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Sample records for interplanetary scintillation observations

  1. A decametric wavelength radio telescope for interplanetary scintillation observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1975-01-01

    A phased array, electrically steerable radio telescope (with a total collecting area of 18 acres), constructed for the purpose of remotely sensing electron density irregularity structure in the solar wind, is presented. The radio telescope is able to locate, map, and track large scale features of the solar wind, such as streams and blast waves, by monitoring a large grid of natural radio sources subject to rapid intensity fluctuation (interplanetary scintillation) caused by the irregularity structure. Observations verify the performance of the array, the receiver, and the scintillation signal processing circuitry of the telescope.

  2. Interplanetary plasma scintillation parameters measurements retrieved from the spacecraft observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molera Calvés, Guifré; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Wagner, J.; Maccaferri, G.; Colucci, G.; Kronschnabl, G.; Scilliro, F.; Bianco, G.; Pérez Ayúcar, M.; Cosmovici, C. B.

    2010-05-01

    Measurement of the Interplanetary Scintillations (IPS) of radio signals propagating through the plasma in the Solar System by the radio astronomical instruments is a powerful tool to characterise and study the spatial and temporal variation of the electron density in the Solar wind. Several techniques based on the observation of natural and artificial radio sources have been developed during the last 50 years. Here we report our results of the IPS parameters measurement based on the multi-station observations of the planetary mission spacecraft. The ESA Venus Express spacecraft was observed at X-band (8.4 GHz) by several European VLBI stations - Metsähovi Radio Observatory (Aalto University , FI), Medicina (INAF-RA, IT), Matera (ASI, IT), Wettzell (BKG, DE), Noto (INAF-IRA, IT) and Yebes (OAN-IGN, ES) during a 2008-2010 campaign in a framework of the PRIDE (Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiments) project as a preparatory stage for the European Radio Astronomy VLBI facilities participation in the planned ESA planetary missions (EJSM, TESM, EVE and others). Observational data were processed at Metsähovi Radio Observatory with the on-purpose developed high performance, ultra-high spectral resolution and spacecraft tracking capable software spectrometer-correlator and analysed at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE, NL). High quality of acquired and analysed data enables us to study and define several parameters of the S/C signal and accompanying "ranging" tones with milli-Hz accuracy, among which the phase fluctuations of the spacecraft signal carrier line can be used to characterise the interplanetary plasma density fluctuations along the signal propagation line at different spatial and temporal scales at different Solar elongations and which exhibits a near-Kolmogorov spectrum. Such essential parameters as the phase scintillation index and bandwidth of scintillations and their dependence on the solar elongation, distance to the target

  3. Interplanetary scintillation observations of the solar wind close to the Sun and out of the ecliptic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sime, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review is given of recent developments in the observation of the solar wind by the method of interplanetary scintillation. The emphasis is on observations of the velocity structure, the electron density and the effect of propagating disturbances in the interplanetary medium as detected principally by intensity and phase scintillation and by spectral broadening.

  4. Interplanetary scintillation observations with the Cocoa Cross radio telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronyn, W. M.; Shawhan, S. D.; Erskine, F. T.; Huneke, A. H.; Mitchell, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    Physical and electrical parameters for the 34.3-MHz Cocoa Cross radio telescope are given. The telescope is dedicated to the determination of solar-wind characteristics in and out of the ecliptic plane through measurement of electron-density irregularity structure as determined from IPS (interplanetary scintillation) of natural radio sources. The collecting area (72,000 sq m), angular resolution (0.4 deg EW by 0.6 deg NS), and spatial extent (1.3 km EW by 0.8 km NS) make the telescope well suited for measurements of IPS index and frequency scale for hundreds of weak radio sources without serious confusion effects.

  5. Corotating structures in the solar wind from 111-MHz observations of interplanetary scintillations at large elongations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glyantsev, A. V.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Potapova, L. B.

    2017-03-01

    Results of continuous 111 MHz observations of interplanetary scintillations of the strong radio source 3C 48 at elongations larger than 80° out on the Large Phased Array (LPA) of the Lebedev Physical Institute are reported. The data were taken during a four-year interval, from 2012 to 2015, near the maximum of the 24th solar-activity cycle. The averaged elongation dependence of the scintillation index and similar dependences for individual years during the approach and recession phases suggest the presence of a periodic modulation with a 26-day period, which is masked by day-to-day variations. This periodic modulation can be explained by the existence of a long-lived region of enhanced plasma density adjacent to the solar equator during the solar-activity maximum. It is shown that the scintillation timescale increases in the transition to elongations exceeding 90°.

  6. Solar cycle variation of interplanetary disturbances observed as Doppler scintillation transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Interplanetary disturbances characterized by plasma that is more turbulence and/or moves faster than the background solar wind are readily defected as transients in Doppler scintillation measurements of the near-Sun solar wind. Systematic analysis of over 23,000 hours of Pioneer Venus Orbiter Doppler measurements obtained inside 0.5 AU during 1979-1987 have made it possible for the first time to investigate the frequency of occurrence of Doppler scintillation transients under solar minimum conditions and to determine its dependence on solar cycle. On the basis of a total of 142 transients, Doppler scintillation transient rates vary from a high of 0.22 in 1979 (one every 4.6 days) to a low of 0.077 transients/d in 1986 (one every 13 days), a decrease by almost a factor of 3 from solar maximum to solar minimum. This solar cycle variation, the strongest yet of any solar wind Doppler scintillation property, is highly correlated with both solar activity characterized by sunspot number and the coronal mass ejection rates deduced from Solswind and Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) coronagraph observations. These results indicate that coronal mass ejections and Doppler scintillation transients are closely related not just during solar maximum, as occasional individual comparisons have shown in the past, but throughout the entire solar cycle, and strengthen the notation that the Doppler scintillation and optical transients are different manifestations of the same physical phenomenon. The magnitudes of the transients, as described by the ratio of peak to pretransient scintillation levels (EF for enhancement factor), and their distribution iwth heliocentric distance also vary with solar cycle. While EF tends to diminish with increasing heliocentric distance during high solar activity, it is more evenly distributed during low solar activity. EF is also lower during solar minimum, as 13% of the transients during solar maximum have values exceeding 23, the highest EF observed during

  7. Three-dimensional exploration of the solar wind using observations of interplanetary scintillation.

    PubMed

    Tokumaru, Munetoshi

    2013-01-01

    The solar wind, a supersonic plasma flow continuously emanating from the Sun, governs the space environment in a vast region extending to the boundary of the heliosphere (∼100 AU). Precise understanding of the solar wind is of importance not only because it will satisfy scientific interest in an enigmatic astrophysical phenomenon, but because it has broad impacts on relevant fields. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) of compact radio sources at meter to centimeter wavelengths serves as a useful ground-based method for investigating the solar wind. IPS measurements of the solar wind at a frequency of 327 MHz have been carried out regularly since the 1980s using the multi-station system of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL) of Nagoya University. This paper reviews new aspects of the solar wind revealed from our IPS observations.

  8. Three-dimensional exploration of the solar wind using observations of interplanetary scintillation

    PubMed Central

    TOKUMARU, Munetoshi

    2013-01-01

    The solar wind, a supersonic plasma flow continuously emanating from the Sun, governs the space environment in a vast region extending to the boundary of the heliosphere (∼100 AU). Precise understanding of the solar wind is of importance not only because it will satisfy scientific interest in an enigmatic astrophysical phenomenon, but because it has broad impacts on relevant fields. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) of compact radio sources at meter to centimeter wavelengths serves as a useful ground-based method for investigating the solar wind. IPS measurements of the solar wind at a frequency of 327 MHz have been carried out regularly since the 1980s using the multi-station system of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL) of Nagoya University. This paper reviews new aspects of the solar wind revealed from our IPS observations. PMID:23391604

  9. Time-dependent MHD simulations of the solar wind outflow using interplanetary scintillation observations

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Tae K.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Borovikov, Sergey N.; ...

    2012-11-20

    Numerical modeling of the heliosphere is a critical component of space weather forecasting. The accuracy of heliospheric models can be improved by using realistic boundary conditions and confirming the results with in situ spacecraft measurements. To accurately reproduce the solar wind (SW) plasma flow near Earth, we need realistic, time-dependent boundary conditions at a fixed distance from the Sun. We may prepare such boundary conditions using SW speed and density determined from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations, magnetic field derived from photospheric magnetograms, and temperature estimated from its correlation with SW speed. In conclusion, we present here the time-dependent MHD simulationmore » results obtained by using the 2011 IPS data from the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory as time-varying inner boundary conditions and compare the simulated data at Earth with OMNI data (spacecraft-interspersed, near-Earth solar wind data).« less

  10. Time-dependent MHD simulations of the solar wind outflow using interplanetary scintillation observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae K.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Borovikov, Sergey N.; Clover, John M.; Jackson, Bernard V.; Yu, Hsiu-Shan

    2012-11-20

    Numerical modeling of the heliosphere is a critical component of space weather forecasting. The accuracy of heliospheric models can be improved by using realistic boundary conditions and confirming the results with in situ spacecraft measurements. To accurately reproduce the solar wind (SW) plasma flow near Earth, we need realistic, time-dependent boundary conditions at a fixed distance from the Sun. We may prepare such boundary conditions using SW speed and density determined from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations, magnetic field derived from photospheric magnetograms, and temperature estimated from its correlation with SW speed. In conclusion, we present here the time-dependent MHD simulation results obtained by using the 2011 IPS data from the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory as time-varying inner boundary conditions and compare the simulated data at Earth with OMNI data (spacecraft-interspersed, near-Earth solar wind data).

  11. Interplanetary Scintillation Observations of the Large-Scale Structure of the Solar Wind Using EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Breen, A. R.; Habbal, S. R.; Fallows, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    Measurements of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) taken with the European Incoherent SCATter radar (EISCAT) in northern Scandinavia can be used to study the evolution of the solar wind as it expands through interplanetary space. IPS arises from changes in the apparent brightness of distant, compact radio sources due to scattering by density irregularities in the solar wind and can be used to obtain estimates of the solar wind speed. In this paper we present the results of a study of the large-scale structure of the fast solar wind under near solar minimum conditions, using data taken with the EISCAT system, and the extremely long baseline observations which combine the EISCAT and MERLIN systems. The latter are the best measurements to date of meridional components of velocity in the inner solar wind. In particular, the existence of a gradient in solar wind velocity of the fast wind over the polar crown, at latitudes corresponding to the x-ray and ultra-violet coronal hole boundary, as reported by Habbal and Woo (2001), is also explored.

  12. Murchison Widefield Array Observations of Anomalous Variability: A Serendipitous Night-time Detection of Interplanetary Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Tingay, S. J.; Manoharan, P. K.; Macquart, J. P.; Hancock, P.; Morgan, J.; Mitchell, D. A.; Ekers, R. D.; Wayth, R. B.; Trott, C.; Murphy, T.; Oberoi, D.; Cairns, I. H.; Feng, L.; Kudryavtseva, N.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hurley Walker, N.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston Hollitt, M.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Udaya Shankar, N.; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2015-08-01

    We present observations of high-amplitude rapid (2 s) variability toward two bright, compact extragalactic radio sources out of several hundred of the brightest radio sources in one of the 30^\\circ × 30^\\circ Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) Epoch of Reionization fields using the MWA at 155 MHz. After rejecting intrinsic, instrumental, and ionospheric origins we consider the most likely explanation for this variability to be interplanetary scintillation (IPS), likely the result of a large coronal mass ejection propagating from the Sun. This is confirmed by roughly contemporaneous observations with the Ooty Radio Telescope. We see evidence for structure on spatial scales ranging from <1000 to \\gt {10}6 km. The serendipitous night-time nature of these detections illustrates the new regime that the MWA has opened for IPS studies with sensitive night-time, wide-field, low-frequency observations. This regime complements traditional dedicated strategies for observing IPS and can be utilized in real-time to facilitate dedicated follow-up observations. At the same time, it allows large-scale surveys for compact (arcsec) structures in low-frequency radio sources despite the 2\\prime resolution of the array.

  13. Observations of micro-turbulence in the solar wind near the sun with interplanetary scintillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Y.; Misawa, H.; Kojima, M.; Mori, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takaba, H.; Kondo, T.; Tokumaru, M.; Manoharan, P. K.

    1995-01-01

    Velocity and density turbulence of solar wind were inferred from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations at 2.3 GHz and 8.5 GHz using a single-antenna. The observations were made during September and October in 1992 - 1994. They covered the distance range between 5 and 76 solar radii (Rs). We applied the spectrum fitting method to obtain a velocity, an axial ratio, an inner scale and a power-law spectrum index. We examined the difference of the turbulence properties near the Sun between low-speed solar wind and high-speed solar wind. Both of solar winds showed acceleration at the distance range of 10 - 30 Rs. The radial dependence of anisotropy and spectrum index did not have significant difference between low-speed and high-speed solar winds. Near the sun, the radial dependence of the inner scale showed the separation from the linear relation as reported by previous works. We found that the inner scale of high-speed solar wind is larger than that of low-speed wind.

  14. Time-dependent MHD simulations of the solar wind outflow using interplanetary scintillation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae K.; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Borovikov, Sergey N.; Clover, John M.; Jackson, Bernard V.; Yu, Hsiu-Shan

    2012-11-01

    Numerical modeling of the heliosphere is a critical component of space weather forecasting. The accuracy of heliospheric models can be improved by using realistic boundary conditions and confirming the results with in situ spacecraft measurements. To accurately reproduce the solar wind (SW) plasma flow near Earth, we need realistic, time-dependent boundary conditions at a fixed distance from the Sun. We may prepare such boundary conditions using SW speed and density determined from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations, magnetic field derived from photospheric magnetograms, and temperature estimated from its correlation with SW speed. Here, we present the time-dependent MHD simulation results obtained by using the 2011 IPS data from the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory as time-varying inner boundary conditions and compare the simulated data at Earth with OMNI data (spacecraft-interspersed, near-Earth solar wind data). At the request of the author, the PDF of the published article was replaced with a new file containing color figures. The scientific content is not affected by this change.

  15. Acceleration phenomena of high-speed wind observed at 0.1-0.3 AU with interplanetary scintillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, M.; Misawa, H.; Watanabe, H.; Yamauchi, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The radial distance dependence of solar wind speeds, which were measured by interplanetary scintillation method, has been studied especially for a high-speed solar wind, and large increase of the IPS speeds (300 km/s) was observed at the distance range of 0.1 - 0.3 AU. When the streams are mapped back onto the source surface, they distribute in polar coronal holes or their boundaries. Since the IPS measurement can be biased by several effects such as of line-of-sight integration, strong scattering and random velocities, we examined these biasing effects and have found difficulty to explain the large IPS speed increase with the biasing effects.

  16. Interplanetary and ionosphere scintillation produced by ICME 20 December 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashei, I. V.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Shishov, V. I.; Subaev, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Observational data of scintillation monitoring with typical time about 1 s at the frequency 111 MHz are presented for the period between 18 and 23 December when interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) of flare origin resulted in the geomagnetic storm on 20-21 December 2015 with Dst ≈ -200 nT. Our estimates show that the mean ICME speed between the solar corona and the start of interplanetary scintillation enhancement is close to the mean speed between the corona and the Earth. The strong increase of the nighttime scintillation level is observed after ICME coming to the Earth. Scintillation analysis of the individual radio sources shows that the 1 s night scintillation is of ionospheric origin and can be explained by an order increase of irregularity drift speed in the disturbed ionosphere.

  17. Modeling solar wind with boundary conditions from interplanetary scintillations

    DOE PAGES

    Manoharan, P.; Kim, T.; Pogorelov, N. V.; ...

    2015-09-30

    Interplanetary scintillations make it possible to create three-dimensional, time- dependent distributions of the solar wind velocity. Combined with the magnetic field observations in the solar photosphere, they help perform solar wind simulations in a genuinely time-dependent way. Interplanetary scintillation measurements from the Ooty Radio Astronomical Observatory in India provide directions to multiple stars and may assure better resolution of transient processes in the solar wind. In this paper, we present velocity distributions derived from Ooty observations and compare them with those obtained with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. We also present our simulations of the solar wind flow from 0.1 AUmore » to 1 AU with the boundary conditions based on both Ooty and WSA data.« less

  18. Modeling solar wind with boundary conditions from interplanetary scintillations

    SciTech Connect

    Manoharan, P.; Kim, T.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Arge, C. N.

    2015-09-30

    Interplanetary scintillations make it possible to create three-dimensional, time- dependent distributions of the solar wind velocity. Combined with the magnetic field observations in the solar photosphere, they help perform solar wind simulations in a genuinely time-dependent way. Interplanetary scintillation measurements from the Ooty Radio Astronomical Observatory in India provide directions to multiple stars and may assure better resolution of transient processes in the solar wind. In this paper, we present velocity distributions derived from Ooty observations and compare them with those obtained with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model. We also present our simulations of the solar wind flow from 0.1 AU to 1 AU with the boundary conditions based on both Ooty and WSA data.

  19. Separating Nightside Interplanetary and Ionospheric Scintillation with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallows, R. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Forte, B.; Ulich, Th.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Mann, G.; Vocks, C.

    2016-09-01

    Observation of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) beyond Earth-orbit can be challenging due to the necessity to use low radio frequencies at which scintillation due to the ionosphere could confuse the interplanetary contribution. A recent paper by Kaplan et al. presenting observations using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) reports evidence of nightside IPS on two radio sources within their field of view. However, the low time cadence of 2 s used might be expected to average out the IPS signal, resulting in the reasonable assumption that the scintillation is more likely to be ionospheric in origin. To check this assumption, this Letter uses observations of IPS taken at a high time cadence using the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR). Averaging these to the same as the MWA observations, we demonstrate that the MWA result is consistent with IPS, although some contribution from the ionosphere cannot be ruled out. These LOFAR observations represent the first of nightside IPS using LOFAR, with solar wind speeds consistent with a slow solar wind stream in one observation and a coronal mass ejection expected to be observed in another.

  20. Scintillation of spacecraft radio signals on the interplanetary plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molera Calves, Guifre; Pogrebenko, Sergei; Cimo, Giuseppe; Duev, Dmitry; Bocanegra, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    Observations of planetary spacecraft radio signals within the solar system give a unique opportunity to study the temporal and spatial behaviour of the signal's phase fluctuations caused by its propagation through the interplanetary plasma and the Earth's ionosphere. The phase scintillation of the telemetry signal of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Venus Express (VEX) and Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft was observed at X-band with a number of radio telescopes of the European VLBI Network (EVN) in the period 2008-15, within the scope of Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) project. It was found that the phase scintillation spectra follow a Kolmogorov distribution with nearly constant spectral index of -2.42 for a full range of Venus orbital phases, from superior to inferior conjunctions and back. The solar wind plasma dominates the scintillation index and Doppler noise along the orbit from superior conjunction to the greatest elongation. Here, I will present the latest results of these observations, while approaching the inferior conjunction, where the Earth ionosphere starts to dominate, and also at the superior conjunction. Empirical coefficients for both contributions were estimated and compared for VEX and MEX.

  1. Observations of Heliospheric Faraday Rotation (FR) and Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS): Steps Towards Investigating Bz Propagation Between the Sun and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, Mario M.; Fallows, Richard A.; Sobey, Charlotte; Eftekhari, Tarraneh; Jensen, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Bernard V.; Yu, Hsiu-Shan; Hick, P. Paul; Odstrcil, Dusan; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Oyuki Chang, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    Space weather - analogous to terrestrial weather (describing the changing pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity conditions on Earth) - is essentially a description of the changes in velocity, density, magnetic field, high-energy particles, and radiation in the near-Earth space environment including the effects of such on the Earth. Space weather can be considered to have two main strands: (i) scientific research, and (ii) applications. The former is self-explanatory, but the latter covers operational aspects including forecasting. Understanding and forecasting space weather near the Earth is of critical importance to protecting our modern-day reliance on satellites, global-communications and navigation networks, high-altitude air travel (radiation concerns particularly on polar routes), long-distance power/oil/gas lines and piping, and for any future human exploration of space to list but a few. This includes both military and commercial considerations. Two ground-based radio-observing techniques that can add to and lead our understanding and forecasting of heliospheric space weather are those of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and heliospheric Faraday rotation (FR). We present our latest progress using these two radio heliospheric-imaging remote-sensing techniques including the use of three-dimensional (3-D) modelling and reconstruction techniques using other, additional data as input to support and better-interpret individual case-study results.

  2. Observations of Heliospheric Faraday Rotation (FR) and Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR): Steps Towards Improving Space-Weather Forecasting Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Sobey, C.; Eftekhari, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Odstrcil, D.; Tokumaru, M.

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of space weather - analogous to terrestrial weather which describes the changing pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity conditions on Earth - is essentially a description of the changes in velocity, density, magnetic field, high-energy particles, and radiation in the near-Earth space environment including the effects of such changes on the Earth's magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere, and thermosphere. Space weather can be considered to have two main strands: (i) scientific research, and (ii) applications. The former is self-explanatory, but the latter covers operational aspects which includes its forecasting. Understanding and forecasting space weather in the near-Earth environment is vitally important to protecting our modern-day reliance (militarily and commercially) on satellites, global-communication and navigation networks, high-altitude air travel (radiation concerns particularly on polar routes), long-distance power/oil/gas lines and piping, and for any future human exploration of space to list but a few. Two ground-based radio-observing remote-sensing techniques that can aid our understanding and forecasting of heliospheric space weather are those of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and heliospheric Faraday rotation (FR). The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a next-generation 'software' radio telescope centered in The Netherlands with international stations spread across central and northwest Europe. For several years, scientific observations of IPS on LOFAR have been undertaken on a campaign basis and the experiment is now well developed. More recently, LOFAR has been used to attempt scientific heliospheric FR observations aimed at remotely sensing the magnetic field of the plasma traversing the inner heliosphere. We present our latest progress using these two radio heliospheric-imaging remote-sensing techniques including the use of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and reconstruction techniques using other, additional data as input

  3. Comparison of Doppler scintillation and in situ spacecraft plasma measurements of interplanetary disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard; Schwenn, Rainer

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of detailed comparisons between Doppler scintillation and in situ plasma measurements to improve the understanding of Doppler scintillation transients. During a combined observing period of nearly 3 mo in 1981-1982 near solar maximum, 22 transients were observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft and 23 shocks were observed by Helios 1. It is found that at least 84 percent of the transients are shocks, while at least 90 percent of the shocks are transients. Although the temporal profiles of Doppler scintillation and mass flux density are similar, the magnitudes of the Doppler scintillation transients may not simply reflect those of mass flux density. Only one pronounced solar wind event that was observed in the mass flux density measurements showed no signature in the scintillation data; field and particle measurements by Helios 1 suggest that it is a noncompressive density enhancement and/or a magnetic cloud. It is shown that Doppler scintillation measurements can now be used by themselves to detect and locate interplanetary shocks near the sun with a relatively high degree of certainty.

  4. Latitudinal velocity structures up to the solar poles estimated from interplanetary scintillation tomography analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, M.; Fujiki, K.; Ohmi, T.; Tokumaru, M.; Yokobe, A.; Hakamada, K.

    2001-08-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft observed high-speed wind at high latitudes up to 80° and found that the high-speed solar wind increased in velocity gradually with latitude and that the velocity had asymmetry between Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We have investigated the velocity increase up to the polar regions for the Carrington rotations of 1908-1915 in the year 1996. For this purpose we have made tomographic analyses of the latitudinal structure of the solar wind speed using interplanetary scintillation data obtained at heliocentric distances of 0.1-0.9 AU and latitudes up to 90°. The tomographic analysis method was modified from its previous version [Kojima et al., 1998] so that it could obtain more reliable solutions with better sensitivity in the polar region than the previous method. The results from the observations in 1996 showed that the velocity increased with latitude and had the N-S asymmetry as observed by Ulysses. These features persisted during the period analyzed. Since the asymmetry was found in rather short period observations of several Carrington rotations and at distances within 0.9 AU, it is caused neither by temporal evolution of the solar wind structures nor by interactions in the solar wind in interplanetary space. These global latitudinal velocity structures agree qualitatively with the magnetic flux expansion factor.

  5. THE EFFECT OF INTERPLANETARY SCINTILLATION ON EPOCH OF REIONIZATION POWER SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Trott, Cathryn M.; Tingay, Steven J.

    2015-11-20

    Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) induces intensity fluctuations in small angular size astronomical radio sources via the distortive effects of spatially and temporally varying electron density associated with outflows from the Sun. These radio sources are a potential foreground contaminant signal for redshifted HI emission from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) because they yield time-dependent flux density variations in bright extragalactic point sources. Contamination from foreground continuum sources complicates efforts to discriminate the cosmological signal from other sources in the sky. In IPS, at large angles from the Sun applicable to EoR observations, weak scattering induces spatially and temporally correlated fluctuations in the measured flux density of sources in the field, potentially affecting the detectability of the EoR signal by inducing non-static variations in the signal strength. In this work, we explore the impact of interplanetary weak scintillation on EoR power spectrum measurements, accounting for the instrumental spatial and temporal sampling. We use published power spectra of electron density fluctuations and parameters of EoR experiments to derive the IPS power spectrum in the wavenumber phase space of EoR power spectrum measurements. The contrast of IPS power to expected cosmological power is used as a metric to assess the impact of IPS. We show that IPS has a spectral structure different from power from foregrounds alone, but the additional leakage into the EoR observation parameter space is negligible under typical IPS conditions, unless data are used from deep within the foreground contamination region.

  6. High Sensitive Scintillation Observations At Very Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalenko, A. A.; Falkovich, I. S.; Kalinichenko, N. N.; Olyak, M. R.; Lecacheux, A.; Rosolen, C.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Rucker, H. O.; Tokarev, Yu.

    The observation of interplanetary scintillations of compact radio sources is powerful method of solar wind diagnostics. This method is developed mainly at decimeter- meter wavelengths. New possibilities are opened at extremely low frequencies (decameter waves) especially at large elongations. Now this approach is being actively developed using high effective decameter antennas UTR-2, URAN and Nancay Decameter Array. New class of back-end facility like high dynamic range, high resolution digital spectral processors, as well as dynamic spectra determination ideology give us new opportunities for distinguishing of the ionospheric and interplanetary scintillations and for observations of large number of radio sources, whith different angular sizes and elongations, even for the cases of rather weak objects.

  7. Relation Between Coronal Hole Areas and Solar Wind Speeds Derived from Interplanetary Scintillation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Satonaka, Daiki; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Hayashi, Keiji; Hakamada, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the relation between coronal hole (CH) areas and solar wind speeds during 1995 - 2011 using the potential field (PF) model analysis of magnetograph observations and interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations by the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research (formerly Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory) of Nagoya University. We obtained a significant positive correlation between the CH areas (A) derived from the PF model calculations and solar wind speeds (V) derived from the IPS observations. The correlation coefficients between them are usually high, but they drop significantly in solar maxima. The slopes of the A - V relation are roughly constant except for the period around solar maximum, when flatter or steeper slopes are observed. The excursion of the correlation coefficients and slopes at solar maxima is ascribed partly to the effect of rapid structural changes in the coronal magnetic field and solar wind, and partly to the predominance of small CHs. It is also demonstrated that V is inversely related to the flux expansion factor (f) and that f is closely related to A^{-1/2}; hence, V ∝ A^{1/2}. A better correlation coefficient is obtained from the A^{1/2} - V relation, and this fact is useful for improving space weather predictions. We compare the CH areas derived from the PF model calculations with He i 1083 nm observations and show that the PF model calculations provide reliable estimates of the CH area, particularly for large A.

  8. Exploration of Solar Wind Acceleration Region Using Interplanetary Scintillation of Water Vapor Maser Source and Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Yamauchi, Yohei; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2001-01-01

    Single-station observations of interplanetary scintillation UPS) at three microwave frequencies 2, 8, and 22GHz, were carried out between 1989 and 1998 using a large (34-micro farad) radio telescope at the Kashima Space Research Center of the Communications Research Laboratory. The aim of these observations was to explore the near-sun solar wind, which is the key region for the study of the solar wind acceleration mechanism. Strong quasars, 3C279 and 3C273B, were used for the Kashima IPS observations at 2 and 8GHz, and a water-vapor maser source, IRC20431, was used for the IPS observations at 22GHz. Solar wind speeds derived from Kashima IPS data suggest that the solar wind acceleration takes place at radial distances between 10 and 30 solar radii (Rs) from the sun. The properties of the turbulence spectrum (e.g. anisotropy, spectral index, inner scale) inferred from the Kashima data were found to change systematically in the solar wind acceleration region. While the solar wind in the maximum phase appears to be dominated by the slow wind, fast and rarefied winds associated with the coronal holes were found to develop significantly at high latitudes as the solar activity declined. Nevertheless, the Kashima data suggests that the location of the acceleration region is stable throughout the solar cycle.

  9. Exploration of Solar Wind Acceleration Region Using Interplanetary Scintillation of Water Vapor Maser Source and Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Yamauchi, Yohei; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2001-01-01

    Single-station observations of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) at three microwave frequencies; 2 GHz, 8 GHz and 22 GHz have been carried out between 1989 and 1998 using a large (34 m farad) radio telescope at the Kashima Space Research Center of the Communications Research Laboratory. The aim of these observations is to explore the near-sun solar wind, which is the key region for the study of the solar wind acceleration mechanism. Strong quasars; 3C279 and 3C273B were used for Kashima IPS observations at 2 GHz and 8 GHz, and a water vapor maser source, IRC20431 was used for the IPS observations at 22 GHz. Solar wind velocities derived from Kashima IPS data suggest that the solar wind acceleration takes place at radial distances between 10 and 30 solar radii (R(sub s)) from the sun. Properties of the turbulence spectrum (e.g. anisotropy, spectral index, inner scale) inferred from Kashima data are found to change systematically in the solar wind acceleration region. While the solar wind in the maximum phase appears to be dominated by the slow wind, fast and rarefied winds associated with coronal holes are found to develop significantly at high latitudes as the solar activity declines. Nevertheless, Kashima data suggests that the location of the acceleration region is stable throughout the solar cycle.

  10. Angular source size measurements and interstellar scattering at 103 MHz using interplanetary scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardhan, P.; Alurkar, S. K.

    1993-03-01

    Data obtained between 1984 and 1987, using a radio telescope (RT) with a 10,000 sq m dipole array operating at 103 MHz, was used to determine the angular diameters of fourteen strongly scintillating radio sources. The method used exploited the technique of interplanetary scintillation (IPS), wherein the systematic variation of scintillation index with solar elongation was used as a unique indicator of the source size. The method has been used before but these are the first measurements at 103 MHz. These values were then used in conjunction with similar available measurements at 151.5 MHz to determine the contribution of interstellar scattering (ISS) to source broadening at 103 MHz. Enhanced scattering due to ISS in the plane of the galaxy has been confirmed.

  11. Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity inferred from polar geomagnetic field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    In order to infer the interplanetary sector polarity from polar geomagnetic field diurnal variations, measurements were carried out at Godhavn and Thule (Denmark) Geomagnetic Observatories. The inferred interplanetary sector polarity was compared with the polarity observed at the same time by Explorer 33 and 35 magnetometers. It is shown that the polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field can be reliably inferred from observations of the polar cap geomagnetic fields.

  12. Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity inferred from polar geomagnetic field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriss-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    With the use of a prediction technique it is shown that the polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field can be reliably inferred from observations of the polar geomagnetic field.

  13. Observations of the solar plasma using radio scattering and scintillation methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewish, A.

    1972-01-01

    Observations of the solar plasma using the interplanetary scintillation technique have been made at radial distances of 0.03 to 1.2 AU. The solar wind is found to be independent of ecliptic latitude and radial distance, except close to the sun where acceleration is observed. Plasma density irregularities on a scale near the proton gyro radius, which modulate the mean density by about 1 percent, are present throughout the observed range of radial distance.

  14. Use of Interplanetary Radio Scintillation Power Spectra in Predicting Geomagnetic Disturbances.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-31

    COCOA -Cross array at 34.3 MHz located at Clark Lake Radio Observatory near Borrego Springs, California and synoptic data on 33 sources were reduced to...yield scintillation index (band-pass integrated IPS power) for each source. In 1976, COCOA -Cross observations at 34.3 MHz were supplemented by 38 MHz

  15. Global Magnetospheric Response to an Interplanetary Shock: THEMIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Hui; Sibeck, David G.; Zong, Q.-G.; McFadden, James P.; Larson, Davin; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the global response of geospace plasma environment to an interplanetary shock at approx. 0224 UT on May 28, 2008 from multiple THEMIS spacecraft observations in the magnetosheath (THEMIS B and C) and the mid-afternoon (THEMIS A) and dusk magnetosphere (THEMIS D and E). The interaction of the transmitted interplanetary shock with the magnetosphere has global effects. Consequently, it can affect geospace plasma significantly. After interacting with the bow shock, the interplanetary shock transmitted a fast shock and a discontinuity which propagated through the magnetosheath toward the Earth at speeds of 300 km/s and 137 km/s respectively. THEMIS A observations indicate that the plasmaspheric plume changed significantly by the interplanetary shock impact. The plasmaspheric plume density increased rapidly from 10 to 100/ cubic cm in 4 min and the ion distribution changed from isotropic to strongly anisotropic distribution. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves observed by THEMIS A are most likely excited by the anisotropic ion distributions caused by the interplanetary shock impact. To our best knowledge, this is the first direct observation of the plasmaspheric plume response to an interplanetary shock's impact. THEMIS A, but not D or E, observed a plasmaspheric plume in the dayside magnetosphere. Multiple spacecraft observations indicate that the dawn-side edge of the plasmaspheric plume was located between THEMIS A and D (or E).

  16. Near-Sun solar wind consequences of solar structure and dynamic phenomena observed by radio scintillation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Since radio propagation measurements using either natural or spacecraft radio signals are used for probing the solar wind in the vicinity of the sun, they represent a key tool for studying the interplanetary consequences of solar structure and dynamic phenomena. New information on the near sun consequences was obtained from radio scintillation observations of coherent spacecraft signals. The results covering density fluctuations, fractional density fluctuations, coronal streamers, heliospheric current sheets, coronal mass ejections and interplanetary shocks are reviewed. A joint ICE S-band (13 cm wavelength) Doppler scintillation measurement with the SOHO white-light coronograph (LASCO) is described.

  17. CME dynamics using coronagraph and interplanetary ejecta observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, Alisson; Demítrio Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter; da Silva, Marlos; de Lucas, Aline; Braga, Carlos Roberto; Ramos Vieira, Lucas

    One of the key issues of Space Weather is the dynamics of coronal mass ejections, from their release from the Sun, their propagation throughout the interplanetary space, eventually im-pacting the earth and other planets. These impacts of CMEs are the most important drivers of space weather phenomena. A number of empirical and analytical studies have addressed this point so far, using observations from coronagraphs and interplanetary monitors, in order to correlate CMEs observed near the Sun and in situ (e.g. earth vincity). However, results are far from conclusive. Error bars in CME travel time predictions from the Sun to earth, are of the order of 1 day, which is considerably big for the typical time scale of 1 to 3 days of their travel time. After many years of intensive investigations of CMEs observed with the Large An-gle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO), abord the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), we found that the subset of interplanetary counterparts of CMEs, the ICMEs, with a well defined ejecta structure are those with best predictable behaviour. The prediction of these interplanetary ejecta travel time to earth, using coronagraph observations is the one with lowest error bar among other sets of events, such as interplanetary shock. We present a statistic study of all the CME-ejecta events observed by SOHO and by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite since 1997.

  18. Interplanetary dust and debris, as observed from the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. Chantal

    1994-06-01

    The visible trace of the interplanetary dust cloud, so-called the zodiacal light, has already been photographed from the Moon, more than twenty years ago (part 1). The interplanetary dust grains do not only scatter solar light; they produce a thermal emission in the near infrared domain; also they may impact the Earth and Moon system as they spiral towards the Sun (part 2). The main problems which can be anticipated for Moon based observations of faint astronomical sources are likely to be due to zodiacal light and zodiacal emission; the induced contamination would however be reduced by appropriate choices in the periods of observation (part 3).

  19. Raman observations on individual interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wopenka, B.

    1988-05-01

    A Raman study of 20 representative interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) belonging to different infrared spectral classes is discussed. Six different groups of Raman spectra were discerned among the IDPs studied. Groups 1-5 exhibit the Raman signature of poorly crystallized carbonaceous material, with the degree of disorder of this material increasing from group 1 (most ordered) to group 5 (least ordered). Group 1 contains IDPs that have infrared spectra characteristic of olivines, and are deuterium depleted, while those in groups 2, 3, and 4 contain less ordered carbonaceous material and are deuterium enriched, suggesting different carbonaceous carrier phases for deuterium depletions and enrichments. Groups 5 and 6 contain little or no carbonaceous material, with an abundance of deuterium. No obvious relationship was found between Raman groups and infrared classes based on the 10 micron absorption band due to silicates. Because silicates are known to be present, but are not seen, it is presumed that silicate grains are coated with and/or imbedded in carbonaceous material. Several IDPs show broad visible laser-induced photoluminescence, probably produced by a carbonaceous component.

  20. Observations of Turbulence near Interplanetary Travelling Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallenbach, R.; Bamert, K.; Hilchenbach, M.; Smith, C. W.

    2005-08-01

    The observations on magnetic field fluctuations and suprathermal ion spectra near the shocks driven by the coronal mass ejections during the time periods of the Bastille Day 2000 event and the Halloween 2003 events are summarized.

  1. Study of Interplanetary Dust from ULYSSES and SOHO Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, I.; Hillebrand, P.; Wehry, A.

    The Ulysses spacecraft has for the first time performed in situ measurements in the out of ecliptic regions of the solar system. The dust experiment on-board Ulysses has detected the high latitude flux of interplanetary dust particles (cf. Grun et al. 1994). With the SOHO satellite, on the other hand, the measurements of the LASCO coronagraph (cf. Bruckner et al. 1995) provide data of the brightness of the white light corona, which includes a component of light from scattering at interplanetary dust particles, i.e., the F-coronal brightness. Although Ulysses provides data about local dust fluxes from 1 AU outward and white light observations give the integrated line of sight brightness from 1 AU inward, we show, that some comparison of the different results is possible. We will discuss namely the dynamics and orbital distribution in the dust cloud, as well as its size distribution.

  2. Inferring the interplanetary dust properties. from remote observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Fray, N.; Cottin, H.

    2007-10-01

    Context: Since in situ studies and interplanetary dust collections only provide a spatially limited amount of information about the interplanetary dust properties, it is of major importance to complete these studies with properties inferred from remote observations of scattered and emitted light, with interpretation through simulations. Aims: Physical properties of the interplanetary dust in the near-ecliptic symmetry surface, such as the local polarization, temperature, and composition, together with their heliocentric variations, may be derived from scattered and emitted light observations, giving clues to the respective contribution of the particle sources. Methods: A model of light scattering by a cloud of solid particles constituted by spheroidal grains and aggregates thereof is used to interpret the local light-scattering data. Equilibrium temperature of the same particles allows us to interpret the temperature heliocentric variations. Results: A good fit of the local polarization phase curve, Pα, near 1.5 AU from the Sun is obtained for a mixture of silicates and more absorbing organic material (≈40% in mass) and for a realistic size distribution typical of the interplanetary dust in the 0.2 μm to 200 μm size range. The contribution of dust particles of cometary origin is at least 20% in mass. The same size distribution of particles gives a dependence of the temperature with the solar distance, R, in R-0.45 that is different than the typical black body behavior. The heliocentric dependence of Pα=90° is interpreted as a progressive disappearance of solid organic (such as HCN polymers or amorphous carbon) towards the Sun.

  3. Ionospheric scintillation observations over Kenyan region - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwendo, O. J.; Xiao, Yu; Ming, Ou

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric scintillation refers to the rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of a satellite signal as it passes through small-scale plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere. By analyzing ionospheric scintillation observation datasets from satellite signals such as GPS signals we can study the morphology of ionospheric bubbles. At low latitudes, the diurnal behavior of scintillation is driven by the formation of large-scale equatorial density depletions which form one to two hours after sunset via the Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism near the magnetic equator. In this work we present ionospheric scintillation activity over Kenya using data derived from a newly installed scintillation monitor developed by CRIRP at Pwani University (39.78°E, 3.24°S) during the period August to December, 2014. The results reveal the scintillation activity mainly occurs from post-sunset to post-midnight hours, and ceases around 04:00 LT. We also found that the ionospheric scintillation tends to appear at the southwest and northwest of the station. These locations coincide with the southern part of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly crest over Kenya region. The occurrence of post-midnight L-band scintillation events which are not linked to pre-midnight scintillation observations raises fundamental question on the mechanism and source of electric fields driving the plasma depletion under conditions of very low background electron density.

  4. Helium at Interplanetary Discontinuities: ACE STEREO Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Allegrini, F.; Desai, M.; Klecker, B.; Popecki, M.; Farrugia, C.; Galvin, A.; Bochsler, P.; Karrer, R.; Opitz, A.; Simunac, K.

    2007-12-01

    ACE/SEPICA observations showed that, on average, energetic He+ is after H+ and He2+ the third most abundant energetic particle species in the heliosphere. Depending on the type of the energetic population the He+/He2+ ratio can reach unusually high values in the energy range 250 - 800keV/n ratios up to unity. As a major source of energetic He+ interplanetary pickup ions have been identified that are preferentially accelerated at co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs), transient interaction regions (TIRs), and interplanetary traveling shocks. Most recent data from STEREO/PLASTIC in the energy range of 0.2-80keV/Q show clear evidence of abundant He+ at interplanetary discontinuities. Thus PLASTIC extends the energy range into injection region of the source. Furthermore, ACE/ULEIS and ACE/SEPICA measurements showed that very often 3He2+ and He+ are also accelerated simultaneously at CME-driven IP shocks. This is surprising because, these to species originate from different sources. However, this may indicate that the injection, or the acceleration efficiency of the accelerator for different source population may be similar. From observations, however, this cannot be differentiated easily. In numerical simulations this can be done because there is control over species and distribution functions. In a numerical study we applied test particle simulations and multi-dimensional hybrid simulations to address the contribution of source, injection and acceleration efficiency at shocks to the variability of the helium ratio. These, simulations with and without superimposed turbulence in the shock region will be compared with observations.

  5. Multi-Spacecraft Observations of Interplanetary Shocks Near Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajdic, P.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Lavraud, B.

    2014-12-01

    Space missions around Earth have been continuously monitoring solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field for many years now. They have detected a large number of interplanetary (IP) shocks. These have been observed with multiple spacecraft at separations ranging from 103 km to several 105. Comparing observations of IP shocks at different locations in space can provide us with important insights on micro-physical processes that take place near or within the shock transitions. We have compiled a database of about 50 IP shocks detected between 2001 and 2014 with several missions. In the first part of our research we calculated local normals of IP shocks by using different one-spacecraft methods and also the 4-spacecraft method, when possible. In some cases we were able to compare the results of the latter method for different inter-spacecraft separations. This is the first time that comparison of IP shock profiles is also performed systematically on small inter-spacecraft separations of several 100 km (Cluster and Themis observations). Shock normals obtained by using different spacecraft configurations may differ. We find that spacecraft observe different shock profiles even when the their separations are only ~1000 km and the detection times differ by less than a second. The four-spacecraft method is less reliable when the detection times are small, since the changing shock profiles and uncertainties related to timing of the shock arrivals may distort the calculations. We also study regions upstream and downstream of IP shocks - we analyze the properties of suprathermal particles and magnetic perturbations there.

  6. ENERGETIC PARTICLE PRESSURE AT INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS: STEREO-A OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-11-10

    We study periods of elevated energetic particle intensities observed by STEREO-A when the partial pressure exerted by energetic (≥83 keV) protons (P{sub EP}) is larger than the pressure exerted by the interplanetary magnetic field (P{sub B}). In the majority of cases, these periods are associated with the passage of interplanetary shocks. Periods when P{sub EP} exceeds P{sub B} by more than one order of magnitude are observed in the upstream region of fast interplanetary shocks where depressed magnetic field regions coincide with increases of energetic particle intensities. When solar wind parameters are available, P{sub EP} also exceeds the pressure exerted by the solar wind thermal population (P{sub TH}). Prolonged periods (>12 hr) with both P{sub EP} > P{sub B} and P{sub EP} > P{sub TH} may also occur when energetic particles accelerated by an approaching shock encounter a region well upstream of the shock characterized by low magnetic field magnitude and tenuous solar wind density. Quasi-exponential increases of the sum P{sub SUM} = P{sub B} + P{sub TH} + P{sub EP} are observed in the immediate upstream region of the shocks regardless of individual changes in P{sub EP}, P{sub B}, and P{sub TH}, indicating a coupling between P{sub EP} and the pressure of the background medium characterized by P{sub B} and P{sub TH}. The quasi-exponential increase of P{sub SUM} implies a radial gradient ∂P{sub SUM}/∂r > 0 that is quasi-stationary in the shock frame and results in an outward force applied to the plasma upstream of the shock. This force can be maintained by the mobile energetic particles streaming upstream of the shocks that, in the most intense events, drive electric currents able to generate diamagnetic cavities and depressed solar wind density regions.

  7. Regional Arctic observations of TEC gradients and scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durgonics, Tibor; Høeg, Per; Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been growing scientific interest in Arctic ionospheric properties and variations. However our understanding of the fundamental ionospheric processes present in this area is still incomplete. GNSS networks present in Greenland today make it possible to acquire near-real time observations of the state and variations of the high-latitude ionosphere. This data can be employed to obtain relevant geophysical variables and statistics. In our study GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) measurements have been complemented with amplitude scintillation indices (S4), and phase scintillation indices (σφ). The investigation of the relationship between these geophysical variables will likely lead to new ways to study the underlying physical processes and to build tools for monitoring and predicting large-scale patterns in Arctic TEC and scintillations. A number of specific ionosphere events will be presented and the underlying geophysical process will be identified and described. In particular, results will be presented where large-scale gradients in the regional TEC are compared with the growth of scintillations. The statistics of the scintillations will be investigated, with emphasis on how well the scintillations follow the Nakagami-m distribution. The spectra of both the intensities and phase will be calculated, and the corner frequency of these spectra will also be determined. These corner frequencies will be used to compute a number of important geophysical and ionospheric parameters. Furthermore, we will discuss how the spectral characteristics of the scintillations during large TEC gradients vary, and how values of the power spectra slopes change during increasing scintillations. These values will be validated against values found in prior studies. TEC and scintillation time-series and maps will also be presented over the Greenlandic region. We will show how the expansion of the auroral oval during geomagnetic storms can be detected from

  8. Interplanetary flux enhancements - Comparison with cometary models and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Phillips, J. L.; Luhmann, J. G.; Fedder, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Interplanetary field enhancements (IFE's) are unusual nearly symmetric increases in the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field lasting tens of minutes to hours. Examples of interplanetary field enhancements are compared with MHD models and with the data obtained by the ICE spacecraft at Giacobini-Zinner. These comparisons suggest that the varying properties of IFE's are due to the fact that some events are due to passages in front of the nucleus, others in the near tail and yet others in the distant tail.

  9. Observations of Electromagnetic Whistler Precursors at Supercritical Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Koval, A.; Szabo, Adam; Breneman, A.; Cattell, C. A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P. J.; Kersten, K.; Kasper, J. C.; Maruca, B. A.; Pulupa, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of electromagnetic precursor waves, identified as whistler mode waves, at supercritical interplanetary shocks using the Wind search coil magnetometer. The precursors propagate obliquely with respect to the local magnetic field, shock normal vector, solar wind velocity, and they are not phase standing structures. All are right-hand polarized with respect to the magnetic field (spacecraft frame), and all but one are right-hand polarized with respect to the shock normal vector in the normal incidence frame. They have rest frame frequencies f(sub ci) < f much < f(sub ce) and wave numbers 0.02 approx < k rho (sub ce) approx <. 5.0. Particle distributions show signatures of specularly reflected gyrating ions, which may be a source of free energy for the observed modes. In one event, we simultaneously observe perpendicular ion heating and parallel electron acceleration, consistent with wave heating/acceleration due to these waves. Al though the precursors can have delta B/B(sub o) as large as 2, fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar shock transitions in three of the four events.

  10. Coronal and interplanetary propagation, interplanetary acceleration, cosmic-ray observations by deep space network and anomalous component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose is to provide an overview of the contributions presented in sessions SH3, SH1.5, SH4.6 and SH4.7 of the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference. These contributed papers indicate that steady progress continues to be made in both the observational and the theoretical aspects of the transport and acceleration of energetic charged particles in the heliosphere. Studies of solar and interplanetary particles have placed emphasis on particle directional distributions in relation to pitch-angle scattering and magnetic focusing, on the rigidity and spatial dependence of the mean free path, and on new propagation regimes in the inner and outer heliosphere. Coronal propagation appears in need of correlative multi-spacecraft studies in association with detailed observation of the flare process and coronal magnetic structures. Interplanetary acceleration has now gone into a consolidation phase, with theories being worked out in detail and checked against observation.

  11. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections from MESSENGER Orbital Observations at Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, R. M.; Lugaz, N.; Philpott, L. C.; Schwadron, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Smith, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    We use observations from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, in orbit around Mercury, to investigate interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) near 0.3 AU. MESSENGER, the first spacecraft since the 1980s to make in-situ measurements at distances < 0.5 AU, presents a unique opportunity for observing the innermost heliosphere. It also allows studies of ICME evolution as they expand and propagate outward, interacting with the solar wind. In order to catalog ICME events observed by MESSENGER, we design a strict set of selection criteria to identify them based on magnetic field observations only, since reliable solar wind plasma observations are not available from MESSENGER. We identify 61 ICME events observed by the MESSENGER Magnetometer between 2011 and 2014, and present statistical analyses of ICME properties at Mercury. In addition, using existing datasets of ICMEs at 1 AU we investigate key ICME property changes from Mercury to 1 AU. We find good agreement with previous studies for the magnetic field strength dependence on heliospheric distance, r. We have also established three different lines of evidence that ICME deceleration continues beyond the orbit of Mercury: 1) we find a shallow decrease with distance of ˜r-0.45 for the ICME shock speed from Mercury to 1 AU, 2) the average transit speed from the Sun to Mercury for ICMEs in our catalog is ˜20% faster than the average speed from the Sun to 1 AU, 3) the ICME transit time to 1 AU has a weaker dependence on the CME initial coronagraphic speed, as compared to what we predict based on our MESSENGER ICME catalog. Based on our results, future ICME propagation studies should account for ICME speed changes beyond Mercury's heliocentric distances to improve ICME arrival time forecasting. Our ICME database will also prove particularly useful for multipoint spacecraft studies of recent ICMEs, as well as for model validation of ICME properties.

  12. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Observed by MESSENGER and Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, S. W.; Forsyth, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed by the MESSENGER and Venus Express spacecraft have been catalogued and analysed. The ICMEs were identified by a relatively smooth rotation of the magnetic field direction consistent with a flux rope structure, coinciding with a relatively enhanced magnetic field strength. A total of 35 ICMEs were found in the surveyed MESSENGER data (primarily from March 2007 to April 2012), and 84 ICMEs in the surveyed Venus Express data (from May 2006 to December 2013). The ICME flux rope configurations have been determined. Ropes with northward leading edges were about four times more common than ropes with southward leading edges, in agreement with a previously established solar cycle dependence. Ropes with low inclinations to the solar equatorial plane were about four times more common than ropes with high inclinations, possibly an observational effect. Left- and right-handed ropes were observed in almost equal numbers. In addition, data from MESSENGER, Venus Express, STEREO-A, STEREO-B and ACE were examined for multipoint signatures of the catalogued ICMEs. For spacecraft separations below 15° in heliocentric longitude, the second spacecraft observed the ICME flux rope in 82 % of cases; this percentage dropped to 49 % for separations between 15 and 30°, to 18 % for separations between 30 and 45°, and to 12 % for separations between 45 and 60°. As the spacecraft separation increased, it became increasingly likely that only the sheath and not the flux rope of the ICME was observed, in agreement with the notion that ICME flux ropes are smaller in longitudinal extent than the shocks or discontinuities that they often drive. Furthermore, this study has identified 23 ICMEs observed by pairs of spacecraft close to radial alignment. A detailed analysis of these events could lead to a better understanding of how ICMEs evolve during propagation.

  13. Three-dimensional modeling of high-latitude scintillation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartier, Alex; Forte, Biagio; Deshpande, Kshitija; Bust, Gary; Mitchell, Cathryn

    2016-07-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System signals exhibit rapid fluctuations at high and low latitudes as a consequence of propagation through drifting ionospheric irregularities. We focus on the high-latitude scintillation problem, taking advantage of a conjunction of European Incoherent Scatter Radar (EISCAT) observations and a GPS scintillation monitor viewing the same line of sight. Just after 20:00 UT on 17 October 2013, an auroral E region ionization enhancement occurred with associated phase scintillations. This investigation uses the scintillation observations to estimate the ionospheric electron density distribution beyond the spatial resolution of EISCAT (5-15 km along the line of sight in this case). Following the approach of Deshpande et al. (2014), signal propagation is modeled through a specified density distribution. A multiple phase screen propagation algorithm is applied to irregularities conforming to the description of Costa and Kelley (1977) and constrained to match the macroscopic conditions observed by EISCAT. A 50-member ensemble of modeled outputs is approximately consistent with the observations according to the standard deviation of the phase (σp). The observations have σp = 0.23 rad, while the ensemble of modeled realizations has σp = 0.23 + 0.04-0.04. By comparison of the model output with the scintillation observations, we show that the density fluctuations cannot be a constant fraction of the mean density. The model indicates that E region density fluctuations whose standard deviation varies temporally between 5 and 25% of the mean (EISCAT-observed) density are required to explain the observed phase scintillations.

  14. New observations of the low frequency interplanetary radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    Recent Voyager 1 observations reveal reoccurrences of the low frequency interplanetary radio emissions. Three of the new events are weak transient events which rise in frequency from the range of 2-2.5 kHz to about 3 kHz with drift rates of approximately 1.5 kHz/year. The first of the transient events begins in mid-1989 and the more recent pair of events both were first detected in late 1991. In addition, there is an apparent onset of a 2-kHz component of the emission beginning near day 70 of 1991. The new transient emissions are barely detectable on Voyager 1 and are below the threshold of detectability on Voyager 2, which is less sensitive than Voyager 1. The new activity provides new opportunities to test various theories of the triggering, generation, and propagation of the outer heliospheric radio emissions and may signal a response of the source of the radio emissions to the increased solar activity associated with the recent peak in the solar cycle.

  15. Radio Wave Scintillation in the Neutral Atmosphere as Noise in Precision Spacecraft Tracking Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1996-05-01

    Tropospheric phase scintillation degrades the coherence of a radio link and thus introduces noise in interferometer observations and spacecraft Doppler tracking experiments. High-quality Doppler data were taken in March-April 1993 with the Mars Observer spacecraft when it was in interplanetary cruise (sun-earth-spacecraft angle ~100 degrees; earth-spacecraft distance ~500 light seconds). The radio wave phase residuals from these tracks can be used to study the statistics of the tropospheric scintillation and to assess its importance in precision tracking. Here I present temporal radio wave phase structure functions, < {mid phi (t) - phi (t + tau ) mid }(2) >, for X-band data taken at the three NASA/JPL Deep Space Network Tracking complexes. The observed structure functions are approximately powerlaw, D(tau ) = const τ(alpha ) . I characterize the structure functions by their levels at tau = 100 seconds and their powerlaw indices, alpha . The powerlaw indices varied between 0.67 and 1.6, averaging 1.2. Substantial variation in the structure function level was observed, with a histogram of level showing many relatively low values and fewer relatively large levels. There were small systematic variations in the levels between the tracking sites, with Australia having larger levels in this sample. I compare these observations with interferometric (i.e., spatial) measurements and discuss some implications for spacecraft tracking, particularly as these observations refine the noise model for low-frequency gravitational wave searches.

  16. Observation of Two Slow Shocks Associated with Magnetic Reconnection Exhausts in the Interplanetary Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, HengQiang; Li, QiuHuan; Wang, JieMin; Zhao, GuoQing

    2017-04-01

    In the Petschek magnetic reconnection model, two groups of slow shocks play an important role in the energy release. In the past half century, a large number of slow shocks were observed in the geomagnetic tail, and many slow shocks were associated with magnetic reconnection events in the geomagnetic tail. Slow shocks in the interplanetary space are rarer than in the geomagnetic tail. We investigated whether slow shocks associated with interplanetary reconnection exhausts are rare. We examined the boundaries of 50 reconnection exhausts reported by Phan, Gosling, and Davis (Geophys. Res. Lett. 36:L09108, 2009) in interplanetary space to identify slow shocks by fitting the Rankine-Hugoniot relations. Two slow shocks associated with magnetic reconnection exhausts were found and evaluated using observations from Wind and the Advanced Composition Explorer. The observed slow shocks associated with interplanetary reconnection exhausts are rarer than the observed slow shocks associated with geomagnetic tail reconnection exhausts.

  17. V are Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Observed with the SOlar Mass Ejection Imager

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    SUBTITLE V arc interplanetary coronal mass ejections observed with the Solar Mass Ejection Imager 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER a. 5c...doi: 10.1029/2007JA012358 14. ABSTRACT Since February 2003, The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) has been observing interplanetary- coronal mass...ejections (ICMEs) at solar elongation angles ^ > 20 degrees. The ICMEs generally appear as loops or arcs in the sky, but five show distinct outward

  18. In situ observations of coronal mass ejections in interplanetary space

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections, CMEs, in the solar wind at 1 AU generally have distinct plasma and field signatures by which they can be distinguished from the ordinary solar wind. These include one or more of the following: helium abundance enhancements, ion and electron temperature depressions, unusual ionization states, strong magnetic fields, low plasma beta, low magnetic field variance, coherent field rotations, counterstreaming (along the field) energetic protons, and counterstreaming suprathermal electrons. The most reliable of these appears to be counterstreaming electrons, which indicates that CMEs at 1 AU typically are closed field structures either rooted at both ends in the Sun or entirely disconnected from it as plasmoids. About 1/3 of all CMEs have sufficiently high speeds to produce transient interplanetary shock disturbances at 1 AU; the remainder simply ride along with the solar wind. The frequency of occurrence of CMEs in the ecliptic plane, as distinguished by the counterstreaming electron signature, varies roughly in phase and amplitude with the 11-yr solar activity cycle. Near solar maximum they account for {approximately} 15% of all solar wind measurements, while near solar minimum they account for less than 1% of all the measurements. All but one of the 37 largest geomagnetic storms near the last solar maximum were associated with Earth-passage of interplanetary disturbances driven by fast CMEs; that is, CMEs are the prime link between solar and geomagnetic activity. However, more than half of all earthward directed CMEs are relatively ineffective in a geomagnetic sense. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  19. GPS Observations of Plasma Bubbles and Scintillations over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrano, C. S.; Valladares, C. E.; Semala, G. K.; Bridgwood, C. T.; Adeniyi, J.; Amaeshi, L. L.; Damtie, B.; D'Ujanga Mutonyi, F.; Ndeda, J. D.; Baki, P.; Obrou, O. K.; Okere, B.; Tsidu, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored in part by the International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program, Boston College, Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and several universities in Africa have collaborated to deploy a network of GPS receivers throughout equatorial Africa, a region which has been largely devoid of ground-based ionospheric monitoring instruments. High date-rate GPS receivers capable of measuring Total Electron Content (TEC) and GPS scintillations were installed at Abidjan, Ivory Coast (5.3°N, 4.0°W, dip 3.5°S); Addis Ababa (9.0°N, 38.8°E, dip 0.1°N ); Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (26.1°N, 50.6°E, dip 20.1°N); Cape Verde (16.6°S, 22.9°W, dip 4.9°N); Ilorin, Nigeria (8.4°S, 4.7°E, dip 1.9°S); Kampala, Uganda (0.3°S, 32.6°E, dip 9.2°S); Lagos, Nigeria (6.5°N, 3.4°E, dip 3.1°S); Nairobi, Kenya (1.3°S, 36.8°W, dip 10.7°S); Nsukka, Nigeria (6.8°S, 7.4°W, dip 3.0°S); and Zanzibar, Tanzania (6.2°S, 39.2°E, dip 15.9°S). In this paper we report on the longitudinal, local time and seasonal occurrence of plasma bubbles and L band scintillations over equatorial Africa in 2009 and 2010, as a first step toward establishing the climatology of ionospheric irregularities over Africa. The scintillation intensity is obtained by measuring the standard deviation of normalized GPS signal power. The plasma bubbles are detected using an automated technique, whereby the GPS TEC is detrended to remove the diurnal variation and excursions exceeding a particular threshold are extracted for further analysis. A harmonic analysis (FFT) of these extracted events is performed to exclude wavelike features indicative of gravity waves or traveling ionospheric disturbances, and the remaining events are identified as plasma bubbles. Our findings suggest that the occurrence of plasma bubbles and L band scintillations over Africa are well correlated, but that some discrepancies in their morphologies are evident. While plasma bubbles and scintillations are generally observed during equinoctial

  20. Multi-Spacecraft Observations of Interplanetary Shock Accelerated Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, G. C.; Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Desai, M. I.; Hu, Q.; Kasper, J.

