, Psychology of Language and P. Agostino Gemelli's "Electric-Acoustical Analysis of Language").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titone, Renzo

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of the little-known linguist Gemelli who favors a holistic approach to human language emphasizing the human personality as an essential factor in the expression of speech. Gemelli makes clear the breadth of the field of language psychology in contrast with the narrowness of psycholinguistics. (CFM)

  19. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  20. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  1. [The mind-brain problem (II): about consciousness].

    PubMed

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J; Goni-Saez, F

    2016-08-16

    Introduccion. La conciencia es el resultado de una serie de procesos neurobiologicos en el cerebro y a su vez es un rasgo del nivel de su complejidad. En realidad, el estar y el ser consciente nos situan ante lo que Chalmers ha denominado el 'problema blando' y el 'problema duro' de la conciencia. El primero hace referencia a aspectos como la vigilia, la atencion o el conocimiento, y el segundo a conceptos tan complejos como autoconciencia, 'yo neural' o cognicion social. En este sentido se puede afirmar que el concepto de conciencia como algo unitario plantea problemas de acercamiento a una realidad sumamente compleja. Desarrollo. Planteamos los principales modelos que desde una perspectiva neurocientifica han abordado el tema de la conciencia. Por un lado, los modelos de experiencia consciente de Crick, Edelman y Tononi, y Llinas, y por otro, los modelos y las bases neuronales de la autoconciencia de autores como Damasio (conciencia central y extendida), Tulving (conciencia autonoetica, noetica y cronestesia), el problema de los qualia (Dennett, Popper, Ramachandran) y el modelo de los cognitos (Fuster). Conclusiones. Todos los estimulos que recibimos del mundo externo y de nuestro mundo interno son convertidos y tratados por el cerebro para integrarlos y que formen parte de nuestra identidad. Desde la percepcion de un perro y reconocerlo como tal hasta la comprension de la propia conciencia responden al funcionamiento de estructuras cerebrales, neuronas y sinapsis. Ahora bien, los procesos mas complejos de la conciencia, como la autoconciencia o la empatia, son probablemente procesos emergentes del cerebro.

  2. [Career Satisfaction of Medical Residents in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Martins, Maria João; Laíns, Inês; Brochado, Bruno; Oliveira-Santos, Manuel; Teixeira, Pedro Pinto; Brandão, Mariana; Cerqueira, Rui João; Castro-Ferreira, Ricardo; Bernardes, Carlos; Menezes, Miguel Nobre; Baptista, Bernardo Soares; Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Rei, Mariana Cruz; Rosa, Gilberto Pires da; Martins, José Luís; Mendonça Sanches, Maria; Ferreira-Pinto, Manuel J; Rato, Margarida; Costa e Silva, Miguel; Policiano, Catarina; Beato, João; Barbosa-Breda, João; Torres, João Pimentel; Leal, Inês; Rosa, Sílvia Aguiar; Ribeiro, Bárbara Carvalho; Costa, Francisco Rego; Palmela, Carolina; Gonçalves, Tiago Cúrdia; Morais, Luis; Marques, Tiago Reis

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A satisfação com a profissão médica tem sido apontada como um fator essencial para a qualidade assistencial, o bemestar dos doentes e a estabilidade dos sistemas de saúde. Estudos recentes têm vindo a enfatizar um crescente descontentamento dos médicos, principalmente como consequência das alterações das relações laborais.Objetivos: Avaliar a perceção dos médicos de formação específica em Portugal, sobre as expectativas e grau de satisfação com a profissão, especialidade e local de formação; razões da insatisfação e intenção de emigrar.Material e Métodos: Estudo transversal. A colheita de dados foi efetuada entre Maio e Agosto de 2014 através de um Inquérito online sobre a âÄúSatisfação com a EspecialidadeâÄù.Resultados: De uma população total de 5788 médicos, foram obtidas 804 respostas (12,25% do total de médicos internos). Desta amostra, 77% das respostas correspondem a internos dos três primeiros anos de formação. Verificou-se que 90% dos médicos se encontram satisfeitos com a especialidade, tendo-se encontrado também níveis elevados de satisfação com a profissão (85%) e local de formação (86%). Por outro lado, constatou-se que estes diminuíam com a progressão ao longo dos anos de internato. A avaliação global sobre o panorama da prática médica foi negativa e 65% dos médicos responderam que consideram emigrar após conclusão do internato.Conclusão: Os médicos internos em Portugal apresentam níveis positivos de satisfação com a sua profissão. No entanto, a sua opinião sobre o panorama da Medicina e os resultados relativos à intenção de emigrar alertam para a necessidade de tomada de medidas para inverter este cenário.

  3. [Suicidal Behavior among Portuguese Psychiatry Trainees: Comparison with the European Situation].

    PubMed

    Gama Marques, João; Roberto, Alice; Guerra, Cátia; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Podlesek, Anja; Beezhold, Julian; Jovanovic, Nikolina; Moscoso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de ideação suicida e tentativas de suicídio nos médicos internos de psiquiatria de adultos e de psiquiatria da infância e da adolescência em Portugal, e comparar os resultados com a população geral portuguesa e de outros países europeus. Material e Métodos: Enviou-se um questionário estruturado e anónimo, por e-mail, aos 159 internos de psiquiatria de adultos e de psiquiatria da infância e da adolescência do país, questionando antecedentes pessoais de ideação suicida e tentativas de suícidio, bem como antecedentes familiares de tentativas de suicídio falhadas e consumadas. Estas questões fazem parte do Estudo BoSS (Burnout Syndrome Study) realizado em 21 países. A análise dos dados foi feita através do programa informático SPSS v. 19. Resultados: Responderam parcialmente ao questionário 62 internos (40,3%) e 46 (29%) responderam ao questionário na totalidade, constituindo assim a amostra. O ratio feminino:masculino foi de 2:1 e a média de idade de 29 anos. A ideação suicida estava presente na forma passiva em 44% dos inquiridos e na forma activa em 33%; 4,3% referiu tentativas de suicídio prévias. Em relação à história familiar, registou-se 22% de tentativas de suicídio e 13% de suicídio consumado.Discussão: Os resultados obtidos são preocupantes e podem estar associados a factores específicos a que esta população está exposta. Conclusão:ã necessária uma investigação mais aprofundada para se compreender melhor este fenómeno, respectivas causas e potenciais modificadores.

  4. [Validity and consistency of the ECAVIPEP and CAVE scales to assess quality of life in paediatric patients with epilepsy].

    PubMed

    García-Galicia, Arturo; García-Carrasco, Mario; Montiel-Jarquín, Álvaro J; García-Cuautitla, Marco A; Barragán-Hervella, Rodolfo G; Romero-Figueroa, M Socorro

    2014-10-01

    Introduccion. La epilepsia tiene un alto impacto en la calidad de vida del niño, por lo que es importante contar con instrumentos validados y consistentes para su evaluacion. Objetivo. Comparar la validez y consistencia de una nueva escala de calidad de vida para pacientes epilepticos pediatricos (ECAVIPEP) de un hospital mexicano con la escala CAVE ampliamente validada. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio comparativo, en el que se analiza la validez y consistencia de una nueva escala para evaluar la epilepsia en niños. Se realizo en niños epilepticos de 4-10 años mediante la aplicacion de una escala de calidad de vida, comparandola con la escala CAVE ampliamente validada. Se utilizo el alfa de Cronbach y la rho de Spearman para la validez y la consistencia. Resultados. Fueron 114 pacientes, 72 (63,1%) niños y 42 (36,8%) niñas. La consistencia interna dio un valor del alfa de Cronbach de 0,673. Para el analisis de validez convergente, comparando las puntuaciones obtenidas por la CAVE y por la ECAVIPEP, se obtuvo una rho de Spearman de 0,670 (p menor que 0). Conclusion. La ECAVIPEP es una escala valida y consistente para la evaluacion en niños de 4-10 años con epilepsia.

  5. [The P300 component as a neurophysiological correlate of behavioural working memory in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Roca, Patricia; Presentación-Herrero, M Jesús; Miranda-Casas, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Ortiz-Sánchez, Pedro

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. El deficit en funciones ejecutivas ha sido ampliamente estudiado en el trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). El interes por sus correlatos neurofisiologicos apunta a una mejora en la identificacion de los sintomas, las caracteristicas y los tratamientos para el trastorno. Objetivo. Analizar, en una muestra de adolescentes con TDAH, la correlacion entre la latencia y amplitud del componente P300 y una medida ecologica de memoria de trabajo. Pacientes y metodos. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 24 chicos y 7 chicas de 12 a 18 anos. Se realizo un registro y analisis de potenciales evocados cognitivos P300 en modalidad auditiva en Cz. Ademas, los padres cumplimentaron una escala de comportamiento ejecutivo en el hogar (BRIEF), de la que se extrajo el indice de memoria de trabajo. Resultados. Se hallaron correlaciones significativas entre la amplitud del P300 y el indice de memoria de trabajo del BRIEF-P. Conclusion. Los resultados enfatizan la utilidad del componente P300 para el estudio de sus correlatos ejecutivos, y la necesidad de ampliar con estudios que aporten mayores muestras y mayor complejidad.

  6. [Healthcare management of an epilepsy clinic: factors involved in the demand for health care and clinical situation of patients].

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Guillermina; Martín-Reyes, Guillermina; Dawid-Milner, Marc Stefan; Chamorro-Muñoz, M Isabel; Pérez-Errazquin, Francisco; Romero-Acebal, Manuel

    2013-05-16

    Introduccion. La epilepsia es una enfermedad cronica que implica un seguimiento periodico del paciente a largo plazo, lo que supone un aumento del numero de pacientes visitados con el tiempo y, por tanto, un coste al sistema sanitario. Objetivo. Determinar los factores implicados en el tiempo para la siguiente visita de un paciente epileptico. Pacientes y metodos. Seleccion de pacientes durante un ano que acuden consecutivamente a consulta de epilepsia de nuestro hospital. Se analiza su situacion clinica y relacion con el consejo medico dado, y los factores implicados en el tiempo transcurrido hasta la siguiente visita mediante modelos econometricos predictivos. Resultados. Existe una clara asociacion entre la situacion clinica del paciente y la modificacion del tratamiento propuesta por el neurologo en la visita anterior. Los factores implicados en el tiempo hasta la siguiente visita fueron frecuencia de crisis, efectos adversos medicamentosos, sobre todo los que afectan a la cognicion, y consejo medico al paciente. No resultaron significativos la politerapia, los trastornos psicoafectivos ni la situacion social del paciente. Conclusiones. El seguimiento en una consulta especifica de epilepsia mejora la situacion del paciente. Se trata del primer analisis de demanda asistencial en pacientes con epilepsia realizado mediante metodos econometricos y desde una perspectiva mixta medico-paciente. Dado que los factores que determinan el tiempo para la siguiente visita son modificables, podria disminuir el numero de visitas al ano, mejorando la situacion clinica de los pacientes. Proponemos una mayor duracion por visita para poder incidir en ello y reducir costes a largo plazo.

  7. Comparison of the effectiveness and renal safety of tenofovir versus entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    López Centeno, Beatriz; Collado Borrell, Roberto; Pérez Encinas, Montserrat; Gutiérrez García, Maria Luisa; Sanmartin Fenollera, Patricia

    2016-06-01

    Objetivo: Comparar la efectividad y seguridad renal del tratamiento con tenofovir frente al entecavir en pacientes con hepatitis B cronica. Métodos: Estudio retrospectivo en pacientes con hepatitis B que iniciaron tratamiento con tenofovir o entecavir entre enero 1998-2013. La variable principal de la efectividad fue definida como DNA viral < 20 UI/ml (HBV-DNA) y la de la seguridad renal como variaciones en el filtrado glomerular (eGFR) tras 48 semanas de tratamiento. Resultados: Se analizaron un total de 64 pacientes (1:1), con caracteristicas semejantes excepto por el predominio de pacientes sin tratamiento previo (p=0,036), comorbilidades (p=0,077) y farmacos nefrotoxicos (p=0,088) en el grupo-entecavir, y de pacientes con HBV-DNA < 20 UI/ml (p=0,032) y HBeAg-positivo (p=0,050) en el grupo-tenofovir. Se realizaron analisis estadisticos univariantes y se ajustaron las variables confusoras mediante Propensity score (PS). Los resultados para la variable principal de efectividad (HBV-DNA < 20 UI/ml) denotan una superioridad del tenofovir tras el ajuste por PS con una ORadj= 6,7 (IC95%: 1,2-35,3; p=0,028). Tres pacientes con tenofovir sufrieron seroconversion (p=0,148). Los resultados para la variable principal de seguridad (eGFR < 60ml/min/1.73m2) no mostraron diferencias entre ambas ramas tras el ajuste, obteniendo una ORadj= 0,6 (IC95%: 0,1-2,8; p=0,521). El grupo-tenofovir registro dos casos de suspension por toxicidad renal, con posterior recuperacion, entre ellos un sindrome de Fanconi. Conclusiones: En nuestro estudio existen diferencias significativas entre ambos tratamientos respecto a su efectividad, mostrandose el tenofovir superior. En cuanto a la seguridad renal, no hemos encontrado diferencias significativas, pero dos casos de suspension de tratamiento por toxicidad renal con tenofovir nos llevan a concluir que la decision de tratamiento en los pacientes con alteraciones en la funcion renal deberia incluir un analisis individualizado de cada caso.

  8. [Choice of Family Medicine at the exams for Spanish resident doctors in 2011 and 2013].

    PubMed

    Ayuso-Raya, María Candelaria; Escobar-Rabadán, Francisco; López-Torres Hidalgo, Jesús; Montoya-Fernández, Julio; Téllez-Lapeira, Juan Manuel; Campa Valera, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la Medicina Familiar (MF) está considerada entre las especialidades que menos interesan a quienes optan por ser médicos internos residentes (MIR) en España. Nuestro objetivo es describir la prioridad concedida a la elección de MF en las convocatorias MIR 2011 y 2013, y qué factores podrían estar asociados con esta elección. Métodos: de la web del Ministerio de Sanidad de España se obtuvo información de los opositores que optaron a plaza (11552 y 9182). Las variables analizadas han sido: número obtenido en la oposición, sexo, especialidad elegida, ciudad elegida, facultad donde estudiaron (para 117 y 155 en un estudio de cohorte previo). Se calculó la probabilidad de elección de MF en relación con el número de orden en la oposición y otras variables (Kaplan-Meier). Resultados: la MF fue elegida por 1963 y 1772, respectivamente en 2011 y 2013. La mediana del número en la oposición para elegir MF fue 7894 (IC 95 % 7720-8068) y 6561 (IC 95 % 6442-6680). Existían diferencias por sexo: las mujeres elegían MF con menor número y en mayor proporción (p < 0.00001). Conclusiones: los opositores MIR no tienen una especial preferencia por la MF. Las mujeres muestran un mayor interés por esta especialidad.

  9. [Characterisation of factors associated with carotid stenosis in a population at high risk].

    PubMed

    Chiquete, Erwin; Torres-Octavo, Benjamín; Cano-Nigenda, Vanessa; Valle-Rojas, Deyanira; Dominguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Tolosa-Tort, Paulina; Florez-Cardona, José Alejandro; Flores-Silva, Fernando; Reyes-Melo, Isael; Higuera-Calleja, Jesús; Garcia-Ramos, Guillermo; Cantu-Brito, Carlos

    2014-06-16

    Introduccion. La estenosis moderada a grave es la forma de enfermedad carotidea aterosclerosa menos prevalente, pero que implica un alto riesgo de ictus isquemico. Objetivo. Caracterizar los factores asociados con la estenosis carotidea moderada a grave en una poblacion de alto riesgo. Pacientes y metodos. Realizamos un analisis de los factores de riesgo tradicionales asociados a estenosis carotidea >= 50% en 533 pacientes que recibieron evaluacion mediante ultrasonograma Doppler por historia de ictus (34%), o que contaban con al menos dos de los factores de riesgo: edad >= 55 años (86%), hipertension (65%), dislipidemia (52%), obesidad (42%), diabetes (40%) o tabaquismo (40%). Resultados. La prevalencia de estenosis carotidea >= 50% fue del 7,1%, sintomatica (asociada a ictus en territorio congruente) en el 5,6%, bilateral en el 2,1% y sintomatica bilateral en el 1,5%. Un 36,8% de los pacientes presento carga moderada a grave (>= 4) de placas de ateroma (25,9%, moderada: 4-6 placas; y 10,9%, grave: >= 7 placas). Mediante analisis multivariable se identifico la edad >= 75 años, la dislipidemia y el tabaquismo como factores asociados con estenosis >= 50%, y la hipertension arterial y el tabaquismo con estenosis sintomatica. El numero de factores de riesgo se asocio fuertemente con la prevalencia de estenosis carotidea. Notablemente, ni la diabetes ni la obesidad explicaron el grado de estenosis moderada a grave. Conclusiones. Como formas de enfermedad carotidea aterosclerosa, la frecuencia de estenosis moderada a grave es menor que una carga alta de placas de ateroma. La edad avanzada, el tabaquismo, la dislipidemia y la hipertension son los principales factores tradicionales que se asocian con el grado de estenosis carotidea.

  10. [Reliability and stability in the diagnosis of high intellectual capacity].

    PubMed

    Sastre-Riba, S; Castello-Tarrida, A

    2017-02-24

    Introduccion. Desde una perspectiva diferencial, es esencial identificar la alta capacidad intelectual (ACI) como recurso de valor personal y social. Es necesaria una aproximacion metrica valida, estable y fiable que evite tanto los falsos positivos como su no deteccion, facilitando la planificacion e implementacion de programas de intervencion educativa que permitan la expresion del potencial y bienestar personal. Objetivo. Explorar la fiabilidad y estabilidad de la aproximacion metrica a la ACI en distintos momentos de medida. Sujetos y metodos. Se estudian 58 niños con ACI, de 8-14 años, asistentes a un programa de enriquecimiento extracurricular. Se administra una medida intelectual multidimensional, en dos puntos temporales con un intervalo de un año (T1 y T2), mediante la bateria de aptitudes diferenciales y generales o el test de aptitudes diferenciales (segun la edad), y el test de pensamiento creativo de Torrance. Se calcula si hay diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre las puntuaciones obtenidas por cada participante en T1 y T2, y se realiza un analisis de regresion intraindividual para conocer el significado de las diferencias significativas obtenidas. Resultados. Hay diferencias significativas en 25 de los perfiles estudiados entre las medidas T1-T2, de los cuales el analisis de regresion indica que hay cinco con inestabilidad entre las medidas T1 y T2, lo que implica un cambio de perfil intelectual. Conclusion. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia de asegurar la estabilidad y fiabilidad de la medida psicologica y el papel del cociente de inteligencia para aumentar la eficacia del diagnostico de la ACI, dada su repercusion en el ajuste educativo, la expresion de la potencialidad y el bienestar personal.

  11. [Pharmacoeconomic study of the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Vivancos-Matellano, F; Garcia-Ruiz, A J; Garcia-Agua Soler, N

    2016-12-16

    Introduccion. Cuando el tratamiento farmacologico oral o transdermico de la enfermedad de Parkinson pierde eficacia, se dispone de tres terapias mediante dispositivos asistidos que pueden reducir las complicaciones motoras y no motoras: la apomorfina en infusion subcutanea (ASBI), la bomba de infusion duodenal continua de levodopa/carbidopa (IDL) y la estimulacion cerebral profunda (ECP). Objetivo. Efectuar un analisis farmacoeconomico comparativo del uso de ASBI con IDL y ECP; como objetivo secundario, discutir el perfil del candidato ideal para cada una de las tecnicas. Pacientes y metodos. Se extrajo informacion sobre datos de años de vida ganados y años de vida ganados ajustados por calidad (AVAC) segun la escala de Hoehn y Yahr, e informacion sobre costes y consumo de recursos para cada alternativa. La perspectiva del analisis fue la del Sistema Nacional de Salud, y el horizonte temporal fue de cinco años para los costes y toda la vida del paciente para las utilidades. Las medidas de resultado utilizadas fueron los años de vida ganados y AVAC, y en su comparacion se uso la ratio coste-utilidad incremental. Resultados. El coste-utilidad obtenido para cada opcion fue: 31.956 euros/AVAC para la ECP, 38.249 euros/AVAC para la ASBI y 75.206 euros/AVAC para la IDL. Conclusiones. Los resultados permiten evaluar la efectividad y utilidad de los diferentes tratamientos para la enfermedad de Parkinson avanzada, pues se presentan en ganancias de años vividos en plena salud. Los datos obtenidos contribuyen a la toma de decisiones que determinen la planificacion y gestion de cada caso, sin olvidar las preferencias del paciente y del neurologo, asi como las limitaciones presupuestarias.

  12. [Arteriovenous malformations of the brain: personal experience with 121 patients treated with microsurgery].

