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Sample records for interpretation conductivite thermique

  1. Evolution des quasiparticules nodales du cuprate supraconducteur YBa2Cu3Oy en conductivite thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rene de Cotret, Samuel

    Ce memoire presente des mesures de conductivite thermique sur les supraconducteurs YBCO et Tl-2201 afin de statuer sur la presence possible d'un point critique quantique (QCP) dans le diagramme de phase de cuprates. Ce point critique quantique serait a l'origine de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi, d'un large cylindre de trous en de petites poches de trous et d'electrons. La conductivite thermique dans le regime T → 0 permet d'extraire une quantite purement electronique liee aux vitesses de Fermi et du gap, au noeud. Une discontinuite dans cette quantite pourrait signaler la traversee du dopage critique qui reconstruit la surface de Fermi. Plusieurs sondes experimentales distinguent une transition de phase ou un crossover a T* a temperature finie. D'autres sondes mettent en evidence une transition de phase sous l'effet d'un champ magnetique. La presence ou non de cet ordre, a temperature et champ magnetique nul questionne la communaute depuis plusieurs annees. Dans cette etude, nous detectons une variation brusque de kappa0/T a p = 0.18 dans YBCO et a p = 0.20 dans Tl-2201. Ces sauts sont interpretes comme un signe de la transition a temperature nulle et sont en faveur d'un QCP. Le manque de donnees d'un meme materiau a ces dopages ne permet pas de valider hors de tout doute l'existence d'un point critique quantique. Le modele theorique YRZ decrit aussi bien les donnees de conductivite thermique. Des pistes de travaux experimentaux a poursuivre sont proposees pour determiner la presence ou non du QCP de facon franche. Mots-cles : Supraconducteurs, cuprates, conductivite thermique, point critique quantique.

  2. Conductivite dans le modele de Hubbard bi-dimensionnel a faible couplage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Dominic

    Le modele de Hubbard bi-dimensionnel (2D) est souvent considere comme le modele minimal pour les supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique a base d'oxyde de cuivre (SCHT). Sur un reseau carre, ce modele possede les phases qui sont communes a tous les SCHT, la phase antiferromagnetique, la phase supraconductrice et la phase dite du pseudogap. Il n'a pas de solution exacte, toutefois, plusieurs methodes approximatives permettent d'etudier ses proprietes de facon numerique. Les proprietes optiques et de transport sont bien connues dans les SCHT et sont donc de bonne candidates pour valider un modele theorique et aider a comprendre mieux la physique de ces materiaux. La presente these porte sur le calcul de ces proprietes pour le modele de Hubbard 2D a couplage faible ou intermediaire. La methode de calcul utilisee est l'approche auto-coherente a deux particules (ACDP), qui est non-perturbative et inclue l'effet des fluctuations de spin et de charge a toutes les longueurs d'onde. La derivation complete de l'expression de la conductivite dans l'approche ACDP est presentee. Cette expression contient ce qu'on appelle les corrections de vertex, qui tiennent compte des correlations entre quasi-particules. Pour rendre possible le calcul numerique de ces corrections, des algorithmes utilisant, entre autres, des transformees de Fourier rapides et des splines cubiques sont developpes. Les calculs sont faits pour le reseau carre avec sauts aux plus proches voisins autour du point critique antiferromagnetique. Aux dopages plus faibles que le point critique, la conductivite optique presente une bosse dans l'infrarouge moyen a basse temperature, tel qu'observe dans plusieurs SCHT. Dans la resistivite en fonction de la temperature, on trouve un comportement isolant dans le pseudogap lorsque les corrections de vertex sont negligees et metallique lorsqu'elles sont prises en compte. Pres du point critique, la resistivite est lineaire en T a basse temperature et devient

  3. Caracterisation thermique de modules de refroidissement pour la photovoltaique concentree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Louis-Michel

    Pour rentabiliser la technologie des cellules solaires, une reduction du cout d'exploitation et de fabrication est necessaire. L'utilisation de materiaux photovoltaiques a un impact appreciable sur le prix final par quantite d'energie produite. Une technologie en developpement consiste a concentrer la lumiere sur les cellules solaires afin de reduire cette quantite de materiaux. Or, concentrer la lumiere augmente la temperature de la cellule et diminue ainsi son efficacite. Il faut donc assurer a la cellule un refroidissement efficace. La charge thermique a evacuer de la cellule passe au travers du recepteur, soit la composante soutenant physiquement la cellule. Le recepteur transmet le flux thermique de la cellule a un systeme de refroidissement. L'ensemble recepteur-systeme de refroidissement se nomme module de refroidissement. Habituellement, la surface du recepteur est plus grande que celle de la cellule. La chaleur se propage donc lateralement dans le recepteur au fur et a mesure qu'elle traverse le recepteur. Une telle propagation de la chaleur fournit une plus grande surface effective, reduisant la resistance thermique apparente des interfaces thermiques et du systeme de refroidissement en aval vers le module de refroidissement. Actuellement, aucune installation ni methode ne semble exister afin de caracteriser les performances thermiques des recepteurs. Ce projet traite d'une nouvelle technique de caracterisation pour definir la diffusion thermique du recepteur a l'interieur d'un module de refroidissement. Des indices de performance sont issus de resistances thermiques mesurees experimentalement sur les modules. Une plateforme de caracterisation est realisee afin de mesurer experimentalement les criteres de performance. Cette plateforme injecte un flux thermique controle sur une zone localisee de la surface superieure du recepteur. L'injection de chaleur remplace le flux thermique normalement fourni par la cellule. Un systeme de refroidissement est installe

  4. Microgenerateurs electriques a base d'oscillateurs thermiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leveille, Etienne

    Dans un contexte de developpement durable et d'automatisation de notre environnement, l'utilisation de capteurs sans-fil distribues est croissante. Hors l'usage et le remplacement de piles s'avere couteux. La consommation energetique de plus en plus faible de l'electronique rend l'extraction energetique de l'energie ambiante envisageable. La chaleur residuelle est une source d'energie interessante puisqu'elle est la forme finale de la majeure partie de l'energie utilisee par l'humain. Cependant, a petite echelle, seuls les elements thermoelectriques sont disponibles. Les presents travaux s'interessent donc a explorer et comparer des mecanismes de generation alternatifs. Puisque la majorite des mecanismes de transduction alternatifs sont dynamiques, leur utilisation requiert une transformation de l'energie thermique continue en oscillations. Les mecanismes etudies ont donc tous en commun de posseder un oscillateur thermique en plus d'un mecanisme de transduction vers la forme d'energie electrique. Parmi les divers mecanismes identifies, deux sont etudies en details pour comprendre leurs comportements ainsi que connaitre leur efficacite et leur puissance potentielle. Le premier generateur etudie theoriquement est base sur le changement de ferromagnetisme d'une masse suspendue par des ressorts au-dessus d'un aimant. Les comportements du modele developpe correspondent aux comportements reportes dans la litterature. Deux parametres de conception principaux ont ete identifies, permettant un controle de la frequence, de la plage de temperatures d'operation. De plus le mecanisme peut operer avec de faibles differences de temperature et des temperatures proches de l'ambiant, ouvrant la porte a des applications utilisant la chaleur du corps humain. L'utilisation de materiau pyroelectrique comme mecanisme de transduction pourrait offrir des densites de puissance electrique envisageables de l'ordre de 1mW/cm3. Le second generateur etudie experimentalement est base sur l

  5. Dérives thermiques du capteur de pression capacitif microélectronique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettouhami, A.; Essaid, A.; Ouakrim, N.; Michel, L.; Limouri, M.

    1997-07-01

    The thermal drifts of microelectronic capacitive pressure sensor have been analysed by finite-element method. Various boundary conditions representing a wide gamut of support of sensor have been considered: sensor with free base, sensor with fixed base and sensor attached to a support of alumina. For every case, the thermal response of sensor have been determined as a function of sensor dimensions in order to push far the buckling temperature and hence reduce the thermal sensitivity. For some sensors very sensitive to pressure, this temperature is small and the thermal drifts are important. A sensor with fixed base having a diaphragm of 1000 μm of radius and 12 μm of thickness and having a 3.5 μm of plate separation presents a thermal sensitivity of -200 Pa °C^{-1} above 80 ^circC. A sensor attached to a support of alumina, having a more wide diaphragm (1800 μm of radius) presents a thermal sensitivity of 3.1 Pa °C^{-1} below -100 ^circC. Les dérives thermiques du capteur de pression capacitif microélectronique sont analysées par la méthode des éléments finis. Différentes conditions aux limites représentant une large gamme de support de capteur ont été envisagées : capteur à base libre, capteur à base fixe et capteur collé à un support d'alumine. Dans chaque cas, la réponse thermique du capteur a été déterminée en fonction des dimensions du capteur afin de repousser la température de flambage et réduire en conséquence la sensibilité thermique. Pour certains capteurs très sensibles à la pression, cette température est très faible et les dérives thermiques sont importantes. Ainsi un capteur à base fixe (membrane de rayon 1000 μm, et épaisseur 12 μm, distance entre armatures 3,5 μm) présente une sensibilité thermique de -200 Pa °C^{-1} au-dessus de 80 ^circC. Un capteur collé à un support d'alumine, de membrane plus large (rayon 1800 μm) possède une sensibilité thermique de 3,1 Pa °C^{-1} au-dessous de -100 ^circC.

  6. Étude d'un plasma de SF_6 hors d'équilibre thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, P.

    1997-06-01

    The influence of several parameters: vibrational temperature, thermal disequilibrium, pressure, copper vapours on the composition and heat capacity of a plasma formed in SF6 are studied. The effects of these parameters on chemical reactions and plasma compound are discussed. For example, we show that the concentration of negative charged particle decreases as the thermal disequilibrium increases. L'influence des paramètres suivants : température de vibration, déséquilibre thermique, pression et vapeurs de cuivre sur la composition et la capacité calorifique d'un plasma de SF6 hors d'équilibre thermique est étudiée. Les effets de ces paramètres sur les réactions chimiques et le comportement du plasma sont discutés. Par exemple, nous montrons que la concentration des espèces chimiques chargées négativement diminue à mesure que le déséquilibre thermique augmente.

  7. Une alternative au cobalt pour la synthese de nanotubes de carbone monoparoi par plasma inductif thermique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, Jean-Francois

    Les nanotubes de carbone de type monoparoi (C-SWNT) sont une classe recente de nanomateriaux qui ont fait leur apparition en 1991. L'interet qu'on leur accorde provient des nombreuses proprietes d'avant-plan qu'ils possedent. Leur resistance mecanique serait des plus rigide, tout comme ils peuvent conduire l'electricite et la chaleur d'une maniere inegalee. Non moins, les C-SWNT promettent de devenir une nouvelle classe de plateforme moleculaire, en servant de site d'attache pour des groupements reactifs. Les promesses de ce type particulier de nanomateriau sont nombreuses, la question aujourd'hui est de comment les realiser. La technologie de synthese par plasma inductif thermique se situe avantageusement pour la qualite de ses produits, sa productivite et les faibles couts d'operation. Par contre, des recherches recentes ont permis de mettre en lumiere des risques d'expositions reliees a l'utilisation du cobalt, comme catalyseur de synthese; son elimination ou bien son remplacement est devenu une preoccupation importante. Quatre recettes alternatives ont ete mises a l'essai afin de trouver une alternative plus securitaire a la recette de base; un melange catalytique ternaire, compose de nickel, de cobalt et d'oxyde d'yttrium. La premiere consiste essentiellement a remplacer la proportion massique de cobalt par du nickel, qui etait deja present dans la recette de base. Les trois options suivantes contiennent de nouveaux catalyseurs, en remplacement au Co, qui sont apparus dans plusieurs recherches scientifiques au courant des dernieres annees: le dioxyde de zircone (ZrO2), dioxyde de manganese (MnO2) et le molybdene (Mo). La methode utilisee consiste a vaporiser la matiere premiere, sous forme solide, dans un reacteur plasma a haute frequence (3 MHz) a paroi refroidi. Apres le passage dans le plasma, le systeme traverse une section dite de "croissance", isolee thermiquement a l'aide de graphite, afin de maintenir une certaine plage de temperature favorable a la

  8. Traitement par plasma thermique d'une liqueur caustique pour la destruction des cyanures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Luc

    L'objectif principal de cette recherche est d'evaluer la possibilite de traiter le lixiviat de brasques usees produit par le procede LCL&L (Lixiviation a bas caustique et chaulage) par contact direct avec un jet de plasma thermique. L'utilisation d'un chalumeau au plasma permet d'eliminer les problemes de reaction avec les produits de combustion relies a l'utilisation de chalumeaux conventionnels (e.g. carbonatation du NaOH en Na2CO3). Le fait de se servir de ce type de chalumeau en mode submerge pour le traitement d'une solution liquide constitue l'originalite du projet. Les essais effectues dans le cadre de ce travail experimental sont realises a l'echelle banc d'essai dans un premier temps. Ils visent a determiner le taux de decomposition des cyanures contenus dans le lixiviat sous des conditions de plasma thermique en fonction de differents parametres et a faire la mise a l'echelle d'un reacteur pilote. La puissance electrique fournie au chalumeau, la temperature et la pression d'operation, le point d'addition d'eau, le volume de lixiviat traite et l'addition de peroxyde d'hydrogene (H2O2) comme co-reactif ont tous un impact sur le taux de destruction des cyanures trouve. Sous toutes les conditions etudiees, le reacteur plasma offre un taux de destruction plus rapide qu'un reacteur agite sous pression pour une meme concentration en cyanures. Ainsi, la comparaison de la constante cinetique obtenue pour le reacteur agite avec une constante similaire pour le reacteur plasma (pente du graphique -ln(C/C0) en fonction du temps) est de 0.04x10-3 s-1 vs 0.59x10-3 s-1 a 100°C et de 1.85x10-3 s-1' vs 3x10 -3 s-1s a 170°C. Ces resultats confirment que le plasma joue un role important sur la decomposition des cyanures et qu'il contribue a en augmenter le taux de destruction. Suite aux connaissances acquises sur le banc d'essai, un reacteur pilote est concu. Un chalumeau au plasma d'une puissance de 60 kW-150 kW et fonctionnant avec l'air comme gaz plasmagene y est

  9. Caracterisation des etats de surface par teledetection infrarouge thermique multispectrale: Contribution a l'etude des conditions de viabilite hivernale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chagnon, Frederic

    La mesure de temperature d'une surface et de son emissivite thermique constitue encore de nos jours, un defi de taille. D'un point de vue microclimatique, la temperature significative d'une surface est celle qui reflete l'etat des echanges energetiques qui y ont lieu. La radiometrie infrarouge thermique permet de lire la temperature de l'interface air-sol pour une couche infiniment petite de la surface (de l'ordre de quelques microns). Dans le cadre d'un systeme d'aide aux decisions en viabilite hivernale, nous avons defini un prototype de station de mesures mobiles. Cette station permet de determiner, avec precision, la temperature radiative de la surface de la chaussee ainsi que de determiner, avec un taux de succes de plus de 65 %, l'etat de cette meme surface. Par la conception de ce prototype, nous avons aborde le principe physique de la mesure de temperature de surface par radiometrie multispectrale infrarouge thermique. Ce travail aura permis d'evaluer une approche standard de mesure a bande spectrale unique (de 8 a 14 mum). Dans la correction de la temperature radiative de surface, nous avons considere trois methodes distinctes. La premiere methode utilisee est celle de l'algorithme TES (Gillespie et al., 1998). Cet algorithme etablit le spectre d'emissivite, puis calcule une temperature de surface corrigee, en tenant compte de la reflexion du rayonnement thermique incident a la surface. La seconde methode consideree est l'indice TISI (Li et al., 1999) qui consiste en un indice d'emissivite relatif independant de la temperature de la surface et qui tient compte du rayonnement incident a la surface. La troisieme methode est un indice de temperature relative (ITR) qui correspond au contraste normalise des temperatures radiatives de surface. L'identification du type de surface a montre un taux de succes de 54,8 % pour les resultats de l'indice ITR, de 51,9 % pour les resultats de l'indice TISI et de 67,3 % pour les resultats de l'algorithme TES. Quant a la

  10. Mesure des aberrations thermiques dans un laser YVO4 en fonctionnement, pompé longitudinalement par diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossard, L.; Desfarges-Berthelemot, A.; Colombeau, B.; Froehly, C.

    2002-06-01

    Nous avons étudié les distorsions thermiques dans un laser Nd :YVO4 continu. pompé par diode, en utilisant un faisceau sonde externe spatialement monomode. Après une double traversée de ce faisceau sonde dans le milieu amplificateur, trois profils d'éclairement sont enregistrés le long de son axe de propagation. Le profil de phase distordu est alors reconstruit par un algorithme itératif de type Gerchberg-Saxton. La contribution de chaque type d'aberration est ensuite déterminée grâce à ofil de hase reconstruit sur la base des polynômes de Zernike.

  11. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  12. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  13. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  14. Evolution de films de cuivre sur un substrat de cordiérite au cours de traitements thermiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guille, Jean-Louis; Gondolf, Marc

    1993-04-01

    Copper films were applied on low sintering temperature cordierite substrates either by sputtering or screen printing. Their behaviour during thermal treatments was studied as a function of various parameters : deposition technique, thickness, firing atmosphere, physical state of the substrate (green or sintered). Films were most often broken during the treatment. In the case of screen printed films the effects of an oxydation-reduction cycle of copper are pointed out. Des films de cuivre ont été déposés sur un substrat de cordiérite à basse température de frittage par deux techniques, pulvérisation cathodique et sérigraphie. On étudie leur comportement au cours de traitements thermiques en fonction de différents paramètres : technique de déposition, épaisseur, atmosphère de traitement, état physique du substrat (cru ou fritté). On constate le plus souvent une fragmentation du film. Dans le cas des films sérigraphiés on met en évidence les effets dus à l'oxydation et à la réduction du cuivre.

  15. Investigation experimentale de l'ecoulement et des performances thermiques du nanofluide eau-oxyde de cuivre dans un Micro-Canal Chauffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimbault, Benjamin

    Cette these de maitrise presentee par articles visait a etudier le comportement hydraulique et thermique d'un ecoulement de nanofluides en micro-canal chauffe. Nous avons etudie premierement de l'eau distillee, ensuite des melanges de particules d'oxyde de cuivre (taille 29nm) avec de l'eau distillee en concentrations particulaires volumiques 4.5%, 1.03%, et 0.24% (CuO-H2O). L'ecoulement force des differents fluides a ete realise au moyen de pompes a engrenages au sein d'un circuit ferme, comprenant un micro-canal a section rectangulaire (e=1.116mm,1=25.229mm) chauffe sur deux faces paralleles via des cartouches electriques, deux echangeurs de chaleurs en serie, ainsi qu'un debitmetre magnetique. A notre connaissance peu d'etudes sur l'ecoulement de nanofluides d'oxyde de cuivre-eau en micro-canal rectangulaire chauffe sont disponibles dans la litterature, cette recherche sert de contribution. Premierement, une validation avec la litterature a ete effectuee pour le cas d'un ecoulement d'eau entre plaques planes paralleles chauffees. Des essais hydrauliques ont ete realises pour une gamme du nombre de Reynolds allant jusqu'a Re=5000 a temperature constante. Par la suite des essais thermiques jusqu'a Re=2500 ont consiste en une elevation de temperature fixe (20.5°C a 30.5°C) a travers la longueur du micro-canal sous un regime stationnaire. Les resultats ont demontre une augmentation de la perte de pression et du coefficient de frottement des nanofluides sur l'eau pour un meme debit. Une telle augmentation de perte de pression etait de +70%, +25%, et +0 a 30% respectivement pour les concentrations 4.50%, 1.03%, et 0.24%. Concernant la transition laminaire a turbulent les comportements semblaient indiquer une valeur critique semblable entre l'eau et les differentes concentrations avec et sans chauffage a un nombre de Reynolds critique Rem 1000. Nous avons observe une legere augmentation du coefficient de convection thermique avec le debit massique pour les faibles

  16. Interpreters, Interpreting, and the Study of Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Guadalupe; Angelelli, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research on interpreting focused specifically on issues raised by this literature about the nature of bilingualism. Suggests research carried out on interpreting--while primarily produced with a professional audience in mind and concerned with improving the practice of interpreting--provides valuable insights about complex aspects of…

  17. SAIL-Thermique: a model for land surface spectral emissivity in the thermal infrared. Evaluation and reassesment of the temperature - emissivity separation (TES) algorithm in presence of vegetation canopies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olioso, A.; Jacob, F.; Lesaignoux, A.

    2014-12-01

    The SAIL-Thermique model was developed to simulate thermal infrared (TIR) radiative transfers inside vegetation canopies and land surface emissivity. It is based on the SAIL model developed by Verhoef (1984) for simulating spectral reflectances in the solar domain. Due to the difficulty to measure land surface emissivity, no emissivity model was validated against ground measurements. In this study, several datasets extracted from the literature and from recent databases were used for evaluating emissivity simulations. Model simulations were performed from the knowledge of leaf area index, leaf inclination distribution, direction of viewing, and leaf and soil optical properties. As data on leaf inclination and leaf optical properties were usually not available, stochastic simulations were performed from a priori knowledges on their distribution (extracted from the literature and recent databases). Simulated 8-14 μm emissivities were favorably compared to measurements with a root mean square difference (RMSD) around 0.006 (0.004 when considering only herbaceous species). The model was then used for simulating emissivity spectra for providing information for the interpretation of TIR multispectral data from the ASTER sensor. We used the land surface emissivity simulations for re-assessing the TES algorithm used to separate emissivity and land surface temperature. We showed that the inclusion of vegetated land surfaces significantly modified the relationship between minimum emissivity and minimum maximum difference (ɛmin- MMD) which is at the heart of the TES algorithm. This relationship was originally established on the ASTER spectral library which did not include vegetated land surface (Schmugge et al. 1998). On a synthetic database, estimations of spectral emissivities and surface temperature were significantly improved when using the new ɛmin- MMD relationship in comparison to the classical one: RMSD dropped from ~0.012 to ~0.006 for spectral emissivity and from

  18. Targeting Lexicon in Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farghal, Mohammed; Shakir, Abdullah

    1994-01-01

    Studies student interpreters in the Master's Translation Program at Yarmouk University in Jordan. Analyzes the difficulties of these students, particularly regarding lexical competence, when interpreting from Arabic to English, emphasizing the need to teach lexicon all through interpreting programs. (HB)

  19. Comprehensive Interpretive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Richard; Sikoryak, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Discusses interpretive planning and provides information on how to maximize a sense of ownership shared by managers, staff, and other organizational shareholders. Presents practical and effective plans for providing interpretive services. (CCM)

  20. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  1. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  2. Rôle de l'hydrogène dans le procédé de purification du silicium par plasma thermique inductif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erin, J.; Morvan, D.; Amouroux, J.

    1993-03-01

    The use of the thermal process for purification of silicon led to a material with the chemical purity required for phototovoltaic applications. In this paper, the various properties of ArH2 plasma mixtures are briefly reviewed and the effect of hydrogen percentage in an argon plasma used for melting and purifying silicon is pointed out. Physico-chemical analysis of the purified silicon showed that hydrogen diffused in the material and could passivate crystal defects by formation of stable chemical bonds such as Si-H. La technique de purification du silicium sous plasma thermique permet d'aboutir à un matériau de pureté chimique requise pour l'industrie photovoltaïque. Dans ce travail, nous soulignerons le rôle de l'hydrogène intervenant dans les propriétés du plasma en rappelant les caractéristiques des plasmas Ar-H2 utilisés pour fondre et purifier le silicium. Les caractéristiques physico-chimiques du silicium purifié montrent que l'hydrogène diffuse dans le matériau et est en mesure de cicatriser les défauts cristallins par formation de liaisons chimiques stables de type Si-H.

  3. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms.

  4. Sign Interpretation in Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    A special set of skills is essential for interpreting for mainstreamed deaf preschool students. Eleven issues in clarifying the job of the preschool interpreter are discussed, such as whether hearing children should learn to sign and how to encourage communication among hearing and deaf children. (JDD)

  5. Higher Education Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Bencie; Porcari li Destri, Giulia

    This paper discusses issues related to the training and provision of interpreters for deaf students at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. Background information provided notes the increasing numbers of deaf and partially hearing students, the existence of funding to pay for interpreters, and trends in the availability of…

  6. Prosody and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erekson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosody is a means for "reading with expression" and is one aspect of oral reading competence. This theoretical inquiry asserts that prosody is central to interpreting text, and draws distinctions between "syntactic" prosody (for phrasing) and "emphatic" prosody (for interpretation). While reading with expression appears as a criterion in major…

  7. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  8. Etude physicochimique et structurale de nitrures et d'oxynitrures de silicium très minces formés par traitement thermique rapide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saoudi, R.; Hollinger, G.; Pitaval, M.; Molle, P.

    1995-05-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (METHR) and spectroscopic ellipsometry have been used to investigate physico-chemical and structural properties of very thin silicon nitride layers. These layers have been formed by rapid thermal nitridation at 1000 ^{circ}C of very thin silica films or silicon substrate in an ammonia atmosphere at atmospheric pressure. in order to examine the influence of silicon substrate surface on the chemical nature of the obtained oxinitride film, three types of samples have been analysed. In addition, the oxygen and nitrogen distribution profiles have been estimated using core level angular distributions and chemical thinning. La spectroscopie de photoélectrons XPS, la Microscopie Electronique en Transmission à Haute Résolution (METHR) et l'ellipsométrie spectroscopique ont été utilisées pour étudier les propriétés physicochimiques et structurales de couches très minces de nitrures et d'oxynitrures de silicium. Ces couches ont été formées par traitement thermique rapide à 1000 ^{circ}C de films minces de silice ou d'un substrat de silicium dans une atmosphère d'ammoniac à la pression atmosphérique. Pour examiner l'influence de l'état de surface du substrat de silicium sur la nature chimique du film d'oxynitrure obtenu, trois types d'échantillons ont été analysés. De plus, les profils de répartition de l'oxygène et de l'azote ont été estimés au moyen de distributions angulaires des niveaux de coeur et d'amincissements chimiques.

  9. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  10. Interpreting Weather Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a brief introduction of our atmosphere, a guide to reading and interpreting weather maps, and a set of activities to facilitate teachers in helping to enhance student understanding of the Earth's atmosphere. (ZWH)

  11. BIOMONITORING: INTERPRETATION AND USES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advanced technologies, it is now possible to measure very low levels of many chemicals in biological fluids. However, the appropriate use and interpretation of biomarkers will depend upon many factors associated with the exposure, adsorption, deposition, metabolism, and eli...

  12. Interpreting the X(5568)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, T. J.; Swanson, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    A variety of options for interpreting the DØ state, X (5568), are examined. We find that threshold, cusp, molecular, and tetraquark models are all unfavoured. Several experimental tests for unravelling the nature of the signal are suggested.

  13. Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

  14. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. PMID:25828074

  15. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals.