    2006-01-01

    We use simultaneous measurements from the Wind and ACE spacecraft to determine the spatial properties of both interplanetary (IP) shocks and the shock-associated energetic particle events. We combine plasma, magnetic field and energetic particle data from ACE and Wind for 124 energetic storm particle (ESP) events from 1998 to 2003 and examine the spatial and temporal variations of these events in the Earth's vicinity. We find that even though the two spacecraft were occasionally separated by more than 400 RE, the plasma, field, and energetic particle time-intensity profiles during the events were very similar. In addition, we find that the ion composition and energy spectra in individual IP shock events are identical at the two spacecraft locations. We also use the fitted shock velocity along the normal from ACE and estimate the shock transit time to Wind location. In general, there is poor agreement between the estimated transit time and the actual measured transit time. Hence, our assumptions that a) the IP shock at 1 AU propagates radially, and/or b) the IP shock is spherically symmetric at 1 AU are not valid. In this paper, we will also study, for the first time, the anisotropy measurements of low-energy IP shock-associated ions at both ACE and Wind. We will then compare these new anisotropy analyses with locally measured shock parameters and identify possible signatures of different shock acceleration processes as predicted by the first-order Fermi and shock-drift models.

  1. Automated interplanetary shock detection and its application to Wind observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruparova, O.; Maksimovic, M.; Å AfráNková, J.; NěMečEk, Z.; Santolik, O.; Krupar, V.

    2013-08-01

    We present an automated two-step detection algorithm for identification of interplanetary (IP) shocks regardless their type in a real-time data stream. This algorithm is aimed for implementation on board the future Solar Orbiter mission for triggering the transmission of the high-resolution data to the Earth. The first step of the algorithm is based on a determination of a quality factor, Q indicating abrupt changes of plasma parameters (proton density and bulk velocity) and magnetic field strength. We test two sets of weighting coefficients for Q determination and propose the second step consisting of three additional constraints that increase the effectiveness of the algorithm. We checked the algorithm using Wind (at 1 AU) and Helios (at distances from 0.29 to 1 AU) data and compared obtained results with already existing lists of IP shocks. The efficiency of the presented algorithm for the Wind shock lists varies from 60% to 84% for two Q thresholds. The final shock candidate list provided by the presented algorithm contains the real IP shocks, as well as different discontinuities. The detection rate of the IP shocks equals to 64% and 29% for two Q thresholds. The algorithm detected all IP shocks associated with the solar wind transient structures triggering intense (Dst<-100 nT) geomagnetic storms.

  2. Link between interplanetary & cometary dust: Polarimetric observations and space studies with Rosetta & Eye-Sat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Gaboriaud, Alain; Buil, Christian; Ressouche, Antoine; Lasue, J.; Palun, Adrien; Apper, Fabien; Elmaleh, Marc

    Intensity and linear polarization observations of the solar light scattered by interplanetary dust, the so-called zodiacal light, provide information on properties of the dust particles, such as their spatial density, local changes, morphology and albedo. Earth-based polarimetric observations, with a resolution of 5° or more, have been used to derive the polarization phase curve of interplanetary dust particles and to establish that the polarization at 90° phase angle increases with increasing solar distance, at least up to 1.5 au in the ecliptic, while the albedo decreases [1, 2]. Analysis of such studies will be revisited. Numerical simulations of the polarimetric behavior of interplanetary dust particles strongly suggest that, in the inner solar system, interplanetary dust particles consist of absorbing (e.g., organic compounds) and less absorbing (e.g., silicates) materials, that radial changes originate in a decrease of organics with decreasing solar distance (probably due to alteration processes), and that a significant fraction of the interplanetary dust is of cometary origin, in agreement with dynamical studies [3, 4]. The polarimetric behaviors of interplanetary dust and cometary dust particles seem to present striking similarities. The properties of cometary dust particles, as derived from remote polarimetric observations of comets including 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the target of the Rosetta rendezvous mission, at various wavelengths, will be summarized [5, 6]. The ground truth expected from Rosetta dust experiments, i.e., MIDAS, COSIMA, GIADA, about dust particles’ morphology, composition, and evolution (with distance to the nucleus before Philae release and with distance to the Sun before and after perihelion passage) over the year and a half of nominal mission, will be discussed. Finally, the Eye-Sat nanosatellite will be presented. This triple cubesat, developed by students from engineering schools working as interns at CNES, is to be launched

  3. Interplanetary and Interstellar Dust Observed by the Wind/WAVES Electric Field Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malaspina, David; Horanyi, M.; Zaslavsky, A.; Goetz, K.; Wilson, L. B., III; Kersten, K.

    2014-01-01

    Observations of hypervelocity dust particles impacting the Wind spacecraft are reported here for the first time using data from the WindWAVES electric field instrument. A unique combination of rotating spacecraft, amplitude-triggered high-cadence waveform collection, and electric field antenna configuration allow the first direct determination of dust impact direction by any spacecraft using electric field data. Dust flux and impact direction data indicate that the observed dust is approximately micron-sized with both interplanetary and interstellar populations. Nanometer radius dust is not detected by Wind during times when nanometer dust is observed on the STEREO spacecraft and both spacecraft are in close proximity. Determined impact directions suggest that interplanetary dust detected by electric field instruments at 1 AU is dominated by particles on bound trajectories crossing Earths orbit, rather than dust with hyperbolic orbits.

  4. Comparison of inferred and observed interplanetary magnetic field polarities, 1970-1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Svalgaard, L.; Hedgecock, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The inferred polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field at earth using polar observations of the geomagnetic field has been compared with spacecraft observations. A list published by Svalgaard (1974) of the inferred field polarities in the period from 1970 to 1972 is found to be correct on 82% of the days. A near real-time (same day) method of inferring the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field using geomagnetic observations at Vostok and Thule is in use at the NOAA Space Environment Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado. During 1972, this method is found to be correct on 87% of the days. A list of 'well-defined' sector boundaries at earth from 1970 to 1972 is given.

  5. Large-Amplitude Electrostatic Waves Observed at a Supercritical Interplanetary Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L. B., III; Cattell, C. A.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Kersten, K.; Kasper, J. C.; Szabo, A.; Wilber, M.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first observations at an interplanetary shock of large-amplitude (> 100 mV/m pk-pk) solitary waves and large-amplitude (approx.30 mV/m pk-pk) waves exhibiting characteristics consistent with electron Bernstein waves. The Bernstein-like waves show enhanced power at integer and half-integer harmonics of the cyclotron frequency with a broadened power spectrum at higher frequencies, consistent with the electron cyclotron drift instability. The Bernstein-like waves are obliquely polarized with respect to the magnetic field but parallel to the shock normal direction. Strong particle heating is observed in both the electrons and ions. The observed heating and waveforms are likely due to instabilities driven by the free energy provided by reflected ions at this supercritical interplanetary shock. These results offer new insights into collisionless shock dissipation and wave-particle interactions in the solar wind.

  6. Temporal Variations of Ionospheric Scintillation Index on Cosmic Radiosources Observations at Decametric Wave Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravetz, R. O.; Litvinenko, O. A.; Panishko, S. K.

    The measurements of cosmic radiosources have scintillations on ionospheric irregularities at decametric waves. The analysis of temporal variations of the scintillation indexes was carried out on the base of observation data obtained on RT URAN-4 during 1998-2001. Daily-seasonal dependence of these indexes was investigated. The values of scintillation indexes varied within intervals from several minutes to several years, the amplitudes of such variations can reach 70 per cent from mean value.

  7. Study of a coincident observation between the ROCSAT-1 density irregularity and Ascension Island scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. H.; Chao, C. K.; Su, S.-Y.; Liu, C. H.

    2012-10-01

    A coincident observation that occurred on 24 March 2000 between the irregularity structure measured by ROCSAT-1 and the scintillation experiment at the Ascension Island has been studied. The study of scintillation statistics is carried out first, and the results show that the Nakagami distribution can portray the normalized intensity of the L-band scintillation at various S4 values, up to S4 equal to 1.4. Moreover, the departure of frequency dependence on S4 predicted by the weak scintillation is noticed due to multiple forward scattering effects. The coincident feature between the characteristics of irregularity structure and the scintillation variation are then studied. The causal relationship between the fluctuation of ion density and the scintillation variation is obtained. A numerical simulation using the parabolic wave equation has been carried out with the ROCSAT-1 data in space to compare with the ground scintillation observation. The results show the reasonable scintillation level at the coincident time to indicate a direct relationship between the irregularity structure and the scintillation in both temporal and amplitudinal variations. Finally, some assumptions and limitations of the simulation model are discussed.

  8. Comparison Between Predictions & Observations of Induced Radioactive Background in Interplanetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Clivea; Truscott, Peter; Evans, Howard; Evans, Larry; Trombka, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    Radioactivity induced in detector materials and their immediate surroundings is the major source of discrete-line, gamma-ray background and an important source of continuum background in the performance of remote-sensing, gamma-ray spectroscopy of planetary bodies. In interplanetary space the dominant sources of particles are cosmic rays and their secondaries arising from interactions with the spacecraft and the surface of the target body. In addition, certain future gamma-ray astronomy missions, such as INTEGRAL, are to be located so as to perform their observations in interplanetary space rather than in the traditional low earth orbits. Such location removes contributions from the earth's atmosphere and inner radiation belt at the expense of increased exposure to cosmic rays and solar particle events. Accurate prediction of the activation of key materials by cosmic rays is of the utmost importance for detector design and data interpretation.

  9. Low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and their relation to transient interplanetary magnetic structures: ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Wenzel, K. P.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is known that the interplanetary medium in the period approaching solar maximum is characterized by an enhancement in the occurrence of transient solar wind streams and shocks and that such systems are often associated with looplike magnetic structures or clouds. There is observational evidence that bidirectional, field aligned flows of low energy particles could be a signature of such looplike structures, although detailed models for the magnetic field configuration and injection mechanisms do not exist at the current time. Preliminary results of a survey of low energy proton bidirectional anisotropies measured on ISEE-3 in the interplanetary medium between August 1978 and May 1982, together with magnetic field data from the same spacecraft are presented.

  10. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Le, Guan; Swenson, Charles; Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Bishop, Rebecca L.; Abdu, Mangalathayil A.; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.; Heelis, Roderick; Loures, Luis; Krause, Linda; Fonseca, Eloi

    2016-07-01

    Structure in the charged particle number density in the equatorial ionosphere can have a profound impact on the fidelity of HF, VHF and UHF radio signals that are used for ground-to-ground and space-to-ground communication and navigation. The degree to which such systems can be compromised depends in large part on the spatial distribution of the structured regions in the ionosphere and the background plasma density in which they are embedded. In order to address these challenges it is necessary to accurately distinguish the background ionospheric conditions that favor the generation of irregularities from those that do not. Additionally we must relate the evolution of those conditions to the subsequent evolution of the irregular plasma regions themselves. The background ionospheric conditions are conveniently described by latitudinal profiles of the plasma density at nearly constant altitude, which describe the effects of ExB drifts and neutral winds, while the appearance and growth of plasma structure requires committed observations from the ground from at least one fixed longitude. This talk will present an international collaborative CubeSat mission called SPORT that stands for the Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task. This mission will advance our understanding of the nature and evolution of ionospheric structures around sunset to improve predictions of disturbances that affect radio propagation and telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator. This approach promises Explorer class science at a CubeSat price.

  11. The Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task (SPORT) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spann, James; Swenson, Charles; Durão, Otavio; Loures, Luis; Heelis, Rod; Bishop, Rebecca; Le, Guan; Abdu, Mangalathayil; Krause, Linda; Nardin, Clezio; Fonseca, Eloi

    2016-04-01

    Structure in the charged particle number density in the equatorial ionosphere can have a profound impact on the fidelity of HF, VHF and UHF radio signals that are used for ground-to-ground and space-to-ground communication and navigation. The degree to which such systems can be compromised depends in large part on the spatial distribution of the structured regions in the ionosphere and the background plasma density in which they are embedded. In order to address these challenges it is necessary to accurately distinguish the background ionospheric conditions that favor the generation of irregularities from those that do not. Additionally we must relate the evolution of those conditions to the subsequent evolution of the irregular plasma regions themselves. The background ionospheric conditions are conveniently described by latitudinal profiles of the plasma density at nearly constant altitude, which describe the effects of ExB drifts and neutral winds, while the appearance and growth of plasma structure requires committed observations from the ground from at least one fixed longitude. This talk will present an international collaborative CubeSat mission called SPORT that stands for the Scintillation Prediction Observations Research Task. This mission will advance our understanding of the nature and evolution of ionospheric structures around sunset to improve predictions of disturbances that affect radio propagation and telecommunication signals. The science goals will be accomplished by a unique combination of satellite observations from a nearly circular middle inclination orbit and the extensive operation of ground based observations from South America near the magnetic equator. This approach promises Explorer class science at a CubeSat price.

  12. SCION: CubeSat Mission Concept to Observe Midlatitude Small-Scale Irregularities and Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, T.; Moldwin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The SCintillation and Ionospheric Occultation NanoSats (SCION) mission concept is to deploy two low-cost CubeSat spacecraft that maintain a separation distance <1 km to measure scintillation and associated small-scale density irregularities in the midlatitude ionosphere. Each spacecraft is equipped with a dual frequency GPS receiver to measure total electron content (TEC) and the S4 scintillation index along raypaths from the receiver to the GPS constellation. Scintillation causing small-scale density irregularities are increasingly observed in the vicinity of large TEC gradients associated with storm enhanced density (SED) regions. Detection of irregularities of the scale that cause GPS and VHF scintillation has previously relied on assumptions about their structural stability and drift speed. Space-based, multipoint observations would provide broad, regional coverage and disambiguation of temporal and spatial density fluctuations in order to detect small-scale irregularities without these assumptions.

  13. Scintillation Observations and Response of The Ionosphere to Electrodynamics (SORTIE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Scintillation Observations and Response of The Ionosphere to Electrodynamics, or SORTIE, mission is a 6U NASA Heliophysics CubeSat designed to study the ionosphere at altitudes below 400km. The SORTIE mission is being developed by a team including ASTRA (lead institution), AFRL, University of Texas at Dallas (UTD), COSMIAC (Satellite Integrator), and Boston College. SORTIE will address cutting-edge science in the area of ionospheric dynamics. The SORTIE mission will address the following science questions: Q1) Discover the sources of wave-like plasma perturbations in the F-region ionosphere. Q2) Determine the relative role of dynamo action and more direct mechanical forcing in the formation of wave-like plasma perturbations. To address these questions we plan to fly a CubeSat with novel sensors that measure key plasma parameters in a circular, low to middle inclination orbit near 350-400 km altitude. The sensors include an ion velocity meter (built by UTD) and a Planar Langmuir Probe (built by AFRL). The SORTIE mission plan is to describe the distribution of wave-like structures in the plasma density of the ionospheric F-region. In doing so, the SORTIE team will determine the possible role of these perturbations in aiding the growth of plasma instabilities. SORTIE will provide (1) the initial spectrum of wave perturbations which are the starting point for the RT calculation; (2) measured electric fields which determine the magnitude of the instability growth rate near the region where plasma bubbles are generated; (3) initial observations of irregularities in plasma density which result from RT growth. SORTIE results will be used as input to PBMOD, an assimilative first-principles physical model of the ionosphere, in order to predict evolution of EPBs. In this presentation, we will review the science objectives, provide an overview of the spacecraft and instrument design, and present a concept of operations plan.

  14. Observations of Global and Regional Ionospheric Irregularities and Scintillation Using GNSS Tracking Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Mannucci, Anthony J.; Valant-Spaight, Bonnie; Bar-Sever, Yoaz; Romans, Larry J.; Skone, Susan; Sparks, Lawrence; Hall, G. Martin

    2013-01-01

    The rate of TEC index (ROTI) is a measurement that characterizes ionospheric irregularities. It can be obtained from standard GNSS dual-frequency phase data collected using a geodetic type of GNSS receiver. By processing GPS data from ground-based networks of International GNSS Service and Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS), ROTI maps have been produced to observe global and regional scintillation activities. A major mid-latitude scintillation event in the contiguous United States is reported here that was captured in ROTI maps produced using CORS GPS data collected during a space weather storm. The analyses conducted in this work and previously by another group indicate that ROTI is a good occurrence indicator of both amplitude and phase scintillations of GPS L-band signals, even though the magnitudes of ROTI, S4, and sigma(sub phi) can be different. For example, our analysis indicates that prominent ROTI and the L1 phase scintillation (sigma(sub phi)) are well correlated temporally in the polar region while L1 amplitude scintillation rarely occurs. The differences are partially attributed to physics processes in different latitude regions, such as high-speed plasma convection in the polar region that can suppress the amplitude scintillation. An analysis of the impact of ionospheric scintillation on precise positioning, which requires use of dual-frequency phase data, is also conducted. The results indicate that significant (more than an order of magnitude) positioning errors can occur under phase scintillation conditions.

  15. The effects of 8 Helios observed solar proton events of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ValdezGalicia, J. F.; Alexander, P.; Otaola, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    There have been recent suggestions that large fluxes during solar energetic particle events may produce their own turbulence. To verify this argument it becomes essential to find out whether these flows cause an enhancement of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations. In the present work, power and helicity spectra of the IMF before, during and after 8 Helios-observed solar proton events in the range 0.3 - 1 AU are analyzed. In order to detect proton self generated waves, the time evolution of spectra are followed.

  16. August 1972 solar-terrestrial events - Observations of interplanetary shocks at 2.2 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. J.; Davis, L., Jr.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Colburn, D. S.; Dyal, P.; Jones, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous magnetic field and plasma observations on Pioneer 10 were used to identify three shocks and a plasma driver (possible flare ejecta) at 2.2 AU caused by the four large solar flares of August 2-7, 1972. Two shocks, the first and third, were forward shocks, while the second was a reverse shock. The local inertial velocities of all three shocks were estimated under the assumption of quasi-perpendicularity, i.e., the shocks were assumed to be propagating principally across, rather than along, the interplanetary magnetic field.

  17. On the twists of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes observed at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chi, Yutian

    2016-10-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are one kind of fundamental structures in the solar/space physics and involved in various eruption phenomena. Twist, characterizing how the magnetic field lines wind around a main axis, is an intrinsic property of MFRs, closely related to the magnetic free energy and stableness. Although the effect of the twist on the behavior of MFRs had been widely studied in observations, theory, modeling, and numerical simulations, it is still unclear how much amount of twist is carried by MFRs in the solar atmosphere and in heliosphere and what role the twist played in the eruptions of MFRs. Contrasting to the solar MFRs, there are lots of in situ measurements of magnetic clouds (MCs), the large-scale MFRs in interplanetary space, providing some important information of the twist of MFRs. Thus, starting from MCs, we investigate the twist of interplanetary MFRs with the aid of a velocity-modified uniform-twist force-free flux rope model. It is found that most of MCs can be roughly fitted by the model and nearly half of them can be fitted fairly well though the derived twist is probably overestimated by a factor of 2.5. By applying the model to 115 MCs observed at 1 AU, we find that (1) the twist angles of interplanetary MFRs generally follow a trend of about 0.6l/R radians, where l/R is the aspect ratio of a MFR, with a cutoff at about 12π radians AU-1, (2) most of them are significantly larger than 2.5π radians but well bounded by 2l/R radians, (3) strongly twisted magnetic field lines probably limit the expansion and size of MFRs, and (4) the magnetic field lines in the legs wind more tightly than those in the leading part of MFRs. These results not only advance our understanding of the properties and behavior of interplanetary MFRs but also shed light on the formation and eruption of MFRs in the solar atmosphere. A discussion about the twist and stableness of solar MFRs are therefore given.

  18. Magnetospheric Response to Interplanetary Field Enhancements: Coordinated Space-based and Ground-based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Peter; Russell, Christopher; Lai, Hairong

    2014-05-01

    In general, asteroids, meteoroids and dust do not interact with the plasma structures in the solar system, but after a collision between fast moving bodies the debris cloud contains nanoscale dust particles that are charged and behave like heavy ions. Dusty magnetic clouds are then accelerated to the solar wind speed. While they pose no threat to spacecraft because of the particle size, the coherency imposed by the magnetization of the cloud allows the cloud to interact with the Earth's magnetosphere as well as the plasma in the immediate vicinity of the cloud. We call these clouds Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs). These IFEs are a unique class of interplanetary field structures that feature cusp-shaped increases and decreases in the interplanetary magnetic field and a thin current sheet. The occurrence of IFEs is attributed to the interaction between the solar wind and dust particles produced in inter-bolide collisions. Previous spacecraft observations have confirmed that IFEs move with the solar wind. When IFEs strike the magnetosphere, they may distort the magnetosphere in several possible ways, such as producing a small indentation, a large scale compression, or a glancing blow. In any event if the IFE is slowed by the magnetosphere, the compression of the Earth's field should be seen in the ground-based magnetic records that are continuously recorded. Thus it is important to understand the magnetospheric response to IFE arrival. In this study, we investigate the IFE structure observed by spacecraft upstream of the magnetosphere and the induced magnetic field perturbations observed by networks of ground magnetometers, including the THEMIS, CARISMA, McMAC arrays in North America and the IMAGE array in Europe. We find that, in a well-observed IFE event on December 24, 2006, all ground magnetometer stations observed an impulse at approximately 1217 UT when the IFE was expected to arrive at the Earth's magnetopause. These ground stations spread across many

  19. Radio observations of interplanetary magnetic field structures out of the ecliptic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Fainberg, J.; Weber, R. R.; Alvarez, H.; Haddock, F. T.; Potter, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    New observations of the out-of-the ecliptic trajectories of type 3 solar radio bursts have been obtained from simultaneous direction finding measurements on two independent satellite experiments, IMP-6 with spin plane in the ecliptic, and RAE-2 with spin plane normal to the ecliptic. Burst exciter trajectories were observed which originated at the active region and then crossed the ecliptic plane at about 0.8 AU. A considerable large scale north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field is followed by the exciters. The apparent north-south and east-west angular source sizes observed by the two spacecraft are approximately equal, and range from 25 deg at 600 KHz to 110 deg at 80 KHz.

  20. Interplanetary shock-bow shock interaction: Comparison of a global MHD model and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, O.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.

    2015-09-01

    A fast forward shock passing through the bow shock would generate a train of new discontinuities that differ with the distance from the Sun-Earth line. However, interplanetary (IP) shocks are often followed by a rotation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) over a large angle and a presence of this rotation can modify the interaction process. The present paper analyzes in detail one IP shock where data measured by Wind are used as an input to a global BATS-R-US MHD model and the model prediction is compared with Geotail magnetosheath observations. The study is based on three runs of the global MHD model that use different modifications of upstream conditions. We have found that (1) about 45% of IP shocks is followed by a significant IMF rotation within 15 min after the shock ramp; (2) the IMF rotation modifies the dynamics of the magnetospheric response to the IP shock arrival; (3) a train of new discontinuities created by an interaction of the IP shock with bow shock can be identified in MHD simulations as well as in the experimental data; and (4) a new discontinuity is created by the interaction of the IMF rotation with the bow shock.

  1. Observation of a driver gas-tangential discontinuity. [interplanetary disturbance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medrano, R. A.; Freeman, J. W., Jr.; Vondrak, R. R.; Hills, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    A complete analysis of an interplanetary disturbance of Nov. 19, 1970 using the Apollo 12-SIDE (Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment) is presented. The SIDE detectors were pointing at 26.3 degrees from the normal solar-wind direction during the observations. The data were least-squares fitted (using a parabolic hypersurface approximation) to a convected Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function. The results of the fit combined with two other experiments showed a drastic change in the wind speed (from an steady 352 km/sec down to 219 km/sec), direction, and temperature. Except for a delta-function increase at the onset, the density remained constant. There was a considerable enhancement in the abundance of He and probably of heavier elements. The interplanetary magnetic field exhibited a jump of 21 gamma with a change in latitude from -56 to -76 degrees in solar ecliptic coordinates. It is concluded that the disturbance was due to the driver gas-tangential discontinuity of a solar flare-induced shock wave. The characteristic of the tangential discontinuity fit well with theoretical prediction.

  2. Wind Observations of Wave Heating and/or Particle Energization at Supercritical Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Lynn Bruce, III; Szabo, Adam; Koval, Andriy; Cattell, Cynthia A.; Kellogg, Paul J.; Goetz, Keith; Breneman, Aaron; Kersten, Kris; Kasper, Justin C.; Pulupa, Marc

    2011-01-01

    We present the first observations at supercritical interplanetary shocks of large amplitude (> 100 mV/m pk-pk) solitary waves, approx.30 mV/m pk-pk waves exhibiting characteristics consistent with electron Bernstein waves, and > 20 nT pk-pk electromagnetic lower hybrid-like waves, with simultaneous evidence for wave heating and particle energization. The solitary waves and the Bernstein-like waves were likely due to instabilities driven by the free energy provided by reflected ions [Wilson III et al., 2010]. They were associated with strong particle heating in both the electrons and ions. We also show a case example of parallel electron energization and perpendicular ion heating due to a electromagnetic lower hybrid-like wave. Both studies provide the first experimental evidence of wave heating and/or particle energization at interplanetary shocks. Our experimental results, together with the results of recent Vlasov [Petkaki and Freeman, 2008] and PIC [Matsukyo and Scholer, 2006] simulations using realistic mass ratios provide new evidence to suggest that the importance of wave-particle dissipation at shocks may be greater than previously thought.

  3. Simultaneous observations of SBAS and GPS amplitude scintillations over the African and American equatorial ionosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, Andrew; Oyeyemi, Elijah; Doherty, Patricia

    2016-07-01

    We simultaneously observed the SBAS (EGNOS and WAAS)and GPS amplitude scintillations over the African and American equatorial ionosphere during the solar maximum of year 2013. Data from 4 stations, namely, Addis Ababa (Lat 9.03 deg N, Lon 38.77 deg E, Mag lat 0.18 deg N) ETHIOPIA, Dakar (Lat 14.75 deg N, Lon 17.45 deg W, Mag lat 5.88 deg N) SENEGAL, Cape Verde (Lat 16.73 deg N, Lon 22.93 deg W, Mag lat 4.74 deg N), and Natal (Lat 5.78 deg S, Lon 35.2 deg W, Mag lat 10 deg S) BRAZIL were used for the study. Scintillations were majorly localized within the hours of 2200-2400 LT. On a monthly scale, April and October recorded the highest occurrences of scintillation, while June recorded the least. Seasonally, equinoxes recorded the highest occurrences, while June solstice recorded the least. Lastly, we observed that during active days of scintillations, SBAS satellites' signals scintillated correspondingly with GPS satellites' signals.The SBAS scintillations commenced around the time of local sunset terminator to form plateaus which vanished around local midnight.

  4. Observations of Interstellar Pickup Ions and their Suprathermal Tails in Interplanetary Space and in the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, George; Fisk, Len

    2014-10-01

    Since the invention of space-borne time-of-flight mass spectrometers in the late 1990s, distribution functions of singly charged interstellar pickup ions, produced primarily by charge exchange with the solar wind and by photoionization of the interstellar neutral gas, have been observed from 1 to ~5 AU in interplanetary space. Here we summarize observed characteristics of pickup ion spectra (primarily of H+ and He+) as well as of the pickup ion tails that are readily produced in Local Acceleration Regions in space, both at 1 AU and in the heliosheath, and briefly discuss the most likely mechanisms for producing interstellar pickup ions as well as their tails that in the heliosheath extend to high (~10 MeV/nuc) energies.

  5. Redefining the Boundaries of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections from Observations at the Ecliptic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, C.; Palacios, J.; Saiz, E.; Guerrero, A.

    2016-09-01

    On 2015 January 6-7, an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) was observed at L1. This event, which can be associated with a weak and slow coronal mass ejection, allows us to discuss the differences between the boundaries of the magnetic cloud and the compositional boundaries. A fast stream from a solar coronal hole surrounding this ICME offers a unique opportunity to check the boundaries’ process definition and to explain differences between them. Using Wind and ACE data, we perform a complementary analysis involving compositional, magnetic, and kinematic observations providing relevant information regarding the evolution of the ICME as travelling away from the Sun. We propose erosion, at least at the front boundary of the ICME, as the main reason for the difference between the boundaries, and compositional signatures as the most precise diagnostic tool for the boundaries of ICMEs.

  6. EVIDENCE FOR LOCAL ACCELERATION OF SUPRATHERMAL HEAVY ION OBSERVATIONS DURING INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Christian, Eric R.

    2015-01-20

    Suprathermal particles are an important seed population for a variety of energetic particles found throughout the heliosphere, but their origin is in debate. We present, for the first time, high-cadence observations of suprathermal heavy ions during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), from the Suprathermal Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Wind spacecraft, and investigate their ionic composition and compare it to the bulk solar wind plasma composition, observed from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Advanced Composition Explorer. We find that the composition of the suprathermal plasma is related to the local bulk solar wind plasma and not to the plasma upstream of the ICME. This implies that the suprathermal plasma is accelerated from the local bulk solar wind plasma and not the upstream solar wind plasma.

  7. An interplanetary magnetic field enhancement observed by five spacecraft: Deducing the magnetic structure, size and mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Delzanno, G.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2012-12-01

    Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs) were discovered almost 30 years ago in the PVO magnetic-field records and attributed to the interaction between solar wind and dust particles from comets or asteroids, but the physics of this interaction remained obscure. Our current understanding is that IFEs result from collisions of small interplanetary bodies that produce electrically charged nanometer-scale dust particles possibly enhanced by tribo-electric charging in the collision. These charged dust particles in turn interact with the magnetized solar wind. Momentum is transferred from the solar wind to the dust cloud via the collective effect of the formation of a magnetic barrier. This momentum transfer accelerates the particles to near the solar wind speed and moves the dust outward through the solar gravitational potential well. Multi-spacecraft observations can help us to determine the speed of the IFE and the orientation of the current sheet. They enable us to reconstruct the pressure profile of an IFE in three dimensions and estimate the mass contained in the IFE. We have done these reconstructions with an IFE observed on March 3, 2011 with Wind, ACE, ARTEMIS P1 and P2 and Geotail. We find that the magnetic field near the center of the IFE is highly twisted indicating a complicated magnetic topology as expected in a plasma-charged dust interaction. The magnetic field and plasma properties during this event distinguish it from a typical flux rope. Based on the statistical results obtained at 1 AU and the assumption that all the IFEs are self-similar, we find that this IFE has a radial scale length several times longer than the cross flow radius and contains a mass of about 108 kg. The rates of collisions expected for objects of this size are consistent with the observed rates of these disturbances.

  8. Plasma properties of driver gas following interplanetary shocks observed by ISEE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwickl, R. D.; Ashbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma fluid parameters calculated from solar wind and magnetic field data obtained on ISEE 3 were studied. The characteristic properties of driver gas following interplanetary shocks was determined. Of 54 shocks observed from August 1978 to February 1980, nine contained a well defined driver gas that was clearly identifiable by a discontinuous decrease in the average proton temperature across a tangential discontinuity. While helium enhancements were present in all of nine of these events, only about half of them contained simultaneous changes in the two quantities. Often the He/H ratio changed over a period of minutes. Simultaneous with the drop in proton temperature the helium and electron temperature decreased abruptly. In some cases the proton temperature depression was accompanied by a moderate increase in magnetic field magnitude with an unusually low variance and by an increase in the ratio of parallel to perpendicular temperature. The drive gas usually displayed a bidirectional flow of suprathermal solar wind electrons at higher energies.

  9. Bi-directional streaming of halo electrons in interplanetary plasma clouds observed between 0.3 and 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivory, K.; Schwenn, R.

    1995-01-01

    The solar wind data obtained from the two Helios solar probes in the years 1974 to 1986 were systematically searched for the occurrence of bi-directional electron events. Most often these events are found in conjunction with shock associated magnetic clouds. The implications of these observations for the topology of interplanetary plasma clouds are discussed.

  10. Interplanetary shock wave extent in the inner heliosphere as observed by multiple spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lucas, A.; Schwenn, R.; dal Lago, A.; Marsch, E.; Clúa de Gonzalez, A. L.

    2011-06-01

    For over an entire solar cycle, from the end of 1974 until the beginning of 1986, the twin Helios spacecraft explored the inner heliosphere. These in situ, high-resolution plasma and magnetic field measurements covered heliocentric distances between 0.3 and 1 AU from the Sun and are of particular interest to studies of space weather phenomena. During this period the two spacecraft detected 395 ICME-driven shocks and these waves were found to be driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Based on these multi-spacecraft measurements, which include a third vantage point with the observations from ISEE-3/IMP-8, the longitudinal extent of the shock waves were measured in the inner heliosphere. It was found that shock waves have about a 50% chance to be observed by two different locations separated by 90°. In practice, one can expect with about a 50% chance that the shock driven by a limb coronal mass ejections (CMEs) will hit the Earth, considering the expansion in longitude of shock waves driven by their associated ICMEs. For a larger separation the uncertainty increases, as only a few cases could be observed. With the absence of simultaneous solar disk observations one can then no longer unequivocally identify the shock waves observed at each spacecraft.

  11. Efficiency of particle acceleration at interplanetary shocks: Statistical study of STEREO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresing, N.; Theesen, S.; Klassen, A.; Heber, B.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Among others, shocks are known to be accelerators of energetic charged particles. However, many questions regarding the acceleration efficiency and the required conditions are not fully understood. In particular, the acceleration of electrons by shocks is often questioned. Aims: In this study we determine the efficiency of interplanetary shocks for <100 keV electrons, and for ions at ~0.1 and ~2 MeV energies, as measured by the Solar Electron and Proton Telescope (SEPT) instruments aboard the twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft. Methods: We employ an online STEREO in situ shock catalog that lists all shocks observed between 2007 and mid 2014 (observed by STEREO A) and until end of 2013 (observed by STEREO B). In total 475 shocks are listed. To determine the particle acceleration efficiency of these shocks, we analyze the associated intensity increases (shock spikes) during the shock crossings. For the near-relativistic electrons, we take into account the issue of possible ion contamination in the SEPT instrument. Results: The highest acceleration efficiency is found for low energy ions (0.1 MeV), which show a shock-associated increase at 27% of all shocks. The 2 MeV ions show an associated increase only during 5% of the shock crossings. In the case of the electrons, the shocks are nearly ineffective. Only five shock-associated electron increases were found, which correspond to only 1% of all shock crossings.

  12. Power spectra of ionospheric scintillations obtained from observations of Cygnus A on the radio telescope URAN-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panishko, S. K.; Litvinenko, O. A.; Kravetz, R. O.

    2006-10-01

    There are many records of Cygnus A passages through the direction pattern obtained on the radio telescope URAN-4 during 1998-2004. Most of these show fluctuations in the flux density caused by ionospheric scintillations. The power spectrum is an important characteristic of the stochastic process and such processes are the main reason for the nature of scintillations. In this paper, estimations of the power spectra of ionospheric scintillations are made from the observations of Cyg A on the radio telescope URAN-4. Examples of the spectra are presented for observations under different circumstances and for several scintillation activity levels.

  13. Observation of EAS Core with the Small Scintillation Detector at Taro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuyama, H.; Kuramochi, Hiroshi; Obara, Hitoshi; Ono, Shunichi; Origasa, Satoru; Mochida, Akinori; Sakayama, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Noboru

    2003-07-01

    We have observed the core structure of extensive air showers(EAS) that primary energy above 1016 eV. To measure the more detail and the correct density of the incident particles near EAS core, we installed 100 small scintillation detectors (using plastic scintillator : 15cm × 15cm × 2.5cm) that are placed on a lattice 10 × 10, and 40cm separation, at Taro Cosmic Ray Lab oratory, at autumn 2002. We report the detail of the small detector, and preliminary results.

  14. The Bastille Day Magnetic Clouds and Upstream Shocks: Near Earth Interplanetary Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Berdichevsky, D. B.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lazarus, A. J.; Kasper, J.; Desch, M. D.; Wu, C.-C.; Reames, D. V.; Singer, H. J.; Singer, H. J.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The energetic charged particle, interplanetary magnetic field, and plasma characteristics of the 'Bastille Day' shock and ejecta/magnetic cloud events at 1 AU occurring over the days 14-16 July 2000 are described. Profiles of MeV (WIND/LEMT) energetic ions help to organize the overall sequence of events from the solar source to 1 AU. Stressed are analyses of an outstanding magnetic cloud (MC2) starting late on 15 July and its upstream shock about 4 hours earlier in WIND magnetic field and plasma data. Also analyzed is a less certain, but likely, magnetic cloud (MC1) occurring early on 15 July; this was separated from MC2 by its upstream shock and many heliospheric current sheet (HCS) crossings. Other HCS crossings occurred throughout the 3-day period. Overall this dramatic series of interplanetary events caused a large multi-phase magnetic storm with min Dst lower than -300 nT. The very fast solar wind speed (greater than or equal to 1100 km/s) in and around the front of MC2 (for near average densities) was responsible for a very high solar wind ram pressure driving in the front of the magnetosphere to geocentric distances estimated to be as low as approx. 5 R(sub E), much lower than the geosynchronous orbit radius. This was consistent with magnetic field observations from two GOES satellites which indicated they were in the magnetosheath for extended times. A static force free field model is used to fit the two magnetic cloud profiles providing estimates of the clouds' physical and geometrical properties. MC2 was much larger than MCI, but their axes were nearly antiparallel, and their magnetic fields had the same left-handed helicity. MC2's axis and its upstream shock normal were very close to being perpendicular to each other, as might be expected if the cloud were driving the shock at the time of observation. The estimated axial magnetic flux carried by MC2 was 52 x 10(exp 20) Mx, which is about 5 times the typical magnetic flux estimated for other magnetic

  15. Interplanetary shocks and foreshocks observed by STEREO during 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2016-02-01

    Interplanetary shocks in the heliosphere modify the solar wind through which they pass. In particular, shocks play an important role in particle acceleration. During the extended solar minimum (2007-2010) STEREO observed 65 forward shocks driven by stream interactions (SI), with magnetosonic Mach numbers Mms ≈ 1.1-4.0 and shock normal angles θBN ~ 20-87°. We analyze the waves associated with these shocks and find that the region upstream can be permeated by whistler waves (f ~ 1 Hz) and/or ultra low frequency (ULF) waves (f ~ 10-2-10-1 Hz). While whistlers appear to be generated at the shock, the origin of ULF waves is most probably associated with local kinetic ion instabilities. We find that when the Mach number (Mms) is low and the shock is quasi-perpendicular (θBN > 45°) whistler waves remain close to the shock. As Mms increases, the shock profile changes and can develop a foot and overshoot associated with ion reflection and gyration. Whistler precursors can be superposed on the foot region, so that some quasi-perpendicular shocks have characteristics of both subcritical and supercritical shocks. When the shock is quasi-parallel (θBN < 45°) a large foreshock with suprathermal ions and waves can form. Upstream, there are whistler trains at higher frequencies whose characteristics can be slightly modified probably by reflected and/or leaked ions and by almost circularly polarized waves at lower frequencies that may be locally generated by ion instabilities. In contrast with planetary bow shocks, most of the upstream waves studied here are mainly transverse and no steepening occurs. Some quasi-perpendicular shocks (45° < θBN < 60°) are preceded by ULF waves and ion foreshocks. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves in the sheath of quasi-perpendicular shocks. We compare SI-driven shock properties with those of shocks generated by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). During the same years

  16. COMPOSITION STRUCTURE OF INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM MULTISPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS, MODELING, AND COMPARISON WITH NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Reinard, Alysha A.; Mulligan, Tamitha E-mail: blynch@ssl.berkeley.edu

    2012-12-20

    We present an analysis of the ionic composition of iron for two interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed on 2007 May 21-23 by the ACE and STEREO spacecraft in the context of the magnetic structure of the ejecta flux rope, sheath region, and surrounding solar wind flow. This analysis is made possible due to recent advances in multispacecraft data interpolation, reconstruction, and visualization as well as results from recent modeling of ionic charge states in MHD simulations of magnetic breakout and flux cancellation coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation. We use these advances to interpret specific features of the ICME plasma composition resulting from the magnetic topology and evolution of the CME. We find that, in both the data and our MHD simulations, the flux ropes centers are relatively cool, while charge state enhancements surround and trail the flux ropes. The magnetic orientations of the ICMEs are suggestive of magnetic breakout-like reconnection during the eruption process, which could explain the spatial location of the observed iron enhancements just outside the traditional flux rope magnetic signatures and between the two ICMEs. Detailed comparisons between the simulations and data were more complicated, but a sharp increase in high iron charge states in the ACE and STEREO-A data during the second flux rope corresponds well to similar features in the flux cancellation results. We discuss the prospects of this integrated in situ data analysis and modeling approach to advancing our understanding of the unified CME-to-ICME evolution.

  17. OBSERVATIONS OF A SMALL INTERPLANETARY MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE ASSOCIATED WITH A MAGNETIC RECONNECTION EXHAUST

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, H. Q.; Wu, D. J.

    2009-11-10

    A small interplanetary magnetic flux rope prior to an X-line magnetic reconnection exhaust was observed on 1998 March 25 at 1 AU. The X-line magnetic reconnection exhaust has been identified and reported by Gosling et al. The duration of this small magnetic flux rope is about 2 hr. We fitted the constant alpha force-free model to the observed magnetic fields. The model fitting results show that the spacecraft crosses the magnetic flux rope well away from the axis, with d {sub 0}/R {sub 0} being 0.76. The fitting results also show that its magnetic configuration is a right-handed helical flux rope, that the estimated field intensity at the axis is 16.3 nT, and that its diameter is 0.0190 AU. In addition, the axial direction of this rope is (theta = 6 deg., phi = 214 deg.), namely, this magnetic flux rope is lying nearly in the ecliptic plane. According to the geometric relation of the small flux rope and the reconnection exhaust, it is very possible that the small magnetic flux rope has a larger scale initially and comes from the corona; its magnetic fields are peeled off when moving from the Sun to the Earth and at last it reaches a small scale. Though magnetic reconnection can produce a flux-rope topology, in this case the X-line magnetic reconnection is destroying rather than generating the small magnetic flux rope.

  18. Observations of an extreme storm in interplanetary space caused by successive coronal mass ejections.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying D; Luhmann, Janet G; Kajdič, Primož; Kilpua, Emilia K J; Lugaz, Noé; Nitta, Nariaki V; Möstl, Christian; Lavraud, Benoit; Bale, Stuart D; Farrugia, Charles J; Galvin, Antoinette B

    2014-03-18

    Space weather refers to dynamic conditions on the Sun and in the space environment of the Earth, which are often driven by solar eruptions and their subsequent interplanetary disturbances. It has been unclear how an extreme space weather storm forms and how severe it can be. Here we report and investigate an extreme event with multi-point remote-sensing and in situ observations. The formation of the extreme storm showed striking novel features. We suggest that the in-transit interaction between two closely launched coronal mass ejections resulted in the extreme enhancement of the ejecta magnetic field observed near 1 AU at STEREO A. The fast transit to STEREO A (in only 18.6 h), or the unusually weak deceleration of the event, was caused by the preconditioning of the upstream solar wind by an earlier solar eruption. These results provide a new view crucial to solar physics and space weather as to how an extreme space weather event can arise from a combination of solar eruptions.

  19. ULF cusp pulsations: Diurnal variations and interplanetary magnetic field correlations with ground-based observations

    SciTech Connect

    McHarg, M.G.; Olson, J.V.; Newell, P.T.

    1995-10-01

    In this paper the authors establish the Pc 5 magnetic pulsation signatures of the cusp and boundary regions for the high-latitude dayside cusp region. These signatures were determined by comparing spectrograms of the magnetic pulsations with optical observations of particle precipitation regions observed at the cusp. The ULF pulsations have a diurnal variation, and a cusp discriminant is proposed using a particular narrow-band feature in the pulsation spectrograms. The statistical distribution of this pattern over a 253-day period resembles the statistical cusp description using particle precipitation data from the Defense Meterological Satellite Program (DMSP). The distribution of the ground-based cusp discriminant is found to peak 1 hour earlier than the DMSP cusp distribution. This offset is due to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) being predominantly negative B{sub y} for the period when the data were collected. The authors find the diurnal variations so repeatable that only three main categories have statistically different IMF distributions. The identification of the signatures in the magnetic spectrograms of the boundary regions and central cusp allows the spectrogram to be used as a {open_quotes}time line{close_quotes} that shows when the station passed under different regions of the dayside oval. 36 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. ISEE 3 observations of low-energy proton bidirectional events and their relation to isolated interplanetary magnetic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Tranquille, C.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smith, E. J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper represents the results of a comprehensive survey of low-energy proton bidirectional anisotropies and associated transient magnetic structures as observed in the 35-1600 keV energy range on ISEE-3 during the last solar maximum. The majority of observed bidirectional flow (BDF) events (more than 70 percent) are associated with isolated magnetic structures which are postulated to be an interplanetary manifestation of coronal mass ejection (CME) events. The observed BDF events can be qualitatively grouped into five classes depending on the field signature of the related magnetic structure and the association (or lack of association) with an interplanetary shock. Concerning the topology of the CME-related magnetic structures, the observations are interpreted as being consistent with a detached bubble, comprising closed loops or tightly wound helices.

  1. Observational Signatures of Ion Acceleration Near CME-Driven Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, M. I.; Dayeh, M. A.; Lee, M. A.; Smith, C. W.; Mason, G. M.; Kasper, J. C.

    2010-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejection- or CME-driven interplanetary (IP) shocks are responsible for causing the so-called energetic storm particle (ESP) events observed at Earth. However, despite recent observational and theoretical advances, many important questions regarding such CME-associated particle events remain unanswered. This is because ESP events occur due to a confluence of numerous poorly understood physical effects all of whose contributions can vary with time and location. These include: the origin, structure, and obliquity of the shocks, the nature of wave-particle interactions and the type of turbulence that is present near the shocks, the distribution and composition of the seed populations, and the type of injection and acceleration processes involved. In this paper, we combine observations of ~0.1-0.5 MeV/nucleon O and Fe ions with that of the magnetic field near 17 CME-driven IP shocks observed at the Advanced Composition Explorer and Wind spacecraft to study the temporal evolution of (1) O and Fe intensities, (2) power-law spectral indices of O, (3) the Fe/O ratios, and (4) the magnetic field power spectrum. In particular, we identify unique signatures that differentiate between shocks where the seed population is dominated by low-energy (<100 keV/nucleon) suprathermal ions and those events where it is dominated by suprathermal-through-energetic seed ions with spectra extending at least up to ~0.5 MeV/nucleon. Such observational signatures may also be useful in modeling the properties of the so-called large gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events that are primarily accelerated by CME shocks near the Sun.

  2. Observational Signatures of Thermal and Suprathermal Ion Acceleration at CME-Driven Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, M. I.; Smith, C. W.; Lee, M. A.; Dayeh, M. A.; Mason, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejection- or CME-driven interplanetary (IP) shocks are responsible for causing the so-called energetic storm particle (ESP) events observed at Earth. However, despite recent observational and theoretical advances, many important questions regarding such CME-associated particle events remain unanswered. This is because ESP events occur due to a confluence of numerous poorly understood physical effects all of whose contributions can vary with time and location. These effects include: the origin, structure, and obliquity of the shocks, the nature of wave-particle interactions and the type of turbulence that is present near the shocks, the distribution and composition of the seed populations, and the type of injection and acceleration processes involved. In this paper, we combine observations of ~0.1-0.5 MeV/nucleon O and Fe ions with that of the magnetic field near four CME-driven IP shocks observed at the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft to differentiate between shocks where the seed population is most likely dominated by thermal solar wind ions and those events where it is dominated by pre-existing suprathermal ions. In particular, we use the temporal evolution of (1) O and Fe intensities, (2) power-law spectral indices of O, (3) the Fe/O and C/O ratios, and (4) the magnetic field power spectrum to identify unique signatures that provide strong clues regarding the origin of the seed population. Such observational signatures may also be useful in modeling the properties of the so-called large gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events that are primarily accelerated by CME shocks near the Sun.

  3. Propagation and Evolution of Interplanetary Magnetic Clouds: Global Simulations and Comparisons with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, P.; Ben-Nun, M.; Linker, J.; Torok, T.; Lionello, R.; Downs, C.

    2014-12-01

    In this talk, we explore the evolution of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), and fast magnetic clouds (MCs) in particular. We address three specific issues. First, What are the large-scale forces acting on ejecta as they travel from the Sun to 1 AU through a realistic ambient solar wind, and how does they affect the large-scale structure of the event? Second, what are the dominant waves/shocks associated with fast ICMEs? And third, how are the properties of ICMEs different during cycle 24 than during the previous cycle? To accomplish these objectives, we employ a variety of numerical approaches, including global resistive MHD models that incorporate realistic energy transport processes. We also compare and contrast model results with both remote solar and in-situ measurements of ICMEs at 1 AU and elsewhere, including the so-called ``Bastille Day'' event of July 14, 2000, and the more recent ``extreme ICME'' observed by STEREO-A on July 23, 2012.

  4. Plasma properties of driver gas following interplanetary shocks observed by ISEE-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zwickl, R.D.; Asbridge, J.R.; Bame, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gosling, J.T.; Smith, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma fluid parameters calculated from solar wind and magnetic field data obtained on ISEE 3 were studied to determine the characteristic properties of driver gas following interplanetary shocks. Of 54 shocks observed from August 1978 to February 1980, 9 contained a well defined driver gas that was clearly identifiable by a discontinuous decrease in the average proton temperature across a tangential discontinuity. While helium enhancements were present in all of 9 of these events, only about half of them contained simultaneous changes in the two quantities. Often the He/H ratio changed over a period of minutes. Simultaneous with the drop in proton temperature the helium and electron temperature decreased abruptly. In some cases the proton temperature depression was accompanied by a moderate increase in magnetic field magnitude with an unusually low variance and by an increase in the ratio of parallel to perpendicular temperature. The drive gas usually displayed a bi-directional flow of suprathermal solar wind electrons at higher energies (>137 eV).

  5. Low Earth orbit satellite-to-ground optical scintillation: comparison of experimental observations and theoretical predictions.

    PubMed

    Yura, Harold T; Kozlowski, David A

    2011-07-01

    Scintillation measurements of a 1064 nm laser at a 5 kHz sampling rate were made by an optical ground station at the European Space Agency observatory in Tenerife, Spain while tracking a low Earth orbit satellite during the spring and summer of 2010. The scintillation index (SI), the variance of irradiance normalized to the square of the mean, and power spectra measurements were compared to theoretical predictions based on the Kolmogorov spectrum, the Maui3 nighttime turbulence profile, weak scintillation finite-beam wave theory, included receiver, and source aperture averaging with no free-fitting parameters. Good agreement was obtained, not only for the magnitude of the observed fluctuations, but also for the corresponding elevation angle dependence and shape of the power spectra. Little variation was seen for the SI between daytime and nighttime links. For all elevation angles, ascending and descending, the observed scintillation over extensive regions of the atmosphere is consistent with log-normal statistics. Additionally, it appears from the results presented here that the nighttime turbulence profile for the atmosphere above the observatory in Tenerife is similar to that above Haleakala in Maui, Hawaii.

  6. Observations of Particle Acceleration Associated with Small-Scale Magnetic Islands Downstream of Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabarova, Olga V.; Zank, Gary P.; Li, Gang; Malandraki, Olga E.; le Roux, Jakobus A.; Webb, Gary M.

    2016-04-01

    We have recently shown both theoretically (Zank et al. 2014, 2015; le Roux et al. 2015) and observationally (Khabarova et al. 2015) that dynamical small-scale magnetic islands play a significant role in local particle acceleration in the supersonic solar wind. We discuss here observational evidence for particle acceleration at shock waves that is enhanced by the recently proposed mechanism of particle energization by both island contraction and the reconnection electric field generated in merging or contracting magnetic islands downstream of the shocks (Zank et al. 2014, 2015; le Roux et al. 2015). Both observations and simulations suppose formation of magnetic islands in the turbulent wake of heliospheric or interplanetary shocks (ISs) (Turner et al. 2013; Karimabadi et al. 2014; Chasapis et al. 2015). A combination of the DSA mechanism with acceleration by magnetic island dynamics explain why the spectra of energetic particles that are supposed to be accelerated at heliospheric shocks are sometimes harder than predicted by DSA theory (Zank et al. 2015). Moreover, such an approach allows us to explain and describe other unusual behaviour of accelerated particles, such as when energetic particle flux intensity peaks are observed downstream of heliospheric shocks instead of peaking directly at the shock according to DSA theory. Zank et al. (2015) predicted the peak location to be behind the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) and showed that the distance from the shock to the peak depends on particle energy, which is in agreement with Voyager 2 observations. Similar particle behaviour is observed near strong ISs in the outer heliosphere as observed by Voyager 2. Observations show that heliospheric shocks are accompanied by current sheets, and that IS crossings always coincide with sharp changes in the IMF azimuthal angle and the IMF strength, which is typical for strong current sheets. The presence of current sheets in the vicinity of ISs acts to magnetically

  7. Average Spatial Distribution of Cosmic Rays behind the Interplanetary Shock—Global Muon Detector Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozai, M.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kuwabara, T.; Rockenbach, M.; Dal Lago, A.; Schuch, N. J.; Braga, C. R.; Mendonça, R. R. S.; Jassar, H. K. Al; Sharma, M. M.; Duldig, M. L.; Humble, J. E.; Evenson, P.; Sabbah, I.; Tokumaru, M.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) density and its spatial gradient in Forbush Decreases (FDs) observed with the Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) and neutron monitors (NMs). By superposing the GCR density and density gradient observed in FDs following 45 interplanetary shocks (IP-shocks), each associated with an identified eruption on the Sun, we infer the average spatial distribution of GCRs behind IP-shocks. We find two distinct modulations of GCR density in FDs, one in the magnetic sheath and the other in the coronal mass ejection (CME) behind the sheath. The density modulation in the sheath is dominant in the western flank of the shock, while the modulation in the CME ejecta stands out in the eastern flank. This east-west asymmetry is more prominent in GMDN data responding to ˜60 GV GCRs than in NM data responding to ˜10 GV GCRs, because of the softer rigidity spectrum of the modulation in the CME ejecta than in the sheath. The geocentric solar ecliptic-y component of the density gradient, G y , shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the eastern (western) eruptions, while G z shows a negative (positive) enhancement in FDs caused by the northern (southern) eruptions. This implies that the GCR density minimum is located behind the central flank of IP-shocks and propagating radially outward from the location of the solar eruption. We also confirmed that the average G z changes its sign above and below the heliospheric current sheet, in accord with the prediction of the drift model for the large-scale GCR transport in the heliosphere.

  8. Monitoring and Forecasting Ionospheric Scintillation at High Latitudes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, P.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Chadwick, R.; Kelly, T.

    2013-12-01

    Ionospheric scintillation (rapid signal amplitude fading and phase fluctuation) poses a threat to reliable and safe operation of modern technology that relies on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Ionospheric scintillation of GNSS signal severely degrades positional accuracy, causes cycle slips leading to loss of lock that affects performance of radio communication and navigation systems. At high latitudes, the scintillation is caused by ionospheric irregularities produced through coupling between solar wind plasma and the magnetosphere. Climatology of GPS scintillation at high latitudes in both hemispheres shows that phase scintillation occurs predominantly on the dayside in the cusp and in the nightside auroral oval. Solar wind disturbances, in particular the co-rotating interaction regions (CIR) on the leading edge of high-speed streams (HSS) and interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME), have been closely correlated with the occurrence of scintillation at high latitudes. These results demonstrated a technique of probabilistic forecast of high-latitude phase scintillation occurrence relative to arrival times of HSS and ICME. The Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN) has been monitoring GPS ionospheric scintillation and total electron content (TEC) since November 2007. One-minute amplitude and phase scintillation indices from L1 GPS signals and TEC from L1 and L2 GPS signals are computed from amplitude and phase data sampled at 50 Hz. Since 2012, significant expansion of CHAIN has begun with installation of new receivers, each capable of tracking up to 30 satellites including GLONASS and Galileo. The receivers log the raw phase and amplitude of the signal up to a 100-Hz rate for scintillation measurements. We briefly review observations of ionospheric scintillation and highlight new results from CHAIN, including the climatology of scintillation occurrence, collocation with aurora and HF radar backscatter, correlation with CIRs and ICMEs

  9. Inferring Sources in the Interplanetary Dust Cloud, from Observations and Simulations of Zodiacal Light and Thermal Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Lasue, J.

    2011-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles physical properties may be approached through observations of the solar light they scatter, specially its polarization, and of their thermal emission. Results, at least near the ecliptic plane, on polarization phase curves and on the heliocentric dependence of the local spatial density, albedo, polarization and temperature are summarized. As far as interpretations through simulations are concerned, a very good fit of the polarization phase curve near 1.5 AU is obtained for a mixture of silicates and more absorbing organics material, with a significant amount of fluffy aggregates. In the 1.5-0.5 AU solar distance range, the temperature variation suggests the presence of a large amount of absorbing organic compounds, while the decrease of the polarization with decreasing solar distance is indeed compatible with a decrease of the organics towards the Sun. Such results are in favor of the predominance of dust of cometary origin in the interplanetary dust cloud, at least below 1.5 AU. The implication of these results on the delivery of complex organic molecules on Earth during the LHB epoch, when the spatial density of the interplanetary dust cloud was orders of magnitude greater than today, is discussed.

  10. The observation of scintillation in a hydrated inorganic compound: CeCl3 6H2O

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, Lynn A; Neal, John S; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Custelcean, Radu

    2013-01-01

    We have recently reported the discovery of a new family of rare-earth metal-organic single-crystal scintillators based on Ce3+ as the activator ion. Starting with the CeCl3(CH3OH)4 prototype, this family of scintillators has recently been extended to include complex metal-organic adducts produced by reacting CeCl3 with heavier organics (e.g., isomers of propanol and butanol). Some of these new rare-earth metal-organic materials incorporated waters of hydration in their structures, and the observation of scintillation in these hydrated compounds was an original finding for any solid scintillator. In the present work, we now report what is apparently the initial observation of gamma-ray-excited scintillation in an inorganic hydrated material, namely single-crystal monoclinic CeCl3 6H2O. This observation shows that the mechanisms of the various scintillation energy-transfer processes are not blocked by the presence of waters of hydration in an inorganic material and that the observation of scintillation in other hydrated inorganic compounds is not precluded.

  11. Plasma wave phenomena at interplanetary shocks observed by the Ulysses URAP experiment. [Unified Radio and Plasma Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lengyel-Frey, D.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.; Hoang, S.; Pantellini, F.; Harvey, C.; Mangeney, A.; Kellogg, P.; Thiessen, J.; Canu, P.