    PubMed

    Vilalta, Jordi

    2015-12-01

    Introduccion. Las malformaciones arteriovenosas (MAV) se pueden encontrar en el 0,1% de la poblacion, y la forma de presentacion mas frecuente es la hemorragia intracraneal. Objetivo. Analisis descriptivo de una serie de MAV operadas por un neurocirujano. Pacientes y metodos. De un registro hospitalario se han seleccionado los casos de MAV cerebrales operados por el autor en el periodo 1990-mayo 2014, revisando los aspectos clinicos, demograficos y angiograficos, y los resultados clinicorradiologicos seis meses despues de la cirugia. Resultados. De los 400 pacientes tratados en el mismo periodo, 121 fueron intervenidos por el autor, con una media de edad de 34,3 años (rango: 5-75 años). El 61,7% de los pacientes se diagnostico por una hemorragia cerebral, y la segunda forma de presentacion mas frecuente, el 19,8%, por crisis epilepticas. La localizacion superficial supratentorial, en 97 casos (80,2%), fue la mas frecuente. Mas de la mitad de los enfermos presentaba una MAV de grados bajos, I-II, segun la escala de Spetzler y Martin. Doce pacientes (10%) tenian aneurismas no intranidales asociados. En la mayoria de los casos, 109 (90,1%), se realizo cirugia electiva. La reseccion completa de la MAV despues del ultimo examen angiografico se obtuvo en 118 pacientes (97,5%). Los resultados clinicos fueron buenos (buena recuperacion y moderada incapacidad) en 114 casos (95%), y malos (gran incapacidad y muerte), en seis (5%). Conclusiones. La cirugia para las MAV cerebrales, con un criterio de seleccion apropiado, es la mejor opcion terapeutica para muchos pacientes.

  13. [Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. A series of 27 patients: their epidemiological and clinical characteristics. The current situation of the patients and the opinions of their caregivers regarding the diagnostic process].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Lago, Raquel; Málaga, Ignacio; García-Peñas, Juan José; García-Ron, Adrián

    2013-07-16

    Introduccion. El sindrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn (SWH) es una cromosomopatia producida por una delecion en la region distal del brazo corto del cromosoma 4. Se caracteriza por la presencia de un fenotipo peculiar, retraso en el crecimiento, retraso del desarrollo psicomotor y epilepsia. Objetivos. Describir las caracteristicas de una serie de niños con SWH, incluido el tiempo medio empleado para el diagnostico, y valorar la opinion de las familias sobre el proceso diagnostico. Pacientes y metodos. Se contacto con la Asociacion Nacional de SWH y, a traves de ella, con 29 familias afectadas. Se recogio informacion sobre la clinica del niño y la opinion sobre el proceso diagnostico, y se solicitaron informes medicos que confirmaran la informacion facilitada. Constituida una base de datos de pacientes, se procedio a su analisis estadistico. Resultados. Se obtuvo informacion de 27 familias. Los pacientes presentan una edad media actual de 6,94 ± 6,37 años. La edad media de diagnostico fue de 14,34 meses. Existe retraso del crecimiento intrauterino en el 92,6% de los embarazos. Un 92,6% de los pacientes presenta epilepsia, el 44,4% de ellos en monoterapia. Existe retraso del desarrollo psicomotor/cognitivo en todos los pacientes. Camina sin ayuda el 33%. Los padres califican con una nota media de 7,25 ± 2,17 el trato ofrecido por los facultativos y de 6,29 ± 2,11 la informacion recibida. Conclusiones. No se han encontrado referencias a la edad media de diagnostico para el SWH. En nuestra muestra, existen variaciones importantes en este aspecto, posiblemente condicionadas por el fenotipo del caso y la experiencia del medico. Las caracteristicas clinicas son similares a las esperadas. El grado de dependencia estimado es alto y la calidad de la informacion recibida por la familia, baja.

  14. [Influence of the month of birth on the demand for healthcare to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results of a retrospective study conducted in a neuropaediatric clinic].

    PubMed

    Rivas-Juesas, Cristina; González de Dios, Javier; Benac-Prefaci, Mercedes; Fernández-Martínez, Sergio; Colomer-Revuelta, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Introduccion. Las consultas de neuropediatria se han incrementado en los ultimos años, especialmente por trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH). Se postula que los niños mas jovenes del curso tienen mas riesgo de ser diagnosticados de TDAH. Objetivos. Analizar la demanda asistencial de neuropediatria, comparar su evolucion por grupos diagnosticos y determinar si existe una relacion entre la fecha de nacimiento de los pacientes y la sospecha de TDAH. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de los pacientes remitidos a neuropediatria entre 1992 y 2012. Se compararon las distintas categorias diagnosticas segun variables epidemiologicas y se exploro si existia un factor relativo a la edad. Resultados. Se incluyeron 3.469 pacientes, un 58,5% varones, con una mediana de edad de 6 años. El principal motivo de consulta fue la cefalea, y todos los grupos diagnosticos sufrieron un incremento de las consultas. El TDAH experimento un aumento del 350% en los ultimos 10 años. El 61,6% de los niños con sospecha de TDAH nacio en el segundo semestre del año, y la diferencia es mas notable en las niñas. Se objetiva un incremento de sospecha de TDAH en los niños nacidos antes de la fecha de corte del curso escolar que no aparece en ninguna de las otras patologias en el analisis comparativo. Conclusiones. Existe un incremento de la demanda asistencial de neuropediatria en los ultimos años, principalmente por TDAH. Los niños nacidos el ultimo semestre del año tienen un riesgo mayor de ser remitidos por sospecha de esta enfermedad.

  15. [Health expenditure for prevention in Italy (2006-2013): descriptive analysis, regional trends and international comparisons].

    PubMed

    Signorelli, Carlo; Odone, Anna; Bianco, Daniela; Di Vivo, Natalia; Bevere, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Il dato dell'Organizzazione per la cooperazione e lo sviluppo economico (OCSE) del 2012, che indicava l'Italia come il Paese con la più bassa spesa in prevenzione sanitaria, ha dato lo spunto per una raccolta sistematica e un'analisi critica dei flussi disponibili sulla spesa per le attività di prevenzione in Italia. Le statistiche correnti di spesa sanitaria sono raccolte centralmente dall'Agenzia nazionale per i servizi sanitari regionali (Agenas) attraverso i modelli di rilevazione dei costi dei livelli essenziali di assistenza (LEA) delle aziende USL. Le tre macroaree dei LEA sono: assistenza distrettuale, assistenza ospedaliera e assistenza sanitaria collettiva in ambiente di vita e di lavoro. Le spese per la prevenzione rientrano in quest'ultima e sono ripartite nelle seguenti voci: attività di prevenzione rivolte alle persone, igiene degli alimenti e della nutrizione, igiene e sanità pubblica, prevenzione e sicurezza negli ambienti di lavoro, sanità pubblica veterinaria, attività medico-legale per finalità pubblica. Tra il 2006 e il 2013, ultimo dato disponibile, la spesa per le attività di prevenzione del Servizio sanitario nazionale (SSN) è rimasta costante in rapporto alla spesa sanitaria totale (4,2%), pari a 4,9 miliardi nel 2013. Nel periodo di studio considerato (2006-2013) appaiono in aumento le spese per le attività rivolte alle persone (+8,7%), attribuibili soprattutto a vaccinazioni e screening, e in diminuzione le attività di igiene pubblica (-5,7%) e quelle della sanità pubblica veterinaria (-3,8%). I confronti internazionali indicano una spesa per la prevenzione del 2,9% rispetto alla spesa sanitaria totale, costante negli anni e nella media dei Paesi OCSE. Per la prevenzione, l'Italia spende tanto quanto i Paesi che non possiedono un servizio sanitario pubblico; il dato risulta inferiore del 5% rispetto alla programmazione nazionale, con poche eccezioni e molta variabilità regionale all'interno delle componenti delle voci di spesa

  16. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  17. [Cerebellum and language: speech therapy intervention to treat their disorders].

    PubMed

    Ferri, Lluís

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. Los avances en las tecnicas de neuroimagen han propiciado un creciente interes por el estudio del cerebelo y su participacion en los procesos cognitivos. Es cada vez mas evidente la relacion que existe entre este organo y la produccion linguistica, y entre las patologias cerebelosas y determinados trastornos del lenguaje, como la disartria cerebelosa. Objetivo. Revisar la contribucion del cerebelo a las funciones linguisticas, analizar los trastornos del lenguaje que derivan de las enfermedades cerebelosas y plantear la intervencion logopedica en este tipo de afectaciones. Desarrollo. Se realiza un analisis de la funcion moduladora del cerebelo en el lenguaje, de la disartria cerebelosa, de los factores etiologicos y de las manifestaciones clinicas observables en la produccion verbal. Se plantean los procedimientos para la valoracion funcional y los contenidos del tratamiento logopedico. Conclusiones. La adquisicion del lenguaje en la infancia esta condicionado, entre otros aspectos, por la conformacion anatomica y la actividad neurofisiologica del cerebelo. Las alteraciones en el desarrollo de la estructura cerebelosa, las patologias y las disfunciones neurofisiologicas de este pueden ocasionar trastornos del lenguaje. El diagnostico logopedico ha de servir para iniciar lo mas pronto posible el tratamiento, que incidira en la mejora de la organizacion perceptiva, las habilidades motrices, el perfil cognitivo y las competencias linguisticas. El programa de trabajo se planteara de manera global e interdisciplinar. La intervencion familiar y su participacion en el proceso terapeutico sera una contribucion de gran valor para contar con entornos de recuperacion positivos.

  18. [Therapeutic plasma exchange: applications in neurology].

    PubMed

    Láinez-Andrés, José M; Gascón-Giménez, Francisco; Coret-Ferrer, Francisco; Casanova-Estruch, Bonaventura; Santonja, José M

    2015-02-01

    Introduccion. El recambio plasmatico es una tecnica utilizada en el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades neurologicas de base autoinmune desde los años ochenta, especialmente en situaciones agudas. En los ultimos años se han publicado nuevos datos sobre su empleo en numerosas entidades con base autoinmune, ampliando, con ello, el espectro de utilizacion. Objetivo. Actualizar las indicaciones de esta tecnica en el tratamiento de las enfermedades neurologicas. Desarrollo. Se ha realizado una revision exhaustiva de todos los articulos publicados desde los años ochenta sobre la eficacia del recambio plasmatico en el tratamiento de las diferentes enfermedades neurologicas. Tambien se ha efectuado un analisis detallado de las recomendaciones y evidencias de la utilizacion de este procedimiento por parte de las diferentes sociedades cientificas. Conclusiones. El recambio plasmatico ha demostrado ser una alternativa eficaz con evidencia cientifica de primer nivel en enfermedades como el sindrome de Guillain-Barre, la polineuropatia desmielinizante inflamatoria cronica o la miastenia grave. Ha mostrado ser eficaz en el tratamiento de episodios desmielinizantes agudos sin respuesta a otras terapias, en los brotes de neuromielitis optica y en otras enfermedades del sistema nervioso central producidas por anticuerpos. En los estudios comparativos con inmunoglobulinas intravenosas, la eficacia de ambas terapias es similar. Es preciso seguir realizando estudios comparativos para conocer mejor los mecanismos y establecer indicaciones prioritarias y comparar la relacion coste-eficacia de ambos procedimientos.

  19. [Brief Neuropsychological Battery for multiple sclerosis. Normative data stratified by age and educational level].

    PubMed

    Duque, P; Oltra-Cucarella, J; Fernandez, O; Sepulcre, J; Grupo de Estudio de la Bateria Neuropsicologica Breve En la Esclerosis Multiple, Grupo de Estudio de la Bateria Neuropsicologica Breve En la Esclerosis Multiple

    2017-02-01

    Introduccion. La interpretacion del rendimiento en los tests cognitivos utilizados en la evaluacion neuropsicologica de pacientes con esclerosis multiple difiere en funcion del nivel educativo del evaluado. Objetivos. Aportar datos normativos de la bateria neuropsicologica breve (BNB) en la esclerosis multiple, estratificados por edad y nivel educativo, y demostrar la utilidad de la bateria para discriminar entre sujetos sanos y pacientes con esclerosis multiple. Sujetos y metodos. Se utilizaron los datos de 701 controles sanos de la muestra de baremacion original de la BNB en la esclerosis multiple, y se estratificaron por edad y nivel educativo mediante analisis de regresion de puntuaciones escalares. Se comparo el rendimiento del grupo control con un grupo de 112 pacientes con esclerosis multiple. Resultados. Se hallaron diferencias significativas entre los grupos en las variables de la BNB, en especial en tareas de velocidad de procesamiento, memoria de trabajo y memoria verbal. La edad y el sexo no mostraron efectos relevantes. Conclusiones. Los datos indican que la BNB en la esclerosis multiple es una herramienta sensible para identificar alteraciones cognitivas en la esclerosis multiple, con especial enfasis en las tareas de memoria de trabajo.

  20. [Education for patients with fibromyalgia. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Elizagaray-Garcia, Ignacio; Muriente-Gonzalez, Jorge; Gil-Martinez, Alfonso

    2016-01-16

    Objetivo. Analizar la efectividad de la educacion al paciente con fibromialgia sobre el dolor, calidad de vida y funcionalidad. Sujetos y metodos. La busqueda de articulos se realizo utilizando bases de datos electronicas. Los criterios de inclusion fueron: estudios clinicos aleatorizados y controlados (ECA), realizados en pacientes con fibromialgia, donde la intervencion terapeutica se basara en la educacion al paciente, y publicados en ingles y castellano. Dos revisores independientes analizaron la calidad metodologica utilizando la escala PEDro. Resultados. Se seleccionaron cinco ECA, de los cuales cuatro presentaron una calidad metodologica buena. En tres de los estudios, la educacion al paciente, en combinacion con otra intervencion basada en ejercicio terapeutico, mejoro los resultados en las variables que evaluaron el dolor y la calidad de vida en comparacion con las mismas intervenciones realizadas por separado. Ademas, un ECA de buena calidad metodologica mostro que la educacion al paciente activo vias neurales inhibitorias descendentes del dolor. El analisis cualitativo muestra evidencia fuerte-moderada acerca de que la educacion al paciente, en combinacion con otras intervenciones de ejercicio terapeutico, ofrece resultados positivos en las variables de dolor, calidad de vida y funcionalidad. Conclusiones. La educacion al paciente por si sola no ha mostrado ser efectiva sobre el dolor, la calidad de vida ni la funcionalidad en pacientes con fibromialgia. Existe evidencia fuerte de la efectividad de la combinacion de educacion al paciente con ejercicio y estrategias activas de afrontamiento sobre el dolor, la calidad de vida y la funcionalidad a corto, medio y largo plazo en pacientes con fibromialgia.

  1. [Topiramate in monotherapy or in combination as a cause of metabolic acidosis in adults with epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Granados, Velvet J; Márquez-Romero, Juan M

    2015-02-16

    Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia de acidosis metabolica y sus factores relacionados en pacientes tratados con topiramato solo o como adyuvante para el tratamiento de epilepsia. Pacientes y metodos. Analisis transversal de la gasometria arterial de pacientes epilepticos que recibieron topiramato durante 2010 en la clinica de epilepsia del Centro Medico Nacional 20 de Noviembre en Mexico. Se registraron datos clinicos concernientes a la epilepsia y su tratamiento, asi como de los sintomas comunes de acidosis metabolica. Resultados. Se estudiaron 32 adultos con epilepsia, quienes recibieron topiramato en monoterapia o en combinacion por lo menos durante un mes. Se encontro acidosis metabolica en todos los pacientes (HCO3 < 22 Eq/L); nueve tomaron solo topiramato y 23 tomaron por lo menos dos farmacos antiepilepticos (FAE). Todos los pacientes fueron asintomaticos. No se encontro correlacion entre los niveles de bicarbonato y la dosis del medicamento o la duracion del tratamiento. La dosis fue significativamente mayor en el grupo de monoterapia y el nivel de bicarbonato fue mas bajo en los pacientes que tomaban mas de un FAE. Conclusiones. El uso concomitante de FAE incrementa los efectos conocidos del topiramato sobre los niveles sericos de bicarbonato y la presencia de acidosis metabolica; estos efectos parecen ser independientes del numero de FAE utilizados.

  2. [Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms and alpha-synuclein haplotypes associated with sporadic Parkinson's disease in the Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Davila-Ortiz de Montellano, D J; Rodriguez-Violante, M; Fresan, A; Monroy-Jaramillo, N; Yescas-Gomez, P

    2016-10-16

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) es una entidad neurodegenerativa comun de inicio en la etapa adulta. Su incidencia en Mexico se estima en 40-50 casos por 100.000 habitantes/año y constituye la cuarta causa de atencion medica en el Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia. La proteina alfa-sinucleina, SNCA, es clave en la patologia de la EP y sus polimorfismos se han asociado a un riesgo aumentado de desarrollarla. Objetivo. Evaluar el riesgo que representan los polimorfismos rs2619364, rs2619363, rs2736990, rs7684318, rs17016074, rs356219, rs356220 y rs356203 de SNCA en una muestra de sujetos mexicanos para la EP. Sujetos y metodos. Se evaluaron 171 pacientes con diagnostico de EP y 171 controles pareados por sexo y edad mediante reaccion en cadena de la polimerasa en tiempo real, y se realizo un analisis estadistico para determinar la asociacion de los polimorfismos con la enfermedad. Resultados. Las variantes rs356220, rs356203, rs7684318 y rs2736990 de SNCA estan asociadas a la enfermedad y forman dos haplotipos de riesgo elevado para desarrollar EP esporadica en la poblacion mexicana. Conclusiones. Las variaciones en SNCA son un factor de riesgo para desarrollar EP y pueden ser biomarcadores geneticos especificos para pacientes mestizos mexicanos como herramienta de apoyo diagnostico en la EP esporadica.

  3. [Association between the evaluation by a patient care team and compliance with the claim of drugs in pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Herrera Marín, Robinson; Estrada Acevedo, Jorge Ivan; Restrepo Jimenez, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Contexto: en la actualidad es reconocido el importante desafio que implica alcanzar una adecuada adherencia farmacologica. Existen multiples metodos para detectar si un paciente es no adherente, entre los cuales el historial de dispensaciones de medicamentos en farmacia ha sido considerado adecuado. Objetivo: determinar la asociacion entre la atencion por un grupo interdisciplinario incluyendo al Farmaceutico y el cumplimiento con la reclamacion de los medicamentos en farmacia. Método: estudio de casos y controles en pacientes con Asma, Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Cronica o Rinitis alergica, que reclamaron sus medicamentos en farmacia durante el periodo Octubre de 2012 y Noviembre de 2013 (n: 526). Se definio como caso a los pacientes que durante el periodo de observacion reclamaron sus medicamentos en farmacia >95% de las veces que debieron haberlos reclamado (n: 263). Para el analisis univariado se utilizaron frecuencias absolutas y relativas y medidas de resumen. Para el bivariado tablas de contingencia y las pruebas de Chi cuadrado, T-Student (U-de Mann Whitney) y ANOVA (H-de Kruskal Wallis). La medida de fuerza estadistica utilizada fue el Odds Ratio. Para el multivariado Regresion Logistica Binaria. Resultados: el 78.3% de los casos y el 47.1% de los controles habian sido atendidos por un grupo interdisciplinario (p.

  4. [Screening and early care programmes in children with autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Canal-Bedia, Ricardo; García-Primo, Patricia; Santos-Borbujo, José; Bueno-Carrera, Gloria; Posada-De la Paz, Manuel

    2014-02-24

    Introduccion. La necesidad de la deteccion y de tratamientos eficaces de forma temprana para los trastornos del espectro autista es algo actualmente aceptado tanto por las sociedades profesionales como por la administracion sanitaria. Una informacion actualizada y sintetizada sobre los procedimientos de cribado y las tecnicas de atencion temprana para niños con trastornos del espectro autista facilitara la puesta en marcha de mejores dispositivos de deteccion y la labor de asesoramiento a familias y profesionales sobre la atencion e intervencion a edades tempranas de los niños. Desarrollo. Se proporciona una revision actualizada de los procedimientos de deteccion precoz y de atencion temprana en el autismo, reflejando los aspectos mas relevantes que se deducen de las experiencias y estudios llevados a cabo hasta el momento. Conclusiones. Tras la revision realizada sobre las experiencias de deteccion precoz de autismo, se obtiene un grupo de consideraciones importantes para realizar analisis criticos de programas de cribado en marcha, asi como recomendaciones para experiencias futuras. La revision sobre los programas de atencion temprana proporciona una vision esperanzadora porque cada vez son mas frecuentes, sistematicos y metodologicamente mas apropiados los estudios sobre la eficacia de los programas de atencion temprana.