  16. Hospitals as interpretation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A

    1991-01-01

    In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677

  17. Explaining the Interpretive Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmeier, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Examines two prominent positions in the epistemological foundations of psychology--Piaget's causal explanatory claims and Vygotsky's interpretive understanding; contends that they need to be placed in their wider philosophical contexts. Argues that the danger of causally explaining cultural practices through which human beings construct and…

  18. Psychosemantics and Simultaneous Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    A comprehension model of simultaneous interpretation activity raises three types of problems: structure of semantic information stored in long-term memory, modalities of input processing and specific restrictions due to situation. A useful concept of semantic mnesic structures includes: (1) a componential-predicative lexicon; (2) a propositional…

  19. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  20. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  1. Interpretation and containment.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, L

    2000-02-01

    The author explores two aspects of the analyst's effort to imagine the inner world of his patient and the way that they are manifest in the clinical moment. The first of these is the analyst's recognition and interpretation of his patient's elaborated fantasies. This current of the analyst's imagination is most often evoked by the patient's communication of whole-object transferences, which occurs largely in his verbal associations. The second is the analyst's reception and transformation of his patient's primitive emotional experience, a process that Bion has called containment. This second imaginative current is most often evoked by the patient's communication of part-object transferences, which occurs largely in affect and action. Interpretation and containment both go on at once in clinical work, although one or the other is usually dominant. Attention to the interplay of interpretation and containment in the clinical moment enables us to identify the articulation of whole- and part-object transferences and to integrate ego-psychological and Kleinian frames of reference in clinical work. In addition, the concept of mutual containment opens Kleinian theory to the possibility of a two-person psychology in which the roles of analyst and patient are more symmetrical than they are usually conceived to be within this frame of reference. The author presents two clinical examples to demonstrate the interplay of interpretation and containment. In the first, these processes operate smoothly. In the second, the process of containment is strained but ultimately successful.

  2. Interpretation of Image Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    1988-01-01

    Describes experiments and studies which investigated perception and image interpretation on different cognitive levels. Subjects were asked to name, describe, index, and assess image contents; write legends; create images; complete stories; illustrate stories; and produce informative materials. Results confirmed the theory of a dual stage…

  3. Interpreting Contradictory Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Cynthia

    Preschool children, elementary school students, and adults participated in a study that examined various processes used to interpret contradictory communications. A screening test determined that all subjects were capable of discriminating between contradictory and congruent communications. Subjects were presented with contradictory verbal-facial…

  4. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  5. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  6. Evaluation of Psychotherapeutic Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    POGGE, DAVID L.; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.

    1992-01-01

    If much psychotherapy literature goes unread and unused by therapists, one reason may be the apparent irrelevance of theory-derived hypotheses to actual practice. Methods that uncover tacit knowledge that practicing therapists already possess can provide the empirical basis for more relevant theories and the testing of more meaningful hypotheses. This study demonstrates application of the phenomenological method to the question of evaluating psychotherapy. To discover how experienced psychotherapists evaluate interpretations made in actual psychotherapy sessions, therapists were asked to evaluate such interpretations from videotapes; analysis of responses yielded a set of 10 dimensions of evaluation. Such methods offer both practical utility and a source of theoretical growth anchored in the real world of the practicing therapist. PMID:22700101

  7. Taxonomy of interpretation trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Patrick J.; Jain, Anil K.

    1992-02-01

    This paper explores alternative models of the interpretation tree (IT), whose search is one of the dominant paradigms for object recognition. Recurrence relations for the unpruned size of eight different types of search tree are introduced. Since exhaustive search of the IT in most recognition systems is impractical, pruning of various types is employed. It is therefore useful to see how much of the IT will be explored in a typical recognition problem. Probabilistic models of the search process have been proposed in the literature and used as a basis for theoretical bounds on search tree size, but experiments on a large number of images suggest that for 3-D object recognition from range data, the error probabilities (assumed to be constant) display significant variation. Hence, the theoretical bounds on the interpretation tree's size can serve only as rough estimates of the computational burden incurred during object recognition.

  8. Interpreting coagulation assays.

    PubMed

    Green, David

    2010-09-01

    The interpretation of coagulation assays requires knowledge of the principal clotting pathways. The activated partial thromboplastin time is sensitive to all hemostatic factors except FVII, whereas the prothrombin time reflects levels of prothrombin and FV, FVII, and FX. Using the two tests in concert is helpful in identifying hemophilia, the coagulopathy of liver disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In addition, the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time are used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with heparin and warfarin, respectively. Measurement of D-dimer is informative in patients suspected of having thrombotic disorders and determining the risk of thrombosis recurrence. Mixing tests distinguish clotting factor deficiencies from circulating anticoagulants such as heparin, the lupus anticoagulant, and antibodies directed against specific clotting factors. The modified Bethesda assay detects and provides an indication of the strength of FVIII inhibitors. However, interpreting the results of coagulation assays is not always straightforward, and expert consultation is occasionally required to resolve difficult clinical situations. PMID:20855988

  9. Interpretation and creationism.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, J L

    1994-08-01

    This paper is an attempt to raise questions about certain underlying and implicit assumptions in some hermeneutic and narrative approaches to psychoanalysis. Starting from the view that Freud saw interpretation in the clinical setting as an attempt to unveil the analysand's psychic reality, it is argued that he envisaged that psychoanalysis aims to interpret what is real in the analysand's inner world--an empirical line of thought underpinned by the idea of analytic neutrality and an emphasis on the analysand's capacity to judge reality. By contrast, the tendency within the hermeneutic-narrative tradition is to demote psychic reality in favour of an emphasis on the analyst's capacity to interpret in order to help his analysand construct meaning. This approach may be said to put the analyst's words in the place of those of the Creator; in other words, it amounts to a 'verbal creationism', which the author argues is rooted in the idealistic philosophy of Hegel, Vico and Descartes and, further back, can be traced to the Book of Genesis--a conclusion causing the author to express some reservations. PMID:7989142

  10. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on.

  11. Interpreting digoxin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Canaday, B R

    1992-11-01

    In all cases, clinical assessment of the patient is the most critical factor in determining dose and interpreting concentrations. When done accurately, laboratory assessment of drug concentrations represents only one source of information. Serum concentrations must be taken into account along with all other relevant clinical data before one can arrive at appropriate management decisions. They must not be considered in isolation and out of context. If the laboratory report is at variance with your clinical judgment, "it will often be the better part of wisdom to question (or reject) the report." PMID:1442543

  12. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Interpretation of Conventional Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  14. Interpreting Transistor Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszalski, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    The simple noise models of field effect and bipolar transistors reviewed in this article are quite useful in engineering practice, as illustrated by measured and modeled results. The exact and approximate expressions for the noise parameters of FETs and bipolar transistors reveal certain common noise properties and some general noise properties of both devices. The usefulness of these expressions in interpreting the dependence of measured noise parameters on frequency, bias, and temperature and, consequently, in checking of consistency of measured data has been demonstrated.

  15. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  16. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  17. Asynchronous interpretation of parallel microprograms

    SciTech Connect

    Bandman, O.L.

    1984-03-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how to pass from a given synchronous interpretation of a parallel microprogram to an equivalent asynchronous interpretation, and investigate the cost associated with the rejection of external synchronization in parallel microprogram structures.

  18. Improve MWD data interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Santley, D.J.; Ardrey, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    This article reports that measurement-while-drilling (MWD) technology is being used today in a broad range of real-time drilling applications. In its infancy, MWD was limited to providing directional survey and steering information. Today, the addition of formation sensors (resistivity, gamma) and drilling efficiency sensors (WOB, torque) has made MWD a much more useful drilling decision tool. In the process, the desirability of combining downhole MWD data with powerful analytical software and interpretive techniques has been recognized by both operators and service companies. However, the usual form in which MWD and wellsite analytical capabilities are combined leaves much to be desired. The most common approach is to incorporate MWD with large-scale computerized mud logging (CML) systems. Essentially, MWD decoding and display equipment is added to existing full-blown CML surface units.

  19. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  20. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

  1. Audiometry screening and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore benefit from screening. If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry. Audiometry in the family medicine clinic setting is a relatively simple procedure that can be interpreted by a trained health care professional. Pure-tone testing presents tones across the speech spectrum (500 to 4,000 Hz) to determine if the patient's hearing levels fall within normal limits. A quiet testing environment, calibrated audiometric equipment, and appropriately trained personnel are required for in-office testing. Pure-tone audiometry may help physicians appropriately refer patients to an audiologist or otolaryngologist. Unilateral or asymmetrical hearing loss can be symptomatic of a central nervous system lesion and requires additional evaluation. PMID:23317024

  2. Summary and interpretive synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This chapter summarizes the major advances made through our integrated geological studies of the Lisburne Group in northern Alaska. The depositional history of the Lisburne Group is discussed in a framework of depositional sequence stratigraphy. Although individual parasequences (small-scale carbonate cycles) of the Wahoo Limestone cannot be correlated with certainty, parasequence sets can be interpreted as different systems tracts within the large-scale depositional sequences, providing insights on the paleoenvironments, paleogeography and platform geometry. Conodont biostratigraphy precisely established the position of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary within an important reference section, where established foraminiferal biostratigraphy is inconsistent with respect to conodont-based time-rock boundaries. However, existing Carboniferous conodont zonations are not readily applicable because most zonal indicators are absent, so a local zonation scheme was developed. Diagenetic studies of the Lisburne Group recognized nineteen subaerial exposure surfaces and developed a cement stratigraphy that includes: early cements associated with subaerial exposure surfaces in the Lisburne Group; cements associated with the sub-Permian unconformity; and later burial cements. Subaerial exposure surfaces in the Alapah Limestone are easily explained, being associated with peritidal environments at the boundaries of Sequence A. The Lisburne exposed in ANWR is generally tightly cemented and supermature, but could still be a good reservoir target in the adjacent subsurface of ANWR given the appropriate diagenetic, deformational and thermal history. Our ongoing research on the Lisburne Group will hopefully provide additional insights in future publications.

  3. Components of Simultaneous Interpreting: Comparing Interpreting with Shadowing and Paraphrasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffels, Ingrid K.; de Groot, Annette M. B.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a complex task where the interpreter is routinely involved in comprehending, translating and producing language at the same time. This study assessed two components that are likely to be major sources of complexity in SI: The simultaneity of comprehension and production, and transformation of the input. Furthermore,…

  4. Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

  5. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  6. Educators' Interpretations of Ambiguous Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how general and special education teachers in one school district interpreted three frequently used accommodations. Although a majority of both groups agreed on interpretations of extended time, there was little agreement, considerable variation, and some contradiction in their understanding of the changes…

  7. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  8. Social Work through An Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nicholas G.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews problems related to working with non-English-speaking clients. Suggests characteristics and qualifications of a good interpreter. Recommends social workers establish a good working relationship with interpreters to effectively help clients and avoid confusion and misunderstanding resulting from cultural differences. Makes recommendations…

  9. Remote interpretation of chest roentgenograms.

    PubMed

    Andrus, W S; Hunter, C H; Bird, K T

    1975-04-01

    A series of 98 chest films was interpreted by two physicians on the basis of monitor display of the transmitted television signal representing the roentgenographic image. The transmission path was 14 miles long, and included one active repeater station. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn to compare interpretations rendered on television view of the image with classic, direct view interpretations of the same films. Performance in these two viewing modes was found to be quite similar. When films containing only hazy densities lacking internal structure or sharp margins, were removed from the sample, interpretation of the remaining films was essentially identical via the two modes. Since hazy densities are visible on retrospective examination, interpretation of roentgenograms at a distance via television appears to be a feasible route for delivery of radiologic services.

  10. Using and interpreting diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Shawn L B; Dohoo, Ian R

    2006-03-01

    Diagnostic tests are invaluable to the practice of veterinary medicine. Using them correctly and interpreting the results appropriately depend on having a good understanding of the basic principles outlined in this article. Topics covered include sensitivity and specificity, agreement among tests, using multiple tests, and other issues related to the use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. The most important principle is recognition that the interpretation of test results varies across populations and requires an estimate of the prevalence of the infection (or disease) in the population being studied.

  11. a Contextualist Interpretation of Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie

    2014-03-01

    The nature of mathematics has been the subject of heated debate among mathematicians and philosophers throughout the ages. The realist and anti-realist positions have had longstanding debate over this problem, but some of the most important recent development has focused on the interpretations; each of the above positions has its own interpretation of the nature of mathematics. I argue in this paper a contextualist interpretation of mathematics, it elucidates the essential features of mathematical context. That is, being integral and having concrete structure, mathematical context is a recontextualizational process with determinate boundary.

  12. Car Troubles: An Interpretive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Leslie

    1995-01-01

    The growing amount of U.S. surface area being paved increases interpretive opportunities for teaching about the environmental impacts of automobiles. Provides methods and suggestions for educating high school students. Provides several computer graphics. (LZ)

  13. Interpreting Results from Multiscore Batteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Describes the role of information on score reliabilities, significance of score differences, intercorrelations of scores, and differential validity of score patterns on the interpretation of results from multiscore batteries. (Author)

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

  15. P value interpretations and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ronna, Brenden; Ott, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Application and interpretation of statistical evaluation of relationships is a necessary element in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on P value to demonstrate relationships. The traditional level of significance, P<0.05, can be negatively impacted by small sample size, bias, and random error, and has evolved to include interpretation of statistical trends, correction factors for multiple analyses, and acceptance of statistical significance for P>0.05 for complex relationships such as effect modification. PMID:27747028

  16. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. PMID:18571358

  17. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  18. Narrative pedagogy and art interpretation.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Bonnie; Hayden-Miles, Marie

    2011-04-01

    Contemporary practices in nursing education call for changes that will assist students in understanding a complex, rapidly changing world. Narrative pedagogy is an approach that offers teachers a way to actively engage students in the process of teaching and learning. The narrative approach provides ways to think critically, make connections, and ask questions to gain understanding through dialogue. The hermeneutic circle of understanding offers a way to interpret stories and discover meaning. Narratives exist in art forms that can be interpreted to evoke discussions and thinking that relate to nursing practice. Art interpretation is a way to gain access to others and acquire a deeper appreciation for multiple perspectives in the teaching-learning process.

  19. Interpretative reports and critical values.

    PubMed

    Piva, Elisa; Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    In the clinical laboratory to allow an effective testing process, post-analytical activity can have two goals in trying to improve patient safety: result interpretation and communication of critical values. Both are important issues, and their success requires a cooperative effort. Misinterpretation of laboratory test results or ineffectiveness in their notification can lead to diagnostic errors or errors in identifying patient critical conditions. With the awareness that the incorrect interpretation of tests and the breakdown in the communication of critical values are preventable errors, laboratorians should make every effort to prevent the types of errors that potentially harm patients. In order to improve the reliability of laboratories, we attempt to explain how interpretative reporting and automated notification of critical values can be used to reduce errors. Clinical laboratories can therefore work to improve clinical effectiveness, without forgetting that everything should be designed to provide the best outcomes for patients.

  20. Interpretational Confounding or Confounded Interpretations of Causal Indicators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainter, Sierra A.; Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In measurement theory, causal indicators are controversial and little understood. Methodological disagreement concerning causal indicators has centered on the question of whether causal indicators are inherently sensitive to interpretational confounding, which occurs when the empirical meaning of a latent construct departs from the meaning…

  1. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  2. Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, K.

    1980-09-01

    The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

  3. CT Colonography: Pitfalls in Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Kim, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis As with any radiologic imaging test, there are a number of potential interpretive pitfalls at CT colonography (CTC) that need to be recognized and handled appropriately. Perhaps the single most important step in learning to avoid most of these diagnostic traps is simply to be aware of their existence. With a little experience, most of these potential pitfalls will be easily recognized. This review will systematically cover the key pitfalls confronting the radiologist at CTC interpretation, primarily dividing them into those related to technique and those related to underlying anatomy. Tips and pointers for how to effectively handle these potential pitfalls are included. PMID:23182508

  4. Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoud, LindaLee

    This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

  5. Probability Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Roger G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the frequency meaning of the probability concept and its implications for quantum mechanics. It emphasizes that the very meaning of probability implies the ensemble interpretation of both pure and mixed states. As a result some of the "paradoxical" aspects of quantum mechanics lose their counterintuitive character.…

  6. Eleven Interpretations of Personal Suffering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Daniel P.

    This document defines suffering as the affective aspect of the pain experience while the cognitive aspect of the pain experience is the sensation of pain. It considers personal suffering, which mean's one's own suffering, and not the suffering of other people. It notes that a particular interpretation of suffering may be formulated in any number…

  7. Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

  8. EKG Interpretation Program. Trainers Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This trainer's manual is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in teaching students how to make basic interpretations of their patients' electrocardiographic (EKG) strips. Included in the manual are pre- and posttests and instructional units dealing with the following topics: EKG indicators,…

  9. Miscommunication in Interpreted Classroom Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a consumer's viewpoint of problems inherent in the use of interpretation to get deaf class members into the stream of vocally expressed communication, focusing on the kinds of misunderstandings that can arise when one language is expressed in the three dimensions of space and the other has only the dimensions of speech. (38 references)…

  10. Transcendental mediatation: a psychological interpretation.

    PubMed

    Avila, D; Nummela, R

    1977-07-01

    The authors suggest that Transcendental Meditation offers a great deal of promise for use in helping relationships. They also suggest that the technique might receive wider acceptance if it could be explained in other than a purely philosophical or mystical way. For that reason, in their article they offer a psychological interpretation of the TM process.

  11. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  12. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  13. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data.

  14. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with…

  15. Art Lessons: Learning To Interpret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, B. Stephen, II

    1999-01-01

    When required to interpret works of art, students arrive at a broad-based, well-grounded understanding of the nature, value, and meaning of art in their lives. Teachers should offer art works, like those of Amalia Mesa-Bains, Joseph Stella, and Beverly Buchanan, whose narratives are complex and challenging, but not conceptually dense or…

  16. Smartberries: Interpreting Erdrich's Love Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuer, David

    2005-01-01

    The structure of "Love Medicines" interpreted by Hertha D. Sweet Wong who claims that the book's "multiple narrators confound conventional Western expectations of an autonomous protagonist, a dominant narrative voice, and a consistently chronological narrative". "Love Medicine" is a brilliant use of the Western literary tactics that create the…

  17. Interpretation of the Weyl tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Stefan; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

    2013-09-01

    According to folklore in general relativity, the Weyl tensor can be decomposed into parts corresponding to Newton-like, incoming and outgoing wavelike field components. It is shown here that this one-to-one correspondence does not hold for space-time geometries with cylindrical isometries. This is done by investigating some well-known exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations with whole-cylindrical symmetry, for which the physical interpretation is very clear, but for which the standard Weyl interpretation would give contradictory results. For planar or spherical geometries, however, the standard interpretation works for both static and dynamical space-times. It is argued that one reason for the failure in the cylindrical case is that for waves spreading in two spatial dimensions there is no local criterion to distinguish incoming and outgoing waves already at the linear level. It turns out that Thorne’s local energy notion, subject to certain qualifications, provides an efficient diagnostic tool to extract the proper physical interpretation of the space-time geometry in the case of cylindrical configurations.

  18. Focus: Oral Interpretation and Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, James S., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue of "Indiana English Journal" are concerned with drama and oral interpretation in the classroom. Titles of articles are: "Up in the Tree, Down in the Cave, and Back to Reading: Creative Dramatics"; "Pantomime: The Stepping Stone to Drama"; "The Living Literature of Readers' Theatre"; "Do-It-Yourself Drama"; "Drama for…

  19. IT1: An Interpretive Tutor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, T. R.

    A computer-assisted instruction system, called IT1 (Interpretive Tutor), is described which is intended to assist a student's efforts to learn the content of textual material and to evaluate his efforts toward that goal. The text is represented internally in the form of semantic networks with auxiliary structures which relate network nodes to…

  20. Studies in Interpretation. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Esther M., Ed.; Floyd, Virginia Hastings, Ed.

    The purpose of this second book of 21 self-contained essays is the same as that of the first volume published in 1972: to bring together the scholarly theory and current research regarding oral interpretation. One third of the essays are centered on literature itself: prose fiction, poetry, and the drama. These essays discuss topics such as point…

  1. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is closely related to Newton's third law. Since the actual microscopic causes of recoil differ from one problem to another, some students (and teachers) may not be satisfied with understanding recoil through the principles of conservation of linear momentum and Newton's third law. For these students, the origin of the recoil motion should be presented in more depth.

  2. Clinical Interpretation of Genomic Variations.

    PubMed

    Sayitoğlu, Müge

    2016-09-01

    Novel high-throughput sequencing technologies generate large-scale genomic data and are used extensively for disease mapping of monogenic and/or complex disorders, personalized treatment, and pharmacogenomics. Next-generation sequencing is rapidly becoming routine tool for diagnosis and molecular monitoring of patients to evaluate therapeutic efficiency. The next-generation sequencing platforms generate huge amounts of genetic variation data and it remains a challenge to interpret the variations that are identified. Such data interpretation needs close collaboration among bioinformaticians, clinicians, and geneticists. There are several problems that must be addressed, such as the generation of new algorithms for mapping and annotation, harmonization of the terminology, correct use of nomenclature, reference genomes for different populations, rare disease variant databases, and clinical reports. PMID:27507302

  3. Paleomicrobiology Data: Authentification and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The authenticity of some of the very first works in the field of paleopathology has been questioned, and standards have been progressively established for the experiments and the interpretation of data. Whereas most problems initially arose from the contamination of ancient specimens with modern human DNA, the situation is different in the field of paleomicrobiology, in which the risk for contamination is well-known and adequately managed by any laboratory team with expertise in the routine diagnosis of modern-day infections. Indeed, the exploration of ancient microbiota and pathogens is best done by such laboratory teams, with research directed toward the discovery and implementation of new techniques and the interpretation of data. PMID:27337456

  4. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  5. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  6. Interpreting geological structure using kriging

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, N.

    1985-07-01

    We applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, we tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. University Interpreting: Linguistic Issues for Consideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Jemina

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated 10 Auslan/English interpreters' use of translation style when interpreting for a university lecture. Results found the interpreters predominantly used a free or literal interpretation approach, but switched between translation styles at particular points of a text, leading to the suggestion of the concept of translational…

  8. What Does It Mean to Teach "Interpretively"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Jennifer; Holtzman, Richard; van Hulst, Merlijn; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    The "interpretive turn" has gained traction as a research approach in recent decades in the empirical social sciences. While the contributions of interpretive research and interpretive research methods are clear, we wonder: Does an interpretive perspective lend itself to--or even demand--a particular style of teaching? This question was…

  9. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United...

  10. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United...

  11. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United...

  12. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United...

  13. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United...

  14. Two Factors Related to Effective Voice Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, T. Alan

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two interpreters for the deaf were measured on accuracy and quality of voice interpreting of the same story in two different sign language types: Pidgin Signed English and American Sign Language. Results indicated that previous experience interpreting was significantly related to the effectiveness of voice interpreting both languages.…

  15. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  16. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Omnes, R. )

    1992-04-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

  17. Feed analyses and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs for use in ration formulation. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance and analytical variability of the assays, and whether an analysis is suitable to be applied to a particular feedstuff. Commercial analyses presently available for carbohydrates, protein, and fats have improved nutritionally pertinent description of feed fractions. Factors affecting interpretation of feed analyses and the nutritional relevance and application of currently available analyses are discussed.

  18. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  19. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  20. Fluorescence lifetimes: fundamentals and interpretations.

    PubMed

    Noomnarm, Ulai; Clegg, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence measurements have been an established mainstay of photosynthesis experiments for many decades. Because in the photosynthesis literature the basics of excited states and their fates are not usually described, we have presented here an easily understandable text for biology students in the style of a chapter in a text book. In this review we give an educational overview of fundamental physical principles of fluorescence, with emphasis on the temporal response of emission. Escape from the excited state of a molecule is a dynamic event, and the fluorescence emission is in direct kinetic competition with several other pathways of de-excitation. It is essentially through a kinetic competition between all the pathways of de-excitation that we gain information about the fluorescent sample on the molecular scale. A simple probability allegory is presented that illustrates the basic ideas that are important for understanding and interpreting most fluorescence experiments. We also briefly point out challenges that confront the experimenter when interpreting time-resolved fluorescence responses.

  1. The interpretation of selection coefficients.

    PubMed

    Barton, N H; Servedio, M R

    2015-05-01

    Evolutionary biologists have an array of powerful theoretical techniques that can accurately predict changes in the genetic composition of populations. Changes in gene frequencies and genetic associations between loci can be tracked as they respond to a wide variety of evolutionary forces. However, it is often less clear how to decompose these various forces into components that accurately reflect the underlying biology. Here, we present several issues that arise in the definition and interpretation of selection and selection coefficients, focusing on insights gained through the examination of selection coefficients in multilocus notation. Using this notation, we discuss how its flexibility-which allows different biological units to be identified as targets of selection-is reflected in the interpretation of the coefficients that the notation generates. In many situations, it can be difficult to agree on whether loci can be considered to be under "direct" versus "indirect" selection, or to quantify this selection. We present arguments for what the terms direct and indirect selection might best encompass, considering a range of issues, from viability and sexual selection to kin selection. We show how multilocus notation can discriminate between direct and indirect selection, and describe when it can do so. PMID:25790030

  2. CONTEMPORARY ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerial Photographic Interpretation is a timed-tested technique for extracting landscape- level information from aerial photographs and other types of remotely sensed images. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) has a 2...

  3. Interpreting physicochemical experimental data sets.

    PubMed

    Colclough, Nicola; Wenlock, Mark C

    2015-09-01

    With the wealth of experimental physicochemical data available to chemoinformaticians from the literature, commercial, and company databases an increasing challenge is the interpretation of such datasets. Subtle differences in experimental methodology used to generate these datasets can give rise to variations in physicochemical property values. Such methodology nuances will be apparent to an expert experimentalist but not necessarily to the data analyst and modeller. This paper describes the differences between common methodologies for measuring the four most important physicochemical properties namely aqueous solubility, octan-1-ol/water distribution coefficient, pK(a) and plasma protein binding highlighting key factors that can lead to systematic differences. Insight is given into how to identify datasets suitable for combining. PMID:26054297

  4. Interpreting neurodynamics: concepts and facts

    PubMed Central

    Rotter, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of neuronal systems, briefly neurodynamics, has developed into an attractive and influential research branch within neuroscience. In this paper, we discuss a number of conceptual issues in neurodynamics that are important for an appropriate interpretation and evaluation of its results. We demonstrate their relevance for selected topics of theoretical and empirical work. In particular, we refer to the notions of determinacy and stochasticity in neurodynamics across levels of microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic descriptions. The issue of correlations between neural, mental and behavioral states is also addressed in some detail. We propose an informed discussion of conceptual foundations with respect to neurobiological results as a viable step to a fruitful future philosophy of neuroscience. PMID:19003452

  5. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E.; Cid Fernandes, R. E-mail: abml@iac.es E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  6. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  7. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  8. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  9. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  10. 10 CFR 76.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 76.6 Section 76.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  11. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  12. Using Playing Cards to Differentiate Probability Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López Puga, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The aprioristic (classical, naïve and symmetric) and frequentist interpretations of probability are commonly known. Bayesian or subjective interpretation of probability is receiving increasing attention. This paper describes an activity to help students differentiate between the three types of probability interpretations.

  13. Court Interpreting: The Anatomy of a Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jongh, Elena M.

    For both translators and interpreters, language proficiency is only the starting point for professional work. The equivalence of both meaning and style are necessary for faithful translation. The legal interpreter or translator must understand the complex characteristics and style of legal language. Court interpreting is a relatively young…

  14. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of...

  15. 10 CFR 55.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 55.6 Section 55.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  16. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or...

  17. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or...

  18. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of...

  19. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or...

  20. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of...

  1. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of...

  2. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or...

  3. 10 CFR 55.6 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 55.6 Section 55.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.6 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  4. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of...

  5. 10 CFR 7.3 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 7.3 Section 7.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 7.3 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an NRC officer or...

  6. 10 CFR 20.1006 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 20.1006 Section 20.1006 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION General Provisions § 20.1006 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of...

  7. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  8. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  9. An Online Synchronous Test for Professional Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Ko, Leong

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on an experiment designed to conduct an interpreting test for multiple candidates online, using web-based synchronous cyber classrooms. The test model was based on the accreditation test for Professional Interpreters produced by the National Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters (NAATI) in Australia.…

  10. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  11. 76 FR 11176 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 121 Proposed Legal Interpretation AGENCY: Federal Aviation... pilot must assume responsibilities for more in-flight duties. See Legal Interpretation from Donald P... duties and may be provided an opportunity for rest. See Legal Interpretation from Donald P. Byrne...