    1992-01-01

    We present Ulysses URAP observations of plasma waves at seven interplanetary shocks detected between approximately 1 and 3 AU. The URAP data allows ready correlation of wave phenomena from .1 Hz to 1 MHz. Wave phenomena observed in the shock vicinity include abrupt changes in the quasi-thermal noise continuum, Langmuir wave activity, ion acoustic noise, whistler waves and low frequency electrostatic waves. We focus on the forward/reverse shock pair of May 27, 1991 to demonstrate the characteristics of the URAP data.

  12. First Observations of GNSS Ionospheric Scintillations From DemoGRAPE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsi, L.; Cilliers, P. J.; Romano, V.; Hunstad, I.; Correia, E.; Linty, N.; Dovis, F.; Terzo, O.; Ruiu, P.; Ward, J.; Riley, P.

    2016-10-01

    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia leads an international project funded by the Italian National Program for Antarctic Research, called Demonstrator of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Research and Application for Polar Environment (DemoGRAPE), in partnership with Politecnico di Torino, Istituto Superiore Mario Boella, and with South African National Space Agency and the Brazilian National Institute of Space Physics, as key collaborators. DemoGRAPE is a new prototype of support for the satellite navigation in Antarctica. Besides the scientific interest, the accuracy of satellite navigation in Antarctica is of paramount importance since there is always the danger that people and vehicles can fall into a crevasse during a snowstorm, when visibility is limited and travel is restricted to following specified routes using satellite navigation systems. The variability of ionospheric delay and ionospheric scintillation are two of the primary factors which affect the accuracy of satellite navigation. The project will provide a demonstrator of cutting edge technology for the empirical assessment of the ionospheric delay and ionospheric scintillations in the polar regions. The scope of the project includes new equipment for the recording and dissemination of GNSS data and products installed at the South African and Brazilian bases in Antarctica. The new equipment will facilitate the exchange of software and derived products via the Cloud computing technology infrastructure. The project portal is accessible at www.demogrape.net. We report the first Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal scintillations observed in Antarctica.

  13. Retrieving parameters of the anisotropic refractive index fluctuations spectrum in the stratosphere from balloon-borne observations of stellar scintillation.

    PubMed

    Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Michau, Vincent; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Robert, Claude; Dalaudier, Francis

    2008-02-01

    Scintillation effects are not negligible in the stratosphere. We present a model based on a 3D model of anisotropic and isotropic refractive index fluctuations spectra that predicts scintillation rates within the so-called small perturbation approximation. Atmospheric observations of stellar scintillation made from the AMON-RA (AMON, Absorption par les Minoritaires Ozone et NO(x); RA, rapid) balloon-borne spectrometer allows us to remotely probe wave-turbulence characteristics in the stratosphere. Data reduction from these observations brings out values of the inner scale of the anisotropic spectrum. We find metric values of the inner scale that are compatible with space-based measurements. We find a major contribution of the anisotropic spectrum relative to the isotropic contribution. When the sight line plunges into the atmosphere, strong scintillation occurs as well as coupled chromatic refraction effects.

  14. The Future of Geomagnetic Storm Predictions: Implications from Recent Solar and Interplanetary Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    1995-01-01

    Within the last 7-8 years, there has been a substantial growth in out knowledge of the solar and interplanetary causes of geomagnetic storms at Earth. This review article will not attempt to cover all of the work done during this period. This can be found elsewhere. Our emphasis here will be on recent efforts that expose important, presently unanswered questions that must be addressed and solved before true predictability of storms can be possible. Hopefully, this article will encourage some readers to join this effort and perhaps make major contributions to the field.

  15. On the Effect of Local Plasma Parameters on Interplanetary Nanodust Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LE CHAT, G.; Issautier, K.; Zaslavsky, A.; Pantellini, F. G. E.; Meyer-Vernet, N.; Belheouane, S.; Maksimovic, M.

    2014-12-01

    Dust particles provide an important fraction of the matter composing the interplanetary medium, their mass density at 1 AU being comparable to the one of the solar wind. Among them, dust grains of nanometer size-scale can be detected using radio and plasma wave instruments, because they move at roughly the solar wind speed. The high velocity impact of a dust particle generates a small crater on the spacecraft: the dust particle and the crater material are vaporized. This produces a plasma cloud whose associated electrical charge induces an electric pulse measured with radio and plasma instruments. Since their first detection in the interplanetary medium (Meyer-Vernet et al. 2009), nanodust particles have been routinely measured using STEREO/WAVES instrument (Zaslavsky et al. 2012, Le Chat et al. 2013). From the physical process at the origin of the voltage pulse (Pantellini et al 2013), an effect of the local plasma density is expected. We present the nanodust properties measured using STEREO/WAVES/Low Frequency Receiver (LFR) data between 2007 and 2014, and show the effect of the local plasma density on the measurement. We also, for the first time, present evidence of Coronal Mass Ejection effects on the nanodust flux at 1 AU.

  16. On The Collocation of the Cusp Aurora and the GPS Phase Scintillation: A Statistical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Moen, J.; Miloch, W.

    2015-12-01

    The climatology map of the GPS phase scintillation identifies two regions of high scintillation occurrences at high latitudes: around magnetic noon and around magnetic midnight. The scintillation occurrence rate is higher around magnetic noon, while the scintillation level is stronger around magnetic midnight. This study focuses on the dayside scintillation region. In order to resolve the role of the cusp auroral processes in the production of irregularities, we put the GPS phase scintillation in the context of the observed auroral morphology. Results show that the occurrence rate of the GPS phase scintillation is highest inside the auroral cusp, regardless of the scintillation strength and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). On average the scintillation occurrence rate in the cusp region is about 5 times as high as in the region immediately poleward of it. The scintillation occurrence rate is higher when the IMF BZ is negative. When partitioning the scintillation data by the IMF BY, the distribution of the scintillation occurrence rate around magnetic noon is similar to that of the poleward moving auroral form (PMAF) statistics: there is a higher occurrence rate at earlier (later) magnetic local time when the IMF BY is positive (negative). This indicates that the irregularities which give rise to scintillations follow the IMF BY controlled East-West motion of the aurora and plasma. Furthermore, the scintillation occurrence rate is higher when IMF BY is positive when the cusp is shifted towards the post-noon sector where it may get easier access to the higher density plasma. This suggests that the combined auroral activities (e.g., PMAF) and the density of the intake solar EUV ionized plasma are crucial for the production of scintillations.

  17. Interplanetary Charged Dust Magnetic Clouds Striking the Magnetosphere: Coordinated Space-based and Ground-based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Chi, Peter; Lai, Hairong

    In general, asteroids, meteoroids and dust do not interact with the plasma structures in the solar system, but after a collision between fast moving bodies the debris cloud contains nanoscale dust particles that are charged and behave like heavy ions. Dusty magnetic clouds are then accelerated to the solar wind speed. While they pose no threat to spacecraft because of the particle size, the coherency imposed by the magnetization of the cloud allows the cloud to interact with the Earth’s magnetosphere as well as the plasma in the immediate vicinity of the cloud. We call these clouds Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs). These IFEs are a unique class of interplanetary field structures that feature cusp-shaped increases and decreases in the interplanetary magnetic field and a thin current sheet. The occurrence of IFEs is attributed to the interaction between the solar wind and dust particles produced in inter-bolide collisions. Previous spacecraft observations have confirmed that IFEs move with the solar wind. When IFEs strike the magnetosphere, they may distort the magnetosphere in several possible ways, such as producing a small indentation, a large scale compression, or a glancing blow. In any event if the IFE is slowed by the magnetosphere, the compression of the Earth’s field should be seen in the ground-based magnetic records that are continuously recorded. Thus it is important to understand the magnetospheric response to IFE arrival. In this study, we investigate the IFE structure observed by spacecraft upstream of the magnetosphere and the induced magnetic field perturbations observed by networks of ground magnetometers, including the THEMIS, CARISMA, McMAC arrays in North America and the IMAGE array in Europe. We find that, in a well-observed IFE event on December 24, 2006, all ground magnetometer stations observed an impulse at approximately 1217 UT when the IFE was expected to arrive at the Earth’s magnetopause. These ground stations spread across

  18. On the acceleration of ions by interplanetary shock waves. 3: High time resolution observations of CIR proton events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesses, M. E.; Vanallen, J. A.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Observations within + or - 3 hours of corotating interaction region (CIR) shock waves of proton intensities, pitch angle distribution and crude differential energy spectra of the range of 0.6 E sub p 3.4 MeV are presented. The principle result is the evidence for the persistent flow of particles away from the shock. The observations are found to be in good agreement with the hypothesis of local interplanetary shock acceleration by the shock drift and compression mechanisms. The same set of observations strongly suggest that transit time damping does not play an important role in the acceleration of protons to 1 MeV in the immediate vicinity of CIR shocks.

  19. Near- and far-infrared observations of interplanetary dust bands from the COBE diffuse infrared background experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiesman, William J.; Hauser, Michael G.; Kelsall, Thomas; Lisse, Carey M.; Moseley, S. Harvey, Jr.; Reach, William T.; Silverberg, Robert F.; Stemwedel, Sally W.; Weiland, Janet L.

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) instrument aboard the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE) spacecraft have been used to examine the near and far infrared signatures of the interplanetary dust (IPD) bands. Images of the dust band pairs at ecliptic latitudes of +/- 1.4 deg and +/- 10 deg have been produced at DIRBE wavelengths from 1.25 to 100 micrometers. The observations at the shorter wavelengths provide the first evidence of scattered sunlight from particles responsible for the dust bands. It is found that the grains in the bands and those in the smooth IPD cloud have similar spectral energy distributions, suggesting similar compositions and possibly a common origin. The scattering albedos from 1.25 to 3.5 micrometers for the grains in the dust bands and those in the IPD cloud are 0.22 and 0.29, respectively. The 10 deg band pair is cooler (185 +/- 10 K) than the smooth interplanetary dust cloud (259 +/- 10 K). From both parallactic and thermal analyses, the implied location of the grains responsible for the peak brightness of the 10 deg band pair is 2.1 +/- 0.1 AU the Sun A parallactic distance of 1.4 +/- 0.2 AU is found for the peak of the 1.4 deg band pair.

  20. Interplanetary Propagation of Solar Energetic Particle Heavy Ions Observed at 1 AU and the Role of Energy Scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, G. M.; Li, G.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Desai, M. I.; Haggerty, D. K.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Zank, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    We have studied ~0.3 to >100 MeV nucleon-1 H, He, O, and Fe in 17 large western hemisphere solar energetic particle events (SEP) to examine whether the often observed decrease of Fe/O during the rise phase is due to mixing of separate SEP particle populations, or is an interplanetary transport effect. Our earlier study showed that the decrease in Fe/O nearly disappeared if Fe and O were compared at energies where the two species interplanetary diffusion coefficient were equal, and therefore their kinetic energy nucleon-1 was different by typically a factor ~2 ("energy scaling"). Using an interplanetary transport model that includes effects of focusing, convection, adiabatic deceleration, and pitch angle scattering we have fit the particle spectral forms and intensity profiles over a broad range of conditions where the 1 AU intensities were reasonably well connected to the source and not obviously dominated by local shock effects. The transport parameters we derive are similar to earlier studies. Our model follows individual particles with a Monte Carlo calculation, making it possible to determine many properties and effects of the transport. We find that the energy scaling feature is preserved, and that the model is reasonably successful at fitting the magnitude and duration of the Fe/O ratio decrease. This along with successfully fitting the observed decrease of the O/He ratio leads us to conclude that this feature is best understood as a transport effect. Although the effects of transport, in particular adiabatic deceleration, are very significant below a few MeV nucleon-1, the spectral break observed in these events at 1 AU is only somewhat modified by transport, and so the commonly observed spectral breaks must be present at injection. For scattering mean free paths of the order of 0.1 AU adiabatic deceleration is so large below ~200 keV nucleon-1 that ions starting with such energies at injection are cooled sufficiently as to be unobservable at 1 AU. Because

  1. Observational study of ionospheric irregularities and GPS scintillations associated with the 2012 tropical cyclone Tembin passing Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhe; Liu, Zhizhao

    2016-05-01

    This study presents the ionospheric responses observed in Hong Kong to a Typhoon, namely, Tembin, from the aspects of the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities and scintillations, using Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from a ground-based GPS scintillation monitoring station in Hong Kong and from GPS receivers on board the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites. The ionospheric irregularities and scintillations are characterized by the rate of total electron content variation index (ROTI) and the amplitude scintillation index S4, respectively. The typhoon Tembin formed over the western North Pacific during 18-30 August 2012 and approached Hong Kong during 24-27 August 2012 with the closest distance 290 km from Hong Kong at around 17 universal time (UT) on 25 August 2012. The ground-based observations indicate that in the nighttime period of 20:00-02:00 local time (LT = UT + 8 h) on 26 August when Tembin passed closely to Hong Kong, the ionospheric irregularities and scintillations of GPS signals were observed in the south of Hong Kong, over the area of 13°N ~ 23°N in latitude and 110°E ~ 120°E in longitude. From the COSMIC observations, it shows that the number of radio occultation scintillation events peaks on 26 August 2012 during the passage of Tembin. Without the presence of strong geomagnetic or solar activity, it is suspected that gravity waves might be generated in the lower atmosphere and likely seed the formation of ionospheric plasma irregularities. This work for the first time from Hong Kong observes the sign of coupling between the lower atmosphere and ionosphere in a tropical cyclone event, combining both ground- and space-based GPS observation data.

  2. Electron impact ionization rates for interstellar neutral H and He atoms near interplanetary shocks: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Phillips, J. L.; Gosling, J. T.; Isenberg, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    During average solar wind flow conditions at 1 AU, ionization rates of interstellar neutrals that penetrate into the inner heliosphere are dominated by charge exchange with solar wind protons for H atoms, and by photoionization for He atoms. During occurrences of strong, coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven interplanetary shock waves near 1 AU, electron impact ionization can make substantial, if not dominating, contributions to interstellar neutral ionization rates in the regions downstream of the shocks. However, electron impact ionization is expected to be relatively less important with increasing heliocentric distance because of the decrease in electron temperature. Ulysses encountered many CME-driven shocks during its journey to and beyond Jupiter, and in addition, encountered a number of strong corotating interaction region (CIR) shocks. These shocks generally occur only beyond approximately 2 AU. Many of the CIR shocks were very strong rivalling the Earth's bow shock in electron heating. We have compared electron impact ionization rates calculated from electron velocity distributions measured downstream from CIR shocks using the Ulysses SWOOPS experiment to charge-exchange rates calculated from measured proton number fluxes and the photoionization rate estimated from an assumed solar photon spectrum typical of solar maximum conditions. We find that, although normally the ratio of electron-impact ionization rates to charge-exchange (for H) and to photoionization (for He) rates amounts to only about one and a few tens of percent, respectively, downstream of some of the stronger CIR shocks they amount to more than 10% and greater than 100%, respectively.

  3. Studies of Solar Flare and Interplanetary Particle Acceleration and Coordination of Ground-Based Solar Observations in Support of US and International Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiplinger, Alan L.

    1998-01-01

    A primary focus has been to conduct studies of particular types of hard X-ray evolution in solar flares and their associations with high energy interplanetary protons observed near Earth. Previously, two large investigations were conducted that revealed strong associations between episodes of progressive spectral hardening seen in solar events and interplanetary proton events (Kiplinger, 1995). An algorithm was developed for predicting interplanetary protons that is more accurate than those currently in use when hard X-ray spectra are available. The basic research on a third study of the remaining independent subset of Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) events randomly not selected by the original studies was completed. This third study involves independent analyses of the data by two analysts. The results echo the success of the earlier studies. Of 405 flares analyzed, 12 events were predicted to have associated interplanetary protons at the Space Environment Service Center (SESC) level. Of these, five events appear to be directly associated with SESC proton events, six other events had lower level associated proton events, and there was only one false alarm with no protons. Another study by Garcia and Kiplinger (1995) established that progressively hardening hard X-ray flares associated with interplanetary proton events are intrinsically cooler and not extremely intense in soft X-rays unless a "contaminating" large impulsive flare accompanies the hardening flare.

  4. Investigation of the unique degradation phenomenon observed in CsSrBr3: Eu 5% scintillator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, S. S.; Loyd, M.; Stand, L.; Lindsey, A.; Swider, S.; Zhuravleva, M.; Melcher, C. L.

    2016-10-01

    CsSrBr3: Eu 5% is a promising compound scintillator for radiation detection and imaging applications. Light output and energy resolution measured for a crystal of volume 5×5×5 mm3 were 55,000±2000 ph/MeV and 5.6% at 662 keV respectively which is a significant improvement over previous reports. The hygroscopicity of the compound and the tendency of the scintillator crystals to degrade when exposed to the atmosphere necessitate the proper encapsulation of the crystals. It was observed that unlike other hygroscopic scintillator crystals CsSrBr3 undergoes a unique degradation while encapsulated in mineral oil. The light output of the crystal decreases over time, but there is no visually observed physical degradation of the crystal. This degradation is a reversible process wherein a degraded crystal can be subjected to annealing in vacuum in order to restore its original performance.

  5. Thermospheric and geomagnetic responses to interplanetary coronal mass ejections observed by ACE and GRACE: Statistical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, S.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A.; Baur, O.; Lammer, H.

    2015-10-01

    For the period July 2003 to August 2010, the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) catalogue maintained by Richardson and Cane lists 106 Earth-directed events, which have been measured in situ by plasma and field instruments on board the ACE satellite. We present a statistical investigation of the Earth's thermospheric neutral density response by means of accelerometer measurements collected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which are available for 104 ICMEs in the data set, and its relation to various geomagnetic indices and characteristic ICME parameters such as the impact speed (vmax), southward magnetic field strength (Bz). The majority of ICMEs causes a distinct density enhancement in the thermosphere, with up to a factor of 8 compared to the preevent level. We find high correlations between ICME Bz and thermospheric density enhancements (≈0.9), while the correlation with the ICME impact speed is somewhat smaller (≈0.7). The geomagnetic indices revealing the highest correlations are Dst and SYM-H(≈0.9); the lowest correlations are obtained for Kp and AE (≈0.7), which show a nonlinear relation with the thermospheric density enhancements. Separating the response for the shock-sheath region and the magnetic structure of the ICME, we find that the Dst and SYM-H reveal a tighter relation to the Bz minimum in the magnetic structure of the ICME, whereas the polar cap indices show higher correlations with the Bz minimum in the shock-sheath region. Since the strength of the Bz component—either in the sheath or in the magnetic structure of the ICME—is highly correlated (≈0.9) with the neutral density enhancement, we discuss the possibility of satellite orbital decay estimates based on magnetic field measurements at L1, i.e., before the ICME hits the Earth magnetosphere. These results are expected to further stimulate progress in space weather understanding and applications regarding satellite operations.

  6. First Observations of Equatorial TEC and Scintillation With Multiple Dual-Frequency Software-Defined GPS Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hanlon, B.; Kintner, P. M.; de Paula, E. R.

    2009-05-01

    A dual-frequency software-defined GPS receiver has been developed and used for monitoring total electron content (TEC) and observing equatorial ionospheric scintillation. The Cornell University GPS Receiver Implemented on a DSP (GRID) utilizes the GPS L1 C/A and L2 C signals to measure TEC and observe scintillation. The GRID receiver measured TEC and GPS signal amplitude and phase at 10 Hz. Also employed were two similar GPS digital storage receivers (non-real-time) that made the same measurements at 50 Hz. These receivers were arranged in a linear array and utilized in January, 2009 in Natal, Brazil (magnetic latitude 2.42°) to make these observations. Mild scintillation of the L1 C/A and L2 C signals was observed. TEC measurements agreed well with those taken by a collocated GPSV 4004B Scintillation/TEC Monitor. We demonstrate the use of multiple receivers to measure drifts and report on the first fast (10Hz-50Hz) multiple receiver TEC measurements in the equatorial ionosphere.

  7. Correlated particle and magnetic field observations of a large-scale magnetic loop structure behind an interplanetary shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, T. R.; Marsden, R. G.; Reinhard, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smith, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    From a survey of observations on ISEE-3, an example of correlated particle and magnetic field observations of a large-scale magnetic loop structure is presented. Bidirectional proton fluxes were observed for a period of 40 hours in the energy range 35-1600 keV approximately 12 hours after the passage of the interplanetary shock of December 11, 1980, and directly after the passage of a discontinuity. For each of the eight logarithmically spaced energy channels, a three-dimensional anisotropy analysis reveals streaming along both directions of the magnetic field. The magnetic field rotated slowly but steadily through approximately 180 deg during this same 40-hour period; this is consistent with the existence of a large-scale loop with extent greater than 0.5 AU. The observations suggest that the particles are being injected into the loop sunward of the spacecraft; they appear as bidirectional fluxes in the outermost regions of the loop arising from a combination of focusing and near scatter-free transport.

  8. Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment observations of Co-57 in SN 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurfess, J. D.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kroeger, R. A.; Strickman, M. S.; Grove, J. E.; Leising, M. D.; Clayton, D. D.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Purcell, W. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has observed SN 1987A for two 2 week periods during the first 9 months of the mission. Evidence for gamma-ray line and continuum emission from Co-57 is observed with an intensity of about 10 exp -4 gamma/sq cm/s. This photon flux between 50 and 136 keV is demonstrated by Monte Carlo calculations to be independent of the radial distribution of Co-57 for models of low optical depth, viz., models having photoelectric absorption losses of 122 keV photons no greater than several percent. For such models the observed Co-57 flux indicates that the ratio Ni-57/Ni-56 produced in the explosion was about 1.5 times the solar system ratio of Fe-57/Fe-56. When compared with nearly contemporaneous bolometric estimates of the luminosity for SN 1987A, our observations imply that Co-57 radioactivity does not account for most of the current luminosity of the supernova remnant in low optical depth models. We suggest alternatives, including a large optical depth model that is able to provide the SN 1987A luminosity and is consistent with the OSSE flux. It requires a 57/56 production ratio about twice solar.

  9. Interactions of energetic electrons with ULF waves triggered by interplanetary shock: Van Allen Probes observations in the magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Y. X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Wang, Y. F.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zhang, Hui; Fu, S. Y.; Pu, Z. Y.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Bonnell, J.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2014-10-01

    We present in situ observations of a shock-induced substorm-like event on 13 April 2013 observed by the newly launched Van Allen twin probes. Substorm-like electron injections with energy of 30-500 keV were observed in the region from L˜5.2 to 5.5 immediately after the shock arrival (followed by energetic electron drift echoes). Meanwhile, the electron flux was clearly and strongly varying on the ULF wave time scale. It is found that both toroidal and poloidal mode ULF waves with a period of 150 s emerged following the magnetotail magnetic field reconfiguration after the interplanetary (IP) shock passage. The poloidal mode is more intense than the toroidal mode. The 90° phase shift between the poloidal mode Br and Ea suggests the standing poloidal waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Furthermore, the energetic electron flux modulations indicate that the azimuthal wave number is ˜14. Direct evidence of drift resonance between the injected electrons and the excited poloidal ULF wave has been obtained. The resonant energy is estimated to be between 150 keV and 230 keV. Two possible scenaria on ULF wave triggering are discussed: vortex-like flow structure-driven field line resonance and ULF wave growth through drift resonance. It is found that the IP shock may trigger intense ULF wave and energetic electron behavior at L˜3 to 6 on the nightside, while the time profile of the wave is different from dayside cases.

  10. New results on interplanetary type III radio storms from multi-spacecraft combined STEREO-A/B and WIND observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, C.; Belyaev, V.; Bougeret, J. H.; Krupar, V.; Bonnin, X.; Cecconi, B.; Hoang, S.

    2011-12-01

    Interplanetary (IP) type III radio storms were intensively studied in the 80's (Bougeret et al. 1984a,b) using observations from a single radio instrument on the ISEE-3 spacecraft located at the Lagrange point L1. These studies showed that the IP storms trace long lasting (several days) streams of energetic electrons occurring in corotating regions of enhanced density, appearing to be the extension of active regions through the IP space at levels 0.05 - 0.8 AU. These studies were consistent with the hypothesis of steady conditions in the storm region over periods of several days. We propose the hypothesis that the overall duration of an IP storm observed from one vantage point directly results from the beaming of the radio radiation when the steady radio source corotates with the Sun. The goal of the present study is to track the evolution of the IP radio storms observed from three vantage points separated by about 90 degrees and spanning 180 degrees (STEREO-B, WIND, STEREO-A), over a time period of the order of a solar rotation, in order to test the limits of the above hypothesis and to track the evolution of the IP radio storms over periods close to a solar rotation.

  11. Propagation and Evolution of CMEs in the Interplanetary Medium: Analysis of Remote Sensing and In situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa-Vinas, Adolfo; Nieves-Chinchilla, Teresa; Vourlidas, Angelos; Gomez-Herrero, Raul; Malandraki, Olga; Szabo, Adam; Dresing, Nina; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    EUV disk imagers and white light coronagraphs have provided for many years information on the early formation and evolution of corona) mass ejections (CMEs). More recently, the novel heliospheric imaging instruments aboard the STEREO mission are providing crucial remote sensing information on the interplanetary evolution of these events while in situ instruments complete the overall characterization of the interplanetary CMEs. In this work, we present an analysis of CMEs from the Sun to the interplanetary medium using combined data from THE SOHO, STEREO, WIND, and ACE spacecraft. The events were selected to cover the widest possible spectrum of different ambient solar wind, magnetic field configurations, plasma parameters, etc. to allow uncovering those aspects that are important in understanding the propagation and evolution mechanisms of CMEs in the interplanetary medium.

  12. Study of equatorial scintillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pomalaza, J.; Woodman, R.; Tisnado, G.; Nakasone, E.

    1972-01-01

    Observations of the amplitude scintillations produced by the F-region in equatorial areas are presented. The equipment used for conducting the observations is described. The use of transmissions from the ATS-1, ATS-3, and ATS-5 for obtaining data is described. The two principal subjects discussed are: (1) correlation between satellite and incoherent radar observations of scintillations and (2) simultaneous observations of scintillations at 136 MHz and 1550 MHz.

  13. Comparison of interplanetary type 2 radio burst observations by ISEE-3, Ulysses, and WIND with applications to space weather prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacDowall, R. J.; Klimas, A. J.; Lengyel-Frey, D.; Stone, R. G.; Thejappa, G.

    1997-01-01

    Interplanetary (IP) type 2 radio bursts are produced by IP shocks driven by solar ejecta, presumably involving shock acceleration of electrons that leads to radio emission. These radio bursts, which can be detected remotely by a sensitive spacecraft radio receiver, provide a method of tracking the leading edge of solar ejecta moving outward from the sun. Consequently, observations of these bursts sometimes provide advance warning of one or more days prior to the onset of geomagnetic activity induced by the solar ejecta. A robust lower limit on the fraction of intense geomagnetic storms, that are preceded by IP type 2 bursts, is provided. It is shown that 41 percent of the geomagnetic storms occurring during the interval September 1978 to February 1983 were preceded by type 2 events in this catalog, and reasons why the fraction is not larger are addressed. Differences in the observing capabilities of the International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) 3, Ulysses, and WIND, to explain why each of these similar spacecraft radio investigations provides a different perspective of IP type 2 emissions are reviewed.

  14. Large-scale variations of the interplanetary magnetic field: Voyager 1 and 2 observations between 1-5 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.; Klein, L. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft of the interplanetary magnetic field between 1 and 5 AU were used to investigate the large scale structure of the IMF in a period of increasing solar activity. The Voyager spacecraft found notable deviations from the Parker axial model. These deviations are attributed both to temporal variations associated with increasing solar activity, and to the effects of fluctuations of the field in the radial direction. The amplitude of the latter fluctuations were found to be large relative to the magnitude of the radial field component itself beyond approximately 3 AU. Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observed decreases with increasing heliocentric distance in the amplitude of transverse fluctuations in the averaged field strength (B) which are consistent with the presence of predominantly undamped Alfven waves in the solar wind, although and necessarily implying the presence of them. Fluctuations in the strength of B (relative to mean field strength) were found to be small in amplitude, with a RMS which is approximately one third of that for the transverse fluctuations and they are essentially independent of distance from the Sun.

  15. Impact of Ionospheric Scintillation on Spaceborne SAR Observations Studied Using GNSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pi, Xiaoqing; Meyer, Franz J.; Chotoo, Kancham; Freeman, Anthony; Caton, Ronald G.; Bridgewood, Christopher T.

    2012-01-01

    A survey of artifacts seen in JAXA's Phase Array type L-band synthetic aperture radar (PALSAR) data over South America during a low solar activity year is reported in this paper. A significant impact on the radar data is revealed: about 14% of the surveyed PALSAR images (totally 2779) are affected by the artifacts during a month and the artifacts occur on 74.2% of the surveyed days. The characteristics of the artifacts have led to a consideration that the artifacts are the effects of ionospheric scintillation. This raises not only a concern about scintillation effects on radar but also a question about active scintillation conditions during a low solar activity year. To assess and verify the scintillation conditions, GPS data collected from the constellation of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites and three ground-based GPS networks are processed and analyzed. The GPS data provides a global context and regional dense converge, respectively, of ionospheric irregularity and scintillation measurements. It is concluded tat even during a low solar activity year, L-band scintillation at low latitudes can occur frequently and affect L-band SAR significantly.

  16. Interplanetary baseline observations of type 3 solar radio bursts. [by Helios satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, R. R.; Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Novaco, J. C.; Fainberg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of type III radio bursts using spacecraft separated by several tenths of an AU were made using the solar orbiters HELIOS-A and -B. The burst beginning at 1922 UT on March 28, 1976, was located from the intersection of the source directions measured at each spacecraft, and from the burst arrival time differences. Wide baseline observations give the radial distance of the source at each observing frequency. Consequently, coronal electron densities and exciter velocity were determined directly, without the need to assume a density model as is done with single spacecraft observations. The separation of HELIOS-A and -B also provided the first measurements of burst directivity at low frequencies. For the March 28 burst, the intensity observed from near the source longitude (HELIOS-B) was significantly greater than from 60 W of the source (HELIOS-A).

  17. Relationship of solar flare accelerated particles to solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed in the interplanetary medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.P.

    2005-08-01

    Observations of hard X-ray (HXR)/gamma-ray continuum and gamma-ray lines produced by energetic electrons and ions, respectively, colliding with the solar atmosphere, have shown that large solar flares can accelerate ions up to many GeV and electrons up to hundreds of MeV. Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are observed by spacecraft near 1 AU and by ground-based instrumentation to extend up to similar energies, but these appear to be accelerated by shocks associated with fast Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) mission provides high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of flare HXRs and gamma-rays. Here we review RHESSI observations for large solar flares and SEP events. The 23 July gamma-ray line flare was associated with a fast, wide CME but no SEPs were observed, while the 21 April 2002 flare had no detectable gamma-ray line emission but a fast CME and strong SEP event were observed. The October- November 2003 series of large flares and associated fast CMEs produced both gamma-ray line emission and strong SEP events. The spectra of flare-accelerated protons, inferred from the gamma-ray line emission observed by RHESSI, is found to be essentially identical to the spectra of the SEPs observed near 1 AU for the well-connected 2 November and 20 January events.

  18. Interplanetary particles and fields, November 22 - December 6, 1977: Helios, Voyager, and IMP observations between 0.6 AU and 1.6 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Weber, R.; Armstrong, T.; Goodrich, C.; Sullivan, J.; Gurnett, D.; Kellogg, P.; Keppler, E.; Mariani, F.

    1979-01-01

    The principal interplanetary events observed are described and analyzed. Three flow systems were observed: (1) a corotating stream and a stream interface associated with a coronal hole; (2) a shock wave and an energetic particle event associated with a 2-B flare; and (3) an isolated shock wave of uncertain origin. Data from 28 experiments and 6 spacecraft provide measurements of solar wind plasma, magnetic fields, plasma waves, radio waves, energetic electrons, and low energy protons.

  19. Interplanetary Lyman-alpha observations with UVS on Voyager - Data, first analysis, implications for the ionization lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallement, R.; Bertaux, J. L.; Chassefiere, E.; Sandel, B.

    1991-01-01

    A fraction of the measurements of the interplanetary Lyman-alpha background collected by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer during the cruise of Voyager 1 and 2 between 1977 and 1983 is presented and compared with results from current models of the interaction between the sun and the neutral interstellar gas. An analysis of two sets of data indicates that the same H atom lifetime cannot fit all the data. The actual ionization rate is inferred from the intensity gradient in the maximum emissivity region observed from a sidewind Voyager position at 6 AU, yielding a lifetime of about 1 exp 6 s at 1 AU, whereas the upwind/downwind intensity ratio in the inner solar system favors 2 x 10 exp 6 s, as measured by Voyager, Prognoz, and Pioneer Venus instruments. It is proposed that there is an excess of Ly-alpha emission in the downwind region which forces the model toward excessively high values of the lifetime. Possible explanations are discussed, like incorrect modeling or an additional source of H atoms.

  20. Ground Observation of the Hayabusa Reentry: The Third Opportunity of Man-made Fireball from Interplanetary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Furumoto, M.; Fujita, K.

    2010-12-01

    After 7 years and 6,000,000,000 km of challenging cruise in the solar system, the Hayabusa did come back to the Earth on June 13, 2010. The Hayabusa, the first sample-return explorer to NEA, landed on 25243 Itokawa in 2005, capturing surface particles on the S-type asteroid into its sample return capsule (SRC). Following to the reentries of the Genesis in 2004 and the Stardust in 2006, the return of the Hayabusa SRC was the third direct reentry event from the interplanetary transfer orbit to the Earth at a velocity of over 11.2 km/s. In addition, it was world first case of direct reentry of spacecraft from interplanetary transfer orbit. After the successful resumption of the SRC, it was carefully sent to ISAS/JAXA, and at present, small particles expected to be the first sample-return materials from the minor planet are carefully investigated. In order to obtain precise trajectory information to ensure the quick procedure for the Hayabusa SRC resumption team, we observed the Hayabusa SRC reentry by optically in Australian night sky. High-resolution imaging and spectroscopy were carried out with several high-sensitivity instruments to investigate thermal-protection process of thermal protection ablator (TPA) as well as interaction process between SRC surface materials and upper atmospheric neutral and plasma components. Moreover, shockwaves were observed by infrasound/seismic sensor arrays on ground to investigate reentry related shockwaves as well as air-to-ground coupling process at the extremely rare opportunity. With respect to nominal trajectory of the Hayabusa SRC reentry, four optical stations were set inside and near the Woomera Prohibited Area, Australia, targeting on peak-heat and/or front-heat profiles of ablating TPA for engineering aspect. Infrasound and seismic sensors were also deployed as three arrayed stations and three single stations to realize direction findings of sonic boom type shockwaves from the SRC and spacecraft and point source type

  1. A brief review of ionospheric scintillation fading effects as observed in NASA satellite tracking and data acquisition networks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of some results of the effects of ionospheric irregularities on NASA satellite tracking and data acquisition operations. Ionospheric scintillation fading produced by irregularities has been observed at 136 MHz (vhf), 400 MHz (uhf), 1550 MHz (L-band) and 1700 to 2200 MHz (S-band). Details of these observations are presented. Vhf scintillation effects are evident in both auroral and equatorial regions. Fading effects decrease with increasing radio frequency in the auroral region. The same frequency dependence for fading is not observed in the equatorial region. Although there is a seasonal and diurnal character to scintillation in the equatorial region, fading effects are usually more severe than in the auroral region for a given radio frequency. Space diversity measurements indicate that reasonable solutions for vhf telemetry problems are available for either region. Space diversity should provide a solution for microwave frequencies as well. Ionospheric fading amplitude for 1700 MHz is relatively small in the auroral region. In the equatorial region amplitude fading levels for 1550-MHz signals from ATS-5 are often much larger than expected. Observations of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) operating at 2300 MHz observed near the geomagnetic equator show fading peaks in excess of 15 dB.

  2. UPDATED ANALYSIS OF THE UPWIND INTERPLANETARY HYDROGEN VELOCITY AS OBSERVED BY THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE DURING SOLAR CYCLE 23

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, Frederic E.; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Harris, Walter M.

    2011-09-10

    The interplanetary hydrogen (IPH), a population of neutrals that fill the space between planets inside the heliosphere, carries the signature of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the heliospheric interface. As the incoming ISM-ionized component deflects at the heliopause, charge exchange reactions decelerate the bulk motion of the neutrals that penetrate the heliosphere. Inside the heliosphere, the IPH bulk velocity is further affected by solar gravity, radiation pressure, and ionization processes, with the latter two processes dependent on solar activity. Solar cycle 23 provided the first partial temporal map of the IPH velocity, including measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrometers (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) instrument. We present an updated analysis of IPH velocity measurements from GHRS and STIS and compare these results with those of SWAN and two different time-dependent models. Our reanalysis of STIS data reveals a significant change in IPH velocity relative to earlier reports, because of the contamination by geocoronal oxygen that was not accounted for. While current models of the heliospheric interface predict the observed IPH velocity for solar maximum, they are not consistent with data covering solar minimum. With updates to the HST data points, we now find that all data can be fit by the existing models to within 1{sigma}, with the exception of SWAN observations taken at solar minimum (1997/1998). We conclude that the current data lack the temporal coverage and/or precision necessary to determine the detailed characteristics of the solar cycle dependence. Hence, new observations are merited.

  3. The interplanetary magnetic field during solar cycle 21 ISEE-3/ICE observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Jungman, G.; Smith, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    Temporal variations in the IMF during solar cycle 21 are investigated using magnetic field observations collected by the vector helium magnetometer on the ISEE-3/ICE spacecraft. Analysis of the observations reveal that the IMF magnitude, which had declined to 4.7 nT in 1976, peaked in late 1982 (two years after solar maximum) at 9.0 nT and rapidly decreased during 1983-1984 to an intensity of 6.2 nT in early 1985. The IMF intensities are compared with the auroral AE index; the observed peak in strength during 1981-1983 is related to a 50 percent increase in substorm activity levels. A decrease in Parker spiral angle, revealing the existence of high-speed streams is detected in the declining phase of the solar cycle. Variations in the intensity of the IMF correlate with Mt. Wilson magnetograph measurements of full disk magnetic flux. Source regions for the evolution of solar wind and the IMF are proposed.

  4. Lagrangian MHD Particle-in-Cell simulations of coronal interplanetary shocks driven by observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Bacchini, Fabio; Bemporad, Alessandro; Susino, Roberto; Olshevskyi, Vyacheslav

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we compare the spatial distribution of the plasma parameters along the June 11, 1999 CME-driven shock front with the results obtained from a CME-like event simulated with the FLIPMHD3D code, based on the FLIP-MHD Particle-in-Cell (PiC) method. The observational data are retrieved from the combination of white-light (WL) coronagraphic data (for the upstream values) and the application of the Rankine-Hugoniot (RH) equations (for the downstream values). The comparison shows a higher compression ratio X and Alfvénic Mach number MA at the shock nose, and a stronger magnetic field deflection d towards the flanks, in agreement with observations. Then, we compare the spatial distribution of MA with the profiles obtained from the solutions of the shock adiabatic equation relating MA, X, and the angle between the upstream magnetic field and the shock front normal for the special cases of parallel and perpendicular shock, and with a semi-empirical expression for a generically oblique shock. The semi-empirical curve approximates the actual values of MA very well, if the effects of a non-negligible shock thickness and plasma-to magnetic pressure ratio are taken into account throughout the computation. Moreover, the simulated shock turns out to be supercritical at the nose and sub-critical at the flanks. Finally, we develop a new 1D Lagrangian ideal MHD method based on the GrAALE code, to simulate the ion-electron temperature decoupling due to the shock transit. Two models are used, a simple solar wind model and a variable-gamma model. Both produce results in agreement with observations, the second one being capable of introducing the physics responsible for the additional electron heating due to secondary effects (collisions, Alfvén waves, etc.). Work supported by the European Commission under the SWIFF project (swiff.eu)

  5. Quiet time interplanetary cosmic ray anisotropies observed from Pioneer 10 and 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ip, W.-H.; Fillius, W.; Mogro-Campero, A.; Gleeson, L. J.; Axford, W. I.

    1978-01-01

    Cerenkov counters on the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, capable of detecting alpha particles and protons with energies up to 480 MeV, and nucleons and electrons with energies up to 6 MeV, have yielded data on cosmic ray anisotropies during periods of low solar activity. Observations from Pioneer 11 place east-west anisotropy at 0.41 plus or minus 0.11%, and the north-south anisotropy at near zero; Pioneer 10 results show east-west anisotropy to be approximately 0.59 plus or minus 0.18%, and the north-south component at 0.25 plus or minus 0.08%. It is noted that the Pioneer 10 observations were obtained at the 6 AU range, while those from Pioneer 11 originated closer to the sun (1.1 to 2.7 AU). Attention is given to the ratio of the perpendicular to parallel components of the diffusion coefficient, and to the large north-south anisotropy reported by Pioneer 10, an effect due possibly to gradient drift, and to an additional streaming independent of the magnetic field polarity.

  6. Excitonic processes and their contribution to nonproportionality observed in the light yield of inorganic scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jai; Koblov, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    Using the derived expression for the light yield in a scintillator, the influence of linear radiative and non-radiative (quenching) rates on the nonproportionality in light yield is studied. It is found that if the excitation created within the electron track initiated by a γ-photon incident on a scintillator remains mainly excitonic, then nonproportionality can be minimised by inventing a scintillator material with linear radiative rate >107 s-1, linear quenching rate <106 s-1 and track radius ≥70 nm along with maintaining the rates of other nonlinear processes as discovered earlier. If one can increase the linear radiative rate to 109 s-1, then the nonproportionality can be eliminated at a track radius >20 nm.

  7. The 2-D Curvature of Large Angle Interplanetary MHD Discontinuity Surfaces: IMP-8 and WIND Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.; McClernan, K.

    2002-12-01

    This study examines the degree of 2-D curvature of solar wind directional discontinuity (DD) surfaces at 1 AU using magnetic field, density, and velocity data from the WIND and IMP-8 spacecraft for a large number (N = 134) of carefully selected events having large ``discontinuity angles" of 90° or greater. The discontinuity angle (ω ) is measured in the DDs current sheet, the normal to which is estimated by field variance analysis. The fundamental analysis depends on estimates of these DD surface normals at the two spacecraft, and the DDs center-times and positions. On average, the transit time from one DD sighting to the other was 36 minutes, and the associated distance along the normal direction was 137 RE. The transition-interval lengths across the DDs are translated into thicknesses and examined for the amount of change between the two spacecraft observing points; average thickness is relatively large, 14 RE. All relevant quantities are examined statistically to establish their distributions, average, and degree of change. A weighted average of the radius of curvature is estimated to be 380 RE, but its most probably value is 290 RE. The average ω is 140° with a relatively large spread (σ =28°). The average direction of propagation is: longitude = 194° and latitude = 7° (but < ∣ lat∣ > = 27°). Various parameters are studied with respect to DD type, defined in terms the ratio of speed of propagation to net speed (``ratio") of the DD surface, (the RD ratio is high and the TD ratio is very low or zero). The results by this definition of type are favorably compared to those from the more conventional method, which depends on the absolute strength of the normal component of the magnetic field. There is little difference in any average parameter value according to type. However, the average ω appears to depend slightly on type with the < ω > for the RDs being smaller. A DDs type was shown to change in either direction between the two observation

  8. Two-dimensional curvature of large angle interplanetary MHD discontinuity surfaces: IMP-8 and WIND observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.; McClernan, K.

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the degree of two-dimensional curvature of solar wind directional discontinuity (DD) surfaces at 1 AU using magnetic field, density, and velocity data from the WIND and IMP-8 spacecraft for a large number (N = 134) of carefully selected events having large "discontinuity angles" of 90° or greater. The discontinuity angle (ω) is measured in the DD's current sheet, the normal (n) to which is estimated by field variance analysis. The fundamental analysis depends on estimates of these DD surface normals at the two spacecraft and the DD's center-times and positions. On average, the transit time from one DD sighting to the other was 36 minutes, and the associated distance along the normal direction was 137 RE. The transition-interval lengths across the DDs are translated into thicknesses and examined for the amount of change between the two spacecraft observing points. The average thickness is relatively large, 14 RE.; the most probable thickness is ≈6 RE. All relevant quantities are examined statistically to establish their distributions, average, and degree of change. A weighted average of the radius of curvature is estimated to be 380 RE, but its most probable value is 290 RE. The average ω is 140° with a relatively large spread (σ = 28°). The average direction of propagation is: longitude (ϕn) = 194° and latitude (θn) = 7° (but <∣θn∣> = 27°), where ϕn = 0° is sunward and θn = 0° is the ecliptic plane. Various parameters are studied with respect to DD type, i.e., rotational or tangential discontinuity (RD or TD), defined in terms of the "ratio" (in percent) of speed of propagation to net speed of the DD surface, where the net speed is the sum of the convection velocity (along n) plus the propagation speed. The RD %-ratio is moderately small, but the TD ratio is very small or zero. The results by this definition of type are favorably compared to those from the more conventional method, which depends on the absolute strength of

  9. High spectral resolution observation of extended sources in future interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Sona

    2016-10-01

    The most commonly used technique for high spectral resolution (R) studies are grating spectrometers. They can achieve broad bandpasses but they have small FOV and relatively low étendue so they have to be paired with large aperture telescopes such Keck (10m), Hubble (2.4m) or JWST (6.5m). Fabry-Pérot Interferometers (FPI) and FTS are the other best known types of high étendue, high R spectrometers used in astronomy. But their opto-mechnical tolerances becomes challenging and they use transmitting optics, where transmission drops especially below 130 nm. Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) is a candidate for high étendue, high spectral R spectroscopy in compact low cost, low-mass, low-power architecture using no or small aperture telescope for UV to IR wavelengths. High R spectrometers are usually limited by the telescope aperture size and complicated opto-mechanical tolerances but that's not the case for SHS. SHS provides integrated spectra at high spectral R, over a wide FOV in compact designs in which it offers the ability to make key science measurements for a variety of planetary targets. SHS could be implemented on a dedicated SmallSat or ISS that can sit and stare at its target for long duration of time that cannot be done from the ground or on big missions. SmallSats are lower cost, faster to build, relatively easy to correct and upgrade. For UV observation, currently HST is the only telescope capable of collecting the necessary observations and the next major UV space telescope might be able to fly in 10 years or more. SHS instrument can quickly fill the technology gap for UV space spectrometers.

  10. Precision X-band radio Doppler and ranging navigation: Mars Observer interplanetary cruise scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estefan, J. A.; Thurman, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes an error covariance analysis based on a Mars Observer mission scenario; the study was performed to establish the navigation performance that can potentially be achieved in a demonstration of precision two-way X-band (8.4-GHz) Doppler and ranging with the Mars Observer spacecraft planned for next year, and to evaluate the sensitivity of the predicted performance to variations in ground system error modeling assumptions. Orbit determination error statistics computed for a 182-day Doppler and ranging data arc predicted Mars approach orbit determination accuracies of about 0.45 micro-rad in an angular sense, using a conservative ground system error model as a baseline. When less-conservative error model assumptions were employed, it was found that orbit determination accuracies of 0.19 to 0.30 micro-rad could be obtained; the level of accuracy of the assumed Mars ephemeris is about 0.11 micro-rad. In comparison, Doppler-only performance with the baseline error model was predicted to be about 1.30 to 1.51 micro-rad, although it was found that when improved station location accuracies and Global Positioning System-based tropospheric calibration accuracies were assumed, accuracies of 0.44 to 0.52 micro-rad were predicted. In the Doppler plus ranging cases, the results were relatively insensitive to variations in ranging system and station delay calibration uncertainties of a few meters and tropospheric zenith delay calibration uncertainties of a few centimeters.

  11. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Study of the Sun and Interplanetary Medium in Three Dimensions. [space mission planning and interplanetary trajectories by NASA and ESA to better observe the sun and solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, L. A. (Editor); Axford, W. I. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A series of papers are presented from a symposium attended by over 200 European and American scientists to examine the importance of exploring the interplanetary medium and the sun by out-of-the-ecliptic space missions. The likely scientific returns of these missions in the areas of solar, interplanetary, and cosmic ray physics is examined. Theoretical models of the solar wind and its interaction with interplanetary magnetic fields are given.

  12. Solar Sources and Geospace Consequences of Interplanetary Magnetic Clouds Observed During Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.; Lepping, R. P.

    2007-01-01

    We present results of a statistical investigation of 99 magnetic clouds (MCs) observed during 1995-2005. The MC-associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are faster and wider on the average and originate within +/-30deg from the solar disk center. The solar sources of MCs also followed the butterfly diagram. The correlation between the magnetic field strength and speed of MCs was found to be valid over a much wider range of speeds. The number of south-north (SN) MCs was dominant and decreased with solar cycle, while the number of north-south (NS) MCs increased confirming the odd-cycle behavior. Two-thirds of MCs were geoeffective; the Dst index was highly correlated with speed and magnetic field in MCs as well as their product. Many (55%) fully northward (FN) MCs were geoeffective solely due to their sheaths. The non-geoeffective MCs were slower (average speed approx. 382 km/s), had a weaker southward magnetic field (average approx. -5.2nT), and occurred mostly during the rise phase of the solar activity cycle.

  13. Scintillation noise power spectrum and its impact on high-redshift 21-cm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedantham, H. K.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2016-05-01

    Visibility scintillation resulting from wave propagation through the turbulent ionosphere can be an important source of noise at low radio frequencies (ν ≲ 200 MHz). Many low-frequency experiments are underway to detect the power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations of the neutral-hydrogen 21-cm signal from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR: 12 ≳ z ≳ 7, 100 ≲ ν ≲ 175 MHz). In this paper, we derive scintillation noise power spectra in such experiments while taking into account the effects of typical data processing operations such as self-calibration and Fourier synthesis. We find that for minimally redundant arrays such as LOFAR and MWA, scintillation noise is of the same order of magnitude as thermal noise, has a spectral coherence dictated by stretching of the snapshot uv-coverage with frequency, and thus is confined to the well-known wedge-like structure in the cylindrical (two-dimensional) power spectrum space. Compact, fully redundant (dcore ≲ rF ≈ 300 m at 150 MHz) arrays such as HERA and SKA-LOW (core) will be scintillation noise dominated at all baselines, but the spatial and frequency coherence of this noise will allow it to be removed along with spectrally smooth foregrounds.

  14. L-Band Ionosphere Scintillations Observed by A Spaced GPS Receiver Array during Recent Active Experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.; Pelgrum, W.; van Graas, F.; Gunawardena, S.; Charney, D.; Peng, S.; Triplett, J.; Vikram, P.; Vemuru, A.

    2010-12-01

    L-Band Ionosphere Scintillations Observed by A Spaced GPS Receiver Array during Recent Active Experiments at HAARP Jade Morton*, Wouter Pelgrum**, Sanjeev Gunawardena**, Frank van Graas**, Dan Charney*, Senlin Peng***, Jeff Triplett*, Ajay Vemuru** * Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Miami University ** Avionics Engineering Center, Ohio University *** Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech Ionosphere irregularities can cause scintillation of satellite-based radio communication, navigation, and surveillance signals. While these scintillation effects will impact the corresponding receiver and system performance, carefully recovered signal parameters serve as a means of studying the background state and dynamics of the ionosphere. In this presentation, we will describe our recent effort in establishing a unique spaced GNSS receiver array at HAARP, Alaska to collect GPS and GLONASS satellite signals at various stages of the GNSS receiver processing. Preliminary receiver processing results as well as additional on-site diagnostic instrumentation measurements obtained from two active heating experiment campaigns will be presented to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our experimental data collection system in providing insightful details of ionosphere responses to active perturbations.

  15. Studying Geoeffective Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections Between the Sun and Earth: Space Weather Implications of Solar Mass Ejection Imager Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    during the Mav 12th, 1997 ICME, /. Ahnos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 66, 1295-1309. Billings, D. E. (1966), A Guide to the Solar Corona , Academic, San Diego...SUBTITLE Studying geoeffective interplanetary coronal mass ejections Between the Sun and Earth: Space weather implications of Solar Mass Ejection...DISTRIBUTION . „ . ru^en.1 nomicmcni Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. *Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, **AFRL, National Solar Ob

  16. First in situ observations of equatorial ionospheric bubbles by Indian satellite SROSS-C2 and simultaneous multisatellite scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, A.; Ray, S.; Dasgupta, A.; Garg, S. C.

    2002-10-01

    The first observation of equatorial ionospheric irregularities by RPA probe of the Indian low Earth orbiting satellite SROSS-C2 is presented in this paper. Amplitude scintillations of medium Earth orbiting Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and geostationary FLEETSATCOM (244 MHz, 73°E) and INMARSAT (1.5 GHz, 65°E) signals recorded simultaneously at Calcutta (lat: 22.97° N, long: 88.50°E geographic; dip: 32°N) are used for a coordinated study of equatorial F region irregularities in the Indian zone. Cases of ionospheric irregularities identified from the SROSS-C2 records obtained during the initial one-and-a-half years since its launch in May 1994 have been analyzed. Some events of in situ ion density irregularities are compared with scintillations simultaneously observed on the transionospheric satellite links. Intense bite-outs of ion density (maximum relative irregularity amplitude ΔN/N ˜ 65%) were detected on one occasion (October 29, 1994) coupled with deep fadings (S4 ˜ 1 at VHF, ˜0.52 at L-band, and ˜0.69 at GPS L1 frequency) on ground-based satellite links. An estimate of scintillation indices from the observed in situ density deviations compares well with the ground-based measurements. The development of intense equatorial bubbles even on a day like October 29, 1994, under low solar activity conditions, may be attributed to a prompt penetration of magnetospheric electric field equatorwards during the main phase of a magnetic storm in progress [maximum negative excursion of Dst ˜ -127 nT at 1600UT (2100MLT) with a dDst/dt rate -37 nT/hr at 1300-1400UT (1800-1900MLT)]. The drift velocity and spatial extent of these irregularities have been estimated from ground-based observations.

  17. Dual-Frequency Observations of 140 Compact, Flat-Spectrum Active Galactic Nuclei for Scintillation-Induced Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koay, J. Y.; Macquart, J.- P.; Rickett, B. J.; Bignall, H. E.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Reynolds, C.; Jauncey, D. L.; Pursimo, T.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L.; Ojha, R.

    2012-01-01

    The 4.9 GHz Micro-Arcsecond Scintillation-Induced Variability (MASIV) Survey detected a drop in Interstellar Scintillation (ISS) for sources at red shifts z > or approx. 2, indicating an apparent increase in angular diameter or a decrease in flux density of the most compact components of these sources, relative to their extended emission. This can result from intrinsic source size effects or scatter broadening in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM) , in excess of the expected (1+z)1/2 angular diameter scaling of brightness temperature limited sources resulting from cosmological expansion. We report here 4.9 GHz and 8.4 GHz observations and data analysis for a sample of 140 compact, fiat-spectrum sources which may allow us to determine the origin of this angular diameter-redshift relation by exploiting their different wavelength dependences. In addition to using ISS as a cosmological probe, the observations provide additional insight into source morphologies and the characteristics of ISS. As in the MASIV Survey, the variability of the sources is found to be significantly correlated with line-of-sight H(alpha) intensities, confirming its link with ISS. For 25 sources, time delays of about 0.15 to 3 days are observed between the scintillation patterns at both frequencies, interpreted as being caused by a shift in core positions when probed at different optical depths. Significant correlation is found between ISS amplitudes and source spectral index; in particular, a large drop in ISS amplitudes is observed at alpha < -0.4 confirming that steep spectrum sources scintillate less. We detect a weakened redshift dependence of ISS at 8.4 GHz over that at 4.9 GHz, with the mean variance at 4-day timescales reduced by a factor of 1.8 in the z > 2 sources relative to the z < 2 sources, as opposed to the factor of 3 decrease observed at 4.9 GHz. This suggests scatter broadening in the IGM, but the interpretation is complicated by subtle selection effects that will be explored

  18. Using GPS-SCINDA observations to study the correlation between scintillation, total electron content enhancement and depletions over the Kenyan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwendo, J. O.; Cilliers, P. J.; Baki, P.; Mito, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the first results of total electron content (TEC) depletions and enhancement associated with ionospheric irregularities in the low latitude region over Kenya. At the low latitude ionosphere the diurnal behavior of scintillation is driven by the formation of large scale equatorial depletions which are formed by post-sunset plasma instabilities via the Rayleigh-Taylor instability near the magnetic equator. Data from the GPS scintillation receiver (GPS-SCINDA) located at the University of Nairobi (36.8°E, 1.27°S) for March 2011 was used in this study. The TEC depletions have been detected from satellite passes along the line of sight of the signal and the detected depletions have good correspondence with the occurrence of scintillation patches. TEC enhancement has been observed and is not correlated with increases in S4 index and consecutive enhancements and depletions in TEC have also been observed which results into scintillation patches related to TEC depletions. The TEC depletions have been interpreted as plasma irregularities and inhomogeneities in the F region caused by plasma instabilities, while TEC enhancement have been interpreted as the manifestation of plasma density enhancements mainly associated with the equatorial ionization anomaly crest over this region. Occurrence of scintillation does happen at and around the ionization anomaly crest over Kenyan region. The presence of high ambient electron densities and large electron density gradients associated with small scale irregularities in the ionization anomaly regions have been linked to the occurrence of scintillation.

  19. Observed light yield of scintillation pixels: Extending the two-ray model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantorski, Igor; Jurkowski, Jacek; Drozdowski, Winicjusz

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we propose an extended, two dimensional model describing the propagation of scintillation photons inside a cuboid crystal until they reach a PMT window. In the simplest approach the model considers two main reasons for light losses: standard absorption obeying the classical Lambert-Beer law and non-ideal reflectivity of the "mummy" covering formed by several layers of Teflon tape wrapping the sample. Results of the model calculations are juxtaposed with experimental data as well as with predictions of an earlier, one dimensional model.

  20. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  1. Collisions in Space: Observations of Disturbances in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field Caused by Destructive Collisions of Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. R.; Russell, C. T.; Delzanno, G. L.; Jia, Y. D.

    2011-10-01

    Collisions between small interplanetary bodies can produce clouds of dust particles, which rapidly become charged in the solar wind plasma. A wide range of particle sizes will be produced and the smallest nanoscale particles can be accelerated to solar wind speed in minutes. Our multi-fluid MHD simulation with charged dust as one fluid shows a three-dimensional disturbance in the magnetic field with compression and draping in the flow direction and bending in the direction perpendicular to both the flow and unperturbed magnetic field, producing a current sheet orthogonal to the flow. The Lorentz force of this current balances the transverse momentum of the gyrating dust particles and the solar gravity force balances the magnetic pressure gradient force. Thus the magnetic gradient force is proportional to the mass of the picked up dust and allows us to weigh the dust cloud. The magnetic field behavior in the simulation results qualitatively resembles the phenomenon called an interplanetary field enhancement (IFE), which is featured by a cuspshaped magnetic field enhancement lasting from several minutes to hours, with a sharp discontinuity in at least one component of the magnetic field. The association between IFE appearance and dust production was first inferred from PVO data in the 1980s, but the IFE formation process has been unclear until now. In this paper, we will gather the statistics of IFEs and use the magnetic compression to weigh the mass of the dust cloud. We will also estimate the volume over which individual events may be sensed. Using this volume together with the IFE occurrence rate we can calculate the inferred collision rate. We find for the IFE with mass about 107 kg, this rate approximately agrees with the estimated rate of collision of interplanetary bodies which can produce dust within the same mass range.