  5. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  6. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  7. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  8. Acquisition Cost/Price Estimating

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    SYSTEMS, RECOMMENDING COST COALS FOR THOSE SYSTEMS, AND VALIDATING THOSE ESTIMATES THROUGH INDEPENDENT COSTING METHODS. INSTRUMENTS THROUGH WHICH SYSTEM...REVIEW AND VALIDATION, (3) RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY AND (4) DATA ANALYSIS. THESE FUNCTIONAL THRUSTS ARE IN TURN FOCUSED TO ESTIMATING AND ANALISIS ...ANALYSIS OF COST ISSUES -- TO PROVIDE CONSISTENCY AND COMPLETENESS OF ESTIMATES PREPARED BY OTHER FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES. MANAGERIAL 1. COST ANALISIS HAS

  9. Active Control of Surge in Compressors Which Exhibit Abrupt Stall

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    Giusto C. (1998), "Modellizzazione e analisi parametrica di un sistema di controllo passivo del pompaggio" [in Italian], Proc. 530 Congresso Nazionale ATI...Florence, Italy, p. 1179. Giannattasio P. (1999), "Analisi di stabilith di un sistema di compressione industriale con controllo attivo del pompaggio

  10. The Malvinas Conflict: Argentine Practice of the Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-25

    January 1983), p. 175. 5. Clausewitz, p. IG4. E. Comision de analisis y evaluacion de las responrsa- bilidades politicas y estrategico militares en el...War. ed. arnd trans by Micha:2 Howard and Peter Paret. P;-irnceto:- Prir ce t on, iv..ity Press, 1976. Comnision de Analisis y Evaluacion de las

  11. Implementacion de modulos constructivistas que atiendan "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales en temas de la fisica en estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacruz Sarmiento, Neida M.

    Este estudio se enfoco en los "misconception" y lagunas conceptuales en temas fundamentales de Fisica como son Equilibrio Termodinamico y Estatica de fluidos. En primer lugar se trabajo con la identificacion de "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales y se analizo en detalle la forma en que los estudiantes construyen sus propias teorias de fenomenos relacionados con los temas. Debido a la complejidad en la que los estudiantes asimilan los conceptos fisicos, se utilizo el metodo de investigacion mixto de tipo secuencial explicativo en dos etapas, una cuantitativa y otra cualitativa. La primera etapa comprendio cuatro fases: (1) Aplicacion de una prueba diagnostica para identificar el conocimiento previo y lagunas conceptuales. (2) Identificacion de "misconceptions" y lagunas del concepto a partir del conocimiento previo. (3) Implementacion de la intervencion por medio de modulos en el topico de Equilibrio Termodinamico y Estatica de Fluidos. (4) Y la realizacion de la pos prueba para analizar el impacto y la efectividad de la intervencion constructivista. En la segunda etapa se utilizo el metodo de investigacion cualitativo, por medio de una entrevista semiestructurada que partio de la elaboracion de un mapa conceptual y se finalizo con un analisis de datos conjuntamente. El desarrollo de este estudio permitio encontrar "misconceptions" y lagunas conceptuales a partir del conocimiento previo de los estudiantes participantes en los temas trabajados, que fueron atendidos en el desarrollo de las distintas actividades inquisitivas que se presentaron en el modulo constructivista. Se encontro marcadas diferencias entre la pre y pos prueba en los temas, esto se debio al requerimiento de habilidades abstractas para el tema de Estatica de Fluidos y al desarrollo intuitivo para el tema de Equilibrio Termodinamico, teniendo mejores respuestas en el segundo. Los participantes demostraron una marcada evolucion y/o cambio en sus estructuras de pensamiento, las pruebas estadisticas

  12. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-03-15

    virgenes para evaluar la competicion por el apareamiento. Se midieron ocho rasgos morfometricos en machos exitosos y no exitosos: ancho de la cabeza, ancho de la cara, largo del ojo, largo del torax, largo del ala, ancho del ala, largo del femur y largo de la tibia. Se realizaron analisis morfometricos para determinar la relacion entre el fenotipo multivariado y el exito copulatorio. Para evaluar la seleccion sexual sobre el fenotipo del macho se utilizaron diferentes combinaciones de metodos estadisticos multivariados y analisis graficos. Los resultados demostraron que el ancho de ala y el largo de torax serian los blancos mas probables de seleccion sexual, y describen una asociacion no lineal entre el exito copulatorio y cada uno de estos dos rasgos. Dicha asociacion sugiere que la seleccion observada mantendria la diversidad para el tamano del cuerpo. (author)

  13. Perfis de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.

    2003-08-01

    As flutuações de temperatura eletrônica em regiões HII, inicialmente propostas para explicar as discrepâncias entre os valores de temperatura obtidos por diferentes métodos, têm sido apontadas como a causa mais provável das enormes diferenças encontradas entre as abundâncias químicas medidas através de linhas excitadas colisionalmente e de linhas de recombinação. Recentemente têm sido reportadas tentativas de detecção e quantificação diretas das flutuações de temperatura eletrônica através de medidas ponto a ponto, obtidas por meio de espectroscopia de fenda longa, das razões de linhas [OIII]l4263/l5007 e [NII]l5755/l6584, principais sensores de temperatura. Neste trabalho, utilizamos o código numérico de fotoionização Cloudy para avaliar a confiabilidade desse procedimento. Concluímos que, para valores de densidade eletrônica e de temperatura efetiva da estrela ionizante típicos das regiões HII, os perfis superficiais de temperatura obtidos via medidas do sensor [OIII]l4263/l5007 são bons traçadores dos gradientes internos de temperatura eletrônica. Já os perfis de temperatura eletrônica medidos por meio da razão [NII]l5755/l6584 não reproduzem os gradientes verdadeiros de temperatura.

  14. [Complex febrile crises: should we change the way we act?].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cayuelas, E; Herraiz-Martinez, M; Villacieros-Hernandez, L; Cean-Cabrera, L; Martinez-Salcedo, E; Alarcon-Martinez, H; Domingo-Jimenez, R; Perez-Fernandez, V

    2014-11-16

    Introduccion. Las convulsiones febriles son una de las causas mas frecuentes de consulta. Hasta ahora, los pacientes con convulsiones febriles complejas (CFC) deben ingresar, dado el mayor porcentaje de epilepsia y complicaciones agudas descrito clasicamente. En la actualidad hay estudios que apoyan ser menos invasivos en el abordaje de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas de los pacientes ingresados por CFC y proponer un nuevo protocolo de actuacion. Pacientes y metodos. Analisis retrospectivo de historias clinicas de ingresados por CFC (enero de 2010-diciembre de 2013). Se ofrecen datos epidemiologicos, clinicos, pruebas complementarias y evolucion. Resultados. Las CFC suponian un 4,2% de los ingresos de neuropediatria (n = 67). Edad media al evento: 25 meses. El 47% tenia antecedentes familiares patologicos, y el 31%, antecedentes personales de convulsion febril previa. En el 54% de los pacientes, la CFC duro menos de cinco minutos; hubo recurrencia, la mayoria con un total de dos crisis y durante el primer dia (las CFC por recurrencia son las mas frecuentes). De las pruebas complementarias realizadas, ninguna de ellas sirvio como apoyo diagnostico en el momento agudo. Durante su seguimiento, cinco pacientes presentaron complicaciones. Los pacientes con antecedentes familiares de convulsiones febriles presentan mayor riesgo de epilepsia o recurrencia (p = 0,02), sin diferencias significativas respecto a la edad, numero de crisis, intervalo de fiebre, estado epileptico o tipo de CFC. Conclusiones. Las CFC no asocian mayores complicaciones agudas; las exploraciones complementarias no permiten discriminar precozmente a los pacientes de riesgo. Su ingreso podria evitarse en ausencia de otros signos clinicos y limitarse a casos seleccionados.

  15. Hospital medication errors in a pharmacovigilance system in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Machado Alba, Jorge Enrique; Moreno Gutiérrez, Paula Andrea; Moncada Escobar, Juan Carlos

    2015-11-01

    Objetivos: analizar los errores de medicacion reportados en un sistema de farmacovigilancia en 26 hospitales para pacientes del sistema de salud de Colombia. Métodos: estudio retrospectivo que evaluo las bases de datos sistematizadas de reportes de errores de medicacion entre el 1 de enero de 2008 y el 12 de septiembre de 2013 de los medicamentos dispensados por la empresa Audifarma S.A a hospitales de Colombia. Se utilizo la clasificacion taxonomica del National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP). El analisis de los datos se realizo mediante SPSS 22.0 para Windows Se determino como nivel de significacion estadistica una p < 0,05. Resultados: se reportaron 9.062 EM en 45 servicios farmaceuticos hospitalarios. El 51,9% (n = 4.707) de los errores realmente se produjeron, de los cuales el 12,0% (n = 567) afectaron al paciente (categorias C a I) y causaron dano (categorias E a I) a 17 (0,36%). El proceso implicado en los EM ocurridos (categorias B a I) con mayor frecuencia fue la prescripcion (n = 1.758, 37,3%), seguido por la dispensacion (n = 1.737, 36,9%), la transcripcion (n = 970, 20,6%) y, por ultimo, la administracion (n = 242, 5,1%). Los errores relacionados con los procesos de administracion aumentaban 45,2 veces el riesgo de que el medicamento erroneo afectara al paciente (IC 95% 20,2-100,9). Conclusiones: es necesario aumentar la cobertura de los sistemas de reporte de errores de medicacion, y crear estrategias para su prevencion, especialmente en la etapa de administracion del medicamento.

  16. HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIC WAIST PHENOTYPE AND CARDIOMETABOLIC ALTERATIONS IN BRAZILIAN ADULTS.

    PubMed

    Cabral Rocha, Anna Ligia; Feliciano Pereira, Patricia; Cristine Pessoa, Milene; Gonçalves Alfenas, Rita de Cassia; Segheto, Wellington; da Silva, Danielle Cristina Guimarães; Pacheco Andrade, Marcio; Zarbato Longo, Giana

    2015-09-01

    Objetivos: evaluar la prevalencia de alteraciones cardiometabolicas segun el fenotipo cintura hipertrigliceridemica (CH) en adultos brasilenos. Métodos: estudio transversal, de base poblacional, con 976 (n = 533 mujeres) individuos de 20 a 59 anos. El CH fue definido por un aumento en las concentraciones de trigliceridos y en la circunferencia de la cintura (CC). Todos los analisis fueron ajustados por el efecto del diseno del estudio y ponderados por genero, edad y escolaridad. Fue realizado un análisis descriptivo de promedio y presentados sus respectivos intervalos de confianza (IC 95%). La prevalencia de las alteraciones cardiometabolicas segun la presencia o no del fenotipo CH y segun el sexo fue calculada y comparada a traves del test chi-cuadrado de Pearson. El nivel de significancia estadistica adoptado fue de 0,05. Se estimo la probabilidad de riesgo de evento coronario en 10 anos, a partir del score de Framinghan a traves del grafico de densidad de Kernel. Resultados: la prevalencia del fenotipo CH en la muestra fue de 17,32% (IC 95% 13,54-21,89), no se observo diferencia entre sexos. Se observaron mayores promedios para todos los factores de riesgo cardiometabolico analizados en aquellos con CH. Solo Se verificaron menores valores medianos para el HDL en este grupo. Los individuos con CH presentaban mayor probabilidad de evolucionar hacia un evento cardiovascular en 10 anos que aquellos sin el fenotipo. Conclusión: el fenotipo CH constituye un importante marcador precoz del riesgo cardiovascular. Su utilizacion en la practica clinica debe ser incentivada, ya que se trata de una herramienta sencilla y de bajo coste.

  17. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  18. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  19. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  20. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  1. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  2. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  3. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period. PMID:28111528

  4. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  5. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals.

  6. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  7. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period.

  8. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  9. Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity (PorGrow) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szponar, L; Ciok, J; Dolna, A; Oltarzewski, M

    2007-05-01

    To explore the perspectives of stakeholders towards a range of policy options to respond to obesity in Poland, a multi-criteria mapping method was used. During structured interviews, stakeholders were invited to appraise policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. They also provided relative weightings to their criteria, generating overall rankings of the policy options in relation to each other. Efficacy, feasibility and societal benefits were the groups of criteria deemed most important. There was most consensus in favour of options related to health education, particularly in schools, compared with options that aimed at modifying the environment to prevent obesity, i.e. options around physical activity, modifying the supply and demand for food products, and information-related options. There was little support for technological solutions or institutional reforms. There was broad consensus that to reverse the rising trend in the incidence of obesity, it will be necessary to implement a portfolio of measures, but options related to behaviour change through education are most highly regarded. It will also be necessary to invest in improved surveillance and monitoring of Polish dietary practices, levels of physical activity and obesity in terms of data on height, weight and body mass indexes.

  10. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  11. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  12. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  13. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  14. Mexico Visto Por Sus Ninos (Mexico as Seen by Her Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Today's Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    "Mexico as Seen by Her Children," a book authored by Mexican children, and the educational project built around it is an example of bicultural cooperation between the Mexican and United States governments. (CJ)

  15. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  16. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  17. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  18. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  19. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  20. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  1. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  2. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  3. Intoxicação experimental por Niedenzuella stannea (Malpighiaceae) em ovinos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Niedenzuella stannea a sodium monofluoroacetate-containing plant cause of sudden death in cattle in southern Mato Grosso State. This study describes the toxicity and clinical and pathological findings of experimental poisoning by N. stannea in sheep. Fruits, mature leaves and young leaves of the pla...

  4. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  5. Por Nuestros Ojos: understanding social determinants of health through the eyes of youth.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Johanna Claire; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Williams, Lacey; Smith, Heather A; Sorensen, Janni; Furuseth, Owen J; Dulin, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social determinants underlying health disparities benefits from a mixed-methods, participatory research approach. Photovoice was used in a research project seeking to identify and validate existing data and models used to address socio-spatial determinants of health in at-risk neighborhoods. High-risk neighborhoods were identified using geospatial models of pre-identified social determinants of health. Students living within these neighborhoods were trained in Photovoice, and asked to take pictures of elements that influence their neighborhood's health and to create narratives explaining the photographs. Students took 300 photographs showing elements that they perceived affected community health. Negative factors included poor pedestrian access, inadequate property maintenance, pollution, and evidence of gangs, criminal activity, and vagrancy. Positive features included public service infrastructure and outdoor recreation. Photovoice data confirmed and contextualized the geospatial models while building community awareness and capacity. Photovoice can be a useful research tool for building community capacity and validating quantitative data describing social determinants of health.

  6. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  7. Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada por tempestade de raios

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho

    2002-01-01

    The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...

  8. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  9. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  10. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  11. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  12. Estudo de cavidade reentrante supercondutora a ser utilizada nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, K. L.; Furtado, S. R.; Aguiar, O. D.; Frajuca, C.

    2003-08-01

    Cavidades reentrantes de nióbio vêm sendo utilizadas pelo grupo Australiano nos transdutores eletromecânicos paramétricos do detector de ondas gravitacionais Niobè. Esses transdutores paramétricos são ativados por um sinal AC na faixa de microondas (banda X), que é modulado pelo sinal mecânico da vibração da antena esférica, com a variação de um parâmetro, que, no caso, é a capacitância da cavidade. Nós estudamos esse tipo de cavidade, com o objetivo de transformá-la de reentrante aberta para reentrante fechada, de forma a utilizá-la nos transdutores paramétricos do detector brasileiro Mario Schenberg. O desempenho do transdutor depende de alguns parâmetros da cavidade, como a sua Figura de Mérito (Q elétrico) e o seu acoplamento elétrico com o circuito externo. Neste trabalho mostramos a medida do Q elétrico como função do acoplamento, do acabamento superficial interno e do vazamento de microondas da cavidade, e mostramos o desempenho esperado para o detector Mario Schenberg usando uma cavidade supercondutora reentrante fechada de nióbio.

  13. La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argos, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

  14. Primera Reunion de la Comision Nacional de Analisis y Evaluacion del Sistema Educativo: Informe Final (The First Meeting of the National Committee for Analysis and Evaluation of the Educational System: Final Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Cultura y Educacion, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro National de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa.

    This document contains the legislation creating the National Committee for Analysis and Evaluation of the Educational System and the final report of that committee's first meeting. The report deals with each level from elementary to higher education. For each level it describes and considers curriculum, school buildings, human resources, current…

  15. Presupposti teorici per un progetto di insegnamento della traduzione dalla lingua straniera basato sull'analisi testuale (Theoretical Presuppositions for a Project to Teach Translation from a Foreign Language Based on Textual Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrakh, Livio

    1987-01-01

    Discusses an approach to translation based on textual linguistics. The student/translator first looks at the foreign language text as a whole, then analyzes its parts, and finally arrives at a new synthesis (the translation) that is comparable to the original text. (CFM)

  16. Prima Stesura di Tre Test Oggettivi di Lingua Inglese: Analisi delle Risposte e Osservazioni (First Draft of Three Objective Tests of English: An Analysis of the Answers and Observations)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranzo, Antonio L.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses the first draft of three objective tests given to students of English as a foreign language in a high school in Rome, Italy. Students' answers on the tests (Listening Comprehension, Reading Comprehension, Grammatical Structures) are analyzed. The tests will be rewritten, based on these observations. (Text is in Italian.)…

  17. Note sull'analisi delle preposizioni italiane in un modello semantico generativo (Notes on the Analysis of Italian Prepositions Within a Generative Semantic Model). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berretta, Monica

    A generative semantic model for a componential analysis of prepositions in Italian sentences is described and critiqued. According to the model, a sentence is analyzed in terms of a "predicate" plus one or more "arguments." The model emphasizes the semantic role of prepositions and regards this role as the basis for a syntactic…

  18. Veicolarita e linguaggio scientifico--analisi del primo "Progetto italiano per studenti universitari somali" (Languages for Special Purposes and Scientific Usage--An Analysis of the First "Italian Project for Somali University Students").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Antonio

    1979-01-01

    The development of an intensive Italian course for science students attending Somalia's National University is described. The historical background for this project, sponsored by the Italian Government and staffed by Italian teachers, is outlined. Course objectives, methods, and organization are illustrated by samples of instructional materials,…

  19. Note sull'analisi delle preposizioni italiane in un modello semantico generativo (Notes on the Analysis of Italian Prepositions Within a Generative Semantic Model). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berretta, Monica

    A generative semantic model for a componential analysis of prepositions in Italian sentences is described and critiqued. According to the model, a sentence is analyzed in terms of a "predicate" plus one or more "arguments." The model emphasizes the semantic role of prepositions and regards this role as the basis for a syntactic…

  20. Presupposti teorici per un progetto di insegnamento della traduzione dalla lingua straniera basato sull'analisi testuale (Theoretical Presuppositions for a Project to Teach Translation from a Foreign Language Based on Textual Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horrakh, Livio

    1987-01-01

    Discusses an approach to translation based on textual linguistics. The student/translator first looks at the foreign language text as a whole, then analyzes its parts, and finally arrives at a new synthesis (the translation) that is comparable to the original text. (CFM)

  1. Prima Stesura di Tre Test Oggettivi di Lingua Inglese: Analisi delle Risposte e Osservazioni (First Draft of Three Objective Tests of English: An Analysis of the Answers and Observations)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pranzo, Antonio L.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses the first draft of three objective tests given to students of English as a foreign language in a high school in Rome, Italy. Students' answers on the tests (Listening Comprehension, Reading Comprehension, Grammatical Structures) are analyzed. The tests will be rewritten, based on these observations. (Text is in Italian.)…

  2. La semantica dei colori: Aspetti teorici e analisi dei cromonimi in italiano e neerlandese (Semantics of Colors: Theoretical Aspects and Analysis of Names of Colors in Italian and Dutch).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Delores

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of the literature dealing with the theory of the naming of colors. A comparison is made between the names of colors in Italian and Dutch, discussing the differences between languages in terms of the influence of the sociocultural context. (61 references) (CFM)

  3. Veicolarita e linguaggio scientifico--analisi del primo "Progetto italiano per studenti universitari somali" (Languages for Special Purposes and Scientific Usage--An Analysis of the First "Italian Project for Somali University Students").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Antonio

    1979-01-01

    The development of an intensive Italian course for science students attending Somalia's National University is described. The historical background for this project, sponsored by the Italian Government and staffed by Italian teachers, is outlined. Course objectives, methods, and organization are illustrated by samples of instructional materials,…

  4. La semantica dei colori: Aspetti teorici e analisi dei cromonimi in italiano e neerlandese (Semantics of Colors: Theoretical Aspects and Analysis of Names of Colors in Italian and Dutch).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Delores

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of the literature dealing with the theory of the naming of colors. A comparison is made between the names of colors in Italian and Dutch, discussing the differences between languages in terms of the influence of the sociocultural context. (61 references) (CFM)

  5. La mejora de la educacion infantil desde el analisis del pensamiento practico de sus educadores. [The Improvement of Early Childhood Education from an Analysis of the Practical Thinking of Early Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argos, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Discusses proposals for the innovation and development of early childhood education practice, based on findings from case studies on the practical knowledge of four experienced female early childhood educators. Argues that improving early childhood education should be based on its reasons and purposes rather than content or method. (JPB)

  6. [Knowledge of cerebrovascular disease in the population of Zaragoza].