  12. Two Interpretations of the Discrimination Parameter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose two interpretations for the discrimination parameter in the two-parameter logistic model (2PLM). The interpretations are based on the relation between the 2PLM and two stochastic models. In the first interpretation, the 2PLM is linked to a diffusion model so that the probability of absorption equals the 2PLM. The…

  13. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  14. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  15. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  16. 10 CFR 26.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 26.7 Section 26.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Administrative Provisions § 26.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations...

  17. 29 CFR 18.604 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interpreters. 18.604 Section 18.604 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.604 Interpreters. An interpreter is subject to...

  18. SLAR image interpretation keys for geographic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coiner, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    A means for side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) imagery to become a more widely used data source in geoscience and agriculture is suggested by providing interpretation keys as an easily implemented interpretation model. Interpretation problems faced by the researcher wishing to employ SLAR are specifically described, and the use of various types of image interpretation keys to overcome these problems is suggested. With examples drawn from agriculture and vegetation mapping, direct and associate dichotomous image interpretation keys are discussed and methods of constructing keys are outlined. Initial testing of the keys, key-based automated decision rules, and the role of the keys in an information system for agriculture are developed.

  19. Interface problems: structural constraints on interpretation?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

    2005-05-01

    Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits or restricts the interpretation of an already available set, rather than giving it a nonpresuppositional or existential interpretation, in which it introduces completely new entities into the discourse. Experiment 1 showed that readers prefer a presuppositional interpretation of three ships over the existential interpretation in Five ships appeared on the horizon. Three ships sank. Experiment 2 showed longer reading times in sentences that are disambiguated toward the existential interpretation than in sentences that permit the presuppositional interpretation. Experiment 3 suggested that the presuppositional preference is greater when the phrase three ships occurs outside the verb phrase than when it occurs inside the verb phrase. Experiment 4 showed that Korean subjects marked with a topic marker received more presuppositional interpretations than subjects marked with a nominative marker. Experiment 5 showed that German subjects in VP-external (but nontopic) position received more presuppositional interpretations than VP-internal subjects. The results suggest the syntactic position of a phrase is one determinant of its interpretation, as expected according to the mapping hypothesis of Diesing (1992).

  20. Image Interpretation of Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.

    2012-07-01

    Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features - particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents - oceans, states - large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta). The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation - digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  1. Bioinformatics for personal genome interpretation.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Emidio; Nehrt, Nathan L; Kann, Maricel G; Bromberg, Yana

    2012-07-01

    An international consortium released the first draft sequence of the human genome 10 years ago. Although the analysis of this data has suggested the genetic underpinnings of many diseases, we have not yet been able to fully quantify the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Thus, a major current effort of the scientific community focuses on evaluating individual predispositions to specific phenotypic traits given their genetic backgrounds. Many resources aim to identify and annotate the specific genes responsible for the observed phenotypes. Some of these use intra-species genetic variability as a means for better understanding this relationship. In addition, several online resources are now dedicated to collecting single nucleotide variants and other types of variants, and annotating their functional effects and associations with phenotypic traits. This information has enabled researchers to develop bioinformatics tools to analyze the rapidly increasing amount of newly extracted variation data and to predict the effect of uncharacterized variants. In this work, we review the most important developments in the field--the databases and bioinformatics tools that will be of utmost importance in our concerted effort to interpret the human variome.

  2. Guide to Magellan image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, John P.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Weitz, Catherine M.; Farr, Tom G.; Senske, David A.; Stofan, Ellen R.; Michaels, Gregory; Parker, Timothy J.; Fulton, D. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    An overview of Magellan Mission requirements, radar system characteristics, and methods of data collection is followed by a description of the image data, mosaic formats, areal coverage, resolution, and pixel DN-to-dB conversion. The availability and sources of image data are outlined. Applications of the altimeter data to estimate relief, Fresnel reflectivity, and surface slope, and the radiometer data to derive microwave emissivity are summarized and illustrated in conjunction with corresponding SAR image data. Same-side and opposite-side stereo images provide examples of parallax differences from which to measure relief with a lateral resolution many times greater than that of the altimeter. Basic radar interactions with geologic surfaces are discussed with respect to radar-imaging geometry, surface roughness, backscatter modeling, and dielectric constant. Techniques are described for interpreting the geomorphology and surface properties of surficial features, impact craters, tectonically deformed terrain, and volcanic landforms. The morphologic characteristics that distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters are defined. Criteria for discriminating extensional and compressional origins of tectonic features are discussed. Volcanic edifices, constructs, and lava channels are readily identified from their radar outlines in images. Geologic map units are identified on the basis of surface texture, image brightness, pattern, and morphology. Superposition, cross-cutting relations, and areal distribution of the units serve to elucidate the geologic history.

  3. Medical interpretation for immigrant workers.

    PubMed

    Forst, Linda; Masters, Deborah; Zanoni, Joseph; Avila, Susan; Chaidez, Francisco; Miller, Arlene

    2012-01-01

    Foreign-born workers have high rates of occupational mortality and morbidity, despite downward trends for the U.S. workforce overall. They have limited access to health care services. Medical interpreters (MIs) facilitate care of acutely injured, low-English-proficiency (LEP) patients, including those sustaining occupational injuries. Our goal was to assess the potential for MIs to serve as advocates of LEP patients injured at work and to deliver preventive messages. We conducted interviews and a focus group of MIs regarding their attitudes toward foreign-born workers, knowledge of occupational health, and perceived roles. They were familiar with occupational injuries and sympathetic toward foreign-born workers, and they described their roles as conduits, cultural brokers, and advocates for hospitals, providers, and patients. More detailed and representative data would require a larger investigation. However, the time-sensitive nature of policy-making at this point mandates that occupational health stakeholders participate in the national dialogue on standards, training, and licensure for MIs to promote improved access and quality of health care for LEP patients who have been injured at work. PMID:22436207

  4. Psychoanalytic interpretation and cognitive transformation.

    PubMed

    Basch, M F

    1981-01-01

    Psychoanalytic metapsychology should be recognized for what it is, namely a theory of cognition and affect that is not derived directly from clinical data but is advanced in order to provide the development background that will let us deal with the clinical findings of psychoanalysis as aberrations of and deviations from the normal and expected evolution of the thinking process. Its cornerstone is Freud's belief that thought depends on the forging of links between the sensory perception of objects and their appropriate verbal descriptions. He made no secret of his dissatisfaction with his metapsychology and repeatedly revised it in an attempt to encompass those clinical discoveries of psychoanalysis that outstripped the explanatory power of that metapsychology and demonstrated its shortcomings. Using what we now know about normal development in infancy and childhood through the work of Piaget, Vygotsky and other investigators, it is possible to formulate an explanatory theory that does justice to the varied and complex findings uncovered by the application of the psychoanalytic method. For example, the significance of Freud's postulated second censorship between the preconscious and consciousness, as well as the importance of the defence of disavowal that Freud emphasized in his writings after 1927, can now be accounted for with a theory of thought formation that was not available to the founder of psychoanalysis. The implications of this proposed reformulation for psychoanalytic interpretation and for the application of psychoanalysis to an increasingly wide range of psychopathology is discussed in some detail. PMID:7275491

  5. Normativity, interpretation, and Bayesian models

    PubMed Central

    Oaksford, Mike

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that evaluative normativity should be expunged from the psychology of reasoning. A broadly Davidsonian response to these arguments is presented. It is suggested that two distinctions, between different types of rationality, are more permeable than this argument requires and that the fundamental objection is to selecting theories that make the most rational sense of the data. It is argued that this is inevitable consequence of radical interpretation where understanding others requires assuming they share our own norms of reasoning. This requires evaluative normativity and it is shown that when asked to evaluate others’ arguments participants conform to rational Bayesian norms. It is suggested that logic and probability are not in competition and that the variety of norms is more limited than the arguments against evaluative normativity suppose. Moreover, the universality of belief ascription suggests that many of our norms are universal and hence evaluative. It is concluded that the union of evaluative normativity and descriptive psychology implicit in Davidson and apparent in the psychology of reasoning is a good thing. PMID:24860519

  6. Fitting and Interpreting Occupancy Models

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Alan H.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Donnelly, Christine F.

    2013-01-01

    We show that occupancy models are more difficult to fit than is generally appreciated because the estimating equations often have multiple solutions, including boundary estimates which produce fitted probabilities of zero or one. The estimates are unstable when the data are sparse, making them difficult to interpret, and, even in ideal situations, highly variable. As a consequence, making accurate inference is difficult. When abundance varies over sites (which is the general rule in ecology because we expect spatial variance in abundance) and detection depends on abundance, the standard analysis suffers bias (attenuation in detection, biased estimates of occupancy and potentially finding misleading relationships between occupancy and other covariates), asymmetric sampling distributions, and slow convergence of the sampling distributions to normality. The key result of this paper is that the biases are of similar magnitude to those obtained when we ignore non-detection entirely. The fact that abundance is subject to detection error and hence is not directly observable, means that we cannot tell when bias is present (or, equivalently, how large it is) and we cannot adjust for it. This implies that we cannot tell which fit is better: the fit from the occupancy model or the fit ignoring the possibility of detection error. Therefore trying to adjust occupancy models for non-detection can be as misleading as ignoring non-detection completely. Ignoring non-detection can actually be better than trying to adjust for it. PMID:23326323

  7. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency.

  8. Comparison of Dream Interpretation, Event Interpretation, and Unstructured Sessions in Brief Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diemer, Roberta A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-five distressed adult clients received 2 sessions each of dream and event interpretation using the Hill model during 12 sessions of successful therapy. No differences were found in depth, insight, and working alliance among dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions, suggesting that dream interpretation is as…

  9. Sign Language Interpreting: The Relationship between Metalinguistic Awareness and the Production of Interpreting Omissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Jemina; Barker, Roz

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the first linguistic analysis of sign language interpreting carried out in Australia. A study was conducted on 10 Australian Sign Language/English interpreters to determine the rate and occurrence of interpreting omissions and the interpreters' level of metalinguistic awareness in relation to their production…

  10. Détermination expérimentale de la résistance thermique d'interface d'un dépôt métallique submicronique sur son substrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmina, N.; Scudeller, Y.

    1995-06-01

    Mechanisms of deposition and adhesion of a solid film are closely related to the physical and chemical properties of the substrate. Experimental measurement of thermal contact resistance gives new informations by characterizing the presence of impurities, fissures and cracks due to the elaboration process. An original method of thermal contact resistance measurement of a submicronic film on a dielectric substrate is presented. The measurement consists in analysing the very beginning of the cooling phase of the film, which follow the heating by a short laser pulse (≈ 20 ns). Temperature detection is obtained by electrical resistance measurement of the film. Detection with a high bandwidth (25 MHz) ensure a good restitution of the signal, which is numerically filtered in order to be analyzed. A very small thermal contact resistance compromise between 10^{-8} and 10^{-6} m^2K/W is measured if the temperature detection is operated before one microsecond. The principle of the method and the experimental arrangement are described. The sensitivity is analyzed. Experimental results are obtained on thin film of 200 to 600 nm thickness (pulverized copper) on glass substrate. The thermal contact resistance of about 10^{-7} m^2K/W have been identified with an uncertainty of about 30%. Les mécanismes de croissance et l'adhésion d'un dépôt sont étroitement liés aux propriétés physiques et chimiques superficielles du substrat. La détermination de la résistance thermique d'interface peut mettre en lumière certains aspects de ce couplage en caractérisant la présence d'impuretés, de fissures ou de décollements liés au procédé d'élaboration. Une méthode de mesure originale de la résistance d'interface entre un dépôt submicronique et un substrat diélectrique est présentée. Elle est fondée sur l'analyse des premiers instants de refroidissement du dépôt consécutif à l'échauffement produit par une impulsion laser. L'échauffement est obtenu par la mesure

  11. [The interpreter in an intercultural clinical milieu].

    PubMed

    Vissandjée, B; Ntetu, A L; Courville, F; Breton, E R; Bourdeau, M

    1998-05-01

    The public's diversified language profile means that nursing practice must adjust to provide the same quality of care to all clients, no matter what language they speak. To improve quality and quantity of information exchanged in the nurse-client-interpreter triangle, the authors have investigated the type of information likely to be filtered and studied the various factors underlying the interpreter's choice to filter information. The authors also analyzed the values interpreters assign to information and the factors that form the background for filtering, including mistrust. The authors suggest adequately preparing interpreters; using interpreters' expertise; and developing an appropriate training program for intercultural interpreters to enable them to better function within health care institutions. PMID:9923211

  12. Working with interpreters: practical advice for use of an interpreter in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive commentary is to improve communication in healthcare when an interpreter is used by providing practical advice to healthcare staff when they consider using interpreters. This descriptive commentary considered the issues of preparation and implementation of interpretation sessions to reveal the complexities and dilemmas of an effective healthcare encounter with interpreters. Using the design of a discursive paper, this article seeks to explore and position of what is published in the literature on the topic studied and on the basis of previous studies to provide practical advice on the use of interpreters. The descriptive commentary showed that the interpreter should be used not only as a communication aid but also as a practical and informative guide in the healthcare system. In preparing the interpretation session, it is important to consider the type (trained professional interpreter, family member or bilingual healthcare staff as interpreters) and mode (face to face and telephone) of interpreting. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interpreter's ethnic origin, religious background, gender, language or dialect, social group, clothes, appearance and attitude. During the healthcare encounter, the interpreter should follow the recommendations given in guidelines for interpreters. Healthcare staff should choose an appropriate room and be aware of their own behaviour, appearance and attitude during the healthcare encounter. Good planning is needed, with carefully considered choices concerning the right kind of interpreter, mode of interpretation and individual preferences for the interpretation in order to deliver high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. Depending on the nature of the healthcare encounter, healthcare staff need to plan interpreting carefully and in accordance with the individuals' desires and choose the type of interpreter and mode of interpreting that best suits the need in the actual healthcare situation in

  13. Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging

    SciTech Connect

    Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh

    2011-03-15

    We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.

  14. Relativistic Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, Hrvoje

    2006-06-27

    I present a relativistic covariant version of the Bohmian interpretation of quantum mechanics and discuss the corresponding measurable predictions. The covariance is incoded in the fact that the nonlocal quantum potential transforms as a scalar, which is a consequence of the fact that the nonlocal wave function transforms as a scalar. The measurable predictions that can be obtained with the deterministic Bohmian interpretation cannot be obtained with the conventional interpretation simply because the conventional probabilistic interpretation does not work in the case of relativistic quantum mechanics.

  15. Two interpretations of thin-shell instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Yeom, Dong-han

    2016-07-01

    For O (4 ) -symmetric instantons, there are two complementary interpretations for their analytic continuations. One is the nothing-to-something interpretation, where the initial and final hypersurfaces are disconnected by Euclidean manifolds. The other is the something-to-something interpretation, introduced by Brown and Weinberg, where the initial and final hypersurfaces are connected by the Euclidean manifold. These interpretations have their own pros and cons and hence they are complementary. In this paper, we consider analytic continuations of thin-shell instantons that have less symmetry, i.e., the spherical symmetry. When we consider the Farhi-Guth-Guven/Fischler-Morgan-Polchinski tunneling, the something-to-something interpretation has been used in the usual literature. On the other hand, we can apply the nothing-to-something interpretation with some limited conditions. We argue that for both interpretations, we can give the consistent decay rate. As we apply and interpret what follows the nothing-to-something interpretation, a stationary black hole can emit an expanding shell that results in a spacetime without a singularity or event horizon.

  16. Geochemical Interpretation of Collision Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Julian

    2014-05-01

    Collision volcanism can be defined as volcanism that takes place during an orogeny from the moment that continental subduction starts to the end of orogenic collapse. Its importance in the Geological Record is greatly underestimated as collision volcanics are easily misinterpreted as being of volcanic arc, extensional or mantle plume origin. There are many types of collision volcanic province: continent-island arc collision (e.g. Banda arc); continent-active margin collision (e.g. Tibet, Turkey-Iran); continent-rear-arc collision (e.g. Bolivia); continent-continent collision (e.g. Tuscany); and island arc-island arc collision (e.g. Taiwan). Superimposed on this variability is the fact that every orogeny is different in detail. Nonetheless, there is a general theme of cyclicity on different time scales. This starts with syn-collision volcanism resulting from the subduction of an ocean-continent transition and continental lithosphere, and continues through post-collision volcanism. The latter can be subdivided into orogenic volcanism, which is related to thickened crust, and post-orogenic, which is related to orogenic collapse. Typically, but not always, collision volcanism is preceded by normal arc volcanism and followed by normal intraplate volcanism. Identification and interpretation of collision volcanism in the Geologic Record is greatly facilitated if a dated stratigraphic sequence is present so that the petrogenic evolution can be traced. In any case, the basis of fingerprinting collision terranes is to use geochemical proxies for mantle and subduction fluxes, slab temperatures, and depths and degrees of melting. For example, syn-collision volcanism is characterized by a high subduction flux relative to mantle flux because of the high input flux of fusible sediment and crust coupled with limited mantle flow, and because of high slab temperatures resulting from the decrease in subduction rate. The resulting geochemical patterns are similar regardless of

  17. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  18. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  19. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  20. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  1. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  2. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters....

  3. The Interpretation of Logical Connectives in Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geçkin, Vasfiye; Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how Turkish-speaking children and adults interpret negative sentences with disjunction (English "or") and ones with conjunction (English "and"). The goal was to see whether Turkish-speaking children and adults assigned the same interpretation to both kinds of sentences and, if not, to determine the…

  4. 10 CFR 54.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 54.5 Section 54.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  5. 10 CFR 54.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 54.5 Section 54.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  6. 10 CFR 54.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 54.5 Section 54.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  7. 10 CFR 54.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 54.5 Section 54.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  8. 10 CFR 54.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 54.5 Section 54.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  9. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the...

  10. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the...

  11. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the...

  12. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the...

  13. 32 CFR 1702.5 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpretation. 1702.5 Section 1702.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.5 Interpretation. Any questions...

  14. 32 CFR 1702.5 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpretation. 1702.5 Section 1702.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.5 Interpretation. Any questions...

  15. 32 CFR 1702.5 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpretation. 1702.5 Section 1702.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.5 Interpretation. Any questions...

  16. 32 CFR 1702.5 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpretation. 1702.5 Section 1702.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.5 Interpretation. Any questions...

  17. Basic Interpretation of EKG's. N203.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Laura T.

    A description is provided of an associate degree in nursing science course, "Rapid Interpretation of Electrocardiograms (EKG's)," designed to emphasize the nurse's role in the interpretation of the basic EKG and the medical interventions necessary to treat arrythmias. The first section of the course description provides information on curricular…

  18. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following...

  19. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following...

  20. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following...

  1. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following...

  2. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following...

  3. Oral Interpretation of Literature: Readers' Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The pedagogical principle of experiential learning embodied in the oral interpretation of literature through Readers' Theater provides an avenue to accomplish a seemingly daunting task. Students' participation in reading, interpreting, discussing, writing, assessing, and performing their own creative responses to a literary work promotes a…

  4. Interpreting Histograms. As Easy as It Seems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Histograms are widely used, but recent studies have shown that they are not as easy to interpret as it might seem. In this article, we report on three studies on the interpretation of histograms in which we investigated, namely, (1) whether the misinterpretation by university students can be considered to be the result of heuristic reasoning, (2)…

  5. Freud and the Teaching of Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Patricia; Quandahl, Ellen

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of psychoanalytic techniques to probe written works for their inherent biases of interpretation. Uses the authors' experience of teaching basic writers to analyze Freud's "Dora: An Analysis of a Case of Hysteria," in order to expose Freud's biases in interpreting Dora's experiences. (JC)

  6. Developing Higher Cognitive Skills through Interpretive Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Richard

    One teacher's experience suggests that interpretive writing stemming from the reading and discussion of a literary work, in a second language, promotes development of higher-level cognitive skills. College students in an upper-division Spanish course in one institution are engaged in a writing process with three phases: preparatory; interpretive;…

  7. Integration of geologic interpretation into geostatistical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Carle, S.F.

    1997-06-01

    Embedded Markov chain analysis has been used to quantify geologic interpretation of juxtapositional tendencies of geologic facies. Such interpretations can also be translated into continuous-lag Markov chain models of spatial variability for use in geostatistical simulation of facies architecture.

  8. A Graphical Interpretation of Probit Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William E.; Waldman, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that, when discrete choice models are taught, particularly the probit model, it is the method rather than the interpretation of the results that is emphasized. This article provides a graphical technique for interpretation of an estimated probit coefficient that will be useful in statistics and econometrics courses. (GG)

  9. Psychological Testing of Sign Language Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Brenda C.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-eight sign language interpreters participated in a battery of tests to determine if a profile of cognitive, motor, attention, and personality attributes might distinguish them as a group and at different credential levels. Eight interpreters held Level II and nine held Level III Virginia Quality Assurance Screenings (VQAS); the other 11…

  10. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  11. 44 CFR 12.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretations. 12.4 Section 12.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.4 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized in...

  12. 44 CFR 12.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interpretations. 12.4 Section 12.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.4 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized in...

  13. 44 CFR 12.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Interpretations. 12.4 Section 12.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.4 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized in...

  14. 44 CFR 12.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpretations. 12.4 Section 12.4 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 12.4 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized in...

  15. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  16. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  17. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  18. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  19. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  20. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  1. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  2. A Method for Teaching Topographic Map Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuit, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Students learn how to read and interpret topographic maps by using a set of simplified map exercise cards. Students learn in the field as opposed to a traditional classroom. Map symbols, distance, direction, form, and relief are among the map interpretation topics taught with this method. The multiple-choice format of the exercise also allows for…

  3. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters....

  4. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters....

  5. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters....

  6. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters....

  7. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  8. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  9. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  10. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  11. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  12. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  13. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  14. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  15. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  16. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  17. Interpretation and Manipulation in Human Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denis; Bruce, Bertram C.

    1986-01-01

    Uses an analysis of children's interpretations of a complex episode of social interaction to illustrate three features that distinguish them from robot plans and that form a basis for a theory of the development of social action: human plans (1) are social, (2) operate on interpretations, and (3) are used, not just executed. (FL)

  18. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the...

  19. 10 CFR 37.9 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 37.9 Section 37.9 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL General Provisions § 37.9 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  20. 10 CFR 52.2 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 52.2 Section 52.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.2 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  1. 10 CFR 52.2 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 52.2 Section 52.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.2 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  2. 10 CFR 52.2 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 52.2 Section 52.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.2 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  3. 10 CFR 52.2 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 52.2 Section 52.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.2 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  4. 10 CFR 52.2 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 52.2 Section 52.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.2 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  5. The Interpretation of Semantic Anomaly in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaubergs, Maija S.; Jarrett, Kenneth H.

    Two pilot studies are presented in the context of a discussion of the interpretation of anomalous sentences. In the first study, it was shown that naive language users differ in their judgments of the interpretability of semantically anomalous sentences; in the second, that they coincide in their ranking of the appropriateness of various contexts…

  6. 10 CFR 95.7 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 95.7 Section 95.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 95.7 Interpretations. Except as specifically...

  7. 77 FR 39654 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... proposed legal interpretation published at 77 FR 32441 will be moved to the correct docket, FAA-2012- 0670... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Proposed interpretation; correction. SUMMARY: On June 1, 2012 at 77 FR 32441...: 202-267- 3073. Correction In the Federal Register of June 1, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012-13290, on...

  8. Just Do It: Resources for Interpretive Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koepler, Jes

    2008-01-01

    Now that you have finished reading this journal issue and understand what interpretive planning is and when to apply it, how can you get started and just "do" it? This article provides an annotated list of practical handbooks and internet resources that provide guidelines for museum practitioners to engage in interpretive planning at institutions…

  9. 32 CFR 1702.5 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretation. 1702.5 Section 1702.5 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS § 1702.5 Interpretation. Any questions...

  10. Interface Problems: Structural Constraints on Interpretation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles; Rayner, Keith; Deevy, Patricia; Koh, Sungryong; Bader, Markus

    2005-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the interpretation of quantified noun phrases in relation to discourse structure. They demonstrated, using questionnaire and on-line reading techniques, that readers in English prefer to give a quantified noun phrase in (VP-external) subject position a presuppositional interpretation, in which the noun phrase limits…

  11. Two Interpretive Systems for Natural Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system…

  12. Understanding the Interpreter's Role: An Analysis of Interpreter-Mediated Doctor/Patient Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briskina, Galina

    A study investigated the role of the interpreter in doctor-patient communication by analyzing four complete medical interviews at a large urban hospital, each involving one of two Russian interpreters on staff. Both interpreters were native Russian speakers recently immigrated to the United States. Patients were middle-aged and elderly immigrants…

  13. Interpreter's Wrist: Repetitive Stress Injury and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sign Language Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedt, Joe D.

    1992-01-01

    In a survey concerning repetitive stress injury (RSI) and carpal tunnel syndrome, 87 percent of the 40 sign language interpreters reported that they had at some time experienced at least 2 symptoms associated with RSI, and most interpreters knew others with RSI problems. Data indicate that RSI is a severe problem among sign language interpreters.…

  14. Application of Demand-Control Theory to Sign Language Interpreting: Implications for Stress and Interpreter Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Robyn K.; Pollard, Robert Q., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article uses the framework of demand-control theory to examine the occupation of sign language interpreting. It discusses the environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands that impinge on the interpreter's decision latitude and notes the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders, turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession.…

  15. Interpreting in the UK Community: Some Reflections on Public Service Interpreting in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Starting with the question "why do we need professional public service interpreters?" this paper offers an overview of the present situation regarding the provision of public service interpreters (PSIs) in the UK to public service clients and touches on the main obstacles to the professionalisation of public service interpreting so far…

  16. Plain language for interpreting in consulting rooms.

    PubMed

    Lesch, H M

    2007-12-01

    Intercultural communication is by nature a complex activity. In a multilingual society like ours, it will inevitably surface in the health care sector. The services of an interpreter are often considered to break the impasse in this communication process. The communication problem between the two parties, the service provider and client/patient, is often not simply a matter of language but societal factors of which the liaison interpreter should be aware of also plays a major role for effective extended communication. This article focuses on some of the problems in rendering an oral source text in multilingual and multicultural societies such as South Africa in which there are heterogeneous target audiences for interpreting. It is pointed out that interpreters in such societies must take into account the heterogeneity of the target audiences, or otherwise interpreting will only be symbolic gestures, empty of value, and thus not communicate the message intended. In the process the limitations of the interpreter and how the presence of the interpreter can be facilitated, is also highlighted. PMID:18402423

  17. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very small tumors, thus allowing earlier treatment. The operating costs of MRI systems are at the moment too high to consider using the modality for breast cancer screening on a large scale. AECM imaging could eventually provide an interesting compromise between operating costs and the sensitivity required for screening patients of all ages. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  18. Imagerie par modulation acoustique de conductivite electrique destinee au diagnostic du cancer du sein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendron, Mathieu

    This thesis describes a new medical imaging technique for determining the electrical conductivity distribution of tissues in a body region with a resolution comparable to that of current ultrasound techniques. The new technique, henceforth referred to as "Acousto-Electric Conductivity Modulation" (AECM) imaging, is based on the interaction of a sound wave with an electrical field. In its simplest form, four electrodes located near the region to be imaged apply a low-amplitude electrical current and measure the potential difference arising from current flow in the tissues. A focused ultrasound transducer directs a pressure wave to a voxel of the region of interest, modifying its conductivity distribution and, as a result, the amplitude of the potential measured by the electrodes. An image of the conductivity distribution can thus be constructed point-by-point by moving the electrodes and transducer to scan the object. In this context, the acoustic wave acts as the localization agent while the electrical potential provides a measure of the local conductivity change that occurs in the voxel. The first model presented in the thesis is based on the use of bipolar acoustic waves for excitation. This waveform is generally used with narrow band transducers. Acoustic waves generated by an ultrasound transducer driven with a burst of sine waves consists of alternating compression and rarefaction phases which tend to cancel each other in terms of the conductivity changes they produce. However when the thickness of the target object is small compared to the wavelength of the acoustic wave, this cancelling effect will not occur and the AECM signals will have sufficiently high amplitude to achieve image reconstruction using successive transducer positions to scan the region of interest. By extracting from the spectra of the AECM signals the amplitude of the peak at the excitation frequency, a map of the acousto-electric sensitivity of the system can be obtained. This map is then used to reconstruct the electrical conductivity distribution. The second model presented in the thesis uses a unipolar acoustic wave to generate AECM signals of relatively large amplitude. There are two aspects related to this type of wave. The first aspect is that the acoustic modulation is unidirectional if the applied pressure is unidirectional. As a result, a positive pressure only produces an increase in electrical conductivity and this will result in a large AECM signal even when the thickness of the object is large. The second aspect concerns the shape of the acoustic field. Since the unipolar acoustic wave is not focused, it modulates the conductivity over a large area, and thus the associated AECM signals needs to be processed through a reconstruction algorithm so as to recover local conductivity. In this model, the data required for image reconstruction are acquired by rotating the transducer around the target object. An experimental setup has been developed during our project to get values of certain parameter that are required to define the numerical models. The setup comprises a large tank which is filled with water and in which are immersed the ultrasound transducer, a hydrophone and a measurement cell. The acousto-electric interaction takes place within this cell. A computer controlled positioning system allows precise displacements of the transducer relative to the hydrophone and the measurement cell. This cell comprises a cavity in which the object to be analyzed is placed and that is then filled with an electrolytic solution. The cavity is closed on two sides by an acoustic window to allow propagation of the ultrasound wave and on another side by six Ag/AgCl electrodes that are used to apply current and to measure the resulting electrical potential. Mammography is presently the most widely used medical imaging procedure for breast cancer screening. The average sensitivity of this technique is 80 % but it is less for younger women. According to recent studies, MRI offers a higher sensitivity and the possibility of detecting very smal

  19. The formal verification of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    The task assignment 3 of the design and validation of digital flight control systems suitable for fly-by-wire applications is studied. Task 3 is associated with formal verification of embedded systems. In particular, results are presented that provide a methodological approach to microprocessor verification. A hierarchical decomposition strategy for specifying microprocessors is also presented. A theory of generic interpreters is presented that can be used to model microprocessor behavior. The generic interpreter theory abstracts away the details of instruction functionality, leaving a general model of what an interpreter does.