  2. On the occurrence of F region irregularities over Haikou retrieved from COSMIC GPS radio occultation and ground-based ionospheric scintillation monitor observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiao; Yue, Xinan; Zhen, Weimin; Xu, Jisheng; Liu, Dun; Guo, Shan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the amplitude scintillation index (s4) derived from COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) radio occultation (RO) technique and ground-based Ionospheric Scintillation Monitor (ISM) at Haikou station (geographic latitude: 20.0°N, geographic longitude: 110.3°E, and geomagnetic latitude: 10.02°N) is used to investigate the morphology of F region irregularities in the low latitudes of China. The RO events of tangent point within the range of 10-30°N latitude, 70-160°E longitude, and 150-500 km altitude are adopted to analyze the ionospheric scintillation characteristics. The percentage of ionospheric scintillation occurrence is computed to obtain its diurnal variations, seasonal trends, and the dependence on solar and geomagnetic activities. Based on a statistical analysis of a long-term period data set (years 2007 to 2013), we found that the ionospheric scintillation occurrence from both techniques show similar variations. After sunset (18 LT), the scintillation occurrence increases rapidly and reaches the maximum 3 h later. Then it decreases rapidly till 04 LT and remains low level during the daytime. The ionospheric scintillation tends to occur more frequently during vernal and autumnal equinoxes, especially in March-April and September-October. The equinoctial asymmetry could be seen clearly from the ground-based ISM observations. The peak ionospheric scintillation occurrence time varies with seasons. It is reached latest in summer, while in spring it is very close to that in autumn. The nighttime ionospheric scintillation occurrence tends to increase with increasing solar activities. The increasing tendency is more prominent in vernal and autumnal equinoxes than that in summer and winter. In general, the control of geomagnetic activities is apt to inhibit ionospheric scintillation at equinox nighttime. In summer and winter, the geomagnetic activities could either trigger or inhibit the generation of

  3. Observations of the Sudden Compression of the Earth's Magnetotail by the Passage of Interplanetary Shocks: Comparison with Equilibrium Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokar, R. L.; Borovsky, J. E.; Birn, J.; Schindler, K.

    2001-12-01

    In the ISEE-3/ISEE-2 data set, four instances have been found in which an interplanetary shock passes the magnetosphere while ISEE-2 is in the magnetotail plasma sheet. Each time, an increase of the plasma density and plasma temperature is seen during the shock passage, along with a plasma flow toward the center of the magnetotail. A few minutes after the shock passes, a strong earthward flow of plasma commences in the magnetotail. This earthward flow lasts for about 6-7 minutes. The magnetosphere, which was in MHD equilibrium with the solar wind before the shock, is suddenly put out of dynamical equilibrium by the increased pressure behind the shock; for a plasma-sheet adiabatic index that is less than 2, Birn and Schindler [J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6969, 1983] have predicted that this global magnetotail flow should be directed earthward as the magnetotail seeks its new equilibrium. These four ISEE-3/ISEE-2 interplanetary shock intervals are very useful for magnetospheric physics because (a) the adiabatic index of the magnetospheric plasma can be measured by ISEE-2 during the shock compression of the magnetosphere and (b) the spatial structure of turbulence in the magnetotail can be viewed as the global earthward flows sweep the plasma and magnetic fields past the ISEE-2 satellite.

  4. Low latitude ionospheric scintillation and zonal irregularity drifts observed with GPS-SCINDA system and closely spaced VHF receivers in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwendo, O. J.; Baluku, T.; Baki, P.; Cilliers, P. J.; Mito, C.; Doherty, P.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we have used VHF and GPS-SCINDA receivers located at Nairobi (36.8°E, 1.3°S, dip -24.1°) in Kenya, to investigate the ionospheric scintillation and zonal drift irregularities of a few hundred meter-scale irregularities associated with equatorial plasma density bubbles for the period 2011. From simultaneous observations of amplitude scintillation at VHF and L-band frequencies, it is evident that the scintillation activity is higher during the post sunset hours of the equinoctial months than at the solstice. While it is noted that there is practically no signatures of the L-band scintillation in solstice months (June, July, December, January) and after midnight, VHF scintillation does occur in the solstice months and show post midnight activity through all the seasons. VHF scintillation is characterized by long duration of activity and slow fading that lasts till early morning hours (05:00 LT). Equinoctial asymmetry in scintillation occurs with higher occurrence in March-April than in September-October. The occurrence of post midnight VHF scintillation in this region is unusual and suggests some mechanisms for the formation of scintillation structure that might not be clearly understood. Zonal drift velocities of irregularities were measured using cross-correlation analysis with time series of the VHF scintillation structure from two closely spaced antennas. Statistical analyses of the distribution of zonal drift velocities after sunset hours indicate that the range of the velocities is 30-160 m/s. This is the first analysis of the zonal plasma drift velocity over this region. Based on these results we suggest that the east-west component of the plasma drift velocity may be related to the evolution of plasma bubble irregularities caused by the prereversal enhancement of the eastward electric fields. The equinoctial asymmetry of the drift velocities and scintillation could be attributed to the asymmetry of neutral winds in the thermosphere that drives

  5. Dependence of the location of the Martian magnetic lobes on the interplanetary magnetic field direction: Observations from Mars Global Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, N.; Bertucci, C.; Gómez, D.; Mazelle, C.

    2015-09-01

    We use magnetometer data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft during portions of the premapping orbits of the mission to study the variability of the Martian-induced magnetotail as a function of the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The time spent by MGS in the magnetotail lobes during periods with positive solar wind flow-aligned IMF component B∥IMF suggests that their location as well as the position of the central polarity reversal layer (PRL) are displaced in the direction antiparallel to the IMF cross-flow component B⊥IMF. Analogously, in the cases where B∥IMF is negative, the lobes are displaced in the direction of B⊥IMF. This behavior is compatible with a previously published analytical model of the IMF draping, where for the first time, the displacement of a complementary reversal layer (denoted as IPRL for inverse polarity reversal layer) is deduced from first principles.

  6. Seasonal Variations of the Ionosphere Scintillations Parameters Obtained from the Long Observations of the Power Cosmic Radio Sources at the Decameter Wave Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytvynenko, O. A.; Panishko, S. K.

    Observations of the four power cosmic radio sources were carried out on the radio telescope (RT) URAN-4 during 1987-1990 and 1998-2007 at the frequencies 20 and 25 MHz. Effects of ionosphere and in particular existence of intensity fluctuations on the cosmic radio sources records, or scintillations, are essential at the decameter wave range. Long series of the ionosphere scintillations parameters such as indices, periods and spectrum slopes were obtained after observation data proceeding. Behavior of the seasonal variations was investigated on this data. Obtained dependencies were compared with the indices of the solar and geomagnetic activity.

  7. Measuring the Relationship between Stellar Scintillation and Altitude: A Simple Discovery-Based Observational Exercise Used in College Level Non-Major Astronomy Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Russell D.

    2013-01-01

    A simple naked eye observational exercise is outlined that teaches non-major astronomy students basic observational and critical thinking skills but does not require complex equipment or extensive knowledge of the night sky. Students measure the relationship between stellar scintillation and the altitude of a set of stars. Successful observations…

  8. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1992-07-28

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  9. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1994-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  10. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Kross, Brian J.

    1992-01-01

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography.

  11. Scintillator material

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.; Kross, B.J.

    1994-06-07

    An improved scintillator material comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. Cerium fluoride has been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to known scintillator materials such as thallium-doped sodium iodide, barium fluoride and bismuth germanate. As a result, cerium fluoride is favorably suited for use as a scintillator material in positron emission tomography. 4 figs.

  12. IUVS echelle-mode observations of interplanetary hydrogen: Standard for calibration and reference for cavity variations between Earth and Mars during MAVEN cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayyasi, Majd; Clarke, John; Quémerais, Eric; Katushkina, Olga; Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; McClintock, Bill; Stewart, Ian; Holsclaw, Greg; Deighan, Justin; Chaffin, Michael; Schneider, Nick; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-02-01

    The high-resolution echelle mode of the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission has been designed to measure D and H Lyman α emissions from the Martian atmosphere to obtain key information about the physical processes by which water escapes into space. Toward this goal, the absolute calibration of the instrument is critical for determining the D and H densities, the D/H ratio, and the escape flux of water. The instrument made observations of interplanetary hydrogen (IPH) along multiple look directions and conducted several postlaunch calibration campaigns during cruise as well as during orbit around Mars. The calibration efforts monitored instrument degradation and produced a consistent calibration factor at the hydrogen Lyman α wavelength (121.567 nm). The instrument was calibrated with the diffuse emission of interplanetary hydrogen (IPH) as a standard candle using measurements and model results from the Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) instrument. Validation of the calibrated instrument was made by (1) comparisons to simultaneous observations of the IPH made with the lower resolution FUV mode of the IUVS instrument that were independently calibrated by using standard stars and by (2) comparisons to same-day observations of Mars at hydrogen Lyman α made with the Hubble Space Telescope that were calculated with a radiative transfer model. Adopted FUV mode values and Hubble Space Telescope-based model results agreed with the echelle SWAN calibrated values to within 6% and 4%, respectively. The calibrated IUVS instrument can be used to interpret emissions of atmospheric species at Mars for insights into water evolution at the planet, as well as observed IPH measurements made during cruise for further insights into dynamics of the inner heliosphere.

  13. Prompt injections of highly relativistic electrons induced by interplanetary shocks: A statistical study of Van Allen Probes observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiller, Q.; Kanekal, S. G.; Jian, L. K.; Li, X.; Jones, A.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A.; Spence, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a statistical study on the sudden response of outer radiation belt electrons due to interplanetary (IP) shocks during the Van Allen Probes era, i.e., 2012 to 2015. Data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope instrument on board Van Allen Probes are used to investigate the highly relativistic electron response (E > 1.8 MeV) within the first few minutes after shock impact. We investigate the relationship of IP shock parameters, such as Mach number, with the highly relativistic electron response, including spectral properties and radial location of the shock-induced injection. We find that the driving solar wind structure of the shock does not affect occurrence for enhancement events, 25% of IP shocks are associated with prompt energization, and 14% are associated with MeV electron depletion. Parameters that represent IP shock strength are found to correlate best with highest levels of energization, suggesting that shock strength may play a key role in the severity of the enhancements. However, not every shock results in an enhancement, indicating that magnetospheric preconditioning may be required.

  14. OSSE observations of Galactic 511 keV positron annihilation radiation - Initial phase 1 results. [Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Jung, G. V.

    1993-01-01

    The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) has performed numerous observations of the Galactic plane and Galactic center region to measure the distribution of Galactic 511 keV positron annihilation radiation and to search for time variability of the emission. The initial 511 keV line fluxes for the observations performed during the first 18 months of the GRO mission are presented. The 511 keV line flux for a typical Galactic center observation is (2.5 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -4 gamma/sq cm per sec, where the quoted uncertainty represents the 1 sigma statistical uncertainty. No statistically significant time variability of the line flux has been observed; the 3 sigma upper limit to daily variations from the mean is 3 x 10 exp -4 gamma/sq cm per sec. The distribution of Galactic 511 keV positron annihilation radiation implied by the OSSE observations is discussed and compared with observations by other instruments.

  15. Prediction of magnetic orientation in driver gas associated -Bz events. [in interplanetary medium observed at earth when solar source is identified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoeksema, J. T.; Zhao, Xuepu

    1992-01-01

    The source regions of five strong -Bz events detected at 1 AU for which solar sources were identified by Tang et al. (1989) and Tsurutani et al. (1992) are investigated in order to determine whether the magnetic orientation of driver gas in the interplanetary medium observed at the earth can be predicted when its solar source is identified. Three -Bz events were traced to flare-associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs), one to an eruptive prominence associated CME, and one to three possible solar sources. The computed magnetic orientations at the candidate 'release height' (the height where the front of a CME ceases to accelerate) above the flare sites associated with CMEs show the existence of the expected southward field component. It is concluded that the magnetic orientation in flare-associated CME generated driver gas may be predictable.

  16. Scintillation Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Zane W.

    Scintillators find wide use in radiation detection as the detecting medium for gamma/X-rays, and charged and neutral particles. Since the first notice in 1895 by Roentgen of the production of light by X-rays on a barium platinocyanide screen, and Thomas Edison's work over the following 2 years resulting in the discovery of calcium tungstate as a superior fluoroscopy screen, much research and experimentation have been undertaken to discover and elucidate the properties of new scintillators. Scintillators with high density and high atomic number are prized for the detection of gamma rays above 1 MeV; lower atomic number, lower-density materials find use for detecting beta particles and heavy charged particles; hydrogenous scintillators find use in fast-neutron detection; and boron-, lithium-, and gadolinium-containing scintillators are used for slow-neutron detection. This chapter provides the practitioner with an overview of the general characteristics of scintillators, including the variation of probability of interaction with density and atomic number, the characteristics of the light pulse, a list and characteristics of commonly available scintillators and their approximate cost, and recommendations regarding the choice of material for a few specific applications. This chapter does not pretend to present an exhaustive list of scintillators and applications.

  17. Investigating the Anisotropic Scintillation Response in Organic Crystal Scintillator Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Patricia Frances

    This dissertation presents several studies that experimentally characterize the scintillation anisotropy in organic crystal scintillators. These include measurements of neutron, gamma-ray and cosmic muon interactions in anthracene, a historical benchmark among organic scintillator materials, to confirm and extend measurements previously available in the literature. The gamma-ray and muon measurements provide new experimental confirmation that no scintillation anisotropy is present in their interactions. Observations from these measurements have updated the hypothesis for the physical mechanism that is responsible for the scintillation anisotropy concluding that a relatively high dE/dx is required in order to produce a scintillation anisotropy. The directional dependence of the scintillation output in liquid and plastic materials was measured to experimentally confirm that no scintillation anisotropy correlated to detector orientation exists in amorphous materials. These observations confirm that the scintillation anisotropy is not due to an external effect on the measurement system, and that a fixed, repeating structure is required for a scintillation anisotropy. The directional dependence of the scintillation output in response to neutron interactions was measured in four stilbene crystals of various sizes and growth-methods. The scintillation anisotropy in these materials was approximately uniform, indicating that the crystal size, geometry, and growth method do not significantly impact the effect. Measurements of three additional pure crystals and two mixed crystals were made. These measurements showed that 1) the magnitude of the effect varies with energy and material, 2) the relationship between the light output and pulse shape anisotropy varies across materials, and 3) the effect in mixed materials is very complex. These measurements have informed the hypothesis of the mechanism that produces the directional dependence. By comparing the various relationships

  18. Satellite-beacon Ionospheric-scintillation Global Model of the upper Atmosphere (SIGMA) II: Inverse modeling with high-latitude observations to deduce irregularity physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, K. B.; Bust, G. S.; Clauer, C. R.; Scales, W. A.; Frissell, N. A.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Spogli, L.; Mitchell, C.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2016-09-01

    Ionospheric scintillation is caused by irregularities in the ionospheric electron density. The characterization of ionospheric irregularities is important to further our understanding of the underlying physics. Our goal is to characterize the intermediate (0.1-10 km) to medium (10-100 km) scale high-latitude irregularities which are likely to produce these scintillations. In this paper, we characterize irregularities observed by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) during a geomagnetically active period on 9 March 2012. For this purpose, along with the measurements, we are using the recently developed model: "Satellite-beacon Ionospheric-scintillation Global Model of the upper Atmosphere" (SIGMA). The model is particularly applicable at high latitudes as it accounts for the complicated geometry of the magnetic field lines in these regions and is presented in an earlier paper. We use an inverse modeling technique to derive irregularity parameters by comparing the high rate (50 Hz) GNSS observations to the modeled outputs. In this investigation, we consider experimental observations from both the northern and southern high latitudes. The results include predominance of phase scintillations compared to amplitude scintillations that imply the presence of larger-scale irregularities of sizes above the Fresnel scale at GPS frequencies, and the spectral index ranges from 2.4 to 4.2 and the RMS number density ranges from 3e11 to 2.3e12 el/m3. The best fits we obtained from our inverse method that considers only weak scattering mostly agree with the observations. Finally, we suggest some improvements in order to facilitate the possibility of accomplishing a unique solution to such inverse problems.

  19. Doppler Scintillation Measurements of Coronal Streamers Embedded in the Heliospheric Current Sheet Close to the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard; Armstrong, John W.; Gazis, Paul R.

    1994-01-01

    Doppler scintillation transients overlying the neutral line and lasting a fraction of a day (solar source of several degrees)are the apparent interplanetary manifestation of coronal streamers embedded in the heliospheric current sheet.

  20. Reconstructed global feature of an interplanetary disturbance for the full-halo coronal mass ejection event on 1999 September 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokumaru, M.; Yamashita, M.; Kojima, M.; Fujiki, K.; Nakagawa, T.

    2006-01-01

    Traveling interplanetary (IP) disturbances associated with the full-halo coronal mass ejection (CME) which occurred on September 20, 1999, were observed clearly with the 327-MHz interplanetary scintillation (IPS) system of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory of Nagoya University. In this study, we retrieved the global features of the IP disturbances by fitting a three-dimensional model to our IPS data. We obtained a best fit model, which had a bubble-like structure with a center axis shifted south with respect to the Sun Earth line and a nearly isotropic angular span. We believe this feature represents the compression region between the IP shock and the CME. The reconstructed global feature was found to be in good agreement with in situ measurements by ACE and the Nozomi spacecraft, which were situated near the earth and distant from the Earth, respectively, at the time of the full-halo CME event.

  1. Interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic Dst variations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, V. L.; Desai, U. D.

    1973-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field has been shown to influence the ring current field represented by Dst. Explorer 28 hourly magnetic field observations have been used with the hourly Dst values. The moderate geomagnetic storms of 60 gammas and quiet-time fluctuations of 10 to 30 gammas are correlated with the north to south change of the interplanetary field component perpendicular to the ecliptic. This change in the interplanetary field occurs one to three hours earlier than the corresponding change in the Dst field.

  2. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  3. Numerical simulations of the breakout model for the initiation of solar coronal mass ejections and in-situ observations of their interplanetary structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Benjamin James

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the one of the most exciting manifestations of dynamic solar activity and one of the most important solar inputs into the Sun-Earth system. Utilizing both large-scale numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of solar eruptions and in-situ magnetic field and plasma measurements by satellites, substantial progress is made on a number of outstanding scientific questions about the origin, structure, and long-term heliospheric effects of CMEs. We present results of the first successful demonstration of the breakout model for CME initiation in 3-dimensions. The 3D topology allows for the gradual accumulation of free magnetic energy and magnetic reconnection external to the highly-sheared filament channel, which triggers catastrophic, runaway expansion and leads to the eruption of the low-lying sheared flux. Previous 2.5D breakout simulations are examined in an observational context. There is excellent agreement between the simulation results and CME morphology and dynamics through the corona, the properties of eruptive flare loop systems, and in the ejecta magnetic structure and in-situ measurements of the most coherent interplanetary CMEs. The magnetic and plasma structure of the most ordered interplanetary CMES (ICMEs, also called magnetic clouds) is examined using field and plasma data from the WIND and ACE spacecraft. We find anomalously high charge states of heavy ion species present, on average, throughout the entire magnetic cloud which suggests enhanced heating close to the sun, most-likely associated with eruptive flare magnetic reconnection. A long-term study of magnetic clouds events from 1995--2003 is also presented and the magnetic flux and helicity content is analyzed for solar-cycle trends. Magnetic clouds show a solar-cycle evolution of the preference for right-handed fields during the cycle 23 solar minimum that changes to a left-handed preference during solar maximum. A time varying dynamo-type source is present

  4. Comparison of interplanetary CME arrival times and solar wind parameters based on the WSA-ENLIL model with three cone types and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Soojeong; Moon, Y.-J.; Lee, Jae-Ok; Na, Hyeonock

    2014-09-01

    We have made a comparison between coronal mass ejection (CME)-associated shock propagations based on the Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA)-ENLIL model using three cone types and in situ observations. For this we use 28 full-halo CMEs, whose cone parameters are determined and their corresponding interplanetary shocks were observed at the Earth, from 2001 to 2002. We consider three different cone types (an asymmetric cone model, an ice cream cone model, and an elliptical cone model) to determine 3-D CME cone parameters (radial velocity, angular width, and source location), which are the input values of the WSA-ENLIL model. The mean absolute error of the CME-associated shock travel times for the WSA-ENLIL model using the ice-cream cone model is 9.9 h, which is about 1 h smaller than those of the other models. We compare the peak values and profiles of solar wind parameters (speed and density) with in situ observations. We find that the root-mean-square errors of solar wind peak speed and density for the ice cream and asymmetric cone model are about 190 km/s and 24/cm3, respectively. We estimate the cross correlations between the models and observations within the time lag of ± 2 days from the shock travel time. The correlation coefficients between the solar wind speeds from the WSA-ENLIL model using three cone types and in situ observations are approximately 0.7, which is larger than those of solar wind density (cc ˜0.6). Our preliminary investigations show that the ice cream cone model seems to be better than the other cone models in terms of the input parameters of the WSA-ENLIL model.

  5. Study of cosmic ray scintillations from 5-minute data of the scintillations telescope Izmran and world-wide network stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulinsky, O. V.; Dorman, L. I.; Libin, I. Y.; Prilutsky, R. E.; Yudakhin, K. F.

    1985-01-01

    During cosmic ray propagation in interplanetary space there appear characteristic cosmic-ray intensity scintillations which are due to charged particle scattering on random inhomogeneities of the interplanetary magnetic field. The power spectra of cosmic ray scintillations on the Earth during some intervals from 1977 to 1982 (for quiet periods, for solar flares and Forbush decreases due to power shock waves) have been calculated from five-minute, one and two-hour values of the cosmic-ray intensity measured by the scintillator supertelescope IZMIRAN. The spectra were estimated by the methods of spectral analysis and by autoregressive methods which mutually control each other and make it possible not only to analyze scintillation powers at distinguished frequencies, but also to determine the behavior of spectrum slopes in some frequency ranges.

  6. Observations of the interplanetary magnetic field between 0.46 and 1 A.U. by the Mariner 10 spacecraft. Ph.D. Thesis - Catholic Univ. of Am.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.

    1976-01-01

    Almost continuous measurement of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at a sampling rate of 25 vectors/sec was performed by the magnetic field experiment onboard the Mariner 10 spacecraft during the period November 3, 1973 to April 14, 1974, comprising approximately 5-2/3 solar rotations and extending in radial distance from the sun from 1 to 0.46 AU. A clearly discernible two-sector pattern of field polarity was observed during the last 3-1/2 months of the period, with the dominant polarity toward the sun below the solar equatorial plane. Two compound high-speed solar wind streams were also present during this period, one in each magnetic field sector. Relative fluctuations of the field in magnitude and direction were found to have large time variations, but on average the relative magnitude fluctuations were approximately constant over the range of heliocentric distance covered while the relative directional fluctuations showed a slight decrease on average with increasing distance. The occurrence rate of directional discontinuities was also found to decrease with increasing radial distance from the sun.

  7. Numerical simulation of interplanetary dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chin-Chun

    This dissertation discusses investigations into the physics of the propagation of solar generated disturbances in the interplanetary medium. The motivation to initiate this study was two-fold: (1) understanding the fundamental physics of the nonlinear interactions of solar generated MHD shocks and non-homogeneous interplanetary medium, and (2) understanding the physics of solar generated disturbance effects on the Earth's environment, (i.e. the solar connection to the geomagnetic storm). In order to achieve these goals, the authors employed two numerical models to encompass these studies. In the first part, a one-dimensional MHD code with adaptive grids is used to study the evolution of interplanetary slow shocks (ISS), the interaction of a forward slow shock with a reverse slow shock, and the interaction of a fast shock with a slow shock. Results show that the slow shocks can be generated by a decreasing density, velocity or temperature perturbation or by a pressure pulse by following a forward fast shock and that slow shocks can propagate over 1 AU; results also show that the ISS never evolves into fast shocks. Interestingly, it is also found that an ISS could be 'eaten up' by an interplanetary fast shock (IFS) catching up from behind. This could be a reason that the slow shock has been difficult to observe near 1 AU. In addition, a forward slow shock could be dissipated by following a strong forward fast shock (Mach number greater than 1.7). In the second part, a fully three-dimensional (3D), time-dependent, MHD interplanetary global model (3D IGM) is used to study the relationship between different forms of solar activity and transient variations of the north-south component, Bx, of the interplanetary magnetic field, IMF, at 1 AU. One form of solar activity, the flare, is simulated by using a pressure pulse at different locations near the solar surface and observing the simulated IMF evolution of Btheta (= -Bx) at 1 AU. Results show that, for a given pressure

  8. Direct Observation of Neutron Scattering in MoNA Scintillator Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, W. F.; Mosby, S.; Frank, N.; Kuchera, A. N.; Thoennessen, M.; MoNA Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations provide an important tool for the interpretation of neutron scattering data in the MoNA and LISA arrays at NSCL. Neutron energy and trajectory are determined by time of flight and position of first light produced in the array. Neutrons elastically scattered from H and inelastically from C typically produce light above detector threshold, while those elastically scattered from C produce light below threshold (``dark scattering'') and are redirected in flight, thus lowering energy and trajectory resolution. In order to test the effectiveness of our Geant4/MENATE_R simulations, we conducted an experiment at the LANSCE facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory to observe scattering of individual neutrons with well defined energy and trajectory in 16 MoNA detector bars arranged in two different stack geometries. Neutrons with energies ranging from 0.5 to 800 MeV emerged from a 3 mm collimator in the 90m shed on the WNR 4FP15L flight path to enter the array at a well defined point. Several features of neutron scattering are compared with simulation predictions, including hit multiplicity, scattering angle, mean distance between scatters, and the effect of dark scatter redirection. Results to date will be presented. Work supported by NSF Grant PHY-1506402.

  9. The interplanetary Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Architectural design of the interplanetary internet is now underway and prototype flight testing of some of the candidate protocols is anticipated within a year. This talk will describe the current status of the project.

  10. High-latitude dayside electric fields and currents during strong northward interplanetary magnetic field - Observations and model simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, C. Robert; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    1988-01-01

    On July 23, 1983 the IMF turned strongly northward, becoming about 22 nT for several hours. Using a combined data set of ionospheric convection measurements made by the Sondre Stromfjord incoherent scatter radar and convection inferred from Greenland magnetometer measurements, the onset of the reconfiguration of the high-latitude ionospheric currents is found to occur about 3 min after the northward IMF encounters the magnetopause. The large-scale reconfiguration of currents, however, appears to evolve over a period of about 22 min. These observations and the results of numerical simulations indicate that the dayside polar-cap electric field observed during strong northward IMF is produced by a direct electrical current coupling with the solar wind.

  11. Interstellar neutrals in interplanetary space

    SciTech Connect

    Hovestadt, D.; Moebius, E. )

    1989-03-01

    The solar system is moving through the interstellar medium with a velocity of about 20 km/s. The neutral interstellar gas, which thereby penetrates the heliosphere, is subject to ionization by solar UV radiation, charge exchange with the solar wind, and electron collisions. The newly created ions are then picked by the solar wind through interaction of interstellar neutrals with the interplanetary magnetic field. The pick-up ions with their peculiar elemental composition probably also constitute the source particles of the Anomalous Cosmic Ray Component (ACR). In this report descriptions of the interaction with the solar wind are reviewed. While most of the constituents are already ionized far beyond the orbit of the Earth, neutral helium (because of its high ionization potential) approaches the Sun to {lt}1 AU. The pick-up of interstellar He{sup +} ions has recently been directly observed for the first time. The observed velocity distribution of He{sup +} extending up to twice the solar wind velocity can be explained in terms of pitch angle scattering of the ions probably by interplanetary Alven waves and subsequent adiabatic cooling in the expanding solar wind. Thermal coupling of the He{sup +} to the solar wind is negligible in the inner heliosphere. Detailed studies of the pick-up distribution provide a method to investigate the interplanetary propagation parameters and the state of the local interstellar medium.

  12. Solar wind density structure at 1 AU and comparison to Doppler scintillation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Woo, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1996-07-01

    Results of a survey of solar wind density fluctuations in different flow types observed by ISEE-3 at 1 AU are presented and compared with Doppler scintillation measurements. We consider coronal hole, plasma sheet, interstream, CME and sheath interaction region flow types. For the quasi-stationary solar wind, densities (N) and density fluctuation levels (ΔN) are low in coronal hole flow, and high in the plasma sheet containing the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The highest fluctuation levels are found in the sheath compression regions between CMEs and associated forward shocks. The streamer structure around the HCS broadens and erodes with distance from the Sun, and the broadened Doppler scintillation signature at 1 AU is in good qualitative agreement with ISEE-3 superposed epoch analysis. The observed asymmetry about the HCS is an expected result of solar wind dynamic evolution. A greater contrast between flow types is seen in ΔN levels rather than in N itself. Doppler scintillation responds to ΔN and thus provides a sensitive means of detecting interplanetary disturbances. However, we find that ΔN/N is not constant in the solar wind, and thus enhanced scintillation cannot unambiguously imply enhanced density.

  13. Relationship of the interplanetary electric field to the high-latitude ionospheric electric field and currents Observations and model simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, C. R.; Banks, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    The electrical coupling between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and ionosphere is studied. The coupling is analyzed using observations of high-latitude ion convection measured by the Sondre Stromfjord radar in Greenland and a computer simulation. The computer simulation calculates the ionospheric electric potential distribution for a given configuration of field-aligned currents and conductivity distribution. The technique for measuring F-region in velocities at high time resolution over a large range of latitudes is described. Variations in the currents on ionospheric plasma convection are examined using a model of field-aligned currents linking the solar wind with the dayside, high-latitude ionosphere. The data reveal that high-latitude ionospheric convection patterns, electric fields, and field-aligned currents are dependent on IMF orientation; it is observed that the electric field, which drives the F-region plasma curve, responds within about 14 minutes to IMF variations in the magnetopause. Comparisons of the simulated plasma convection with the ion velocity measurements reveal good correlation between the data.

  14. The First in situ Observation of Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves at High-Latitude Magnetopause during Strongly Dawnward Interplanetary Magnetic Field Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, K.-J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Wang, Y.; Vinas, A. F.; Sibeck, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first in situ observation of high-latitude magnetopause (near the northern duskward cusp) Kelvin-Helmholtz waves (KHW) by Cluster on January 12, 2003, under strongly dawnward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. The fluctuations unstable to Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) are found to propagate mostly tailward, i.e., along the direction almost 90 deg. to both the magnetosheath and geomagnetic fields, which lowers the threshold of the KHI. The magnetic configuration across the boundary layer near the northern duskward cusp region during dawnward IMF is similar to that in the low-latitude boundary layer under northward IMF, in that (1) both magnetosheath and magnetospheric fields across the local boundary layer constitute the lowest magnetic shear and (2) the tailward propagation of the KHW is perpendicular to both fields. Approximately 3-hour-long periods of the KHW during dawnward IMF are followed by the rapid expansion of the dayside magnetosphere associated with the passage of an IMF discontinuity that characterizes an abrupt change in IMF cone angle, Phi = acos (B(sub x) / absolute value of Beta), from approx. 90 to approx. 10. Cluster, which was on its outbound trajectory, continued observing the boundary waves at the northern evening-side magnetopause during sunward IMF conditions following the passage of the IMF discontinuity. By comparing the signatures of boundary fluctuations before and after the IMF discontinuity, we report that the frequencies of the most unstable KH modes increased after the discontinuity passed. This result demonstrates that differences in IMF orientations (especially in f) are associated with the properties of KHW at the high-latitude magnetopause due to variations in thickness of the boundary layer, and/or width of the KH-unstable band on the surface of the dayside magnetopause.

  15. ARRIVAL TIME CALCULATION FOR INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS WITH CIRCULAR FRONTS AND APPLICATION TO STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2009 FEBRUARY 13 ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Moestl, C.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Biernat, H. K.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Crothers, S.; Luhmann, J. G.; Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.

    2011-11-01

    One of the goals of the NASA Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is to study the feasibility of forecasting the direction, arrival time, and internal structure of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a vantage point outside the Sun-Earth line. Through a case study, we discuss the arrival time calculation of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) in the ecliptic plane using data from STEREO/SECCHI at large elongations from the Sun in combination with different geometric assumptions about the ICME front shape [fixed-{Phi} (FP): a point and harmonic mean (HM): a circle]. These forecasting techniques use single-spacecraft imaging data and are based on the assumption of constant velocity and direction. We show that for the slow (350 km s{sup -1}) ICME on 2009 February 13-18, observed at quadrature by the two STEREO spacecraft, the results for the arrival time given by the HM approximation are more accurate by 12 hr than those for FP in comparison to in situ observations of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters by STEREO/IMPACT/PLASTIC, and by 6 hr for the arrival time at Venus Express (MAG). We propose that the improvement is directly related to the ICME front shape being more accurately described by HM for an ICME with a low inclination of its symmetry axis to the ecliptic. In this case, the ICME has to be tracked to >30{sup 0} elongation to obtain arrival time errors < {+-} 5 hr. A newly derived formula for calculating arrival times with the HM method is also useful for a triangulation technique assuming the same geometry.

  16. Erratum to "Solar Sources and Geospace Consequences of Interplanetary Magnetic Clouds Observed During Solar Cycle 23-Paper 1" [J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 70(2-4) (2008) 245-253

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.; Lepping, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    One of the figures (Fig. 4) in "Solar sources and geospace consequences of interplanetary magnetic Clouds observed during solar cycle 23 -- Paper 1" by Gopalswamy et al. (2008, JASTP, Vol. 70, Issues 2-4, February 2008, pp. 245-253) is incorrect because of a software error in t he routine that was used to make the plot. The source positions of various magnetic cloud (MC) types are therefore not plotted correctly.

  17. Observations of the 3-D distribution of interplanetary electrons and ions from solar wind plasma to low energy cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Ashford, S.; Carlson, C.; Curtis, D.; Ergun, R.; Larson, D.; McFadden, J.; McCarthy, M.; Parks, G. K.

    1995-01-01

    The 3-D Plasma and Energetic Particle instrument on the GGS Wind spacecraft (launched November 1, 1994) is designed to make measurements of the full three-dimensional distribution of suprathermal electrons and ions from solar wind plasma to low energy cosmic rays, with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, good energy and angular resolution, and high time resolution. Three pairs of double-ended telescopes, each with two or three closely sandwiched passivated ion implanted silicon detectors measure electrons and ions from approximately 20 keV to greater than or equal to 300 keV. Four top-hat symmetrical spherical section electrostatic analyzers with microchannel plate detectors, a large and a small geometric factor analyzer for electrons and a similar pair for ions, cover from approximately 3 eV to 30 keV. We present preliminary observations of the electron and ion distributions in the absence of obvious solar impulsive events and upstream particles. The quiet time electron energy spectrum shows a smooth approximately power law fall-off extending from the halo population at a few hundred eV to well above approximately 100 keV The quiet time ion energy spectrum also shows significant fluxes over this energy range. Detailed 3-D distributions and their temporal variations will be presented.

  18. Interplanetary Fast Shocks and Associated Drivers Observed through the Twenty-Third Solar Minimum by WIND Over its First 2.5 Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mariani, F.; Berdichevsky, D.; Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; Vinas, A. F.

    1999-01-01

    A list of the interplanetary (IP) shocks observed by WIND from its launch (in November 1994) to May 1997 is presented. Forty two shocks were identified. The magnetohydrodynamic nature of the shocks is investigated, and the associated shock parameters and their uncertainties are accurately computed using a practical scheme which combines two techniques. These techniques are a combination of the "pre-averaged" magnetic-coplanarity, velocity-coplanarity, and the Abraham-Schrauner-mixed methods, on the one hand, and the Vinas and Scudder [1986] technique for solving the non-linear least-squares Rankine-Hugoniot shock equations, on the other. Within acceptable limits these two techniques generally gave the same results, with some exceptions. The reasons for the exceptions are discussed. It is found that the mean strength and rate of occurrence of the shocks appears to correlated with the solar cycle. Both showed a decrease in 1996 coincident with the time of the lowest ultraviolet solar radiance, indicative of solar minimum and start of solar cycle 23, which began around June 1996. Eighteen shocks appeared to be associated with corotating interaction regions (CIRs). The distribution of their shock normals showed a mean direction peaking in the ecliptic plane and with a longitude (phi(sub n)) in that plane between perpendicular to the Parker spiral and radial from the Sun. When grouped according to the sense of the direction of propagation of the shocks the mean azimuthal (longitude) angle in GSE coordinates was approximately 194 deg for the fast-forward and approximately 20 deg for the fast-reverse shocks. Another 16 shocks were determined to be driven by solar transients, including magnetic clouds. These shocks had a broader distribution of normal directions than those of the CIR cases with a mean direction close to the Sun-Earth line. Eight shocks of unknown origin had normal orientation well off the ecliptic plane. No shock propagated with longitude phi(sub n) >= 220

  19. SCINTILLATION SPECTROMETER

    DOEpatents

    Bell, P.R.; Francis, J.E.

    1960-06-21

    A portable scintillation spectrometer is described which is especially useful in radio-biological studies for determining the uptake and distribution of gamma -emitting substances in tissue. The spectrometer includes a collimator having a plurality of apertures that are hexagonal in cross section. Two crystals are provided: one is activated to respond to incident rays from the collimator; the other is not activated and shields the first from external radiation.

  20. Plastic scintillation dosimetry: Optimal selection of scintillating fibers and scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Archambault, Louis; Arsenault, Jean; Gingras, Luc; Sam Beddar, A.; Roy, Rene; Beaulieu, Luc

    2005-07-15

    Scintillation dosimetry is a promising avenue for evaluating dose patterns delivered by intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans or for the small fields involved in stereotactic radiosurgery. However, the increase in signal has been the goal for many authors. In this paper, a comparison is made between plastic scintillating fibers and plastic scintillator. The collection of scintillation light was measured experimentally for four commercial models of scintillating fibers (BCF-12, BCF-60, SCSF-78, SCSF-3HF) and two models of plastic scintillators (BC-400, BC-408). The emission spectra of all six scintillators were obtained by using an optical spectrum analyzer and they were compared with theoretical behavior. For scintillation in the blue region, the signal intensity of a singly clad scintillating fiber (BCF-12) was 120% of that of the plastic scintillator (BC-400). For the multiclad fiber (SCSF-78), the signal reached 144% of that of the plastic scintillator. The intensity of the green scintillating fibers was lower than that of the plastic scintillator: 47% for the singly clad fiber (BCF-60) and 77% for the multiclad fiber (SCSF-3HF). The collected light was studied as a function of the scintillator length and radius for a cylindrical probe. We found that symmetric detectors with nearly the same spatial resolution in each direction (2 mm in diameter by 3 mm in length) could be made with a signal equivalent to those of the more commonly used asymmetric scintillators. With augmentation of the signal-to-noise ratio in consideration, this paper presents a series of comparisons that should provide insight into selection of a scintillator type and volume for development of a medical dosimeter.

  1. Physical characteristics of interplanetary space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernov, S. N.; Logachev, Y. I.; Pisarenko, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The most important properties of the interplanetary medium are its interplanetary plasma (solar wind), magnetic field, galactic and solar cosmic rays, and micrometeorite material. Also considered is electromagnetic radiation from the sun, stars, and the galaxy.

  2. Interplanetary Lyman-beta emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, F.

    1973-01-01

    Derivation of the intensity of the diffuse hydrogen Lyman-beta glow at 1025 A which is due to resonance scattering of the solar H I 1025 A line by interstellar and interplanetary hydrogen. Two sources of neutral hydrogen are considered: the local interstellar medium interacting with the solar system, and the dust deionization of the H(+) component of the solar wind. It is shown that if the dust geometrical factor is less than or equal to five quintillionths per cm, observations of backscattered Lyman-beta radiation will provide a unique determination of the density and temperature of the local interstellar medium.

  3. Outflow structure of the quiet sun corona probed by spacecraft radio scintillations in strong scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Toda, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Masato; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Shiota, Daikou; Isobe, Hiroaki; Asai, Ayumi; Miyamoto, Mayu; Häusler, Bernd; Pätzold, Martin; Nabatov, Alexander; Yaji, Kentaro; Yamada, Manabu

    2014-06-20

    Radio scintillation observations have been unable to probe flow speeds in the low corona where the scattering of radio waves is exceedingly strong. Here we estimate outflow speeds continuously from the vicinity of the Sun to the outer corona (heliocentric distances of 1.5-20.5 solar radii) by applying the strong scattering theory to radio scintillations for the first time, using the Akatsuki spacecraft as the radio source. Small, nonzero outflow speeds were observed over a wide latitudinal range in the quiet-Sun low corona, suggesting that the supply of plasma from closed loops to the solar wind occurs over an extended area. The existence of power-law density fluctuations down to the scale of 100 m was suggested, which is indicative of well-developed turbulence which can play a key role in heating the corona. At higher altitudes, a rapid acceleration typical of radial open fields is observed, and the temperatures derived from the speed profile show a distinct maximum in the outer corona. This study opened up a possibility of observing detailed flow structures near the Sun from a vast amount of existing interplanetary scintillation data.

  4. Propagation of CMEs in the interplanetary medium: Numerical and analytical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Esparza, J. A.; Cantó, J.; González, R. F.; Lara, A.; Raga, A. C.

    2003-08-01

    We study the propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMES) from near the Sun to 1 AU by comparing results from two different models: a 1-D, hydrodynamic, single-fluid, numerical model (González-Esparza et al., 2003a) and an analytical model to study the dynamical evolution of supersonic velocity's fluctuations at the base of the solar wind applied to the propagation of CMES (Cantó et al., 2002). Both models predict that a fast CME moves initially in the inner heliosphere with a quasi-constant velocity (which has an intermediate value between the initial CME velocity and the ambient solar wind velocity ahead) until a 'critical distance' at which the CME velocity begins to decelerate approaching to the ambient solar wind velocity. This critical distance depends on the characteristics of the CME (initial velocity, density and temperature) as well as of the ambient solar wind. Given typical parameters based on observations, this critical distance can vary from 0.3 to beyond 1 AU from the Sun. These results explain the radial evolution of the velocity of fast CMEs in the inner heliosphere inferred from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations (Manoharan et al., 2001, 2003, Tokumaru et al., 2003). On the other hand, the numerical results show that a fast CME and its associated interplanetary (IP) shock follow different heliocentric evolutions: the IP shock always propagates faster than its CME driver and the latter begins to decelerate well before the shock.

  5. Size and energy distributions of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, H. Q.; Wu, D. J.; Chao, J. K.

    2007-02-01

    In observations from 1995 to 2001 from the Wind spacecraft, 144 interplanetary magnetic flux ropes were identified in the solar wind around 1 AU. Their durations vary from tens of minutes to tens of hours. These magnetic flux ropes include many small- and intermediate-sized structures and display a continuous distribution in size. Energies of these flux ropes are estimated and it is found that the distribution of their energies is a good power law spectrum with an index ~-0.87. The possible relationship between them and solar eruptions is discussed. It is suggested that like interplanetary magnetic clouds are interplanetary coronal mass ejections, the small- and intermediate-sized interplanetary magnetic flux ropes are the interplanetary manifestations of small coronal mass ejections produced in small solar eruptions. However, these small coronal mass ejections are too weak to appear clearly in the coronagraph observations as an ordinary coronal mass ejection.

  6. Observations of celestial X-ray sources above 20 keV with the high-energy scintillation spectrometer on board OSO 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Dolan, J. H.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Beall, J. H.; Maurer, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    High-energy X-ray spectra of the Crab Nebula, Cyg- XR-1, and Cen A were determined from observations with the scintillation spectrometer on board the OSO-8 satellite, launched in June, 1975. Each of these sources was observed over two periods of 8 days or more, enabling a search for day-to-day and year to year variations in the spectral and temporal characteristics of the X-ray emission. No variation in the light curve of the Crab pulsar was found from observations which span a 15-day period in March 1976, with demonstrable phase stability. Transitions associated with the binary phase of Cyg XR-1 and a large change in the emission from Con A are reported.

  7. Interplanetary medium data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Unresolved questions on the physics of solar wind and its effects on magnetospheric processes and cosmic ray propagation were addressed with hourly averaged interplanetary plasma and magnetic field data. This composite data set is described with its content and extent, sources, limits of validity, and the mutual consistency studies and normalizations to which the input data were subjected. Hourly averaged parameters were presented in the form of digital listings and 27-day plots. The listings are contained in a separately bound appendix.

  8. Interplanetary charged particle environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divine, T. N.

    1973-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art knowledge of the solar wind, solar particle events, and galactic cosmic rays is reviewed for the development of space vehicle design criteria based on these interplanetary environments. These criteria are described quantitatively in terms of intensity, flux and fluence, and their dependences on time, position and energy, and the associated probabilities and related parameters, for electrons, protons and other ions.

  9. Multipoint study of interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Kajdic, Primoz; Russell, Christopher T.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Jian, Lan K.; Luhmann, Janet G.

    2016-04-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks are driven in the heliosphere by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) and Stream Interaction Regions (SIRs). These shocks perturb the solar wind plasma, and play an active role in the acceleration of ions to suprathermal energies. Shock fronts evolve as they move from the Sun. Their surfaces can be far from uniform and be modulated by changes in the ambient solar wind (magnetic field orientation, flow velocity), shocks rippling, and perturbations upstream and downstream from the shocks, i.e., electromagnetic waves. In this work we use multipoint observations from STEREO, WIND, and MESSENGER missions to study shock characteristics at different helio-longitudes and determine the properties of the waves near them. We also determine shock longitudinal extensions and foreshock sizes. The variations of geometry along the shock surface can result in different extensions of the wave and ion foreshocks ahead of the shocks, and in different wave modes upstream and downtream of the shocks. We find that the ion foreshock can extend up to 0.2 AU ahead of the shock, and that the upstream region with modified solar wind/waves can be very asymmetric.

  10. Radio wave scintillations at equatorial regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poularikas, A. D.

    1972-01-01

    Radio waves, passing through the atmosphere, experience amplitude and phase fluctuations know as scintillations. A characterization of equatorial scintillation, which has resulted from studies of data recorded primarily in South America and equatorial Africa, is presented. Equatorial scintillation phenomena are complex because they appear to vary with time of day (pre-and postmidnight), season (equinoxes), and magnetic activity. A wider and more systematic geographical coverage is needed for both scientific and engineering purposes; therefore, it is recommended that more observations should be made at earth stations (at low-geomagnetic latitudes) to record equatorial scintillation phenomena.

  11. The interplanetary and solar magnetic field sector structures, 1962 - 1968

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field sector structure was observed from late 1962 through 1968. During this time it has been possible to study the manner in which the sector pattern and its relation to the photospheric magnetic field configuration changes from solar minimum to solar maximum. Observations were also made relating sector boundaries to specific regions on the solar disk. These and other observations related to the solar origin of the interplanetary field are briefly reviewed.

  12. Ion Acceleration and Wave-Particle Interaction at the Interplanetary Shocks Associated with the Halloween 2003 and the 20 January 2005 Events: SOHO/HSTOF, SOHO/EPHIN, and ACE/MAG Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamert, K.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Kallenbach, R.; Hilchenbach, M.; Müller-Mellin, R.; Klassen, A.; Smith, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    We analyze suprathermal and energetic ions associated with three large coronal mass ejection events during the two most active time periods in the declining phase of this solar cycle. The CMEs and associated flares were observed on Nov. 2 and Nov. 4, 2003 (Halloween events) and on January 20, 2005, by SOHO/LASCO and SOHO/EIT. The second event was accompanied by the largest flare (X28) ever observed. In particular, we focus our study on the upstream regions of the interplanetary shocks driven by these CMEs. By combining data of HSTOF and EPHIN we are able to analyze the ions in a large energy range. HSTOF measures H, He, CNO, and Fe ions in the energy range from 80 keV/e up to 100 MeV/e (for heavy ions). The EPHIN sensor detects protons and the helium isotopes in the energy range 4 to 53 MeV/amu. The temporal evolution of the spectra is resolved in steps of 2 hours corresponding to a spatial resolution in the solar wind frame of 0.02 AU. We compare these results to those associated with the Bastille Day event in 2000, and discuss them in the context of models based of quasi-linear theory of ion acceleration and wave-particle interaction at interplanetary traveling shocks.

  13. Spacecraft Radio Scintillation and Solar System Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    1993-01-01

    When a wave propagates through a turbulent medium, scattering by the random refractive index inhomogeneities can lead to a wide variety of phenomena that have been the subject of extensive study. The observed scattering effects include amplitude or intensity scintillation, phase scintillation, angular broadening, and spectral broadening, among others. In this paper, I will refer to these scattering effects collectively as scintillation. Although the most familiar example is probably the twinkling of stars (light wave intensity scintillation by turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere), scintillation has been encountered and investigated in such diverse fields as ionospheric physics, oceanography, radio astronomy, and radio and optical communications. Ever since planetary spacecraft began exploring the solar system, scintillation has appeared during the propagation of spacecraft radio signals through planetary atmospheres, planetary ionospheres, and the solar wind. Early studies of these phenomena were motivated by the potential adverse effects on communications and navigation, and on experiments that use the radio link to conduct scientific investigations. Examples of the latter are radio occultation measurements (described below) of planetary atmospheres to deduce temperature profiles, and the search for gravitational waves. However,these concerns soon gave way to the emergence of spacecraft radio scintillation as a new scientific tool for exploring small-scale dynamics in planetary atmospheres and structure in the solar wind, complementing in situ and other remote sensing spacecraft measurements, as well as scintillation measurements using natural (celestial) radio sources. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe and review the solar system spacecraft radio scintillation observations, to summarize the salient features of wave propagation analyses employed in interpreting them, to underscore the unique remote sensing capabilities and scientific relevance of

  14. Interplanetary shocks preceded by solar filament eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Kahler, S. W.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The solar and interplanetary characteristics of six interplanetary shock and energetic particle events associated with the eruptions of solar filaments lying outside active regions are discussed. The events are characterized by the familiar double-ribbon H-alpha brightenings observed with large flares, but only very weak soft X-ray and microwave bursts. Both impulsive phases and metric type II bursts are absent in all six events. The energetic particles observed near the earth appear to be accelerated predominantly in the interplanetary shocks. The interplanetary shock speeds are lower and the longitudinal extents considerably less than those of flare-associated shocks. Three of the events were associated with unusual enhancements of singly-ionized helium in the solar wind following the shocks. These enhancements appear to be direct detections of the cool filament material expelled from the corona. It is suggested that these events are part of a spectrum of solar eruptive events which include both weaker events and the large flares. Despite their unimpressive and unreported solar signatures, the quiescent filament eruptions can result in substantial space and geophysical disturbances.

  15. Ion bombardment of interplanetary dust

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.E.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1986-06-01

    It is thought that a fraction of the interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) collected in the stratosphere by high-flying aircraft represent materials ejected from comets. An investigation is conducted regarding the effects of ion bombardment on these particles, taking into account information on ion tracks and carbon in IDP's and laboratory data on charged particle bombardment of surfaces. It is found that the observational discovery of particle tracks in certain IDP's clearly indicates the exposure of these particles to approximately 10,000 years of 1-AU equivalent solar-particle fluences. If some erasure of the tracks occurs, which is likely when an IDP enters the upper atmosphere, then somewhat longer times are implied. The effects of the erosion and enhanced adhesion produced by ions are considered. 46 references.

  16. Modeling Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Pete

    2004-01-01

    Heliospheric models of Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) propagation and evolution provide an important insight into the dynamics of CMEa and are a valuable tool for interpreting interplanetary in situ observations. Moreover, they represent a virtual laboratory for exploring conditions and regions of space that are not conveniently or currently accessible by spacecraft. In this review I summarize recent advances in modeling the properties and evolution of CMEs in the solar wind. In particular, I will focus on: (1) the types of ICME models; (2) the boundary conditions that are imposed, (3) the role of the ambient solar wind; (4) predicting new phenomena; and (5) distinguishing between competing CME initiation mechanisms. I will conclude by discussing what topics will likely be important for models to address in the future.

  17. Zodiacal light as an indicator of interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, J. L.; Sparrow, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    The most striking feature of the night sky in the tropics is the zodiacal light, which appears as a cone in the west after sunset and in the east before sunrise. It is caused by sunlight scattered or absorbed by particles in the interplanetary medium. The zodiacal light is the only source of information about the integrated properties of the whole ensemble of interplanetary dust. The brightness and polarization in different directions and at different colors can provide information on the optical properties and spatial distribution of the scattering particles. The zodiacal light arises from two independent physical processes related to the scattering of solar continuum radiation by interplanetary dust and to thermal emission which arises from solar radiation that is absorbed by interplanetary dust and reemitted mainly at infrared wavelengths. Attention is given to observational parameters of zodiacal light, the methods of observation, errors and absolute calibration, and the observed characteristics of zodiacal light.

  18. Scintillators and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard T.

    2015-09-01

    Scintillators of various constructions and methods of making and using the same are provided. In some embodiments, a scintillator comprises at least one radiation absorption region and at least one spatially discrete radiative exciton recombination region.

  19. Scintillators and applications thereof

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard T.

    2014-07-15

    Scintillators of various constructions and methods of making and using the same are provided. In some embodiments, a scintillator comprises at least one radiation absorption region and at least one spatially discrete radiative exciton recombination region.

  20. Interplanetary Field Enhancements: The Interaction between Solar Wind and Interplanetary Dusty Plasma Released by Interplanetary Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hairong

    Interplanetary field enhancements (IFEs) are unique large-scale structures in the solar wind. During IFEs, the magnetic-field strength is significantly enhanced with little perturbation in the solar-wind plasma. Early studies showed that IFEs move at nearly the solar-wind speed and some IFEs detected at 0.72AU by Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) are associated with material co-orbiting with asteroid Oljato. To explain the observed IFE features, we develop and test an IFE formation hypothesis: IFEs result from interactions between the solar wind and clouds of nanoscale charged dust particles released in interplanetary collisions. This hypothesis predicts that the magnetic field drapes and the solar wind slows down in the upstream. Meanwhile the observed IFE occurrence rate should be comparable with the detectable interplanetary collision rate. Based on this hypothesis, we can use the IFE occurrence to determine the spatial distribution and temporal variation of interplanetary objects which produce IFEs. To test the hypothesis, we perform a systematic survey of IFEs in the magnetic-field data from many spacecraft. Our datasets cover from 1970s to present and from inner than 0.3AU to outer than 5 AU. In total, more than 470 IFEs are identified and their occurrences show clustering features in both space and time. We use multi-spacecraft simultaneous observations to reconstruct the magnetic-field geometry and find that the magnetic field drapes in the upstream region. The results of a superposed epoch study show that the solar wind slows down in the upstream and there is a plasma depletion region near the IFE centers. In addition, the solar-wind slowdown and plasma depletion feature are more significant in larger IFEs. The mass contained in IFEs can be estimated by balancing the solar-wind pressure force exerted on the IFEs against the solar gravity. The solar-wind slowdown resultant from the estimated mass is consistent with the result in superposed epoch study. The

  1. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    DOE PAGES

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; ...

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % andmore » 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ≈ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.« less

  2. Measurement of radiation damage of water-based liquid scintillator and liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bignell, L. J.; Diwan, M. V.; Hans, S.; Jaffe, D. E.; Rosero, R.; Vigdor, S.; Viren, B.; Worcester, E.; Yeh, M.; Zhang, C.

    2015-10-19

    Liquid scintillating phantoms have been proposed as a means to perform real-time 3D dosimetry for proton therapy treatment plan verification. We have studied what effect radiation damage to the scintillator will have upon this application. We have performed measurements of the degradation of the light yield and optical attenuation length of liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator after irradiation by 201 MeV proton beams that deposited doses of approximately 52 Gy, 300 Gy, and 800 Gy in the scintillator. Liquid scintillator and water-based liquid scintillator (composed of 5% scintillating phase) exhibit light yield reductions of 1.74 ± 0.55 % and 1.31 ± 0.59 % after ≈ 800 Gy of proton dose, respectively. Some increased optical attenuation was observed in the irradiated samples, the measured reduction to the light yield is also due to damage to the scintillation light production. Based on our results and conservative estimates of the expected dose in a clinical context, a scintillating phantom used for proton therapy treatment plan verification would exhibit a systematic light yield reduction of approximately 0.1% after a year of operation.

  3. Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, K. H.

    1972-01-01

    Early theoretical work of Parker is presented along with the observational evidence supporting his Archimedes spiral model. Variations present in the interplanetary magnetic field from the spiral angle are related to structures in the solar wind. The causes of these structures are found to be either nonuniform radial solar wind flow or the time evolution of the photospheric field. Coronal magnetic models are related to the connection between the solar magnetic field and the interplanetary magnetic field. Direct extension of the solar field-magnetic nozzle controversy is discussed along with the coronal magnetic models. Effects of active regions on the interplanetary magnetic field is discussed with particular reference to the evolution of interplanetary sectors. Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude variations are shown throughout the solar cycle. The percentage of time the field magnitude is greater than 10 gamma is shown to closely parallel sunspot number. The sun's polar field influence on the interplanetary field and alternative views of the magnetic field structure out of the ecliptic plane are presented. In addition, a variety of significantly different interplanetary field structures are discussed.

  4. Scintillator materials for calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.J.

    1994-09-01

    Requirements for fast, dense scintillator materials for calorimetry in high energy physics and approaches to satisfying these requirements are reviewed with respect to possible hosts and luminescent species. Special attention is given to cerium-activated crystals, core-valence luminescence, and glass scintillators. The present state of the art, limitations, and suggestions for possible new scintillator materials are presented.

  5. Scintillator manufacture at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Mellott, K.; Bross, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.

    1998-08-01

    A decade of research into plastic scintillation materials at Fermilab is reviewed. Early work with plastic optical fiber fabrication is revisited and recent experiments with large-scale commercial methods for production of bulk scintillator are discussed. Costs for various forms of scintillator are examined and new development goals including cost reduction methods and quality improvement techniques are suggested.

  6. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  7. The interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Large-scale properties of the interplanetary magnetic field as determined by the solar wind velocity structure are examined. The various ways in which magnetic fields affect phenomena in the solar wind are summarized. The dominant role of high and low velocity solar wind streams that persist, with fluctuations and evolution, for weeks or months is emphasized. It is suggested that for most purposes the sector structure is better identified with the stream structure than with the magnetic polarity and that the polarity does not necessarily change from one velocity sector to the next. Several mechanisms that might produce the stream structure are considered. The interaction of the high and low velocity streams is analyzed in a model that is steady state when viewed in a frame that corotates with the sun.

  8. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  9. Scintillation Effects on Space Shuttle GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Kramer, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    Irregularities in ionospheric electron density result in variation in amplitude and phase of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, or scintillation. GPS receivers tracking scintillated signals may lose carrier phase or frequency lock in the case of phase sc intillation. Amplitude scintillation can cause "enhancement" or "fading" of GPS signals and result in loss of lock. Scintillation can occur over the equatorial and polar regions and is a function of location, time of day, season, and solar and geomagnetic activity. Mid latitude regions are affected only very rarely, resulting from highly disturbed auroral events. In the spring of 1998, due to increasing concern about scintillation of GPS signals during the upcoming solar maximum, the Space Shuttle Program began to assess the impact of scintillation on Collins Miniaturized Airborne GPS Receiver (MAGR) units that are to replace Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN) units on the Space Shuttle orbiters. The Shuttle Program must determine if scintillation effects pose a threat to safety of flight and mission success or require procedural and flight rule changes. Flight controllers in Mission Control must understand scintillation effects on GPS to properly diagnose "off nominal" GPS receiver performance. GPS data from recent Space Shuttle missions indicate that the signals tracked by the Shuttle MAGR manifest scintillation. Scintillation is observed as anomalous noise in velocity measurements lasting for up to 20 minutes on Shuttle orbit passes and are not accounted for in the error budget of the MAGR accuracy parameters. These events are typically coincident with latitude and local time occurrence of previously identified equatorial spread F within about 20 degrees of the magnetic equator. The geographic and seasonal history of these events from ground-based observations and a simple theoretical model, which have potential for predicting events for operational purposes, are reviewed.

  10. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn2O3 and Sn3O4. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust.