    PubMed

    Perez-Lazaro, C; Santos-Lasaosa, S; Velazquez-Benito, A; Bellosta-Diago, E; Tejero-Juste, C; Iniguez-Martinez, C

    2017-01-01

    Introduccion. El ictus es una de las principales causas de invalidez y mortalidad en nuestra sociedad, con importantes repercusiones socioeconomicas y sanitarias. La asistencia precoz puede mejorar el pronostico de los pacientes. Actualmente, existen tratamientos en fase aguda, que consiguen reperfundir el tejido isquemico en riesgo y revertir la sintomatologia, pero son pocos los pacientes que se benefician, por el retraso en su atencion, debido a la falta de reconocimiento de los sintomas y la escasa percepcion de gravedad. Objetivo. Analizar el conocimiento de la poblacion de nuestra area de salud sobre el ictus. Sujetos y metodos. La muestra analizada ha sido la poblacion del sector III de la provincia de Zaragoza, con seleccion aleatoria. La herramienta utilizada ha sido una encuesta telefonica estructurada (total de 583). Resultados. Un 63,5% de los encuestados desconoce los sintomas del ictus, y un 48%, los factores de riesgo vascular. Solo un 9% reconoce al menos dos sintomas y dos factores de riesgo. En cuanto a la actitud, un 56% actuaria correctamente frente a un 44% que no. El analisis multivariante mostro que los factores mas relacionados con el conocimiento fueron el nivel cultural y la edad joven. Vivir en un pueblo y sexo femenino se relacionaron con la mejor actitud. Conclusiones. El conocimiento del ictus es escaso, con una baja percepcion de urgencia. Los factores que implican un mejor conocimiento son la edad joven y el nivel cultural alto.

  7. [The influence of physical exercise in the prevention of cognitive deterioration in the elderly: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Franco-Martín, Manuel; Parra-Vidales, Esther; González-Palau, Fátima; Bernate-Navarro, Mara; Solis, Abdel

    2013-06-01

    Introduccion. La poblacion espanola mayor de 65 anos continua creciendo, por lo que la atencion a adultos mayores se convierte en un objetivo de salud publica cada vez mas relevante. La actividad fisica esta siendo reconocida como un factor altamente protector de las funciones cognitivas en el envejecimiento, y se establece, en la actualidad, como una estrategia psicosocial prometedora para la proteccion de las facultades cognitivas. Pacientes y metodos. Mediante una busqueda bibliografica en las bases de datos PubMed, PsycINFO, Psicodoc, Scopus y SciELO, se revisaron sistematicamente los estudios relativos a la influencia del ejercicio fisico en la prevencion del deterioro cognitivo en adultos mayores sanos y en la reversion o en el mantenimiento del declive cognitivo una vez ya iniciado. Se seleccionaron y utilizaron 31 articulos como unidades de analisis. Resultados. En conjunto, estos estudios indicaron que un mayor indice de actividad fisica se relacionaria con un menor deterioro de las funciones cognitivas en adultos mayores sanos y con deterioro cognitivo ya manifiesto. Conclusiones. El ejercicio fisico constituye una estrategia psicosocial prometedora para la intervencion de adultos mayores con y sin signos de deterioro cognitivo. Serian convenientes mayores estudios que empleen una metodologia experimental, mayor homogeneidad en cuanto a los instrumentos de recogida de datos de funciones cognitivas y una profundizacion en la frecuencia e intensidad necesaria en las intervenciones.

  8. [An update on the pharmacological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: lisdexamphetamine and extended-release guanfacine].

    PubMed

    Martin Fernandez-Mayoralas, D; Fernandez-Perrone, A L; Munoz-Jareno, N; Fernandez-Jaen, A

    2017-03-13

    Introduccion. El trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) es uno de los trastornos del neurodesarrollo mas frecuentes en la poblacion infantil. Su tratamiento es complejo y debe incluir medidas psicoeducativas, ambientales y farmacologicas. En los ultimos años, las principales novedades respecto a su tratamiento farmacologico son la aparicion de la lisdexanfetamina y la guanfacina de liberacion retardada. Objetivo. El aumento del numero de farmacos disponibles para el tratamiento del TDAH permite tratar y cubrir situaciones clinicas muy diversas. El proposito de la presente revision es realizar un analisis de la bibliografia sobre ambos farmacos. Desarrollo. Se establecen los puntos fuertes de ambos tratamientos, atendiendo especialmente a su mecanismo de accion, a su tolerabilidad y a su eficacia. Conclusiones. La guanfacina de liberacion retardada permite tratar situaciones escasamente cubiertas con los estimulantes, tales como los niños con irritabilidad y tics, con un perfil significativo de moderada eficacia y una buena tolerabilidad y seguridad. La aparicion de la lisdexanfetamina ha supuesto un cambio muy importante porque, segun la bibliografia, se trataria de un farmaco completo y efectivo, desde el punto de vista clinico, para mejorar los sintomas del TDAH. Ademas, posee un buen perfil de seguridad.

  9. Design of VLBI Array in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, E. A.; Abraham, Z.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Estudiamos la localizaci6n 6ptima de estaciones de \\ ras' en territorlo brasileno. Con una red VLBI de estaciones reales y ficti- cias simulamos observaciones. Se usan los datos generados de estps ex- perimentos para obtener Ia distribuci6n de brillo de radiofuentes fic- ticias por medlo de tecaicas de mapeo bIbrido. Se concluye que l mejor localizaci6n de estacionee'VLBI futuras, tomando en cuenta las estacio- nes de EUA y de Europa, se encuentra en el Norte-Noreste de razll. El analisis de los datos se hizo con los programas de CALTECH, los cuales estan instalados en una computadora VAX del Departamento de Astronomla del Instituto Astron6mico y Geoflsico de la Universidad de Sa"'o Paulo. ABSTRACT: In this work we study the optimum localization for future VLBI stations in the Brazilian territory. With a VLBI network of real and fictitious stations we make simulations of observations. The data generated in these experiments are used to obtain brightness distribution of a fictitious radio source by the hybrid mapping techniques. We conclude that the best localization of a future VLBI station taking into account the addition of US and European Stations, is roughly in North-Northeast sites in Brazil. The analysis of the data is made with the software of CALTECH, which is installed in the VAX computer of the Astronomy Department of Instituto e Geofisico - USP. Key `{` : INSTRUMENTS - INTERFEROMETRY

  10. PEG-Interferon-α ribavirin-induced HCV viral clearance: a pharmacogenetic multicenter Spanish study.

    PubMed

    Milara, Javier; Outeda-Macias, Maria; Aumente-Rubio, M Dolores; Más-Serrano, Patricio; Aldaz, Azucena; Calvo, M Victoria; García-Simón, M Sergia; Martin-Barbero, Marisa; Padullés-Zamora, Núria; Schoenenberger, Juan Antonio; Saavedra-Aldrich, Marianne; Tévar-Alfonso, Enrique; Saval, Ana; Pastor-Clerigues, Alfonso; García, Marta; Margusino-Framiñan, Luis; Montero-Alvarez, Jose Luis; Merino, Esperanza; Herrero, Jose Ignacio; Beunza, Mónica; Conesa-Zamora, Pablo; Gimenez-Manzorro, Alvaro; Comas-Sugrañes, Dolors; Cano-Marron, Manuel; Jiménez-Mutiloa, Elena; Díaz-Ruíz, Pilar; Cortijo, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: El interferon-pegilado (IFN-PEG) junto a ribavirina ha sido el principal tratamiento de la infeccion por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) de la ultima decada. Los agentes antivirales de accion directa actuales han mejorado los resultados de la terapia, pero tambien han aumentado el costo y la gestion de la complejidad del tratamiento. El presente estudio analiza factores geneticos de los pacientes, asi como predictores virales y clinicos de respuesta sostenida viral (RSV) al tratamiento con IFN-PEG y ribavirina en poblacion Espanola. Métodos: Estudio farmacogenetico, multicentrico, prospectivo, observacional de cohortes realizado en 12 hospitales diferentes de 12 comunidades autonomas diferentes. Se incluyeron un total de 98 pacientes con RVS y 106 sin SVR al tratamiento con IFNPEG y ribavirina. Se seleccionaron 33 polimorfismos de nucleotido unico ubicados en 24 genes diferentes relacionados con la respuesta inflamatoria, inmunologica y viral. Los datos clinicos y virales tambien se analizaron como candidatos predictores de RVS. Resultados: Los genotipos IL-28B (rs12979860, rs7248668, rs8105790, rs8099917) y TNFRSF1B (rs1061622), asi como los haplotipos TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / TNF(-308) no-TTG y TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / IL-4 no-TTC junto con la menor edad, menor carga de ARN-VHC basal, valores elevados de colesterol LDL en suero basal, genotipos VHC2 y 3 y bajo grado de fibrosis basal (0-2) se asociaron con una RVS en el analisis univariante. Los predictores independientes de RVS en el analisis multivariante fueron el genotipo IL-28B rs12979860 CC, el haplotipo TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / IL-4 no-TTC junto con los bajos niveles basales de VHCARN y los genotipos virales VHC2 y 3. Conclusiones: El genotipo IL-28B rs12979860 CC, el haplotipo TNFRSF1B / IL-10 / IL-4 haplotipos no-TTC, la carga viral basal baja y los genotipos del VHC2 y 3 pueden ayudar a predecir una buena respuesta a la terapia con IFN-PEG y ribavirina en poblacion espanola.

  11. [Study of the pre- and post-treatment functionality of unilateral acquired brain injuries].

    PubMed

    Huertas-Hoyas, Elisabet; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Águila-Maturana, Ana M; González-Alted, Carlos

    2014-04-16

    Introduccion. La mayoria de las personas que han sobrevivido a un daño cerebral lateralizado presenta secuelas que afectan a componentes sensoriomotores, cognitivos o conductuales. Estos deficits repercuten en la correcta ejecucion de actividades de la vida diaria, antes y despues de un tratamiento multidisciplinar. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar y comparar el perfil ocupacional de las personas con daño cerebral adquirido unilateral, tanto en personas con traumatismo craneoencefalico (TCE) como accidentes cerebrovasculares (ACV), mediante la independencia funcional, la capacidad, la participacion y la calidad del desempeño de las actividades cotidianas. Pacientes y metodos. Diseño cuasi experimental de cohortes con medidas transversales pre y postratamiento con una muestra de 58 personas, 28 con TCE y 30 con ACV, en ambos casos lateralizados. Las medidas utilizadas fueron la Functional Independence Measure + Functional Assessment Measure, la clasificacion internacional del funcionamiento, la discapacidad y la salud, y el Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. Resultados. Teniendo en cuenta los grupos analizados (muestra completa lateralizada, muestra por diagnostico), los resultados del analisis apuntan hacia la existencia de diferencias significativas y un moderado tamaño del efecto en las dos estimaciones transversales, otorgando mayores niveles de independencia a las lesiones sobrevenidas en el hemisferio derecho (p < 0,001). Sin embargo, al dividir la muestra segun el diagnostico, no aparecen diferencias significativas, salvo en las habilidades motoras, donde se muestran mayores puntuaciones en los TCE (p < 0,05). Conclusiones. Se piensa que lo que justifica las diferencias no es la modalidad de la lesion (TCE o ACV), sino la localizacion hemisferica. Por ello, se sugiere que las personas con daño cerebral adquirido en el hemisferio izquierdo requeriran una intervencion mas intensa.

  12. [Influence of sport practice and physical exercise on anthropometric indicators and weight satisfaction in men university students: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Telleria-Aramburu, Nerea; Sánchez, Celia; Ansotegui, Laura; Rocandio, Ana M; Arroyo-Izaga, Marta

    2014-10-03

    Introducción: Los jovenes universitarios presentan en general niveles bajos de actividad fisica, lo que podria repercutir en su peso y composicion corporal y en el conocimiento y aceptacion de su propio cuerpo. Objetivo: Evaluar el estado de peso y la composicion corporal, asi como la autopercepcion y satisfaccion con el peso corporal en universitarios, y analizar la influencia de la actividad fisico-deportiva sobre estas variables. Métodos: La muestra estuvo formada por 62 estudiantes varones con una edad media de 20,7+/-1,7 anos. La practica de deporte y/o ejercicio fisico en el tiempo libre se analizo mediante cuestionario. El estado de peso y la composicion corporal se evaluaron mediante antropometria. Tambien se registraron datos de peso autodeclarado y deseado, y de talla autodeclarada. Las medidas de peso real, autodeclarado y deseado se utilizaron para estimar la autopercepcion y satisfaccion con el peso. El analisis estadistico se realizo con el programa SPSS version 22.0. Resultados: El 17,7% de los participantes presentaba sobrepeso y el 6,5% bajo peso. El 45,2% tenia un gasto por el deporte y/o ejercicio fisico ≤ 3.000 kcal/semana y el 32,3% > 3.000 kcal/semana. La autopercepcion y satisfaccion con el peso fue mejor en el grupo que practicaba deporte y/o ejercicio fisico a razon de ≤ 3.000 kcal/semana, que en aquellos que no practicaban ningun ejercicio fisico o deporte (P < 0,05). Conclusión: La practica regular de actividad fisicodeportiva moderada esta relacionada con una mejor percepcion y satisfaccion con el peso corporal, en comparacion con el sedentarismo. Deberia aprovecharse el periodo de estudios universitarios para fomentar la practica de ejercicio fisico-deportivo, empleando los recursos o activos con los que cuenta la Universidad.

  13. [The Spanish adapted version of the Children's Communication Checklist identifies disorders of pragmatic use of language and differentiates between clinical subtypes].

    PubMed

    Crespo-Eguilaz, N; Magallon, S; Sanchez-Carpintero, R; Narbona, J

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. La Children's Communication Checklist (CCC) de Bishop es una prueba util para la valoracion de la pragmatica verbal en los escolares. El objetivo del trabajo es comprobar la fiabilidad y la validez de esta escala en castellano. Sujetos y metodos. Se analiza la CCC contestada por los padres de 360 niños/as de 4-12 años, con inteligencia normal, 160 controles y 200 de cuatro grupos clinicos: trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (n = 68), trastorno de aprendizaje no verbal procedimental (n = 77), trastorno de la comunicacion social (n = 25) y trastornos del espectro autista de nivel 1 (n = 30). Se realizan analisis: factorial para agrupar los items del cuestionario, de fiabilidad de las nuevas escalas y discriminante para comprobar si clasifica bien a los afectos de dificultades en el uso del lenguaje. Resultados. Se obtienen siete factores (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin: 0,852) con moderada similitud a las de la CCC original: relaciones sociales, intereses y otros cinco que constituyen pragmatica (habilidades conversacionales, coherencia-comprension, compenetracion, comunicacion no verbal y pertinencia). La correlacion es significativa entre todos ellos, en el grupo control, y entre los cinco que configuran pragmatica, en los grupos clinicos (r de Pearson). La fiabilidad de las escalas es buena (alfa de Cronbach: 0,914). El cuestionario clasifica bien al 98,9% de los casos agrupados con y sin trastorno pragmatico; y al 78% de los participantes en sus correspondientes grupos clinicos. Ademas, permite diferenciar las patologias segun la presencia e intensidad de los sintomas. Conclusiones. Esta version española de la CCC es altamente valida y fiable. Los estadisticos aportados pueden utilizarse como valores de referencia.

  14. [Autisms that 'cure themselves'].

    PubMed

    Artigas-Pallares, J; Paula-Perez, I

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. La investigacion sobre el autismo, basada principalmente en el modelo categorico del Manual diagnostico y estadistico de los trastornos mentales, se ha centrado de forma preferente en la epidemiologia, las manifestaciones clinicas, los mecanismos cognitivos y los determinantes biologicos y ambientales; sin embargo, se ha prestado escaso interes a las trayectorias evolutivas, las cuales son decisivas de cara al pronostico a medio y largo plazo. Objetivo. Revisar el curso evolutivo de niños diagnosticados de autismo que, aun conservando a medio o largo plazo rasgos conductuales acordes con el perfil inicial, alcanzan una adaptacion social y laboral satisfactorias, y ademas dejan de cumplir los criterios que dieron lugar al diagnostico inicial. Desarrollo. Se ha revisado la bibliografia sobre el autismo centrada en el analisis de la evolucion de las manifestaciones clinicas y de su repercusion desde las primeras edades hasta la edad adulta. Asimismo, se han tomado en consideracion aspectos conceptuales sobre el autismo que facilitan la comprension y el significado de los patrones evolutivos. Conclusiones. Alrededor del 20% de los niños diagnosticados dejan de cumplir los criterios en los que se baso el diagnostico y, ademas, alcanzan un ajuste social y laboral satisfactorio. Como factores favorecedores se identifica: inteligencia normal, buen nivel de lenguaje y baja incidencia de 'comorbilidades'; por el contrario, en las series notificadas no se señalan como factores determinantes las intervenciones terapeuticas precoces e intensivas. Por ultimo, se menciona el concepto de neurodiversidad, donde la recuperacion se centra en el desarrollo optimo de las capacidades de cada individuo en un entorno facilitador.

  15. [Results of vagal nerve stimulation in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy in a national epilepsy referral centre].

    PubMed

    Roldan-Ramos, P; Reyes-Figueroa, L A; Rumia, J; Martinez-Lizana, E; Donaire, A; Carreno-Martinez, M

    2016-11-01

    Objetivos. Describir los resultados clinicos y complicaciones derivados de la estimulacion vagal en pacientes con epilepsia farmacorresistente no tributaria de otras modalidades de tratamiento quirurgico, desde el primer implante en un centro de referencia nacional. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizo un analisis retrospectivo de los pacientes implantados en nuestro centro y se extrajeron datos relativos a las caracteristicas basales de su epilepsia y complicaciones derivadas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 32 nuevos implantes en 31 pacientes, con una edad media de 34 años, evolucion de enfermedad de 29,3 años, tres farmacos antiepilepticos prequirurgicos y 4,03 años de seguimiento. Las crisis parciales complejas (71,9%) y criptogenicas (59,4%) fueron el tipo y la etiologia de crisis mas frecuentes. El 75% no tenia antecedentes quirurgicos de epilepsia. Un 43,8% presento mejoria igual o superior al 50%, mayor en las epilepsias parciales complejas (p = 0,22) y la etiologia criptogenica. No se hallo asociacion estadistica entre ajustes de medicacion y frecuencia de las crisis. Los efectos secundarios encontrados fueron disfonia, ronquera y disfagia transitorias, y una asistolia intraoperatoria recuperada. Se realizo un recambio por ruptura de hardware postraumatica. Un paciente con paresia preexistente de cuerda vocal presento estridor laringeo que requirio ajuste de intensidad, y se produjo una retirada del sistema por disfuncion. En el 84,4%, la tolerancia fue excelente. Conclusiones. Constituye un tratamiento efectivo para mejorar significativamente la frecuencia de crisis de los pacientes farmacorresistentes y con contraindicacion para otras modalidades de tratamiento quirurgico. Se precisan futuros estudios para predecir la respuesta individual de cada paciente, optimizar las indicaciones y mejorar la relacion coste/beneficio.

  16. [A very slow-growing exophytic hemisphere glioma: a case report].

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Carlos; Caballero, Hugo; Bucheli, Carlos; Berciano, José; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso; Martino, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. Los gliomas de bajo grado presentan un patron de crecimiento caracteristico a traves de las fibras de la sustancia blanca. El crecimiento exofitico en gliomas de bajo grado hemisfericos no se ha descrito previamente. Se presenta un caso de glioma hemisferico de lenta progresion y con crecimiento exofitico. Caso clinico. Varon de 55 años, con crisis parciales motoras secundarias a un oligodendroglioma de grado II de la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud. El tumor infiltraba la circunvolucion frontal superior con extension exofitica que se extendia por encima de la circunvolucion precentral. Fue seguido con controles clinicorradiologicos durante 23 años. El analisis de la evolucion radiologica del tumor demostraba un crecimiento tumoral lento, con una velocidad de crecimiento de 0,5 mm al año. Durante la exeresis quirurgica se definio un plano subaracnoideo entre el componente exofitico y la circunvolucion precentral, que se encontraba desplazada inferiormente sin infiltracion tumoral. La estimulacion electrica intraoperatoria no evidencio funcion en el componente exofitico, pero si en la circunvolucion precentral. No se observaron deficits neurologicos postoperatorios. Conclusiones. La velocidad de crecimiento en gliomas de bajo grado se ha estimado en 4-6 mm al año. El tumor que se describe aqui tiene una velocidad de crecimiento de 0,5 mm al año, muy por debajo de esta media. La identificacion de la porcion exofitica es un paso importante en la planificacion preoperatoria. Este componente es mas facil de resecar debido al plano de clivaje subaracnoideo y a la ausencia de funcion.