  20. Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: implications for stress and interpreter training.

    PubMed

    Dean, R K; Pollard, R Q

    2001-01-01

    The translation work of sign language interpreters involves much more than language. The characteristics and goings-on in the physical environment, the dynamics and interactions between the people who are present, and even the "inner noise" of the interpreter contribute to the accuracy, or lack thereof, of the resulting translation. The competent interpreter must understand and respond appropriately to the language and nonlanguage aspects of each interpreting assignment. We use the framework of demand-control theory (Karasek, 1979) to examine the complex occupation of sign language interpreting. Demand-control theory is a job analysis method useful in studies of occupational stress and reduction of stress-related illness, injury, and burnout. We describe sources of demand in the interpreting profession, including demands that arise from factors other than those associated with languages (linguistic demands). These include environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands. Karasek's concept of control, or decision latitude, is also explored in relation to the interpreting profession. We discuss the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession in light of demand-control theory and data from interpreter surveys, including a new survey study described herein. We conclude that nonlinguistic demand factors in particular and perceived restrictions in decision latitude likely contribute to stress, CTD, burnout, and the resulting shortage of sign language interpreters. We make suggestions for improvements in interpreter education and professional development, including the institution of an advanced, supervised professional training period, modeled after internships common in other high demand professional occupations.

  1. Application of demand-control theory to sign language interpreting: implications for stress and interpreter training.

    PubMed

    Dean, R K; Pollard, R Q

    2001-01-01

    The translation work of sign language interpreters involves much more than language. The characteristics and goings-on in the physical environment, the dynamics and interactions between the people who are present, and even the "inner noise" of the interpreter contribute to the accuracy, or lack thereof, of the resulting translation. The competent interpreter must understand and respond appropriately to the language and nonlanguage aspects of each interpreting assignment. We use the framework of demand-control theory (Karasek, 1979) to examine the complex occupation of sign language interpreting. Demand-control theory is a job analysis method useful in studies of occupational stress and reduction of stress-related illness, injury, and burnout. We describe sources of demand in the interpreting profession, including demands that arise from factors other than those associated with languages (linguistic demands). These include environmental, interpersonal, and intrapersonal demands. Karasek's concept of control, or decision latitude, is also explored in relation to the interpreting profession. We discuss the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD), turnover, and burnout in the interpreting profession in light of demand-control theory and data from interpreter surveys, including a new survey study described herein. We conclude that nonlinguistic demand factors in particular and perceived restrictions in decision latitude likely contribute to stress, CTD, burnout, and the resulting shortage of sign language interpreters. We make suggestions for improvements in interpreter education and professional development, including the institution of an advanced, supervised professional training period, modeled after internships common in other high demand professional occupations. PMID:15451859

  2. 77 FR 32441 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Interpretation 1986-12 (stating that if a mechanic employee of an air carrier is assigned duty during flight time, then the mechanic is a ``crewmember'' and may ride in the jumpseat pursuant to Sec. 121.547(a)(1))....

  3. Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    New techniques of cartographic portrayal have been developed for the compilation of maps of lunar and planetary surfaces. Conventional photo interpretation methods utilizing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer processed satellite television images. The variety of the image data allows the illustrator to interpret image details by inter-comparison and intra-comparison of photographs. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The validity of the interpretation process is tested by making a representational drawing by an airbrush portrayal technique. Production controls insure the consistency of a map series. Photo interpretive cartographic portrayal skills are used to prepare two kinds of map series and are adaptable to map products of different kinds and purposes.

  4. Item Overlap Correlations: Definitions, Interpretations, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1994-01-01

    Item overlap coefficient (IOC) formulas are discussed, providing six warnings about their calculation and interpretation and some explanations of why item overlap influences the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory factor structures. (SLD)

  5. Extension Modules for the Python Interpretive language

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, Lee; Dubois, Paul F.; Motteler, Zane C.; Yang, Tser-Yuan; Eme, William; Taylor, Lee; Miller, Douglas

    2006-12-29

    Python is an interpreted computer language, freely available to all, which may be extended by user developed "modules". These modules ay be written in a complied language such as 'C', and then linked into the Python program

  6. Interpretation of the ankle in UHECR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezinsky, Veniamin

    Ankle is a flattening in CR spectrum observed first in Volcano Ranch experiment in 1963 at E _{a} ˜ 10 EeV, and it was interpreted as transition from galactic to extragalactic CRs. Since that time the ankle was observed in all large UHECR detectors and most recently in HiRes, TA and Auger detectors at E _{a} ˜ 4 - 5 EeV. At present there are two interpretations of the ankle: as transition from galactic to extragalactic CRs (the conventional interpretation) and as a part of the dip, produced by extragalactic protons interacting with the CMB photons. These two interpretations will be discussed in the light of recent observations and models of UHECR origin.

  7. Launching International Collaboration for Interpretation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Sherry

    2006-01-01

    The expansion of interpretation research projects across national boundaries contributes to improved personal, professional, and intellectual outcomes for researchers and practitioners. Establishing and maintaining these collaborative teams may be especially beneficial to strengthening the research agenda of new researchers. Conducting…

  8. Electrocardiography: A Technologist's Guide to Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Tso, Colin; Currie, Geoffrey M; Gilmore, David; Kiat, Hosen

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear medicine technologist works with electrocardiography when performing cardiac stress testing and gated cardiac imaging and when monitoring critical patients. To enhance patient care, basic electrocardiogram interpretation skills and recognition of key arrhythmias are essential for the nuclear medicine technologist. This article provides insight into the anatomy of an electrocardiogram trace, covers basic electrocardiogram interpretation methods, and describes an example case typical in the nuclear medicine environment.

  9. Expectations and interpretations during causal learning.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Christian C; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2011-05-01

    In existing models of causal induction, 4 types of covariation information (i.e., presence/absence of an event followed by presence/absence of another event) always exert identical influences on causal strength judgments (e.g., joint presence of events always suggests a generative causal relationship). In contrast, we suggest that, due to expectations developed during causal learning, learners give varied interpretations to covariation information as it is encountered and that these interpretations influence the resulting causal beliefs. In Experiments 1A-1C, participants' interpretations of observations during a causal learning task were dynamic, expectation based, and, furthermore, strongly tied to subsequent causal judgments. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adding trials of joint absence or joint presence of events, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as increasing causal strengths, could result in decreased overall causal judgments and that adding trials where one event occurs in the absence of another, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as decreasing causal strengths, could result in increased overall causal judgments. We discuss implications for traditional models of causal learning and how a more top-down approach (e.g., Bayesian) would be more compatible with the current findings.

  10. Expectations and Interpretations During Causal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2012-01-01

    In existing models of causal induction, 4 types of covariation information (i.e., presence/absence of an event followed by presence/absence of another event) always exert identical influences on causal strength judgments (e.g., joint presence of events always suggests a generative causal relationship). In contrast, we suggest that, due to expectations developed during causal learning, learners give varied interpretations to covariation information as it is encountered and that these interpretations influence the resulting causal beliefs. In Experiments 1A–1C, participants’ interpretations of observations during a causal learning task were dynamic, expectation based, and, furthermore, strongly tied to subsequent causal judgments. Experiment 2 demonstrated that adding trials of joint absence or joint presence of events, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as increasing causal strengths, could result in decreased overall causal judgments and that adding trials where one event occurs in the absence of another, whose roles have been traditionally interpreted as decreasing causal strengths, could result in increased overall causal judgments. We discuss implications for traditional models of causal learning and how a more top-down approach (e.g., Bayesian) would be more compatible with the current findings. PMID:21534705

  11. Analysis of Visual Interpretation of Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svatonova, H.

    2016-06-01

    Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a) the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape) and b) to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age). The results of the research showed that (1) false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2) colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour) increases the success rate of identifying the element (3) experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4) men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  12. From Copenhagen to Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Muynck, Willem M.

    2007-12-01

    Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a generalized formalism yields a sound mathematical basis for a transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.

  13. Conversations through barriers of language and interpretation.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Jane; Cassidy, Irene; Graham, Margaret M; Tuohy, Dympna

    Ireland has become a multicultural society in just over a decade, with non-Irish nationals comprising 12% of the population. The challenge for nurses working in the Irish healthcare system is to provide culturally appropriate care to this diverse population. This paper reports on a qualitative descriptive study exploring nurses' experiences of communicating with people from diverse cultures, and focuses on language barriers and the use of interpreters. The findings indicate that communicating with people who do not share the same first language is challenging, in particular the participants (nurses) were concerned about their ability to make a comprehensive assessment that ultimately forms the basis for quality care provision. The use of interpreters can inform the assessment process, but there are challenges in accessing and utilising these services. Further continuing education is required to promote culturally appropriate care. There is a need for increased discussion between nurses and interpreters to maximise communication with patients. PMID:23901452

  14. Delayed auditory feedback in polyglot simultaneous interpreters.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Darò, V

    1995-03-01

    Twelve polyglot students of simultaneous interpretation and 12 controls (students of the faculty of Medicine) were submitted to a task of verbal fluency under amplified normal auditory feedback (NAF) and under three delayed auditory feedback (DAF) conditions with three different delay intervals (150, 200, and 250 msec). The control group showed a significant reduction in verbal fluency and a significant increase in the number of mistakes in all three DAF conditions. The interpreters' group, however, did not show any significant speech disruption neither in the subjects' mother tongue (L1) nor in their second language (L2) across all DAF conditions. Interpreters' general high verbal fluency along with their ability to pay less attention to their own verbal output make them more resistant to the interfering effects of DAF on speech. PMID:7757448

  15. Interpretive monitoring in the caudate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Yanike, Marianna; Ferrera, Vincent P

    2014-01-01

    In a dynamic environment an organism has to constantly adjust ongoing behavior to adapt to a given context. This process requires continuous monitoring of ongoing behavior to provide its meaningful interpretation. The caudate nucleus is known to have a role in behavioral monitoring, but the nature of these signals during dynamic behavior is still unclear. We recorded neuronal activity in the caudate nucleus in monkeys during categorization behavior that changed rapidly across contexts. We found that neuronal activity maintained representation of the identity and context of a recently categorized stimulus, as well as interpreted the behavioral meaningfulness of the maintained trace. The accuracy of this cognitive monitoring signal was highest for behavior for which subjects were prone to make errors. Thus, the caudate nucleus provides interpretive monitoring of ongoing behavior, which is necessary for contextually specific decisions to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03727.001 PMID:25415238

  16. Seismic response interpretation for heterogeneous reservoir models

    SciTech Connect

    Fichtl, P.; Fournier, F.

    1995-08-01

    Seismic information is crucial to constrain the reservoir image between wells. However, in heterogeneous environments, it is often difficult to interpret the seismic response of the reservoir, especially with limited well control. Analyses of synthetic seismic responses of typical reservoir models are helpful for defining the geological information contained in the seismic data. We propose a geological interpretation of seismic responses of various models in the frame of fluvio-deltaic deposits. The first model is the intermediate unit of the Mesa Verde outcrop, whose seismic response was computed by elastic wave modelling, after assignment of elastic parameters constant by lithofacies. The other models correspond to stochastic lithofacies simulations with different geostatistical characteristics. Their seismic responses were computed with 1D modelling (convolution). The geological interpretation carried out on those synthetic seismic data is based on a calibration of the seismic parameters in terms of probabilities of encountering the different lithofacies. The technique we use is a non parametric discriminant analysis. The seismic parameters are the amplitudes for the convolution models or impedances and reflection coefficients for the first model for which a post-stack stratigraphic inversion was carried out. We compare the seismic derived lithofacies to the true ones to determine the potential of the seismic data for describing the reservoir heterogeneities. We use the different models to discuss: the impact of the spatial distribution of heterogeneities on the geological interpretation of the seismic data; the influence of the seismic lateral filtering on the interpretation the influence of the number of wells, used in the interpretation, on the final results.

  17. Competency in ECG Interpretation Among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kopeć, Grzegorz; Magoń, Wojciech; Hołda, Mateusz; Podolec, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrocardiogram (ECG) is commonly used in diagnosis of heart diseases, including many life-threatening disorders. We aimed to assess skills in ECG interpretation among Polish medical students and to analyze the determinants of these skills. Material/Methods Undergraduates from all Polish medical schools were asked to complete a web-based survey containing 18 ECG strips. Questions concerned primary ECG parameters (rate, rhythm, and axis), emergencies, and common ECG abnormalities. Analysis was restricted to students in their clinical years (4th–6th), and students in their preclinical years (1st–3rd) were used as controls. Results We enrolled 536 medical students (females: n=299; 55.8%), aged 19 to 31 (23±1.6) years from all Polish medical schools. Most (72%) were in their clinical years. The overall rate of good response was better in students in years 4th–5th than those in years 1st–3rd (66% vs. 56%; p<0.0001). Competency in ECG interpretation was higher in students who reported ECG self-learning (69% vs. 62%; p<0.0001) but no difference was found between students who attended or did not attend regular ECG classes (66% vs. 66%; p=0.99). On multivariable analysis (p<0.0001), being in clinical years (OR: 2.45 [1.35–4.46] and self-learning (OR: 2.44 [1.46–4.08]) determined competency in ECG interpretation. Conclusions Polish medical students in their clinical years have a good level of competency in interpreting the primary ECG parameters, but their ability to recognize ECG signs of emergencies and common heart abnormalities is low. ECG interpretation skills are determined by self-education but not by attendance at regular ECG classes. Our results indicate qualitative and quantitative deficiencies in teaching ECG interpretation at medical schools. PMID:26541993

  18. Convex Regression with Interpretable Sharp Partitions

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Simon, Noah; Witten, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable on the basis of a small number of covariates, using an interpretable yet non-additive model. We propose convex regression with interpretable sharp partitions (CRISP) for this task. CRISP partitions the covariate space into blocks in a data-adaptive way, and fits a mean model within each block. Unlike other partitioning methods, CRISP is fit using a non-greedy approach by solving a convex optimization problem, resulting in low-variance fits. We explore the properties of CRISP, and evaluate its performance in a simulation study and on a housing price data set.

  19. Two interpretive systems for natural language?

    PubMed

    Frazier, Lyn

    2015-02-01

    It is proposed that humans have available to them two systems for interpreting natural language. One system is familiar from formal semantics. It is a type based system that pairs a syntactic form with its interpretation using grammatical rules of composition. This system delivers both plausible and implausible meanings. The other proposed system is one that uses the grammar together with knowledge of how the human production system works. It is token based and only delivers plausible meanings, including meanings based on a repaired input when the input might have been produced as a speech error.

  20. Convex Regression with Interpretable Sharp Partitions

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Simon, Noah; Witten, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable on the basis of a small number of covariates, using an interpretable yet non-additive model. We propose convex regression with interpretable sharp partitions (CRISP) for this task. CRISP partitions the covariate space into blocks in a data-adaptive way, and fits a mean model within each block. Unlike other partitioning methods, CRISP is fit using a non-greedy approach by solving a convex optimization problem, resulting in low-variance fits. We explore the properties of CRISP, and evaluate its performance in a simulation study and on a housing price data set. PMID:27635120

  1. Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

  2. Motivational and Equipping Functions of Interpretation in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, S. R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Tested hypotheses that interpretations increase clients' motivation to change and that interpretations identifying causal factors clients can directly control lead to greater client change than interpretations identifying causes clients cannot directly control. Students experiencing problems with procrastination participated. Results generally…

  3. The Optimum Text in Simultaneous Interpreting: A Cognitive Approach to Interpreters' Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexieva, Bistra

    A discussion of text translatability in simultaneous interpreting (SI) looks at semantic redundancy, the repetition of semantic components essential to creating an utterance, and offers some classroom techniques for teaching interpreting skills. It is proposed that the translatability of a text in SI should be studied in terms of the experiential…

  4. Cognate Facilitation in Sentence Context--Translation Production by Interpreting Trainees and Non-Interpreting Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lijewska, Agnieszka; Chmiel, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Conference interpreters form a special case of language users because the simultaneous interpretation practice requires very specific lexical processing. Word comprehension and production in respective languages is performed under strict time constraints and requires constant activation of the involved languages. The present experiment aimed at…

  5. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo and the theologians of the Inquisition share the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation. Contends that Galileo and these theologians thought that the Bible contained truths about nature, but Galileo denied what the theologians accepted as scientifically true. Contains 93 references.…

  6. Assessing the Interpretation Competencies of Ecotour Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Betty

    1999-01-01

    The job knowledge and performance of 23 Australian ecotour guides were systematically observed and compared with client satisfaction ratings. Client satisfaction was quite high, and evaluators gave the guides high scores on content and knowledge. However, scores were lower on certain aspects of communication and interpretive skills and were poor…

  7. 10 CFR 170.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 170.4 Section 170.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions §...

  8. 10 CFR 170.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 170.4 Section 170.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions §...

  9. 10 CFR 170.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 170.4 Section 170.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions §...

  10. 10 CFR 170.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 170.4 Section 170.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions §...

  11. 10 CFR 170.4 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 170.4 Section 170.4 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions §...

  12. Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This book is the third volume of the paperback versions of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition." This portion of the handbook considers the tasks of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting empirical materials, and comprises the Handbook's Parts IV ("Methods of Collecting and Analyzing Empirical Materials") and V ("The Art and…

  13. Aspectual Effects on Interpretation in Early Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyams, Nina

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the temporal and modal meanings associated with root infinitives (RIs) and other non-finite clauses in several typologically diverse languages--English, Russian, Greek and Dutch. I discuss the role that event structure, aspect, and modality play in the interpretation of these clauses. The basic hypothesis is that in the…

  14. Infants Interpret Ambiguous Requests for Absent Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Megan M.; Ganea, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The current studies investigated 2 skills involved in 14- to 20-month-olds' ability to interpret ambiguous requests for absent objects: tracking others' experiences (Study 1) and representing links between speakers and object features across present and absent reference episodes (Study 2). In the basic task, 2 experimenters played separately with…

  15. On Measuring Quantitative Interpretations of Reasonable Doubt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhami, Mandeep K.

    2008-01-01

    Beyond reasonable doubt represents a probability value that acts as the criterion for conviction in criminal trials. I introduce the membership function (MF) method as a new tool for measuring quantitative interpretations of reasonable doubt. Experiment 1 demonstrated that three different methods (i.e., direct rating, decision theory based, and…

  16. Interpretive Challenges in the Dominican Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Clinton L.

    1984-01-01

    Addresses challenges facing many developing countries in establishing and maintaining a comprehensive natural resource management policy when environmental conservation takes a back seat to agricultural production. Examines current environmental education and interpretation efforts in the Dominican Republic and offers suggestions for developing an…

  17. Interpreting Metaphor of Modality in Advertising English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Based on a review of the historical and current studies on modality, this paper aims at interpreting metaphor of modality and its functions in advertising English according to theories of modality system and metaphor of modality in systemic-functional linguistics with a corpus we have collected. It is pointed out that metaphor of modality, a usual…

  18. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost Accounting.... The cost accounting practices used by the contractor, however, must be followed consistently and...

  19. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost Accounting...

  20. 48 CFR 9904.403-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.403-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to the requirements of 9904.403, Cost Accounting Standard, Allocation of Home Office Expenses to...

  1. 48 CFR 9904.403-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.403-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to the requirements of 9904.403, Cost Accounting Standard, Allocation of Home Office Expenses to...

  2. 48 CFR 9904.406-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.406-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to...

  3. 48 CFR 9904.406-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.406-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to... accounting periods. In essence, it clarifies whether restructuring costs are to be treated as an expense...

  4. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost Accounting... accounting practices used in accumulating and reporting costs.” (b) In estimating the cost of direct...

  5. 48 CFR 9904.406-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.406-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to... accounting periods. In essence, it clarifies whether restructuring costs are to be treated as an expense...

  6. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost Accounting... accounting practices used in accumulating and reporting costs.” (b) In estimating the cost of direct...

  7. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost Accounting...

  8. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost Accounting.... The cost accounting practices used by the contractor, however, must be followed consistently and...

  9. 48 CFR 9904.403-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 9904.403-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as to...

  10. Tracer Test Interpretation Methods for Reservior Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, George Michael

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop tools that can be used to interpret tracer tests and obtain estimates of reservoir and operational parameters. These tools (mostly in the form of spreadsheet applications) can be used to optimize geothermal resource management.

  11. Principles of Designing Interpretable Optogenetic Behavior Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Brian D.; Singer, Annabelle C.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been much excitement about the use of optogenetic tools to test whether specific cells, regions, and projection pathways are necessary or sufficient for initiating, sustaining, or altering behavior. However, the use of such tools can result in side effects that can complicate experimental design or interpretation.…

  12. Biased Facial Expression Interpretation in Shy Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokin, Jessica; Younger, Alastair; Gosselin, Pierre; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between shyness and the interpretations of the facial expressions of others was examined in a sample of 123 children aged 12 to 14?years. Participants viewed faces displaying happiness, fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, as well as a neutral expression, presented on a computer screen. The children identified each expression…

  13. Developing Symbolic Interpretation through Literary Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Teresa; Hall, Allison H.; Goldman, Susan R.; Lee, Carol D.

    2016-01-01

    Literature can be a powerful resource for adolescents' psychosocial development, as it provides opportunities to experience the world through the perspectives of others and juxtapose these with one's own experiences. However, gaining access to these perspectives requires going beyond literal words on the page to explore interpretive meanings. This…

  14. Comprehensive Interpretive Plans: A Framework of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Marianna; Koke, Judy

    2008-01-01

    As explored elsewhere in this publication, the purpose of a Comprehensive or Institution-wide Interpretive Plan (CIP) is to define or articulate the intellectual framework that connects the mission of an organization and its collections with the needs and interests of its audiences. In so doing, it should follow that this plan, shaped by the…

  15. Causal Indicators Can Help to Interpret Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    The latent factor in a causal indicator model is no more than the latent factor of the factor part of the model. However, if the causal indicator variables are well-understood and help to improve the prediction of individuals' factor scores, they can help to interpret the meaning of the latent factor. Aguirre-Urreta, Rönkkö, and Marakas (2016)…

  16. TORTIS (Toddler's Own Recursive Turtle Interpreter System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Radia

    TORTIS (Toddler's Own Recursive Turtle Interpreter System) is a device which can be used to study or nurture the cognitive development of preschool children. The device consists of a "turtle" which the child can control by use of buttons on a control panel. The "turtle" can be made to move in prescribed directions, to take a given number of paces,…

  17. 16 CFR 1.73 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Administration of the Fair Credit Reporting Act § 1.73 Interpretations. (a) Nature and purpose. (1... provisions of the Fair Credit Reporting Act on its own initiative or pursuant to the application of any... statutory provisions. They are guidelines intended as clarification of the Fair Credit Reporting Act,...

  18. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  19. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  20. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  1. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  2. Interviewing the Interpretive Researcher: An Impressionist Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frels, Rebecca K.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we describe the use of debriefing interviews for interviewing the interpretive researcher. Further, we demonstrate the value of using debriefing questions as part of a qualitative research study, specifically, one doctoral student's dissertation study. We describe the reflexivity process of the student in her study and the…

  3. 24 CFR 3280.9 - Interpretative bulletins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interpretative bulletins. 3280.9 Section 3280.9 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.9...

  4. 20 CFR 602.11 - Secretary's interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Secretary's interpretation. 602.11 Section 602.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM Federal Requirements § 602.11...

  5. On geometric interpretation of the berry phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanaev, M. O.

    2012-03-01

    A geometric interpretation of the Berry phase and its Wilczek-Zee non-Abelian generalization are given in terms of connections on principal fiber bundles. It is demonstrated that a principal fiber bundle can be trivial in all cases, while the connection and its holonomy group are nontrivial. Therefore, the main role is played by geometric rather than topological effects.

  6. Infants interpret ambiguous requests for absent objects.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Megan M; Ganea, Patricia

    2007-05-01

    The current studies investigated 2 skills involved in 14- to 20- month-olds' ability to interpret ambiguous requests for absent objects: tracking others' experiences (Study 1) and representing links between speakers and object features across present and absent reference episodes (Study 2). In the basic task, 2 experimenters played separately with a different ball. The balls were placed in opaque containers. One experimenter asked infants to retrieve her ball using an ambiguous request ("Where's the ball?"). In Study 1, infants used the experimenter's prior verbal and physical contact with the ball to interpret the request. A control condition demonstrated that infants were interpreting the request and not responding to the mere presence of the experimenter. Study 2 revealed that only infants who were given stable cues to the ball's spatial location appropriately interpreted the request: When spatial information was put in conflict with a color cue, infants did not select the correct ball. Links to infants' spatial memory skills and emerging pragmatic understanding are discussed. PMID:17484581

  7. An Interpretive Argument for Blended Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    As courses that once regularly met face-to-face are increasingly offered in blended or fully online formats, questions have been raised about the comparability of instruction, teacher and student roles, and overall quality of the learning experience. The present study offers a five-inference interpretive argument (Chapelle, Enright & Jamieson,…

  8. Codeswitching and Stance: Issues in Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the long-standing problem of ascribing meaning to individual acts of codeswitching. Drawing on ethnographic data from bilingual classrooms in Corsica, I situate the analysis of codeswitching within the more general question of the interpretation of speaker stance, which is defined as speakers' positioning with regard to both…

  9. Task Effects in the Interpretation of Pronouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoudaki, Eirini; Varlokosta, Spyridoula

    2015-01-01

    Children acquiring a range of languages have difficulties in the interpretation of personal pronouns. Ongoing debates in the relevant literature concern the extent to which different pronoun types are subject to this phenomenon, as well as the role of methodology in relevant research. In this study, we use two different experimental tasks to…

  10. Scalar gain interpretation of large order filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Paul A. C.; Mook, D. Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A technique is developed which demonstrates how to interpret a large fully-populated filter gain matrix as a set of scalar gains. The inverse problem is also solved, namely, how to develop a large-order filter gain matrix from a specified set of scalar gains. Examples are given to illustrate the method.