  11. Tin in a chondritic interplanetary dust particle

    SciTech Connect

    Rietmeijer, F.J.M. )

    1989-03-01

    Submicron platey Sn-rich grains are present in chondritic porous interplanetary dust particle (IDP) W7029 A and it is the second occurrence of a tin mineral in a stratospheric micrometeorite. Selected Area Electron Diffraction data for the Sn-rich grains match with Sn{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The oxide(s) may have formed in the solar nebula when tin metal catalytically supported reduction of CO or during flash heating on atmospheric entry of the IDP. The presence of tin is consistent with enrichments for other volatile trace elements in chondritic IDPs and may signal an emerging trend toward nonchondritic volatile element abundances in chondritic IDPs. The observation confirms small-scale mineralogical heterogeneity in fine-grained chondritic porous interplanetary dust. 27 refs.

  12. Assessment of scintillation proxy maps for a scintillation study during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions over Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabayo, Emirant B.; Jurua, Edward; Cilliers, Pierre J.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this paper is demonstrate the validity and usefulness of scintillation proxies derived from IGS data, through its comparison with data from dedicated scintillation monitors and its application to GNSS scintillation patterns. The paper presents scintillation patterns developed by using data from the dedicated scintillation monitors of the scintillation network decision aid (SCINDA) network, and proxy maps derived from IGS GPS data for 2011 and 2012 over low latitude stations in Uganda. The amplitude and phase scintillation indicies (S4 and σΦ) were obtained from the Novatel GSV4004B ionospheric scintillation and total electron content (TEC) monitor managed by SCINDA at Makerere (0.340N, 32.570E). The corresponding IGS GPS proxy data were obtained from the receivers at Entebbe (0.040N, 32.440E) and Mbarara (0.600S, 30.740E). The derived amplitude (S4p) and phase (sDPR) scintillation proxy maps were compared with maps of S4 and σΦ during geomagnetic storms (moderate and strong) and geomagnetically quiet conditions. The scintillation patterns using S4 and σΦ and their respective proxies revealed similar diurnal and seasonal patterns of strong scintillation occurrence. The peaks of scintillation occurrence with mean values in the range 0.3 < (S4p , sDPR) ≤ 0.6 were observed during nighttime (17:00-22:00 UT) and in the months of March-April and September-October. The results also indicate that high level scintillations occur during geomagnetically disturbed (moderate and strong) and quiet conditions over the Ugandan region. The results show that SCINDA and IGS based scintillation patterns reveal the same nighttime and seasonal occurrence of irregularities over Uganda irrespective of the geomagnetic conditions. Therefore, the amplitude and phase scintillation proxies presented here can be used to fill gaps in low-latitude data where there are no data available from dedicated scintillation receivers, irrespective of the geomagnetic conditions.

  13. Equatorial scintillations: advances since ISEA-6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Our understanding of the morphology of equatorial scintillations has advanced due to more intensive observations at the equatorial anomaly locations in the different longitude zones. The unmistakable effect of the sunspot cycle in controlling irregularity belt width and electron concentration responsible for strong scintillation in the controlling the magnitude of scintillations has been recognized by interpreting scintillation observations inthe light of realistic models of total electron content at various longitudes. A hypothesis based on the alignment of the solar terminator with the geomagnetic flux tubes as an indicator of enhanced scintillation occurrence and another based on the influence of a transequatorial thermospheric neutral wind have been postulated to describe the observed longitudinal variation. A distinct class of equatorial irregularities known as the bottomside sinusoidal (BSS) type was identified. These irregularities occur in very large patches, sometimes in excess of several thousand kilometers in the E-W direction and are associated with frequency spread on ionograms. Scintillations caused by such irregularities exist only in the VHF band, exhibit Fresnel oscillations in intensity spectra and are found to give rise to extremely long durations (approx. several hours) of uninterrrupted scintillations.

  14. SCINTILLATION ARCS IN LOW-FREQUENCY OBSERVATIONS OF THE TIMING-ARRAY MILLISECOND PULSAR PSR J0437–4715

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, N. D. R.; Ord, S. M.; Tremblay, S. E.; McSweeney, S. J.; Tingay, S. J.

    2016-02-10

    Low-frequency observations of pulsars provide a powerful means for probing the microstructure in the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). Here we report on high-resolution dynamic spectral analysis of our observations of the timing-array millisecond pulsar PSR J0437–4715 with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), enabled by our recently commissioned tied-array beam processing pipeline for voltage data recorded from the high time resolution mode of the MWA. A secondary spectral analysis reveals faint parabolic arcs akin to those seen in high-frequency observations of pulsars with the Green Bank and Arecibo telescopes. Data from Parkes observations at a higher frequency of 732 MHz reveal a similar parabolic feature with a curvature that scales approximately as the square of the observing wavelength (λ{sup 2}) to the MWA's frequency of 192 MHz. Our analysis suggests that scattering toward PSR J0437–4715 predominantly arises from a compact region about 115 pc from the Earth, which matches well with the expected location of the edge of the Local Bubble that envelopes the local Solar neighborhood. As well as demonstrating new and improved pulsar science capabilities of the MWA, our analysis underscores the potential of low-frequency pulsar observations for gaining valuable insights into the local ISM and for characterizing the ISM toward timing-array pulsars.

  15. Radio scintillations observed during atmospheric occultations of Voyager: Internal gravity waves at Titan and magnetic field orientations at Jupiter and Saturn. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinson, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The refractive index of planetary atmospheres at microwave frequencies is discussed. Physical models proposed for the refractive irregularities in the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere serve to characterize the atmospheric scattering structures, and are used subsequently to compute theoretical scintillation spectra for comparison with the Voyager occultation measurements. A technique for systematically analyzing and interpreting the signal fluctuations observed during planetary occultations is presented and applied to process the dual-wavelength data from the Voyager radio occultations by Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan. Results concerning the plasma irregularities in the upper ionospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are reported. The measured orientation of the irregularities is used to infer the magnetic field direction at several locations in the ionospheres of these two planets; the occultation measurements conflict with the predictions of Jovian magnetic field models, but generally confirm current models of Saturn's field. Wave parameters, including the vertical fluxes of energy and momentum, are estimated, and the source of the internal gravity waves discovered in Titan's upper atmosphere is considered.

  16. Laboratory studies of interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are a form of primitive extraterrestrial material. In spite of the formidable experimental problems in working with particles that are too small to be seen with the naked eye, it has proven possible to obtain considerable information concerning their properties and possible origins. Dust particles collected in the stratosphere were reviewed. These particles are the best available samples of interplanetary dust and were studied using a variety of analytical techniques.

  17. Validating the use of scintillation proxies to study ionospheric scintillation over the Ugandan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabayo, Emirant B.; Jurua, Edward; Cilliers, Pierre J.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we compare the standard scintillation indices (S4 and σΦ) from a SCINDA receiver with scintillation proxies (S4p and | sDPR |) derived from two IGS GPS receivers. Amplitude (S4) and phase (σΦ) scintillation data were obtained from the SCINDA installed at Makerere University (0.34°N, 32.57°E). The corresponding amplitude (S4p) and phase (| sDPR |) scintillation proxies were derived from data archived by IGS GPS receivers installed at Entebbe (0.04°N, 32.44°E) and Mbarara (0.60°S, 30.74°E). The results show that for most of the cases analysed in this study, σΦ and | sDPR | are in agreement. Amplitude scintillation occurrence estimated using the S4p are fairly consistent with the standard S4, mainly between 17:00 UT and 21:00 UT, despite a few cases of over and under estimation of scintillation levels by S4p. Correlation coefficients between σΦ and the | sDPR | proxy revealed positive correlation. Generally, S4p and S4 exhibits both moderate and strong positive correlation. TEC depletions associated with equatorial plasma bubbles are proposed as the cause of the observed scintillation over the region. These equatorial plasma bubbles were evident along the ray paths to satellites with PRN 2, 15, 27 and 11 as observed from MBAR and EBBE. In addition to equatorial plasma bubbles, atmospheric gravity waves with periods similar to those of large scale traveling ionospheric disturbances were also observed as one of the mechanisms for scintillation occurrence. The outcome of this study implies that GPS derived scintillation proxies can be used to quantify scintillation levels in the absence of standard scintillation data in the equatorial regions.

  18. Interplanetary shocks and solar wind extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vats, Hari

    The interplanetary shocks have a very high correlation with the annual sunspot numbers during the solar cycle; however the correlation falls very low on shorter time scale. Thus poses questions and difficulty in the predictability. Space weather is largely controlled by these interplanetary shocks, solar energetic events and the extremes of solar wind. In fact most of the solar wind extremes are related to the solar energetic phenomena. It is quite well understood that the energetic events like flares, filament eruptions etc. occurring on the Sun produce high speed extremes both in terms of density and speed. There is also high speed solar wind steams associated with the coronal holes mainly because the magnetic field lines are open there and the solar plasma finds it easy to escape from there. These are relatively tenuous high speed streams and hence create low intensity geomagnetic storms of higher duration. The solar flares and/or filament eruptions usually release excess coronal mass into the interplanetary medium and thus these energetic events send out high density and high speed solar wind which statistically found to produce more intense storms. The other extremes of solar wind are those in which density and speed are much lower than the normal values. Several such events have been observed and are found to produce space weather consequences of different kind. It is found that such extremes are more common around the maximum of solar cycle 20 and 23. Most of these have significantly low Alfven Mach number. This article is intended to outline the interplanetary and geomagnetic consequences of observed by ground based and satellite systems for the solar wind extremes.

  19. The Analysis of Data from Voyager's Ultraviolet Spectrometers: The Trend of Observed Interplanetary Lyman-alpha Intensity with Increasing Heliocentric Distance for Multiple Viewing Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, C. R.; Fayock, B.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    The motivation for this project was simple: to reduce raw data from the Ultraviolet Spectrometers on both Voyager Spacecraft to verify the results of a simulation of Lyman-alpha radiative transfer within a 3D MHD kinetic-neutral model of the heliosphere created at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The heliospheric model, which self-consistently includes the interaction between ionized and neutral hydrogen, outputs a density map of neutral hydrogen. The Monte Carlo radiative transfer model then simulates the propagation and scattering of millions of photons through this density map and outputs the relative number of photons that should be seen by spacecraft at any point within 1000 AU of the sun. My project was to learn how to analyze the raw Voyager data and compare it to these simulations. There were several stages of analysis necessary to reduce to useful data. Records containing signals from sources other than the interplanetary medium, such as stars and planets, were discarded. The remaining records were averaged along regional lines of sight to achieve better signal to noise. The spectra were then corrected for inherent device flaws, such as channel-to-channel variations in sensitivity (fixed-pattern noise), dark counts due to the radioisotope thermal electric generator, and imperfections in the scattering of the diffraction grating. Records were then sorted and averaged to create a full-sky map consisting of 18 regions for each specified radial bin to match the cell spacing of the radiative transfer model. The results were then normalized to solar minimum to reduce variations in the data due to solar cycle oscillations. Initial results indicate an unexpected deviation from the models, but more analysis must be performed to determine if the discrepancy comes from the normalization of the data, insufficient angular resolution of the radiative transfer model, or the physics of the models themselves. Future work involves increasing the resolution of the

  20. Density fluctuations in solar wind flow types at 1 AU: Comparison to Doppler scintillation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Woo, R.; Neugebauer, M.

    1995-01-01

    Density fluctuations with periods 10 minutes to 1 hour have been investigated in ISEE 3 plasma measurements of solar wind flows at l AU. Coronal hole, interstream, plasma sheet, coronal mass ejection, and interaction region flow types are considered. The ISEE 3 results support the interpretation of the large-scale variations in density fluctuations observed by Doppler scintillation measurement techniques inside 0.2 AU. The highest absolute and relative density fluctuations occur ahead of and within the plasma from coronal mass ejections, with the maximum values occurring between the associated interplanetary shocks and the driver gas. For the quasi-stationary solar wind, density and relative density fluctuations are highest around the heliospheric current sheet and lowest in the high-speed coronal flow. Superposed epoch analysis shows that the region of enhanced density fluctuations and its abrupt boundaries observed in the vicinity of the heliospheric current sheet near the Sun persists to l AU, providing further support for the filamentary nature of the extensions of coronal streamers. The results of this study confirm the advantages of using density fluctuations rather than density as a tracer of solar wind flows with differing origins at the Sun and as a detector of propagating interplanetary disturbances.

  1. New interplanetary proton fluence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feynman, Joan; Armstrong, T. P.; Dao-Gibner, L.; Silverman, S.

    1990-01-01

    A new predictive engineering model for the interplanetary fluence of protons with above 10 MeV and above 30 MeV is described. The data set used is a combination of observations made from the earth's surface and from above the atmosphere between 1956 and 1963 and observations made from spacecraft in the vicinity of earth between 1963 and 1985. The data cover a time period three times as long as the period used in earlier models. With the use of this data set the distinction between 'ordinary proton events' and 'anomalously large events' made in earlier work disappears. This permitted the use of statistical analysis methods developed for 'ordinary events' on the entire data set. The greater than 10 MeV fluences at 1 AU calculated with the new model are about twice those expected on the basis of models now in use. At energies above 30 MeV, the old and new models agree. In contrast to earlier models, the results do not depend critically on the fluence from any one event and are independent of sunspot number. Mission probability curves derived from the fluence distribution are presented.

  2. Worst-Case GPS Scintillations on the Ground Estimated from Radio Occultation Observations of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC During 2007-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. Y.; Chen, S. P.; Yeh, W. H.; Tsai, H. F.; Rajesh, P. K.

    2016-07-01

    The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) satellite probes the S4 scintillation index profile of GPS signals by using the radio occultation (RO) technique. In this study, for practical use on the Earth's surface, a method is developed to convert and integrate the probed RO S4 index, so obtaining the scintillation on the ground. To estimate the worst case, the maximum value on each profile probed by F3/C, which is termed S4max, is isolated. The isolated data are further used to construct the global three-dimensional distributions of S4max for various local times, seasons, solar activities, and locations. The converted S4max for the first time estimates the global distribution of ionospheric scintillations in the GPS L1 band C/A code signal on the ground. The results show that the worst-case scintillations appear within the low-latitude region of ±30°N, peaking around ±20°N magnetic latitude; they begin at 1900 MLT, reach their maximum at 2100 MLT, and vanish by about 0200-0300 MLT. The most pronounced low-latitude scintillation occurs over the South American and African sectors.

  3. Shifting scintillator neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Clonts, Lloyd G; Cooper, Ronald G; Crow, Jr., Morris Lowell; Hannah, Bruce W; Hodges, Jason P; Richards, John D; Riedel, Richard A

    2014-03-04

    Provided are sensors and methods for detecting thermal neutrons. Provided is an apparatus having a scintillator for absorbing a neutron, the scintillator having a back side for discharging a scintillation light of a first wavelength in response to the absorbed neutron, an array of wavelength-shifting fibers proximate to the back side of the scintillator for shifting the scintillation light of the first wavelength to light of a second wavelength, the wavelength-shifting fibers being disposed in a two-dimensional pattern and defining a plurality of scattering plane pixels where the wavelength-shifting fibers overlap, a plurality of photomultiplier tubes, in coded optical communication with the wavelength-shifting fibers, for converting the light of the second wavelength to an electronic signal, and a processor for processing the electronic signal to identify one of the plurality of scattering plane pixels as indicative of a position within the scintillator where the neutron was absorbed.

  4. High Amplitude Events in relation to Interplanetary disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rajesh Kumar; Agarwal Mishra, Rekha

    2012-07-01

    The Sun emits the variable solar wind which interacts with the very local interstellar medium to form the heliosphere. Hence variations in solar activity strongly influence interplanetary space, from the Sun's surface out to the edge of the heliosphere. Superimposed on the solar wind are mass ejections from the Sun and/or its corona which, disturb the interplanetary medium - hence the name "interplanetary disturbances". Interplanetary disturbances are the sources of large-scale particle acceleration, of disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere, of modulations of galactic cosmic rays in short, they are the prime focus for space weather studies. The investigation deals with the study of cosmic ray intensity, solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field parameters variation due to interplanetary disturbances (magnetic clouds) during an unusual class of days i.e. high amplitude anisotropic wave train events. The high amplitude anisotropic wave train events in cosmic ray intensity has been identified using the data of ground based Goose Bay neutron monitor and studied during the period 1981-94. Even though, the occurrence of high amplitude anisotropic wave trains does not depend on the onset of interplanetary magnetic clouds. But the possibility of occurrence of these events cannot be overlooked during the periods of interplanetary magnetic cloud events. It is observed that solar wind velocity remains higher (> 300) than normal and interplanetary magnetic field B remains lower than normal on the onset of interplanetary magnetic cloud during the passage of these events. It is also noted from the superposed epoch analysis of cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic activity for high amplitude anisotropic wave train events during the onset of interplanetary magnetic clouds that the increase in cosmic ray intensity and decrease in geomagnetic activity start not at the onset of magnetic clouds but after few days. The north south component of IMF (Bz), IMF (B), proton

  5. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  6. Discovery of nuclear tracks in interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Prior to capture by the Earth's atmosphere individual interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) have allegedly spent up to 10 to the 5th power years as discrete bodies within the interplanetary medium. Observation of tracks in IDP's in the form of solar flare tracks would provide hitherto unknown data about micrometeorites such as: (1) whether an IDP existed in space as an individual particle or as part of a larger meteroid; (2) the degree to which a particle was heated during the trauma of atmospheric entry; (3) residence time of an IDP within the interplanetary medium; and (4) possible hints as to the pre-accretional exposure of component mineral grains to solar or galactic irradiation. Using transmission electron microscopy tracks in several micrometeorites have been successfully identified. All of the studied particles had been retrieved from the stratosphere by U-2 aircraft. Three pristine IDP's (between 5 and 15 micro m diameter) have so far been searched for solar flare tracks, and they have been found in the two smaller particles U2-20B11 (11 micro m) and U2-20B37 (8 micro m).

  7. Coronal and interplanetary magnetic field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1999-06-01

    We provide an historical perspective of coronal and interplanetary field models. The structure of the interplanetary medium is controlled by the coronal magnetic field from which the solar wind emanates. This field has been described with ``Source Surface'' (SS) and ``Heliospheric Current Sheet'' (HCS) models. The ``Source Surface'' model was the first to open the solar field into interplanetary space using volumetric coronal currents, which were a ``source'' for the IMF. The Heliospheric Current Sheet (HCS) model provided a more physically realistic solution. The field structure was primarily a dipole, however, without regard to sign, the shape appeared to be a monopole pattern (uniform field stress). Ulysses has observed this behavior. Recently, Sheeley and Wang have utilized the HCS field model to calculate solar wind structures fairly accurately. Fisk, Schwadron, and Zurbuchen have investigated small differences from the SS model. These differences allow field line motions reminiscent of a ``timeline'' or moving ``streakline'' in a flow field, similar to the smoke pattern generated by a skywriting plane. Differences exist in the magnetic field geometry, from the Parker ``garden hose'' model affecting both the ``winding angle'' as well as the amount of latitudinal ``wandering.''

  8. Remote radio tracking of interplanetary CMEs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Kaiser, M. L.; Fainberg, J.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Stone, R. G.

    1997-01-01

    Two examples of type 2 radio emissions associated with the propagation of earth-directed coronal mass ejections (CMEs) through the interplanetary medium are illustrated and compared. The two type 2 radio events were observed by WIND/WAVES in January and May of 1997 and exhibit very different radio characteristics. The analyses presented here use the novel approach of presenting the radio data as a function of the inverse of the frequency and time, which facilitates remote radio tracking of the CME through the interplanetary medium. It is demonstrated unequivocally that for the May 1997 event, the radio emissions were generated at the fundamental, and harmonic of the plasma frequency in the ambient plasma upstream of the CME-driven shock. For the January 1997 event, evidence is presented that some of the radio emissions were generated while the CME-driven shock passed through a corotating interaction region (CIR). This is the first time that type 2 radio emissions were shown to originate in a specific interplanetary structure.

  9. Dusty Plasma Effects in the Interplanetary Medium?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ingrid; Issautier, Karine; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Le Chat, Gaétan; Czechowski, Andrzej; Zaslavsky, Arnaud; Zouganelis, Yannis; Belheouane, Soraya

    Cosmic dust particles exist in a variety of compositions and sizes in the interplanetary medium. There is little direct information on the composition, but those interplanetary dust particles that are collected in the upper Earth’s atmosphere and can be studied in the laboratory typically have an irregular, sometimes porous structure on scales <100 nm. They contain magnesium-rich silicates and silicon carbide, iron-nickel and iron-sulfur compounds, calcium- and aluminum oxides, and chemical compounds that contain a large mass fraction of carbon (e.g. carbonaceous species). A fraction of the dust originates from comets, but because of their bulk material temperature of about 280 K near 1 AU, most icy compounds have disappeared. The dust particles are embedded in the solar wind, a hot plasma with at 1 AU kinetic temperatures around 100 000 K and flow direction nearly radial outward from the Sun at supersonic bulk velocities around 400 km/s. Since the dust particles carry an electric surface charge they are subject to electromagnetic forces and the nanodust particles are efficiently accelerated to velocities of order of solar wind speed. The acceleration of the nanodust is similar, but not identical to the formation of pick-up ions. The S/WAVES radio wave instrument on STEREO measured a flux of nanodust at 1 AU [1]. The nanodust probably forms in the region inward of 1 AU and is accelerated by the solar wind as discussed. We also discuss the different paths of dust - plasma interactions in the interplanetary medium and their observations with space experiments. Comparing these interactions we show that the interplanetary medium near 1 AU can in many cases be described as “dust in plasma" rather than "dusty plasma”. [1] S. Belheouane, N. Meyer-Vernet, K. Issautier, G. Le Chat, A. Zaslavsky, Y. Zouganelis, I. Mann, A. Czechowski: Dynamics of nanoparticles detected at 1 AU by S/WAVES onboard STEREO spacecraft, in this session.

  10. Interplanetary Microlaser Transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of an asynchronous (i.e. independently firing) interplanetary laser transponder, capable of ranging between Earth and Mars and using the automated SLR2000 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) system as an Earth base station, has been suggested. Since that time, we have received a small amount of discretionary funding to further explore the transponder concept and to develop and test an engineering breadboard. Candidate operational scenarios for acquiring and tracking the opposite laser terminal over interplanetary distances have been developed, and breadboard engineering parameters were chosen to reflect the requirements of an Earth-Mars link Laboratory tests have been devised to simulate the Earth- Mars link between two independent SLR2000 transceivers and to demonstrate the transfer of range and time in single photon mode. The present paper reviews the concept of the asynchronous microlaser transponder, the transponder breadboard design, an operational scenario recently developed for an asteroid rendezvous, and the laboratory test setup. The optical head of the transponder breadboard fits within a cylinder roughly 15 cm in diameter and 32 cm in length and is mounted in a commercial two axis gimbal driven by two computer-controlled stepper motors which allows the receiver optical axis to be centered on a simulated Earth image. The optical head is built around a small optical bench which supports a 14.7 cm diameter refractive telescope, a prototype 2 kHz SLR2000 microlaser transmitter, a quadrant microchannel plate photomultiplier (MCP/PMT), a CCD array camera, spatial and spectral filters, assorted lenses and mirrors, and protective covers and sun shields. The microlaser is end-pumped by a fiber-coupled diode laser array. An annular mirror is employed as a passive transmit/receive (T/R) switch in an aperture-sharing arrangement wherein the transmitted beam passes through the central hole and illuminates only the central 2.5 cm of the common telescope

  11. Coronal and interplanetary Type 2 radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cane, H. V.

    1987-09-01

    Several observations suggest that the disturbances which generate coronal (meter wavelength) type II radio bursts are not driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). A new analysis using a large sample of metric radio bursts and associated soft X-ray events provides further support for the original hypothesis that type II-producing disturbances are blast waves generated at the time of impulsive energy release in flares. Interplanetary (IP) shocks, however, are closely associated with CMEs. The shocks responsible for IP type II events (observed at kilometer wavelengths) are associated with the most energetic CMEs.

  12. Adaptive interplanetary orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Timothy Price

    This work documents the development of a real-time interplanetary orbit determination monitoring algorithm for detecting and identifying changes in the spacecraft dynamic and measurement environments. The algorithm may either be utilized in a stand-alone fashion as a spacecraft monitor and hypothesis tester by navigators or may serve as a component in an autonomous adaptive orbit determination architecture. In either application, the monitoring algorithm serves to identify the orbit determination filter parameters to be modified by an offline process to restore the operational model accuracy when the spacecraft environment changes unexpectedly. The monitoring algorithm utilizes a hierarchical mixture-of-experts to regulate a multilevel bank organization of extended Kalman filters. Banks of filters operate on the hierarchy top-level and are composed of filters with configurations representative of a specific environment change called a macromode. Fine differences, or micromodes, within the macromodes are represented by individual filter configurations. Regulation is provided by two levels of single-layer neural networks called gating networks. A single top-level gating network regulates the weighting among macromodes and each bank uses a gating network to regulate member filters internally. Experiments are conducted on the Mars Pathfinder cruise trajectory environment using range and Doppler data from the Deep Space Network. The experiments investigate the ability of the hierarchical mixture-of-experts to identify three environment macromodes: (1) unmodeled impulsive maneuvers, (2) changes in the solar radiation pressure dynamics, and (3) changes in the measurement noise strength. Two methods of initializing the gating networks are examined in each experiment. One method gives the neurons associated with all filters equivalent synaptic weight. The other method places greater weight on the operational filter initially believed to model the spacecraft environment. The

  13. Interplanetary MeV electrons of Jovian origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Trainor, J. H.; Webber, W. R.; Roelof, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Observations of low energy electron increases observed in interplanetary space on Pioneer 10 are reported as it approached Jupiter. These discrete bursts were several hundred times the normal quiet-time electron flux, and became more frequent as one approached Jupiter resulting in the quasi-continuous presence of large fluxes of these electrons in interplanetary space. It is noted that the integrated flux from quiet-time electrons is comparable to the integrated ambient electron flux itself. In addition, the spectrum of electrons observed in Jupiter's magnetosphere, on Pioneer 10 in interplanetary space near Jupiter, for the quiet-time increases near the earth, and for the ambient electron spectrum are all remarkably similar. These two lines of evidence suggest the possibility that Jupiter could be the source of most of the ambient electrons at low energies.

  14. Polarization of the Interplanetary Dust Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Hadamcik, E.

    2015-12-01

    The interplanetary dust cloud is visible through its scattered light (the zodiacal light) at visible wavelengths. Brightness observations lead to equilibrium temperature and albedo of the particles and their variation as a function of the heliocentric distance. The light scattered by this optically thin medium is linearly polarized with negative values of the degree of linear polarization, PQ, in the backscattering region. We will review the zodiacal light photopolarimetric observations from the whole line-of-sight integrated values to the local values retrieved by inversion. Whenever available, the local PQ variation as a function of the phase angle presents a phase curve with a small negative branch and large positive branch similar to comets or asteroids. PQ does not seem to show a wavelength variation. The maximum of polarization decreases with decreasing heliocentric distance. A circular polarization signal may be present in parts of the sky. Both numerical simulations and laboratory experiments of light scattering by irregular particles have been performed to constrain the interplanetary dust properties based on their polarimetric signature. These studies indicate that mixtures of low-absorption (Mg-silicates) and high-absorption (carbonaceous) particles can explain the intensity and polarimetric observations of the zodiacal cloud. The variations with the heliocentric distance may be due to decreasing carbonaceous content of the dust cloud. Such models would favor a significant proportion of aggregates and absorbing particles in the interplanetary dust medium, indicative of a major cometary dust contribution. The exact origin (asteroidal, cometary, interstellar) and physical properties of the dust particles contributing to the zodiacal cloud is still debated and will be more constrained with future observations. New high-resolution systems will monitor the zodiacal light from the ground and new results are expected from upcoming space missions.

  15. Mercury's sodium exosphere and interplanetary dust distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, S.; Watanabe, H.; Ogawa, G.; Yoshikawa, I.

    2009-12-01

    The interplanetary dust (IPD) distribution in the inner solar system is not yet well understood because of lack of direct dust measurements in the inner solar system and so one needs to rely on zodiacal light observations that are difficult to interpret. Mercury has a thin and unstable atmosphere, and the source processes of Na in its atmosphere are unclear. Results of past observations have revealed that the atmospheric Na density has no or low correlation with the solar flux, sunspot number, heliocentric distance, or solar radiation pressure. We show that the variability of Mercury’s atmospheric Na density depends strongly on the IPD distribution. That is, Na density is low (high) when Mercury is far away from (close to) the symmetry plane of IPD, and so one can infer the IPD distribution near Mercury orbit from the temporal variability of Na density in Mercury’s atmosphere. In this presentation, we report the new result of observation performed from 2008 to 2009, and the correlation between sodium density in Mercury's exosphere and interplanetary dust distribution near Mercury. Additionally, we plan to observe the emission from Mercury's exosphere at Okayama Astrophysical Observatory in Japan in the Messenger 3rd flyby. We will also report preliminary results (if we would succeed in the observation.)

  16. GNSS Phase Scintillation and Cycle Slips Occurrence at High Latitudes: Climatology and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, Paul; Jayachandran, Periyadan T.; Chadwick, Richard; Kelly, Todd D.

    2014-05-01

    Space weather impacts the operation of modern technology that relies on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Ionospheric scintillation (rapid fluctuation of radio wave amplitude and phase) degrades GPS positional accuracy and causes cycle slips leading to loss of lock that affects performance of radio communication and navigation systems. At high latitudes, GPS scintillation and total electron content has been monitored by the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN). GPS phase scintillation and cycle slips, as a function of magnetic latitude and local time, occur on the dayside in the ionospheric cusp, in the nightside auroral oval, and in the polar cap. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections and corotating interaction regions on the leading edge of high-speed streams are closely correlated with the occurrence of scintillation at high latitudes. Results of a superposed epoch analysis of time series of phase scintillation and cycle slips occurrence keyed by arrival times of high speed solar wind streams and interplanetary coronal mass ejections are presented. Based on these results, a method of probabilistic forecasting of high-latitude phase scintillation occurrence is proposed.

  17. Characterization of the scintillation anisotropy in crystalline stilbene scintillator detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, P.; Brubaker, E.

    2016-11-23

    This study reports a series of measurements that characterize the directional dependence of the scintillation response of crystalline melt-grown and solution-grown trans-stilbene to incident DT and DD neutrons. These measurements give the amplitude and pulse shape dependence on the proton recoil direction over one hemisphere of the crystal, confirming and extending previous results in the literature for melt-grown stilbene and providing the first measurements for solution-grown stilbene. In similar measurements of liquid and plastic detectors, no directional dependence was observed, confirming the hypothesis that the anisotropy in stilbene and other organic crystal scintillators is a result of internal effects due to the molecular or crystal structure and not an external effect on the measurement system.

  18. Characterization of the scintillation anisotropy in crystalline stilbene scintillator detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Schuster, P.; Brubaker, E.

    2016-11-23

    This study reports a series of measurements that characterize the directional dependence of the scintillation response of crystalline melt-grown and solution-grown trans-stilbene to incident DT and DD neutrons. These measurements give the amplitude and pulse shape dependence on the proton recoil direction over one hemisphere of the crystal, confirming and extending previous results in the literature for melt-grown stilbene and providing the first measurements for solution-grown stilbene. In similar measurements of liquid and plastic detectors, no directional dependence was observed, confirming the hypothesis that the anisotropy in stilbene and other organic crystal scintillators is a result of internal effects duemore » to the molecular or crystal structure and not an external effect on the measurement system.« less

  19. Interplanetary dust particles and impact erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klacka, J.; Saniga, M.

    1992-11-01

    Consideration is given to the motion of interplanetary dust particles under the effect of collisions with much smaller interplanetary dust particles. The equation of motion is derived. Perturbation equations of celestial mechanics are also discussed. The results are compared with the Poynting-Robertson effect and the effect of solar wind on the motion of the interplanetary dust particles.

  20. Search Coil vs. Fluxgate Magnetometer Measurements at Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L.B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present magnetic field observations at interplanetary shocks comparing two different sample rates showing significantly different results. Fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar supercritical shock transitions at roughly 11 samples/s. Search coil magnetometer measurements at 1875 samples/s, however, show large amplitude (dB/B as large as 2) fluctuations that are not resolved by the fluxgate magnetometer. We show that these fluctuations, identified as whistler mode waves, would produce a significant perturbation to the shock transition region changing the interpretation from laminar to turbulent. Thus, previous observations of supercritical interplanetary shocks classified as laminar may have been under sampled.

  1. Mineralogy of chondritic interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, I. D. R.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1987-08-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of current investigations on the mineralogy of chondritic micrometeorites obtained from the lower stratosphere using flat-plate collection surfaces attached to high-flying aircraft. A compilation of detailed mineralogical analyses for 30 documented chondritic interplanetary dust particles indicates a wide variety of minerals present in assemblages which, as yet, are poorly defined. Two possible assemblages are: (1) carbonaceous phases and layer silicates and (2) carbonaceous and chain silicates or nesosilicates. Particles with both types of silicate assemblages are also observed.

  2. Investigation of interplanetary dust from out-of-ecliptic space probes. [astronomical models of interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fechtig, H.; Giese, R. H.; Hanner, M. S.; Zook, H. A.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of interplanetary dust via zodiacal light observations and direct detection are discussed for an out-of-ecliptic space probe. Particle fluxes and zodiacal light brightnesses were predicted for three models of the dust distribution. These models predict that most of the information will be obtained at space probe distances less than 1 A.U. from the ecliptic plane. Joint interpretation of the direct particle measurements and the zodiacal light data can yield the best knowledge of the three-dimensional particle dynamics, spatial distribution, and physical characteristics of the interplanetary dust. Such measurements are important for an understanding of the origin and role of the dust in relation to meteoroids, asteroids, and comets, as well as the interaction of the dust with solar forces.

  3. The Distribution of Interplanetary Dust between 0.96 and 1.04 au as Inferred from Impacts on the STEREO Spacecraft Observed by the Heliospheric Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, C. J.; Davis, J. A.; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Crothers, S.; Lintott, C.; Smith, A.; Bamford, S.; Baeten, E. M. L.; SaintCyr, O. C.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Skelt, A.; Kaiser, M.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of dust in the ecliptic plane between 0.96 and 1.04 au has been inferred from impacts on the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft through observation of secondary particle trails and unexpected off-points in the heliospheric imager (HI) cameras. This study made use of analysis carried out by members of a distributed webbased citizen science project Solar Stormwatch. A comparison between observations of the brightest particle trails and a survey of fainter trails shows consistent distributions. While there is no obvious correlation between this distribution and the occurrence of individual meteor streams at Earth, there are some broad longitudinal features in these distributions that are also observed in sources of the sporadic meteor population. The different position of the HI instrument on the two STEREO spacecraft leads to each sampling different populations of dust particles. The asymmetry in the number of trails seen by each spacecraft and the fact that there are many more unexpected off-points in the HI-B than in HI-A indicates that the majority of impacts are coming from the apex direction. For impacts causing off-points in the HI-B camera, these dust particles are estimated to have masses in excess of 10 (exp-17) kg with radii exceeding 0.1 µm. For off-points observed in the HI-A images, which can only have been caused by particles travelling from the anti-apex direction, the distribution is consistent with that of secondary 'storm' trails observed by HI-B, providing evidence that these trails also result from impacts with primary particles from an anti-apex source. Investigating the mass distribution for the off-points of both HI-A and HI-B, it is apparent that the differential mass index of particles from the apex direction (causing off-points in HI-B) is consistently above 2. This indicates that the majority of the mass is within the smaller particles of this population. In contrast, the differential mass

  4. The distribution of interplanetary dust between 0.96 and 1.04 au as inferred from impacts on the STEREO spacecraft observed by the heliospheric imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. J.; Davies, J. A.; St Cyr, O. C.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Skelt, A.; Kaiser, M.; Meyer-Vernet, Nicole; Crothers, S.; Lintott, C.; Smith, A.; Bamford, S.; Baeten, E. M. L.

    2012-02-01

    The distribution of dust in the ecliptic plane between 0.96 and 1.04 au has been inferred from impacts on the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft through observation of secondary particle trails and unexpected off-points in the heliospheric imager (HI) cameras. This study made use of analysis carried out by members of a distributed web-based citizen science project Solar Stormwatch. A comparison between observations of the brightest particle trails and a survey of fainter trails shows consistent distributions. While there is no obvious correlation between this distribution and the occurrence of individual meteor streams at Earth, there are some broad longitudinal features in these distributions that are also observed in sources of the sporadic meteor population. The different position of the HI instrument on the two STEREO spacecraft leads to each sampling different populations of dust particles. The asymmetry in the number of trails seen by each spacecraft and the fact that there are many more unexpected off-points in the HI-B than in HI-A indicates that the majority of impacts are coming from the apex direction. For impacts causing off-points in the HI-B camera, these dust particles are estimated to have masses in excess of 10-17 kg with radii exceeding 0.1 μm. For off-points observed in the HI-A images, which can only have been caused by particles travelling from the anti-apex direction, the distribution is consistent with that of secondary 'storm' trails observed by HI-B, providing evidence that these trails also result from impacts with primary particles from an anti-apex source. Investigating the mass distribution for the off-points of both HI-A and HI-B, it is apparent that the differential mass index of particles from the apex direction (causing off-points in HI-B) is consistently above 2. This indicates that the majority of the mass is within the smaller particles of this population. In contrast, the differential mass index of

  5. Multi-GNSS for Ionospheric Scintillation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.

    2015-12-01

    presentation will summarize progress and current state of the event-driven multi-GNSS data collection systems, GNSS receiver architectures designed to capture and preserve scintillation features, and scintillation effects observations derived from this unique set of data and processing algorithms.

  6. Interplanetary dust close to the Sun (F corona): Its observation in the visible and infrared by a rocket-borne coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneissel, B.; Mann, I.; Vandermeer, H.

    1989-06-01

    The observation of the Frauenhofer corona (F corona) is discussed. It provides the opportunity for studying the annihilation and creation of dust within circumstellar dust clouds. The specific patterns of scattering light and thermal radiation in the infrared, are studied. A spaceborne remote sensing experiment regarding the radiation properties of dust, in the visible for scattered sunlight, and in the infrared for the thermal emission of grains, is effectuated. It allows the analysis of this complex scenario. A rocketborne twin coronagraph is shown to be needed.

  7. Characterizing Interplanetary Structures of Long-Lasting Ionospheric Storm Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandoi, C.; Dong, Y.; Ngwira, C. M.; Damas, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Geomagnetic storms can result in periods of heightened TEC (Total Electron Content) in Earth's ionosphere. These periods of change in TEC (dTEC) can have adverse impacts on a technological society, such as scintillation of radio signals used by communication and navigation satellites. However, it is unknown which exact properties of a given storm cause dTEC. We are comparing different solar wind properties that result in a significant long-lasting dTEC to see if there are any patterns that remain constant in these storms. These properties, among others, include the interplanetary magnetic field By and Bz components, the proton density, and the flow speed. As a preliminary investigation, we have studied 15 solar storms. Preliminary results will be presented. In the future, we hope to increase our sample size and analyze over 80 different solar storms, which result in significant dTEC.

  8. Separation of scintillation and Cherenkov lights in linear alkyl benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Mohan; Guo, Ziyi; Yeh, Minfang; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin

    2016-09-11

    To separate scintillation and Cherenkov lights in water-based liquid scintillator detectors is a desired feature for future neutrino and proton decay experiments. Linear alkyl benzene (LAB) is one important ingredient of a water-based liquid scintillator currently under development. In this paper we report on the separation of scintillation and Cherenkov lights observed in an LAB sample. The rise and decay times of the scintillation light are measured to be (7.7±3.0)ns and (36.6±2.4)ns, respectively, while the full width [–3σ, 3σ] of the Cherenkov light is 12 ns and is dominated by the time resolution of the photomultiplier tubes. Here, the scintillation light yield was measured to be(1.01±0.12)×103photons/MeV.

  9. USING COORDINATED OBSERVATIONS IN POLARIZED WHITE LIGHT AND FARADAY ROTATION TO PROBE THE SPATIAL POSITION AND MAGNETIC FIELD OF AN INTERPLANETARY SHEATH

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Ming; Feng, Xueshang; Liu, Ying D.; Davies, Jackie A.; Harrison, Richard A.; Owens, Mathew J.; Davis, Chris J.

    2013-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can be continuously tracked through a large portion of the inner heliosphere by direct imaging in visible and radio wavebands. White light (WL) signatures of solar wind transients, such as CMEs, result from Thomson scattering of sunlight by free electrons and therefore depend on both viewing geometry and electron density. The Faraday rotation (FR) of radio waves from extragalactic pulsars and quasars, which arises due to the presence of such solar wind features, depends on the line-of-sight magnetic field component B{sub ∥} and the electron density. To understand coordinated WL and FR observations of CMEs, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling of an Earth-directed shock and synthesize the signatures that would be remotely sensed at a number of widely distributed vantage points in the inner heliosphere. Removal of the background solar wind contribution reveals the shock-associated enhancements in WL and FR. While the efficiency of Thomson scattering depends on scattering angle, WL radiance I decreases with heliocentric distance r roughly according to the expression I∝r {sup –3}. The sheath region downstream of the Earth-directed shock is well viewed from the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points, demonstrating the benefits of these points in terms of space weather forecasting. The spatial position of the main scattering site r{sub sheath} and the mass of plasma at that position M{sub sheath} can be inferred from the polarization of the shock-associated enhancement in WL radiance. From the FR measurements, the local B{sub ∥sheath} at r{sub sheath} can then be estimated. Simultaneous observations in polarized WL and FR can not only be used to detect CMEs, but also to diagnose their plasma and magnetic field properties.

  10. Hydromagnetic waves, turbulence, and collisionless processes in the interplanetary medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, A.

    1983-01-01

    An extended discussion is conducted concerning the origin and evolution of interplanetary hydromagnetic waves and turbulence, and their influence on the large scale dynamics of the solar wind. The solar wind is at present the preeminent medium for the study of hydromagnetic waves and turbulence, providing an opportunity for advancement of understanding of the most fundamental processes of the astrophysical plasmas. All interplanetary fluctuations whose time scale is observed to be greater than 1 sec can be regarded as hydromagnetic fluctuations. It has been found to be simplest, and generally very satisfactory, to model interplanetary variations as fluctuations in an MHD fluid. Attention is given to the classification of wave modes, geometrical hydromagnetics, Alfven wave pressure, rugged invariants, and the kinetic theory of collisionless processes.

  11. Optical spectroscopy of interplanetary dust collected in the earth's stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraundorf, P.; Patel, R. I.; Shirck, J.; Walker, R. M.; Freeman, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Optical absorption spectra of interplanetary dust particles 2-30 microns in size collected in the atmosphere at an altitude of 20 km by inertial impactors mounted on NASA U-2 aircraft are reported. Fourier transform absorption spectroscopy of crushed samples of the particles reveals a broad feature in the region 1300-800 kaysers which has also been found in meteorite and cometary dust spectra, and a weak iron crystal field absorption band at approximately 9800 kaysers, as is observed in meteorites. Work is currently in progress to separate the various components of the interplanetary dust particles in order to evaluate separately their contributions to the absorption.

  12. Scintillating pad detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; Baumbaugh, B.; Borcherding, F.

    1996-12-31

    We have been investigating the performance of scintillating pad detectors, individual small tiles of scintillator that are read out with wavelength-shifting fibers and visible light photon counters, for application in high luminosity colliding beam experiments such as the D0 Upgrade. Such structures could provide {open_quotes}pixel{close_quotes} type readout over large fiducial volumes for tracking, preshower detection and triggering.

  13. Development of polystyrene-based scintillation materials and its mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shinji, Osamu; Saito, Katashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2012-12-01

    Scintillation materials based on polystyrene (PS) have been investigated. Para-terphenyl was employed as a fluorescent molecule (fluor) that functions as a wavelength shifter. A clear increase in photon yield of the scintillation materials relative to the pure PS was observed, which cannot be explained by the conventional theory of scintillation mechanism. Furthermore, the photon yield increased with flour concentration in accordance with a power-law. Here we reveal the emergence of a luminescence of PS-based scintillation materials and demonstrate that their photon yields can be controlled by the fluor concentration.

  14. Report on radiation exposure of lead-scintillator stack

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.G.

    1990-11-08

    A stack of lead and scintillator was placed in a neutral beam obtained from targeting 800 GeV protons. Small pieces of film containing radiochromic dye were placed adjacent to the layers of scintillator for the purpose of measuring the radiation dose to the scintillator. Our motivation was to calibrate the radiation dose obtainable in this manner for future tests of scintillator for SSC experiments and to relate dose to flux to check absolute normalization for calculations. We also observed several other radiation effects which should be considered for both damage and compensation in a calorimeter.

  15. Scintillation Forecasting Using NPOESS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, B.; Retterer, J.; Demajistre, R.; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Scro, K.

    2005-12-01

    We have conducted a theoretical study of the use of NPOESS data for the forecasting of equatorial radio scintillation using knowledge of the equatorial Appleton anomaly, e.g., the peak-to-valley ratio of TEC (Total Electron Content) between the anomaly crests and the magnetic equator. The peak-to-valley ratio can be obtained from the UV (ultraviolet) imagery of the anomaly region that will be provided by the NPOESS sensors. The post-sunset enhancement of the upward drift velocity of the equatorial plasma has been shown, both theoretically and observationally, to be an important determinant of both the onset of scintillation and the strength of the anomaly. The technical approach is to run PBMOD, the AFRL low-latitude ionosphere model, with a range of post-sunset vertical drift velocities to determine the quantitative relationship between the peak-to-valley ratio and the maximum value of the pot-sunset upward drift velocity of equatorial plasma. Once the relationship is validated, it will be used to estimate the maximum value of the drift velocity from the peak-to-valley ratio, which is derived from the UV imagery data provided by NPOESS-like sensor, such as GUVI on TIMED satellite. The drift velocity will then be used in PBMOD to simulate the formation and evolution of equatorial plasma `bubbles' and calculate the distribution of the amplitude scintillation index S4. Results of the study will be discussed.

  16. Scintillation Monitoring Using Asymmetry Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mubasshir; Mahrous, Ayman; Abdallah, Amr; Notarpietro, Riccardo

    station in Cairo, Egypt (lat= 29.8641 °, long= 31.3172 °). It was observed that the level of asymmetry was significantly increased during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. This was due to the changes in ionization, which in turn produced large gradients along occulted ray path in the ionosphere. A very good correlation was found between the evaluated ionospheric asymmetry index and the S4 scintillation index. Additionally, the correlation between evaluated ionospheric asymmetry and errors related to the RO inversion products such as peak electron density (delta NmF2) and Vertical TEC (delta VTEC) estimates also showed promising results. This work is carried out under the framework of the TRANSMIT project (Training Research and Applications Network to Support the Mitigation of Ionospheric Threats - www.transmit-ionosphere.net). [1]Basu Sa. and Basu Su., (1981), ‘Equatorial Scintillation - A Review’, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 43, p. 473. [2]Davies K., (1990), ‘Ionospheric Radio’, IEEE Electromagnetic Waves Series 31, Peter Peregrinus Ltd. [3]Spencer, P., Mitchell, C.N., (2007) ‘Imaging of fast moving electron-density structures in the polar cap’, Annals of Geophysics, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 427-434. [4]Shaikh, M.M., Notarpietro, R., Nava, B., (2013) ‘The Impact of Spherical Symmetry Assumption on Radio Occultation Data Inversion in the Ionosphere: An Assessment Study’, Advances in Space Research, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2013.10.025.

  17. Probabilistic Forecasting of Ionospheric Scintillation and GNSS Receiver Signal Tracking Performance at High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, P.; Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Jayachandran, P. T.

    2012-12-01

    At high latitudes, phase scintillation occurs predominantly on the dayside in the ionospheric footprint of magnetospheric cusp and in the nightside auroral oval. A new technique of probabilistic forecast of phase scintillation occurrence relative to arrival time of high-speed solar wind (HSSW) from coronal holes and interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) has recently been proposed [Prikryl et al., 2012]. Cumulative probability distribution functions for the phase scintillation occurrence that are obtained can be specified for low and high (below- and above-median) values of various solar wind plasma parameters. Recent advances in solar wind modeling of HSSW and ICMEs combined with the probabilistic forecasting of scintillation will lead to improved operational space weather forecasting applications. Scintillation forecasting and mitigation techniques need to be developed to avoid potential costly failures of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-based technology in the near future, in particular during the upcoming solar maximum. GNSS receiver tracking performance during severe scintillation conditions can be assessed by the analysis of receiver phase lock loop (PLL) jitter variance. Tracking jitter variance maps [Sreeja et al, 2011] offer a potentially useful tool to provide users with expected tracking conditions, if based on scintillation prediction as proposed above. Scintillation indices are obtained from L1 GPS data collected with the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN). Combined with high rate amplitude and phase data they can be used as input to receiver tracking models to develop scintillation mitigation techniques. References Prikryl, P., P. T. Jayachandran, S. C. Mushini, and I. G. Richardson (2012), Towards the Probabilistic Forecasting of High-Latitude GPS Phase Scintillation, Space Weather, doi:10.1029/2012SW000800, in press. Sreeja, V., M. Aquino, and Z. G. Elmas (2011), Impact of ionospheric scintillation on GNSS receiver

  18. Interplanetary space-A new laboratory for rarefied gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spreiter, J. R.; Rizzi, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Interplanetary space provides simultaneously the best vacuum available to man and, because of the solar wind, a tenuous and unsteady high-speed outflow of predominantly hydrogen gas from the sun, a remarkable variety of rarefied gasdynamics phenomena, to observe. A review is provided of these phenomena, and of the way in which the present level of understanding has been achieved.

  19. Interplanetary magnetic field data book

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data set is presented that is uniform with respect to inclusion of cislunar IMF data only, and which has as complete time coverage as presently possible over a full solar cycle. Macroscale phenomena in the interplanetary medium (sector structure, heliolatitude variations, solar cycle variations, etc.) and other phenomena (e.g., ground level cosmic-ray events) for which knowledge of the IMF with hourly resolution is necessary, are discussed. Listings and plots of cislunar hourly averaged IMP parameters over the period November 27, 1963, to May 17, 1974, are presented along with discussion of the mutual consistency of the IMF data used herein. The magnetic tape from which the plots and listings were generated, which is available from the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), is also discussed.

  20. Interplanetary medium data book, appendix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Computer generated listings of hourly average interplanetary plasma and magnetic field parameters are given. Parameters include proton temperature, proton density, bulk speed, an identifier of the source of the plasma data for the hour, average magnetic field magnitude and cartesian components of the magnetic field. Also included are longitude and latitude angles of the vector made up of the average field components, a vector standard deviation, and an identifier of the source of magnetic field data.

  1. The interplanetary exchange of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S

    2008-02-01

    Panspermia, the transfer of organisms from one planet to another, either through interplanetary or interstellar space, remains speculation. However, its potential can be experimentally tested. Conceptually, it is island biogeography on an interplanetary or interstellar scale. Of special interest is the possibility of the transfer of oxygenic photosynthesis between one planet and another, as it can initiate large scale biospheric productivity. Photosynthetic organisms, which must live near the surface of rocks, can be shown experimentally to be subject to destruction during atmospheric transit. Many of them grow as vegetative cells, which are shown experimentally to be susceptible to destruction by shock during impact ejection, although the effectiveness of this dispersal filter can be shown to be mitigated by the characteristics of the cells and their local environment. Collectively these, and other, experiments reveal the particular barriers to the cross-inoculation of photosynthesis. If oxygen biosignatures are eventually found in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets, understanding the potential for the interplanetary exchange of photosynthesis will aid in their interpretation.

  2. Electromagnetic Whistler Precursors at Supercritical Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, L. B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of electromagnetic precursor waves, identified as whistler mode waves, at supercritical interplanetary shocks using the Wind search coil magnetometer. The precursors propagate obliquely with respect to the local magnetic field, shock normal vector, solar wind velocity, and they are not phase standing structures. All are right-hand polarized with respect to the magnetic field (spacecraft frame), and all but one are right-hand polarized with respect to the shock normal vector in the normal incidence frame. Particle distributions show signatures of specularly reflected gyrating ions, which may be a source of free energy for the observed modes. In one event, we simultaneously observe perpendicular ion heating and parallel electron acceleration, consistent with wave heating/acceleration due to these waves.

  3. Energy Transfer Based Nanocomposite Scintillator for Radiation Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Soha; Sahi, Sunil; Chen, Wei; Ma, Lun; Kenarangui, Rasool

    2014-09-01

    Scintillators are the materials that emit light upon irradiation with high energy radiation like X-ray or gamma-ray. Inorganic single crystal and organic (plastic and liquid) are the two most used scintillator types. Both of these scintillator kinds have advantages and disadvantages. Inorganic single crystals are expensive and difficult to grow in desire shape and size. Also, single crystal scintillator such as NaI and CsI are very hygroscopic. On the other hand, organic scintillators have low density which limits their applications in gamma spectroscopy. Due to high quantum yield and size dependent emission, nanoparticles have attracted interested in various field of research. Here, we have studies the nanoparticles for radiation detection. We have synthesized nanoparticles of Cerium fluoride (CeF3), Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), Copper complex and Zinc sulfide (ZnS). We have used Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) principle to enhance the luminescence properties of nanocomposite scintillator. Nanocomposites scintillators are structurally characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Optical properties are studied using Photoluminescence, UV-Visible and X-ray. Enhancements in the luminescence are observed under UV and X-ray excitation. Preliminary studies shows nanocomposite scintillators are promising for radiation detection. Scintillators are the materials that emit light upon irradiation with high energy radiation like X-ray or gamma-ray. Inorganic single crystal and organic (plastic and liquid) are the two most used scintillator types. Both of these scintillator kinds have advantages and disadvantages. Inorganic single crystals are expensive and difficult to grow in desire shape and size. Also, single crystal scintillator such as NaI and CsI are very hygroscopic. On the other hand, organic scintillators have low density which limits their applications in gamma spectroscopy. Due to high quantum

  4. Climatology of GPS phase scintillation at northern high latitudes for the period from 2008 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikryl, P.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Chadwick, R.; Kelly, T. D.

    2015-05-01

    Global positioning system scintillation and total electron content (TEC) data have been collected by ten specialized GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitors (GISTMs) of the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN). The phase scintillation index σΦ is obtained from the phase of the L1 signal sampled at 50 Hz. Maps of phase scintillation occurrence as a function of the altitude-adjusted corrected geomagnetic (AACGM) latitude and magnetic local time (MLT) are computed for the period from 2008 to 2013. Enhanced phase scintillation is collocated with regions that are known as ionospheric signatures of the coupling between the solar wind and magnetosphere. The phase scintillation mainly occurs on the dayside in the cusp where ionospheric irregularities convect at high speed, in the nightside auroral oval where energetic particle precipitation causes field-aligned irregularities with steep electron density gradients and in the polar cap where electron density patches that are formed from a tongue of ionization. Dependences of scintillation occurrence on season, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation are investigated. The auroral phase scintillation shows semiannual variation with equinoctial maxima known to be associated with auroras, while in the cusp and polar cap the scintillation occurrence is highest in the autumn and winter months and lowest in summer. With rising solar and geomagnetic activity from the solar minimum to solar maximum, yearly maps of mean phase scintillation occurrence show gradual increase and expansion of enhanced scintillation regions both poleward and equatorward from the statistical auroral oval. The dependence of scintillation occurrence on the IMF orientation is dominated by increased scintillation in the cusp, expanded auroral oval and at subauroral latitudes for strongly southward IMF. In the polar cap, the IMF BY polarity controls dawn-dusk asymmetries in scintillation

  5. Equitorial Scintillations: Advances Since ISEA-6.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    thermospheric neutral wind have been postulated to describe the observe l longitudinal variation._--.-, A distinct class of equatorial irregularities...Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE associated with frequency spread on ionograms . Scintillations caused by such irregularities exist only...another based on the influence of a transequatorial thermospheric neutral wind have been postu- lated to describe the observed longitudinal variation. A

  6. Scintillator Measurements for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptanoglu, Tanner; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    SNO+ is a neutrino detector located 2km underground in the SNOLAB facility with the primary goal of searching for neutrinoless double beta decay. The detector will be filled with a liquid scintillator target primarily composed of linear alkyl benzene (LAB). As charged particles travel through the detector the LAB produces scintillation light which is detected by almost ten thousand PMTs. The LAB is loaded with Te130, an isotope known to undergo double beta decay. Additionally, the LAB is mixed with an additional fluor and wavelength shifter to improve the light output and shift the light to a wavelength regime in which the PMTs are maximally efficient. The precise scintillator optics drastically affect the ultimate sensitivity of SNO+. I will present work being done to measure the optical properties of the SNO+ scintillator cocktail. The measured properties are used as input to a scintillation model that allows us to extrapolate to the SNO+ scale and ultimately predict the sensitivity of the experiment. Additionally, I will present measurements done to characterize the R5912 PMT, a candidate PMT for the second phase of SNO+ that provides better light collection, improved charge resolution, and a narrower spread in timing.

  7. Solar and interplanetary dynamics; Proceedings of the Symposium, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., August 27-31, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, M. (Editor); Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1980-01-01

    The symposium focuses on solar phenomena as the source of transient events propagating through the solar system, and theoretical and observational assessments of the dynamic processes involved in these events. The topics discussed include the life history of coronal structures and fields, coronal and interplanetary responses to long time scale phenomena, solar transient phenomena affecting the corona and interplanetary medium, coronal and interplanetary responses to short time scale phenomena, and future directions.

  8. Solar Implications of ULYSSES Interplanetary Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Recent observations by the Ulysses magnetometer team have shown that the strength of the radial interplanetary field component, |Br| , is essentially independent of latitude, a result which implies that the heliospheric currents are confined entirely to thin sheets. Using such a current sheet model, we extrapolate the observed photospheric field to 1 AU and compare the predicted magnitude and sign of Br with spacecraft measurements during 1970--1993. Approximate agreement can be obtained if the solar magnetograph measurements in the Fe I lambda 5250 line are scaled upward by a latitude-dependent factor, similar to that derived by Ulrich from a study of magnetic saturation effects. The correction factor implies sharply peaked polar fields near sunspot minimum, with each polar coronal hole having a mean field strength of 10 G.

  9. Suprathermal ions upstream from interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Paschmann, G.; Sckopke, N.; Russell, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    Low energy (10 eV-30 keV) observations of suprathermal ions ahead of outward propagating interplanetary shock waves (ISQ) are reported. The data were taken with the fast plasma experiment on ISEE 1 and 2 during 17 events. Structure was more evident in the suprathermal ion distribution in the earth bow shock region than in the upstream region. Isotropic distributions were only observed ahead of ISW, although field alignment, kidney-bean distributions, ion shells in velocity space and bunches of gyrating ions were not. The data suggest that the solar wind ions are accelerated to suprathermal energies in the vicinity of the shocks, which feature low and subcritical Mach numbers at 1 AU.

  10. Fine-scale characteristics of interplanetary sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Neubauer, F. M.; Barnstoff, H.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of the interplanetary sector boundaries observed by Helios 1 within sector transition regions was studied. Such regions consist of intermediate (nonspiral) average field orientations in some cases, as well as a number of large angle directional discontinuities (DD's) on the fine scale (time scales 1 hour). Such DD's are found to be more similar to tangential than rotational discontinuities, to be oriented on average more nearly perpendicular than parallel to the ecliptic plane to be accompanied usually by a large dip ( 80%) in B and, with a most probable thickness of 3 x 10 to the 4th power km, significantly thicker previously studied. It is hypothesized that the observed structures represent multiple traversals of the global heliospheric current sheet due to local fluctuations in the position of the sheet. There is evidence that such fluctuations are sometimes produced by wavelike motions or surface corrugations of scale length 0.05 - 0.1 AU superimposed on the large scale structure.