  17. ANDROGEN RECEPTOR CAG AND GGN REPEAT POLYMORPHISMS AND BONE MASS IN BOYS AND GIRLS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Garcia, Lorena; Ponce-Gonzalez, Jesus G; González-Henriquez, Juan J; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Francisco G; Díaz-Chico, Bonifacio N; Calbet, Jose A L; Serrano-Sanchez, José A; Dorado, Cecilia; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: el gen humano del receptor de androgenos (AR) posee dos repeticiones polimorficas de trinucleotidos (CAG y GGN) que afectan a la cantidad de proteina AR traducida. En este estudio, genotipamos esos tractos polimorficos en una muestra representativa de ninos caucasicos espanoles (Tanner ≤ 5), compuesta por 152 ninos (11.5 } 2.6 anos) y 116 ninas (10.1 } 3.2 anos) e investigamos su asociacion con la masa osea. Métodos: la longitud de las repeticiones CAG y GGN se determino mediante PCR y analisis de fragmentos. La composicion corporal se midio mediante absorciometria dual de rayos X (DXA). Los participantes fueron agrupados como CAG cortos (CAGS) si poseian una longitud de repeticiones ≤ 21 y CAG largos si esta era > 21. Ademas, los participantes se agruparon como GGN cortos (GGNS) si poseian una longitud de repeticiones ≤ 23 y GGN largos (GGNL) si esta era > 23. Resultados: en los ninos se encontraron diferencias en talla, peso corporal, densidad mineral osea (BMD) y contenido mineral oseo (BMC) del cuerpo entero, BMC de las extremidades superiores e inferiores, BMD del cuello del femur, BMC y BMD del triangulo de Ward’s y BMD de la espina lumbar entre los grupos CAGS y CAGL (P < 0,05). Ademas, el BMD de las extremidades superiores fue significativamente diferente entre los grupos GGNS y GGNL. Tras ajustar por variables confusoras, la unica diferencia que se mantuvo significativa fue la del BMD en las extremidades superiores entre los grupos GGNS y GGNL (P < 0,05). No se observaron diferencias entre los grupos CAG y GGN y la masa osea en las ninas. Conclusiones: nuestros resultados apoyan la hipotesis de que los alelos largos de los polimorfismos CAG y GGN del AR estan asociados con una mayor masa osea en ninos prepuberes.

  18. CHRONIC ENTERITIS IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING PELVIC RADIOTHERAPY: PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND ASSOCIATED COMPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Moreno, Ana; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Kyriakos, Georgios; Villar-Taibo, Rocío; Urioste-Fondo, Ana; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la radiacion de los tumores de la cavidad pelvica puede provocar mucositis a nivel intestinal. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue determinar la prevalencia, los factores de riesgo y las complicaciones de la enteritis radica cronica en los pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica. Pacientes y métodos: estudio transversal sobre 150 pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica durante el ano 2008 debido a un cancer de prostata, cervix, endometrio o recto. Se interrogo a los pacientes sobre la presencia de sintomas sugestivos de enteritis y sobre cambios en el peso habitual y modificaciones en su dieta. Los parametros considerados como posibles factores de riesgo de enteritis cronica (sexo, edad, tratamiento antitumoral, enteritis aguda previa y tipo de tumor) se analizaron con metodos univariantes y multivariantes. Resultados: el estudio incluyo finalmente a 100 pacientes, el 84% varones, con una mediana de edad de 72,3 anos. Se encontro una prevalencia de enteritis radica cronica del 20%, en la mayoria de grado 1 (45%). Por otra parte, el 10% referian una perdida de peso ≥ 5 kg, el 3% habian requerido hospitalizacion debido a diarrea incoercible o a obstruccion intestinal, y el 11% habian modificado su patron de alimentacion habitual, reduciendo principalmente el consumo de verduras, legumbres y dulces. Se encontro asociacion entre la enteritis radica cronica y el sexo masculino, la edad, la enteritis radica aguda previa y la quimioterapia, pero solo esta resulto asociarse de forma independiente con el desarrollo de enteritis radica cronica despues del analisis multivariante (OR = 3,59 [95% CI 1,20–10,73]). Conclusión: la enteritis cronica es una entidad frecuente en los pacientes tratados con radioterapia pelvica, sobre todo cuando se asocia con quimioterapia. La tasa de complicaciones por esta patologia es baja, pero un numero importante de pacientes realiza modificaciones en su dieta habitual para aliviar o evitar la sintomatologia derivada

  19. [The validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the Severe Cognitive Impairment Profile (SCIP) for the cognitive assessment of persons with advanced stages of Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Buiza, C; Montorio-Cerrato, I; Yanguas, J

    2015-10-16

    Introduccion. Existen pocas herramientas validadas al castellano para realizar una evaluacion precisa del funcionamiento cognitivo de personas con demencias avanzadas. Esta poblacion supone un reto por el elevado numero de personas que alcanzan estos estadios y por la complejidad de cuidados que requieren. Este trabajo presenta la validacion al castellano de un instrumento, la escala 'perfil de deterioro cognitivo grave' (SCIP), que permite la evaluacion del funcionamiento cognitivo de personas con enfermedad de Alzheimer avanzada. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio transversal con 133 sujetos (29 hombres y 104 mujeres; edad media: 81,61 ± 7,41 años) con diagnostico de enfermedad de Alzheimer en estadios de moderado a muy grave, segun la escala de deterioro global (GDS 5-7). Se realizaron analisis de discriminacion de los items, estudio de la consistencia interna y fiabilidad interjueces y test-retest, y se contrasto la estructura factorial y la validez del instrumento. Resultados. Solo el 1% de los 160 items de la escala resulto no discriminativo. La consistencia interna de la escala es adecuada, asi como la fiabilidad interjueces y test-retest. Respecto a la validez de constructo, la correlacion con el miniexamen cognitivo es 0,74 (p < 0,01), y se encuentran diferencias significativas entre la escala SCIP y los tres niveles de la GDS analizados. La estructura factorial de la escala muestra la existencia de un solo factor que explica el 66,12% de la varianza. Conclusion. La escala SCIP es un instrumento util, fiable y valido para la evaluacion exhaustiva en castellano de las funciones cognitivas en personas con demencia en estadios de moderado a muy grave.

  20. Desarrollo de un instrumento para medir percepciones sobre el contexto de construccion del conocimiento cientifico de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Ramirez, Jaime Antonio

    En esta investigacion, se desarrollo un instrumento que permite medir percepciones relacionadas al contexto de constriccion del conocimiento cientifico. Se examinaron instrumentos existentes y se encontro que el VOSTS (Views on science, technology, and society), instrumento desarrollado empiricamente en Canada por Aikenhead, Ryan y Fleming, podia traducirse y validarse en el contexto cultural puertorriqueno. El instrumento es extenso, consta de 113 reactivos, cada uno con una premisa basica relacionada a la tematica ciencia, tecnologia y sociedad y un numero de alternativas relacionadas a la premisa que oscila entre siete y trece. Se delimito su utilizacion a los quince reactivos identificados por los autores como relacionados a la construccion social del conocimiento cientifico. Metodologicamente, se procedio a utilizar el modelo de adaptacion intercultural, que permite que el instrumento desarrollado satisfaga las dimensiones de equivalencia semantica, de contenido, tecnica, de criterio y conceptual, atemperado asi al instrumento original. Se cumplio con este proposito mediante la traduccion de la version original en ingles al espanol y viceversa. Se utilizaron comites para examinar la traduccion y la retro-traduccion del instrumento. Se realizo una prueba piloto con estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso, utilizando el instrumento traducido para asegurar su intelegibilidad. La confiabilidad del instrumento se determino mediante la intervencion de un panel de expertos quienes clasificaron las distintas posiciones dentro de cada reactivo en: realista, con merito e ingenua; se transformaron estas opciones en valores numericos lo que permitio establecer una escala Likert para cada una. Se suministro el instrumento a una muestra de estudiantes universitarios de nuevo ingreso con caracteristicas similares a las de la poblacion puertorriquena en cuanto a ejecucion en las pruebas de aptitud verbal y matematica del College Board. Los resultados de sus contestaciones

  1. [Analysis of factors predicting early unplanned readmissions].

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Gabriella; Tersigni, Ivan; Federico, Bruno; Leuter, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    OBIETTIVI: determinare i fattori associati ai ricoveri ripetuti per identificare i pazienti a rischio di riospedalizzazione entro i 30 giorni dalla dimissione. DISEGNO: analisi retrospettiva delle dimissioni nell'anno 2013 attraverso le schede di dimissione ospedaliera (SDO).

  2. Male courtship behavior in Ceratitis Capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) that have received Aromatherapy with ginger root oil

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, D.; Eberhard, W.; Shelly, T.

    2007-03-15

    criados en masa fueron apareados con hembras criadas en masa; sin embargo, cuando ellos fueron apareados con hembras naturales, resultaron unas pequenas diferencias. Los estudios previos indicaron que la eficacia de la feromona atrayente de machos de larga distancia no esta afectada por la aromaterapia, pero estos estudios no consideran las feromonas sueltas en un rango corto durante el cortejo, cuando el analisis de comportamiento sugiere que puede ser diferente. Nosotros proponemos la explicacion siguiente para los efectos diferentes de la aromaterapia con las diferentes hembras. La seleccion de machos bajo condiciones de cria en masa puede haber alterado las feromonas de rango corto de manera que puede ser remediada por la aromaterapia; y solamente las hembras naturales responden por que tambien ha cambiado la respuesta de las hembras criadas en masa a la feromona. Nosotros indicamos observaciones que pueden probar estas ideas. (author)

  3. Analysis and Synthesis of Leaky-Wave Devices in Planar Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Ros, Alejandro Javier

    The work developed along this doctoral thesis has been focused on the analysis and synthesis of microwave devices in planar technology. In particular, several types of devices based on the radiation mechanism of leaky waves have been studied. Typically, the radiation properties in leaky-wave devices are determined by the complex propagation constant of the leaky mode, wherein the phase constant is responsible for the pointing angle and the leakage rate for the intensity of the radiated fields. In this manner, by controlling both amplitude and phase of the leaky mode, an effective control over the device's radiation diagram can be obtained. Moreover, with the purpose of efficiently obtaining the leaky mode's radiation properties as function of the main geometrical parameters of the structure, several modal tools based on the transverse resonance analysis of the structure have been performed. In order to demonstrate this simultaneous control over the complex propagation constant in planar technology, several types of leaky-wave devices, including antennas (LWAs), multiplexors and near-field focusing systems, have been designed and manufactured in the technology of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). This recently proposed technology, allows the design of devices based on classical waveguide technology with standard manufacturing techniques used for printed circuit board (PCB) designs. In this way, most of the parts that form a communication system can be integrated into a single substrate, thus reducing its cost and providing a more robust and compact device, which has less losses compared to other planar technologies such as the microstrip. El trabajo llevado a cabo durante la realizacion de esta tesis doctoral, se ha centrado en el analisis y sintesis de dispositivos de microondas en tecnologia planar. En concreto, se han estudiado diferentes tipos de dispositivos basados en radiacion por ondas de fuga "leaky waves", en los cuales las propiedades de radiacion

  4. [Kidney cancer with venal thrombus-principles of menagement].

    PubMed

    Skiba, Ryszard; Syryło, Tomasz; Wieczorek, Andrzej; Zieliński, Henryk

    Frequency of renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus may reach up to 30% of cases. Epidemiologic data show that tumor thrombus by itself is not negative predictive factor. Meticulous preparation by analisis of high quality imaging, acurate preoperative patient and team preparation enables to make complete thrombus resection. In our analisis we propouse rules of holistic treatment for patients suffering from renal cell carcinoma with tumor thrombus. Applying of these rules results in satisfactory long term results.

  5. Fusion of Inertial Sensors and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed (OFDM) Signals of Opportunity for Unassisted Navigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    32 IV. Results and Analisys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.1 Effects of the Number of Transmitters and Oversampling 34...the reference is not used in any cross-correlations; only the clock data is used. 33 IV. Results and Analisys This chapter details results from the...notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does

  6. French Nuclear Strategy in an Age of Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    President Chirac: Reform, Clean Break or Reminder?” Real Instituno Elcano, (January 24, 2006), http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/ analisis /905.asp...stem from a French strategic culture deeply imbedded in history coupled with a personal obsession of de Gaulle which has had a lasting legacy in...Real Instituno Elcano, January 24, 2006, http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/ analisis /905.asp (accessed September 11, 2006). Beaufre, André

  7. Conference Proceedings: 7th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California, March 18-22, 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    34, Pill). 222. laboratouin di Analisi Nuincrica del Comisi.hio Naziemnale delle f.ecerche, Pavia (1079). [ChK] M. Chueney •nd G. Kristeosson. "Three...of some regularization methods and application to data collected in isolated dog heart experiments," Pub. 222, laboratorio di Analisi Numecrica del...series solution for the EF" ELECTRIC -IEI-.n VECTORi RCS of the sphercl3] is used to derive a correction factor accounting for the frequency response of

  8. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  9. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  10. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  11. Tendencia de los egresos hospitalarios por enfermedades infecciosas intestinales en niños en Argentina, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Degiuseppe, Juan I

    2017-08-01

    Acute diarrhea is one of the most serious public health problems in developing countries because it is generally associated with unfavorable living conditions. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in hospital discharges for intestinal infectious disease in children under age 5 recorded in official public hospitals from Argentina in the 2005-2013 period. This was an ecological, time-series study based on data provided by the Health Statistics and Information Department, at a national and regional level. Specific hospital discharge rates were estimated, and seasonal behavior and trends were analyzed in relation to this event. In Argentina, 2 521 729 patients under age 5 were discharged in this period; of these, 9.0% were diagnosed with intestinal infectious disease. Children under age 1 accounted for a third of hospitalizations; two annual peaks (summer and winter) were observed in the seasonality analysis. Overall, a downward trend was observed, with a mild increase in the 2007-2009 period. Rates were up to 3 or 4 times higher in Northwest and Northeast Argentina than in the Pampa region. Hospital discharges for intestinal infectious disease in the public subsector account for approximately 10% of all discharges of children under age 5. This event shows a seasonal pattern, with a slightly downward trend over the past years in spite of its heterogeneous distribution across the different Argentine regions.

  12. Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación por tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.

    We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.

  13. Haciendo que los colegios se hagan responsables por el logro (Holding Schools Accountable for Achievement). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    This digest in Spanish describes the key features of current accountability systems and explores their implications for administrators. It discusses various aspects of accountability systems, such as rigorous content standards and the alignment of professional development with standards and test results, and how these elements work together to…

  14. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  15. Relationship between hepatic phenotype and changes in gene expression in cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu Jun; Chamberlain, Mark; Vassieva, Olga; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase is the unique electron donor for microsomal cytochrome P450s; these enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In mice with a liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 reductase, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity is ablated, with consequent changes in bile acid and lipid homoeostasis. In order to gain insights into the metabolic changes resulting from this phenotype, we have analysed changes in hepatic mRNA expression using microarray analysis and real-time PCR. In parallel with the perturbations in bile acid levels, changes in the expression of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis were observed in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice. This was characterized by a reduced expression of Cyp7b1, and elevation of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 expression. The levels of mRNAs for other cytochrome P450 genes, including Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a16, were increased, demonstrating that endogenous factors play a role in regulating the expression of these proteins and that the increases are due, at least in part, to altered levels of transcripts. In addition, levels of mRNAs encoding genes involved in glycolysis and lipid transport were also increased; the latter may provide an explanation for the increased hepatic lipid content observed in the hepatic null mice. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were lowered, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of Hsd3b2 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-2), Hsd3b5 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-5) and Hsd11b1 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1), key enzymes in steroid hormone metabolism. These microarray data provide important insights into the control of metabolic pathways by the cytochrome system. PMID:15717863

  16. Disponibilidade de nutrientes na fitomassa produzida por cultivares de milho (Zea mays L.) de diferentes niveis tecnologicos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Macronutrient uptake, accumulation, and exportation can be affected by corn genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to quantify macronutrient extraction and to evaluate C/P and C/N ratio. The experiment was established at Rolândia County, Paraná State. Ten corn varieties divided into pa...

  17. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  18. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  19. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  20. [Gastos hospitalarios por neumonía neumocóccica invasora en adultos en un hospital general en Chile].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Álvaro; Lagos, Isabel; Fica, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Pneumococcal infections are important for their morbidity and economic burden, but there is no economical data from adults patients in Chile. Estimate direct medical costs of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia among adult patients hospitalized in a general hospital and to evaluate the sensitivity of ICD 10 discharge codes to capture infections from this pathogen. Analysis of hospital charges by components in a group of patients admitted for bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, correction of values by inflation and conversion from CLP to US$. Data were collected from 59 patients admitted during 2005-2010, mean age 71.9 years. Average hospital charges for those managed in general wards reached 2,756 US$, 8,978 US$ for those managed in critical care units (CCU) and 6,025 for the whole group. Charges were higher in CCU (p < 0.001), and patients managed in these units generated 78.3% of the whole cost (n = 31; 52.5% from total). The median cost in general wards was 1,558 US$, and 3,993 in CCU. Main components were bed occupancy (37.8% of charges), and medications (27.4%). There were no differences associated to age, comorbidities, severity scores or mortality. No single ICD discharge code involved a S. pneumoniae bacteremic case (0% sensitivity) and only 2 cases were coded as pneumococcal pneumonia (3.4%). Mean hospital charges (~6,000 US dollars) or median values (~2,400 US dollars) were high, underlying the economic impact of this condition. Costs were higher among patients managed in CCU. Recognition of bacteremic pneumococcal infections by ICD 10 discharge codes has a very low sensitivity.

  1. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  2. Padres Trabajando por la Paz: a randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent violence among middle school children.

    PubMed

    Murray, N G; Kelder, S H; Parcel, G S; Frankowski, R; Orpinas, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a theoretically derived intervention designed to increase parental monitoring among Hispanic parents of middle school students. Role model story newsletters developed through the process of Intervention Mapping were mailed to half of a subsample of parents whose children participated in Students for Peace, a comprehensive violence prevention program. The results indicated that parents in the experimental condition (N = 38) who had lower social norms for monitoring at baseline reported higher norms after the intervention than the parents in the control condition (N = 39) (P = 0.009). Children of parents in the experimental group reported slightly higher levels of monitoring at follow-up across baseline values, whereas control children who reported moderate to high levels of monitoring at pre-test reported lower levels at follow-up (P = 0.04). These newsletters are a population-based strategy for intervention with parents that show some promise for comprehensive school-based interventions for youth.

  3. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  4. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  5. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  6. [Clinical characteristics of vestibular migraine: considerations in a series of 41 patients].

    PubMed

    Martinez, E; Ruiz-Pinero, M; de Lera, M; Baron, J; Pedraza, M I; Guerrero-Peral, A L

    2017-01-01

    Introduccion. Tras años de debates sobre su enfoque desde las cefaleas y su denominacion, la migraña vestibular ha sido recientemente incluida en el apendice de investigacion de la III edicion de la Clasificacion Internacional de Cefaleas. Objetivo. Analizar las caracteristicas de una serie de pacientes con migraña vestibular en los que el motivo de consulta fue la cefalea. Pacientes y metodos. Pacientes atendidos en una unidad de cefaleas entre enero de 2014 y diciembre de 2015. Se consideran las variables demograficas y caracteristicas tanto de la migraña como de los sintomas vestibulares, y se excluyen los casos con otras patologias otorrinolaringologicas. Resultados. Se incluyen 41 pacientes (11 varones, 30 mujeres) con una edad media de 31,8 ± 13,3 años en el momento de la inclusion. Dieciseis pacientes (39%) reunian criterios de migraña cronica y dos (4,9%) presentaban auras visuales. Los sintomas vestibulares fueron considerados graves en ocho casos (19,5%) y ocurrian en un 74,6% de los episodios de migraña. El vertigo se describia como interno en 18 casos (43,9%), externo en 22 (53,7%) y mixto en uno (2,4%). El sintoma mas frecuente fue el vertigo posicional (n = 25; 61%), seguido del inducido por movimientos cefalicos (n = 18; 43,9%) y el espontaneo (n = 15; 36,6%). Como sintomas acompañantes se observaron acufenos (n = 12; 29,3%) y pletora aural (n = 8; 19,5%). Conclusion. La identificacion de sintomas compatibles con una migraña vestibular no es excepcional en los pacientes que acuden a una unidad de cefaleas; se trata de pacientes en los que el vertigo no suele interferir en sus actividades habituales.

  7. [Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A case report].

    PubMed

    Aragón-Tovar, Anel Rogelio; Pineda-Rodríguez, Marco Elí; Puente-Gallegos, Francisco Edgardo; Zavala-Pompa, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: el carcinoma neuroendocrino de células pequeñas primario de vejiga es una lesión maligna muy poco frecuente. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 68 años de edad, que tuvo hematuria macroscópica de 24 horas de evolución. Estudios de imagen mostraron tumoración vesical de 218 cc, que en 20 días alcanzó un volumen de 426 cc. A la tinción con hematoxilina-eosina, histológicamente se apreció: placa sólida infiltrante de bordes irregulares, compuesta por células neoplásicas con claro predominio de núcleo y escaso citoplasma (células pequeñas). A la tinción inmunohistoquímica con cromogranina parecía difusamente positivo en células neoplásicas, en un patrón granular citoplasmático. A la tinción con citoqueratina de alto peso molecular se observó patrón negativo en células neoplásicas con control interno positivo en el urotelio acompañante en espécimen. De igual manera, la tumoración fue positiva para sinaptofisina y CD-56 y negativa para CK-7 y CK-20. El paciente recibió tratamiento a base de radioterapia y quimioterapia. Conclusión: el carcinoma neuroendocrino de células pequeñas primario de vejiga representa de 0.35 a 0.70% de los tumores vesicales primarios. Su diagnóstico se basa en el reconocimiento histológico e inmunohistoquímico. El tratamiento se fundamenta en quimioterapia con cisplatino más cistectomía radical, excepto cuando existe enfermedad metastásica.