  11. Interpreter's Guide to Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Studies Center, Pensacola, FL.

    This booklet was prepared to help the user interpret the natural history of Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail in Escambia County, Florida, and serves as a guide to the animal and plant life. The publication is part of a series of illustrated guides designed for use by teachers and students of all levels in conjunction with field trips to the 1200-acre…

  12. 48 CFR 9904.402-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.402-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.402, Cost...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.406-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.406-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.401-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.401-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-61 Interpretation. (a) 9904.401, Cost...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.403-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-61 Section 9904.403-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-61 Interpretation. (a) Questions have arisen as...

  16. Coherent Discourse Solves the Pronoun Interpretation Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spenader, Jennifer; Smits, Erik-Jan; Hendriks, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Many comprehension studies have shown that children as late as age 6 ; 6 misinterpret object pronouns as co-referring with the referential subject about half the time. A recent review of earlier experiments testing children's interpretation of object pronouns in sentences with quantified subjects (Elbourne, 2005) also suggests that there is a…

  17. A Tutorial on Interpreting Bifactor Model Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial addresses possible sources of confusion in interpreting trait scores from the bifactor model. The bifactor model may be used when subscores are desired, either for formative feedback on an achievement test or for theoretically different constructs on a psychological test. The bifactor model is often chosen because it requires fewer…

  18. The Communication Model Perspective of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Eric E.

    Communication models suggest that oral interpretation is a communicative process, that this process may be represented by specification of implicit and explicit content and structure, and that the models themselves are useful. This paper examines these assumptions through a comparative analysis of communication models employed by oral…

  19. 15 CFR 770.2 - Item interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 770.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU... machine prior to shipment loses its identity as a bearing. In this scenario, the machine or segment of... scenario, the complete machine is the item subject to export license requirements. (b) Interpretation...

  20. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelker, Thomas M.

    Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

  1. Using Analytical Techniques to Interpret Financial Statements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    Summarizes techniques for interpreting the balance sheet and the statement of revenues, expenditures, and changes-in-fund-balance sections of the comprehensive annual financial report required of all school districts. Uses three tables to show intricacies involved and focuses on analyzing favorable and unfavorable budget variances. (MLH)

  2. 20 CFR 602.11 - Secretary's interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Secretary's interpretation. 602.11 Section 602.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM Federal Requirements § 602.11...

  3. Instructional Note: The Interpretive-Paraphrase Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houp, G. Wesley

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the interpretive paraphrase class workshop method, which emphasizes dialogue as a centerpiece of the composing process and provides students with opportunities to re-envision their compositions based on the alternative readings of their peers. A major goal of this writing workshop is to create and sustain student-talk about…

  4. Computing & Interpreting Effect Sizes in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The present article provides a primer on using effect sizes in research. A small heuristic data set is used in order to make the discussion concrete. Additionally, various admonitions for best practice in reporting and interpreting effect sizes are presented. Among these is the admonition to not use Cohen's benchmarks for "small," "medium," and…

  5. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  6. 48 CFR 9905.502-61 - Interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., as indirect costs, of costs incurred in preparing all proposals. The cost accounting practices used...-61 Section 9905.502-61 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE... ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 9905.502-61 Interpretation....

  7. Interpretation of the serum digoxin concentration.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, M

    1977-01-01

    Significant problems exist in the interpretation of serum digoxin concentration data. Failure to distinguish between results that do not require precise clinical correlation (proof of absorption, presence of drug, etc) and those which depend upon clinical correlation for their meaning ('toxicity' or 'effectiveness') can result in interpretive errors. Problems relating to the source of the serum digoxin concentration can also confound interpretation. Such difficulty may be controllable (obtaining the sample at the proper time, haemolysis, etc) or related to the laboratory technique (cross-reactivity with digoxin metabolites or other medications, technical errors, or lack of precision). Variation within the same patient over time or between patients related to disease (alterations in electrolytes, adrenergic or parasympathomimetic tone, or other medications) may prevent the direct attribution of an observed phenomenon to a particular digoxin concentration. Techniques for determining the effect of digoxin do exist and can be used to gather data for clinical correlations. Ways of improving the interpretaion of serum digoxin concentrations also exist and should be used to improve their value in patient management. The serum digoxin concentration seems to have an important future role. However, we need to know how better to interpret and exploit serum digoxin concentration data.

  8. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  9. Accessing Organizational Culture: An Interpretive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Susan R.

    Triangulation, the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon, can be used to address a number of concerns arising in organizational communication research. This approach was used in a study of organizational culture by employing qualitative interview research to help interpret or place in context the results of statistical…

  10. Audience Effects in American Sign Language Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenberg, Julia

    2009-01-01

    There is a system of English mouthing during interpretation that appears to be the result of language contact between spoken language and signed language. English mouthing is a voiceless visual representation of words on a signer's lips produced concurrently with manual signs. It is a type of borrowing prevalent among English-dominant…

  11. Research and Development Interpretation Service. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

    The Research and Development Interpretation Service (RDIS) and its activities as a regional support of the Research and Development Exchange (RDx) are described; both organizations are part of a federal effort to bring educational research and school practice closer together. Goals for RDx include interagency cooperation and dissemination of…

  12. 78 FR 67983 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... qualification. See 35 FR 84, 87 (Jan. 3, 1970); Legal Interpretation 1978-27. Rather, it covers broad PIC qualification requirements, inclusive of PIC proficiency checks. See 30 FR 6725, 6725 (May 18, 1965) (requiring... proficiency checks as the pilot in command); 34 FR 6112, 6113 (April 4, 1969) (proposing 121.432(c),...

  13. 20 CFR 602.11 - Secretary's interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Secretary's interpretation. 602.11 Section 602.11 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR QUALITY CONTROL IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM Federal Requirements § 602.11...

  14. The Use of Gestures in Consecutive Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Raffler-Engel, Walburga; And Others

    This study attempts to show the intrinsic connection between the verbal and nonverbal components of human communication. It suggests that consecutive interpreters should not transform spoken language into what amounts to an incomplete form of the corresponding written language, but that they should transfer gestures of the source language and…

  15. Achieving incremental semantic interpretation through contextual representation.

    PubMed

    Sedivy, J C; Tanenhaus, M K; Chambers, C G; Carlson, G N

    1999-06-22

    While much work has been done investigating the role of context in the incremental processing of syntactic indeterminacies, relatively little is known about online semantic interpretation. The experiments in this article made use of the eye-tracking paradigm with spoken language and visual contexts in order to examine how, and when listeners make use of contextually-defined contrast in interpreting simple prenominal adjectives. Experiment 1 focused on intersective adjectives. Experiment 1A provided further evidence that intersective adjectives are processed incrementally. Experiment 1B compared response times to follow instructions such as 'Pick up the blue comb' under conditions where there were two blue objects (e.g. a blue pen and a blue comb), but only one of these objects had a contrasting member in the display. Responses were faster to objects with a contrasting member, establishing that the listeners initially assume a contrastive interpretation for intersective adjectives. Experiments 2 and 3 focused on vague scalar adjectives examining the time course with which listeners establish contrast for scalar adjectives such as tall using information provided by the head noun (e.g. glass) and information provided by the visual context. Use of head-based information was examined by manipulating the typicality of the target object (e.g. whether it was a good or poor example of a tall glass. Use of context-dependent contrast was examined by either having only a single glass in the display (the no contrast condition) or a contrasting object (e.g. a smaller glass). The pattern of results indicated that listeners interpreted the scalar adjective incrementally taking into account context-specific contrast prior to encountering the head. Moreover, the presence of a contrasting object, sharply reduced, and in some conditions completely eliminated, typicality effects. The results suggest a language processing system in which semantic interpretation, as well as syntactic

  16. Language interpreting as social justice work: perspectives of formal and informal healthcare interpreters.

    PubMed

    Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; McDowell, Liz; Estrada, Robin Dawson

    2009-01-01

    The assurance that limited-English-proficient individuals have access to quality healthcare depends on the availability of competent healthcare interpreters. To further understand the complex work of interpreting, we conducted in-depth interviews with 27 formal and informal healthcare interpreters. Participants identified the technical conduit role as the professional standard. Yet they experienced considerable role dissonance and blurring. From their position "in the middle," they witnessed discrimination and bias. Having a social justice perspective encouraged expanding their role to include advocacy and cultural brokering. Implications for nursing include a shared commitment to language access and social justice.

  17. New genetic interpretation of old diseases.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Isabelle

    2012-11-01

    The title of this section, "New genetic interpretation of old diseases," perfectly reflects the unique history of our understanding of autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs). Indeed, the main clinical feature of most AIDs is the recurrent fever, a symptom that has been extensively documented for centuries. However, the first clear description of a patient suffering from the AID prototype, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), has only been reported in 1908, although dating studies have shown that ancestral mutations appeared in biblical times. FMF and 11 other AID genes were identified between 1997 and 2011. The patient's care has dramatically benefited from the elucidation of the molecular defect underlying similar diseases of the innate immune system. However, accumulation of present and future sequence data let us anticipate that interpretation of genetic diagnosis will be increasingly difficult.

  18. Computer-Assisted Photo Interpretation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzwiadek, Harry A.

    1981-11-01

    A computer-assisted photo interpretation research (CAPIR) system has been developed at the U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (ETL), Fort Belvoir, Virginia. The system is based around the APPS-IV analytical plotter, a photogrammetric restitution device that was designed and developed by Autometric specifically for interactive, computerized data collection activities involving high-resolution, stereo aerial photographs. The APPS-IV is ideally suited for feature analysis and feature extraction, the primary functions of a photo interpreter. The APPS-IV is interfaced with a minicomputer and a geographic information system called AUTOGIS. The AUTOGIS software provides the tools required to collect or update digital data using an APPS-IV, construct and maintain a geographic data base, and analyze or display the contents of the data base. Although the CAPIR system is fully functional at this time, considerable enhancements are planned for the future.

  19. JEAB and The Skinnerian Interpretation of Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wixted, John

    2008-01-01

    At one time, JEAB editorial policy was perceived by some to consist mainly of dogmatically enforcing a Skinnerian interpretation of all findings reported in the journal. Partly in response to that undeserved reputation, the journal explicitly defined itself as the place to publish research on the behavior of individual organisms, and not as a place that encourages any particular theoretical orientation. My own view is that this should not be the journal's identity; instead, JEAB should be the one journal that seriously considers Skinnerian (and related environment based) interpretations of empirical results, whether or not the study involved an analysis of individual subject behavior and whether or not the Skinnerian analysis is ultimately endorsed by the author. PMID:18338682

  20. Pharmacy Students’ Interpretation of Academic Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai; McKauge, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To explore pharmacy students’ recognition and interpretation of situations constituting breaches of academic integrity. Methods. A survey instrument comprising 10 hypothetical student(s) scenarios was completed by 852 students in the bachelor of pharmacy program at an Australian university. The scenarios were relevant to current modes of assessment and presented degrees of ambiguity around academic integrity. Results. Identification of the hypothetical student(s) at fault, particularly in the deliberately ambiguous scenarios, was not related to the respondents’ year of study or sex. Students with fewer years of postsecondary education were more definitive in their interpretation of contentious cases. Respondents from all 4 years of study reported witnessing many of these behaviors among their peers. Conclusion. This study provided novel insight into the ambiguity surrounding academic integrity and students’ perceptions relating to the deliberate or inadvertent involvement of other parties. PMID:25147391

  1. Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar and planetary exploration has required the development of new techniques of cartographic portrayal. Conventional photo-interpretive methods employing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer-processed satellite television images. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The portrayal of tonal densities in a relief illustration is performed using a unique airbrush technique derived from hill-shading of contour maps. The control of tone and line quality is essential because the mid-gray to dark tone densities must be finalized prior to the addition of highlights to the drawing. This is done with an electric eraser until the drawing is completed. The drawing density is controlled with a reflectance-reading densitometer to meet certain density guidelines. The versatility of planetary photo-interpretive methods for airbrushed map portrayals is demonstrated by the application of these techniques to the synthesis of nonrelief data.

  2. Environmental Contaminants in Wildlife: Interpreting Tissue Concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1996-01-01

    Covers the complex issue of how to evaluate contaminants in wildlife. This comprehensive resource deals with the question: 'How much of a chemical in the tissues of an animal is harmful?' Features: Authoritative and sound advice is provided on many environmental contaminants, including what the contaminants are and how to interpret the data on them. Each chapter includes a review of the literature on a specific chemical, followed by a clear technical summary that provides research guidance. Direction is given on how to interpret data that are sometimes conflicting or insufficient. Data are presented in easy to use tables. Primary attention is given to toxic concentrations of contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, PAHs, metals, and fluorides.

  3. Implementation and performance of parallel Prolog interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, S.; Kale, L.V.; Balkrishna, R. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the implementation of a parallel Prolog interpreter on different parallel machines. The implementation is based on the REDUCE--OR process model which exploits both AND and OR parallelism in logic programs. It is machine independent as it runs on top of the chare-kernel--a machine-independent parallel programming system. The authors also give the performance of the interpreter running a diverse set of benchmark pargrams on parallel machines including shared memory systems: an Alliant FX/8, Sequent and a MultiMax, and a non-shared memory systems: Intel iPSC/32 hypercube, in addition to its performance on a multiprocessor simulation system.

  4. Exploring the various interpretations of "test bias".

    PubMed

    Warne, Russell T; Yoon, Myeongsun; Price, Chris J

    2014-10-01

    Test bias is a hotly debated topic in society, especially as it relates to diverse groups of examinees who often score low on standardized tests. However, the phrase "test bias" has a multitude of interpretations that many people are not aware of. In this article, we explain five different meanings of "test bias" and summarize the empirical and theoretical evidence related to each interpretation. The five meanings are as follows: (a) mean group differences, (b) differential predictive validity, (c) differential item functioning, (d) differing factor structures of tests, and (e) unequal consequences of test use for various groups. We explain in this article why meanings (a) and (e) are not actual forms of test bias and that there are serious concerns about (b). In our conclusion, we discuss the benefits of standardized testing for diverse examinees and urge readers to be careful and precise in their use of the phrase "test bias."

  5. A psychodynamic approach to MMPI Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, F; Kilgore, R B

    1983-12-01

    An interpretive approach to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), based on a psychodynamic conceptual system, is presented. Scale elevations and configurations on the MMPI are viewed as reflecting the following dimensions of personality: (a) characteristic security and defense operations, (b) capacity to manage or tolerate anxiety, c) characteristic ways of dealing with aggression and hostility, d) stability of reality contact, e) quality of object relations, and f) level of psychopathology. Various MMPI profile configurations, and empirical research findings where applicable, are related to variations in personality functioning and psychopathology within each of these six dimensions. The interpretive approach described is consistent with the authors' belief that psychological assessment should go beyond the level of description and attempt to understand the individual in a more comprehensive and integrated manner.

  6. Principles of designing interpretable optogenetic behavior experiments

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Brian D.; Singer, Annabelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been much excitement about the use of optogenetic tools to test whether specific cells, regions, and projection pathways are necessary or sufficient for initiating, sustaining, or altering behavior. However, the use of such tools can result in side effects that can complicate experimental design or interpretation. The presence of optogenetic proteins in cells, the effects of heat and light, and the activity of specific ions conducted by optogenetic proteins can result in cellular side effects. At the network level, activation or silencing of defined neural populations can alter the physiology of local or distant circuits, sometimes in undesired ways. We discuss how, in order to design interpretable behavioral experiments using optogenetics, one can understand, and control for, these potential confounds. PMID:25787711

  7. Impact of interpretation on associative freedom.

    PubMed

    Spence, D P; Dahl, H; Jones, E E

    1993-06-01

    Seventy hours from the psychoanalytic case of Mrs. C, covering the full course of treatment, were scored for associative freedom, number of interventions, and a variety of clinical phenomena such as clarifications, interpretations, different forms of resistance, transference manifestations, and the like. Associative freedom significantly increased over the course of treatment and was significantly related to the number of analyst interventions per hour. The relationship was particularly strong in the latter stages of treatment. Three specific types of interventions were found to increase associative freedom in the latter stages of treatment. The effect of each type was found to influence both the session containing the interpretation and the next 3 sessions. This carryover effect was specific to the latter stages of the analysis. PMID:8326039

  8. The ECG dilemma: guidelines on improving interpretation.

    PubMed

    Mele, Paul F

    2008-01-01

    The "ECG Dilemma" was recognized by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association more than 10 years ago. Estimates put the number of patients suffering from significant ECG interpretation errors every year in the same range as deaths from diabetes. Missed MI ranks in the top tier of malpractice dollars lost. Guidelines have been put forth to reduce these losses and improve patient safety and quality of care. These guidelines, and suggestions towards implementing them, are discussed.

  9. Hepatitis C testing: interpretation, implications, and counseling.

    PubMed

    Becherer, P R; Bacon, B

    1993-01-01

    New molecular biology techniques recently identified hepatitis C virus (HCV) as the major cause of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Serologic assays for HCV specific antibodies are a significant advance, but they require cautious interpretation due to problems with the tests' sensitivity and specificity. Patients with suspected HCV infection should be thoroughly evaluated to verify the presence of infection, to exclude other forms of chronic liver disease, and to determine the extent of liver damage prior to considering treatment. PMID:8421452

  10. Moral mediation in interpreted health care consultations.

    PubMed

    Seale, Clive; Rivas, Carol; Al-Sarraj, Hela; Webb, Sarah; Kelly, Moira

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on the moral work done in routine diabetes review consultations in primary care with nurses. Consultations with fluent English speakers are compared with consultations where an interpreter was present, largely involving patients of Bangladeshi origin. The study setting was Tower Hamlets in London, where type 2 diabetes is particularly common. Existing research has shown some dissatisfaction with diabetes care amongst Bangladeshi patients, and studies of care providers in other locations suggest that they at times experience the care of this group as particularly challenging. Through analysis of video-recorded consultations recorded in 2010-2011 we shed light on possible reasons for these difficulties. The 12 non-English speakers often experienced difficulties in raising issues that concerned them, particularly if their interpreter did not translate their utterance because it was deemed to be unrelated to diabetes. These difficulties were not shared by the 24 fluent English speakers, who also found it easier to convey a positive moral reputation and to excuse behaviour that deviated from recommended self-management practices. Interpreters at times also acted as moral mediators. For example, where a participant in the consultation made statements that appeared to convey a negative moral judgement of an other participant, these would often go untranslated. Probably, neither health care providers nor patients are fully aware of the nature of their communication difficulties. Given this, interpreters possess considerable power to influence matters. Understanding the moral work of consultations is important in explaining the findings of other studies showing difficulties in the provision of diabetes care to people with limited English language skills. PMID:24331892

  11. Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilleri, Kristian

    2009-02-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. The Emergence of Quantum Mechanics: 2. Quantum mechanics and the principle of observability; 3. The problem of interpretation; Part II. The Heisenberg-Bohr Dialogue: 4. The wave-particle duality; 5. Indeterminacy and the limits of classical concepts: the turning point in Heisenberg's thought; 6. Heisenberg and Bohr: divergent viewpoints of complementarity; Part III. Heisenberg's Epistemology and Ontology of Quantum Mechanics: 7. The transformation of Kantian philosophy; 8. The linguistic turn in Heisenberg's thought; Conclusion; References; Index.

  12. Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilleri, Kristian

    2011-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. The Emergence of Quantum Mechanics: 2. Quantum mechanics and the principle of observability; 3. The problem of interpretation; Part II. The Heisenberg-Bohr Dialogue: 4. The wave-particle duality; 5. Indeterminacy and the limits of classical concepts: the turning point in Heisenberg's thought; 6. Heisenberg and Bohr: divergent viewpoints of complementarity; Part III. Heisenberg's Epistemology and Ontology of Quantum Mechanics: 7. The transformation of Kantian philosophy; 8. The linguistic turn in Heisenberg's thought; Conclusion; References; Index.

  13. Interpretations of the ATLAS diboson anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kingman; Keung, Wai-Yee; Tseng, Po-Yan; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the ATLAS Collaboration recorded an interesting anomaly in diboson production with excesses at the diboson invariant mass around 2 TeV in boosted jets of all the WZ, W+W-, and ZZ channels. We offer a theoretical interpretation of the anomaly using a phenomenological right-handed model with extra W‧ and Z‧ bosons. Constraints from narrow total decay widths, dijet cross sections, and W / Z + H production are taken into account. We also comment on a few other possibilities.

  14. [Clinical interpretation of high sensitivity troponin T].

    PubMed

    Alquézar Arbé, Aitor; Santaló Bel, Miguel; Sionis, Alessandro

    2015-09-21

    Determination of cardiac troponin (cTn) is necessary for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation. However Tnc can be released in other clinical situations. The development of high-sensitive cTn T assays (hs-cTnT) improves the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Here, we provide an overview of the diverse causes of hs-cTnT elevation and recommend strategies for the clinical interpretation of the test result.

  15. [Diabolus, disease, and Nietzsche: considerations and interpretations].

    PubMed

    Barański, J

    2001-01-01

    Disease shows its dual nature: it carries suffering and pain, but also means trespassing the sluggish limits of healthy life. This trespassing confirms the distance separating man from nature and, at the same time, confirms man's spirituality. Nietzsche's disease and work support this interpretation, so precisely expressed by Thomas Mann in his novel Doctor Faustus: disease contains the diabolus of human biology and human spirituality.

  16. Progress in Fully Automated Abdominal CT Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated analysis of abdominal CT has advanced markedly over just the last few years. Fully automated assessment of organs, lymph nodes, adipose tissue, muscle, bowel, spine, and tumors are some examples where tremendous progress has been made. Computer-aided detection of lesions has also improved dramatically. CONCLUSION This article reviews the progress and provides insights into what is in store in the near future for automated analysis for abdominal CT, ultimately leading to fully automated interpretation. PMID:27101207

  17. Moral mediation in interpreted health care consultations.

    PubMed

    Seale, Clive; Rivas, Carol; Al-Sarraj, Hela; Webb, Sarah; Kelly, Moira

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on the moral work done in routine diabetes review consultations in primary care with nurses. Consultations with fluent English speakers are compared with consultations where an interpreter was present, largely involving patients of Bangladeshi origin. The study setting was Tower Hamlets in London, where type 2 diabetes is particularly common. Existing research has shown some dissatisfaction with diabetes care amongst Bangladeshi patients, and studies of care providers in other locations suggest that they at times experience the care of this group as particularly challenging. Through analysis of video-recorded consultations recorded in 2010-2011 we shed light on possible reasons for these difficulties. The 12 non-English speakers often experienced difficulties in raising issues that concerned them, particularly if their interpreter did not translate their utterance because it was deemed to be unrelated to diabetes. These difficulties were not shared by the 24 fluent English speakers, who also found it easier to convey a positive moral reputation and to excuse behaviour that deviated from recommended self-management practices. Interpreters at times also acted as moral mediators. For example, where a participant in the consultation made statements that appeared to convey a negative moral judgement of an other participant, these would often go untranslated. Probably, neither health care providers nor patients are fully aware of the nature of their communication difficulties. Given this, interpreters possess considerable power to influence matters. Understanding the moral work of consultations is important in explaining the findings of other studies showing difficulties in the provision of diabetes care to people with limited English language skills.

  18. Regional interpretation of Kansas aeromagnetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Yarger, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The aeromagnetic mapping techniques used in a regional aeromagnetic survey of the state are documented and a qualitative regional interpretation of the magnetic basement is presented. Geothermal gradients measured and data from oil well records indicate that geothermal resources in Kansas are of a low-grade nature. However, considerable variation in the gradient is noted statewide within the upper 500 meters of the sedimentary section; this suggests the feasibility of using groundwater for space heating by means of heat pumps.

  19. Unpacking the Division Interpretation of a Fraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Rebecca C.; Lewis, Priscilla Eide

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges in learning fractions is understanding how and why a fraction can have multiple interpretations. As presented in one textbook, a fraction is "a symbol, such as 2/3, 5/1, or 8/5, used to name a part of a whole, a part of a set, a location on a number line, or a division of whole numbers" (Charles et al. 2012, p.…

  20. Three Interpretations of the Matrix Equation Ax = b

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Christine; Zandieh, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Many of the central ideas in an introductory undergraduate linear algebra course are closely tied to a set of interpretations of the matrix equation Ax = b (A is a matrix, x and b are vectors): linear combination interpretations, systems interpretations, and transformation interpretations. We consider graphic and symbolic representations for each,…

  1. The Loud, Clear, and Transporting Voice of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartabedian, Robert A.

    This essay examines the art of oral interpretation from a "vocal" perspective--that is, it focuses on the crucial nature of vocal dimensions in oral interpretation. Moreover, the essay argues for an interpreter's hierarchy of vocal needs (modeled after Abraham Maslow's 1970 theory). The interpreter's hierarchy of vocal needs involves basic…

  2. Data Interpretation in the Digital Age

    PubMed Central

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    The consultation of internet databases and the related use of computer software to retrieve, visualise and model data have become key components of many areas of scientific research. This paper focuses on the relation of these developments to understanding the biology of organisms, and examines the conditions under which the evidential value of data posted online is assessed and interpreted by the researchers who access them, in ways that underpin and guide the use of those data to foster discovery. I consider the types of knowledge required to interpret data as evidence for claims about organisms, and in particular the relevance of knowledge acquired through physical interaction with actual organisms to assessing the evidential value of data found online. I conclude that familiarity with research in vivo is crucial to assessing the quality and significance of data visualised in silico; and that studying how biological data are disseminated, visualised, assessed and interpreted in the digital age provides a strong rationale for viewing scientific understanding as a social and distributed, rather than individual and localised, achievement. PMID:25729262

  3. [Fallacies in arterial blood gas interpretation].

    PubMed

    Thurnheer, Robert

    2013-08-01

    The arterial blood gas analysis (ABGA) is a valuable diagnostic tool in daily clinical practice. It yields information about oxygenation, ventilation and acid-base status. ABGAs should always be interpreted within a clinical context. If a result is absolutely not compatible with a clinical situation, the probe should be repeated or prompt further differential diagnoses. A probe should be free of air bubbles and be rapidly proceeded in the laboratory. Body temperature and fraction of inspired oxygen are mandatory prerequisites for adequate interpretation. With CO-oximetry, not only oxygenated hemoglobin but also carboxihemoglobin and met-hemoglobin content can be measured in the case of a suspected intoxication. For the assessment of ventilation, PaCO2 must be interpreted in the context of PaO2, as already a "normal value" of PaCO2 may indicate severe ventilator failure in a patient with hypoxemia. A normal pH does not exclude acid-base disorders, PaCO2 and bicarbonate must also be taken into account. When FIO2 is changed, steady state conditions must be awaited before a next control especially in the case of ventilation-perfusion mismatch, e. g. in COPD, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism. In a hypoxic state, immediate application of oxygen is warranted, in hypercapnia, ventilation should be increased. In acid-base disorders, treatment of the underlying disease is most often conducive.