  11. Interplanetary density models as inferred from solar Type III bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppeneiger, Lucas; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Lammer, Helmut; Lichtenegger, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    We report on the density models derived from spectral features of solar Type III bursts. They are generated by beams of electrons travelling outward from the Sun along open magnetic field lines. Electrons generate Langmuir waves at the plasma frequency along their ray paths through the corona and the interplanetary medium. A large frequency band is covered by the Type III bursts from several MHz down to few kHz. In this analysis, we consider the previous empirical density models proposed to describe the electron density in the interplanetary medium. We show that those models are mainly based on the analysis of Type III bursts generated in the interplanetary medium and observed by satellites (e.g. RAE, HELIOS, VOYAGER, ULYSSES,WIND). Those models are confronted to stereoscopic observations of Type III bursts recorded by WIND, ULYSSES and CASSINI spacecraft. We discuss the spatial evolution of the electron beam along the interplanetary medium where the trajectory is an Archimedean spiral. We show that the electron beams and the source locations are depending on the choose of the empirical density models.

  12. Solar sources of interplanetary southward Bz events responsible for major magnetic storms (1978-1979)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Frances; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Smith, Edward J.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Akasofu, Syun I.

    1989-01-01

    The solar sources of interplanetary southward Bz events responsible for major magnetic storms observed in the August 1978-December 1979 period were studied using a full complement of solar wind plasma and field data from ISEE 3. It was found that, of the ten major storms observed, seven were initiated by active region flares, and three were associated with prominence eruptions in solar quiet regions. Nine of the storms were associated with interplanetary shocks. However, a comparison of the solar events' characteristics and those of the resulting interplanetary shocks indicated that standard solar parameters did not correlate with the strengths of the resulting shocks at 1 AU.

  13. Scintillator plate calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Calorimetry using scintillator plates or tiles alternated with sheets of (usually heavy) passive absorber has been proven over multiple generations of collider detectors. Recent detectors including UA1, CDF, and ZEUS have shown good results from such calorimeters. The advantages offered by scintillator calorimetry for the SSC environment, in particular, are speed (<10 nsec), excellent energy resolution, low noise, and ease of achieving compensation and hence linearity. On the negative side of the ledger can be placed the historical sensitivity of plastic scintillators to radiation damage, the possibility of nonuniform response because of light attenuation, and the presence of cracks for light collection via wavelength shifting plastic (traditionally in sheet form). This approach to calorimetry is being investigated for SSC use by a collaboration of Ames Laboratory/Iowa State University, Argonne National Laboratory, Bicron Corporation, Florida State University, Louisiana State University, University of Mississippi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and University of Wisconsin.

  14. Interplanetary Circumstances of Quasi-Perpendicular Interplanetary Shocks in 1996-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2010-01-01

    The angle (theta(sub Bn)) between the normal to an interplanetary shock front and the upstream magnetic field direction, though often thought of as a property "of the shock," is also determined by the configuration of the magnetic field immediately upstream of the shock. We investigate the interplanetary circumstances of 105 near-Earth quasi-perpendicular shocks during 1996-2005 identified by theta(sub Bn) greater than or equal to 80 degrees and/or by evidence of shock drift particle acceleration. Around 87% of these shocks were driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs); the remainder were probably the forward shocks of corotating interaction regions. For around half of the shocks, the upstream field was approximately perpendicular to the radial direction, either east-west or west-east or highly inclined to the ecliptic. Such field directions will give quasi-perpendicular configurations for radially propagating shocks. Around 30% of the shocks were propagating through, or closely followed, ICMEs at the time of observation. Another quarter were propagating through the heliospheric plasma sheet (HPS), and a further quarter occurred in slow solar wind that did not have characteristics of the HPS. Around 11% were observed in high-speed streams, and 7% in the sheaths following other shocks. The fraction of shocks found in high-speed streams is around a third of that expected based on the fraction of the time when such streams were observed at Earth. Quasi-perpendicular shocks are found traveling through ICMEs around 2-3 times more frequently than expected. In addition, shocks propagating through ICMEs are more likely to have larger values of theta(sub Bn) than shocks outside ICMEs.

  15. Simulation of optical interstellar scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, F.; Moniez, M.; Ansari, R.; Rahvar, S.

    2013-04-01

    Aims: Stars twinkle because their light propagates through the atmosphere. The same phenomenon is expected on a longer time scale when the light of remote stars crosses an interstellar turbulent molecular cloud, but it has never been observed at optical wavelengths. The aim of the study described in this paper is to fully simulate the scintillation process, starting from the molecular cloud description as a fractal object, ending with the simulations of fluctuating stellar light curves. Methods: Fast Fourier transforms are first used to simulate fractal clouds. Then, the illumination pattern resulting from the crossing of background star light through these refractive clouds is calculated from a Fresnel integral that also uses fast Fourier transform techniques. Regularisation procedure and computing limitations are discussed, along with the effect of spatial and temporal coherency (source size and wavelength passband). Results: We quantify the expected modulation index of stellar light curves as a function of the turbulence strength - characterised by the diffraction radius Rdiff - and the projected source size, introduce the timing aspects, and establish connections between the light curve observables and the refractive cloud. We extend our discussion to clouds with different structure functions from Kolmogorov-type turbulence. Conclusions: Our study confirms that current telescopes of ~4 m with fast-readout, wide-field detectors have the capability of discovering the first interstellar optical scintillation effects. We also show that this effect should be unambiguously distinguished from any other type of variability through the observation of desynchronised light curves, simultaneously measured by two distant telescopes.

  16. Quality study of the purified liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Y.; Nakajima, K.; Kibe, Y.

    2008-07-01

    We have been distilling the KamLAND liquid scintillator (LS) for the low energy solar neutrino observation. The distillation removes radioactive impurities from LS efficiently. We developed two types of high sensitivity radon detectors to monitor 222Rn contamination which causes a primary background source 210Pb. Their required sensitivity is several mBq/m3. The features and the measurement results of these detectors are presented. We also report the study of liquid scintillator properties after the distillation: attenuation length, light output and PPO density.

  17. Transport in the interplanetary medium of coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgazzi, A.; Lara, A.; Romero-Salazar, L.; Ventura, A.

    2008-07-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large scale structures of plasma and magnetic field expelled from the Sun to the interplanetary medium and generally observed in white light coronagraphs. During their travel, in the interplanetary medium these structures named interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), suffer acceleration or deceleration due to the interaction with the ambient solar wind. This process can be understood as a transference of momentum between the interplanetary CME (ICME) and the solar wind. This process seems to be fundamentally different for `slow' and `fast' ICMEs (compared with the ambient solar wind velocity). In this work, we approach the problem from the fluid dynamics point of view and consider the ICMEs - solar wind system as two interacting fluids under the action of viscous forces. We note that this interaction is a special case of interaction between low density plasmas. Using these viscous forces in the Newtons Second Law, we obtained an analytical solution for the ICME velocity as a function of time. By comparing our analytic results with empirical models found in recent literature, we suggested values for the viscosity and drag parameters in this system. In this first approximation we have neglected the magnetic field.

  18. Microcharacterization of interplanetary dust collected in the Earth's stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraundorf, P. B.

    The internal structure of thirteen 10 micrometer aggregates were examined using selected techniques from the field now known as analytical electron microscopy. The aggregates were collected in the Earth's stratosphere at 20 km altitude by impactors mounted on NASA U-2 aircraft. Eleven of them exhibited relative major element abundances similar to those found in chondritic meteorities. For this and other reasons, these eleven particles are believed to represent relatively unaltered interplanetary dust. Interplanetary dust is thought to be of cometary origin, and comets in turn provide the most promising reservoir for unaltered samples of materials present during the collapse of the solar nebula. It is shown that the chondritic aggregates probably contain important information on a wide range of processes in the early solar system. The observations are consistent with the hypotheses that: (1) the particles represent fragments of interplanetary dust; (2) some of them have not been significantly altered by thermal or radiation processes since their assembly; (3) interplanetary dust is of cometary origin; and (4) the dust parent materials consist of a wide range of relatively unaltered leftovers from the collapse of the solar nebula.

  19. Fractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Klein, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Under some conditions, time series of the interplanetary magnetic field strength and components have the properties of fractal curves. Magnetic field measurements made near 8.5 AU by Voyager 2 from June 5 to August 24, 1981 were self-similar over time scales from approximately 20 sec to approximately 3 x 100,000 sec, and the fractal dimension of the time series of the strength and components of the magnetic field was D = 5/3, corresponding to a power spectrum P(f) approximately f sup -5/3. Since the Kolmogorov spectrum for homogeneous, isotropic, stationary turbulence is also f sup -5/3, the Voyager 2 measurements are consistent with the observation of an inertial range of turbulence extending over approximately four decades in frequency. Interaction regions probably contributed most of the power in this interval. As an example, one interaction region is discussed in which the magnetic field had a fractal dimension D = 5/3.

  20. IPShocks: Database of Interplanetary Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isavnin, Alexey; Lumme, Erkka; Kilpua, Emilia; Lotti, Mikko; Andreeova, Katerina; Koskinen, Hannu; Nikbakhsh, Shabnam

    2016-04-01

    Fast collisionless shocks are one of the key interplanetary structures, which have also paramount role for solar-terrestrial physics. In particular, coronal mass ejection driven shocks accelerate particles to high energies and turbulent post-shock flows may drive intense geomagnetic storms. We present comprehensive Heliospheric Shock Database (ipshocks.fi) developed and hosted at University of Helsinki. The database contains currently over 2000 fast forward and fast reverse shocks observed by Wind, ACE, STEREO, Helios, Ulysses and Cluster spacecraft. In addition, the database has search and sort tools based on the spacecraft, time range, and several key shock parameters (e.g., shock type, shock strength, shock angle), data plots for each shock and data download options. These features allow easy access to shocks and quick statistical analyses. All current shocks are identified visually and analysed using the same procedure.

  1. Infrared Spectroscopy of Anhydrous Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Flynn, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is the primary means of mineralogical analysis of materials outside our solar system. The identity and properties of circumstellar grains are inferred from spectral comparisons between astronomical observations and laboratory data from natural and synthetic materials. These comparisons have been facilitated by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), which obtained IR spectra from numerous astrophysical objects over a wide spectral range (out to 50/cm) where crystalline silicates and other phases have distinct features. The anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are particularly important comparison materials because some IDPs contain carbonaceous material with non-solar D/H and N-15/N-14 ratios and amorphous and crystalline silicates with non-solar 0- isotopic ratios, demonstrating that these IDPs contain preserved interstellar material. Here, we report on micro- Fourier transform (FT) IR spectrometry of IDPs, focusing on the inorganic components of primitive IDPs (FTIR spectra from the organic/carbonacecous materials in IDPs are described elsewhere).

  2. Interplanetary shock waves and the structure of solar wind disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundhausen, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of interplanetary shock waves are reviewed, with emphasis on the large-scale characteristics of the associated solar wind disturbances and on the relationship of these disturbances to solar activity. The sum of observational knowledge indicates that shock waves propagate through the solar wind along a broad, roughly spherical front, ahead of plasma and magnetic field ejected from solar flares. Typically, the shock front reaches 1 AU about two days after its flare origin, and is of intermediate strength. Not all large flares produce observable interplanetary shock waves; the best indicator of shock production appears to be the generation of both type 2 and type 4 radio bursts by a flare. Theoretical models of shock propagation in the solar wind can account for the typically observed shock strength, transit time, and shape.

  3. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Reeder; Paul L.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  4. Scintillator requirements for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    1999-09-01

    Scintillating materials are used in a variety of medical imaging devices. This paper presents a description of four medical imaging modalities that make extensive use of scintillators: planar x-ray imaging, x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT), SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography). The discussion concentrates on a description of the underlying physical principles by which the four modalities operate. The scintillator requirements for these systems are enumerated and the compromises that are made in order to maximize imaging performance utilizing existing scintillating materials are discussed, as is the potential for improving imaging performance by improving scintillator properties.

  5. SCINTILLATION EXPOSURE RATE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Spears, W.G.

    1960-11-01

    A radiation detector for gamma and x rays is described. The detector comprises a scintillation crystal disposed between a tantalum shield and the input of a photomultiplier tube, the crystal and the shield cooperating so that their combined response to a given quantity of radiation at various energy levels is substantially constant.

  6. Boron loaded scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Zane William; Brown, Gilbert Morris; Maya, Leon; Sloop, Jr., Frederick Victor; Sloop, Jr., Frederick Victor

    2009-10-20

    A scintillating composition for detecting neutrons and other radiation comprises a phenyl containing silicone rubber with carborane units and at least one phosphor molecule. The carbonate units can either be a carborane molecule dispersed in the rubber with the aid of a compatibilization agent or can be covalently bound to the silicone.

  7. Polysiloxane scintillator composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J.K.

    1992-05-05

    A plastic scintillator useful for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a matrix which comprises an optically transparent polysiloxane having incorporated therein at least one ionizing radiation-hard fluor capable of converting electromagnetic energy produced in the polysiloxane upon absorption of ionizing radiation to detectable light.

  8. Polysiloxane scintillator composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, James K.

    1992-01-01

    A plastic scintillator useful for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a matrix which comprises an optically transparent polysiloxane having incorporated therein at least one ionizing radiation-hard fluor capable of converting electromagnetic energy produced in the polysiloxane upon absorption of ionizing radiation to detectable light.

  9. Quenching equation for scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takahisa

    1980-06-01

    A mathematical expression is postulated showing the relationship between counting rate and quenching agent concentration in a liquid scintillation solution. The expression is more suited to a wider range of quenching agent concentrations than the Stern-Volmer equation. An estimation of the quenched correction is demonstrated using the expression.

  10. Separation of scintillation and Cherenkov lights in linear alkyl benzene

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Mohan; Guo, Ziyi; Yeh, Minfang; ...

    2016-09-11

    To separate scintillation and Cherenkov lights in water-based liquid scintillator detectors is a desired feature for future neutrino and proton decay experiments. Linear alkyl benzene (LAB) is one important ingredient of a water-based liquid scintillator currently under development. In this paper we report on the separation of scintillation and Cherenkov lights observed in an LAB sample. The rise and decay times of the scintillation light are measured to be (7.7±3.0)ns and (36.6±2.4)ns, respectively, while the full width [–3σ, 3σ] of the Cherenkov light is 12 ns and is dominated by the time resolution of the photomultiplier tubes. Here, the scintillationmore » light yield was measured to be(1.01±0.12)×103photons/MeV.« less

  11. The role of CMEs and interplanetary shocks in IMF winding angle statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Charles W.; Phillips, John L.

    1996-07-01

    We examine the possible role of CMEs and interplanetary shocks in past analyses of the large-scale winding of the IMF by extracting CME and shock observations from the ISEE-3 dataset and analyzing periods of the disturbed and undisturbed solar wind separately. We use the full ISEE-3 dataset representing the entire L1 mission (1978-1982). We conclude that CMEs, the shocks upstream of CMEs and other interplanetary shocks are responsible for the apparent overwinding of the IMF spiral relative to the Parker prediction. The IMF winding angle asymmetry appears to be preserved after the removal of the interplanetary disturbances.

  12. Interplanetary meteoroid debris in LDEF metal craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Horz, F.; Bradley, J.

    1992-01-01

    The extraterrestrial meteoroid residue found lining craters in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) aluminum and gold targets is highly variable in both quantity and type. In typical craters only a minor amount of residue is found and for these craters it is evident that most of the impacting projectile was ejected during crater formation. Less than 10 percent of the craters greater than 100 microns contain abundant residue consistent with survival of a major fraction of the projectile. In these cases the residue can be seen optically as a dark liner and it can easily be analyzed by SEM-EDX techniques. Because they are rare, the craters with abundant residue must be a biased sampling of the meteoroids reaching the earth. Factors that favor residue retention are low impact velocity and material properties such as high melting point. In general, the SEM-EDX observations of crater residues are consistent with the properties of chondritic meteorites and interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Except for impacts by particles dominated by single minerals such as FeS and olivine, most of the residue compositions are in broad agreement with the major element compositions of chondrites. In most cases the residue is a thin liner on the crater floor and these craters are difficult to quantitatively analyze by EDX techniques because the electron beam excites both residue and underlying metal substrate. In favorable cases, the liner is thick and composed of vesicular glass with imbedded FeNi, sulfide and silicate grains. In the best cases of meteoroid preservation, the crater is lined with large numbers of unmelted mineral grains. The projectiles fragmented into micron sized pieces but the fragments survived without melting. In one case, the grains contain linear defects that appear to be solar flare tracks. Solar flare tracks are common properties of small interplanetary particles and their preservation during impact implies that the fragments were

  13. Characterizing Properties and Performance of 3D Printed Plastic Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Jacob

    2015-10-01

    We are determining various characteristics of the performance of 3D printed scintillators. A scintillator luminesces when an energetic particle raises electrons to an excited state by depositing some of its energy in the atom. When these excited electrons fall back down to their stable states, they emit the excess energy as light. We have characterized the transmission spectrum, emission spectrum, and relative intensity of light produced by 3D printed scintillators. We are also determining mechanical properties such as tensile strength and compressibility, and the refractive index. The emission and transmission spectra were measured using a monochromator. By observing the transmission spectrum, we can see which optical wavelengths are absorbed by the scintillator. This is then used to correct the emission spectrum, since this absorption is present in the emission spectrum. Using photomultiplier tubes in conjunction with integration hardware (QDC) to measure the intensity of light emitted by 3D printed scintillators, we compare with commercial plastic scintillators. We are using the characterizations to determine if 3D printed scintillators are a viable alternative to commercial scintillators for use at Jefferson Lab in nuclear and accelerated physics detectors. I would like to thank Wouter Deconinck, as well as the Parity group at the College of William and Mary for all advice and assistance with my research.

  14. Comparative Analyses of the CSSS Calculation in the UCSD Tomographic Solar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, T.; Jackson, B. V.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Zhao, X. P.

    2005-04-01

    We describe a new method to derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) out to 1 AU from photospheric magnetic field measurements. The method uses photospheric magnetograms to calculate a source surface magnetic field at 15R⊙. Specifically, we use Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) magnetograms as input for the Stanford Current-Sheet Source-Surface (CSSS) model. Beyond the source surface the magnetic field is convected along velocity flow lines derived by a tomographic technique developed at UCSD and applied to interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. We compare the results with in situ data smoothed by an 18-h running mean. Radial and tangential magnetic field amplitudes fit well for the 20 Carrington rotations studied, which are largely from the active phase of the solar cycle. We show exemplary results for Carrington rotation 1965, which includes the Bastille Day event.

  15. Atypical Particle Heating at a Supercritical Interplanetary Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Lynn B., III

    2010-01-01

    We present the first observations at an interplanetary shock of large amplitude (> 100 mV/m pk-pk) solitary waves and large amplitude (approx.30 mV/m pk-pk) waves exhibiting characteristics consistent with electron Bernstein waves. The Bernstein-like waves show enhanced power at integer and half-integer harmonics of the cyclotron frequency with a broadened power spectrum at higher frequencies, consistent with the electron cyclotron drift instability. The Bernstein-like waves are obliquely polarized with respect to the magnetic field but parallel to the shock normal direction. Strong particle heating is observed in both the electrons and ions. The observed heating and waveforms are likely due to instabilities driven by the free energy provided by reflected ions at this supercritical interplanetary shock. These results offer new insights into collisionless shock dissipation and wave-particle interactions in the solar wind.

  16. The Spanish Fireball Network: Popularizing Interplanetary Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Llorca, J.; Fabregat, J.

    In order to increase in Spain the social interest in the study of interplanetary matter (asteroids, comets and meteoroids) we created the Spanish Photographic Meteor Network (SPMN) in 1997. This network has been dedicated to studying interplanetary matter with participation of researchers from three universities (Universitat Jaume I, Universitat de Barcelona and Universitat de València), the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía and it is also supported by the Atmospheric Sounding Station at El Arenosillo (INTA-CEDEA) and by the Experimental Station La Mayora (EELM-CSIC). In order to promote the participation of amateurs, our homepage (www.spmn.uji.es) presents public information about our research explains how amateur astronomers can participate in our network. In this paper we give some examples of the social role of a Fireball Network in order to give a coherent explanation to bright fireball events. Moreover, we also discuss the role of this kind of research project as a promoter of amateur participation and contribution to science. In fact, meteor astronomy can become an excellent area to form young researchers because systematic observation of meteors using photographic, video and CCD techniques has become one of the rare fields in astronomy in which amateurs can work together with professionals to make important contributions. We present here some results of the campaigns realized from the formation of the network. Finally, in a new step of development of our network, the all-sky CCD automatic cameras will be continuously detecting meteors and fireballs from four stations located in the Andalusia and Valencian communities by the end of 2005. Additionally, during important meteor showers we plan to develop fireball spectroscopy using medium field lenses.

  17. Plasma processes in the expansion of the solar wind and in the interplanetary medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, A.

    1975-01-01

    Recent research into plasma processes involved in the expansion of the solar wind and the interplanetary medium is reviewed. Emphasized topics deal primarily with processes that drive the solar wind, the gross expansion of the interplanetary medium between 0.5 and 5 AU, recent observational results in the vicinity of 1 AU, and the microstructure of the interplanetary medium. Satellite measurements of the radial profile of the interplanetary medium out to 5 AU are discussed together with model calculations of the solar wind and its possible driving mechanisms. Studies of Alfven and magnetoacoustic waves in the solar wind are summarized. Possible roles are considered for thermal conduction in coronal energy transport, and observations of ion velocity distributions near 1 AU are described.

  18. MeV Ion Anisotropies in the Vicinity of Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2007-05-01

    The anticipated signatures of interplanetary shock acceleration to be found in energetic ion anisotropies in the vicinity of interplanetary shocks include near-isotropic particle distributions consistent with of diffusive shock acceleration, "pancake" distributions indicative of shock drift acceleration, and flow reversals suggestive of a particle acceleration region passing by the observing spacecraft. In practice, while clear examples of these phenomena exist, more typically, particle anisotropies near interplanetary shocks show considerable variation in time and space, both in individual events and from event to event. We investigate the properties of MeV/n ions in the vicinity of a number of interplanetary shocks associated with the largest energetic particle events of solar cycle 23, and previous cycles, including their intensity-time profiles, anisotropies, and relationship with local solar wind structures, using observations from the IMP 8, ISEE-3, Helios 1 and 3 spacecraft. The aim is to help to understand the role of shocks in major solar energetic particle events.

  19. Tongues, bottles, and disconnected loops: The opening and closing of the interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.

    1994-06-01

    For years the field of Space Physics has had a problem, a really big problem for it occurs on the largest spatial scales in Space physics -- across the entire region under the Sun`s influence, the heliosphere. The problem is that the Sun appears to keep opening new magnetic flux into interplanetary space with no obvious way for this flux to close back off again. This state of affairs, without some previously unknown method for closing the open interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), leads to an ever growing amount of magnetic flux in interplanetary space: the magnetic flux catastrophe. Recently, considerable progress has been made in understanding why this catastrophic state is not the observed state of the heliosphere. This brief article paints the newly emerging picture of the opening and closing of the IMF and how these processes may account for the observed variation in the amount of magnetic flux in interplanetary space over the solar cycle.

  20. Propagation Characteristics of Two Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun Far into Interplanetary Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-01

    Propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun far into interplanetary space is not well understood, due to limited observations. In this study we examine the propagation characteristics of two geo-effective CMEs, which occurred on 2005 May 6 and 13, respectively. Significant heliospheric consequences associated with the two CMEs are observed, including interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) at the Earth and Ulysses, interplanetary shocks, a long-duration type II radio burst, and intense geomagnetic storms. We use coronagraph observations from SOHO/LASCO, frequency drift of the long-duration type II burst, in situ measurements at the Earth and Ulysses, and magnetohydrodynamic propagation of the observed solar wind disturbances at 1 au to track the CMEs from the Sun far into interplanetary space. We find that both of the CMEs underwent a major deceleration within 1 au and thereafter a gradual deceleration when they propagated from the Earth to deep interplanetary space, due to interactions with the ambient solar wind. The results also reveal that the two CMEs interacted with each other in the distant interplanetary space even though their launch times on the Sun were well separated. The intense geomagnetic storm for each case was caused by the southward magnetic fields ahead of the CME, stressing the critical role of the sheath region in geomagnetic storm generation, although for the first case there is a corotating interaction region involved.

  1. Magnetic sails and interplanetary travel

    SciTech Connect

    Zubrin, R.M.; Andrews, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    A new concept, the magnetic sail, or 'magsail' is proposed which propels spacecraft by using the magnetic field generated by a loop of superconducting cable to deflect interplanetary or interstellar plasma winds. The performance of such a device is evaluated using both a plasma particle model and a fluid model, and the results of a series of investigations are presented. It is found that a magsail sailing on the solar wind at a radius of one astronautical unit can attain accelerations on the order of 0.01 m/sec squared, much greater than that available from a conventional solar lightsail, and also greater than the acceleration due to the sun's gravitational attraction. A net tangential force, or 'lift' can also be generated. Lift to drag ratios of about 0.3 appear attainable. Equations are derived whereby orbital transfers using magsail propulsion can be calculated analytically.

  2. CFDP for Interplanetary Overlay Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol for Interplanetary Overlay Network (CFDP-ION) is an implementation of CFDP that uses IO' s DTN (delay tolerant networking) implementation as its UT (unit-data transfer) layer. Because the DTN protocols effect automatic, reliable transmission via multiple relays, CFDP-ION need only satisfy the requirements for Class 1 ("unacknowledged") CFDP. This keeps the implementation small, but without loss of capability. This innovation minimizes processing resources by using zero-copy objects for file data transmission. It runs without modification in VxWorks, Linux, Solaris, and OS/X. As such, this innovation can be used without modification in both flight and ground systems. Integration with DTN enables the CFDP implementation itself to be very simple; therefore, very small. Use of ION infrastructure minimizes consumption of storage and processing resources while maximizing safety.

  3. Toward the Probabilistic Forecasting of High-latitude GPS Phase Scintillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prikryl, P.; Jayachandran, P.T.; Mushini, S. C.; Richardson, I. G.

    2012-01-01

    The phase scintillation index was obtained from L1 GPS data collected with the Canadian High Arctic Ionospheric Network (CHAIN) during years of extended solar minimum 2008-2010. Phase scintillation occurs predominantly on the dayside in the cusp and in the nightside auroral oval. We set forth a probabilistic forecast method of phase scintillation in the cusp based on the arrival time of either solar wind corotating interaction regions (CIRs) or interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). CIRs on the leading edge of high-speed streams (HSS) from coronal holes are known to cause recurrent geomagnetic and ionospheric disturbances that can be forecast one or several solar rotations in advance. Superposed epoch analysis of phase scintillation occurrence showed a sharp increase in scintillation occurrence just after the arrival of high-speed solar wind and a peak associated with weak to moderate CMEs during the solar minimum. Cumulative probability distribution functions for the phase scintillation occurrence in the cusp are obtained from statistical data for days before and after CIR and ICME arrivals. The probability curves are also specified for low and high (below and above median) values of various solar wind plasma parameters. The initial results are used to demonstrate a forecasting technique on two example periods of CIRs and ICMEs.

  4. The solar origins of two high-latitude interplanetary disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Acton, L. W.; Alexander, D.; Harvey, K. L.; Kurokawa, H.; Kahler, S.; Lemen, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Two extremely similar interplanetary forward/reverse shock events, with bidirectional electron streaming were detected by Ulysses in 1994. Ground-based and Yohkoh/SXT observations show two strikingly different solar events that could be associated with them: an LDE flare on 20 Feb. 1994, and a extremely large-scale eruptive event on 14 April 1994. Both events resulted in geomagnetic storms and presumably were associated with coronal mass ejections. The sharply contrasting nature of these solar events argues against an energetic causal relationship between them and the bidirectional streaming events observed by Ulysses during its S polar passage. We suggest instead that for each pair of events. a common solar trigger may have caused independent instabilities leading to the solar and interplanetary phenomena.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy of interplanetary dust in the laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraundorf, P.; Patel, R. I.; Freeman, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A mount containing three crushed chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the earth's stratosphere and subjected to infrared spectroscopic measurements shows features near 1000 and 500/cm, suggesting crystalline pyroxene rather than crystalline olivine, amorphous olivine, or meteoritic clay minerals. Chondritic IDP structural diversity and atmospheric heating effects must be considered when comparing this spectrum with interplanetary and cometary dust astrophysical spectra. TEM and infrared observations of one member of the rare subset of IDPs resembling hydrated carbonaceous chondrite matrix material shows a close infrared spectrum resemblance between 4000 and 400/cm to the C2 meteorite Murchison. TEM observations suggest that this class of particles may be used as an atmospheric entry heating-process thermometer.

  6. Composite scintillator screen

    DOEpatents

    Zeman, Herbert D.

    1994-01-01

    A scintillator screen for an X-ray system includes a substrate of low-Z material and bodies of a high-Z material embedded within the substrate. By preselecting the size of the bodies embedded within the substrate, the spacial separation of the bodies and the thickness of the screen, the sensitivity of the screen to X-rays within a predetermined energy range can be predicted.

  7. Gamma ray spectroscopy in astrophysics: Future role of scintillation detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurfess, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The future role of conventional scintillation detector telescopes for line gamma-ray astronomy is discussed. Although the energy resolution of the germanium detectors now being used by several groups is clearly desirable, the larger effective areas and higher efficiencies available with scintillation detectors is advantageous for many observations. This is particularly true for those observations of astrophysical phenomena where significant line broadening is expected.

  8. Associations between coronal mass ejections and interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheeley, N. R., Jr.; Howard, R. A.; Koomen, M. J.; Michels, D. J.; Schwenn, R.; Muhlhauser, K. H.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Nearly continuous complementary coronal observations and interplanetary plasma measurements for the years 1979-1982 are compared. It is shown that almost all low latitude high speed coronal mass ejections (CME's) were associated with shocks at HELIOS 1. Some suitably directed low speed CME's were clearly associated with shocks while others may have been associated with disturbed plasma (such as NCDE's) without shocks. A few opposite hemisphere CME's associated with great flares seem to be associated with shocks at HELIOS.

  9. Workshop on the Analysis of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the analysis of interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) over the past few years. This workshop provided a forum for the discussion of the following topics: observation and modeling of dust in the solar system, mineralogy and petrography of IDP's, processing of IDP's in the solar system and terrestrial atmosphere, comparison of IDP's to meteorites and micrometeorites, composition of IDP's, classification, and collection of IDP's.

  10. Use of Reference Frames for Interplanetary Navigation at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heflin, Michael; Jacobs, Chris; Sovers, Ojars; Moore, Angelyn; Owen, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Navigation of interplanetary spacecraft is typically based on range, Doppler, and differential interferometric measurements made by ground-based telescopes. Acquisition and interpretation of these observations requires accurate knowledge of the terrestrial reference frame and its orientation with respect to the celestial frame. Work is underway at JPL to reprocess historical VLBI and GPS data to improve realizations of the terrestrial and celestial frames. Improvements include minimal constraint alignment, improved tropospheric modeling, better orbit determination, and corrections for antenna phase center patterns.

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic Modelling of Solar Disturbances in the Interplanetary Medium.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    and interplanetary portion of the physical linkage: real time observations from the SOON/ RSTN sites plus satellites (GOES-NEXT, SAMSAT) would provide...various papers are categorized with a description of their main points and conclusions. A set of representative figures, together with extensive... descriptive captions, is also included for the reader interested in some additional details. This work was prepared with partial support from various AFOL

  12. Synoptic IPS and Yohkoh soft X-ray observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.; Rappoport, S.; Woan, G.; Slater, G.; Strong, K.; Uchida, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Interplanetary scintillation measurements of the disturbance factor, g, from October 1991 to October 1992 are used to construct synoptic Carrington maps. These maps, which show the structure of the quiet solar wind, are compared with X-ray Carrington maps from the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) instrument. For the period studied the global structure outlined by (weakly) enhanced g-values apparent in the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) maps tend to match the active regions (as shown in the X-ray maps) significantly better than the heliospheric current sheet. Contrary to traditional opinion, which views active regions as magnetically closed structures that do not have any significant impact on the solar wind flow, our results suggest that density fluctuations in the solar wind are significantly enhanced over active regions. These results support the suggestion by Uchida et al. (1992), based on Yohkoh observations of expanding active regions, that active regions play a role in feeding mass into the quiet solar wind.

  13. Genesis of Interplanetary Intermittent Turbulence: A Case Study of Rope&enrope Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Feng, Heng Q.; Hu, Qiang; Loew, Murray H.; Miranda, Rodrigo A.; Muñoz, Pablo R.; Sibeck, David G.; Wu, De J.

    2016-12-01

    In a recent paper, the relation between current sheet, magnetic reconnection, and turbulence at the leading edge of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection was studied. We report here the observation of magnetic reconnection at the interface region of two interplanetary magnetic flux ropes. The front and rear boundary layers of three interplanetary magnetic flux ropes are identified, and the structures of magnetic flux ropes are reconstructed by the Grad-Shafranov method. A quantitative analysis of the reconnection condition and the degree of intermittency reveals that rope-rope magnetic reconnection is the most likely site for genesis of interplanetary intermittency turbulence in this event. The dynamic pressure pulse resulting from this reconnection triggers the onset of a geomagnetic storm.

  14. Neutron crosstalk between liquid scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Verbeke, J. M.; Prasad, M. K.; Snyderman, N. J.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method to quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between liquid scintillators. Using a spontaneous fission source, this method can be utilized to quickly characterize an array of liquid scintillators in terms of crosstalk. The point model theory due to Feynman is corrected to account for these multiple scatterings. Using spectral information measured by the liquid scintillators, fractions of multiple scattering can be estimated, and mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation can be improved. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic neutron sources were performed to estimate neutron crosstalk. A californium source in an array of liquid scintillators was modeled to illustrate the improvement of the mass reconstruction.

  15. Neutron crosstalk between liquid scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Prasad, M. K.; Snyderman, N. J.

    2015-09-01

    A method is proposed to quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between liquid scintillators. Using a spontaneous fission source, this method can be utilized to quickly characterize an array of liquid scintillators in terms of crosstalk. The point model theory due to Feynman is corrected to account for these multiple scatterings. Using spectral information measured by the liquid scintillators, fractions of multiple scattering can be estimated, and mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation can be improved. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic neutron sources were performed to estimate neutron crosstalk. A californium source in an array of liquid scintillators was modeled to illustrate the improvement of the mass reconstruction.

  16. Interplanetary Physics Laboratory (IPL): A concept for an interplanetary mission in the mid-eighties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Feldman, W.

    1977-01-01

    A concept for a near-earth interplanetary mission in the mid-eighties is described. The proposed objectives would be to determine the composition of the interplanetary constituents and its dependence on source-conditions and to investigate energy and momentum transfer processes in the interplanetary medium. Such a mission would accomplish three secondary objectives: (1) provide a baseline for deep space missions, (2) investigate variations of the solar wind with solar activity, and (3) provide input functions for magnetospheric studies.

  17. N-(2-Ethylhexyl)carbazole: A New Fluorophore Highly Suitable as a Monomolecular Liquid Scintillator.

    PubMed

    Montbarbon, Eva; Sguerra, Fabien; Bertrand, Guillaume H V; Magnier, Élodie; Coulon, Romain; Pansu, Robert B; Hamel, Matthieu

    2016-08-16

    The synthesis, photophysical properties, and applications in scintillation counting of N-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz) are reported. This molecule displays all of the required characteristics for an efficient liquid scintillator (emission wavelength, scintillation yield), and can be used without any extra fluorophores. Thus, its scintillation properties are discussed, as well as its fast neutron/gamma discrimination. For the latter application, the material is compared with the traditional liquid scintillator BC-501 A, and other liquid fluorescent molecules classically used as scintillation solvents, such as xylene, pseudocumene (PC), linear alkylbenzenes (LAB), diisopropylnaphthalene (DIN), 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MeNapht), and 4-isopropylbiphenyl (iPrBiph). For the first time, an excimeric form of a molecule has been advantageously used in scintillation counting. A moderate discrimination between fast neutrons and gamma rays was observed in bulk EHCz, with an apparent neutron/gamma discrimination potential half of that of BC-501 A.

  18. Detection of Solar Wind Disturbances: Mexican Array Radio Telescope IPS Observations at 140 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Hernandez, E.; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ontiveros-Hernandez, V.; Villanueva-Hernandez, P.

    2015-09-01

    The interplanetary scintillation (IPS) technique is a remote-sensing method for monitoring solar-wind perturbations. The Mexican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART) is a single-station instrument operating at 140 MHz, fully dedicated to performing solar-wind studies employing the IPS technique. We report MEXART solar-wind measurements (scintillation indices and solar-wind velocities) using data obtained during the 2013 and 2014 campaigns. These solar-wind measurements were calculated employing a new methodology based on the wavelet transform (WT) function. We report the variation of the scintillation indices versus the heliocentric distance for two IPS sources (3C48 and 3C147). We found different average conditions of the solar-wind density fluctuations in 2013 and 2014. We used the fittings of the radial dependence of the scintillation index to calculate g-indices. Based on the g-index value, we identified 17 events that could be associated with strong compression regions in the solar wind. We present the first ICME identifications in our data. We associated 14 IPS events with preceding CME counterparts by employing white-light observations from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. We found that most of the IPS events, detected during the solar maximum of Cycle 24 were associated with complex CME events. For the IPS events associated with single CME counterparts, we found a deceleration tendency of the CMEs as they propagate in the interplanetary medium. These results show that the instrument detects solar-wind disturbances, and the WT methodology provides solar-wind information with good accuracy. The MEXART observations will complement solar-wind IPS studies using other frequencies, and the tracking of solar-wind disturbances by other stations located at different longitudes.

  19. Hypersonic Interplanetary Flight: Aero Gravity Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Al; Banks, Dan; Randolph, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The use of aero-gravity assist during hypersonic interplanetary flights is highlighted. Specifically, the use of large versus small planet for gravity asssist maneuvers, aero-gravity assist trajectories, launch opportunities and planetary waverider performance are addressed.

  20. Operating CFDP in the Interplanetary Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the design elements of CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Interplanetary Internet technologies that will simplify their integration and discusses the resulting new capabilities, such as efficient transmission of large files via multiple relay satellites operating in parallel.

  1. Volatiles in interplanetary dust particles - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the volatiles found within interplanetary dust particles. These particles have been shown to represent primitive material from early in the solar system's formation and also may contain records of stellar processes. The organogenic elements (i.e., H, C, N, O, and S) are among the most abundant elements in our solar system, and their abundances, distributions, and isotopic compositions in early solar system materials permit workers to better understand the processes operating early in the evolutionary history of solar system materials. Interplanetary dust particles have a range of elemental compositions, but generally they have been shown to be similar to carbonaceous chondrites, the solar photosphere, Comet Halley's chondritic cores, and matrix materials of chondritic chondrites. Recovery and analysis of interplanetary dust particles have opened new opportunities for analysis of primitive materials, although interplanetary dust particles represent major challenges to the analyst because of their small size.

  2. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Interplanetary Cruise Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, Tung-Han; Graat, Eric; Halsell, Allen; Highsmith, Dolan; Long, Stacia; Bhat, Ram; Demcak, Stuart; Higa, Earl; Mottinger, Neil; Jah, Moriba

    2007-01-01

    Carrying six science instruments and three engineering payloads, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is the first mission in a low Mars orbit to characterize the surface, subsurface, and atmospheric properties with unprecedented detail. After a seven-month interplanetary cruise, MRO arrived at Mars executing a 1.0 km/s Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) maneuver. MRO achieved a 430 km periapsis altitude with the final orbit solution indicating that only 10 km was attributable to navigation prediction error. With the last interplanetary maneuver performed four months before MOI, this was a significant accomplishment. This paper describes the navigation analyses and results during the 210-day interplanetary cruise. As of August 2007 MRO has returned more than 18 Terabits of scientific data in support of the objectives set by the Mars Exploration Program (MEP). The robust and exceptional interplanetary navigation performance paved the way for a successful MRO mission.

  3. Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena (STIP) workshop travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty six abstracts are provided from the SCOSTEP/STIP Symposium on Retrospective Analyses and Future Coordinated Intervals held in Switzerland on June 10 to 12, 1985. Six American scientists participated in the symposium and their abstracts are also included. The titles of their papers are: (1) An analysis of near surface and coronal activity during STIP interval 12, by T. E. Gergely; (2) Helios images of STIP intervals 6, B. V. Jackson; (3) Results from the analysis of solar and interplanetary observations during STIP interval 7, S. R. Kane; (4) STIP interval 19, E. Cliver; (5) Hydrodynamic buoyancy force in the solar atmosphere, T. Yeh; and (6) A combined MHD modes for the energy and momentum transport from solar surface to interplanetary space, S. T. Wu.

  4. Development of coronal mass ejections and association with interplanetary events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pick, M.; Maia, D.; Howard, R.; Thompson, B.; Lanzerotti, L. J. L.; Bothmer, V.; Lamy, P.

    1997-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) obtained by comparing the observations of the large angle spectroscopic coronagraph (LASCO) and the extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT) instrument onboard the SOHO with those of the Nancay radioheliograph. The radioheliograph provides images at five levels in the corona. An excellent spatial association is found between the position and extent of the type 4 radio sources and the CMEs seen by LASCO. One result is the existence for these two events of discrete successive phases in their development. For these events, Ulysses and SOHO missions measured interplanetary particles of coronal origin. The coronal acceleration site was attempted to be identified, as well as the path of these particles from the corona to the interplanetary medium.

  5. A Generic Receiver Tracking Model for GPS Ionospheric Amplitude Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paula, E. R.; Moraes, A. D.; Perrella, W. J.; Galera Monico, J. F.

    2012-12-01

    Ionospheric scintillations result in rapid variations in phase and amplitude of the radio signal, which propagates through the ionosphere. Depending on the temporal and spatial situation, the scintillation can represent a problem in the availability and precision of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Scintillations affect the receiver performance, specially the tracking loop level. Depending on the scintillation level, the receiver might increase the measurement errors or even can lead to a loss of lock of the carrier and code loops. In extreme cases, the scintillation can result in full disrupting of the receiver. In this work we introduce a generic model to evaluate the effects of ionospheric amplitude scintillation on GPS receiver tracking loops. This model is based on α-μ distribution, which can be seen as a generalized fading model, that includes a variety of distributions such as Gamma, Nakagami-m, Exponential, Weibull, one-sided Gaussian and Rayleigh. Differently from the model based only on Nakagami-m, this one is not limited to S4< 0,71 which allows using it to predict amplitude scintillation effects for stronger scenarios. The estimation of α-μ coefficients, the empirical parameterization based on field measurements and the typical values estimated based on observations made during the last solar maximum are presented and discussed.

  6. TPS Ablator Technologies for Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Ablator technologies and the preparation for use in interplanetary spacecraft. NASA does not have adequate TPS ablatives and sufficient selection for planned missions. It includes a comparison of shuttle and interplanetary TPS requirements, the status of mainline TPS charring ablator materials, a summary of JSC SBIR accomplishments in developing advanced charring ablators and the benefits of SBIR Ablator/fabrication technology.

  7. Dynamics of the Solar Plasma Events and Their Interplanetary Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Subhash Chandra

    2016-07-01

    In the present study we have analyzed the interplanetary plasma / field parameter, which have initiated the complex nature intense and highly geo-effective events in the magnetosphere. It is believed that Solar wind velocity V. interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B and Bz are the crucial drivers of these activities. However, sometimes strong geomagnetic disturbance is associated with the interaction between slow and fast solar wind originating from coronal holes leads to create co-rotating plasma interaction region (CIR). Thus the dynamics of the magnetospheric plasma configuration is the reflection of measured solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. While the magnetospheric plasma anomalies are generally represented by geomagnetic storms and sudden ionosphere disturbance (SIDs). The study considers geomagnetic storms associated with disturbance storm time (Dst) decreases of more than -50 nT to -300 nT, observed during solar cycle 23 and the ascending phase of solar cycle 24. These have been analyzed and studied statistically. The spacecraft data those provided by SOHO, ACE and geomagnetic stations like WDC-Kyoto are utilized in the study. It is observed that the yearly occurrences of geomagnetic storm are strongly correlated with 11-year sunspot cycle, but no significant correlation between the maximum and minimum phase of solar cycle have been found. It is also found that solar cycle-23 is remarkable for occurrence of intense geomagnetic storms during its declining phase. The detailed results are discussed in this paper.

  8. Interplanetary planar magnetic structures associated with expanding active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Tomoko; Uchida, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    Planar magnetic structures are interplanetary objects whose magnetic field cannot be explained by Parker's solar wind model. They are characterized by two-dimensional structure of magnetic field that are highly variable and parallel to a plane which is inclined to the ecliptic plane. They appeared independently of interplanetary compression, solar flares, active prominences nor filament disappearances, but the sources often coincided with active regions. On the other hand, it has been discovered by the Yohkoh Soft X-ray telescope that active-region corona expand outwards at speeds of a few to a few tens of km/s near the Sun. The expansions occurred repeatedly, almost continually, even in the absence of any sizable flares. In the Yohkoh Soft X-ray images, the active-region corona seems to expand out into interplanetary space. Solar sources of interplanetary planar magnetic structures observed by Sakigake were examined by Yohkoh soft X-ray telescope. During a quiet period of the Sun from January 6 to November 11, 1993, there found 5 planar magnetic structures according to the criteria (absolute value of Bn)/(absolute value of B) less than 0.1 for planarity and (dB)/(absolute value of B) greater than 0.7 for variability of magnetic field, where Bn, dB, and the absolute value of B are field component normal to a plane, standard deviation, and average of the magnitude of the magnetic field, respectively. Sources of 4 events were on low-latitude (less than 5 degrees) active regions from which loop-like structures were expanding. The coincidence, 80%, is extremely high with respect to accidental coincidence, 7%, of Sakigake windows of solar wind observation with active regions. The last source was on loop-like features which seemed to be related with a mid-latitude (20 degrees) active region.

  9. The relation of variations in total magnetic field at high latitude with the parameters of the interplanetary magnetic field and with DP2 fluctuations. [using OGO -3-C, and -4 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    The maximum disturbances from the positive and negative regions of delta B (Bp and Bn, respectively) are investigated with respect to their correlation with (1) the average N-S component, Bz, (2) the average angle with respect to the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane, theta (3) the variance, sigma sub i, and (4) the magnitude, Bi, of the interplanetary magnetic field. These quantities were averaged over a period, T, ranging from 20 min. to 8 hours prior to the measurement of Bp or Bn. Variations (i.e., disturbances) in total magnetic field magnitude were studied utilizing data from the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory satellites (OGO 2, 4, and 6), unofficially referred to as POGO.

  10. GPS Scintillation Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rev. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-1 298-102 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. GPS COMPARISON WITH ALL-SKY IMAGES OVER AGUA VERDE...Depletions from 1 October 1994 2 3. GPS data from Agua Verde, Chile on the night of 1 October 1994 3 4. PL-SCINDA display of GPS ionospheric...comparison of GPS measurements with GOES8 L-band scintillation data, are discussed. 2. GPS COMPARISON WITH ALL-SKY IMAGES OVER AGUA VERDE, CHILE As

  11. Electron heating at interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Gosling, J. T.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    Data for 41 forward interplanetary shocks show that the ratio of downstream to upstream electron temperatures, T/sub e/(d/u) is variable in the range between 1.0 (isothermal) and 3.0. On average, (T/sub e/(d/u) = 1.5 with a standard deviation, sigma e = 0.5. This ratio is less than the average ratio of proton temperatures across the same shocks, (T/sub p/(d/u)) = 3.3 with sigma p = 2.5 as well as the average ratio of electron temperatures across the Earth's bow shock. Individual samples of T/sub e/(d/u) and T/sub p/(d/u) appear to be weakly correlated with the number density ratio. However the amounts of electron and proton heating are well correlated with each other as well as with the bulk velocity difference across each shock. The stronger shocks appear to heat the protons relatively more efficiently than they heat the electrons.

  12. Scintillation detector for carbon-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, G. F.; Rogers, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    Detector consists of plastic, cylindrical double-wall scintillation cell, which is filled with gas to be analyzed. Thin, inner cell wall is isolated optically from outer (guard) scintillator wall by evaporated-aluminum coating. Bonding technique provides mechanical support to cell wall when device is exposed to high temperatures.

  13. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, F.; Davidson, M.; Keller, J.; Foster, G.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Harmon, J.; Biagtan, E.; Schueneman, G.; Senchishin, V.; Gustfason, H.; Rivard, M.

    1993-11-01

    The authors have demonstrated that the radiation stability of scintillators made from styrene polymer is very much improved by compounding with pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (DC 705 vacuum pump oil). The resulting scintillators are softer than desired, so they decided to make the scintillators directly from monomer where the base resin could be easily crosslinked to improve the mechanical properties. They can now demonstrate that scintillators made directly from the monomer, using both styrene and 4-methyl styrene, are also much more radiation resistant when modified with DC705 oil. In fact, they retain from 92% to 95% of their original light output after gamma irradiation to 10 Mrads in nitrogen with air annealing. When these scintillators made directly from monomer are compared with scintillators of the same composition made from polymer the latter have much higher light outputs. They commonly reach 83% while those made form monomer give only 50% to 60% relative to the reference, BC408. When oil modified scintillators using both p-terphenyl and tetraphenylbutadiene are compared with identical scintillators except that they use 3 hydroxy-flavone as the only luminophore the radiation stability is the same. However the 3HF system gives only 30% as much light as BC408 instead of 83% when both are measured with a green extended Phillips XP2081B phototube.

  14. Hybrid scintillators for neutron discrimination

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Patrick L; Cordaro, Joseph G; Anstey, Mitchell R; Morales, Alfredo M

    2015-05-12

    A composition capable of producing a unique scintillation response to neutrons and gamma rays, comprising (i) at least one surfactant; (ii) a polar hydrogen-bonding solvent; and (iii) at least one luminophore. A method including combining at least one surfactant, a polar hydrogen-bonding solvent and at least one luminophore in a scintillation cell under vacuum or an inert atmosphere.

  15. Extruding plastic scintillator at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Anna Pla-Dalmau; Alan D. Bross; Victor V. Rykalin

    2003-10-31

    An understanding of the costs involved in the production of plastic scintillators and the development of a less expensive material have become necessary with the prospects of building very large plastic scintillation detectors. Several factors contribute to the high cost of plastic scintillating sheets, but the principal reason is the labor-intensive nature of the manufacturing process. In order to significantly lower the costs, the current casting procedures had to be abandoned. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. This concept was tested and high quality extruded plastic scintillator was produced. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. This paper will discuss the characteristics of extruded plastic scintillator and its raw materials, the different manufacturing techniques and the current R&D program at Fermilab.

  16. Development of intrinsic IPT scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.D.

    1989-07-31

    We report on the development of a new polystyrene based plastic scintillator. Optical absorption, fluorescence and light output measurements are presented. Preliminary results of radiation damage effects are also given and compared to the effects on a commercial plastic scintillator, NE 110. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Characteristics of High-latitude and Equatorial Ionospheric Scintillation of GNSS Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.; Jiao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, several years of multi-constellation global navigation satellite scintillation data collected at Alaska, Peru, and Ascension Island are analyzed to characterize scintillation features observed at high latitude and equatorial locations during the current solar maximum. Recognizing that strong scintillation data are often lost due to the lack of robustness in conventional GPS receivers used for ionosphere scintillation monitoring (ISM), an autonomous event driven scintillation data collection system using software-defined raw RF sampling devices have been developed deployed at a number of strategically selected high latitude and equatorial locations since 2009. This unique scintillation data recording system is triggered by indicators computed from a continuously operating ISM receiver and the raw RF data is post processed using advanced receiver signal processing algorithms designed to minimize carrier phase cycle slips and loss of lock of signals during strong scintillations. Based on scintillation events extracted from the raw data, several statistical distributions are established to characterize the intensity, duration and occurrence frequency of scintillation. Results confirm that scintillation at low latitudes is generally more intense and longer lasting, while high-latitude scintillation is milder and usually dominated by phase fluctuations. Results also reveal the impacts of solar activity, geomagnetic activity and seasons on scintillation in different areas. Combining measurements from a co-located geo-magnetometer and corresponding global geomagnetic activities, qualitative and quantitative correlations between scintillation and both local and global geomagnetic activities have been obtained. Results show that in Alaska, the occurrence frequency and intensity of scintillation, especially phase fluctuations, have strong correlations with geomagnetic field intensity disturbances, while in equatorial stations, the correlation is not obvious.

  18. Characterization of GNSS scintillations over Lagos, Nigeria during the minimum and ascending phases (2009-2011) of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, A. O.; Amaeshi, L. L. N.; Doherty, P. H.; Groves, K. M.; Carrano, C. S.; Bridgwood, C. T.; Seemala, G. K.; Somoye, E. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study characterizes equatorial scintillations at L-band frequency over Lagos, Nigeria during the minimum and ascending phases of solar cycle 24. Three years (2009-2011) of amplitude scintillation data were used for the investigation. The data were grouped on daily, monthly, seasonal, and yearly scales at three levels of scintillation (weak (0.3 ⩽ S4 < 0.4), moderate (0.4 ⩽ S4 < 0.7), and intense (S4 ⩾ 0.7)). To ensure reliable statistical inferences, three data cut-off criteria were adopted. Scintillations were observed to have a daily trend of occurrence during the hours of 1900-0200 LT, and higher levels of scintillations were localized within the hours of 2000-2300 LT. On monthly basis, September and October recorded the highest occurrences of scintillation, while January recorded the least. Scintillations were recorded during all the months of 2011, except January. Surprisingly, pockets of scintillation events (weak levels) were also observed during the summer months (May, June, and July). Seasonally, equinoxes recorded the highest occurrences of scintillation, while June solstice recorded the least occurrences. Scintillation activity also increases with solar and geomagnetic activity. On a scintillation active day, the number of satellites available to the receiver's view reduces as the duration of observation reduces. These results may support the development of future models that could provide real-time predictability of African equatorial scintillations, with a view to supporting the implementation of GNSS-based navigation for aviation applications in Africa.

  19. Co-doping effects on luminescence and scintillation properties of Ce doped (Lu,Gd)3(Ga,Al)5O12 scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Pejchal, Jan; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-11-01

    Mg co-doping effects on scintillation properties of Ce:Lu1Gd2(Ga,Al)5O12 (LGGAG) were investigated. Mg 200 ppm co-doped Ce:LGGAG single crystals were prepared by micro pulling down method. Absorption and luminescence spectra were measured together with several other scintillation characteristics, namely the scintillation decay and light yield to reveal the effect of Mg co-doping. Ce4+ charge transfer absorption was observed below 300 nm in Mg,Ce:LGGAG which is in good agreement with previous reports. The scintillation decay times were accelerated by Mg co-doping.

  20. Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component - Interplanetary Imprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.; Phillips, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Nerney, S.

    1996-01-01

    Ulysses measurements have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,), of the interplanetary magnetic field. There are two processes responsible for this observation. In the corona, the plasma beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so both longitudinal and latitudinal (meridional) gradients in field strength will relax, due to the transverse magnetic pressure gradient force, as the solar wind carries magnetic flux away from the Sun. This happens so quickly that the field is essentially uniform by 5 solar radius. Beyond 10 solar radius, beta is greater than 1 and it is possible for a meridional thermal pressure gradient to redistribute magnetic flux - an effect apparently absent in Ulysses and earlier ICE and Interplanetary Magnetic Physics (IMP) data. We discuss this second effect here, showing that its absence is mainly due to the perpendicular part of the anisotropic thermal pressure gradient in the interplanetary medium being too small to drive significant meridional transport between the Sun and approx. 4 AU. This is done using a linear analytic estimate of meridional transport. The first effect was discussed in an earlier paper.

  1. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-03-01

    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  2. Preconditioning of Interplanetary Space Due to Transient CME Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temmer, M.; Reiss, M. A.; Nikolic, L.; Hofmeister, S. J.; Veronig, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    Interplanetary space is characteristically structured mainly by high-speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes and transient disturbances such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While high-speed solar wind streams pose a continuous outflow, CMEs abruptly disrupt the rather steady structure, causing large deviations from the quiet solar wind conditions. For the first time, we give a quantification of the duration of disturbed conditions (preconditioning) for interplanetary space caused by CMEs. To this aim, we investigate the plasma speed component of the solar wind and the impact of in situ detected interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs), compared to different background solar wind models (ESWF, WSA, persistence model) for the time range 2011–2015. We quantify in terms of standard error measures the deviations between modeled background solar wind speed and observed solar wind speed. Using the mean absolute error, we obtain an average deviation for quiet solar activity within a range of 75.1–83.1 km s‑1. Compared to this baseline level, periods within the ICME interval showed an increase of 18%–32% above the expected background, and the period of two days after the ICME displayed an increase of 9%–24%. We obtain a total duration of enhanced deviations over about three and up to six days after the ICME start, which is much longer than the average duration of an ICME disturbance itself (∼1.3 days), concluding that interplanetary space needs ∼2–5 days to recover from the impact of ICMEs. The obtained results have strong implications for studying CME propagation behavior and also for space weather forecasting.

  3. Properties and interactions of interplanetary dust; Proceedings of the Eighty-fifth Colloquium, Marseille, France, July 9-12, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, R. H.; Lamy, P.

    The conference presents papers on zodiacal light and F-coronal observations as well as space, ground, laboratory and optical studies of interplanetary dust, the relationship between this dust and comets, its interactions with plasma, its dynamics and spatial distribution. Particular attention is given to ground-based observations of near ecliptic zodiacal light brightness, the change in near-ecliptic zodiacal light brightness with heliocentric distance, IRAS observations of interplanetary dust emission, and observation of the F-corona radial velocities field between 3 and 7 solar radii. Other topics include orbits of interplanetary dust particles inside 1 AU as observed by Helios, chemical and isotopic compositons of refractory elements in deep sea spherules, optical models of the three dimensional distribution of interplanetary dust, the particle-size-distribution function of cometary dust, laboratory simulation of chemical interactions of accelerated ions with dust and ice grains, and an analysis of IRAS' solar system dust bands.

  4. Study of scintillation in natural and synthetic quartz and methacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Borjabad, S.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; Fortuño, D.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Gómez, H.; Herrera, D. C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2014-06-01

    Samples from different materials typically used as optical windows or light guides in scintillation detectors were studied in a very low background environment, at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory, searching for scintillation. A positive result can be confirmed for natural quartz: two distinct scintillation components have been identified, not being excited by an external gamma source. Although similar effect has not been observed neither for synthetic quartz nor for methacrylate, a fast light emission excited by intense gamma flux is evidenced for all the samples in our measurements. These results could affect the use of these materials in low energy applications of scintillation detectors requiring low radioactive background conditions, as they entail a source of background.

  5. Impact angle control of interplanetary shock geoeffectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D. M.; Raeder, J.

    2014-10-01

    We use Open Geospace General Circulation Model global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric, magnetotail, and ionospheric responses to interplanetary (IP) fast forward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, hereafter IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30° in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along the Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail from both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in stronger geomagnetic activity. By comparing IOS-2 and FPS, we find that, despite the IOS-2 having a larger Mach number, the FPS leads to a larger geomagnetic response in the nightside ionosphere. As a result, we conclude that IP shocks with similar upstream conditions, such as magnetic field, speed, density, and Mach number, can have different geoeffectiveness, depending on their shock normal orientation.

  6. Impact Angle Control of Interplanetary Shock Geoeffectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D.; Raeder, J.