  8. [Protocol for neurophysiological studies of the pelvic floor to appraise anorectal dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Royo, Inmaculada; Andreu, Montserrat; Roquer-González, Jaume; Munteis, Elvira

    2016-03-01

    Introduccion. Los pacientes con esclerosis multiple (EM) frecuentemente desarrollan disfuncion anorrectal. Las estructuras neuromusculares del suelo pelvico y los mecanismos de control voluntario de la defecacion pueden afectarse por las lesiones parcheadas de la EM o secundarias a la discapacidad del paciente. La implicacion multifactorial limita la comprension de la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal en la EM. Tests neurofisiologicos especificos valoran la funcionalidad de los elementos del sistema nervioso central y periferico implicados en las disfunciones anorrectales. Objetivo. Proponer un protocolo diagnostico de estudios neurofisiologicos estandarizados del suelo pelvico para caracterizar la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal en los pacientes con EM. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizaron estudios de electromiografia de esfinter anal externo, potenciales evocados somatosensoriales desde el nervio pudendo interno, registro de reflejos sacros anales y neurografia del nervio pudendo a 16 pacientes con EM definida y criterios de estreñimiento o incontinencia fecal. Resultados. Las caracteristicas clinicas y neurofisiologicas fueron heterogeneas. Nueve pacientes presentaron estreñimiento; dos, incontinencia fecal aislada; y cinco, combinacion de ambos. La abolicion o el retraso de la latencia de los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales fue el hallazgo mas frecuente (n = 12), seguido de la deteccion de contraccion paradojica (n = 11) y de reclutamiento deficitario (n = 8) en la electromiografia de esfinter anal externo. Conclusiones. La correcta interpretacion de cada test neurofisiologico disponible y la correlacion de los hallazgos en conjunto permiten comprender la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal. La protocolizacion de estudios neurofisiologicos del suelo pelvico permite ajustar el diagnostico al identificar la lesion nerviosa, central o periferica, determinante de disfuncion anorrectal en los pacientes con EM.

  9. [Migraine and evolutionary theory: paths for a clinical approach].

    PubMed

    Alvaro-Gonzalez, L C

    2016-10-01

    Introduccion. La migraña es un trastorno muy comun, con incidencia en aumento. La teoria evolutiva permite explicar su aparicion, dadas las ventajas que aportaba a grupos originarios de Homo sapiens una mayor reactividad a estimulos, y la presencia creciente de interaccion con factores ambientales. Analizamos estos aspectos a traves de los mecanismos potenciales que los explican. Desarrollo. El diseño de los organismos y sus respuestas ambientales surgen para mejorar la supervivencia. Asi, el dolor y la cefalea pueden entenderse como respuestas homeostaticas y adaptativas. Menos del 10% de la poblacion no tiene experiencia de cefalea, y el fenotipo migrañoso es una repuesta dolorosa comun en formas secundarias y sindromicas de cefalea. Estas caracteristicas se entienden segun rasgos neurofisiologicos especificos (falta de habituacion, sensibilizacion y baja preactivacion), caracteristicas geneticas (trastorno poligenico con multiples genes de baja penetrancia, que interaccionan con el ambiente y que son comunes a los de los trastornos comorbidos, como depresion-ansiedad) e interaccion ambiental en las sociedades modernas (aumento del numero de ciclos estrogenicos, y especialmente sobreexposicion al estres). Conclusiones. Lo que fue una ventaja evolutiva se ha transformado en la sociedad moderna en un trastorno muy prevalente y frecuentemente incapacitante. Es el resultado de una interaccion con sobrecarga de estimulos externos (estres) e internos (hormonales), lo que, de acuerdo con la teoria evolutiva, convertiria a la migraña en una enfermedad por desajuste. Los efectos ocurririan precozmente, en la infancia, a traves de mecanismos de epigenetica. Se obtendria un gran beneficio terapeutico mediante intervenciones poblacionales y educativas que incorporen estos aspectos.

  10. Investigaccion-accion en la sala de clases sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y su relacion reciproca con el aprendizaje de las ciencias biologicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova-Santiago, Lizzette Astrid

    La investigacion---accion que se llevo a cabo en la sala de clases tenia como punto de partida las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia de un grupo de estudiantes universitarios para luego examinar sus implicaciones en el proceso de aprendizaje de las Ciencias Biologicas. ¿Que se supone que hagan las creencias en relacion con el aprendizaje? ¿En que consiste incorporar este aspecto a la practica educativa universitaria? Utilizando el modelo de Kemmis y McTaggart (1987) la investigacion-accion se planteo como un proceso dinamico en cuatro momentos en espiral constituidos por la planificacion, la accion, la observacion y la reflexion. Cada una de las fases tuvo una intencion retrospectiva y prospectiva formando una espiral de autorreflexion del conocimiento y la accion. Se llevaron a cabo audio grabaciones en clases y analisis de documentos. Ademas, la profesora-investigadora hizo un portafolio para reflexionar sobre las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tienen los estudiantes y las creencias del aprendizaje que tiene la profesora y sobre como la comprension de estos elementos ayudo a mejorar su practica educativa a traves del tiempo. Los resultados obtenidos apuntan a que las creencias de la cultura de la ciencia que tiene el grupo de estudiantes son diversas. Ellos si creen que la ciencia tiene una cultura la cual describieron como: complicada y desconocida que evoluciona constantemente, que es un conjunto de metodos, que es altamente tecnologica, que resuelve problemas de salud, ayuda a interpretar la realidad del mundo que los rodea y su origen y que existen unas intersecciones entre la ciencia y el poder. Sobre las creencias del proceso de aprendizaje de la profesora-investigadora, estas senalan que el modelaje de actores, la vision de la academia que tiene ella asi como la participacion y negociacion entre todos los involucrados en el proceso educativo, son factores que inciden en el proceso de aprendizaje.

  11. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of Belimumab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Spain].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cerezo, Silvia; García-Aparicio, Ángel María; Parrondo, Javier; Vallejo-Aparicio, Laura Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Estimar el coste-efectividad (CE) de belimumab en aquellos pacientes con biomarcadores positivos y enfermedad activa a pesar del tratamiento estandar (TE) desde la perspectiva social espanola. Métodos: A partir de un modelo de microsimulacion, que permite simular la evolucion natural de la enfermedad, se estimo el CE de belimumab + TE vs. TE. Se considero una duracion del tratamiento de dos anos y un horizonte temporal de toda la vida. La extrapolacion de eficacia a largo plazo se baso en los ensayos clinicos de belimumab y en la cohorte de pacientes John Hopkins de Estados Unidos; los datos de utilidades se obtuvieron de la literatura. Se calcularon costes directos e indirectos en base a datos espanoles publicados (€, 2014), aplicando una tasa de descuento (TD) del 3% tanto a costes como a efectos. Los resultados se expresaron como ratio coste- efectividad incremental (ICER) en terminos de anos de vida ganados (AVG) y anos de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC). Se realizaron analisis de sensibilidad deterministicos (TD al 0% y 5%, duracion de tratamiento 5 anos y exclusion de costes indirectos) asi como probabilisticos (PSA). Resultados: El ICER de belimumab + TE vs. TE fue de 16.647€/ AVG y 23.158€/AVAC respectivamente. La variacion de la TD supuso la mayor variacion de los resultados respecto al escenario base. En el 68% de los escenarios simulados en el PSA, belimumab fue una alternativa coste-efectiva considerando como umbral 30.000€/AVAC. Conclusiones: Belimumab puede considerarse una alternativa coste-efectiva desde la perspectiva social espanola.

  12. [Variability in the clinical presentation of Pompe disease in infancy: two case reports and response to treatment with human recombinant enzyme].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Medinilla, Esther; Berzosa-López, Raquel; Mora-Ramírez, M Dolores; Blasco-Alonso, Javier; Martínez-Antón, Jacinto

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Pompe o glucogenosis tipo II es un error innato del metabolismo, de herencia autosomica recesiva, causado por un deficit de la enzima lisosomal alfa-glucosidasa acida (GAA), que ocasiona un acumulo multisistemico de glucogeno. Describimos dos casos de inicio temprano (infantil) con diferentes formas de presentacion. Casos clinicos. El primer caso se trata de un neonato que presento una bradicardia mantenida desde el nacimiento, lo que motivo el estudio cardiologico, en el que se evidencio una hipertrofia biventricular grave. El segundo caso se trata de un niño de 14 meses con retraso motor e hipotonia con arreflexia. En la analitica destacaban una creatincinasa, lactato deshidrogenasa, transaminasa glutamico oxalacetica y transaminasa glutamico piruvica elevadas. El electromiograma mostro signos de afectacion miopatica, y la biopsia muscular, una miopatia vacuolar con deposito de glucogeno. En ambos, la actividad de la GAA estaba disminuida y el analisis genetico del gen GAA evidencio que eran portadores heterocigotos de mutaciones descritas en la enfermedad de Pompe. Iniciaron tratamiento con enzima recombinante humana al mes y a los 18 meses de vida, respectivamente, con mejoria evidente de la miocardiopatia hipertrofica, aunque mas limitada a nivel motor. En la actualidad tienen, respectivamente, 9 meses y 5 años, y este ultimo presenta un nivel III de la escala GMFM (Gross Motor Function Measure). Conclusion. La GAA recombinante humana es la unica opcion terapeutica autorizada para estos pacientes. Los efectos que hemos observado son similares a los descritos en otros casos, con una excelente evolucion de la miocardiopatia hipertrofica y un efecto variable sobre la musculatura esqueletica.

  13. [Relationship between memory complaints and memory performance, mood and sociodemographic variables in young adults].

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Mercedes; Montejo, Pedro; Claver-Martín, M Dolores; Reinoso, Ana Isabel; de Andrés-Montes, M Emiliana; García-Marín, Antonio; Llanero-Luque, Marcos; Huertas, Evelio

    2013-11-01

    Introduccion. Las consultas en neurologia por quejas de memoria se han incrementado en los ultimos años, tanto en mayores como en jovenes. Se han realizado pocos estudios sobre las variables que influyen en las quejas en adultos jovenes. Objetivo. Analizar en esta poblacion la relacion de las quejas con el rendimiento objetivo de memoria, con la depresion y la ansiedad, con la edad, el sexo y el nivel de estudios. Sujetos y metodos. Muestra de 582 individuos trabajadores sin deterioro cognitivo y edad de 22-64 años. Los materiales utilizados fueron listas de palabras y escenas de familia de la escala de memoria de Wechsler, tercera edicion, cuestionario de fallos de memoria de la vida diaria (MFE), y escala de depresion y ansiedad de Goldberg. Resultados. No se encontro asociacion estadisticamente significativa entre la valoracion subjetiva de la memoria y el rendimiento objetivo inmediato o demorado, ni en la memoria visual ni en la verbal. La depresion y la ansiedad fueron las variables con mayor correlacion con la puntuacion global del MFE. En el analisis de regresion, las variables significativas fueron: la depresion, con el mayor tamaño de efecto, la edad, los estudios universitarios y el sexo. Conclusion. Las personas jovenes que manifestaron mas olvidos cotidianos no presentaron un rendimiento menor en las pruebas objetivas de memoria. Las variables mas importantes que intervinieron en las quejas fueron la depresion y la ansiedad. Las personas mas jovenes, las que tenian estudios universitarios y los varones manifestaron menos quejas de memoria.

  14. Conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de la ciencia y la pseudociencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Medina, Hector A.

    Esta investigacion describe las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de tercer ano o mas a nivel de bachillerato de los programas de Educacion en Ciencia y Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Recinto de Rio Piedras, acerca de lo establecido en la literatura para distinguir el conocimiento cientifico de las creencias pseudocientificas. Este estudio se guio por un diseno tipo encuesta transversal que permitio conocer de manera consistente las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes encuestados acerca de la Ciencia y la Pseudociencia. Ademas, permitio desarrollar inferencias estadisticas relacionadas a la poblacion de estudio, sus conceptuaciones y su inclinacion teorica en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. El instrumento utilizado fue el Cuestionario acerca de las concepciones de la ciencia y la pseudocienca en estudiantes universitarios, Reyes (2015). Este cuestionario fue validado mediante la recopilacion de diversas fuentes de evidencias, entre estas se encuentran las evidencias basadas en el contenido, el proceso de respuesta, la estructura interna y de constructo. Tambien, se calculo el Alfa de Crombach para la escala total y para cada componente y se realizo un analisis de factores que demostro la presencia de seis componentes claramente definidos de acuerdo a lo esperado sobre las caracteristicas originales del instrumento. Las estadisticas utilizadas fueron descriptivas. Participaron 302 alumnos, de las facultades de educacion y ciencias naturales. Se encontro que las conceptuaciones de los estudiantes de ambas facultades se inclinan en un 66.2% a favor con lo establecido en el modelo teorico en torno al Realismo y al Racionalismo cientifico moderados. Sin embargo, aun hay un 33.8% de los estudiantes de ambas facultades que poseen conceptuaciones distintas al modelo teorico propuesto.

  15. [Spanish neuroscience in times of Don Quixote].

    PubMed

    Martín-Araguz, Antonio; Mikola, Yvett; Almendral-Doncel, Raquel; Campos-Bueno, Javier

    2016-02-16

    Introduccion. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra publico su inmortal obra Don Quijote de la Mancha en plena epoca de crisis y decadencia en la España de la transicion entre los siglos XVI y XVII. Objetivo. En 2016 se conmemora el cuarto centenario del fallecimiento de nuestro insigne literato, por cuyo motivo analizamos en este articulo el estado de la neurociencia hispana, tanto en el texto quijotesco como en la obra de los autores coetaneos mas relevantes. Desarrollo. A pesar de las peyorativas circunstancias historicas, en la epoca de la transicion del Renacimiento al Barroco se produjo en la Corona de Castilla un florecimiento de la literatura (Siglo de Oro español) y de otras artes hispanas (pintura, escultura, arquitectura y musica), asi como una prodigiosa creatividad en el campo de la neurociencia, incluida en la filosofia natural. El medico Gomez Pereira, en su libro Antoniana Margarita, se adelanto en decadas a las bases del mecanicismo cerebral y del concepto de reflejo condicionado. El boticario Miguel Sabuco, en su texto Nueva filosofia, anticipo en siglos el concepto de neurotransmision. El medico Juan Huarte de San Juan fue el fundador de la neuropsicologia y la psicologia experimental; su texto Examen de ingenios ha sido uno de los textos cientificos mas influyentes y traducidos de todos los tiempos; sus conceptos quedan patentemente reflejados en el texto cervantino. Conclusion. Este analisis de la obra cervantina dentro del entorno cultural de la obra pretende ser un homenaje a la inmortal figura de nuestro 'Principe de los ingenios' en el cuarto centenario de su fallecimiento.

  16. [The role of diffusion tensor imaging in the pre-surgical study of temporal lobe epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Pallero, M A; Torres, C V; Manzanares-Soler, R; Camara, E; Sola, R G

    2016-12-16

    Introduccion. La imagen por tensor de difusion (DTI) es una tecnica no invasiva que puede ser utilizada para evaluar la integridad de la sustancia blanca cerebral. Objetivo. Investigar la utilidad de la DTI en pacientes con epilepsia del lobulo temporal (ELT) y ver su relacion con la lateralizacion del foco epileptogeno en estos pacientes. Pacientes y metodos. Se analizan 11 pacientes diagnosticados de ELT segun el protocolo de evaluacion prequirurgica de nuestra unidad de epilepsia, y libres de crisis a los dos años de la realizacion de una lobectomia temporal mas amigdalohipocampectomia (tecnica de Spencer). Como parte de su estudio preoperatorio, se realiza una resonancia magnetica cerebral de 1,5 T con secuencia de tensor de difusion y se estudian, mediante un analisis basado en voxel, las diferencias en la conectividad entre el hemisferio intervenido y el contralateral. Resultados. Comparado con el hemisferio contralateral, se observo una reduccion de la anisotropia fraccional estadisticamente significativa (p < 0,05) en el cuerpo calloso, el cingulo, el fasciculo longitudinal superior, las radiaciones talamicas anteriores, la capsula interna, los nucleos ventral lateral y pulvinar del talamo, el fasciculo frontooccipital inferior, el fasciculo uncinado, el fasciculo longitudinal inferior y el giro parahipocampal ipsilaterales al foco epileptogeno. Conclusiones. La caracterizacion de las anormalidades en la conectividad de la sustancia blanca cerebral, a traves de la DTI en pacientes con ELT, puede tener un valor importante para la lateralizacion del foco epileptogeno en la evaluacion prequirurgica. Serian necesarios estudios con un numero mas elevado de pacientes para confirmar estos resultados.

  17. [Assessment of therapeutic passive hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy that need interhospital transport].

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Ruiz, José A; Lagares-Franco, Carolina; Rodríguez-Molina, Óscar; Cordero-Cañas, Enrique; Benavente-Fernández, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    Introduccion. La hipotermia inducida durante las primeras horas de vida del recien nacido es un tratamiento eficaz para reducir la mortalidad y secuelas graves en neonatos que han sufrido un episodio de hipoxia perinatal. Este procedimiento requiere una asistencia universalizada independiente del centro donde haya nacido, siendo necesario su traslado al hospital de referencia. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia del traslado interhospitalario del neonato con encefalopatia hipoxico-isquemica en hipotermia pasiva. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio descriptivo de series de casos con caracter retrospectivo. Se estudiaron neonatos de la provincia de Cadiz que precisaron hipotermia inducida. Se incluyo a un total de 46 neonatos en el analisis: 33 de ellos (71,74%) precisaron traslado por el Servicio de Traslados de Pacientes Criticos (grupo TPC); el resto (28,26%) nacio en el centro de referencia. Resultados. Ambos grupos son comparables en edad gestacional al nacimiento, sexo, peso y grado de encefalopatia hipoxico-isquemica. Se analizan variables relacionadas con la aplicacion de la hipotermia, y en el grupo TPC se analizan variables relacionadas con el traslado. No se aprecian diferencias significativas entre los grupos en la efectividad-consecuencia de la terapia neuroprotectora con hipotermia al alta hospitalaria (p = 0,159). No se encuentran complicaciones derivadas del traslado interhospitalario. Conclusiones. El traslado interhospitalario del neonato en hipotermia terapeutica realizado de forma pasiva es efectivo, seguro y necesario para el cumplimiento de la terapia. Es preciso consensuar la asistencia con el servicio de referencia, estableciendo guias en cuanto al soporte y rango de temperatura adecuada, consolidando asi una asistencia integral.

  18. [Personality traits in patients with chronic migraine: a categorial and dimensional study in a series of 30 patients].

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Irene; Domínguez, Elena; Hernández, Marta S; Ruiz-Piñero, Marina; Isidro, Guillermo; Mayor-Toranzo, Eduardo; Sotelo, Eva M; Molina, Vicente; Uribe, Fernando; Guerrero-Peral, Ángel L

    2015-07-16

    Introduccion. El papel patogenico de la personalidad en la migraña no esta definido. Para su estudio se pueden utilizar instrumentos de medida dimensional o categorial, sin que haya tampoco acuerdo acerca del abordaje mas adecuado. Objetivo. Analizar la personalidad de pacientes con migraña cronica desde el punto de vista dimensional y categorial. Pacientes y metodos. Como test categorial utilizamos el cuestionario Salamanca, y, como dimensional, el Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). Evaluamos trastornos del animo con la escala de ansiedad y depresion hospitalaria y el impacto de la migraña mediante el Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6). Resultados. Incluimos 30 pacientes (26 mujeres), con una edad media de 40,7 ± 9,6 años. Un caso (3,3%) presentaba criterios de depresion, y 4 (13,3%), de ansiedad. En el test Salamanca, los rasgos de personalidad mas frecuentes fueron los integrados en el cluster C: anancastico (n = 28; 93,3%), ansioso (n = 18; 60%) y dependiente (n = 7; 23,3%). En el MMPI-2, 16 pacientes (53,3%) cumplian criterios de hipocondria; 7 (23,3%), de depresion, y 10 (33,3%), de histeria, rasgos integrados en la triada neurotica. Se objetivo una configuracion denominada 'conversiva V'. No hallamos correlacion entre los rasgos de personalidad y el tiempo de migraña cronica, la intensidad medida por el HIT-6 o el uso excesivo de medicacion sintomatica. Conclusiones. En el analisis de la personalidad en la migraña cronica destaca, desde el punto de vista dimensional, el neuroticismo, y respecto al categorial, el rasgo obsesivo-compulsivo o anancastico. Es necesario el estudio de series mas extensas y la comparacion con pacientes con migraña episodica y poblacion control.

  19. [Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Region of Murcia].