  4. Interpreting genomic data via entropic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Rajeev K.; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of high-throughput genome sequencing platforms and more recently the next-generation platforms, the genome databases are growing at an astronomical rate. Tremendous efforts have been invested in recent years in understanding intriguing complexities beneath the vast ocean of genomic data. This is apparent in the spurt of computational methods for interpreting these data in the past few years. Genomic data interpretation is notoriously difficult, partly owing to the inherent heterogeneities appearing at different scales. Methods developed to interpret these data often suffer from their inability to adequately measure the underlying heterogeneities and thus lead to confounding results. Here, we present an information entropy-based approach that unravels the distinctive patterns underlying genomic data efficiently and thus is applicable in addressing a variety of biological problems. We show the robustness and consistency of the proposed methodology in addressing three different biological problems of significance—identification of alien DNAs in bacterial genomes, detection of structural variants in cancer cell lines and alignment-free genome comparison. PMID:23036836

  5. Analysis and Interpretation of the Human Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Ashton, James J; Beattie, R Mark; Ennis, Sarah; Cleary, David W

    2016-07-01

    Microbiome research has experienced an unprecedented level of growth over the last decade. This is largely due to revolutionary developments in, and accessibility to, DNA sequencing technologies that have enabled laboratories with even modest budgets to undertake projects. Study of the human microbiome in particular has seen a surge in interest, and although a lot of time and money has been focused on health and disease, the clinical interpretation of these data and the ability of clinicians to understand these studies in the context of disease are less straightforward. Conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and cancer have seen a huge increase in research focused on the role of microbiome in disease pathogenesis, but the ability of clinicians to appraise and use these data is largely lacking. The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction for clinicians and nonclinicians wishing to learn about and engage in microbiome research. It details the background of microbiome research and discusses the process of generating 16S rRNA sequencing data, the most commonly used method for microbiome analysis. We discuss the interpretation of results in a clinical context, commonly used metrics for analysis and discuss future impact and direction for microbiome research. The meteoric rise of genomic medicine to the brink of routine clinical use should be seen as a blueprint for the microbiome; the ability for physicians to understand and interpret these data is vital to this growth and aiding clinicians (and researchers) to participate in further microbiome research.

  6. Linguistic and pragmatic constraints on utterance interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkelman, Elizabeth A.

    1990-05-01

    In order to model how people understand language, it is necessary to understand not only grammar and logic but also how people use language to affect their environment. This area of study is known as natural language pragmatics. Speech acts, for instance, are the offers, promises, announcements, etc., that people make by talking. The same expression may be different acts in different contexts, and yet not every expression performs every act. We want to understand how people are able to recognize other's intentions and implications in saying something. Previous plan-based theories of speech act interpretation do not account for the conventional aspect of speech acts. They can, however, be made sensitive to both linguistic and propositional information. This dissertation presents a method of speech act interpretation which uses patterns of linguistic features (e.g., mood, verb form, sentence adverbials, thematic roles) to identify a range of speech act interpretations for the utterance. These are then filtered and elaborated by inferences about agents' goals and plans. In many cases the plan reasoning consists of short, local inference chains (that are in fact conversational implicatures) and, extended reasoning is necessary only for the most difficult cases. The method is able to accommodate a wide range of cases, from those which seem very idiomatic to those which must be analyzed using knowledge about the world and human behavior. It explains how, Can you pass the salt, can be a request while, Are you able to pass the salt, is not.

  7. Unique interpretations of potentiodynamic polarization technique

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Durr, C.L.; Thompson, N.G.

    1998-12-31

    Development of the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique and interpretation of the resulting curves was based primarily upon the stainless steel-aqueous chloride system. This paper presents and interprets CPP curves for this and other alloy-environment systems. It was concluded from the analysis of CPP curves for these systems that both a forward and a reverse scan should be performed in order to maximize the information on localized corrosion obtainable from the test technique. The pitting potential, which is one parameter obtained from a CPP curve, is a non-conservative parameter for assessing susceptibility of a metal to pitting corrosion while the protection potential is a much more conservative parameter. While conducting CPP tests, attempts to eliminate preferred initiation sites on a metal surface will generally increase the variability in the CPP test results. For some alloy-environment systems, it may be necessary to produce consistent preferred sites for pit initiation, such as the specimen holder-specimen interface, in order to maximize reproducibility of the CPP test results. Hysteresis in CPP curves is not always associated with pitting or crevice corrosion and thus, all specimens should be examined following testing to establish the morphology of attack. Cathodic loops can complicate interpretation of CPP curves, and in some cases, they can be minimized or eliminated by removing oxidants from the test solution.

  8. Interpretation and empathy: reading Lacan with Kohut.

    PubMed

    Hamburg, P

    1991-01-01

    This paper reads Lacan's exploration of the unconscious through the prism of Kohut's emphasis upon empathy as the basis for psychoanalytic interpretation. Lacan described the disconnexion characterizing human relationships; our experience of each other and of ourselves is radically alienated by the unconscious. Lacan's unconscious is structured like a language, revealing its complexity through symbolic forms. Language and desire always belong to the Other, a dislocation underlying all transferences. In psychoanalysis, transferences provide interpretive access to the language of the unconscious. For Kohut, interpretation depends on the prior establishment of a stable, sustaining transference; human connexion is a lifelong necessity and full understanding an achievable aim. Lacan's more structural approach to the inner world provides an important counterweight to Kohut's narrow preoccupation with the two-person field, while Kohut's concept of maternal mirroring lends a humane dimension to the icy realms of Lacan's intellectual structures. Despite enormous differences, each of these contemporary rediscoverers of Freud's legacy serves to supplement the perspective of the other.

  9. AERIAL PHOTO INTERPRETATION FOR SITE CHARACTERIZATION, ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Photographic Interpretation Center (EPIC) is a field station of the Landscape Ecology Branch (LEB), Environmental Sciences Division - Las Vegas, Office of Research and Development EPIC provides remote sensing technical support to help the Agency achieve its mult...

  10. Intelligent Collection Environment for an Interpretation System

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W J

    2001-07-19

    An Intelligent Collection Environment for a data interpretation system is described. The environment accepts two inputs: A data model and a number between 0.0 and 1.0. The data model is as simple as a single word or as complex as a multi-level/multidimensional model. The number between 0.0 and 1.0 is a control knob to indicate the user's desire to allow loose matching of the data (things are ambiguous and unknown) versus strict matching of the data (things are precise and known). The environment produces a set of possible interpretations, a set of requirements to further strengthen or to differentiate a particular subset of the possible interpretation from the others, a set of inconsistencies, and a logic map that graphically shows the lines of reasoning used to derive the above output. The environment is comprised of a knowledge editor, model explorer, expertise server, and the World Wide Web. The Knowledge Editor is used by a subject matter expert to define Linguistic Types, Term Sets, detailed explanations, and dynamically created URI's, and to create rule bases using a straight forward hyper matrix representation. The Model Explorer allows rapid construction and browsing of multi-level models. A multi-level model is a model whose elements may also be models themselves. The Expertise Server is an inference engine used to interpret the data submitted. It incorporates a semantic network knowledge representation, an assumption based truth maintenance system, and a fuzzy logic calculus. It can be extended by employing any classifier (e.g. statistical/neural networks) of complex data types. The World Wide Web is an unstructured data space accessed by the URI's supplied as part of the output of the environment. By recognizing the input data model as a query, the environment serves as a deductive search engine. Applications include (but are not limited to) interpretation of geophysical phenomena, a navigation aid for very large web sites, monitoring of computer or

  11. Interpreting Y chromosome STR haplotype mixture.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jianye; Budowle, Bruce; Chakraborty, Ranajit

    2010-05-01

    Mixture interpretation is a challenging problem in forensic DNA analyses. The interpretation of Y short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype mixtures, due to a lack of recombination, differs somewhat from that of the autosomal DNA markers and is more complex. We describe approaches for calculating the probability of exclusion (PE) and likelihood ratio (LR) methods to interpret Y-STR mixture evidence with population substructure incorporated. For a mixture sample, first, all possible contributor haplotypes in a reference database are listed as a candidate list. The PE is the complement of the summation of the frequencies of haplotypes in the candidate list. The LR method compares the probabilities of the evidence given alternative hypotheses. The hypotheses are possible explanations for the mixture. Population substructure may be further incorporated in likelihood calculation. The maximum number of contributors is based on the candidate list and the computing complexity is polynomial. Additionally, mixtures were simulated by combining two or three 16 Y-STR marker haplotypes derived from the US forensic Y-STR database. The average PE was related to the size of database. With a database comprised of 500 haplotypes an average PE value of at least 0.995 can be obtained for two-person mixtures. The PE decreases with an increasing number of contributors to the mixture. Using the total sample population, the average number of candidate haplotypes of two-person mixtures is 3.73 and 95% mixtures have less than or equal to 10 candidate haplotypes. More than 98.7% of two-person mixtures can only be explained by the haplotype combinations that mixtures are composed. These values are generally higher for three-person mixtures. A small proportion of three-person mixture can also be explained by only two haplotypes.

  12. Adaptive interpretation of gas well deliverability tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, V. L.; Thac Hoai Phuong, Nguyen; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    The paper considers topical issues of improving accuracy of data obtained from gas well deliverability tests, decreasing the number of test stages and well test time, and reducing gas emissions. The aim of the research is to develop the method of adaptive interpretation of gas well deliverability tests with resulting IPR curve conducted in gas wells with steady-state filtration, which allows obtaining and taking into account additional a priori data on the formation pressure and flow coefficients, setting the number of test stages adequate for efficient well testing and reducing test time. The present research is based on the previous theoretical and practical findings in the spheres of gas well deliverability tests, systems analysis, system identification, function optimization and linear algebra. To test the method, the authors used the field data of deliverability tests run in the Urengoy gas and condensate field, Tyumen Oblast. The authors suggest the method of adaptive interpretation of gas well deliverability tests with resulting IPR curve, which is based on the law for gas filtration with variables dependent on the number of test stage and account of additional a priori data. The suggested method allows defining the estimates of the formation pressure and flow coefficients, optimal in terms of preassigned measures of quality, and setting the adequate number of test stages in the course of well testing. The case study of IPR curve data processing has indicated that adaptive interpretation provides more accurate estimates on the formation pressure and flow coefficients, as well as reduces the number of test stages.

  13. Interpretation of elasticity of liquid marbles.

    PubMed

    Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Liquid marbles are non-stick droplets covered with micro-scaled particles. Liquid marbles demonstrate quasi-elastic properties when pressed. The interpretation of the phenomenon of elasticity of liquid marbles is proposed. The model considering the growth in the marble surface in the course of deformation under the conservation of marble's volume explains semi-quantitatively the elastic properties of marbles in satisfactory agreement with the reported experimental data. The estimation of the effective Young modulus of marbles and its dependence on the marble volume are reported.

  14. Interpretation and display of research results

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Dilip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    It important to properly collect, code, clean and edit the data before interpreting and displaying the research results. Computers play a major role in different phases of research starting from conceptual, design and planning, data collection, data analysis and research publication phases. The main objective of data display is to summarize the characteristics of a data and to make the data more comprehensible and meaningful. Usually data is presented depending upon the type of data in different tables and graphs. This will enable not only to understand the data behaviour, but also useful in choosing the different statistical tests to be applied. PMID:27729693

  15. Synoptic interpretation of measurements from HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bithell, M.; Gray, L. J.; Harries, J. E.; Russell, J. M., III; Tuck, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    The degree to which the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex is isolated against horizontal (isentropic) mixing is investigated using data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO) potential vorticity (PV), and contour advection diagnostics. Measurements of methane and water vapor taken by HALOE during a disturbed period in the Southern Hemisphere springtime (21 September - 15 October 1992) are interpreted in light of the prevailing synoptic meteorology. Daily fields of winds and PV are shown to be essential in the interpretation of the data. A climatological high pressure region is responsible for a distorted vortex, and a substantial 'vortex stripping' event is present, associated with the early stages of vortex breakdown. This leads to significant temporal, zonal, and altitudinal variations in the distribution of tracers. The authors point out the difficulties this presents for the interpretation of solar occultation data, especially with regard to the use of zonal average time series. Longitude-height methane distributions from two days during the period are examined. Both days show substantial variations in abundance around a latitude circle. In particular, the authors investigate HALOE measurements at 77 deg S on 15 October 1992, which indicate an abundance of methane in the height region 600-2000 K (approximately 30-1 mb) that is more typical of midlatitude air. Similar distributions, observed in the 1991 HALOE data, have previously been interpreted as evidence for the penetration of midlatitude air into the vortex. Gradients of potential vorticity and contour advection diagnositcs are employed to examine whether the UKMO winds are consistent with this hypothesis in 1992. Although midlatitude air is able to penetrate poleward of the main jet core by advection processes alone, an essentially intact inner core of vortex air remains, which does not mix to any great extent with air from lower latitudes. The authors show that

  16. [Clinical interpretation of high sensitivity troponin T].

    PubMed

    Alquézar Arbé, Aitor; Santaló Bel, Miguel; Sionis, Alessandro

    2015-09-21

    Determination of cardiac troponin (cTn) is necessary for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation. However Tnc can be released in other clinical situations. The development of high-sensitive cTn T assays (hs-cTnT) improves the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Here, we provide an overview of the diverse causes of hs-cTnT elevation and recommend strategies for the clinical interpretation of the test result. PMID:25620025

  17. Quantitative ADF STEM: acquisition, analysis and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L.

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative annular dark-field in the scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF STEM), where image intensities are used to provide composition and thickness measurements, has enjoyed a renaissance during the last decade. Now in a post aberration-correction era many aspects of the technique are being revisited. Here the recent progress and emerging best-practice for such aberration corrected quantitative ADF STEM is discussed including issues relating to proper acquisition of experimental data and its calibration, approaches for data analysis, the utility of such data, its interpretation and limitations.

  18. [Interpretation of the tuberculin test in children].

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    Tuberculosis is a resurgent disease in Spain. One of the most important reasons is immigration from countries in which this disease is highly endemic. The pediatric population is especially susceptible to adults with tuberculosis and an infected child represents a sentry event of recent transmission in the community. The tuberculin test is an essential instrument in the evaluation of this disease and therefore a determining factor in the therapeutic approach adopted. This document aims to clarify and unify criteria related to the techniques and interpretation of the tuberculin test in children in our environment.

  19. Abductive signal interpretation for nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rorke, Paul; Morris, Steven

    1992-03-01

    An account is given of how knowledge-intensive explanatory reasoning can be used to construct an interpretation of ultrasonic signals indicating the existence of cracks and similar defects in solid materials; this AI 'abductive' reasoning is able to simultaneously inspect and classify the material sample in question. The abduction (logic-programming-based) engine used is implemented in the PROLOG code AMAL, and conducts backward chains that reduce observations to known facts via general laws. AMAL is capable of making assumptions in ways comparable to those recently explored in truth maintenance and logic programming frameworks.

  20. Interpreting functions of one-dimensional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canty, Reality S.

    The present work examined several factors related to interpreting graphical representations of motion concepts. Since the seminal work of Larkin and Simon (1987), cognitive research has investigated informational equivalence and computational efficiency by contrasting performance across different representations systems such as line versus bar graph (Ali & Peebles, 2012; Shah & Freedman, 2009; Zacks & Tversky, 1999), table versus graph (Speier, 2006; Vessey, 1991) or table versus map (Smelcer & Carmel, 1997). Physics education research has focused on difficulties related to interpreting motion concepts in graphs, accounting for them in terms of misconceptions. Kinematics, the branch of physics concerned with the motion of objects, makes an interesting study of informational equivalence and computational efficiency because its three primary representations -- position-time, velocity-time, and acceleration-time graphs -- can reflect the same information in the same representational system which provides a different type of contrast than has usually been used in this area of cognitive research. In the present work, four experiments were used to test several hypotheses concerned with whether information about the motion of objects can be directly read-off the graph or whether it needed additional processing beyond what was directly visible; Palmer (1987) referred to this as the derivational structure of representations. The main findings across the four experiments were that (a) graph type was not a reliable factor of graph interpretation difficulty, (b) derivational structure was useful for analyzing tasks but there was no evidence supporting it as a process account, (c) graph-based judgment is susceptible to visual features in the graph that trigger powerful spatial-conceptual correspondences particularly height (e.g., higher means more, lower means less), direction of slope (e.g., zero, positive, negative), and curvature (e.g., increasing rate of change, decreasing

  1. Social work with trauma survivors: collaboration with interpreters.

    PubMed

    Berthold, S Megan; Fischman, Yael

    2014-04-01

    Scant attention has been given to the emotional plight, lack of training, and stressful working conditions of interpreters serving survivors of severe human-perpetrated trauma from different parts of the world. This article addresses the critical need for effective collaboration between social workers and interpreters when the provider and survivor do not speak the same language. The careful selection of interpreters; the training, support, and promotion of self-care of interpreters; the training needs for social workers related to their work with interpreters; and the impact of secondary trauma and organizational support on the work of social workers and interpreters are explored. Proposed curriculum components for training interpreters and the importance of therapy and ongoing supervision for interpreters are highlighted. It is essential to prepare interpreters and social workers for the various challenges they will face in their collaborative efforts to serve survivors of severe human-perpetrated trauma, and organizational support is vital to the success of this work.

  2. Parallel and divergent interpreting in an elementary school classroom.

    PubMed

    Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dimling, Lisa M; Lawson, Heather R; Golos, Debbie B

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which a highly qualified interpreter remained parallel with or diverged from the original classroom discourse in her interpreting for a 3rd-grade deaf student in science, social studies, and resource room. The interpreter's signed and verbalized expressions were compared to the class participants' expressions for meaning equivalence. Parallel interpreting, occurring 33.2% of the time, closely matched the content of the speaker's message. Divergent interpreting, whereby the interpreter added or dropped elements of meaning, occurred 66.8% of the time. Qualitative analyses of classroom footage as well as interviews with the interpreter and the teachers revealed how, when, and why the interpreter diverged from the message. While the interpreter often made intentional reductions and additions to the discourse to achieve greater student understanding of language and course content, there was little awareness of these changes among individualized educational program team members.

  3. Parallel and divergent interpreting in an elementary school classroom.

    PubMed

    Wolbers, Kimberly A; Dimling, Lisa M; Lawson, Heather R; Golos, Debbie B

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which a highly qualified interpreter remained parallel with or diverged from the original classroom discourse in her interpreting for a 3rd-grade deaf student in science, social studies, and resource room. The interpreter's signed and verbalized expressions were compared to the class participants' expressions for meaning equivalence. Parallel interpreting, occurring 33.2% of the time, closely matched the content of the speaker's message. Divergent interpreting, whereby the interpreter added or dropped elements of meaning, occurred 66.8% of the time. Qualitative analyses of classroom footage as well as interviews with the interpreter and the teachers revealed how, when, and why the interpreter diverged from the message. While the interpreter often made intentional reductions and additions to the discourse to achieve greater student understanding of language and course content, there was little awareness of these changes among individualized educational program team members. PMID:22792852

  4. Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Background Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. Objective To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. Design A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or ‘chunks’ of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. Results New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data ‘chunks’. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Conclusions Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. PMID:25138532

  5. A functional programming interpreter. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robison, Arch Douglas

    1987-01-01

    Functional Programming (FP) sup BAC87 is an alternative to conventional imperative programming languages. This thesis describes an FP interpreter implementation. Superficially, FP appears to be a simple, but very inefficient language. Its simplicity, however, allows it to be interpreted quickly. Much of the inefficiency can be removed by simple interpreter techniques. This thesis describes the Illinois Functional Programming (IFP) interpreter, an interactive functional programming implementation which runs under both MS-DOS and UNIX. The IFP interpreter allows functions to be created, executed, and debugged in an environment very similar to UNIX. IFP's speed is competitive with other interpreted languages such as BASIC.

  6. Hominid footprints at Laetoli: facts and interpretations.

    PubMed

    White, T D; Suwa, G

    1987-04-01

    The history of discovery and interpretation of primate footprints at the site of Laetoli in northern Tanzania is reviewed. An analysis of the geological context of these tracks is provided. The hominid tracks in Tuff 7 at Site G in the Garusi River Valley demonstrate bipedality at a mid-Pliocene datum. Comparison of these tracks and the Hadar hominid foot fossils by Tuttle has led him to conclude that Australopithecus afarensis did not make the Tanzanian prints and that a more derived form of hominid is therefore indicated at Laetoli. An alternative interpretation has been offered by Stern and Susman who posit a conforming "transitional morphology" in both the Tanzanian prints and the Ethiopian bones. The present examines both hypotheses and shows that neither is likely to be entirely correct. To illustrate this point, a reconstruction of the foot skeleton of a female A. afarensis is undertaken, and the results are compared to the Laetoli tracks. We conclude that A. afarensis represents the best candidate for the maker of the Laetoli hominid trails.

  7. Galileo and the Interpretation of the Bible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William E.

    Galileo's understanding of the relationship between science and the Bible has frequently been celebrated as anticipating a modern distinction between the essentially religious nature of scripture and the claims of the natural sciences. Galileo's reference to the remarks of Cardinal Baronius, that the Bible teaches one how to go to heaven and not how the heavens go, has been seem as emblematic of his commitment to the distinction between the Book of Nature and the Book of Scripture. This essay argues that, contrary to the common view, Galileo shares with the theologians of the Inquisition the same fundamental principles of biblical interpretation: principles which include traditional scriptural hermeneutics enunciated by Augustine and Aquinas, as well as those characteristic of Counter-Reformation Catholicism. Although Galileo argues that one should not begin with biblical passages in order to discover truths about nature, he does think that the Bible contains scientific truths and that it is the function of wise interpreters to discover these truths. The dispute with the theologians of the Inquisition occurred because they thought that it was obviously true scientifically that the earth did not move and, on the basis of this view, they read the Bible as revealing the same thing. They reached this conclusion because, like Galileo, they thought that the Bible contained truths about nature. Of course, what these theologians accepted as scientifically true, Galileo denied.

  8. The interpretation of shoeprint comparison class correspondences.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Sheida; Morgan-Smith, Rian; Buckleton, John

    2012-12-01

    The underlying principles involved in the interpretation of shoeprint comparisons have become a topical subject due to criticisms in the 2009 National Academy of Science (NAS) report on forensic sciences [1]. Difficulties in the application and understanding of these principles were also highlighted in a recent court ruling [2-5]. We report here a survey that may inform some aspects of this interpretation and discuss the implications of findings from this survey in the light of that court ruling and more importantly the NAS report. Five hundred shoeprints taken from student volunteers in Auckland, New Zealand were compared against each other for the presence of any pattern correspondences. Comparisons were undertaken of the full outsole and of smaller portions of the more common patterns. Of the 500 shoe impressions collected 488 (97.6%) were ultimately represented only once in the survey. The greatest number of corresponding patterns was for the most common brand of shoe (Converse Chuck Taylor All Star) and occurred in 3 of 500 observations. No instances of an imitation brand matching the authentic brand were found. Smaller sections of the common patterns showed a greater number of corresponding prints. However, the greatest number of matching partial patterns was again for the most common brand of shoe (Converse Chuck Taylor All Star) and occurred in 29 of 500 observations. We conclude that pattern match alone is of considerable evidential value even when the print is partial. PMID:23068775

  9. Pattern-fluid interpretation of chemical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Christian; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E.; Mecke, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    The spontaneous formation of heterogeneous patterns is a hallmark of many nonlinear systems, from biological tissue to evolutionary population dynamics. The standard model for pattern formation in general, and for Turing patterns in chemical reaction-diffusion systems in particular, are deterministic nonlinear partial differential equations where an unstable homogeneous solution gives way to a stable heterogeneous pattern. However, these models fail to fully explain the experimental observation of turbulent patterns with spatio-temporal disorder in chemical systems. Here we introduce a pattern-fluid model as a general concept where turbulence is interpreted as a weakly interacting ensemble obtained by random superposition of stationary solutions to the underlying reaction-diffusion system. The transition from turbulent to stationary patterns is then interpreted as a condensation phenomenon, where the nonlinearity forces one single mode to dominate the ensemble. This model leads to better reproduction of the experimental concentration profiles for the "stationary phases" and reproduces the turbulent chemical patterns observed by Q. Ouyang and H. L. Swinney [Chaos 1, 411 (1991), 10.1063/1.165851].

  10. Image Interpretation Session: Sunday, November 27, 2005.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Geoffrey D; Bradley, William G; Foley, W Dennis; Herold, Christian J; Jaramillo, Diego; Seeger, Leanne L

    2005-01-01

    The Sunday afternoon Image Interpretation Session has been a high point of the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America for over 65 years. A panel of five experts has been selected, representing the very best from the fields of neurologic, abdominal, thoracic, pediatric, and musculoskeletal radiology. Each panelist will dazzle us with an insightful analysis of two difficult cases in their area of expertise. The panelists are to be lauded for their bravery in subjecting their diagnostic acumen to the scrutiny of the thousands of radiologists in the audience. The cases, representing a diverse spectrum of diseases and disease manifestations, were selected from recent clinical imaging studies performed at the Stanford University Medical Center or the Lucille Salter Packard Children's Hospital. This session celebrates the skills of diagnostic radiologists worldwide, who are called on daily to amalgamate disparate clinical information with complex imaging data into focused differential diagnoses and effective treatment planning. We hope that these cases will serve to illustrate the central role that expert image interpretation plays in the care of patients. We welcome our audience of RSNA attendees, readers of RadioGraphics, and cyberspace denizens to join with our experts in solving these medical puzzles and to enjoy the excitement of unraveling the unknown. PMID:16163794

  11. Interpreted Cooper-Harper for broader use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, David L.; Andrews, Hal; Gallagher, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    The current aircraft assessment process typically makes extensive use of operational personnel during simulations and operational evaluations, with increased emphasis on evaluating the many pilot and/or operator/aircraft control loops. The need for a crew assessment in this broader arena has produced a variety of rating scales. The Cooper-Harper Rating Scale is frequently misused and routinely overlooked in the process, for these applications often extend the scale's use beyond its originally intended application. This paper agrees with the broader application of the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale and presents a concept for the development of a 'use unique' Interpreted Cooper-Harper Scale to help achieve this objective. This interpreted scale concept was conceived during efforts to support an FAA evaluation of a night vision enhancement system. It includes descriptive extensions, which are faithful to the intent of the current Cooper-Harper Scale and should provide the kind of detail that has historically been provided by trained test pilots in their explanatory comments.

  12. Interpreting prosodic cues in discourse context

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith; Salverda, Anne Pier; Gunlogson, Christine; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Two visual-world experiments investigated whether and how quickly discourse-based expectations about the prosodic realization of spoken words modulate interpretation of acoustic-prosodic cues. Experiment 1 replicated effects of segmental lengthening on activation of onset-embedded words (e.g. pumpkin) using resynthetic manipulation of duration and fundamental frequency (F0). In Experiment 2, the same materials were preceded by instructions establishing information-structural differences between competing lexical alternatives (i.e. repeated vs. newly-assigned thematic roles) in critical instructions. Eye-movements generated upon hearing the critical target word revealed a significant interaction between information structure and target-word realization: Segmental lengthening and pitch excursion elicited more fixations to the onset-embedded competitor when the target word remained in the same thematic role, but not when its thematic role changed. These results suggest that information structure modulates the interpretation of acoustic-prosodic cues by influencing expectations about fine-grained acoustic-phonetic properties of the unfolding utterance. PMID:25599081

  13. How to use and interpret hormone ratios.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Silja; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Hormone ratios have become increasingly popular throughout the neuroendocrine literature since they offer a straightforward way to simultaneously analyze the effects of two interdependent hormones. However, the analysis of ratios is associated with statistical and interpretational concerns which have not been sufficiently considered in the context of endocrine research. The aim of this article, therefore, is to demonstrate and discuss these issues, and to suggest suitable ways to address them. In a first step, we use exemplary testosterone and cortisol data to illustrate that one major concern of ratios lies in their distribution and inherent asymmetry. As a consequence, results of parametric statistical analyses are affected by the ultimately arbitrary decision of which way around the ratio is computed (i.e., A/B or B/A). We suggest the use of non-parametric methods as well as the log-transformation of hormone ratios as appropriate methods to deal with these statistical problems. However, in a second step, we also discuss the complicated interpretation of ratios, and propose moderation analysis as an alternative and oftentimes more insightful approach to ratio analysis. In conclusion, we suggest that researchers carefully consider which statistical approach is best suited to investigate reciprocal hormone effects. With regard to the hormone ratio method, further research is needed to specify what exactly this index reflects on the biological level and in which cases it is a meaningful variable to analyze.