    2014-12-01

    We use OpenGGCM global MHD simulations to study the nightside magnetospheric/ magnetotail/ ionospheric responses to interplanetary (IP) fast foward shocks. Three cases are presented in this study: two inclined oblique shocks, hereafter IOS-1 and IOS-2, where the latter has a Mach number twice stronger than the former. Both shocks have impact angles of 30o in relation to the Sun-Earth line. Lastly, we choose a frontal perpendicular shock, FPS, whose shock normal is along th Sun-Earth line, with the same Mach number as IOS-1. We find that, in the IOS-1 case, due to the north-south asymmetry, the magnetotail is deflected southward, leading to a mild compression. The geomagnetic activity observed in the nightside ionosphere is then weak. On the other hand, in the head-on case, the FPS compresses the magnetotail on both sides symmetrically. This compression triggers a substorm allowing a larger amount of stored energy in the magnetotail to be released to the nightside ionosphere, resulting in a larger geomagnetic activity there. By comparing IOS-2 and FPS, we find that, despite the IOS-2 having a larger Mach number, the FPS leads to larger geomagnetic responses in the ionosphere nightside. As a result, we conclude that IP shocks with similar upstream conditions, such as magnetic field, speed, density, and even Mach number, can be differently geoeffective, depending on their shock normal orientation.

  7. Energetic solar electrons in the interplanetary medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    Results are given of ISEE-3 measurements of energetic solar electrons extending down to 2 keV energy. Such measurements have provided a new perspective on energetic solar electrons in the interplanetary medium. Impulsive solar electron events are observed, on the average, several times a day near solar maximum, with about 40 percent detected only below about 15 keV. The electron energy spectra have a nearly power-law shape extending smoothly down to 2 keV, indicating that the origin of these events is high in the corona. In large solar flares which accelerate electrons and ions to relativistic energies, the electron spectrum appears to be modified by a second acceleration which results in a double power-law shape above about 10 keV with a break near 100 keV and flattening from about 10-100 keV. Solar type-III radio bursts are produced by the escaping 2-100 keV electrons through a beam-plasma instability.

  8. Water and organics in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, John

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and larger micrometeorites (MMs) impinge on the upper atmosphere where they decelerate at 90 km altitude and settle to the Earths surface. Comets and asteroids are the major sources and the flux, 30,000-40,000 tons/yr, is comparable to the mass of larger meteorites impacting the Earths surface. The sedimentary record suggests that the flux was much higher on the early Earth. The chondritic porous (CP) subset of IDPs together with their larger counterparts, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites (UCMMs), appear to be unique among known meteoritic materials in that they are composed almost exclusively of anhydrous minerals, some of them contain >> 50% organic carbon by volume as well as the highest abundances of presolar silicate grains including GEMS. D/H and 15N abundances implicate the Oort Cloud or presolar molecular cloud as likely sources of the organic carbon. Prior to atmospheric entry, IDPs and MMs spend 104-105 year lifetimes in solar orbit where their surfaces develop amorphous space weathered rims from exposure to the solar wind (SW). Similar rims are observed on lunar soil grains and on asteroid Itokawa regolith grains. Using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) we have detected radiolytic water in the rims on IDPs formed by the interaction of solar wind protons with oxygen in silicate minerals. Therefore, IDPs and MMs continuously deliver both water and organics to the earth and other terrestrial planets. The interaction of protons with oxygen-rich minerals to form water is a universal process.

  9. Origins and Dynamics of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dermott, Stanley F.

    2005-01-01

    This is a final report for research supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration issued through the Office of Space Science Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, covering all relevant activities during its 3-year period of funding from 02/01/2002 through to 01/31/2005. The ongoing aim of the research supported through this grant, and now through a successor award, is to investigate the origin of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and their dynamical and collisional evolution, in order to: (1) understand the provenance of zodiacal cloud particles and their transport from their source regions to the inner solar system; (2) produce detailed models of the zodiacal cloud and its constituent components; (3) determine the origin of the dust particles accreted by the Earth; (4) ascertain the level of temporal variations in the dust environment of the inner solar system and the accretion rate of IDPs by the Earth, and evaluate potential effects on global climate; and to (5) exploit this research as a basis for interpreting the structure observed in exozodiacal clouds that may result from the collisional evolution of planetesimals and the presence of unseen planets.

  10. Research to Operations of Ionospheric Scintillation Detection and Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Scro, K.; Payne, D.; Ruhge, R.; Erickson, B.; Andorka, S.; Ludwig, C.; Karmann, J.; Ebelhar, D.

    Ionospheric Scintillation refers to random fluctuations in phase and amplitude of electromagnetic waves caused by a rapidly varying refractive index due to turbulent features in the ionosphere. Scintillation of transionospheric UHF and L-Band radio frequency signals is particularly troublesome since this phenomenon can lead to degradation of signal strength and integrity that can negatively impact satellite communications and navigation, radar, or radio signals from other systems that traverse or interact with the ionosphere. Although ionospheric scintillation occurs in both the equatorial and polar regions of the Earth, the focus of this modeling effort is on equatorial scintillation. The ionospheric scintillation model is data-driven in a sense that scintillation observations are used to perform detection and characterization of scintillation structures. These structures are then propagated to future times using drift and decay models to represent the natural evolution of ionospheric scintillation. The impact on radio signals is also determined by the model and represented in graphical format to the user. A frequency scaling algorithm allows for impact analysis on frequencies other than the observation frequencies. The project began with lab-grade software and through a tailored Agile development process, deployed operational-grade code to a DoD operational center. The Agile development process promotes adaptive promote adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, regular collaboration with the customer, and encourage rapid and flexible response to customer-driven changes. The Agile philosophy values individuals and interactions over processes and tools, working software over comprehensive documentation, customer collaboration over contract negotiation, and responding to change over following a rigid plan. The end result was an operational capability that met customer expectations. Details of the model and the process of

  11. Proton recoil scintillator neutron rem meter

    DOEpatents

    Olsher, Richard H.; Seagraves, David T.

    2003-01-01

    A neutron rem meter utilizing proton recoil and thermal neutron scintillators to provide neutron detection and dose measurement. In using both fast scintillators and a thermal neutron scintillator the meter provides a wide range of sensitivity, uniform directional response, and uniform dose response. The scintillators output light to a photomultiplier tube that produces an electrical signal to an external neutron counter.

  12. Liquid scintillator tiles for calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Amouzegar, M.; Belloni, A.; Bilki, B.; Calderon, J.; Barbaro, P. De; Eno, S. C.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hirschauer, J.; Jeng, G. Y.; Pastika, N. J.; Pedro, K.; Rumerio, Paolo; Samuel, J.; Sharp, E.; Shin, Y. H.; Tiras, E.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Wetzel, J.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Youn, S. W.

    2016-11-28

    Future experiments in high energy and nuclear physics may require large, inexpensive calorimeters that can continue to operate after receiving doses of 50 Mrad or more. Also, the light output of liquid scintillators suffers little degradation under irradiation. However, many challenges exist before liquids can be used in sampling calorimetry, especially regarding developing a packaging that has sufficient efficiency and uniformity of light collection, as well as suitable mechanical properties. We present the results of a study of a scintillator tile based on the EJ-309 liquid scintillator using cosmic rays and test beam on the light collection efficiency and uniformity, and some preliminary results on radiation hardness.

  13. Liquid scintillator tiles for calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouzegar, M.; Belloni, A.; Bilki, B.; Calderon, J.; De Barbaro, P.; Eno, S. C.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hirschauer, J.; Jeng, G. Y.; Pastika, N. J.; Pedro, K.; Rumerio, Paolo; Samuel, J.; Sharp, E.; Shin, Y. H.; Tiras, E.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Wetzel, J.; Yang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Youn, S. W.

    2016-11-01

    Future experiments in high energy and nuclear physics may require large, inexpensive calorimeters that can continue to operate after receiving doses of 50 Mrad or more. The light output of liquid scintillators suffers little degradation under irradiation. However, many challenges exist before liquids can be used in sampling calorimetry, especially regarding developing a packaging that has sufficient efficiency and uniformity of light collection, as well as suitable mechanical properties. We present the results of a study of a scintillator tile based on the EJ-309 liquid scintillator using cosmic rays and test beam on the light collection efficiency and uniformity, and some preliminary results on radiation hardness.

  14. Scintillator materials containing lanthanum fluorides

    DOEpatents

    Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    An improved radiation detector containing a crystalline mixture of LaF.sub.3 and CeF.sub.3 as the scintillator element is disclosed. Scintillators made with from 25% to 99.5% LaF.sub.3 and the remainder CeF.sub.3 have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is equal to or superior to other known scintillator materials, and which may be processed from natural starting materials containing both rare earth elements. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in positron emission tomography.

  15. High energy resolution plastic scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Feng, Patrick; Markosyan, Gary; Shirwadkar, Urmila; Doty, Patrick; Shah, Kanai S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present results on a novel tin-loaded plastic scintillator. We will show that this particular plastic scintillator has a light output similar to that of BGO, a fast scintillation decay (< 10 ns), exhibits good neutron/gamma PSD with a Figure-of-Merit of 1.3 at 2.5 MeVee cut-off energy, and excellent energy resolution of about 12% (FWHM) at 662 keV. Under X-ray excitation, the radioluminescence spectrum exhibits a broad band between 350 and 500 nm peaking at 420 nm which is well-matched to bialkali photomultiplier tubes and UV-enhanced photodiodes.

  16. Ionospheric scintillation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rino, C. L.; Freemouw, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The diffracted field of a monochromatic plane wave was characterized by two complex correlation functions. For a Gaussian complex field, these quantities suffice to completely define the statistics of the field. Thus, one can in principle calculate the statistics of any measurable quantity in terms of the model parameters. The best data fits were achieved for intensity statistics derived under the Gaussian statistics hypothesis. The signal structure that achieved the best fit was nearly invariant with scintillation level and irregularity source (ionosphere or solar wind). It was characterized by the fact that more than 80% of the scattered signal power is in phase quadrature with the undeviated or coherent signal component. Thus, the Gaussian-statistics hypothesis is both convenient and accurate for channel modeling work.

  17. Properties of scintillator solutes

    SciTech Connect

    Fluornoy, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    This special report summarizes measurements of the spectroscopic and other properties of the solutes that were used in the preparation of several new liquid scintillators developed at EG and G/Energy Measurements/Santa Barbara Operations (the precursor to Bechtel Nevada/Special Technologies Laboratory) on the radiation-to-light converter program. The data on the individual compounds are presented in a form similar to that used by Prof. Isadore Berlman in his classic handbook of fluorescence spectra. The temporal properties and relative efficiencies of the new scintillators are presented in Table 1, and the efficiencies as a function of wavelength are presented graphically in Figure 1. In addition, there is a descriptive glossary of the abbreviations used herein. Figure 2 illustrates the basic structures of some of the compounds and of the four solvents reported in this summary. The emission spectra generally exhibit more structure than the absorption spectra, with the result that the peak emission wavelength for a given compound may lie several nm away from the wavelength, {lambda}{sub avg}, at the geometric center of the emission spectrum. Therefore, the author has chosen to list absorption peaks, {lambda}{sub max}, and emission {lambda}{sub avg} values in Figures 3--30, as being most illustrative of the differences between the compounds. The compounds, BHTP, BTPB, ADBT, and DPTPB were all developed on this program. P-terphenyl, PBD, and TPB are commercially available blue emitters. C-480 and the other longer-wavelength emitters are laser dyes available commercially from Exciton Corporation. 1 ref., 30 figs.

  18. Interplanetary medium data book, supplement, 1975 - 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Since the issurance of the Interplanetary Medium Data Book (NSSDC/WDC-A-R&S 77-04, 1977) which contains plots and listings of hourly average interplanetary field and plasma parameters covering the period November 27, 1963 through December 30, 1975, additional data are available which fill some 1975 data gaps and which extend the data coverage well into 1978. This supplement contains all the presently available data for the years 1975-1978, Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data are from the IMP 8 triaxial fluxgate magnetometer experiment. Derived plasma parameters are form the IMP 7 and IMP 8 instruments. Some of the early 1975 IMF data are from a HEOS 1 experiment.

  19. International Launch Vehicle Selection for Interplanetary Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Nguyen, Lori T.

    2010-01-01

    In developing a mission strategy for interplanetary travel, the first step is to consider launch capabilities which provide the basis for fundamental parameters of the mission. This investigation focuses on the numerous launch vehicles of various characteristics available and in development internationally with respect to upmass, launch site, payload shroud size, fuel type, cost, and launch frequency. This presentation will describe launch vehicles available and in development worldwide, then carefully detail a selection process for choosing appropriate vehicles for interplanetary missions focusing on international collaboration, risk management, and minimization of cost. The vehicles that fit the established criteria will be discussed in detail with emphasis on the specifications and limitations related to interplanetary travel. The final menu of options will include recommendations for overall mission design and strategy.

  20. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.

  1. The space weather of the global ionosphere S4 scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq; Chen, Shih-Ping; Yeh, Wen-Hao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a method is introduced which converts S4 index observations by radio occultation of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C) to the scintillation on the ground. To carry out the conversion, three dimensional (3D) structures of S4max, the maximum value on each profile probed by F3/C, are constructed, which allows us to understand GPS scintillation variations at various local times, seasons, and solar activity conditions, as well as the geographical distribution from the space-based point of view. By applying the method to data of the 3D structure, maps of the worst case scenario on the ground as functions of geomagnetic local time and geographic coordinates are constructed and reported here. The converted S4max for the first time estimates the global distribution of ionospheric scintillations in the GPS L1 band C/A code signal on the ground. The results show that the worst-case scintillations appear within the low latitude region of ±30°N, peaking around ±20°N magnetic latitude; they begin at 1900 MLT, reach their maximum at 2100 MLT, and vanish by about 0200-0300 MLT. The most pronounced low-latitude scintillation occurs over the South American and African sectors. Finally, based on the above the above data, an empirical model is constructed. For a given time, location, and solar activity, the model forecasts the ionospheric S4 scintillation in the L1 band signal on the ground.

  2. A multipurpose test stand for scintillator decay lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, Tymothy; P-23, Neutron Science; Technology Team

    2016-09-01

    We built a prototype test stand in order to measure novel scintillator materials' decay lifetimes. Radiography and imaging are valuable diagnostic tools for studying dynamic experiments, thus new scintillator materials are needed to improve the resolution of the current observational systems. A collaborative effort by the neutron imaging and x-ray radiography teams is underway to study the novel scintillator materials developed at LANL and by outside collaborators. Decay lifetimes are an important characteristic of a scintillator material and so by developing this prototype we have provided an avenue to further scintillator development. We confirmed the effectiveness of this prototype by comparing known scintillator decay lifetimes of LYSO and polystyrene samples. In our proof-of-concept prototype we use an 80 Gs/s oscilloscope. With future implementation of a fully developed test stand, we will use a digital data acquisition system to record complete waveforms to conduct a post-processing analysis of the decay times. Results of the prototype test and potential improvements to final test stand design will be presented. LA-UR-16-25229 Los Alamos National Lab, Physics Division.

  3. Interplanetary Space Weather and Its Planetary Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Norma; Bothmer, Volker; Facius, Rainer; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Moussas, Xenophon; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Romanova, Natalia; Withers, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Interplanetary travel is not just a science fiction scenario anymore, but a goal as realistic as when our ancestors started to cross the oceans. With curiosity driving humans to visit other planets in our solar system, the understanding of interplanetary space weather is a vital subject today, particularly because the physical conditions faced during a space vehicle's transit to its targeted solar system object are crucial to a mission's success and vital to the health and safety of spacecraft crew, especially when scheduling planned extravehicular activities.

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Interplanetary Navigation Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Wong, Mau

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft, carrying the Curiosity rover to Mars, hit the top of the Martian atmosphere just 200 meters from where it had been predicted more than six days earlier, and 2.6 million kilometers away. This un-expected level of accuracy was achieved by a combination of factors including: spacecraft performance, tracking data processing, dynamical modeling choices, and navigation filter setup. This paper will describe our best understanding of what were the factors that contributed to this excellent interplanetary trajectory prediction performance. The accurate interplanetary navigation contributed to the very precise landing performance, and to the overall success of the mission.

  5. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOEpatents

    McCollum, T.; Spector, G.B.

    1994-03-29

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected is described. 11 figures.

  6. Neutron crosstalk between liquid scintillators

    DOE PAGES

    Verbeke, J. M.; Prasad, M. K.; Snyderman, N. J.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method to quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between liquid scintillators. Using a spontaneous fission source, this method can be utilized to quickly characterize an array of liquid scintillators in terms of crosstalk. The point model theory due to Feynman is corrected to account for these multiple scatterings. Using spectral information measured by the liquid scintillators, fractions of multiple scattering can be estimated, and mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation can be improved. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic neutron sources were performed to estimate neutron crosstalk. A californium source in an array of liquid scintillators wasmore » modeled to illustrate the improvement of the mass reconstruction.« less

  7. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOEpatents

    McCollum, Tom; Spector, Garry B.

    1994-01-01

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected.

  8. Distance dependent quenching and gamma-ray spectroscopy in tin-loaded polystyrene scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Patrick L; Mengesha, Wondwosen; Anstey, Mitchell R.; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis and inclusion of rationally designed organotin compounds in polystyrene matrices as a route towards plastic scintillators capable of gamma-ray spectroscopy. Tin loading ratios of up to 15% w/w have been incorporated, resulting in photopeak energy resolution values as low as 10.9% for 662 keV gamma-rays. Scintillator constituents were selected based upon a previously reported distance-dependent quenching mechanism. Data obtained using UV-Vis and photoluminescence measurements are consistent with this phenomenon and are correlated with the steric and electronic properties of the respective organotin complexes. We also report fast scintillation decay behavior that is comparable to the quenched scintillators 0.5% trans-stilbene doped bibenzyl and the commercial plastic scintillator BC-422Q-1%. These observations are discussed in the context of practical considerations such as optical transparency, ease-of-preparation/scale-up, and total scintillator cost.

  9. About NICADD extruded scintillating strips

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, A.; Beznosko, D.; Blazey, G.; Chakraborty, D.; Francis, K.; Kubik, D.; Lima, J.G.; Rykalin, V.; Zutshi, v.; Baldina, E.; Bross, A.; Deering, P.; Nebel, T.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Schellpfeffer, J.; Serritella, C.; Zimmerman, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    The results of control measurements of extruded scintillating strip responses to a radioactive source Sr-90 are provided, and details of strip choice, preparation, and method of measurement are included. About four hundred one meter long extruded scintillating strips were measured at four different points. These results were essential for prototyping a tail catcher and muon tracker for a future international electron positron linear collider detector.

  10. Heliocentric distance dependence of the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.

    1977-01-01

    Recent and ongoing planetary missions have provided extensive observations of the variations of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) both in time and with heliocentric distance from the sun. Large time variations in both the IMF and its fluctuations were observed. These are produced predominantly by dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium associated with stream interactions. Magnetic field variations near the sun are propagated to greater heliocentric distances, also contributing to the observed variablity of the IMF. Temporal variations on a time-scale comparable to or less than the corotation period complicate attempts to deduce radial gradients of the field and its fluctuations from the various observations. However, recent measurements inward to 0.46 AU and outward to 5 AU suggest that the radial component of the field on average decreases approximately as r to the minus second power, while the azimuthal component decreases more rapidly than the r to the minum first power dependence predicted by simple theory. This, and other observations, are discussed.

  11. Influence of Depth of Interaction upon the Performance of Scintillator Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mark S.; Gundacker, Stefan; Taylor, Alaric; Tummeltshammer, Clemens; Auffray, Etiennette; Lecoq, Paul; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    The uncertainty in time of particle detection within a scintillator detector, characterised by the coinci- dence time resolution (CTR), is explored with respect to the interaction position within the scintillator crystal itself. Electronic collimation between two scintillator detectors is utilised to determine the CTR with depth of interaction (DOI) for different materials, geometries and wrappings. Significantly, no rela- tionship between the CTR and DOI is observed within experimental error. Confinement of the interaction position is seen to degrade the CTR in long scintillator crystals by 10%. PMID:24875832

  12. Cerium fluoride, a new fast, heavy scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1988-11-01

    We describe the scintillation properties of Cerium Fluoride (CeF/sub 3/), a newly discovered, heavy (6.16 g/cm/sup 3/), inorganic scintillator. Its fluorescence decay lifetime, measured with the delayed coincidence method, is described by a single exponential with a 27 /+-/ ns time constant. The emission spectrum peaks at a wavelength of 340 nm, and drops to less than 10% of its peak value at 315 nm and 460 nm. When a 1 cm optical quality cube of CeF/sub 3/ is excited with 511 keV photons, a photopeak with a 20% full width at half maximum is observed at approximately half the light output of a Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystal with similar geometry. We also present measurements of the decay time and light output of CeF/sub 3/ doped with three rare-earth elements (Dy, Er, and Pr). The short fluorescence lifetime, high density, and reasonable light output of this new scintillator suggest that it would be useful for applications where high counting rates, good stopping power, and nanosecond timing are important, such as medical imaging and nuclear science. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Interplanetary magnetic field orientations associated with bidirectional electron heat fluxes detected at ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansberry, J. A.; Gosling, J. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Bame, S. J.; Smith, E. J.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical survey of interplanetary magnetic field orientations associated with bidirectional electron heat fluxes observed at ISEE 3 in orbit about the Sunward Lagrange point indicates that magnetic connection of the spacecraft to the earth's shock was frequently the source of the bidirectionality. When the interplanetary magnetic field was oriented within 5 deg of the earth-spacecraft line, backstreaming electrons from the bow shock were clearly observed approximately 18 percent of the time, and connections apparently occurred for angles as large as about 30-35 deg.

  14. Hydrated interplanetary dust particle linked with carbonaceous chondrites?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomeoka, K.; Buseck, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The results of transmission electron microscope observations of a hydrated interplanetary dust particle (IDP) containing Fe-, Mg-rich smectite or mica as a major phase are reported. The sheet silicate appears to have formed by alteration of anhydrous silicates. Fassaite, a Ca, Al clinopyroxene, also occurs in this particle, and one of the crystals exhibits solar-flare tracks, clearly indicating that it is extraterrestrial. Fassaite is a major constituent of the Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions found in the carbonaceous chondrites, so its presence in this particle suggests that there may be a link between hydrated IDPs and carbonaceous chondrites in the early history of the solar system.

  15. Comparing the response of PSD-capable plastic scintillator to standard liquid scintillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Richard S.; Hutcheson, Anthony L.; Gwon, Chul; Phlips, Bernard F.; Wulf, Eric A.

    2015-06-01

    This work discusses a test campaign to characterize the response of the recently developed plastic scintillator with pulse shape discrimination (PSD) capabilities (EJ-299-33). PSD is a property exhibited by certain types of scintillating material in which incident stimuli (fast neutrons or γ rays) can be separated by exploiting differences in the scintillation light pulse tail. Detector geometries used were: a 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm cube and a 10-cm diameter×10-cm long cylinder. EJ-301 and EJ-309 liquid scintillators with well-known responses were also tested. The work was conducted at the University of Massachusetts Lowell Van De Graaff accelerator. The facility accelerated protons on a thin Li target to yield quasi-monoenergetic neutrons from the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction (Q-value: -1.644 MeV). Collimated fast neutrons were obtained by placing detectors behind a neutron spectrometer. Rotating the spectrometer, and thus changing the neutron energy, allowed us to achieve 0.5-3.2 MeV neutrons in 200-300 keV steps. Data were acquired through a flash analog-to-digital converter (ADC) capable of performing digital PSD measurements. By using the PSD technique to separate the neutron events from unwanted γ background, we constructed a pulse height spectrum at each energy. Obtaining a relationship of the relative light output versus energy allowed us to construct the response function for the EJ-299-33 and liquid scintillator. The EJ-299-33 response in terms of electron equivalent energy (Ee.e.) vs. proton equivalent energy (Ep.e.), how it compared with the standard xylene-based EJ-301 (or, NE-213/BC-501 A equivalent) and EJ-309 liquid scintillator response, and how the EJ-301 and EJ-309 compared, are presented. We find that the EJ-299-33 demonstrated a lower light output by up to 40% for <1.0 MeV neutrons; and ranging between a 5-35% reduction for 2.5-3.0 MeV neutrons compared to the EJ-301/309, depending on the scintillator and geometry. Monte Carlo modeling techniques were

  16. Extruded plastic scintillator including inorganic powders

    DOEpatents

    Bross, Alan D.; Mellott, Kerry L.; Pla-Dalmau, Anna

    2006-06-27

    A method for producing a plastic scintillator is disclosed. A plurality of nano-sized particles and one or more dopants can be combined with a plastic material for the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof. The nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material can be combined within the dry inert atmosphere of an extruder to produce a reaction that results in the formation of a plastic scintillator thereof and the deposition of energy within the plastic scintillator, such that the plastic scintillator produces light signifying the detection of a radiative element. The nano-sized particles can be treated with an inert gas prior to processing the nano-sized particles, the dopant and the plastic material utilizing the extruder. The plastic scintillator can be a neutron-sensitive scintillator, x-ray sensitive scintillator and/or a scintillator for the detection of minimum ionizing particles.

  17. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    DOE PAGES

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0more » to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.« less

  18. Measurement of scintillation and ionization yield and scintillation pulse shape from nuclear recoils in liquid argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, H.; Alexander, T.; Aprahamian, A.; Avetisyan, R.; Back, H. O.; Cocco, A. G.; Dejongh, F.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, Y.; Kendziora, C.; Lippincott, W. H.; Love, C.; Lyons, S.; Manenti, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meng, Y.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Olvitt, D.; Pordes, S.; Qian, H.; Rossi, B.; Saldanha, R.; Sangiorgio, S.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S. Y.; Tan, W.; Tatarowicz, J.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Yoo, J.; Scene Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V /cm . For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V /cm . We also report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from Krm83 internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni ) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  19. Measurement of Scintillation and Ionization Yield and Scintillation Pulse Shape from Nuclear Recoils in Liquid Argon

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, H.

    2015-05-26

    We have measured the scintillation and ionization yield of recoiling nuclei in liquid argon as a function of applied electric field by exposing a dual-phase liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr-TPC) to a low energy pulsed narrow band neutron beam produced at the Notre Dame Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics. Liquid scintillation counters were arranged to detect and identify neutrons scattered in the TPC and to select the energy of the recoiling nuclei. We also report measurements of the scintillation yields for nuclear recoils with energies from 10.3 to 57.3 keV and for median applied electric fields from 0 to 970 V/cm. For the ionization yields, we report measurements from 16.9 to 57.3 keV and for electric fields from 96.4 to 486 V/cm. Furthermore, we report the observation of an anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from nuclear recoils, which is similar to the anticorrelation between scintillation and ionization from electron recoils. Assuming that the energy loss partitions into excitons and ion pairs from 83mKr internal conversion electrons is comparable to that from 207Bi conversion electrons, we obtained the numbers of excitons (Nex) and ion pairs (Ni) and their ratio (Nex/Ni) produced by nuclear recoils from 16.9 to 57.3 keV. Motivated by arguments suggesting direction sensitivity in LAr-TPC signals due to columnar recombination, a comparison of the light and charge yield of recoils parallel and perpendicular to the applied electric field is presented for the first time.

  20. Evolution of Fourier spectra through interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitna, Alexander; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek; Nemec, Frantisek; Goncharov, Oleksandr

    2014-05-01

    Well established nearly isothermic solar wind expansion requires an additional heating. A dissipation of large scale variations of the solar wind kinetic energy into the thermal energy via turbulence cascades is thought to be an important source of this heating, although the exact mechanism is yet to be found. For this reason, the turbulence in the solar wind is a subject of extensive theoretical and experimental studies on different time scales ranging from years to minutes. The frequency spectrum of magnetic field fluctuations can be divided into several domains differing by spectral indices - the lowest frequencies are controlled by the solar activity, MHD activity shapes the spectrum at higher (up to 0.1 Hz) frequencies, whereas the ion and electron kinetic effects dominate at the high frequency end of the spectra. Interplanetary shocks of various origins are a part of solar wind turbulence naturally occurring in the solar wind and the BMSW instrument onboard the Spektr-R spacecraft has detected tens of them in course of the 2011-2013 years. Based on its high-time resolution of the ion flux, density and velocity measurements reaching 31 ms, we study an evolution of the frequency spectra on MHD and kinetic scales across fast forward low Mach number shocks. We have found that the power of downstream fluctuations rises by an order of magnitude in a broad range of frequencies independently of its upstream value but the slope of the spectrum on the kinetic scale (≡3-8 Hz) has been found to be statistically steeper downstream than upstream of the shock. The time needed to a full relaxation to the pre-shock spectral shape is as long as several hours. A combination of the ion flux power spectra obtained by BMSW with fast magnetic field observations of other spacecraft enhances our understanding of dissipation mechanisms.

  1. The Astromineralogy of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, J.

    Some chondritic interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere are from comets. Because comets accreted at heliocentric distances beyond the giant planets, presolar grains or "astrominerals" both with solar and non-solar isotopic compositions are expected to be even more abundant in cometary IDPs than in primitive meteorites. Non-solar D/H and 15N/14N isotopic enrichments in chondritic IDPs are associated with a carbonaceous carrier. These H and N enrichments are attributed to extreme mass fractionation during chemical reactions in cold (10-100 K), dense interstellar molecular clouds. Nano-diamonds appear to be systematically depleted or even absent in some IDPs suggesting that some meteoritic nano-diamonds may not be (presolar) astrominerals. Enstatite (MgSiO3) and forsterite (Mg2SiO4) crystals in IDPs are physically and compositionally similar to enstatite and forsterite grains detected around young and old stars by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), and large non-solar oxygen isotopic compositions recently measured in an IDP forsterite establish that they are presolar circumstellar silicates. The compositions, mineralogy, and optical properties of GEMS are consistent with those of interstellar amorphous silicates. Submicrometer FeNi sulfide astrominerals like those found in IDPs may be responsible for a broad char 126 23.5 mum feature observed around protostars and protoplanetary discs by ISO. The first returned samples of contemporary interstellar dust as well as dust from comet Wild-2 will be returned to Earth in 2006 by the STARDUST mission, providing a mother lode of astrominerals for future laboratory investigations.

  2. The interplanetary pioneers. Volume 1: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer Space Probe Project is explained to document the events which occurred during the project. The subjects discussed are: (1) origin and history of interplanetary Pioneer program, (2) Pioneer system development and design, (3) Pioneer flight operations, and (4) Pioneer scientific results. Line drawings, circuit diagrams, illustrations, and photographs are included to augment the written material.

  3. Interplanetary monitoring platform engineering history and achievements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, P. M.

    1980-01-01

    In the fall of 1979, last of ten Interplanetary Monitoring Platform Satellite (IMP) missions ended a ten year series of flights dedicated to obtaining new knowledge of the radiation effects in outer space and of solar phenomena during a period of maximum solar flare activity. The technological achievements and scientific accomplishments from the IMP program are described.

  4. Hummingbird: Dramatically Reducing Interplanetary Mission Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertz, J. R.; Van Allen, R. E.; Sarzi-Amade, N.; Shao, A.; Taylor, C.

    2012-06-01

    The Hummingbird interplanetary spacecraft has an available delta V of 2 to 4 km/sec and a recurring cost of 2 to 3 million, depending on the payload and configuration. The baseline telescope has a resolution of 30 cm at a distance of 100 km.

  5. Magnetic Reconnection in the Interior of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, R. L.; Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    Recent in situ observations of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) found signatures of reconnection exhausts in their interior or trailing edge. Whereas reconnection on the leading edge of an ICME would indicate an interaction with the coronal or interplanetary environment, this result suggests that the internal magnetic field reconnects with itself. In light of this data, we consider the stability properties of flux ropes first developed in the context of astrophysics, then further elaborated upon in the context of reversed field pinches (RFPs). It was shown that the lowest energy state of a flux rope corresponds to ∇×B=λB with λ a constant, the so-called Taylor state. Variations from this state will result in the magnetic field trying to reorient itself into the Taylor state solution, subject to the constraints that the toroidal flux and magnetic helicity are invariant. In reversed field pinches, this relaxation is mediated by the reconnection of the magnetic field, resulting in a sawtooth crash. If we likewise treat the ICME as a flux rope, any deviation from the Taylor state will result in reconnection within the interior of the flux tube, in agreement with the observations by Gosling et al. Such a departure from the Taylor state takes place as the flux tube cross section expands in the latitudinal direction, as seen in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of flux tubes propagating through the interplanetary medium. We show analytically that this elongation results in a state which is no longer in the minimum energy Taylor state. We then present magnetohydrodynamic simulations of an elongated flux tube which has evolved away from the Taylor state and show that reconnection at many surfaces produces a complex stochastic magnetic field as the system evolves back to a minimum energy state configuration.

  6. Geometrical Relationship Between Interplanetary Flux Ropes and Their Solar Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marubashi, K.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Cho, K.-S.; Park, Y.-D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the physical connection between interplanetary flux ropes (IFRs) near Earth and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) by comparing the magnetic field structures of IFRs and CME source regions. The analysis is based on the list of 54 pairs of ICMEs (interplanetary coronal mass ejections) and CMEs that are taken to be the most probable solar source events. We first attempted to identify the flux rope structure in each of the 54 ICMEs by fitting models with a cylinder and torus magnetic field geometry, both with a force-free field structure. This analysis determined the possible geometries of the identified flux ropes. Then we compared the flux rope geometries with the magnetic field structure of the solar source regions. We obtained the following results: (1) Flux rope structures are seen in 51 ICMEs out of the 54. The result implies that all ICMEs have an intrinsic flux rope structure, if the three exceptional cases are attributed to unfavorable observation conditions. (2) It is possible to find flux rope geometries with the main axis orientation close to the orientation of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) in the solar source regions, the differences being less than 25°. (3) The helicity sign of an IFR is strongly controlled by the location of the solar source: flux ropes with positive (negative) helicity are associated with sources in the southern (northern) hemisphere (six exceptions were found). (4) Over two-thirds of the sources in the northern hemisphere are concentrated along PILs with orientations of 45° ± 30° (measured clockwise from the east), and over two-thirds in the southern hemisphere along PILs with orientations of 135° ± 30°, both corresponding to the Hale boundaries. These results strongly support the idea that a flux rope with the main axis parallel to the PIL erupts in a CME and that the erupted flux rope propagates through the interplanetary space with its orientation maintained and is observed as an IFR.

  7. CLIpSAT for Interplanetary Missions: Common Low-cost Interplanetary Spacecraft with Autonomy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, C.

    2015-10-01

    Blue Sun Enterprises, Inc. is creating a common deep space bus capable of a wide variety of Mars, asteroid, and comet science missions, observational missions in and near GEO, and interplanetary delivery missions. The spacecraft are modular and highly autonomous, featuring a common core and optional expansion for variable-sized science or commercial payloads. Initial spacecraft designs are targeted for Mars atmospheric science, a Phobos sample return mission, geosynchronous reconnaissance, and en-masse delivery of payloads using packetized propulsion modules. By combining design, build, and operations processes for these missions, the cost and effort for creating the bus is shared across a variety of initial missions, reducing overall costs. A CLIpSAT can be delivered to different orbits and still be able to reach interplanetary targets like Mars due to up to 14.5 km/sec of delta-V provided by its high-ISP Xenon ion thruster(s). A 6U version of the spacecraft form fits PPOD-standard deployment systems, with up to 9 km/s of delta-V. A larger 12-U (with the addition of an expansion module) enables higher overall delta-V, and has the ability to jettison the expansion module and return to the Earth-Moon system from Mars orbit with the main spacecraft. CLIpSAT utilizes radiation-hardened electronics and RF equipment, 140+ We of power at earth (60 We at Mars), a compact navigation camera that doubles as a science imager, and communications of 2000 bps from Mars to the DSN via X-band. This bus could form the cornerstone of a large number asteroid survey projects, comet intercept missions, and planetary observation missions. The TugBot architecture uses groups of CLIpSATs attached to payloads lacking innate high-delta-V propulsion. The TugBots use coordinated trajectory following by each individual spacecraft to move the payload to the desired orbit - for example, a defense asset might be moved from GEO to lunar transfer orbit in order to protect and hide it, then returned

  8. The Heliocentric Variation of the Properties of Interplanetary Field Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, H.; Zhang, T.

    2013-05-01

    Interplanetary Field Enhancements (IFEs) are increases of the interplanetary magnetic field usually to a sharp maximum and containing a current sheet near the center of the event. They have been observed at Helios and MESSENGER as close as 0.3 AU to the Sun, at VEX and PVO at 0.72 AU; at STEREO, ACE, Wind, Geotail, ARTEMIS at 1 AU and Ulysses from 1 to 5 AU. Our model for the physical mechanism for creating these disturbances is that collisions of bodies in the size range 10 - 1000m are catastrophically disrupted by a collision with a fast moving smaller object. The rate of detection of IFEs is dependent on heliocentric range increasing closer to the Sun. There are several possible reasons for this increase which we explore. The mass of the dust cloud that is picked up is significant about 108kg. The magnetic gradient force of the IFE is large enough to lift this mass through the Sun's gravitational potential wall. The momentum transfer that enables this outward transport is a small fraction of the solar wind momentum flux but this transfer can be detected using superposed epoch studies of the solar wind, and is consistent with the hypothesis. We note that the rate of IFE observations in the Helios and MESSENGER data at 0.3 AU is less than expected from extrapolating the observations at and beyond 0.7 AU. This result can soon be extended closer to the Sun with Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus.

  9. Scintillations during occultations by planets. 1. An approximate theory. [fresnel region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1975-01-01

    Scintillations observed during occultations of both stars and spacecraft by planetary atmospheres are discussed theoretically. The effects of severe flattening of the Fresnel zone or source image by defocusing on occultations are presented, along with temporal power spectra. Other topics discussed include atmospheric turbulence, saturation of scintillation, effects of saturation on occultation curves, and some methods for a more accurate determination of atmospheric structure.

  10. Outer Radiation Belt Dropout Dynamics Following the Arrival of Two Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Souza, V. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Jauer, P. R.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Walsh, B. M.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Marchezi, J. P.; Rockenbach, M.; Del Lago, A.; Mendes, O.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Koga, D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.; Kletzing, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions are recognized as the two primary mechanisms for losses of electrons from the outer radiation belt. We investigate these mechanisms, sing satellite observations both in interplanetary space and within the magnetosphere and particle drift modeling. Two interplanetary shocks sheaths impinged upon the magnetopause causing a relativistic electron flux dropout. The magnetic cloud (C) and interplanetary structure sunward of the MC had primarily northward magnetic field, perhaps leading to a concomitant lack of substorm activity and a 10 day long quiescent period. The arrival of two shocks caused an unusual electron flux dropout. Test-particle simulations have shown 2 to 5 MeV energy, equatorially mirroring electrons with initial values of L 5.5can be lost to the magnetosheath via magnetopause shadowing alone. For electron losses at lower L-shells, coherent chorus wave-driven pitch angle scattering and ULF wave-driven radial transport have been shownto be viable mechanisms.

  11. Earth's Magnetosphere Response to the 12 May, 2001 Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Dejong, A. D.; Clauer, C. R.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2006-12-01

    A sawtooth event is clearly identified from the low energetic proton flux measurements at geosynchronous orbit on 12 May, 2001. The Earth's magnetosphere is in steady magnetospheric convection (SMC) mode right before the sawtooth event based on spacecraft aurora observations. By examination of the solar wind driver, we find these two events are related to an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). The Earth's magnetosphere enters the SMC mode when southward interplanetary magnetic field is roughly steady at ~ 6 nT before the arrival of the ICME. The sawtooth oscillation occurs during the sheath region of the ICME when solar wind pressure is enhanced and the IMF is highly variable. We investigate the magnetosphere change between the two modes in response to the changing interplanetary conditions. The relationship between the onsets of individual teeth and solar wind changes are examined in detail.

  12. Energetic electron response to interplanetary shocks at geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Zong, Q.-G.

    2015-06-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks have great impacts on Earth's magnetosphere, especially in causing global dynamic changes of energetic particles. In order to study the response of energetic electrons (50keV-1.5MeV) at geosynchronous orbit to IP shocks, we have systematically analyzed 215 IP shock events based on ACE, GOES, and LANL observations during 1998-2007. Our study shows that after the shock arrival low-energy electron fluxes increase at geosynchronous orbit. However, in higher energy channels fluxes show smaller increases and eventually become unchanged or even decrease. The oscillations of electron fluxes following the shock arrival have also been studied in this paper. Statistical analysis revealed a frequency preference for 2.2 mHz and 3.3 mHz oscillations of energetic electron fluxes. The amplitude of these oscillations is larger under southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) than under northward IMF. Furthermore, oscillations from high-energy and low-energy electron fluxes show different phase characteristics and power distributions. The phase angles of the oscillations are the same in the dawn, dusk, and noon sectors for low-energy channels (50-500keV), while they have a π/2 difference between two adjacent local time sectors for high-energy channels (0.5-1.5MeV). The wave power distribution of electron fluxes shows different dawn-dusk asymmetries for low-energy channels and high-energy channels. The results presented in this paper provide an energetic particle point of view of the magnetospheric response to the interplanetary shock impact.

  13. Molecular origins of scintillation in organic scintillators (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Patrick; Mengesha, Wondwosen; Myllenbeck, Nicholas

    2016-09-01

    Organic-based scintillators are indispensable materials for radiation detection owing to their high sensitivity to fast neutrons, low cost, and tailorable properties. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in organic scintillators due to exciting discoveries related to neutron discrimination and gamma-ray spectroscopy, which represent capabilities previously thought not possible in these materials. I will discuss our development of crystalline and polymer-based scintillators for these applications. Structure-property relationships related to intermolecular interactions and host-guest electronic exchange will be discussed in the context of energy-transfer pathways relevant to scintillation. An emphasis will be placed on the rational design of these materials, as guided by first principles and DFT calculations. Two related topics will be discussed: 1) Incorporation of organometallic triplet-harvesting additives to plastic scintillator matrices to confer a 'two-state' (singlet and triplet) luminescence signature to different types of ionizing radiation. This approach relies upon energetic and spatial overlap between the donor and acceptor excited states for efficient electronic exchange. Key considerations also include synthetic modification of the luminescence spectra and kinetics, as well as the addition of secondary additives to increase the recombination efficiency. 2) Design of organotin-containing plastic scintillators as a route towards gamma-ray spectroscopy. Organometallic compounds were selected on the basis of distance-dependent quenching relationships, phase compatibility with the polymer matrix, and the gamma-ray cross sections. This approach is guided by molecular modeling and radiation transport modeling to achieve the highest possible detection sensitivity luminescence intensity.

  14. FNAL-NICADD extruded scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosko, D.; Bross, A.; Dyshkant, A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Rykalin, V.; /Northern Illinois U.

    2005-09-01

    The possibility to produce a scintillator that satisfies the demands of physicists from different science areas has emerged with the installation of an extrusion line at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The extruder is the product of the fruitful collaboration between FNAL and Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development (NICADD) at Northern Illinois University (NIU). The results from the light output, light attenuation length and mechanical tolerance indicate that FNAL-NICADD scintillator is of high quality. Improvements in the extrusion die will yield better scintillator profiles and decrease the time needed for initial tuning. This paper will present the characteristics of the FNAL-NICADD scintillator based on the measurements performed. They include the response to MIPs from cosmic rays for individual extruded strips and irradiation studies where extruded samples were irradiated up to 1 Mrad. We will also discuss the results achieved with a new die design. The attractive perspective of using the extruded scintillator with MRS (Metal Resistive Semiconductor) photodetector readout will also be shown.

  15. F-corona-experiment: Requirements for remote sensing of interplanetary dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ingrid; Hartwig, Hermann

    1991-11-01

    The near solar dust that produces the brightness of the F corona represents the central region of the interplanetary dust cloud. The structure of the inner dust cloud and the properties of the near solar dust contribute to the understanding of the meteoritic complex and its relation to other constituents of the interplanetary medium. The flux rates of these micrometeorites have to be considered for the concept of near solar missions. To investigate this complex a synoptical observation in different spectral ranges is needed. The concept of the dedicated rocket-borne experiment is outlined.

  16. Interplanetary magnetic field-geomagnetic field coupling and vertical variance index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, A.; Renuka, G.; Cherian, L.

    2010-01-01

    The solar wind impacting at the geomagnetopause contains transient variations in the embedded interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). These disturbances are mirrored in the horizontal geomagnetic field measured at the Huancayo and Ascension Island stations. This investigation attempts to relate the microtemporal fluctuations in the IMF with the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field by means of a newly developed daily vertical variance index, which permits the quantification of such pulsations. A linear relationship is established between the disturbances observed in the interplanetary and terrestrial fields on a daily basis.

  17. CME dynamics using coronagraph and interplanetary ejecta data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Lago, Alisson; Gonzalez, Walter D.; De Lucas, Aline; Braga, Carlos Roberto; Vieira, Lucas Ramos; Stekel, Tardelli Ronan Coelho; Rockenbach, Marlos

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we present a study of the coronal mass ejection (CME) dynamics using LASCO coronagraph observations combined with in-situ ACE plasma and magnetic field data, covering a continuous period of time from January 1997 to April 2001, complemented by few extreme events observed in 2001 and 2003. We show, for the first time, that the CME expansion speed correlates very well with the travel time to 1 AU of the interplanetary ejecta (or ICMEs) associated with the CMEs, as well as with their preceding shocks. The events analyzed in this work are a subset of the events studied in Schwenn et al. (2005), from which only the CMEs associated with interplanetary ejecta (ICMEs) were selected. Three models to predict CME travel time to Earth, two proposed by Gopalswamy et al. (2001) and one by Schwenn et al. (2005), were used to characterize the dynamical behavior of this set of events. Extreme events occurred in 2001 and 2003 were used to test the prediction capability of the models regarding CMEs with very high LASCO C3 speeds.

  18. Counterstreaming electrons in small interplanetary magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, H. Q.; Zhao, G. Q.; Wang, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Small interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (SIMFRs) are commonly observed by spacecraft at 1 AU, and their origin still remains disputed. We investigated the counterstreaming suprathermal electron (CSE) signatures of 106 SIMFRs measured by Wind during 1995-2005. We found that 79 (75%) of the 106 flux ropes contain CSEs, and the percentages of counterstreaming vary from 8% to 98%, with a mean value of 51%. CSEs are often observed in magnetic clouds (MCs), and this indicates these MCs are still attached to the Sun at both ends. CSEs are also related to heliospheric current sheets (HCSs) and the Earth's bow shock. We divided the SIMFRs into two categories: The first category is far from HCSs, and the second category is in the vicinity of HCSs. The first category has 57 SIMFRs, and only 7 of 57 ropes have no CSEs. This ratio is similar to that of MCs. The second category has 49 SIMFRs; however, 20 of the 49 events have no CSEs. This ratio is larger than that of MCs. These two categories have different origins. One category originates from the solar corona, and most ropes are still connected to the Sun at both ends. The other category is formed near HCSs in the interplanetary space.

  19. Radiopure metal-loaded liquid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, Richard; Yeh, Minfang

    2015-08-17

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  20. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Rosero, Richard; Yeh, Minfang

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  1. Advances in scintillators for medical imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loef, Edgar V.; Shah, Kanai S.

    2014-09-01

    A review is presented of some recent work in the field of inorganic scintillator research for medical imaging applications, in particular scintillation detectors for Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET).

  2. Scintillating glass fiber neutron senors

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, K.H.; Arthur, R.J.; Bliss, M.

    1994-04-01

    Cerium-doped lithium-silicate glass fibers have been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for use as thermal neutron detectors. By using highly-enriched {sup 6} Li , these fibers efficiently capture thermal neutrons and produce scintillation light that can be detected at the ends of the fibers. Advantages of scintillating fibers over {sup 3}He or BF{sub 3} proportional tubes include flexibility in geometric configuration, ruggedness in high-vibration environments, and less detector weight for the same neutron sensitivity. This paper describes the performance of these scintillating fibers with regard to count rates, pulse height spectra, absolute efficiencies, and neutron/gamma discrimination. Fibers with light transmission lengths (1/e) of greater than 2 m have been produced at PNL. Neutron sensors in fiber form allow development of a variety of neutron detectors packaged in previously unavailable configurations. Brief descriptions of some of the devices already produced are included to illustrate these possibilities.

  3. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  4. Liquid scintillator tiles for calorimetry

    DOE PAGES

    Amouzegar, M.; Belloni, A.; Bilki, B.; ...

    2016-11-28

    Future experiments in high energy and nuclear physics may require large, inexpensive calorimeters that can continue to operate after receiving doses of 50 Mrad or more. Also, the light output of liquid scintillators suffers little degradation under irradiation. However, many challenges exist before liquids can be used in sampling calorimetry, especially regarding developing a packaging that has sufficient efficiency and uniformity of light collection, as well as suitable mechanical properties. We present the results of a study of a scintillator tile based on the EJ-309 liquid scintillator using cosmic rays and test beam on the light collection efficiency and uniformity,more » and some preliminary results on radiation hardness.« less

  5. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, Stephanie A.; Chiles, Marion M.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations.

  6. Unitary scintillation detector and system

    DOEpatents

    McElhaney, S.A.; Chiles, M.M.

    1994-05-31

    The invention is a unitary alpha, beta, and gamma scintillation detector and system for sensing the presence of alpha, beta, and gamma radiations selectively or simultaneously. The scintillators are mounted in a light-tight housing provided with an entrance window for admitting alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and excluding ambient light from the housing. Light pulses from each scintillator have different decay constants that are converted by a photosensitive device into corresponding differently shaped electrical pulses. A pulse discrimination system identifies the electrical pulses by their respective pulse shapes which are determined by decay time. The identified electrical pulses are counted in separate channel analyzers to indicate the respective levels of sensed alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. 10 figs.

  7. Fracture-resistant lanthanide scintillators

    DOEpatents

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2011-01-04

    Lanthanide halide alloys have recently enabled scintillating gamma ray spectrometers comparable to room temperature semiconductors (<3% FWHM energy resolutions at 662 keV). However brittle fracture of these materials upon cooling hinders the growth of large volume crystals. Efforts to improve the strength through non-lanthanide alloy substitution, while preserving scintillation, have been demonstrated. Isovalent alloys having nominal compositions of comprising Al, Ga, Sc, Y, and In dopants as well as aliovalent alloys comprising Ca, Sr, Zr, Hf, Zn, and Pb dopants were prepared. All of these alloys exhibit bright fluorescence under UV excitation, with varying shifts in the spectral peaks and intensities relative to pure CeBr.sub.3. Further, these alloys scintillate when coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and exposed to .sup.137Cs gamma rays.

  8. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G. ); Blackburn, R. )

    1992-05-01

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro.

  9. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOEpatents

    McKigney, Edward Allen; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cooke, David Wayne; Ott, Kevin Curtis; Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal; Del Sesto, Rico Emilio; Gilbertson, Robert David; Muenchausen, Ross Edward; McCleskey, Thomas Mark

    2010-03-16

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  10. Global Morphology of Ionospheric Scintillations II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-11

    Fading at Huancayo , Peru 3. Scintillation Contours at 136 MHz for 6 Years Data from Huancayo , Peru 4. Fading on 254 MHz as Observed at Kwajalein 5...Flight Center, NASA Z861-71-239. 8 3.2 Dependence on Magnetic Activity Data from Huancayo , Peru, when analyzed over a long period has shown as a gross...a second increase, that is, after midnight during magnetically disturbed days. 60 HUANCAYO , PERU LES - 6, 254 MHz S1 > 60 -- Kp = 0 - 3 ---Kp=4-9

  11. Energy spectrum of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes and its connection with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D. J.; Feng, H. Q.; Chao, J. K.

    2008-03-01

    Context: Recent observations of the solar wind show that interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (IMFRs) have a continuous scale-distribution from small-scale flux ropes to large-scale magnetic clouds. Aims: In this work, we investigate the energy spectrum of IMFRs and its possible connection with solar activity. Methods: In consideration of the detectable probability of an IMFR to be proportional to its diameter, the actual energy spectrum of IMFRs can be obtained from the observed spectrum based on spacecraft observations in the solar wind. Results: It is found that IMFRs have a negative power-law spectrum with an index α = 1.36±0.03, which is similar to that of solar flares, and is probably representative of interplanetary energy spectrum of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), that is, the energy spectrum of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs). This indicates that the energy distribution of CMEs has a similar negative power-law spectrum. In particular, there are numerous small-scale CMEs in the solar corona, and their interplanetary consequences may be directly detected in situ by spacecraft in the solar wind as small-scale IMFRs, although they are too weak to appear clearly in current coronagraph observations. Conclusions: The presence of small-scale CMEs, especially the energy spectrum of CMEs is potentially important for understanding both the solar magneto-atmosphere and CMEs.

  12. Hygroscopicity Evaluation of Halide Scintillators

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuravleva, M; Stand, L; Wei, H; Hobbs, C. L.; Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Burger, Arnold; Rowe, E; Bhattacharya, P.; Tupitsyn, E; Melcher, Charles L

    2014-01-01

    A collaborative study of relative hygroscopicity of anhydrous halide scintillators grown at various laboratories is presented. We have developed a technique to evaluate moisture sensitivity of both raw materials and grown crystals, in which the moisture absorption rate is measured using a gravimetric analysis. Degradation of the scintillation performance was investigated by recording gamma-ray spectra and monitoring the photopeak position, count rate and energy resolution. The accompanying physical degradation of the samples exposed to ambient atmosphere was photographically recorded as well. The results were compared with ben

  13. Shock phenomena in interplanetary space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of the solar wind near one astronomical unit is discussed. The solar wind is shown to act as a compressible, supersonic, magnetogasdynamic fluid. The creation of magnetogasdynamic shock waves by solar flares and other causes is analyzed. The observations of shock fronts and the flows behind these fronts are discussed and synoptic views of the observations are described. Theoretical concepts and models are summarized.

  14. Characteristics of High Latitude Ionosphere Scintillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Y.

    2012-12-01

    As we enter a new solar maximum period, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receivers, especially the ones operating in high latitude and equatorial regions, are facing an increasing threat from ionosphere scintillations. The increased solar activities, however, also offer a great opportunity to collect scintillation data to characterize scintillation signal parameters and ionosphere irregularities. While there are numerous GPS receivers deployed around the globe to monitor ionosphere scintillations, most of them are commercial receivers whose signal processing mechanisms are not designed to operate under ionosphere scintillation. As a result, they may distort scintillation signal parameters or lose lock of satellite signals under strong scintillations. Since 2008, we have established and continuously improved a unique GNSS receiver array at HAARP, Alaska. The array contains high ends commercial receivers and custom RF front ends which can be automatically triggered to collect high quality GPS and GLONASS satellite signals during controlled heating experiments and natural scintillation events. Custom designed receiver signal tracking algorithms aim to preserve true scintillation signatures are used to process the raw RF samples. Signal strength, carrier phase, and relative TEC measurements generated by the receiver array since its inception have been analyzed to characterize high latitude scintillation phenomena. Daily, seasonal, and solar events dependency of scintillation occurrence, spectral contents of scintillation activities, and plasma drifts derived from these measurements will be presented. These interesting results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our experimental data collection system in providing insightful details of ionosphere responses to active perturbations and natural disturbances.

  15. Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation

    DOEpatents

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew Curtis [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Suree S [Knoxville, TN; Wallace, Steven A [Knoxville, TN; Rondinone, Adam J [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-28

    Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator having enhanced transparency for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a material having optical transparency wherein said material comprises nano-sized objects having a size in at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of light emitted by the composite scintillator wherein the composite scintillator is designed to have selected properties suitable for a particular application.

  16. Photonic crystal scintillators and methods of manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Ricardo D.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Fuentes, Roderick E.; Cortes-Concepcion, Jose

    2015-08-11

    Photonic crystal scintillators and their methods of manufacture are provided. Exemplary methods of manufacture include using a highly-ordered porous anodic alumina membrane as a pattern transfer mask for either the etching of underlying material or for the deposition of additional material onto the surface of a scintillator. Exemplary detectors utilizing such photonic crystal scintillators are also provided.

  17. Earth orbital operations supporting manned interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Whittaker, William L.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital operations required to accumulate, assemble, test, verify, maintain, and launch complex manned space systems on interplanetary missions from earth orbit are as vital as the flight hardware itself. Vast numbers of orbital crew are neither necessary nor desirable for accomplishing the required tasks. A suite of robotic techniques under human supervisory control, relying on sensors, software and manipulators either currently emergent or already applied in terrestrial settings, can make the job tractable. The mission vehicle becomes largely self-assembling, using its own rigid aerobrake as a work platform. The Space Station, having been used as a laboratory testbed and to house an assembly crew of four, is not dominated by the process. A feasible development schedule, if begun soon, could emplace orbital support technologies for exploration missions in time for a 2004 first interplanetary launch.

  18. Maximum likelihood positioning and energy correction for scintillation detectors.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Christoph W; Salomon, André; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Lodomez, Sarah; Weissler, Björn; Solf, Torsten

    2016-02-21

    An algorithm for determining the crystal pixel and the gamma ray energy with scintillation detectors for PET is presented. The algorithm uses Likelihood Maximisation (ML) and therefore is inherently robust to missing data caused by defect or paralysed photo detector pixels. We tested the algorithm on a highly integrated MRI compatible small animal PET insert. The scintillation detector blocks of the PET gantry were built with the newly developed digital Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) technology from Philips Digital Photon Counting and LYSO pixel arrays with a pitch of 1 mm and length of 12 mm. Light sharing was used to readout the scintillation light from the 30 × 30 scintillator pixel array with an 8 × 8 SiPM array. For the performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm, we measured the scanner's spatial resolution, energy resolution, singles and prompt count rate performance, and image noise. These values were compared to corresponding values obtained with Center of Gravity (CoG) based positioning methods for different scintillation light trigger thresholds and also for different energy windows. While all positioning algorithms showed similar spatial resolution, a clear advantage for the ML method was observed when comparing the PET scanner's overall single and prompt detection efficiency, image noise, and energy resolution to the CoG based methods. Further, ML positioning reduces the dependence of image quality on scanner configuration parameters and was the only method that allowed achieving highest energy resolution, count rate performance and spatial resolution at the same time.

  19. Acceleration of 3HE and heavy ions at interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, M. I.; Mason, G. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Mazur, J. E.; Smith, C. W.; Koug, R. M.

    2001-08-01

    We have surveyed the 0.5-2.0 MeV nucleon-1 ion composition of 56 interplanetary shocks (IP) observed with the Ultra-Low-Energy Isotope Spectrometer (ULEIS) on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) from 1997 October 1 through 2000 November 30. Our results show the first ever measurement (25 cases) of 3 He ions being accelerated at IP shocks. The 3 He/4 He ratio at the 25 shocks exhibited a wide range of values between 0.00140.24; the ratios were enhanced between factors of ~3-600 over the solar wind value. During the survey period, the occurrence probability of 3 He-rich shocks increased with rising solar activity as measured in terms of the daily occurrence rates of sunspots and X-ray flares. The 3 He enhancements at IP shocks cannot be attributed to rigidity dependent acceleration of solar wind ions and are better explained if the shocks accelerate ions from multiple sources, one being remnant impulsive solar flare material enriched in 3 He ions. Our results also indicate that the contribution of impulsive flares to the seed population for IP shocks varies from event to event, and that the interplanetary medium is being replenished with impulsive material more frequently during periods of increased solar activity. 1. Introduction Enhancements in the intensities of energetic ions associated with transient interplanetary (IP) shocks have been observed routinely at 1 AU since the 1960's (e.g., Reames 1999). It is presently believed that the majority of such IP shocks are driven by fast coronal mass ejections or CMEs as they propagate through interplanetary space (e.g., Gosling 1993), and that the associated ion intensity enhancements are due to diffusive shock acceleration of solar wind ions (Lee 1983; Jones and Ellison 1991; Reames 1999). However, the putative solar wind origin of the IP-shock accelerated ions is based on composition measurements associated with a very limited number of individual IP shocks (Klecker et al. 1981; Hovestadt et al. 1982; Tan et

  20. Role of solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field during two-step Forbush decreases caused by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, Ankush; Vichare, Geeta; Arunbabu, K. P.; Raghav, Anil

    2016-07-01

    The relationship of Forbush decreases (FDs) observed in Moscow neutron monitor with the interplanetary magnetic field (B) and solar wind speed (Vsw) is investigated in detail for the FDs associated with Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) during 2001-2004. The classical two-step FD events are selected, and characteristics of the first step (mainly associated with shock), as well as of complete decrease (main phase) and recovery phase, are studied here. It is observed that the onset of FD occurs generally after zero to a few hours of shock arrival, indicating in the post-shock region that mainly sheath and ICME act as important drivers of FD. A good correlation is observed between the amplitude of B and associated FD magnitude observed in the neutron count rate of the main phase. The duration of the main phase observed in the neutron count rate also shows good correlation with B. This might indicate that stronger interplanetary disturbances have a large dimension of magnetic field structure which causes longer fall time of FD main phase when they transit across the Earth. It is observed that Vsw and neutron count rate time profiles show considerable similarity with each other during complete FD, especially during the recovery phase of FD. Linear relationship is observed between time duration/e-folding time of FD recovery phase and Vsw. These observations indicate that the FDs are influenced by the inhibited diffusion of cosmic rays due to the enhanced convection associated with the interplanetary disturbances. We infer that the inhibited cross-field diffusion of the cosmic rays due to enhanced B is mainly responsible for the main phase of FD whereas the expansion of ICME contributes in the early recovery phase and the gradual variation of Vsw beyond ICME boundaries contributes to the long duration of FD recovery through reduced convection-diffusion.