    PubMed

    Carreon-Guarnizo, E; Andreu-Reinon, E; Cerdan-Sanchez, M; Carrasco-Torres, R; Hernandez-Clares, R; Prieto-Valiente, L; Garcia-Escriba, C; Sola-Roca, A; Martinez-Andreu, M E; Miralles Gonzalez-Conde, M A; Martin-Fernandez, J J; Meca-Lallana, J E

    2016-05-01

    Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple (EM) es una enfermedad inflamatoria desmielinizante del sistema nervioso central con patogenia inmunomediada. Recientes estudios indican un aumento de su prevalencia, y numerosos trabajos relacionan el virus de Epstein-Barr (VEB) con su etiologia. Objetivo. Analisis de prevalencia de la EM en la Region de Murcia, incluyendo la descripcion de las caracteristicas clinicas en el momento del inicio de la enfermedad, y del estado serologico del VEB de los pacientes con EM. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio epidemiologico retrospectivo, tomando como muestra la poblacion residente en el area sanitaria centro-oeste de la Region de Murcia (257.865 habitantes). Se analizan datos clinicos y serologicos extraidos de diferentes fuentes. Resultados. Prevalencia de la EM en la poblacion estudiada: 88 casos/100.000 habitantes. Prevalencia de la EM junto con el sindrome desmielinizante aislado: 98,4 casos/100.000 habitantes. Incidencia media de la EM: 5,8 casos/100.000 habitantes/año. En el inicio de la EM, el 67,8% eran mujeres, el 81,9% presentaba un curso recurrente-remitente, la edad media era de 31,4 años, el sistema funcional mas frecuentemente afectado era el sensitivo (45,1%), el inicio fue monofocal en el 55,4% y el grado de discapacidad en la Expanded Disability Status Scale era de 2,1 puntos. La seroprevalencia del VEB fue del 99,3%. La reactivacion de la infeccion por VEB se relaciono con actividad clinica de EM en 10 pacientes (45,4%). Conclusiones. Actualmente, la prevalencia de la EM en la Region de Murcia es similar a la estimada en otras comunidades autonomas españolas. El estudio confirma la tendencia de incremento de prevalencia observada en las ultimas decadas.

  20. [Patient safety: prescription of drugs that prolong the QT interval].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Arroyo, María Jesús; Díaz-Madero, Alfonso; Menacho-Miguel, David

    2015-09-01

    Objetivo: conocer la prescripcion de farmacos con riesgo conocido de prolongar el intervalo QT en un area de salud, informar a los medicos responsables de los factores de riesgo asociados a su aparicion y mejorar la seguridad del paciente. Métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal y observacional de prevalencia. Se incluyeron 4.964 pacientes de un area de salud en tratamiento con farmacos con riesgo conocido en un mes. Se identificaron farmacos de riesgo, interacciones y factores predisponentes. Se proporciono a cada medico los pacientes con farmacos con riesgo conocido, las recomendaciones y la encuesta para conocer mas factores de riesgo, su utilidad y su actitud clinica. Se realizo un analisis estadistico descriptivo. Resultados: el 3,2% de los pacientes del area estaban tratados con farmacos con riesgo conocido. El 64,0% eran mujeres, 57,5% mayores de 65 anos, y el 39,6% presentaban interacciones. El numero medio de factores de riesgo por paciente fue 1,78. Los farmacos con riesgo conocido mas frecuentes fueron antidepresivos (41,2%) y antibioticos (40,4%). El 25,4% de los medicos devolvio la encuesta informando de la actitud clinica en 1.073 pacientes: se retiro el farmaco con riesgo conocido en 289, se redujo la dosis en 113 y se realizo electrocardiograma en 398. Los medicos identificaron otros factores de riesgo: problema cardiaco (17,9%) e hiper/hipotiroidismo (8,8%). Conclusiones: la prevalencia detectada en la prescripcion de farmacos que prolongan el intervalo QT es relevante teniendo en cuenta que los pacientes tenian ademas otros factores de riesgo. Su identificacion permite mejorar la calidad de la atencion y la seguridad del paciente.

  1. [Brainstem auditory evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials in Chiari malformation].

    PubMed

    Moncho, Dulce; Poca, María A; Minoves, Teresa; Ferré, Alejandro; Rahnama, Kimia; Sahuquillo, Juan

    2013-06-16

    Introduccion. La malformacion de Chiari (MC) incluye una serie de anomalias congenitas que tienen como comun denominador la ectopia de las amigdalas del cerebelo por debajo del foramen magno, lo que puede condicionar fenomenos compresivos del troncoencefalo, la medula espinal alta y los nervios craneales, alterando las respuestas de los potenciales evocados auditivos del tronco cerebral (PEATC) y de los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales (PESS). Sin embargo, las indicaciones de ambas exploraciones en las MC han sido motivo de estudio en un numero limitado de publicaciones, centradas en series cortas y heterogeneas de pacientes. Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de los PEATC y los PESS en los estudios publicados en pacientes con MC tipo 1 (MC-1) o tipo 2 (MC-2), y su indicacion en el diagnostico, tratamiento y seguimiento, especialmente en la MC-1. Desarrollo. Es un estudio de revision realizado mediante analisis de los estudios publicados en Medline desde 1966, localizados mediante PubMed, utilizando combinaciones de las palabras clave 'Chiari malformation', 'Arnold-Chiari malformation', 'Chiari type 1 malformation', 'Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformation', 'evoked potentials', 'brainstem auditory evoked potentials' y 'somatosensory evoked potentials', asi como informacion de pacientes con MC-1 valorados en los servicios de neurocirugia y neurofisiologia clinica del Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos mas comunes de los PESS son la reduccion en la amplitud cortical para el nervio tibial posterior, la reduccion o ausencia del potencial cervical del nervio mediano y el aumento del intervalo N13-N20. En el caso de los PEATC, los hallazgos mas frecuentes descritos son el aumento del intervalo I-V y la alteracion periferica o coclear.

  2. [Comparison of the cost-utility of direct oral anticoagulants for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Monreal-Bosch, M; Soulard, S; Crespo, C; Brand, S; Kansal, A

    2017-03-16

    Introduccion. El apixaban, el dabigatran y el rivaroxaban son tres anticoagulantes orales de accion directa (ACOD) indicados para la prevencion del ictus y la embolia sistemica en pacientes con fibrilacion auricular no valvular (FANV) en España. Objetivo. Comparar el coste-utilidad de los tres ACOD frente a los antivitamina K. Pacientes y metodos. Se utilizo un modelo Markov con ciclos trimestrales para simular pacientes con FANV desde que inician su tratamiento hasta el resto de su vida desde la perspectiva del Sistema Nacional de Salud. El modelo incorporo 36 estados de salud, incluyendo combinaciones de tratamientos, discapacidad y antecedentes de eventos, y considero una cohorte hipotetica de 10.000 pacientes con FANV. La eficacia relativa se calculo a partir de una comparacion indirecta formal de los tratamientos segun los datos de los ensayos pivotales de cada ACOD. Resultados. El dabigatran se asocio al valor maximo de años de vida ajustados por calidad (AVAC) (8,40 AVAC), seguido del apixaban (8,33 AVAC), el rivaroxaban (8,15 AVAC) y el acenocumarol (8,03 AVAC). Los costes totales fueron menores con el acenocumarol (22.230 €), seguido del dabigatran (24.564 €), el apixaban (24.655 €) y el rivaroxaban (25.900 €). La ratio coste-utilidad incremental frente a los antivitamina K fue de 6.397, 8.039 y 29.957 €/AVAC para el dabigatran, el apixaban y el rivaroxaban, respectivamente. Comparados entre ellos, el dabigatran domino al apixaban y al rivaroxaban. Los analisis de sensibilidad confirmaron la robustez del caso base. Conclusiones. Los tres ACOD son coste-efectivos frente al acenocumarol. El dabigatran es economicamente dominante frente al rivaroxaban y al apixaban en España, al ser mas efectivo y menos costoso.

  3. A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

  4. Rotação do jato em DG tau próximo à região de sua formação: análise comparativa das velocidades radiais simuladas e observadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os modelos magneto-centrífugos utilizados para explicar a formação dos jatos Herbig-Haro assumem a presença de um disco de acresção em rotação kepleriana na base de lançamento do jato. Neste cenário, o jato transmite a informação da rotação do disco para regiões distantes da fonte central, além da superfície de Alfvén, na região de colimação inicial do jato. Recentemente, Bacciotti et al. (2002, ApJ, 537, L49) obtiveram pela primeira vez uma evidência observacional de rotação em um jato HH, o jato em DG Tau, em regiões próximas da fonte central, compatível (qualitativa e quantitativamente) com o esperado a partir dos modelos magneto-centrífugos para a produção e colimação inicial de jatos HH. No presente trabalho, apresentamos mapas de velocidade radial, obtidos através de simulações numéricas tri-dimensionais SPH, para um jato com características semelhantes ao jato em DG Tau, objetivando uma comparação com os mapas de velocidade radiais obtidos por Bacciotti et al.. Nossos resultados, embora preliminares, indicam que a inclusão de efeitos como a precessão, evidenciada em DG Tau (Dougados et al. 2000, A&A, 357, L61) devem ser levadas em consideração na análise da presença de rotação não só em DG Tau mas em qualquer sistema, com o uso das velocidades radias observadas. A ausência de um grau elevado de simetria axial (quebrada, por exemplo, pela precessão do eixo do jato; ou pela presença de uma superfície interna de trabalho, ou seja, um bow shock interno), implica também em uma maior complexidade nos mapas, com conseqüências relevantes para suas interpretações.

  5. Comprension de los conceptos de los enlaces ionico y covalente en estudiantes universitarios del primer curso de quimica general

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros Benavides, Maria Elvira

    Para este trabajo utilizamos el estudio de casos cualitativo que se llevo a cabo en una universidad privada de Puerto Rico. Empleamos como unidad de analisis el concepto de enlace quimico, ionico y covalente. Los participantes fueron los estudiantes de la seccion nocturna del curso de Quimica General I. La investigacion se desarrollo por medio de dos entrevistas de persona a persona, observaciones de las expresiones no verbales y la hoja de identificacion de conceptos. Para la triangulacion tomamos en consideracion las preconcepciones erroneas, las concepciones alternativas y el mapa de conceptos de cada participante. Preparamos un mapa de conceptos para el enlace quimico validado por un comite de expertos. Tambien, elaboramos los mapas de conceptos de los participantes que sirvieron para varios propositos: conocer la estructura conceptual, expresar los logros, hacer comparaciones e identificar la presencia de concepciones alternativas. Entre los hallazgos encontramos que todos los participantes poseen conocimiento previo de los enlaces quimicos ionico y covalente y dentro de ese conocimiento existen preconcepciones erroneas mas numerosas para el enlace ionico. Al principio del semestre el 50% de los participantes demostraron tener "carencia fuerte de conceptos" tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente. Al finalizar el semestre encontramos en el 40% de los participantes concepciones alternativas tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente y el 90% no lograron distinguir un enlace del otro. Nuestras conclusiones fueron que los participantes sin distincion del aprovechamiento academico demostraron tener la tendencia de "carencia fuerte de conceptos" tanto para el enlace ionico como para el covalente, presentaron dificultad al integrar los conceptos de los enlaces quimicos ionico y covalente que se pusieron de manifiesto al dar los ejemplos. Las preconcepciones erroneas contribuyen en el desarrollo de las concepciones alternativas. Ademas, los

  6. Percepcion de los profesores universitarios acerca del concepto cultura cientifica y de sus implicaciones en el nuevo bachillerato del Recinto de Rio Piedras de la Universidad de Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Pastrana, Nilsa

    investigacion se utilizo una metodologia cuantitativa y la herramienta para lograrlo fue una encuesta. La encuesta se analizo estadisticamente mediante analisis de frecuencias y por cientos, prueba ANOVA, prueba t, pruebas Post Hoc de Tukey y de Levene. Tambien se realizo nuevamente una prueba de confiabilidad mediante el alfa de Cronbach. Los resultados reflejaron que los profesores de las Facultades de Administracion de Empresas, Ciencias Sociales, Ciencias Naturales, Educacion, Humanidades, Estudios Generales y el Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas tienen una percepcion muy positiva del concepto de cultura cientifica, los contenidos curriculares de Ciencias Biologicas y del nuevo bachillerato.

  7. Un analisis de la influencia de las fricciones de los campos no militares sobre las fricciones del campo militar presentes en la operacion de rescate de rehenes Chavin de Huantar (An Analysis of the Influence that Friction in Non-Military Fields of Action Had Upon Military Friction in the Hostage Rescue Operation Chavin de Huantar)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-16

    esta AO, es decir, la cercanía al gobierno nacional y al mismo Presidente de la Republica , la cobertura directa de los más de ochenta medios de...colombiano Cesar Gaviria, a fin de obtener respaldo a su estrategia y manejo de la crisis. Posteriormente, con su visita a Republica Dominicana con el...de la guerra como unidad de mando fueron escrupulosamente observados desde el nivel de gobierno, con el Presidente de la Republica ejerciendo el

  8. Dunkerque-Falklands: Due eventi storico-politici attraverso l'analisi linguistica dei discorsi di Winston Churchill e Margaret Thatcher (Dunkirk-Falklands: Two Historical-Political Events through the Linguistic Analysis of the Speeches of Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcaini, Giovanna

    1988-01-01

    The political speech is a unique kind of document that reflects the socio-historic climate of its time. Two historical events (Dunkirk and the Falkland Islands Crisis) and a principal protagonist from each are discussed, and the speeches of these two individuals are analyzed in order to find similarities and differences, and to find their basic…

  9. Estudio de reflectancia enfocado a la cartografia litologica de rocas igneas, efectos de distintos tipos de metamorfismo y analisis estructural en materiales precambricos, basado en datos espectrales de laboratorio e imagenes thematic mapper (Macizo Hesperico Central, Prov. de Caceres y Badajoz)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza Garcia, Maria Asuncion

    The rampant success of quantum theory is the result of applications of the 'new' quantum mechanics of Schrodinger and Heisenberg (1926-7), the Feynman-Schwinger-Tomonaga Quantum Electro-dynamics (1946-51), the electro-weak theory of Salaam, Weinberg, and Glashow (1967-9), and Quantum Chromodynamics (1973-); in fact, this success of 'the' quantum theory has depended on a continuous stream of brilliant and quite disparate mathematical formulations. In this carefully concealed ferment there lie plenty of unresolved difficulties, simply because in churning out fabulously accurate calculational tools there has been no sensible explanation of all that is going on. It is even argued that such an understanding is nothing to do with physics. A long-standing and famous illustration of this is the paradoxical thought-experiment of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (1935). Fundamental to all quantum theories, and also their paradoxes, is the location of sub-microscopic objects; or, rather, that the specification of such a location is fraught with mathematical inconsistency. This project encompasses a detailed, critical survey of the tangled history of Position within quantum theories. The first step is to show that, contrary to appearances, canonical quantum mechanics has only a vague notion of locality. After analysing a number of previous attempts at a 'relativistic quantum mechanics', two lines of thought are considered in detail. The first is the work of Wan and students, which is shown to be no real improvement on the iisu.al 'nonrelativistic' theory. The second is based on an idea of Dirac's - using backwards-in-time light-cones as the hypersurface in space-time. There remain considerable difficulties in the way of producing a consistent scheme here. To keep things nicely stirred up, the author then proposes his own approach - an adaptation of Feynman's QED propagators. This new approach is distinguished from Feynman's since the propagator or Green's function is not obtained by Feynman's rule. The type of equation solved is also different: instead of an initial-value problem, a solution that obeys a time-symmetric causality criterion is found for an inhomogeneous partial differential equation with homogeneous boundary conditions. To make the consideration of locality more precise, some results of Fourier transform theory are presented in a form that is directly applicable. Somewhat away from the main thrust of the thesis, there is also an attempt to explain, the manner in which quantum effects disappear as the number of particles increases in such things as experimental realisations of the EPR and de Broglie thought experiments.

  10. Dunkerque-Falklands: Due eventi storico-politici attraverso l'analisi linguistica dei discorsi di Winston Churchill e Margaret Thatcher (Dunkirk-Falklands: Two Historical-Political Events through the Linguistic Analysis of the Speeches of Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcaini, Giovanna

    1988-01-01

    The political speech is a unique kind of document that reflects the socio-historic climate of its time. Two historical events (Dunkirk and the Falkland Islands Crisis) and a principal protagonist from each are discussed, and the speeches of these two individuals are analyzed in order to find similarities and differences, and to find their basic…

  11. Elaborazione dei dati sperimentali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dapor, M.; Ropele, M.

    L'analisi statistica dei dati sperimentali, la loro elaborazione ed una corretta stima degli errori sono conoscenze necessarie agli studenti di fisica, biologia, chimica, ingegneria e dei corsi di specializzazione tecnico-scientifici in cui a di laboratorio. Chi si occupa di problemi tecnici e di misure, per studio o per lavoro, deve possedere gli strumenti matematici di calcolo e di analisi necessari ad una corretta interpretazione dei dati sperimentali. Il testo fornisce in modo sintetico, chiaro ed esaustivo, tutte le nozioni e le conoscenze utili allo scopo.

  12. Chaotic Behaviour in Quantum Dynamics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    1.6 Relevance of Classical Analisys to the Problem of Microwave Ionization The other nonconservative system discussed in this report - the H-atom in...a microwave field - had never been sublected to quantum analisys , neither theoretical nor computational, up to the start of our program. Nevertheless...m, . A2) can tie expanded in a double Fourier series in the angle variables Xi, X2: (I,, A, ,klk2 Z= > (ni, n,, n) e i(0 K C) The coefficeuts z ,i can

  13. High-pressure thermal aureoles around two Neoproterozoic synorogenic magmatic epidote-bearing granitoids, Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caby, Renaud; Sial, Alcides N.; Ferreira, Valderez P.

    2009-02-01

    cerca de los contactos magmáticos y muestran lineaciones minerales casi verticales. Venillas leucocraticas contienen cuarzo, oligoclasa, granate, kyanita, estaurolita, rutilo e ilmenita sugiriendo que el límite en las condiciones de fusión fueron cercanas a los contactos magmáticos ( T ⩾ 650 °C, P entorno 8 kbar). Estos hornfelses de alta presión forman una cobertura rígida de poco metros entorno a los dos plutones. Contrariamente a lo conocido en diferentes ejemplos de hornfelses con kyanita con registro de descompresión, la isóbara de enfriamiento para cerca de 450 °C está controlada por el contenido de Si 3.20-3.30 de fengitas retrógradas, en los hornfelses internos y en las márgenes de los plutones donde las tonalitas están deformadas ductilmente. Isógradas y batógradas son, por lo tanto, aparentemente telescopadas debido a cizalla de alta presión/baja temperatura, posiblemente causado por subsecuentes movimientos verticales diferenciales afectando estos dos plutones solidificados. El emplazamiento a una profundidad inusual de estos plutones calci-alcalinos syn-cinemáticos es explicado por un modelo geodinámico tentativo que involucra un escenario de subducción pre-620 Ma.

  14. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  15. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  16. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  17. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  18. (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octa­ethyl­por­phin­ato)(trifluoro­methane­sulfonato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(CF3O3S)(C36H44N4)], is an iron(III) porphyrin complex with the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion as an axial ligand. The Fe atom is displaced by 0.219 (2) Å toward the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a distorted FeN4O square-based pyramidal geometry. One ethyl­ene group is disordered over two orientations in a 0.502 (6):0.498 (6) ratio. PMID:21580825

  19. Escucheme Por Favor/Please Listen to Me: An Analysis of the Perceptions of Latino Students and Teachers in a High School Multilingual Teacher Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Peter Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This case study used photo elicitation interviewing (PEI) to analyze perceptions of Latino students and their teachers in a multilanguage high school academy. It examined student involvement in school, dropout rate, and pursuit of a college education. Ten academy teachers and 10 Latino senior students were interviewed. Observations obtained…

  20. Calentamiento de arcos coronales en una región activa por reconfiguración topológica del campo magnético.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Fuentes, M.; Mandrini, C. H.; Démoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Fletcher, L.; Mason, H.

    We study the active region (AR) 8048 observed on June 1997 in several wavelenghts. The combined observations obtained using CDS (SOHO) and SXT (Yohkoh) show the heating of the coronal magnetic loops at different atmospheric altitudes. Extrapolating the magnetic field in the corona from longitudinal magnetograms from MDI (SOHO), we determine the location of Bald Patches in the surroundings of the leading spot. This magnetic feature, the emergence of parasitic magnetic polarities and the observed photospheric motions provide the conditions to explain the observed heating.

  1. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  2. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  3. Study of morphological characteristic of por-Si formed using metal-assisted chemical etching by BET-method and fractal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Anton N.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Kalmykov, Rustam M.; Gaev, Dahir S.; Timoshenkov, Sergei P.; Gavrilov, Sergei A.

    2016-12-01

    Study of new materials and composites based on porous silicon is of great interest for electronics and microelectronics industry. Functional characteristics of structured layers are closely associated with their morphology properties and treatment conditions correspondently. In this work a porous silicon layers formed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) with the use of gas adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fractal geometry have been examined. Specific surface area given by multi-point BET method was about of 7 m2/g and 13 m2/g for n-Si and p-Si specimens correspondently. Surface fractal dimension Ds was estimated for p-type mesoporous silicon from BET results using Neimark's thermodynamic approach, the value is Ds=2.86. "Slit islands" Mandelbrot's algorithm was applied for analysis of SEM images and calculations of surface fractal dimension Ds, computation gives Ds = 2.52 for n-Si sample and Ds = 2.84 for p-Si sample. The study testified the fractal nature of porous layers formed by MACE and exhibits correlation between different methods of fractal dimension estimation. The results can be applied for improvement of methods of structured solids characterization.