  14. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    PubMed

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair.

  15. The interpretation of disjunction in universal grammar.

    PubMed

    Crain, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Child and adult speakers of English have different ideas of what 'or' means in ordinary statements of the form 'A or B'. Even more far-reaching differences between children and adults are found in other languages. This tells us that young children do not learn what 'or' means by watching how adults use 'or'. An alternative is to suppose that children draw upon a priori knowledge of the meaning of 'or'. This conclusion is reinforced by the observation that all languages adopt the same meaning of 'or' in certain structures. For example, statements of the form 'not S[A or B]' have the same meanings in all languages, and disjunctive statements receive a uniform interpretation in sentences that contain certain focus expressions, such as English 'only'. These observations are relevant for the long-standing "nature versus nurture" controversy. A linguistic property that (a) emerges in child language without decisive evidence from experience, and (b) is common to all human languages, is a likely candidate for innate specification. Experience matters, of course. As child speakers grow up, they eventually learn to use 'or' in the same way as adults do. But, based on findings from child language and cross-linguistic research, it looks like certain aspects of language, including the interpretation of disjunction, are part of the human genome. PMID:18561548

  16. A Local Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    A local interpretation of quantum mechanics is presented. Its main ingredients are: first, a label attached to one of the "virtual" paths in the path integral formalism, determining the output for measurement of position or momentum; second, a mathematical model for spin states, equivalent to the path integral formalism for point particles in space time, with the corresponding label. The mathematical machinery of orthodox quantum mechanics is maintained, in particular amplitudes of probability and Born's rule; therefore, Bell's type inequalities theorems do not apply. It is shown that statistical correlations for pairs of particles with entangled spins have a description completely equivalent to the two slit experiment, that is, interference (wave like behaviour) instead of non locality gives account of the process. The interpretation is grounded in the experimental evidence of a point like character of electrons, and in the hypothetical existence of a wave like, the de Broglie, companion system. A correspondence between the extended Hilbert spaces of hidden physical states and the orthodox quantum mechanical Hilbert space shows the mathematical equivalence of both theories. Paradoxical behaviour with respect to the action reaction principle is analysed, and an experimental set up, modified two slit experiment, proposed to look for the companion system.

  17. Structural geologic interpretations from radar imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Robert G.

    1969-01-01

    Certain structural geologic features may be more readily recognized on sidelooking airborne radar (SLAR) images than on conventional aerial photographs, other remote sensor imagery, or by ground observations. SLAR systems look obliquely to one or both sides and their images resemble aerial photographs taken at low sun angle with the sun directly behind the camera. They differ from air photos in geometry, resolution, and information content. Radar operates at much lower frequencies than the human eye, camera, or infrared sensors, and thus "sees" differently. The lower frequency enables it to penetrate most clouds and some precipitation, haze, dust, and some vegetation. Radar provides its own illumination, which can be closely controlled in intensity and frequency. It is narrow band, or essentially monochromatic. Low relief and subdued features are accentuated when viewed from the proper direction. Runs over the same area in significantly different directions (more than 45° from each other), show that images taken in one direction may emphasize features that are not emphasized on those taken in the other direction; optimum direction is determined by those features which need to be emphasized for study purposes. Lineaments interpreted as faults stand out on radar imagery of central and western Nevada; folded sedimentary rocks cut by faults can be clearly seen on radar imagery of northern Alabama. In these areas, certain structural and stratigraphic features are more pronounced on radar images than on conventional photographs; thus radar imagery materially aids structural interpretation.

  18. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    PubMed

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair. PMID:8543437

  19. Interpretation of data by the clinician.

    PubMed

    Goldzieher, J W

    The cardinal challenges to every practicing physician are to interpret clinical data correctly and to place them in proper perspective. Clinical investigations frequently lack the rigidly controlled conditions and the careful experimental designs usually found in preclinical animal studies, and this deficiency is partially attributable to the inherent complexities of clinical medicine. Consequently, a great deal of controversy results from conflicting interpretations, extrapolations and overextension of limited data that are often equivocal. More careful appraisal of data and increased awareness of the well-known pitfalls found in retrospective and prospective studies, in which biostatistical design and clinical relevance are often incompatible, are emphasized, and personal biases and the flagrant sensationalism expounded by the media are condemned. The clinician is cautioned to sift through the data, consider the benefit/risk ratio for each patient and then to subordinate the role of critical scientist and assume the role of physician, exercising good judgment in light of the existing evidence and the immediate problems at hand. PMID:39823

  20. General-purpose abductive algorithm for interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Richard K.; Hartigan, Julie

    1996-11-01

    Abduction, inference to the best explanation, is an information-processing task that is useful for solving interpretation problems such as diagnosis, medical test analysis, legal reasoning, theory evaluation, and perception. The task is a generative one in which an explanation comprising of domain hypotheses is assembled and used to account for given findings. The explanation is taken to be an interpretation as to why the findings have arisen within the given situation. Research in abduction has led to the development of a general-purpose computational strategy which has been demonstrated on all of the above types of problems. This abduction strategy can be performed in layers so that different types of knowledge can come together in deriving an explanation at different levels of description. Further, the abduction strategy is tractable and offers a very useful tradeoff between confidence in the explanation and completeness of the explanation. This paper will describe this computational strategy for abduction and demonstrate its usefulness towards perceptual problems by examining problem-solving systems in speech recognition and natural language understanding.

  1. Statistical weld process monitoring with expert interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, G.E.; Barnett, R.J.; Strauss, A.M.; Thompson, F.M. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    A statistical weld process monitoring system is described. Using data of voltage, current, wire feed speed, gas flow rate, travel speed, and elapsed arc time collected while welding, the welding statistical process control (SPC) tool provides weld process quality control by implementing techniques of data trending analysis, tolerance analysis, and sequential analysis. For purposes of quality control, the control limits required for acceptance are specified in the weld procedure acceptance specifications. The control charts then provide quality assurance documentation for each weld. The statistical data trending analysis performed by the SPC program is not only valuable as a quality assurance monitoring and documentation system, it is also valuable in providing diagnostic assistance in troubleshooting equipment and material problems. Possible equipment/process problems are identified and matched with features of the SPC control charts. To aid in interpreting the voluminous statistical output generated by the SPC system, a large number of If-Then rules have been devised for providing computer-based expert advice for pinpointing problems based on out-of-limit variations of the control charts. The paper describes the SPC monitoring tool and the rule-based expert interpreter that has been developed for relating control chart trends to equipment/process problems.

  2. Blackboard architecture for medical image interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Darryl N.; Taylor, Christopher J.

    1991-06-01

    There is a growing interest in using sophisticated knowledge-based systems for biomedical image interpretation. We present a principled attempt to use artificial intelligence methodologies in interpreting lateral skull x-ray images. Such radiographs are routinely used in cephalometric analysis to provide quantitative measurements useful to clinical orthodontists. Manual and interactive methods of analysis are known to be error prone and previous attempts to automate this analysis typically fail to capture the expertise and adaptability required to cope with the variability in biological structure and image quality. An integrated model-based system has been developed which makes use of a blackboard architecture and multiple knowledge sources. A model definition interface allows quantitative models, of feature appearance and location, to be built from examples as well as more qualitative modelling constructs. Visual task definition and blackboard control modules allow task-specific knowledge sources to act on information available to the blackboard in a hypothesise and test reasoning cycle. Further knowledge-based modules include object selection, location hypothesis, intelligent segmentation, and constraint propagation systems. Alternative solutions to given tasks are permitted.

  3. Interpretation of a compositional time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosana-Delgado, R.; van den Boogaart, K. G.

    2012-04-01

    Common methods for multivariate time series analysis use linear operations, from the definition of a time-lagged covariance/correlation to the prediction of new outcomes. However, when the time series response is a composition (a vector of positive components showing the relative importance of a set of parts in a total, like percentages and proportions), then linear operations are afflicted of several problems. For instance, it has been long recognised that (auto/cross-)correlations between raw percentages are spurious, more dependent on which other components are being considered than on any natural link between the components of interest. Also, a long-term forecast of a composition in models with a linear trend will ultimately predict negative components. In general terms, compositional data should not be treated in a raw scale, but after a log-ratio transformation (Aitchison, 1986: The statistical analysis of compositional data. Chapman and Hill). This is so because the information conveyed by a compositional data is relative, as stated in their definition. The principle of working in coordinates allows to apply any sort of multivariate analysis to a log-ratio transformed composition, as long as this transformation is invertible. This principle is of full application to time series analysis. We will discuss how results (both auto/cross-correlation functions and predictions) can be back-transformed, viewed and interpreted in a meaningful way. One view is to use the exhaustive set of all possible pairwise log-ratios, which allows to express the results into D(D - 1)/2 separate, interpretable sets of one-dimensional models showing the behaviour of each possible pairwise log-ratios. Another view is the interpretation of estimated coefficients or correlations back-transformed in terms of compositions. These two views are compatible and complementary. These issues are illustrated with time series of seasonal precipitation patterns at different rain gauges of the USA

  4. Quality--a radiology imperative: interpretation accuracy and pertinence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph K T

    2007-03-01

    Physicians as a group have neither consistently defined nor systematically measured the quality of medical practice. To referring clinicians and patients, a good radiologist is one who is accessible, recommends appropriate imaging studies, and provides timely consultation and reports with high interpretation accuracy. For determining the interpretation accuracy of cases with pathologic or surgical proof, the author proposes tracking data on positive predictive value, disease detection rates, and abnormal interpretation rates for individual radiologists. For imaging studies with no pathologic proof or adequate clinical follow-up, the author proposes measuring the concordance and discordance of the interpretations within a peer group. The monitoring of interpretation accuracy can be achieved through periodic imaging, pathologic correlation, regular peer review of randomly selected cases, or subscription to the ACR's RADPEER system. Challenges facing the implementation of an effective peer-review system include physician time, subjectivity in assessing discordant interpretations, lengthy and equivocal interpretations, and the potential misassignment of false-positive interpretations.

  5. Teaching the Revisionist Interpretation of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Kevin

    1986-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan, complete with readings and teaching procedures, for teaching students about the revisionist interpretations of Cold War history. Students are challenged to think critically about the differences in the traditional and revisionist interpretations. (JDH)

  6. On "Interpreting" Public Discourse in Post-Modernity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, J. Robert

    1990-01-01

    Argues that interpretation is not only an essential mode for understanding the construction of rhetorical texts, but that interpretation is itself an important source of invention and, therefore, of social critique in postmodern culture. (KEH)

  7. For Cultural Interpretation: A Study of the Culture of Homelessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiske, John

    1991-01-01

    Attempts to demonstrate the value of conjunctural interpretive analysis (which is multilevel, multimodal, and explicitly theoretical and political) through an interpretation of the culture of homelessness in the United States. Addresses differences between positivist epistemologies. (SR)

  8. Interpreting Weather for 3 to 8 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren-Scaffidi, Lynette

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the interpretation of weather for children and shares program ideas to interpret the water cycle, thunderstorms (including fear of thunderstorms), and rainbows (including the colors of the rainbow). (MKR)

  9. Facade Interpretation Using a Marked Point Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Susanne; Förstner, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Our objective is the interpretation of facade images in a top-down manner, using a Markov marked point process formulated as a Gibbs process. Given single rectified facade images, we aim at the accurate detection of relevant facade objects as windows and entrances, using prior knowledge about their possible configurations within facade images. We represent facade objects by a simplified rectangular object model and present an energy model, which evaluates the agreement of a proposed configuration with the given image and the statistics about typical configurations, which we learned from training data. We show promising results on different datasets and provide a qualitative evaluation, which demonstrates the capability of complete and accurate detection of facade objects.

  10. Description and interpretation of DVCS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumerički, Krešimir; Müller, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Having in mind the well-known limitations of certain models of generalized parton distributions (GPDs), we show that the allegedly universal GPDs, describing both deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) and deeply virtual meson production (DVMP) data, fail to describe measurements of deep inelastic scattering. We present a new global DVCS fit that describes reasonably the world data set, which includes now also new measurements from Hall A and CLAS collaborations. We also explicitly illustrate that Compton form factors (CFFs) cannot be unambiguously extracted from photon electroproduction measurements off unpolarized proton alone and we argue that it is more reliable to interpret such measurements in terms of certain CFF combinations, where still some care is needed in order to estimate the propagated error. Joint proceedings contribution, based on two talks given by the authors at the 6th International conference on Physics Opportunities at Electron-Ion colliders (POETIC6)

  11. A Behavior Analytic Interpretation of Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Sabrina M.; Follette, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Alexithymia is a term used to describe individuals who seem unable to experience or at least describe emotions. This paper offers a theoretical interpretation of alexithymia from a radical behaviorist perspective. While there have been attempts to explain the etiology of alexithymia, the current analysis is unique in that it provides direct treatment implications. The pragmatic analysis described focuses on the verbal behavior of individuals rather than looking “inside” for explanations. This is supported by a review of experimental research that has failed to find consistencies among alexithymic individuals’ physiological responding. Descriptions of the various discriminative and consequential stimulus conditions involved in the complex learning histories of individuals that could result in an alexithymic presentation are provided. This analysis helps situate the alexithymia construct in a broader behavior analytic understanding of emotions. Finally this paper outlines implications for assessment and treatment, which involve influencing discriminative and consequential interpersonal stimulus conditions to shape verbal behavior about emotions. PMID:25473602

  12. Information Leakage Analysis by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanioli, Matteo; Cortesi, Agostino

    Protecting the confidentiality of information stored in a computer system or transmitted over a public network is a relevant problem in computer security. The approach of information flow analysis involves performing a static analysis of the program with the aim of proving that there will not be leaks of sensitive information. In this paper we propose a new domain that combines variable dependency analysis, based on propositional formulas, and variables' value analysis, based on polyhedra. The resulting analysis is strictly more accurate than the state of the art abstract interpretation based analyses for information leakage detection. Its modular construction allows to deal with the tradeoff between efficiency and accuracy by tuning the granularity of the abstraction and the complexity of the abstract operators.

  13. Interpreting and evaluating meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, J A; Rosenthal, R

    1995-12-01

    This article offers some guidelines for interpreting and evaluating meta-analytic reviews of research. The fundamental goals of meta-analysis are to combine results across studies to yield an overall estimate of effect and to compare effects between studies in order to understand moderating factors. Suggestions are made for what readers should look for in a meta-analysis, and a discussion is provided of several issues that are not often explicitly addressed: choice of unit of analysis, fixed versus random effects, the meaning of heterogeneity, determination of when contrasts are appropriate, and the choice of measure of central tendency. We recommend that readers adopt a skeptical attitude about the results of meta-analysis, particularly when only complex analyses are reported. PMID:10153164

  14. Water isotope systematics: Improving our palaeoclimate interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. D.; Dee, S.; Anderson, L.; Baker, A.; Bowen, G.; Noone, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, measured in a variety of archives, are widely used proxies in Quaternary Science. Understanding the processes that control δ18O change have long been a focus of research (e.g. Shackleton and Opdyke, 1973; Talbot, 1990; Leng, 2006). Both the dynamics of water isotope cycling and the appropriate interpretation of geological water-isotope proxy time series remain subjects of active research and debate. It is clear that achieving a complete understanding of the isotope systematics for any given archive type, and ideally each individual archive, is vital if these palaeo-data are to be used to their full potential, including comparison with climate model experiments of the past. Combining information from modern monitoring and process studies, climate models, and proxy data is crucial for improving our statistical constraints on reconstructions of past climate variability.

  15. Aerosol backscatter lidar calibration and data interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, M. J.; Menzies, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    A treatment of the various factors involved in lidar data acquisition and analysis is presented. This treatment highlights sources of fundamental, systematic, modeling, and calibration errors that may affect the accurate interpretation and calibration of lidar aerosol backscatter data. The discussion primarily pertains to ground based, pulsed CO2 lidars that probe the troposphere and are calibrated using large, hard calibration targets. However, a large part of the analysis is relevant to other types of lidar systems such as lidars operating at other wavelengths; continuous wave (CW) lidars; lidars operating in other regions of the atmosphere; lidars measuring nonaerosol elastic or inelastic backscatter; airborne or Earth-orbiting lidar platforms; and lidars employing combinations of the above characteristics.

  16. Interpreting Observations of GRBs with Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloy, M. A.; Cuesta-Martínez, C.; Mimica, P.; Obergaulinger, M.; Thöne, C. C.; Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fryer, C.; Page, K. L.; Gorosabel, J.; Perley, D. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Janka, H. T.; Racusin, J. L.; Christmas Burts Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    We show how numerical simulations have triggered the interpretation of GRB 101225A, so-called, the “Christmas burst.” This event is unusual because of its extremely long γ-ray emission and optical counterpart. The X-ray spectrum shows a black-body component which is present on a handful of nearby gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Numerical models have shown that the atypical properties of this GRB can be explained by the interaction between an ultrarelativistic jet and high-density ejecta, which naturally results after the dynamical common-envelope phase of the merger between a neutron star and the He core of a red giant binary system.

  17. On the interpretation of Stratonovich calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, W.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2014-05-01

    The Itô-Stratonovich dilemma is revisited from the perspective of the interpretation of Stratonovich calculus using shot noise. Over the long time scales of the displacement of an observable, the principal issue is how to deal with finite/zero autocorrelation of the stochastic noise. The former (non-zero) noise autocorrelation structure preserves the normal chain rule using a mid-point selection scheme, which is the basis Stratonovich calculus, whereas the instantaneous autocorrelation structure of Itô's approach does not. By considering the finite decay of the noise correlations on time scales very short relative to the overall displacement times of the observable, we suggest a generalization of the integral Taylor expansion criterion of Wong and Zakai (1965 Ann. Math. Stat. 36 1560-4) for the validity of the Stratonovich approach.

  18. The Public's Changing Interpretation of the Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Wilfried

    2005-11-01

    At the end of medieval times and the beginning of modern times, people in northern Germany and the rest of europe were frequently terrified by mysterious optical phenomena in the sky [cf. Brekke, 1995; Schröder, 1984]. These included meteorites, unusual rings around the Sun and Moon, and colorful phenomena, all of which astonished them and often caused anxiety. These phenomena and their common interpretation took place against the political chaos of the Reformation, which added to the fears of the average person. As the sky was previously considered everlasting and unchangeable, these phenomena- when ``frightening faces'' and ``awful signs of miracles'' appeared that were as diverse as they were unexplainable-seemed to forecast something terrible. Any deviation from the pre-determined, divine, cosmic order deeply shocked people during that time.

  19. Interpreting magnetic data by integral moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tontini, F. Caratori; Pedersen, L. B.

    2008-09-01

    The use of the integral moments for interpreting magnetic data is based on a very elegant property of potential fields, but in the past it has not been completely exploited due to problems concerning real data. We describe a new 3-D development of previous 2-D results aimed at determining the magnetization direction, extending the calculation to second-order moments to recover the centre of mass of the magnetization distribution. The method is enhanced to reduce the effects of the regional field that often alters the first-order solutions. Moreover, we introduce an iterative correction to properly assess the errors coming from finite-size surveys or interaction with neighbouring anomalies, which are the most important causes of the failing of the method for real data. We test the method on some synthetic examples, and finally, we show the results obtained by analysing the aeromagnetic anomaly of the Monte Vulture volcano in Southern Italy.

  20. Dynamic functional connectivity: Promise, issues, and interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, R. Matthew; Womelsdorf, Thilo; Allen, Elena A.; Bandettini, Peter A.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Corbetta, Maurizio; Penna, Stefania Della; Duyn, Jeff H.; Glover, Gary H.; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier; Handwerker, Daniel A.; Keilholz, Shella; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Leopold, David A.; de Pasquale, Francesco; Sporns, Olaf; Walter, Martin; Chang, Catie

    2013-01-01

    The brain must dynamically integrate, coordinate, and respond to internal and external stimuli across multiple time scales. Non-invasive measurements of brain activity with fMRI have greatly advanced our understanding of the large-scale functional organization supporting these fundamental features of brain function. Conclusions from previous resting-state fMRI investigations were based upon static descriptions of functional connectivity (FC), and only recently studies have begun to capitalize on the wealth of information contained within the temporal features of spontaneous BOLD FC. Emerging evidence suggests that dynamic FC metrics may index changes in macroscopic neural activity patterns underlying critical aspects of cognition and behavior, though limitations with regard to analysis and interpretation remain. Here, we review recent findings, methodological considerations, neural and behavioral correlates, and future directions in the emerging field of dynamic FC investigations. PMID:23707587

  1. Direct toxicity assessment - Methods, evaluation, interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gruiz, Katalin; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Kunglné-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Hajdu, Csilla; Feigl, Viktória; Vaszita, Emese; Molnár, Mónika

    2016-09-01

    Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) results provide the scale of the actual adverse effect of contaminated environmental samples. DTA results are used in environmental risk management of contaminated water, soil and waste, without explicitly translating the results into chemical concentration. The end points are the same as in environmental toxicology in general, i.e. inhibition rate, decrease in the growth rate or in yield and the 'no effect' or the 'lowest effect' measurement points of the sample dilution-response curve. The measurement unit cannot be a concentration, since the contaminants and their content in the sample is unknown. Thus toxicity is expressed as the sample proportion causing a certain scale of inhibition or no inhibition. Another option for characterizing the scale of toxicity of an environmental sample is equivalencing. Toxicity equivalencing represents an interpretation tool which enables toxicity of unknown mixtures of chemicals be converted into the concentration of an equivalently toxic reference substance. Toxicity equivalencing, (i.e. expressing the toxicity of unknown contaminants as the concentration of the reference) makes DTA results better understandable for non-ecotoxicologists and other professionals educated and thinking based on the chemical model. This paper describes and discusses the role, the principles, the methodology and the interpretation of direct toxicity assessment (DTA) with the aim to contribute to the understanding of the necessity to integrate DTA results into environmental management of contaminated soil and water. The paper also introduces the benefits of the toxicity equivalency method. The use of DTA is illustrated through two case studies. The first case study focuses on DTA of treated wastewater with the aim to characterize the treatment efficacy of a biological wastewater treatment plant by frequent bioassaying. The second case study applied DTA to investigate the cover layers of two bauxite residue (red mud

  2. Direct toxicity assessment - Methods, evaluation, interpretation.

    PubMed

    Gruiz, Katalin; Fekete-Kertész, Ildikó; Kunglné-Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Hajdu, Csilla; Feigl, Viktória; Vaszita, Emese; Molnár, Mónika

    2016-09-01

    Direct toxicity assessment (DTA) results provide the scale of the actual adverse effect of contaminated environmental samples. DTA results are used in environmental risk management of contaminated water, soil and waste, without explicitly translating the results into chemical concentration. The end points are the same as in environmental toxicology in general, i.e. inhibition rate, decrease in the growth rate or in yield and the 'no effect' or the 'lowest effect' measurement points of the sample dilution-response curve. The measurement unit cannot be a concentration, since the contaminants and their content in the sample is unknown. Thus toxicity is expressed as the sample proportion causing a certain scale of inhibition or no inhibition. Another option for characterizing the scale of toxicity of an environmental sample is equivalencing. Toxicity equivalencing represents an interpretation tool which enables toxicity of unknown mixtures of chemicals be converted into the concentration of an equivalently toxic reference substance. Toxicity equivalencing, (i.e. expressing the toxicity of unknown contaminants as the concentration of the reference) makes DTA results better understandable for non-ecotoxicologists and other professionals educated and thinking based on the chemical model. This paper describes and discusses the role, the principles, the methodology and the interpretation of direct toxicity assessment (DTA) with the aim to contribute to the understanding of the necessity to integrate DTA results into environmental management of contaminated soil and water. The paper also introduces the benefits of the toxicity equivalency method. The use of DTA is illustrated through two case studies. The first case study focuses on DTA of treated wastewater with the aim to characterize the treatment efficacy of a biological wastewater treatment plant by frequent bioassaying. The second case study applied DTA to investigate the cover layers of two bauxite residue (red mud

  3. A Comparison of Paradoxical and Nonparadoxical Interpretations and Directives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Daniel A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explored the effects of consistent and inconsistent combinations of paradoxical and nonparadoxical interpretations and directives in brief counseling with moderately depressed college students. Paradoxical interpretations were associated with more symptom remission than were nonparadoxical interpretations. The nature of the directives students…

  4. 7 CFR 868.204 - Interpretive line samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretive line samples. 868.204 Section 868.204... Application of Standards § 868.204 Interpretive line samples. Interpretive line samples showing the official scoring line for factors that are determined by visual examinations shall be maintained by the...

  5. 7 CFR 868.255 - Interpretive line samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretive line samples. 868.255 Section 868.255... Governing Application of Standards § 868.255 Interpretive line samples. Interpretive line samples showing the official scoring line for factors that are determined by visual observation shall be maintained...

  6. 7 CFR 868.204 - Interpretive line samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretive line samples. 868.204 Section 868.204... Application of Standards § 868.204 Interpretive line samples. Interpretive line samples showing the official scoring line for factors that are determined by visual examinations shall be maintained by the...

  7. 7 CFR 868.305 - Interpretive line samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretive line samples. 868.305 Section 868.305... Application of Standards § 868.305 Interpretive line samples. Interpretive line samples showing the official scoring line for factors that are determined by visual observation shall be maintained by the...

  8. 7 CFR 868.255 - Interpretive line samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretive line samples. 868.255 Section 868.255... Governing Application of Standards § 868.255 Interpretive line samples. Interpretive line samples showing the official scoring line for factors that are determined by visual observation shall be maintained...

  9. 7 CFR 868.305 - Interpretive line samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretive line samples. 868.305 Section 868.305... Application of Standards § 868.305 Interpretive line samples. Interpretive line samples showing the official scoring line for factors that are determined by visual observation shall be maintained by the...

  10. 29 CFR 780.6 - Basic support for interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Basic support for interpretations. 780.6 Section 780.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... Introductory § 780.6 Basic support for interpretations. The ultimate decisions on interpretations of the...

  11. 29 CFR 780.6 - Basic support for interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Basic support for interpretations. 780.6 Section 780.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... Introductory § 780.6 Basic support for interpretations. The ultimate decisions on interpretations of the...

  12. Language Interpretation, Parent Participation, and Young Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    Spoken parent-educator interactions through language interpreters for parents who do not speak English can challenge early intervention/early childhood special education professionals. Research suggests that language interpretation is often inadequate to ensure that the parental participation, informed parental consent, and interpretation mandates…

  13. On the Desirability of an Interpretive Science of Organizational Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Phillip K.

    Concerned with imprecision in researchers' use of the word, "interpretive," this report draws from the work of Max Weber to describe the characteristics of an interpretive science of organizational communication and then briefly lists some advantages of following the interpretive approach. First examining the role of subjective meaning in…

  14. 75 FR 63067 - Interpretation of “Children's Product”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Interpretative Rule and Changes to the Final Interpretative Rule In the Federal Register of April 20, 2010 (75 FR... language in the preamble of this rule and the preamble of the proposed rule (75 FR at 20533) (to the extent... FR at 20535). (Comment 3)--A few commenters state that the proposed interpretative rule affects...

  15. Psychology as an Interpretive Activity. Informal Series/18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Edmund V.