  1. L-Band TEC Measurements and Lower Frequency Scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, T. R.; Beach, T. L.

    2003-12-01

    Signal amplitude measurements from the GPS satellites are currently limited to L-band frequencies above 1 GHz, which often remain unaffected by conditions causing even severe scintillation at more sensitive lower frequencies. Use of differential carrier phase data from dual frequency receivers to drive phase screen models and estimate scintillation at other frequencies is one potential means of monitoring scintillation over a wider range of frequencies. However, this process is complicated by the presence of a diffractive component in the L-band signal phase which can obscure the true structure in total electron content (TEC) needed as input to phase screen models. Signal amplitudes and phases at L1 and L2 frequencies (1.57 and 1.23 GHz, respectively) are calculated after propagation through one-dimensional power-law phase screens and then the resulting differential carrier phase compared with the initial phase values in the screen. Scintillation at a variety of frequencies is then computed from both the original screen and the simulated differential carrier phase, and the two results compared to examine the effects of the unobservable diffractive phase component contained in observational TEC data. Initial results show an increase of ~10% in S4 index computed at 250 MHz from simulated differential carrier phase compared to the direct phase screen computation. These results suggest that under many conditions L-band TEC observations can be used effectively to estimate VHF and UHF scintillation over a wide range of scintillation levels, and that the differences resulting from use of observed TEC instead of true ionospheric phase can be accounted for by a relatively simple correction factor.

  2. Synthesis of plastic scintillation microspheres: Evaluation of scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, L. M.; Bagán, H.; Tarancón, A.; Garcia, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The use of plastic scintillation microspheres (PSm) appear to be an alternative to liquid scintillation for the quantification of alpha and beta emitters because it does not generate mixed wastes after the measurement (organic and radioactive). In addition to routine radionuclide determinations, PSm can be used for further applications, e.g. for usage in a continuous monitoring equipment, for measurements of samples with a high salt concentration and for an extractive scintillation support which permits the separation, pre-concentration and measurement of the radionuclides without additional steps of elution and sample preparation. However, only a few manufacturers provide PSm, and the low number of regular suppliers reduces its availability and restricts the compositions and sizes available. In this article, a synthesis method based on the extraction/evaporation methodology has been developed and successfully used for the synthesis of plastic scintillation microspheres. Seven different compositions of plastic scintillation microspheres have been synthesised; PSm1 with polystyrene, PSm2 with 2,5-Diphenyloxazol(PPO), PSm3 with p-terphenyl (pT), PSm4 with PPO and 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl) (POPOP), PSm5 pT and (1,4-bis [2-methylstyryl] benzene) (Bis-MSB), PSm6 with PPO, POPOP and naphthalene and PSm7 with pT, Bis-MSB and naphthalene. The synthesised plastic scintillation microspheres have been characterised in terms of their morphology, detection capabilities and alpha/beta separation capacity. The microspheres had a median diameter of approximately 130 μm. Maximum detection efficiency values were obtained for the PSm4 composition as follows 1.18% for 3H, 51.2% for 14C, 180.6% for 90Sr/90Y and 76.7% for 241Am. Values of the SQP(E) parameter were approximately 790 for PSm4 and PSm5. These values show that the synthesised PSm exhibit good scintillation properties and that the spectra are at channel numbers higher than in commercial PSm. Finally, the addition of

  3. Storm Sudden Commencements Without Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Wooyeon; Lee, Jeongwoo; Yi, Yu; Ssessanga, Nicholas; Oh, Suyeon

    2015-09-01

    Storm sudden commencements (SSCs) occur due to a rapid compression of the Earth's magnetic field. This is generally believed to be caused by interplanetary (IP) shocks, but with exceptions. In this paper we explore possible causes of SSCs other than IP shocks through a statistical study of geomagnetic storms using SYM-H data provided by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism ? Kyoto and by applying a superposed epoch analysis to simultaneous solar wind parameters obtained with the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite. We select a total of 274 geomagnetic storms with minimum SYM-H of less than ?30nT during 1998-2008 and regard them as SSCs if SYM-H increases by more than 10 nT over 10 minutes. Under this criterion, we found 103 geomagnetic storms with both SSC and IP shocks and 28 storms with SSC not associated with IP shocks. Storms in the former group share the property that the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), proton density and proton velocity increase together with SYM-H, implying the action of IP shocks. During the storms in the latter group, only the proton density rises with SYM-H. We find that the density increase is associated with either high speed streams (HSSs) or interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), and suggest that HSSs and ICMEs may be alternative contributors to SSCs.

  4. Interplanetary causes of middle latitude ionospheric disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Echer, Ezequiel; Guarnieri, Fernando L.; Verkhoglyadova, Olga P.

    The solar and interplanetary causes of major middle latitude ionospheric disturbances are reviewed. Solar flare photons can cause abrupt (within ˜5 min), 30% increases in ionospheric total electron content, a feature that can last for tens of minutes to hours, depending on the altitude of concern. Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejection sheath fields and magnetic clouds can cause intense magnetic storms if the field in either region is intensely southward for several hours or more. If the field conditions in both regions are southward, "double storms" will occur. Multiple interplanetary fast forward shocks "pump up" the sheath magnetic field, leading to conditions that can lead to superstorms. Magnetic storm auroral precipitation and Joule heating cause pressure waves that propagate from subauroral latitudes to middle and equatorial latitudes. Shocks can create middle latitude dayside auroras as well as trigger nightside subauroral supersubstorms. Solar wind ram pressure increases after fast shocks can lead to the formation of new radiation belts under proper conditions. Prompt penetration electric fields can cause a dayside ionospheric superfountain, leading to plasma transport from the equatorial region to middle latitudes. The large amplitude Alfvén waves present in solar wind high-speed streams cause sporadic magnetic reconnection, plasma injections, and electromagnetic chorus wave generation. Energetic electrons interacting with chorus (and PC5) waves are accelerated to hundreds of keV up to MeV energies.

  5. Manned interplanetary missions: prospective medical problems.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, A I; Svetaylo, E N; Egorov, A D

    1998-12-01

    The present review aimed to suggest approaches to prospective medical problems related to the health maintenance of space crews during future manned interplanetary, particularly Martian, missions up to 2-3 years with a possible stay on a planet with gravity different from that on Earth. The approaches are based on knowledge so far obtained from our analysis of the medical support of long-term orbital flights up to one year, as well as on the consideration of specific conditions of interplanetary missions. These specific conditions include not only long-term exposure to microgravity, but also a prolonged stay of unpredictable duration (2-3 years) on board a spacecraft or on a planet without direct contact with Earth, and living in a team with a risk of psychological incompatibility and the impossibility of an urgent return to Earth. These conditions necessitate a highly trained medical person in the crew, diagnostic tools and equipment, psychophysiological support, countermeasures, as well as the means for urgent, including surgical, treatment on board a spacecraft or on a planet. In this review, the discussion was focused on the following predictable medical problems during an interplanetary mission; 1) unfavorable effects of prolonged exposure to microgravity, 2) specific problems related to Martian missions, 3) medical monitoring, 4) countermeasures, 5) psychophysiological support and 6) the medical care system.

  6. Integrated shielding systems for manned interplanetary spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1992-01-01

    The radiation environment encountered by manned interplanetary missions can have a severe impact on both vehicle design and mission performance. This study investigates the potential impact of radiation protection on interplanetary vehicle design for a manned Mars mission. A systems approach was used to investigate the radiation protection requirements of the sum interplanetary environment. Radiation budgets were developed which result in minimum integrated shielding system masses for both nuclear and non-nuclear powered missions. A variety of system configurations and geometries were assessed over a range of dose constraints. For an annual dose equivalent rate limit of 50 rem/yr, an environmental shielding system composed of a habitat shield and storm shelter was found to result in the lowest total mass. For a limit of 65 rem/yr, a system composed of a sleeping quarters shield was least massive, and resulted in significantly reduced system mass. At a limit of 75 rem/yr, a storm shelter alone was found to be sufficient, and exhibited a further mass reduction. Optimal shielding system results for 10 MWe nuclear powered missions were found to follow along similar lines, with the addition of a reactor shadow shield. A solar minimum galactic cosmic ray spectrum and one anomalously large solar particle event during the course of a two year mission were assumed. Water was assumed for environmental radiation shielding.

  7. Faraday polarization fluctuations and their dependence on post sunset secondary maximum and amplitude scintillations at Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, J. K.; Singh, Lakha; Dabas, R. S.

    2002-02-01

    VHF Faraday rotation (FR) and amplitude scintillation data recorded simultaneously during May 1978 December 1980 at Delhi (28.63° N, 77.22° E; Dip 42.44° N) is analyzed in order to study the Faraday polarization fluctuations (FPFs) and their dependence on the occurrence of post sunset secondary maximum (PSSM) and amplitude scintillations. It is noted that FPFs are observed only when both PSSM and scintillations also occur simultaneously. FPFs are observed only during winter and the equinoctial months of high sunspot years. FPFs events are associated with intense scintillation activity, which is characterized by sudden onsets and abrupt endings, and are observed one to three hours after the local sunset. When FPFs and scintillation data from Delhi is compared with the corresponding data from a still lower latitude station, Hyderabad (17.35° N, 78.45° E), it is found that the occurrence of FPFs and scintillations at Delhi is conditional to their prior occurrence at Hyderabad, which indicates their production by a plasma bubble and the as-sociated irregularities generated initially over the magnetic equator. In addition, FPFs and scintillation data for October 1979, when their occurrence was maximum, is also examined in relation to daytime (11:00 LT) electrojet strength (EEj) values and evening hour h’F from an equatorial location, Kodaikanal (10.3° N, 77.5° E). It is interesting to note that FPFs and scintillations are most likely observed when the EEj was 100 nT or more and h’F reaches around 500 km. These results show that EEj and evening hours h’F values over the magnetic equator are important parameters for predicting FPFs and scintillation activity at locations such as Delhi, where scintillation activity is much more intense as compared to the equatorial region due to the enhanced back-ground ionization due to the occurrence of PSSM.

  8. Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Born, George H.; Leonard, Jason M.; McGranaghan, Ryan M.; Fujimoto, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    A navigation technology known as LiAISON (Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation) has been known to produce very impressive navigation results for scenarios involving two or more cooperative satellites near the Moon, such that at least one satellite must be in an orbit significantly perturbed by the Earth, such as a lunar halo orbit. The two (or more) satellites track each other using satellite-to-satellite range and/or range-rate measurements. These relative measurements yield absolute orbit navigation when one of the satellites is in a lunar halo orbit, or the like. The geometry between a lunar halo orbiter and a GEO satellite continuously changes, which dramatically improves the information content of a satellite-to-satellite tracking signal. The geometrical variations include significant out-of-plane shifts, as well as inplane shifts. Further, the GEO satellite is almost continuously in view of a lunar halo orbiter. High-fidelity simulations demonstrate that LiAISON technology improves the navigation of GEO orbiters by an order of magnitude, relative to standard ground tracking. If a GEO satellite is navigated using LiAISON- only tracking measurements, its position is typically known to better than 10 meters. If LiAISON measurements are combined with simple radiometric ground observations, then the satellite s position is typically known to better than 3 meters, which is substantially better than the current state of GEO navigation. There are two features of LiAISON that are novel and advantageous compared with conventional satellite navigation. First, ordinary satellite-to-satellite tracking data only provides relative navigation of each satellite. The novelty is the placement of one navigation satellite in an orbit that is significantly perturbed by both the Earth and the Moon. A navigation satellite can track other satellites elsewhere in the Earth-Moon system and acquire knowledge about both satellites absolute positions and velocities

  9. Whistler Waves Associated with Weak Interplanetary Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velez, J. C. Ramirez; Blanco-Cano, X.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Kajdic, P.; Jian,, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the properties of 98 weak interplanetary shocks measured by the dual STEREO spacecraft over approximately 3 years during the past solar minimum. We study the occurrence of whistler waves associated with these shocks, which on average are high beta shocks (0.2 < Beta < 10). We have compared the waves properties upstream and downstream of the shocks. In the upstream region the waves are mainly circularly polarized, and in most of the cases (approx. 75%) they propagate almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field (<30 deg.). In contrast, the propagation angle with respect to the shock normal varies in a broad range of values (20 deg. to 90 deg.), suggesting that they are not phase standing. We find that the whistler waves can extend up to 100,000 km in the upstream region but in most cases (88%) are contained in a distance within 30,000 km from the shock. This corresponds to a larger region with upstream whistlers associated with IP shocks than previously reported in the literature. The maximum amplitudes of the waves are observed next to the shock interface, and they decrease as the distance to the shock increases. In most cases the wave propagation direction becomes more aligned with the magnetic field as the distance to the shock increases. These two facts suggest that most of the waves in the upstream region are Landau damping as they move away from the shock. From the analysis we also conclude that it is likely that the generation mechanism of the upstream whistler waves is taking place at the shock interface. In the downstream region, the waves are irregularly polarized, and the fluctuations are very compressive; that is, the compressive component of the wave clearly dominates over the transverse one. The majority of waves in the downstream region (95%) propagate at oblique angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field (>60 deg.). The wave propagation with respect to the shock-normal direction has no preferred direction and varies similarly to

  10. Water and organics in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, John P.

    2015-08-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and larger micrometeorites (MMs) impinge on the upper atmosphere where they decelerate at ~90 km altitude and settle to the Earth’s surface. Comets and asteroids are the major sources and the flux, 30,000-40,000 tons/yr, is comparable to the mass of larger meteorites impacting the Earth’s surface. The sedimentary record suggests that the flux was much higher on the early Earth. The chondritic porous (CP) subset of IDPs together with their larger counterparts, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites (UCMMs), appear to be unique among known meteoritic materials in that they are composed almost exclusively of anhydrous minerals, some of them contain >> 50% organic carbon by volume as well as the highest abundances of presolar silicate grains including GEMS. D/H and 15N abundances implicate the Oort Cloud or presolar molecular cloud as likely sources of the organic carbon. Prior to atmospheric entry, IDPs and MMs spend ~104-105 year lifetimes in solar orbit where their surfaces develop amorphous space weathered rims from exposure to the solar wind (SW). Similar rims are observed on lunar soil grains and on asteroid Itokawa regolith grains. Using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) we have detected radiolytic water in the rims on IDPs formed by the interaction of solar wind protons with oxygen in silicate minerals. Therefore, IDPs and MMs continuously deliver both water and organics to the earth and other terrestrial planets. The interaction of protons with oxygen-rich minerals to form water is a universal process.Affiliations:a University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, 1680 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.b National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.c Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.d Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of California

  11. Solar cycle variations in the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.; Smith, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    ISEE 3 interplanetary magnetic field measurements have been used to extend the NSSDC hourly averaged IMF composite data set through mid-1982. Most of sunspot cycle 20 (start:1964) and the first half of cycle 21 (start:1976) are now covered. The average magnitude of the field was relatively constant over cycle 20 with approx. 5-10% decreases in 1969 and 1971, when the Sun's polar regions changed polarity, and a 20% decrease in 1975-6 around solar minimum. Since the start of the new cycle, the total field strength has risen with the mean for the first third of 1982 being about 40% greater than the cycle 20 average. As during the previous cycle, an approx. 10% drop in IMF magnitude accompanied the 1980 reversal of the solar magnetic field. While the interplanetary magnetic field is clearly stronger during the present solar cycle, another 5-7 years of observations will be needed to determine if cycle 21 exhibits the same modest variations as the last cycle. Accordingly, it appears at this time that intercycle changes in IMF magnitude may be much larger than the intracycle variations.

  12. Magnetic field line lengths inside interplanetary magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiang; Qiu, Jiong; Krucker, Sam

    2015-07-01

    We report on the detailed and systematic study of field line twist and length distributions within magnetic flux ropes embedded in interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). The Grad-Shafranov reconstruction method is utilized together with a constant-twist nonlinear force-free (Gold-Hoyle) flux rope model to reveal the close relation between the field line twist and length in cylindrical flux ropes, based on in situ Wind spacecraft measurements. We show that the field line twist distributions within interplanetary flux ropes are inconsistent with the Lundquist model. In particular, we utilize the unique measurements of magnetic field line lengths within selected ICME events as provided by Kahler et al. () based on energetic electron burst observations at 1 AU and the associated type III radio emissions detected by the Wind spacecraft. These direct measurements are compared with our model calculations to help assess the flux rope interpretation of the embedded magnetic structures. By using the different flux rope models, we show that the in situ direct measurements of field line lengths are consistent with a flux rope structure with spiral field lines of constant and low twist, largely different from that of the Lundquist model, especially for relatively large-scale flux ropes.

  13. First Taste of Hot Channel in Interplanetary Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H. Q.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, X.; Li, G.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-04-01

    A hot channel (HC) is a high temperature (˜10 MK) structure in the inner corona first revealed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Eruptions of HCs are often associated with flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results of previous studies have suggested that an HC is a good proxy for a magnetic flux rope (MFR) in the inner corona as well as another well known MFR candidate, the prominence-cavity structure, which has a normal coronal temperature (˜1-2 MK). In this paper, we report a high temperature structure (HTS, ˜1.5 MK) contained in an interplanetary CME induced by an HC eruption. According to the observations of bidirectional electrons, high temperature and density, strong magnetic field, and its association with the shock, sheath, and plasma pile-up region, we suggest that the HTS is the interplanetary counterpart of the HC. The scale of the measured HTS is around 14 R ⊙ , and it maintained a much higher temperature than the background solar wind even at 1 AU. It is significantly different from the typical magnetic clouds, which usually have a much lower temperature. Our study suggests that the existence of a corotating interaction region ahead of the HC formed a magnetic container to inhibit expansion of the HC and cool it down to a low temperature.

  14. Spectral analysis of magnetohydrodynamic fluctuations near interplanetary schocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.; Acuna, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    Evidence for two types of relatively large amplitude MHD waves upstream and downstream of quasi-parallel forward and reverse interplanetary shocks is presented. The first mode is an Alfven wave with frequencies (in the spacecraft frame) in the range of 0.025 to 0.07 Hz. This is a left-hand polarized mode and propagates within a few degrees of the ambient magnetic field. The second is a fast MHD mode with frequencies in the range of 0.025 to 0.17 Hz, right-hand polarization and propagating along the magnetic field. These waves are detected principally in association with quasi-parallel shock. The Alfven waves are found to have plasma rest frame frequencies in the range of 1.1 to 6.3 mHz with wavelengths in the order of 4.8 x 10 to the 8th power to 2.7 x 10 to the 9th power cm. Similarly, the fast MHD modes have rest frame frequencies in the range 1.6 to 26 mHz with typical wavelengths about 2.19 x 10 to the 8th power cm. The magnetic field power spectrum in the vicinity of these interplanetary shocks is much steeper than f to the -s/3 at high frequencies. The observed spectra have a high frequency dependence of f to the -2/5 to f to the -4.

  15. Computer model of high-latitude scintillation. [WBMOD program

    SciTech Connect

    Fremouw, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The DNA Wideband satellite experiment provided extensive data on scintillation produced in high-altitude structured plasmas. A computer program, WBMOD, is being developed to summarize those data in an applications-oriented way. The program contains the phase-screen scattering theory of Rino and a morphological description of ionospheric irregularities (thus far only at auroral latitudes) based on Wideband observations. It permits a user to compute scintillation indices for both phase and intensity as a function of system operating parameters and solar-ionospheric disturbance level. Correction is made for multiple scatter, and the user may choose either one-way (communication) or two-way (radar) propagation.

  16. Extruded plastic scintillator for MINERvA

    SciTech Connect

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alan D.; Rykalin, Victor V.; Wood, Brian M.; /NICADD, DeKalb

    2005-11-01

    An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. A new experiment at Fermilab is pursuing the use of extruded plastic scintillator. A new plastic scintillator strip is being tested and its properties characterized. The initial results are presented here.

  17. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, R.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.

    2011-04-27

    We describe the R and D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O{sub 2}, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed ''natural'' radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  18. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2011-04-01

    We describe the R&D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed "natural" radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  19. An analytical model of nonproportional scintillator light yield in terms of recombination rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bizarri, G.; Moses, W. W.; Singh, J.; Vasil'ev, A. N.; Williams, R. T.

    2009-02-15

    Analytical expressions for the local light yield as a function of the local deposited energy (-dE/dx) and total scintillation yield integrated over the track of an electron of initial energy E are derived from radiative and/or nonradiative rates of first through third order in density of electronic excitations. The model is formulated in terms of rate constants, some of which can be determined independently from time-resolved spectroscopy and others estimated from measured light yield efficiency as a constraint assumed to apply in each kinetic order. The rates and parameters are used in the theory to calculate scintillation yield versus primary electron energy for comparison to published experimental results on four scintillators. Influence of the track radius on the yield is also discussed. Results are found to be qualitatively consistent with the observed scintillation light yield. The theory can be applied to any scintillator if the rates of the radiative and nonradiative processes are known.

  20. Migration of Interplanetary Dust and Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    Our studies of migration of interplanetary dust and comets were based on the results of integration of the orbital evolution of 15,000 dust particles and 30,000 Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) [1-3]. For asteroidal and cometary particles, the values of the ratio β between the radiation pressure force and the gravitational force varied from <0.0004 to 0.4. For silicates, such values correspond to particle diameters between >1000 and 1 microns. The probability of a collision of a dust particle started from an asteroid or JFC with the Earth during a lifetime of the particle was maximum at diameter d ˜100 microns. For particles started from asteroids and comet 10P, this maximum probability was ˜0.01. Different studies of migration of dust particles and small bodies testify that the fraction of cometary dust particles of the overall dust population inside Saturn's orbit is considerable and can be dominant: (1) Cometary dust particles produced both inside and outside Jupiter's orbit are needed to explain the observed constant number density of dust particles at 3-18 AU. The number density of migrating trans-Neptunian particles near Jupiter's orbit is smaller by a factor of several than that beyond Saturn's orbit. Only a small fraction of asteroidal particles can get outside Jupiter's orbit. (2) Some (less than 0.1%) JFCs can reach typical near-Earth object orbits and remain there for millions of years. Dynamical lifetimes of most of the former JFCs that have typical near-Earth object orbits are about 106 -109 yr, so during most of these times they were extinct comets. Such former comets could disintegrate and produce a lot of mini-comets and dust. (3) Comparison of the velocities of zodiacal dust particles (velocities of MgI line) based on the distributions of particles over their orbital elements obtained in our runs [3-4] with the velocities obtained at the WHAM observations shows that only asteroidal dust particles cannot explain these observations, and particles

  1. The far magnetotail response to an interplanetary shock arrival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygorov, K.; Přech, L.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Goncharov, O.

    2014-11-01

    We present a study of the impact of the December 7, 2003 fast forward interplanetary (IP) shock on the distant tail of the Earth's magnetosphere. Using the data from the several spacecraft located in the solar wind/magnetosheath upstream to the Earth, we monitor a propagation of the IP shock from the L1 point to the magnetosphere. A behavior of the far magnetotail is inferred from the Wind observations at XGSM≈-230 RE. Shortly after the shock arrival, Wind crossed consequentially southern and northern lobes and observed a flux rope and the tailward fast plasma flow (≈780 km/s) within the plasmasheet. Moreover, a change of the solar wind VZ component across the shock creates a huge kink of the tail magnetosphere that propagates down the tail with the IP shock.

  2. Aqueous alteration in five chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.

    1991-02-01

    Results are presented on AEM observations carried out on chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), which include data on alkali-rich layer silicates and new observations of nonstoichiometric plagioclase and alkali feldspars in individual CP IDPs. The compositional similarities found between the feldspar minerals and the layer silicates suggest that the latter have formed from these feldspars during low-temperature aqueous alterations at a stage of diagenesis in the CP IDP parent bodies. Small, but persistent, amounts of layer silicates, carbonates, and barite found in several nominally anhydrous CP IDPs support the suggestion of incipient aqueous alterations in their parent bodies, which may include short-period comet nuclei and outer-belt asteroids.

  3. Transport of solar electrons in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ablaßmayer, J.; Tautz, R. C.; Dresing, N.

    2016-01-15

    The turbulent transport of solar energetic electrons in the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated by means of a test-particle Monte-Carlo simulation. The magnetic fields are modeled as a combination of the Parker field and a turbulent component. In combination with the direct calculation of diffusion coefficients via the mean-square displacements, this approach allows one to analyze the effect of the initial ballistic transport phase. In that sense, the model complements the main other approach in which a transport equation is solved. The major advancement is that, by recording the flux of particles arriving at virtual detectors, intensity and anisotropy-time profiles can be obtained. Observational indications for a longitudinal asymmetry can thus be explained by tracing the diffusive spread of the particle distribution. The approach may be of future help for the systematic interpretation of observations for instance by the solar terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO) and advanced composition explorer (ACE) spacecrafts.

  4. Interplanetary dust distribution and temporal variability of Mercury's atmospheric Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Shingo; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Kagitani, Masato; Okano, Shoichi

    2009-08-01

    The interplanetary dust (IPD) distribution in the inner solar system is not yet well understood because of lack of direct dust measurements in the inner solar system and so one needs to rely on zodiacal light observations that are difficult to interpret. Mercury has an unstable atmosphere, and the source processes of Na in its atmosphere are unclear. Results of past observations have revealed that the atmospheric Na density has no or low correlation with the solar flux, sunspot number, heliocentric distance, or solar radiation pressure. We show that the variability of Mercury's atmospheric Na density depends strongly on the IPD distribution. That is, Na density is low (high) when Mercury is far away from (close to) the symmetry plane of IPD, and so one can infer the IPD distribution near Mercury orbit from the temporal variability of Na density in Mercury's atmosphere.

  5. Origins of the low energy relativistic interplanetary electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eraker, J. H.; Simpson, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Electron measurements in the energy range 2-25 MeV on the Pioneer 10 spacecraft are studied from 1 to 21.5 AU. It is found that in this radial range, interplanetary low energy electron fluxes are of Jovian origin, based on the decreasing electron intensity from about 6 to 21.5 AU, a negative gradient from about 11 to 21.5 AU, and the constant spectral index observed from 1 to 21.5 AU. The upper limit of the galactic flux is estimated at 12 MeV and standard assumptions are applied to solar modulation. It is found that at 1 AU, the expected flux of galactic origin is a factor 300 or more below the observed quiet time flux, and the extrapolated interstellar flux level is consistent with estimates based on galactic diffuse radio and gamma-ray emissions.

  6. In situ wave phenomena in the upstream and downstream regions of interplanetary shocks: Implications for type 2 burst theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Vinas, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    The results are presented of in situ waves observed by the Ulyssess unified radio and plasma wave experiment (URAP) in the upstream and downstream regions of a large number of interplanetary shocks. The Langmuir waves which are the most essential ingredients for the type 2 radio emission are observed only in the upstream regions of a limited number of shocks. On the other hand, the ion-acoustic-like waves (0.5 to 5 kHz) are observed near most of the interplanetary shocks. Implications of observations made for the electron acceleration mechanisms at the collisionless shocks and for type 2 burst theories are presented.

  7. A DATABASE OF >20 keV ELECTRON GREEN'S FUNCTIONS OF INTERPLANETARY TRANSPORT AT 1 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Agueda, N.; Sanahuja, B.; Vainio, R.

    2012-10-15

    We use interplanetary transport simulations to compute a database of electron Green's functions, i.e., differential intensities resulting at the spacecraft position from an impulsive injection of energetic (>20 keV) electrons close to the Sun, for a large number of values of two standard interplanetary transport parameters: the scattering mean free path and the solar wind speed. The nominal energy channels of the ACE, STEREO, and Wind spacecraft have been used in the interplanetary transport simulations to conceive a unique tool for the study of near-relativistic electron events observed at 1 AU. In this paper, we quantify the characteristic times of the Green's functions (onset and peak time, rise and decay phase duration) as a function of the interplanetary transport conditions. We use the database to calculate the FWHM of the pitch-angle distributions at different times of the event and under different scattering conditions. This allows us to provide a first quantitative result that can be compared with observations, and to assess the validity of the frequently used term beam-like pitch-angle distribution.

  8. An improved model for interplanetary dust fluxes in the outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    We present an improved model for interplanetary dust grain fluxes in the outer Solar System constrained by in situ dust density observations. A dynamical dust grain tracing code is used to establish relative dust grain densities and three-dimensional velocity distributions in the outer Solar System for four main sources of dust grains: Jupiter-family comets, Halley-type comets, Oort-Cloud comets, and Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt objects. Model densities are constrained by in situ dust measurements by the New Horizons Student Dust Counter, the Pioneer 10 meteoroid detector, and the Galileo Dust Detection System (DDS). The model predicts that Jupiter-family comet grains dominate the interplanetary dust grain mass flux inside approximately 10 AU, Oort-Cloud cometary grains may dominate between 10 and 25 AU, and Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt grains are dominant outside 25 AU. The model also predicts that while the total interplanetary mass flux at Jupiter roughly matches that inferred by the analysis of the Galileo DDS measurements, mass fluxes to Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are at least one order-of-magnitude lower than that predicted by extrapolations of dust grain flux models from 1 AU. Finally, we compare the model predictions of interplanetary dust oxygen influx to the giant planet atmospheres with various observational and photochemical constraints and generally find good agreement, with the exception of Jupiter, which suggests the possibility of additional chemical pathways for exogenous oxygen in Jupiter's atmosphere.

  9. Interplanetary magnetic field variations and slow mode transitions in the Earth's magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Daniel

    2001-04-01

    The event observed on September 17, 1978 on ISEE 1-2, which led to the concept of a stationary slow mode transition region (SMT) in the magnetosheath in front of the magnetopause, is revisited. We establish that the two edges of this SMT have an exogenous origin induced by two discontinuities of the interplanetary magnetic field. The key of our analysis is that the outer edge of the SMT is built up by a tangential interplanetary discontinuity which is observed on ISEE-3 at a large distance from the Sun-Earth line and which has an unusual direction. In this SMT the subsolar magnetosheath is entirely downstream of a quasi-parallel bow shock, while upstream this SMT the subsolar magnetosheath is downstream of a quasi-perpendicular shock. We identify three effects at the origin of the density enhancement in this SMT. We extend this approach to the original statistical study and we find that any SMT is connected to interplanetary magnetic field variations. This corroborates our hypothesis that SMTs have an exogeneous origin driven by interplanetary magnetic field variations.

  10. The influence of interplanetary shocks on solar protons measured in the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Bazilevskaya, G A; Stozhkov YuI; Struminsky, A B

    1994-10-01

    Since the beginning of the 22nd solar cycle twenty solar proton events were observed by the regular balloon measurements of cosmic rays. Temporal changes of intensities and energy spectra of solar protons with energy 100-500 MeV were obtained. The strong influence of interplanetary shock waves on the proton flux characteristics near the Earth was observed. Possible effects of solar proton transport in the vicinity of shock fronts are discussed to explain the observational data.

  11. Discrete scintillator coupled mercuric iodide photodetector arrays for breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Tornai, M.P.; Levin, C.S.; Hoffman, E.J.

    1996-12-31

    Multi-element (4x4) imaging arrays with high resolution collimators, size matched to discrete CsI(Tl) scintillator arrays and mercuric iodide photodetector arrays (HgI{sub 2} PDA) are under development as prototypes for larger 16 x 16 element arrays. The compact nature of the arrays allows detector positioning in proximity to the breast to eliminate activity not in the line-of-sight of the collimator, thus reducing image background. Short collimators, size matched to {le}1.5 x 1.5 mm{sup 2} scintillators show a factor of 2 and 3.4 improvement in spatial resolution and efficiency, respectively, compared to high resolution collimated gamma cameras for the anticipated compressed breast geometries. Monte Carlo simulations, confirmed by measurements, demonstrated that scintillator length played a greater role in efficiency and photofraction for 140 keV gammas than cross sectional area, which affects intrinsic spatial resolution. Simulations also demonstrated that an increase in the ratio of scintillator area to length corresponds to an improvement in light collection. Electronic noise was below 40 e{sup -} RMS indicating that detector resolution was not noise limited. The high quantum efficiency and spectral match of prototype unity gain HgI{sub 2} PDAs coupled to 1 x 1 x 2.5 mm{sup 3} and 2 x 2 x 4 mm{sup 3} CsI(Tl) scintillators demonstrated energy resolutions of 9.4% and 8.8% FWHM at 140 keV, respectively, without the spectral tailing observed in standard high-Z, compound semi-conductor detectors. Line spread function measurements matched the scintillator size and pitch, and small, complex phantoms were easily imaged.

  12. Interplanetary stream magnetism - Kinematic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Barouch, E.

    1976-01-01

    The particle density and the magnetic-field intensity and direction are calculated for volume elements of the solar wind as a function of the initial magnetic-field direction and the initial speed gradient. It is assumed that the velocity is constant and radial. These assumptions are approximately valid between about 0.1 and 1.0 AU for many streams. Time profiles of the particle density, field intensity, and velocity are calculated for corotating streams, neglecting effects of pressure gradients. The compression and rarefaction of the magnetic field depend sensitively on the initial field direction. By averaging over a typical stream, it is found that the average radial field intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the heliocentric distance, whereas the average intensity in the direction of the planets' motion does not vary in a simple way, consistent with deep space observations. Changes of field direction may be very large, depending on the initial angle; but when the initial angle at 0.1 AU is such that the base of the field line corotates with the sun, the spiral angle is the preferred direction at 1 AU. The theory is also applicable to nonstationary flows.

  13. Type III radio bursts in the interplanetary medium - The role of propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.; Lecacheux, A.; Aubier, M. G.; Dulk, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Interplanetary type III radio burst observations are analyzed in order to ascertain the role played by propagation effects between the true source and the observer. Large source altitudes are noted, together with an increasing angular size of sources with increasing angular distance from the sun's center. These and other observations furnish strong evidence for the theory that propagation effects, group delays, ducting and/or scattering significantly affect the observed heights, sizes, and brightness temperatures of interplanetary type III bursts. This would be true irrespective of whether the bursts are due to plasma radiation at the fundamental or at the harmonic, and the effects would extend to the arrival times of the radiation to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the path from the source to the observer.

  14. First calculation of phase and coherence of longitudinally separated L-band equatorial ionospheric scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shume, E. B.; Mannucci, A. J.

    2013-07-01

    We present the first calculation of phase and coherence of cross-wavelet transform applied to longitudinally separated L-band equatorial ionospheric scintillation observations received from Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. The phase and coherence analysis were employed on two pairs of observations: (1) São Luís and Rio Branco and (2) Alta Floresta and Huancayo. For these case studies, in statistically significant and high-coherence regions, scintillation observations over São Luís (Alta Floresta) lead that of Rio Branco (Huancayo) by ˜2 to 3 h with a 95%frequency. If L-band scintillation happens over São Luís (Alta Floresta), there is a 95%likelihood that scintillation would happen to the west over Rio Branco (Huancayo) after ˜2 to 3 h, suggesting that a forecast can be made ahead of scintillation occurrences. The phase and coherence relationships between the longitudinally separated scintillation-producing regions can be connected to the large-scale wave structures which are reported to be related to the generation of equatorial spread F and scintillation.

  15. Analysis and design of aeroassisted interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Wyatt R.

    An aeroassisted mission uses atmospheric forces to effect a spacecraft delta-V, which could allow for substantial propellant savings. This research focuses on aero-maneuvers useful for interplanetary flight. The aerogravity assist maneuver uses aerodynamic lift to achieve a greater delta-V than with gravity alone. Aerobraking and aerocapture both use aerodynamic drag to supplement or replace propulsive planetary captures. Optimal aerogravity assist trajectories are found, using a combination of analytic and graphical techniques. Simple control schemes are developed to manage angular momentum during aerobraking and to guide a spacecraft to a desired final orbit during aerocapture.

  16. Discovery of nuclear tracks in interplanetary dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Fraundorf, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear tracks have been identified in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) collected from the stratosphere. The presence of tracks unambiguously confirms the extraterrestrial nature of IDP's, and the high track densities (10 to the 10th to 10 to the 11th per square centimeter) suggest an exposure age of approximately 10,000 years within the inner solar system. Tracks also provide an upper temperature limit for the heating of IDP's during atmospheric entry, thereby making it possible to distinguish between pristine and thermally modified micrometeorites.

  17. Interplanetary exploration-A challenge for photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    Future U.S. interplanetary missions will be less complex and costly than past missions such as Voyager and the soon to be launched, Galileo. This is required to achieve a balanced exploration program that can be sustained within the context of a limited budget. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) have served as the power source for missions beyond the orbit of Mars. It is indicated that the cost to the user of these power sources will significantly increase. Solar arrays can provide a low cost alternative for a number of missions. Potential missions are identified along with concerns for implementation, and some array configurations under present investigation are reviewed.

  18. Problems of Interplanetary and Interstellar Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, John

    2008-01-01

    If and when interplanetary and interstellar trade develops, it will be novel in two respects. First, the distances and time spans involved will reduce all or nearly all trade to the exchange of intangible goods. That threatens the possibility of conducting business in a genuinely common currency and of enforcing debt agreements, especially those involving sovereign debt. Second, interstellar trade suggests trade between humans and aliens. Cultural distance is a probable obstacle to initiating and sustaining such trade. Such exchange also threatens the release of new and potentially toxic memes.

  19. Nonthermal Radiation Processes in Interplanetary Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chian, A. C. L.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En la interacci6n de haces de electrones energeticos con plasmas interplanetarios, se excitan ondas intensas de Langmuir debido a inestabilidad del haz de plasma. Las ondas Langmuir a su vez interaccio nan con fluctuaciones de densidad de baja frecuencia para producir radiaciones. Si la longitud de las ondas de Langmujr exceden las condicio nes del umbral, se puede efectuar la conversi5n de modo no lineal a on- das electromagneticas a traves de inestabilidades parametricas. As se puede excitar en un plasma inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas impulsadas por ondas intensas de Langmuir: (1) inestabilidades de decaimiento/fusi5n electromagnetica impulsadas por una bomba de Lang- muir que viaja; (2) inestabilidades dobles electromagneticas de decai- miento/fusi5n impulsadas por dos bombas de Langrnuir directamente opues- tas; y (3) inestabilidades de dos corrientes oscilatorias electromagne- ticas impulsadas por dos bombas de Langmuir de corrientes contrarias. Se concluye que las inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas in- ducidas por las ondas de Langmuir son las fuentes posibles de radiacio- nes no termicas en plasmas interplanetarios. ABSTRACT: Nonthermal radio emissions near the local electron plasma frequency have been detected in various regions of interplanetary plasmas: solar wind, upstream of planetary bow shock, and heliopause. Energetic electron beams accelerated by solar flares, planetary bow shocks, and the terminal shock of heliosphere provide the energy source for these radio emissions. Thus, it is expected that similar nonthermal radiation processes may be responsible for the generation of these radio emissions. As energetic electron beams interact with interplanetary plasmas, intense Langmuir waves are excited due to a beam-plasma instability. The Langmuir waves then interact with low-frequency density fluctuations to produce radiations near the local electron plasma frequency. If Langmuir waves are of sufficiently large

  20. Relativistic electrons at geosynchronous orbit, interplanetary electron flux, and the 13-month Jovian synodic year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christon, S. P.; Chenette, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Moses, D.

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from a search to determine the correlation, if any, between the temporal behaviors of 0.2-7 MeV or higher electrons at GEO (6.6 earth radii) and 6-10 MeV electrons in the interplanetary region near earth at the period of the Jovian synodic year (about 13 months). The 13-month intensity variation results from the synodic interplanetary magnetic field conection of earth to Jupiter. Direct compariosn of intensity-time flux profiles for the years 1976-1984, about 7 synodic Jovian electron seasons, shows that the intensity envelope of peak electron flux at GEO does not appear to be correlated to the observed 13 month intensity envelope of relativistic electron flux in the interplanetary region near earth. A persistent 13-month variation of GEO flux is not obvious, thus indicating that the intensity of electron flux at GEO is not directly and soley related to the intensity of Jovian electron flux near earth. It is concluded that dynamic erergization and redistribution processes in earth's magnetosphere must be invoked to produce the intensity variations of relativistic electron flux at GEO and not interplanetary magnetic field connection to Jupiter.

  1. Study of transionospheric signal scintillation: Quasi- particle approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Ruthie D.

    1998-07-01

    A quasi-particle approach is applied to study amplitude scintillation of transionospheric signals caused by Bottomside Sinusoidal (BSS) irregularities. The quasi- particle method exploits wave-particle duality, viewing the wave as a distribution of quasi-particles. This is accomplished by transforming the autocorrelation of the wave function into a Wigner distribution function, which serves as a distribution of quasi-particles in the (/vec r,/ /vec k) phase space. The quasi-particle distribution at any instant of time represents the instantaneous state of the wave. Scattering of the signal by the ionospheric irregularities is equivalent to the evolution of the quasi-particle distribution, due to the collision of the quasi-particles with objects arising from the presence of the BSS irregularities. Subsequently, the perturbed quasi-particle distribution facilitates the computation of average space time propagation properties of the wave. Thus, the scintillation index S4 is determined. Incorporation of essential BSS features in the analysis is accomplished by analytically modeling the power spectrum of the BSS irregularities measured in-situ by the low orbiting Atmosphere-E (AE - E) Satellite. The effect of BSS irregularities on transionospheric signals has been studied. The numerical results agree well with multi-satellite scintillation observations made at Huancayo Peru in close time correspondence with BSS irregularities observed by the AE - E satellite over a few nights (December 8-11, 1979). During this period, the severity of the scintillation varied from moderate to intense, S4 = 0.1-0.8.

  2. Nitrogen Isotopic Anomalies in a Hydrous Interplanetary Dust Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. B.; Dai, Z. R.; Weber, P. K.; Graham, G. A.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Bajt, S.; Ishii, H.; Bradley, J. P.

    2005-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere are the fine-grained end member (5 - 50 microns in size) of the meteoritic material available for investigation in the laboratory. IDPs are derived from either cometary or asteroidal sources. Some IDPs contain cosmically primitive materials with isotopic signatures reflecting presolar origins. Recent detailed studies using the NanoSIMS have shown there is a wide variation of isotopic signatures within individual IDPs; grains with a presolar signature have been observed surrounded by material with a solar isotopic composition. The majority of IDPs studied have been anhydrous. We report here results from integrated NanoSIMS/FIB/TEM/Synchrotron IR studies of a hydrous IDP, focused on understanding the correlations between the isotopic, mineralogical and chemical compositions of IDPs.

  3. Small minded - The characterization of interplanetary dust by electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, C. T.

    1981-12-01

    The collection and analysis of Brownlee particles, interplanetary dust found in the atmosphere, are discussed. The particles are usually around 10 microns in diameter and have slowed to terminal velocity at altitudes near 100 km, having been heated to 550 C for not more than two seconds. Electron microscopy and neutron activation analysis have been employed, noting that the samples are collected by NASA from regions of concentration of one particle per 1000 cu cm. Chondritic compositions have been observed, although inter- and intra-grain abundance ratios do not display a distinct chondritic grouping. Single and polycrystal diffraction studies have identified magnetite, pyroxene, olivine, pyrohotite, taenite, and cohenite. The possibility that the dust particles are of cometary origin will be examined with data from the ESA Halley mission.

  4. Origin of the hydrocarbon component of interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowiak, Thomas J.; Lee, Wei

    1994-01-01

    Using experiments as a basis, we have developed a scenario for the origin of the hydrocarbon material of carbonaceous chondrites. This scenario can also serve as an explanation for the origin of the hydrocarbon component of interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in the atmospheres of C stars undergoing a late stage of stellar evolution is indicated by the observed unidentified infrared (UIR) emission bands. Those molecules are then transported through interstellar space where they become enriched with D through ion molecule reactions when passing through cold, dark clouds. Many of those PAH molecules are subsequently hydrogenated and cracked in a H-dominated plasma such as would have occurred in the solar nebula. The resulting mixture of alkanes and residual D-rich PAH molecules was then incorporated into the mineral fraction of the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrites and IDP's.

  5. Experimental Determination of Infrared Extinction Coefficients of Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This technique is based on irradiating a single isolated charged dust particle suspended in balance by an electric field, and measuring the scattered radiation as a function of angle. The observed scattered intensity profile at a specific wavelength obtained for a dust particle of known composition is compared with Mie theory calculations, and the variable parameters relating to the particle size and complex refractive index are adjusted for a best fit between the two profiles. This leads to a simultaneous determination of the particle radius, the complex refractive index, and the scattering and extinction coefficients. The results of these experiments can be utilized to examine the IRAS and DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) infrared data sets in order to determine the dust particle physical characteristics and distributions by using infrared models and inversion techniques. This technique may also be employed for investigation of the rotational bursting phenomena whereby large size cosmic and interplanetary particles are believed to fragment into smaller dust particles.

  6. Low voltage scanning electron microscopy of interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Bunch, T. E.; Reilly, T. W.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The resolution of available low-voltage SEM (LVSEM) models used in the characterization of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) is limited by a number of factors including energy spread in the electron source, beam brightness, scanning electron detector geometry, and various lens aberrations. This paper describes an improved model of LVSEM which offers an increased resolution at low voltage. The improvements include a cold cathode FE source which has an extremely low inherent energy spread and high brightness, a second condenser lens to converge the beam and maintain an optimum aperture half-angle, and a detector optimized for low-voltage scanning-electron collection. To reduce lens aberrations, the specimen is immersed in the objective lens field. The features of several IDP samples observed using the images obtained with this LVSEM model are described.

  7. LHCb Upgrade: Scintillating Fibre Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and to read out the data at 40 MHz using a trigger-less read-out system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with higher occupancy. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed to read out the fibres and a custom ASIC will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. The evolution of the design since the Technical Design Report in 2014 and the latest R & D results are presented.

  8. The Earth's magnetosphere under continued forcing: Substorm activity during the passage of an interplanetary magnetic cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Farrugia, C.J.; Burlaga, L.F.; Lepping, R.P. ); Freeman, M.P. ); Takahashi, K. )

    1993-05-01

    This is the third of three papers dealing with the interaction of an interplanetary magnetic field with the earth's magnetosphere in Jan 1988. Here the authors report on substorm observations made during this time period. They sampled information from six spacecraft and a larger number of ground based systems to serve as signals for the initiation of substorm behavior. They relate the interplanetary magnetic field and plasma conditions to the time of observation of substorm initiation. Current models tie substorm occurrence to magnetic reconnection in the magnetosphere. The IMF B[sub y] and B[sub z] components varied slowly over a range of 20 nT on both sides of zero during this observation period. During the period of northward IMF the magnetosphere was quiescent, but during the period of southward IMF a large magnetic storm was initiated. During this interval substorms were observed roughly every 50 minutes.

  9. Prediction of ionospheric scintillation using neural network over East African region during ascending phase of sunspot cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taabu, S. D.; D'ujanga, F. M.; Ssenyonga, T.

    2016-04-01

    VHF and GPS-SCINDA receivers located both at Nairobi (36.8°E, 1.3°S) in Kenya and at Kampala (32.57°E, 0.335°N) in Uganda were used to investigate ionospheric scintillation and forecast scintillations of a few hundred meter-scale irregularities associated with equatorial ionospheric irregularities for the period 2011 and 2012. VHF scintillations was characterized by long duration of activity and slow fading that lasted till early morning hours (05:00 LT). Furthermore, different percentage occurrence of scintillations in some months were observed, but found that weak scintillation (0.2 scintillations was more dominant in the equinox season than in the solstice season which had the same trend as the sunspot number. The enhancement of pre-midnight scintillations during magnetically disturbed and quiet periods was also observed and found to be seasonal and local time dependent. An attempt was made to develop a model of percentage occurrence of scintillations for the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 using neural network and the modeled data for the occurrence of scintillations was found to match well with original data.

  10. Detecting scintillations in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, P. R.; McKinsey, D. N.

    2013-09-01

    We review our work in developing a tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB)-based detection system for a measurement of the neutron lifetime using magnetically confined ultracold neutrons (UCN). As part of the development of the detection system for this experiment, we studied the scintillation properties of liquid helium itself, characterized the fluorescent efficiencies of different fluors, and built and tested three detector geometries. We provide an overview of the results from these studies as well as references for additional information.

  11. Sound and light from fractures in scintillators.

    PubMed

    Tantot, A; Santucci, S; Ramos, O; Deschanel, S; Verdier, M-A; Mony, E; Wei, Y; Ciliberto, S; Vanel, L; Di Stefano, P C F

    2013-10-11

    Prompted by intriguing events observed in certain particle-physics searches for rare events, we study light and acoustic emission simultaneously in some inorganic scintillators subject to mechanical stress. We observe mechanoluminescence in Bi4Ge3O12, CdWO4, and ZnWO4, in various mechanical configurations at room temperature and ambient pressure. We analyze the temporal and amplitude correlations between the light emission and the acoustic emission during fracture. A novel application of the precise energy calibration of Bi4Ge3O12 provided by radioactive sources allows us to deduce that the fraction of elastic energy converted to light is at least 3×10(-5).

  12. Solar-interplanetary circumstances associated with the major events in March and June 1991 and comparison with similar events of previous solar cycles.

    PubMed

    Smart, D F; Shea, M A

    1996-01-01

    The solar activity and geomagnetic storm events of March and June 1991 were associated with the appearance of an enhanced particle flux in the trapped radiation belts as discovered by the CRRES satellite observations and later measured by shuttle radiation detectors. The solar-interplanetary conditions associated with these events appear to be a major sequence of activity near the sun's central meridian generating powerful fast interplanetary shocks resulting in major perturbations to the magnetosphere. The solar-interplanetary events in 1991 are discussed and compared to similar activity in the past such as the events in February 1986, August 1972, July 1961, November 1960, and July 1959.

  13. The statistical investigation of amplitude Scintillations at Indian high latitude Station Maitri, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatarkar, Prakash; Khan, Parvaiz A.; Bhardwaj, Shivangi; Purohit, P. K.; Atulkar, Roshni; Gwal, A. K.

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the occurrence characteristics of ionospheric scintillations, using dual frequency GPS receiver, installed and operated at Indian scientific base station Maitri (71.45S and 11.45E) Antarctica, during December 2009 to December 2010. The scintillation morphology is described in terms of S4 Index. The scintillations are classified into four main categories as Weak (0.21.0). From the analysis we found that the percentage of weak, moderate, strong and saturated scintillations were 96%, 80%, 58% and 7% respectively. The maximum percentage of all types of scintillation was observed in the summer season, followed by equinox and the least in winter season. As the year 2010 was a low solar activity period, consequently the maximum occurrences of scintillations were those of weak and moderate and only four cases of saturated scintillation were observed.

  14. Measurement of α -particle quenching in LAB based scintillator in independent small-scale experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Krosigk, B.; Chen, M.; Hans, S.; Junghans, A. R.; Kögler, T.; Kraus, C.; Kuckert, L.; Liu, X.; Nolte, R.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Tseung, H. Wan Chan; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, A.; Yeh, M.; Zuber, K.

    2016-03-01

    The α -particle light response of liquid scintillators based on linear alkylbenzene (LAB) has been measured with three different experimental approaches. In the first approach, α -particles were produced in the scintillator via ^{12}C( n,α )^9Be reactions. In the second approach, the scintillator was loaded with 2 % of ^{nat}Sm providing an α -emitter, ^{147}Sm, as an internal source. In the third approach, a scintillator flask was deployed into the water-filled SNO+ detector and the radioactive contaminants ^{222}Rn, ^{218}Po and ^{214}Po provided the α -particle signal. The behavior of the observed α -particle light outputs are in agreement with each case successfully described by Birks' law. The resulting Birks parameter kB ranges from (0.0066± 0.0016) to (0.0076± 0.0003) cm/MeV. In the first approach, the α -particle light response was measured simultaneously with the light response of recoil protons produced via neutron-proton elastic scattering. This enabled a first time a direct comparison of kB describing the proton and the α -particle response of LAB based scintillator. The observed kB values describing the two light response functions deviate by more than 5σ . The presented results are valuable for all current and future detectors, using LAB based scintillator as target, since they depend on an accurate knowledge of the scintillator response to different particles.

  15. Regulation of the interplanetary magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Gosling, J.T.; Phillips, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this study we use a recently developed technique for measuring the 2-D magnetic flux in the ecliptic plane to examine (1) the long term variation of the magnetic flux in interplanetary space and (2) the apparent rate at which coronal mass ejections (CMEs) may be opening new flux from the Sun. Since there is a substantial variation ({approximately}50%) of the flux in the ecliptic plane over the solar cycle, we conclude that there must be some means whereby new flux can be opened from the Sun and previously open magnetic flux can be closed off. We briefly describe recently discovered coronal disconnections events which could serve to close off previously open magnetic flux. CMEs appear to retain at least partial magnetic connection to the Sun and hence open new flux, while disconnections appear to be likely signatures of the process that returns closed flux to the Sun; the combination of these processes could regulate the amount of open magnetic flux in interplanetary space. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Advanced routing in interplanetary backbone network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ge; Sheng, Min; Wu, Chengke

    2007-11-01

    Interplanetary (IPN) Internet is a communication infrastructure providing communication services for scientific data delivery and navigation services for the explorer spacecrafts and orbiters of the future deep space missions. The interplanetary backbone network has the unique characteristics hence routing through the backbone network present many challenges that are not presented in traditional networks. Some routing algorithms have been proposed, in which, LPDB integrates the shortest path algorithm and the directional broadcast method to guarantee fast and reliable message delivery. Through this mutipath routing strategy, unpredictable link failures is addressed, but additional network overhead is introduced. In this paper, we propose an improvement of the LPDB named ALPDB in which the source could adaptively decide the next-hop nodes according to the link condition, hence reduce the network overhead. We model this algorithm on the network simulation platform of OPNET and compare it with other applicable algorithms in data passing ratio, data delay and network overhead. The result indicates that the ALPDB algorithm could not only guarantee reliable message delivery, but also decrease the cost significantly.

  17. Interplanetary proton cumulated fluence model update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, A.; Hilgers, A.; Rosenqvist, L.; Bourdarie, S.

    2008-11-01

    Solar particle events leading to important increase of particle fluxes at energies of order of magnitude ranging from MeV to GeV constitute an important hazard for space missions. They may lead to effects seen in microelectronics or damage to solar cells and constitute a potential hazard for manned missions. Cumulative damage is commonly expressed as a function of fluence which is defined as the integral of the flux over time. A priori deterministic estimates of the expected fluence cannot be made because over the time scale of a space mission, the fluence can be dominated by the contribution of a few rare and unpredictable high intensity events. Therefore, statistical approaches are required in order to estimate fluences likely to be encountered by a space mission in advance. This paper extends work done by Rosenqvist et al. [Rosenqvist, L., Hilgers, A., Evans, H., Daly, E., Hapgood, M., Stamper, R., Zwickl, R., Bourdarie, S., Boscher, D. Toolkit for updating interplanetary proton-cumulated fluence models. J. Spacecraft Rockets, 42(6), 1077 1090, 2005] to describe an updated predictive engineering model for the proton interplanetary fluence with energies >30 MeV. This model is derived from a complete list of solar proton fluences based on data from a number of calibrated sources covering almost three solar cycles.

  18. A Review of Ionospheric Scintillation Models.

    PubMed

    Priyadarshi, S

    This is a general review of the existing climatological models of ionospheric radio scintillation for high and equatorial latitudes. Trans-ionospheric communication of radio waves from transmitter to user is affected by the ionosphere which is highly variable and dynamic in both time and space. Scintillation is the term given to irregular amplitude and phase fluctuations of the received signals and related to the electron density irregularities in the ionosphere. Key sources of ionospheric irregularities are plasma instabilities; every irregularities model is based on the theory of radio wave propagation in random media. It is important to understand scintillation phenomena and the approach of different theories. Therefore, we have briefly discussed the theories that are used to interpret ionospheric scintillation data. The global morphology of ionospheric scintillation is also discussed briefly. The most important (in our opinion) analytical and physical models of scintillation are reviewed here.

  19. A quantitative study of the geoeffectiveness of interplanetary structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, L. A.

    2001-05-01

    The time-integrated values of the injection function F(E) necessary to observe variations in the Dst index during the main phase of intense magnetic storms at levels of -50, -75, -100, -125 and -150 nT, were estimated for a set of 12 interplanetary coronal mass ejections events. The dataset was classified into four groups concerning the occurrence of sheath fields just behind the shock and the polarity of the magnetic clouds: (i) magnetic clouds with polarity NS, (ii) magnetic clouds with SN polarity, (iii) magnetic clouds with southward field (Y polarity) and (iv) sheath fields. The injection function was estimated using two models of the evolution of the Dst. The time-integrated values estimated for the subset of Y clouds were found to be greater than for the other subsets. This occurs as a consequence of the slow increase of the Bs for Y clouds that leads to a smaller difference between the energy injection and the loss in the ring current that for the other groups. It is important to remember that while the energy injection is driven by the dawn-dusk component of the interplanetary electric field, the energy loss is proportional to the ring current population, with a decay time τ that varies from 3 to 20 h. The time-integrated values estimated for the subset of NS were found to be high. This is also associated to the profile of the Bs. Otherwise, sheath field and the SN magnetic cloud events seems to have shorter time-integrated values as a consequence of the sharp variation of the Bs component. In this case the energy injection is much greater than the loss energy during the main phase. These results have shown that, for the dataset studied, different structures of the interplanetary events are associated to different main phase development of the ring current. We would like to acknowledge the Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo for the financial support. Project numbers 98/04734-4 and 98/15959-0.

  20. Comment on 'Observations of reconnection of interplanetary and lobe magnetic field lines at the high-latitude magnetopause' by J.T. Gosling, M.F. Thomsen, S.J. Bame, R.C. Elphic, and C.T. Russell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belen'kaia, Elena

    1993-01-01

    Comment is presented on the results of measurements, reported by Gosling et al. (1991), that were made on ISEE in the vicinity of the high-latitude dusk magnetopause near the terminator plane, at a time when the local magnetosheath and tail lobe magnetic fields were nearly oppositely directed. The character of the observed plasma flowing both tailward and sunward within the high-latitude magnetopause current layer presented real evidence for the local reconnection process. Gosling et al. argued that this process may be a manifestation of different global magnetospheric topology structures. In the comment, a global magnetospheric convection pattern is constructed for the northward IMF and for the case of a large azimuthal component of the IMF with small Bz, irrespective of its sign. The suggested scheme provides a simple explanation for the observed sunward convection in the polar caps both for the northward and for strong By with small Bz. According to the present model, for the magnetosheath field at 2300 UT on June 11, 1978, the reconnection between the open field lines appears at the northern neutral point.