  4. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  5. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  6. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  7. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  8. Diseño, Construcción Y Desarrollo De Un Sistema Limitado Por Difracción Para Telescopios Terrestres: Fastcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Lopez, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the concept, design, development, evolution and application of the FastCam instrument. FastCam is an image photometer for astronomy with image capture in a high-frequency range and diraction limited, in order to apply the Lucky Imaging technique to medium- and large-sized ( 1.5 to 4 m) telescopes. The Lucky Imaging technique allows, for ground-based telescopes, to achieve the resolution limit for astronomical images under suitable conditions. This work describes the atmospheric problems and the active and adaptive optics techniques to solve them, as well as the Lucky Imaging fundamentals. A description of the considerations to the project development and design parameters is performed. Then, the optical design and dierent adaptations to several telescopes will be revised. In a next step, some of the scientic results obtained thanks to this project are shown, both in position astronomy and complex structures in globular cluster and binary systems. Dierent designs arising from the basic idea and the instruments now in development that are expanding the system's capabilities and the technique are explained. Some other possible applications to other elds in which the image sharpness is necessary despite uctuations or instabilities of the observing system will be also pointed out: ophthalmology, video-control, etc.

  9. Vientos impulsados por radiación en supergigantes B en rotación: análisis de los regímenes de soluciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, R. O. J.; Curé, M.; Cidale, L.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of radiation driven winds for rotating early-type stars gives three classes of hydrodynamic solutions. These are: the classical m-CAK solution or fast solution, the solution for fast rotators, and the solution for special ionization conditions along the wind structure. In this work we study the domains of every kind of solution in the and parameter space, where is the equatorial rotation speed in terms of the critical rotation velocity, and is the radiation force parameter that determines the ionization structure of the wind. This analysis is performed for different values of effective temperature corresponding to the spectral subtypes among B supergiants. We propose that the winds of B-type supergiants could change between the different velocity regimes, if small variations in the plasma ionization conditions take place. These variations could happen between two consecutive evolutionary stages of B supergiants or, in a short term, explaining the variability observed in the spectra of these stars.

  10. Effect of por-SiC buffer layer on the parameters of thin Er2O3 layers on silicon carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacherikov, Yu Yu; Konakova, R. V.; Okhrimenko, O. B.; Berezovska, N. I.; Kapitanchuk, L. M.; Svetlichnyi, A. M.; Svetlichnaya, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    Using optical absorption and Auger spectrometry techniques, we studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the properties of erbium oxide films deposited onto a porous silicon carbide buffer layer formed on 4H-SiC substrates. An analysis of atomic composition of the films under investigation as a function of RTA duration was performed. It is shown that phase composition of erbium oxide films on silicon carbide substrates with a porous SiC layer can be changed by varying RTA duration.

  11. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  12. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  13. "Que Luchen por sus Intereses" (To Fight for Your Interests): Unearthing Critical Counter-Narratives of Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roxas, Kevin; Gabriel, Maria L.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a year-long research project conducted during the 2012-2013 school year in a PK-12 school district, located in the Mountain West region of the United States, utilizing the Photovoice method. The findings in the project point to the important critical counter-narratives Spanish-speaking immigrant parents…

  14. Un Programa de Espanol para Colegio Universitario: Esfuerzos por Lograr una Mejor Articulacion (A Spanish Program for Colleges and Universities: Efforts to Improve Articulation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latoja, Luis E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-year plan for colleges and universities in which the Spanish program attempts to increase its course offerings and improve articulation within the institution. The program is designed to put into practice the goals of a regional collaborative project on articulation of which the university is an integral part. (six references)…

  15. The Department of Defense’s Transition of Program of Record (POR) Systems from Internet Protocol Version Four (IPv4) to Internet Protocol Version Six (IPv6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Protocol IA Information Assurance IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICE... ICANN ) is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet’s system of unique identifiers. Unique identifies include domain names like .org...or .museum, and country codes such as .UK .IE. Any new RIR shall, on recognition by ICANN receive an IPv6 allocation from the IANA. A RIR is

  16. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  17. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Sun, Christina J.; Bloom, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005–2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men’s social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  18. Memory, Trauma, and Phantasmagoria in Claudia Llosa's "La Teta Asustada"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The film "La teta asustada" (Claudia Llosa, 2009) was inspired by the text titled "Entre prójimos: El conflicto armado interno y la política de la reconciliación en el Perú" by the medical anthropologist Kimberly Theidon. In this study, Theidon compiles the testimonies of a group of indigenous women who were sexually assaulted…

  19. Slanting Design: A Pilot Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    adequate financing and proper planning and forethought. itG’ven the significant number of variables over which FEMA has no control , however, it would...Eskilstuna SWEDEN Ministero dell Interno Direzione Generale della Protezione Civile 00100 Rome ITALY Directeur de la Protection: Civile Ministere de

  20. Industrial Hardening and Population Blast Shelter Tests at the DIRECT COURSE Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    517 EAAt Bayshore, Redwood City, CA 94053 Wr nt12 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12- REPORT DATS March 1984 Federal Emergency Mdanagement...Organization 1710 Goodridge Drive 1110 NATO P.O. Box 1303 Brussels, BELGIUM McLean, VA 22101 Ministero dell Interno Dr. Joseph E. Minor, Director Direzione

  1. Memory, Trauma, and Phantasmagoria in Claudia Llosa's "La Teta Asustada"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The film "La teta asustada" (Claudia Llosa, 2009) was inspired by the text titled "Entre prójimos: El conflicto armado interno y la política de la reconciliación en el Perú" by the medical anthropologist Kimberly Theidon. In this study, Theidon compiles the testimonies of a group of indigenous women who were sexually assaulted…

  2. The link between industry and social interests in health in Brazil's National Health Innovation System: the experience of the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO).

    PubMed

    Vianna, Cid Manso de Mello; Fermam, Marcelo Kropf Santos; Rodrigues, Marcus Paulo da Silva; Mosegui, Gabriela Bittencourt Gonzalez

    2016-11-03

    This article has two parts. The first discusses the relationship between industry and health interests based on three different but non-mutually exclusive "logics": (a) independent; (b) divergent; and (c) convergent. The second part describes the experience at the Brazilian National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics (INTO) with a technology management model. The accumulated expertise in orthopedics at INTO can favor Brazil's domestic medical equipment industry without jeopardizing the country's social health needs. This means directing the production of feasible technologies adapted to the national reality, with a focus on safety and quality, without burdening the public coffers and by overcoming the country's dependency on imported products. The proposal is to promote socioeconomic development through a virtuous circle by attracting reserves and fomenting national competitiveness in domestic and foreign markets while improving social conditions and access to health. Resumo: Este artigo está dividido em duas partes. Na primeira, discute-se como se relacionam os interesses produtivos e a saúde a partir de três "lógicas" ou perspectivas diferentes que não são mutuamente excludentes: (a) independente; (b) divergente e (c) convergente. Na segunda, descreve-se a experiência do Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia (INTO) na montagem de um modelo de gestão de tecnologia. O conhecimento internalizado em ortopedia do INTO pode favorecer a indústria nacional de equipamentos médicos sem abandonar as necessidades sociais brasileiras de saúde. Isto é, direcionar a produção de tecnologias viáveis e adaptadas à realidade nacional, com foco em segurança e qualidade, sem onerar os cofres públicos e abandonando a dependência de produtos importados. A proposta é a de promover um desenvolvimento socioeconômico que construa um ciclo virtuoso, por atrair divisas e fomentar a competitividade nacional em mercados internos e externos, melhorando as

  3. [Normative Database of Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Childhood].

    PubMed

    Queirós, Tatiana; Freitas, Cristina; Guimarães, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: A tomografia de coerência óptica é um exame que permite obter imagens de alta resolução dos tecidos in vivo, possibilitando a medição das estruturas oculares, nomeadamente a camada de fibras nervosas da retina e a espessura macular. Como método não invasivo torna-se particularmente útil em crianças, contudo a sua aplicabilidade está limitada pela existência de valores normativos apenas para adultos.Objetivo: Estabelecer na idade pediátrica valores normativos para a espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e espessura macular, averiguando a sua influência com o género, idade, refração, lateralidade e dominância ocular.Material e Métodos: Foram submetidas a exame oftalmológico e a Cirrus HD-tomografia de coerência óptica (Carl Zeiss Meditec) 153 crianças dos quatro aos 17 anos.Resultados: Obtiveram-se valores da espessura média global da camada de fibras nervosas da retina de 97,90 μm. Não se detectaram diferenças entre géneros e com a idade, mas sim consoante a lateralidade e dominância ocular. Verificou-se um aumento da espessura com refrações positivas. Com o protocolo Macular Cube 512 x 128 verificou-se que o campo central apresentou a menor espessura (250,35 μm), apresentando os rapazes maior espessura macular.Discussão: Os valores da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e da espessura macular obtidos são comparáveis a estudos recentes. A distribuição da espessura por quadrantes respeita a distribuição normal da camada de fibras nervosas da retina. A espessura macular revelou-se superior no género masculino (campo central e anel interno), dados estes também concordantes com estudos prévios.Conclusão: Estabelecemos as normativas da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina e espessura macular em crianças portuguesas saudáveis, dados estes que reestruturam a avaliação e interpretação dos parâmetros obtidos pela tomografia de coerência óptica no diagnóstico de

  4. Cometa Hyakutake (C/1996 B2): análise do gás e características físicas das partículas de poeira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzovo, G. C.; de Almeida, A. A.; Boczko, R.

    2003-08-01

    A completa caracterização e compreensão do núcleo de um cometa novo é de fundamental importância para a elucidação dos processos físicos e químicos atuantes na época da formação do Sistema Solar. O Cometa Hyakutake, conjuntamente com o Cometa Hale-Bopp representam os objetos mais brilhantes que visitaram o Sistema Solar Interno nos últimos 20 anos. Neste Trabalho, nós aplicamos o Método Semi-Empírico das Magnitudes Visuais (MSEMV) à aproximadamente 4000 dados observacionais que correlacionam a magnitude visual absoluta com a distância heliocêntrica para o Cometa Hyakutake nas fases pré- e pós-periélicas. Como produto da aplicação desse método, conseguimos caracterizar dimensionalmente seu núcleo e área ativa efetiva. As taxas de produção dos radicais CN, C2 e C3, obtidos a partir de dados disponíveis na literatura, revelam que, além de muito brilhante, o Hyakutake é um cometa "normal" no sentido de Cochran (1986). Desse modo, deduzimos as taxas de perdas de água (em moléculas/s) a partir da análise de sua magnitude visual aparente, e as convertemos em taxas de perdas de gás (em g/s), despreendido pelo nucleo cometário. Com o auxílio do modelo fotométrico clássico da poeira, realizamos uma análise sistemática e uniforme dessa componente cometária, a partir dos fluxos observacionais no contínuo, para os comprimentos de onda 365,0 e 484,5 nm, assumindo que esses fluxos são o resultado da radiação solar espalhada por grãos de partículas micrométricos presentes na coma. Com isso, pudemos obter as taxas de produção (em g/s), cores (relativas à cor neutra solar), e as dimensões efetivas médias das partículas de poeira, bem como as razões poeira-gás.

  5. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Giner, Manel; Culebras, Jesús M; Meguid, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    En agosto de 1976, un joven llamado LeRoy cayó desde una cornisa fracturándose el fémur. Se sospechó una hemorragia interna importante. Durante una laparotomía se comprobó que todos los órganos internos estaban intactos y los cirujanos ortopédicos arreglaron la fractura. Treintadías después, LeRoy murió. Había comido poco; diariamente, tan solo había recibido tres litros de la glucosa, el equivalente a 510 calorías, por vía intravenosa. La glucosa fue insuficiente para satisfacer sus necesidades nutricionales, perdiendo más del 20% de su peso corporaldurante su estancia en el hospital. La causa de la muerte se debió a "desnutrición médicamente inducida". Mientras tanto, un artículo científico documentó que la prevalencia de desnutrición en los hospitales de Boston era del 44% y que la desnutrición en sí era un predictor de altas tasas de complicaciones y muerte.Como resultado, los médicos sensibilizados formaron una sociedad que creó programas de formación y alentó la formación de equipos de nutrición en los hospitales. La industria comercializó fórmulas de nutrición y catéteres. Las complicaciones en enfermos hospitalizados cayeron en picado, mientras que las tasas de supervivencia aumentaron. California aprobó una legislación para regular el soporte nutricional. Aunque la industria de la atención sanitaria reconoce la importancia de la nutrición en los cuidados al paciente, el Congreso no proporcionó apoyo fiscal para los equipos de nutrición. Como resultado, los hospitales disolvieron sus equipos de nutrición de reciente creación. La educación y las habilidades en nutrición disminuyeron, y las complicaciones hospitalarias y las tasas de mortalidad aumentaron de nuevo.

  6. Gradiente radial de [Mg/Fe] em duas galáxias elípticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, A.; Capelato, H.

    2003-08-01

    Basicamente, são propostos dois cenários de evolução quí mio-dinâmico para os sistemas esferoidais: (i) o hierárquico através da fusão e/ou acresção de sub-sistemas com ou sem surtos de formação estelar, e (ii) o colapso monolí tico dissipativo com formação estelar interrompida por um vento galáctico. Ambos, dentro de certos limites, conseguem explicar os gradientes internos de metalicidade estelar presentes nas galáxias elí pticas bem como a relação observada entre a metalicidade central e a massa (Mg20 vs. log sv0). No entanto, nenhum prevê uma variação interna para a razão de abundâncias Mg/Fe que indiretamente define a escala temporal da formação estelar. Empregamos a espectroscopia óptica de fenda longa com a finalidade de recuperar as histórias de formação estelar, de enriquecimento quí mico e da dinâmica dentro de determinadas regiões das galáxias. Os espectros de média resolução (FWHM = 7,1 Å) e escala angular de 1,092 arcsec/pixel foram coletados com o telescópio 1,60m do OPD/LNA. Comparamos nossas medidas de linhas de absorção com resultados espectrofotométricos de modelos de populações estelares simples - mais especificamente os í ndices do Sistema Lick como Mg2, Mg b, < Fe > e Hb - a fim de se investigar as variações internas de [Fe/H], [Mg/Fe] e idade. Para duas galáxias elí pticas, NGC 1052 e NGC 7796, pertencentes a ambientes de baixa densidade, encontramos uma variação radial da razão Mg/Fe decrescente do centro para fora em regiões de 0,6 e 1 raio efetivo respectivamente. Discutimos alguns cenários de enriquecimento quí mico para estas duas galáxias.

  7. Efficient Conduct of Individual Flights and Air Traffic or Optimum Utilization of Modern Technology for the Overall Benefit of Civil and Military Airspace Users. Conference Proceedings of the Symposium of the Guidance and Control Panel (42nd) Held in Brussels, Belgium on 10-13 June 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    systboo au, s01, - de positions do supervision at d’ intervootion faisant appal aux techniques lee plus modernos do cornS- alcatio 1.. binajacbino. 13F...and Istituto di Analisi dei Sistemi 0 _ ed Informatica - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Viale Manzoni, 30- 00185 Roma - Italy - SUMMARY This paper

  8. Application of the New Propulsion Theory to the Design of Propellers. Comparison with the Lifting Line Theory (Aplicacion de la Nueva Teoria de la Impulsion al Diseno de Propulsores. Comparacion con la Teoria de las Lineas Sustentadoras),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-07

    Results and Improvement Thereon," Ingenieria Naval, May 1978. 11. Perez Gomez, G., "Fundamentos teoricos de los modernos procedimientos de proyecto de...I. Bacquerizo Briones, "Utilidad de la educacion de Poincare para el proyecto y analisis de propulsores con valores finitos de la circulacion en el

  9. Aircraft Trajectories Computation-Prediction-Control (La Trajectoire de l’Avion Calcul-Prediction-Controle). Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT by Lucio Bianco Director, Progetto Finalizzato Trasporti and Istituto di Analisi dei Sistemi ed Informatica...grande r~gion do contr~le terminate moderno , et en conditions op~rationnelles, les techniques et proc6dures raises au point pour le contrble des vols

  10. Cobertura desarrollada de Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    Este mapa representa la cobertura desarrollada en Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Cobertura desarrollada se define aqui como areas urbanas, construidas y sin vegetacion, que resultan de actividad humana. Tipicamente, estas incluyen estructuras construidas, concreto, asfalto, u otra infraestructura. La cobertura desarrollada se creo mediante el analisis de...

  11. Uso de terreno urbano y rural en Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Sebastian Martinuzzi; William A. Gould; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez; Maya Quinones; Michael E. Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    El Proyecto de Analisis de Gap de Puerto Rico (PRGAP) (Gould et al. 2008) desarrollo tres usos de terrenos para Puerto Rico: Urbano, Suburbano, y Rural (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). Estas regiones tambien pueden ser consideradas como urbano, densamente-poblado rural, y escasamente-poblado rural, o como urbano y area silvestre con una interfase de area silvestre-urbana. La...

  12. USSR Report, International Affairs, The Working Class and the Contemporary World, No. 5, September-October 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-26

    or Dealignment?" Eds. R.J. Dalton et al. Princeton, 1984, p 4. 17. See POLITICA ED ECONOMIA No 5, 1985, p 40. 18. V.l. Lenin, "Complete Works," vol...internacional," NUEVA S0CIEDAD No 55, 1981, p 21. 5. 0. Millas, "Debemos profundizar el analisis de las economias latinoameri- canas," ESTUDIOS No 79, 1981

  13. Agrarian Structure and Labor Migration in Rural Mexico: The Case of Circular Migration of Undocumented Workers to the U.S.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    34 Migraciones en el Desarrollo Capitalista." Migraci6n y Desarrollo 3: AnAlisis Hist6ricos y Aspectos Relacionados a la Estructura Agraria y al Proceso de...Portfolio Theory and Capital Markets. New York: McGraw Hill. Singer, Paul I. 1972 " Migraciones Internas: Consideraciones Te6ricas sobre el Estudio

  14. National Dam Inspection Program. Star Junction Number 1 Dam (NDI Number PA-00198, PennDER Number 26-30) Ohio River Basin, Washington Run, Fayette County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    end and erosion K of the training dike has occurred. g. Instrumentation : No instrumentation was observed during the inspection. h. Downstream...DATE: 19 MAR 80 RN TDZ: 10.30.40 NATIONAL PROGR FOR TEM INSPEC ION OF NON-FEERAL DM HXDROLOMC AND MRAILIC ANALISIS OF STAR JUNCTION NamR 1 DAm PROBABLE

  15. Strength Analysis of Composite and Metallic Plates Bolted Together by a Single Fastener.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    FUNDING/SPONSORING a80 OFFICE SYMBOL 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (I f Appheebi I See Item 7 AFWAL/FIBRA Contract F33615...obtained. The fastener analisis also computes approximate shear strain values at the inter- facial locations between adjacent plies. Incorporating

  16. Validity of Measures Reflecting Visual Discrimination and Linguistic Constructs for a Sample of Second-Grade Hispanic Children Receiving Reading Instruction in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.

    1984-01-01

    The concurrent and discriminant validity of La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, a Spanish auditory perception test, and the validity of the perceptual deficit hypothesis and of hypotheses derived from verbal processing theory were evaluated in a sample of 114 second-grade Hispanic pupils receiving reading instruction in Spanish. (Author/BW)

  17. The Development and Validation of an Auditory Perception Test in Spanish for Hispanic Children Receiving Reading Instruction in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish auditory perception test, La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, was developed and administered to 158 Spanish-speaking Latino children, kindergarten through grade 3. Psychometric data for the test are presented, including its relationship to SOBER, a criterion-referenced Spanish reading measure. (Author/BW)

  18. Homogeneity and Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H. L.; Vazquez, R. A.; Mostaccio, C.; Gordillo, S.; Plastino, A.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Presentamos una metodologia de analisis de la homogeneidad a partir de la Teoria de la Informaci6n, aplicable a muestras de datos observacionales. ABSTRACT:Standard concepts that underlie Information Theory are employed in order design a methodology that enables one to analyze the homogeneity of a given data sample. Key : DATA ANALYSIS

  19. Acoustic Detection, Behavior, and Habitat Use of Deep-Diving Odontocetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-22

    Tyack and Aguilar), marine biology (Brito) and acoustics and underwater instrumentation (Johnson). The team is supported by experts in bioacoustics...Tenerife, Sept. 2008. Arias, A. Analisis de chasquidos en cetaceos de buceo profundo y aplicacion en deteccion acustica pasiva. Dissertation for

  20. Analysis of Activity Patterns and Performance in Polio Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    subjective estimate of their activity level over the past week using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE).3 This instrument dealt with...May 2004. Talaty M. Models for Gait Analysis. 5th SIAMOC (Societa Italiana Di Analisi Del Movimento in Clinica) Congress, Loano, Italy November