    Too often in American psychology, researchers have sought mastery (explanation) of phenomena through prediction and control, thereby eliminating the problems of interpretation by simply eliminating interpretation. This tactic is in contrast to the interpretive works of psychologists, such as Freud, who expect symbols to have double meanings…

  16. Toward Extending the Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment to Cued Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Jean C.; Kegl, Judy A.; Schick, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    The Educational Interpreter Performance Assessment (EIPA) is as an important research tool for examining the quality of interpreters who use American Sign Language or a sign system in classroom settings, but it is not currently applicable to educational interpreters who use Cued Speech (CS). In order to determine the feasibility of extending the…

  17. How to limit clinical errors in interpretation of data.

    PubMed

    Wright, P; Jansen, C; Wyatt, J C

    1998-11-01

    We all assume that we can understand and correctly interpret what we read. However, interpretation is a collection of subtle processes that are easily influenced by poor presentation or wording of information. This article examines how evidence-based principles of information design can be applied to medical records to enhance clinical understanding and accuracy in interpretation of the detailed data that they contain.

  18. 8 CFR 312.4 - Selection of interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of interpreter. 312.4 Section 312.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.4 Selection of interpreter. An interpreter to be used under § 312.2...

  19. 8 CFR 312.4 - Selection of interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of interpreter. 312.4 Section 312.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.4 Selection of interpreter. An interpreter to be used under § 312.2...

  20. 8 CFR 312.4 - Selection of interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of interpreter. 312.4 Section 312.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.4 Selection of interpreter. An interpreter to be used under § 312.2...

  1. 8 CFR 312.4 - Selection of interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of interpreter. 312.4 Section 312.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.4 Selection of interpreter. An interpreter to be used under § 312.2...

  2. 8 CFR 312.4 - Selection of interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of interpreter. 312.4 Section 312.4 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.4 Selection of interpreter. An interpreter to be used under § 312.2...

  3. Challenges with Graph Interpretation: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nirit

    2011-01-01

    With the growing emphasis on the development of scientific inquiry skills, the display and interpretation of data are becoming increasingly important. Graph interpretation competence is, in fact, essential to understanding today's world and to be scientifically literate. However, graph interpretation is a complex and challenging activity. Graph…

  4. Interpreting Visual Preferences in the Visual Paired-Comparison Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Jenny; Colombo, Michael; Hayne, Harlene

    2007-01-01

    Performance on the visual paired-comparison (VPC) task has typically been interpreted with E. Sokolov's (1963) comparator model of the orienting response; novelty preferences are interpreted as evidence of retention, whereas null preferences are interpreted as evidence of forgetting. Here the authors capitalized on the verbal nature of human…

  5. Interpretive Accuracy of Two MMPI Short Forms with Geriatric Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newmark, Charles S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Assessed and compared the interpretive accuracy of the standard Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and two MMPI short forms with a sample of geriatric psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric teams evaluated the accuracy of the interpretation. Standard form interpretations were rated significantly greater than the interpretations…

  6. Creative Interpretations of Novel Conceptual Combinations in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mashal, Nira; Coblentz, Shoshana

    2014-01-01

    Conceptual combinations may be interpreted by 3 main strategies: by attributing a feature of the modifying (head) noun into the modified noun (property interpretation); by establishing a relation between the 2 concepts (relational interpretation); or by combining properties of both nouns into a concept with new identity (hybridization). There…

  7. Teaching and Understanding of Quantum Interpretations in Modern Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baily, Charles; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2010-01-01

    Just as expert physicists vary in their personal stances on interpretation in quantum mechanics, instructors vary on whether and how to teach interpretations of quantum phenomena in introductory modern physics courses. In this paper, we document variations in instructional approaches with respect to interpretation in two similar modern physics…

  8. The role of interpreters in high performance computing

    SciTech Connect

    Naumann, Axel; Canal, Philippe; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    Compiled code is fast, interpreted code is slow. There is not much we can do about it, and it's the reason why interpreters use in high performance computing is usually restricted to job submission. We show where interpreters make sense even in the context of analysis code, and what aspects have to be taken into account to make this combination a success.

  9. Review on China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Min; Wu, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Since its first pilot study was launched in 2003, China Accreditation Test for Translators and Interpreters (CATTI) has developed into the most authoritative translation and interpretation proficiency qualification accreditation test in China and played an important role in assessing and cultivating translators and interpreters. Based on the…

  10. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  11. 25 CFR 23.82 - Assistance in identifying language interpreters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance in identifying language interpreters. 23.82... WELFARE ACT Assistance to State Courts § 23.82 Assistance in identifying language interpreters. Upon the... shall assist in identifying language interpreters. Such requests for assistance should be sent to...

  12. The Importance of Structure Coefficients in Interpreting Regression Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidgerken, Amanda D.

    The paper stresses the importance of consulting beta weights and structure coefficients in the interpretation of regression results. The effects of multilinearity and suppressors and their effects on interpretation of beta weights are discussed. It is concluded that interpretations based on beta weights only can lead the unwary researcher to…

  13. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  14. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  15. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  16. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  17. 29 CFR 452.3 - Interpretations of constitution and bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. 452.3 Section... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 General Considerations § 452.3 Interpretations of constitution and bylaws. The interpretation consistently placed on a union's constitution by the responsible...

  18. Interpretation reduces ecological impacts of visitors to world heritage site.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, Carolyn; Buckley, Ralf

    2008-07-01

    Minimal-impact interpretation is widely used to reduce the ecological impacts of visitors to protected areas. We tested whether verbal appeals and/or role-model demonstrations of minimal-impact behavior by a trained guide reduced noise, litter, and trampling impacts on hiking trails in a subtropical rainforest. Interpretation did reduce impacts significantly. Different interpretive techniques were more effective for different impacts. The experimental groups were mature, well-educated professionals; interpretation may differ in effectiveness for different visitors. Interpretation by skilled guides can indeed reduce visitor impacts in protected areas, especially if role modeling is combined with verbal appeals.

  19. Ethics and interpreting in psychotherapy with refugee children and families.

    PubMed

    Björn, Gunilla Jarkman

    2005-01-01

    Basic ethical principles like autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice should be taken into consideration step by step when treating refugee children and their families. These principles may be considered from the point of view of each of the actors involved--patient, therapist and interpreter. This paper is focused on the role of the interpreter and on different aspects to be considered by the therapist when working with interpreters in psychotherapeutic treatment of refugee children and families. Elements of case histories are used to illustrate situations faced in working with an interpreter. An ethical analysis of a case where a teenage refugee received therapeutic treatment using an interpreter is made.

  20. The Relation between the Working Memory Skills of Sign Language Interpreters and the Quality of Their Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dijk, Rick; Christoffels, Ingrid; Postma, Albert; Hermans, Daan

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In Experiment 2, we found that memory span scores for…

  1. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation

  2. Robust surface roughness indices and morphological interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisani, Sebastiano; Rocca, Michele

    2016-04-01

    Geostatistical-based image/surface texture indices based on variogram (Atkison and Lewis, 2000; Herzfeld and Higginson, 1996; Trevisani et al., 2012) and on its robust variant MAD (median absolute differences, Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) offer powerful tools for the analysis and interpretation of surface morphology (potentially not limited to solid earth). In particular, the proposed robust index (Trevisani and Rocca, 2015) with its implementation based on local kernels permits the derivation of a wide set of robust and customizable geomorphometric indices capable to outline specific aspects of surface texture. The stability of MAD in presence of signal noise and abrupt changes in spatial variability is well suited for the analysis of high-resolution digital terrain models. Moreover, the implementation of MAD by means of a pixel-centered perspective based on local kernels, with some analogies to the local binary pattern approach (Lucieer and Stein, 2005; Ojala et al., 2002), permits to create custom roughness indices capable to outline different aspects of surface roughness (Grohmann et al., 2011; Smith, 2015). In the proposed poster, some potentialities of the new indices in the context of geomorphometry and landscape analysis will be presented. At same time, challenges and future developments related to the proposed indices will be outlined. Atkinson, P.M., Lewis, P., 2000. Geostatistical classification for remote sensing: an introduction. Computers & Geosciences 26, 361-371. Grohmann, C.H., Smith, M.J., Riccomini, C., 2011. Multiscale Analysis of Topographic Surface Roughness in the Midland Valley, Scotland. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 49, 1220-1213. Herzfeld, U.C., Higginson, C.A., 1996. Automated geostatistical seafloor classification - Principles, parameters, feature vectors, and discrimination criteria. Computers and Geosciences, 22 (1), pp. 35-52. Lucieer, A., Stein, A., 2005. Texture-based landform segmentation of LiDAR imagery

  3. ICYESS 2013: Understanding and Interpreting Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauser, F.; Niederdrenk, L.; Schemann, V.; Schmidt, A.; Suesser, D.; Sonntag, S.

    2013-12-01

    We will report the outcomes and highlights of the Interdisciplinary Conference of Young Earth System Scientists (ICYESS) on Understanding and Interpreting Uncertainty in September 2013, Hamburg, Germany. This conference is aimed at early career scientists (Masters to Postdocs) from a large variety of scientific disciplines and backgrounds (natural, social and political sciences) and will enable 3 days of discussions on a variety of uncertainty-related aspects: 1) How do we deal with implicit and explicit uncertainty in our daily scientific work? What is uncertain for us, and for which reasons? 2) How can we communicate these uncertainties to other disciplines? E.g., is uncertainty in cloud parameterization and respectively equilibrium climate sensitivity a concept that is understood equally well in natural and social sciences that deal with Earth System questions? Or vice versa, is, e.g., normative uncertainty as in choosing a discount rate relevant for natural scientists? How can those uncertainties be reconciled? 3) How can science communicate this uncertainty to the public? Is it useful at all? How are the different possible measures of uncertainty understood in different realms of public discourse? Basically, we want to learn from all disciplines that work together in the broad Earth System Science community how to understand and interpret uncertainty - and then transfer this understanding to the problem of how to communicate with the public, or its different layers / agents. ICYESS is structured in a way that participation is only possible via presentation, so every participant will give their own professional input into how the respective disciplines deal with uncertainty. Additionally, a large focus is put onto communication techniques; there are no 'standard presentations' in ICYESS. Keynote lectures by renowned scientists and discussions will lead to a deeper interdisciplinary understanding of what we do not really know, and how to deal with it. Many

  4. The role and importance of interpretation in the talking cure.

    PubMed

    Sirois, François

    2012-12-01

    Starting with an exploration of how the concept of interpretation in analytical treatment has evolved, the author goes on to discuss the role and importance of interpretation in the changes that psychoanalysis brings about. Although interpretation is looked upon as the key element in psychoanalytic activity, the fact that it is subsumed within the transference raises questions as to its influence in the analytical domain. After discussing the foundations of interpretation with respect to the theory of psychoanalytic treatment and examining Strachey's views on this, the author defines the conditions and constraints surrounding interpretation and preparatory interventions in order to outline the essential nature of the interpretative process as seen against the wider background of the analyst's activity as manifested through speech. This leads to a discussion of the relative influence of insight and suggestion in bringing about therapeutic change. The author draws the conclusion that interpretation works as a metaphor in lifting repression.

  5. Interpreting thelanguage of histone and DNA modifications

    PubMed Central

    Rothbart, Scott B.; Strahl, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    A major mechanism regulating the accessibility and function of eukaryotic genomes are the covalent modifications to DNA and histone proteins that dependably package our genetic information inside the nucleus of every cell. Formally postulated over a decade ago, it is becoming increasingly clear that post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones act singly and in combination to form a language or ‘code’ that is read by specialized proteins to facilitate downstream functions in chromatin. Underappreciated at the time was the level of complexity harbored both within histone PTMs and their combinations, as well as within the proteins that read and interpret the language. In addition to histone PTMs, newly-identified DNA modifications that can recruit specific effector proteins has raised further awareness that histone PTMs operate within a broader language of epigenetic modifications to orchestrate the dynamic functions associated with chromatin. Here, we highlight key recent advances in our understanding of the epigenetic language encompassing histone and DNA modifications and foreshadow challenges that lie ahead as we continue our quest to decipher the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin regulation. PMID:24631868

  6. Polar motion interpretation using gravimetric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoane, L.; Bizouard, C.; Gambis, D.

    2008-04-01

    Polar motion is interpreted as the effect of i) the Earth’s inertia moment changes asso- ciated with the so-called mass term of the Earth’s angular momentum ii) the Earth’s relative angular momentum in the terrestrial frame. Thanks to the GRACE mission and in a lesser extent to LAGEOS missions, the mass term is determined since 2002, independently from any geophysical model. Besides the modeled excitations of the polar motion, i.e the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM), the Oceanic Angular Momentum (OAM), the Hydrological Angular Momentum (HAM), this gravimetric mass term is a new kind of information which can be matched to the observed excitation of the polar motion after removal of the effect of the relative angular momentum, mostly caused by the wind and the oceanic cur- rents. Such comparison, already performed by various authors, is updated for the last releases (RL04) of the gravity field changes i.e. those of the GFZ, CSR, JPL and explored for the mixed LAGEOS-GRACE solution of the GRGS. We confirm that a fair general agreement, especially for the y-component of the equatorial excitation. After removing the modeled oceanic and atmospheric excitations from the signals, we obtain the non-modeled excitation, mostly of hydrological nature; this allows us to compare them to the existing hydrological models, differences might comes from others Earth’s phenomena, for example, earthquakes.

  7. Polarimetric radar data decomposition and interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Guoqing; Ranson, K. Jon

    1993-01-01

    Significant efforts have been made to decompose polarimetric radar data into several simple scattering components. The components which are selected because of their physical significance can be used to classify SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) image data. If particular components can be related to forest parameters, inversion procedures may be developed to estimate these parameters from the scattering components. Several methods have been used to decompose an averaged Stoke's matrix or covariance matrix into three components representing odd (surface), even (double-bounce) and diffuse (volume) scatterings. With these decomposition techniques, phenomena, such as canopy-ground interactions, randomness of orientation, and size of scatters can be examined from SAR data. In this study we applied the method recently reported by van Zyl (1992) to decompose averaged backscattering covariance matrices extracted from JPL SAR images over forest stands in Maine, USA. These stands are mostly mixed stands of coniferous and deciduous trees. Biomass data have been derived from field measurements of DBH and tree density using allometric equations. The interpretation of the decompositions and relationships with measured stand biomass are presented in this paper.

  8. The realist interpretation of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anduaga, Aitor

    The discovery of a clearly stratified structure of layers in the upper atmosphere has been--and still is--invoked too often as the great paradigm of atmospheric sciences in the 20th century. Behind this vision, an emphasis--or better, an overstatement--on the reality of the concept of layer lies. One of the few historians of physics who have not ignored this phenomenon of reification, C. Stewart Gillmor, attributed it to--somewhat ambiguous-- cultural (or perhaps, more generally, contextual) factors, though he never specified their nature. In this essay, I aim to demonstrate that, in the interwar years, most radiophysicists and some atomic physicists, for reasons principally related to extrinsic influences and to a lesser extent to internal developments of their own science, fervidly embraced a realist interpretation of the ionosphere. We will focus on the historical circumstances in which a specific social and commercial environment came to exert a strong influence on upper atmospheric physicists, and in which realism as a product validating the "truth" of certain practices and beliefs arose. This realist commitment I attribute to the mutual reinforcement of atmospheric physics and commercial and imperial interests in long-distance communications.

  9. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate.

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, A Yu; Wood, R A; Penny, A M

    2015-11-01

    While many skeletal biomineralized genera are described from Ediacaran (635-541 million years ago, Ma) strata, none have been suggested to have an affinity above the Porifera-Cnidaria metazoan grade. Here, we reinterpret the widespread terminal Ediacaran (approx. 550-541 Ma) sessile goblet-shaped Namacalathus as a triploblastic eumetazoan. Namacalathus has a stalked cup with radially symmetrical cross section, multiple lateral lumens and a central opening. We show that the skeleton of Namacalathus is composed of a calcareous foliated ultrastructure displaying regular concordant columnar inflections, with a possible inner organic-rich layer. These features point to an accretionary growth style of the skeleton and an affinity with the Lophotrochozoa, more specifically within the Lophophorata (Brachiopoda and Bryozoa). Additionally, we present evidence for asexual reproduction as expressed by regular budding in a bilateral pattern. The interpretation of Namacalathus as an Ediacaran total group lophophorate is consistent with an early radiation of the Lophophorata, as known early Cambrian representatives were sessile, mostly stalked forms, and in addition, the oldest known calcareous Brachiopoda (early Cambrian Obolellida) and Bryozoa (Ordovician Stenolaemata) possessed foliated ultrastructures. PMID:26538593

  10. Interpretation of acoustic signals from fluidzed beds

    SciTech Connect

    Halow, J.S.; Daw, C.S.; Finney, C.E.A.; Nguyen, K.

    1996-12-31

    Rhythmic {open_quotes}whooshing{close_quotes} sounds associated with rising bubbles are a characteristic feature of many fluidized beds. Although clearly distinguishable to the ear, these sounds are rather complicated in detail and seem to contain a large background of apparently irrelevant stochastic noise. While it is clear that these sounds contain some information about bed dynamics, it is not obvious how this information can be interpreted in a meaningful way. In this presentation we describe a technique for processing bed sounds that appears to work well for beds with large particles operating in a slugging or near-slugging mode. We find that our processing algorithm allows us to determine important bubble/slug features from sound measurements alone, including slug location at any point in time, the average bubble frequency and frequency variation, and corresponding dynamic pressure drops at different bed locations. We also have been able to correlate a portion of the acoustic signal with particle impacts on surfaces and particle motions near the grid. We conclude from our observations that relatively simple sound measurements can provide much diagnostic information and could be potentially used for bed control. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  11. ESDAPT - APT PROGRAMMING EDITOR AND INTERPRETER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premack, T.

    1994-01-01

    ESDAPT is a graphical programming environment for developing APT (Automatically Programmed Tool) programs for controlling numerically controlled machine tools. ESDAPT has a graphical user interface that provides the user with an APT syntax sensitive text editor and windows for displaying geometry and tool paths. APT geometry statement can also be created using menus and screen picks. ESDAPT interprets APT geometry statements and displays the results in its view windows. Tool paths are generated by batching the APT source to an APT processor (COSMIC P-APT recommended). The tool paths are then displayed in the view windows. Hardcopy output of the view windows is in color PostScript format. ESDAPT is written in C-language, yacc, lex, and XView for use on Sun4 series computers running SunOS. ESDAPT requires 4Mb of disk space, 7Mb of RAM, and MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, or OpenWindows version 3 for execution. Program documentation in PostScript format and an executable for OpenWindows version 3 are provided on the distribution media. The standard distribution medium for ESDAPT is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. This program was developed in 1992.

  12. Geometric interpretations for resonances of plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Oulton, Rupert F.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-07-01

    The field of plasmonics can be roughly categorized into two branches: surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating in waveguides and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) supported by scattering particles. Investigations along these two directions usually employ different approaches, resulting in more or less a dogma that the two branches progress almost independently of each other, with few interactions. Here in this work we interpret LSPs from a Bohr model based geometric perspective relying on SPPs, thus establishing a connection between these two sub-fields. Besides the clear explanations of conventional scattering features of plasmonic nanoparticles, based on this geometric model we further demonstrate other anomalous scattering features (higher order modes supported at lower frequencies, and blueshift of the resonance with increasing particle sizes) and multiple electric resonances of the same order supported at different frequencies, which have been revealed to originate from backward SPP modes and multiple dispersion bands supported in the corresponding plasmonic waveguides, respectively. Inspired by this geometric model, it is also shown that, through solely geometric tuning, the absorption of each LSP resonance can be maximized to reach the single channel absorption limit, provided that the scattering and absorption rates are tuned to be equal.

  13. On the Interpretation of Action as Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, John

    2015-03-01

    I present a governing hypothesize that self-information (in natural units) is equal to the integral of energy times time divided by the quantum of action. I solve for both the free particle case and for when the particle is in a potential and conclude that the principle of least action is a similitude of the 2nd law of thermodynamics. I show supporting examples including the two slit experiment, the minimum uncertainty Gaussian wave function, and the electron spin state and argue that a spin s particle is 2s +1 natural units of information. I share a history of these concepts and how thinking has evolved over the last 100 + years. Lastly I present how this hypothesis is able to reconcile the Bohemian and Copenhagen interpretations of quantum mechanics and shed light on the non-local debate. The inspiration for the hypothesis was found as an undergrad at Princeton and the initial development was done as a grad student at Stanford.

  14. Interpreting Borderline BeLPT Results

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, D.C.; Mayer, A.S.; Lewin, M.D.; Mroz, M.M.; Maier, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) identifies persons sensitized to beryllium (BeS) and thus at risk for chronic beryllium disease (CBD). BeLPT test results are abnormal (AB), borderline (BL), or normal (NL). This manuscript addresses the predictive value and interpretation of BL BeLPT results. Methods The various three-result combinations that meet or exceed a nominal referral criteria of 1 AB + 1 BL are assessed with probability modeling and compared. Results At 2% prevalence, the three-result combinations that meet or exceed this referral criteria and associated probabilities of BeS are: (a) 1 AB + 1 BL + 1 NL (72%); (b) 3 BL (91%); (c) 2 AB + 1 NL (95%); (d) 1 AB + 2 BL (99%); (e) 2 AB + 1 BL (100%); and (f) 3 AB (100%). Conclusion These results suggest that BL results are meaningful and that three BL results predict BeS across a broad range of population prevalences. An analysis of longitudinal BeLPT results and clinical findings from an actual surveillance program is warranted to confirm the model’s predictions. PMID:20957676

  15. Constraining and Interpreting Titan's Methane Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, Juan; Mitchell, Jonathan; Adamkovics, Mate

    2016-06-01

    Titan's surface supports large reservoirs of stable hydrocarbon liquids, while active weather and a seasonal cycle operate in the troposphere. Titan's hydrologic cycle transports methane between the atmosphere, the surface, and, potentially, the sub-surface on various timescales. Yet the detailed distribution of methane both in the lower atmosphere and in the surface is essentially unknown, though studies of the processes that control it, from seasonal to orbital timescales, are now relatively mature. Many conundrums remain regarding observed hydrologic phenomena. For example, why have widely-expected cloud outbursts at the North pole failed to materialize? Why are there extensive fluvial surface features at the dry low latitudes? Using a combination of general circulation, radiative transfer, and surface modeling, in conjunction with ground-based and Cassini observations, we are working to better characterize and predict tropospheric cloud occurrence, measure and interpret the variability of lower-atmosphere humidity, and clarify the distribution of lakes and surface features and their connection to the atmosphere. Within this context, I will summarize our efforts to improve our understanding of the atmospheric circulation, dynamics, and surface-atmosphere interactions that affect the hydrologic cycle, to gain a better insight into Titan's climate system and its evolution.

  16. Ediacaran skeletal metazoan interpreted as a lophophorate

    PubMed Central

    Zhuravlev, A. Yu.; Wood, R. A.; Penny, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    While many skeletal biomineralized genera are described from Ediacaran (635–541 million years ago, Ma) strata, none have been suggested to have an affinity above the Porifera–Cnidaria metazoan grade. Here, we reinterpret the widespread terminal Ediacaran (approx. 550–541 Ma) sessile goblet-shaped Namacalathus as a triploblastic eumetazoan. Namacalathus has a stalked cup with radially symmetrical cross section, multiple lateral lumens and a central opening. We show that the skeleton of Namacalathus is composed of a calcareous foliated ultrastructure displaying regular concordant columnar inflections, with a possible inner organic-rich layer. These features point to an accretionary growth style of the skeleton and an affinity with the Lophotrochozoa, more specifically within the Lophophorata (Brachiopoda and Bryozoa). Additionally, we present evidence for asexual reproduction as expressed by regular budding in a bilateral pattern. The interpretation of Namacalathus as an Ediacaran total group lophophorate is consistent with an early radiation of the Lophophorata, as known early Cambrian representatives were sessile, mostly stalked forms, and in addition, the oldest known calcareous Brachiopoda (early Cambrian Obolellida) and Bryozoa (Ordovician Stenolaemata) possessed foliated ultrastructures. PMID:26538593

  17. Biostratinomic utility of Archimedes in environmental interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, J.I. )

    1990-04-01

    Biostratinomic information from the bryozoan Archimedes can be used to infer paleocurrent senses when other more traditional sedimentary structures are lacking. As with other elongate particles, Archimedes zooaria become oriented in the current and, upon settling, preserve a sense of the flow direction. Orientations and lengths were measured on over 200 individuals from bedding plane exposures in the Upper Mississippian Union Limestone (Greenbrier Group) of West Virginia. These were separated into long and short populations and plotted on rose diagrams. The results show that long and short segments become preferentially oriented in the current and the bimodally distributed long segments can be used to infer the current sense. The current sense is defined by the line which bisects the obtuse angle created by the two maxima in the rose diagram for long segments. Statistical evaluation of the long and short populations indicate they are significant to the 99.9 percent level. Elongate fossils such as Archimedes can be used in paleocurrent evaluations and can add more detail to the interpretation of paleodepositional conditions.

  18. IKONOS Spatial Resolution and Image Interpretability Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Robert; Baldridge, Braxton; Schowengerdt, Robert A.; Choi, Taeyoung; Helder, Dennis L.; Blonski, Slawomir

    2003-01-01

    This paper contains research from five individual projects to characterize the spatial performance of the IKONOS commercial imaging sensor. The end result of the projects is determination of the spatial image quality of IKONOS data prodicts in terms of the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS), the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the system stability over the first year, the characteristics of the Space Imaging MTF Compensation (MTFC) procedure, and the application-specific capabilities of IKONOS imagery. Both panchromatic and multispectral imagery were evaluated. Major conclusions of this work are that the system was stable im imaging performance during the first year of operation, tha its MTF meets the specification for the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program, that the initial MTFC processing appears to be transposed in the in-track and the cross-track directions, that the MTFC results in a noise amplification of 2x to 4x in addition to sharpening the imagery, and that IKONOS panchromatic imagery achieves an average NIIRS rating of 4.5.

  19. Trimodal interpretation of constraints for planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krieger, David; Brown, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Constraints are used in the CAMPS knowledge based planning system to represent those propositions that must be true for a plan to be acceptable. CAMPS introduces the make-mode for interpreting a constraint. Given an unsatisfied constraint, make evaluation mode suggests planning actions which, if taken, would result in a modified plan in which the constraint in question may be satisfied. These suggested planning actions, termed delta-tuples, are the raw material of intelligent plan repair. They are used both in debugging an almost-right plan and in replanning due to changing situations. Given a defective plan in which some set of constraints are violated, a problem solving strategy selects one or more constraints as a focus of attention. These selected constraints are evaluated in the make-mode to produce delta-tuples. The problem solving strategy then reviews the delta-tuples according to its application and problem-specific criteria to find the most acceptable change in terms of success likelihood and plan disruption. Finally, the problem solving strategy makes the suggested alteration to the plan and then rechecks constraints to find any unexpected consequences.

  20. NMSSM interpretations of the observed Higgs signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Florian; Weiglein, Georg

    2016-04-01

    While the properties of the signal that was discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC are consistent so far with the Higgs boson of the Standard Model (SM), it is crucial to investigate to what extent other interpretations that may correspond to very different underlying physics are compatible with the current results. We use the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) as a well-motivated theoretical framework with a sufficiently rich Higgs phenomenology to address this question, making use of the public tools HiggsBounds and HiggsSignals in order to take into account comprehensive experimental information on both the observed signal and on the existing limits from Higgs searches at LEP, the TeVatron and the LHC. We find that besides the decoupling limit resulting in a single light state with SM-like properties, several other configurations involving states lighter or quasi-degenerate with the one at about 125 GeV turn out to give a competitive fit to the Higgs data and other existing constraints. We discuss the phenomenology and possible future experimental tests of those scenarios, and compare the features of specific scenarios chosen as examples with those arising from a more global fit.