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Sample records for interpreting suboptimal business

  1. Reducing suboptimal employee decisions can build the business case for employee benefits.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Christopher; Cyboran, Steven F

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal employee decisions are prevalent in employee benefit plans. Poor decisions have significant consequences for employees and employers. Improving participant decisions produces beneficial outcomes such as lower labor costs, higher productivity and better workforce management. The business case for employee benefits can be strengthened by applying lessons learned from the field of behavioral economics to employee benefit plan design and to workforce communication. This article explains the types of behavioral biases that influence suboptimal decisions and explores how enlightened employee benefit plan choice architecture and vivid behavioral messaging contribute to human and better organizational outcomes.

  2. How suboptimal is suboptimal choice?

    PubMed

    Hinnenkamp, Jay E; Shahan, Timothy A; Madden, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    In a frequently used suboptimal-choice procedure pigeons choose between an alternative that delivers three food pellets with p = 1.0 and an alternative that delivers ten pellets with p = 0.2. Because pigeons reliably choose the probabilistic (suboptimal) alternative, the procedure has been proposed as a nonhuman analog of human gambling. The present experiments were conducted to evaluate two potential threats to the validity of this procedure. Experiments 1 and 2 evaluated if pigeons obtained food at a lower unit price (i.e., pecks per pellet) on the suboptimal alternative than on the optimal alternative. When pigeons worked under this suboptimal procedure they all preferred the suboptimal alternative despite some pigeons paying a higher price for food on that alternative. In Experiment 2, when the unit price ratio more closely approximated the inverse of the expected value ratio, pigeons continued to prefer the suboptimal alternative despite its economic suboptimality. Experiment 3 evaluated if, in accord with the string-theory of gambling, the valuation of the suboptimal alternative was increased when pigeons misattributed a subset of the suboptimal no-food trials to the optimal alternative. When trial sequences were arranged to minimize these possible attribution errors, pigeons still preferred the suboptimal alternative. These data remove two threats to the validity of the suboptimal choice procedure; threats that would have suggested that suboptimal choice reflects economic maximization.

  3. Metformin discontinuation less than 72 h is suboptimal for F-18 FDG PET/CT interpretation of the bowel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Hyun; Jin, Soyoung; Lee, Hyo Sang; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Lee, Jong Jin

    2016-11-01

    Metformin-induced [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) bowel uptake can hinder positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) evaluation of the bowel. This study aimed to investigate the segmental bowel uptake of FDG according to metformin discontinuation times up to 72 h. We retrospectively divided 240 diabetic patients into four groups: metformin discontinuation <24 h (group A; n = 86), 24-48 h (group B; n = 40), 48-72 h (group C; n = 12), and no metformin (control group; n = 102). Segmental FDG bowel uptakes were measured visually (four-point scale) and semi-quantitatively (maximum standardized uptake value). Compared with the control group, FDG uptake increased significantly from the ileum to the rectosigmoid colon in group A, from the transverse to the rectosigmoid colon in group B, and from the descending colon to the rectosigmoid colon in group C in both visual and semi-quantitative analyses. Metformin discontinuation for <72 h is likely suboptimal for PET/CT image interpretation, especially with respect to the distal segments of the colon.

  4. UBIT Issues: Guidance on Interpreting Unrelated Business Income Tax Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Stephen J.; Danley, Lisa M.

    1991-01-01

    The central issue in determining taxability of colleges' unrelated business income is the tax's purpose: to eliminate unfair advantage of exempt organizations over tax-paying businesses. If the business is not competing with outside vendors and can be related to the organization's exempt purposes, income is not taxable. (MSE)

  5. UBIT Issues: Guidance on Interpreting Unrelated Business Income Tax Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Stephen J.; Danley, Lisa M.

    1991-01-01

    The central issue in determining taxability of colleges' unrelated business income is the tax's purpose: to eliminate unfair advantage of exempt organizations over tax-paying businesses. If the business is not competing with outside vendors and can be related to the organization's exempt purposes, income is not taxable. (MSE)

  6. Four Interpretive Essays of: The Stout Report and the Business and Education Survey. Bulletin No. 4118.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oinonen, Charlotte M., Ed.

    Four essays are designed to provide perspective and dimension to the Stout Data Analysis and to the Business and Education Survey. The essayists who interpret the Stout and survey data represent the viewpoints of (1) business (David Horn), (2) a researcher in vocational education (Orville Nelson), (3) a vocational educator (Albert Pitts), and (4)…

  7. Statistical interpretation of ISO TC42 dynamic range: risky business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Don; Burns, Peter D.; Dupin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Recently, two ISO electronic imaging standards aimed at digital capture device dynamic range metrology have been issued. Both ISO 15739 (digital still camera noise) and ISO 21550 (film scanner dynamic range) adopt a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) criterion for specifying dynamic range. To resiliently compare systems with differing mean-signal transfer, or Electro-Optical Conversion Functions (OECF), an incremental SNR (SNRi) is used. The exposure levels that correspond to threshold-SNR values are used as endpoints to determine measured dynamic range. While these thresholds were developed through committee consensus with generic device applications in mind, the methodology of these standards is flexible enough to accommodate different application requirements. This can be done by setting the SNR thresholds according to particular signal-detection requirements. We will show how dynamic range metrology, as defined in the above standards, can be interpreted in terms of statistical hypothesis testing and confidence interval methods for mean signal values. We provide an interpretation of dynamic range that can be related to particular applications based on contributing influences of variance, confidence intervals, and sample size variables. In particular, we introduce the role of the spatial-correlation statistics for both signal and noise sources, not covered in previous discussions of these ISO standards. This can be interpreted in terms of a signal's spatial frequency spectrum and noise power spectrum (NPS) respectively. It is this frequency aspect to dynamic range evaluation that may well influence future standards. We maintain that this is important when comparing systems with different sampling settings, since the above noise statistics are currently computed on a per-pixel basis.

  8. Knowledge-Based Interpretation Of Scanned Business Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreich, Joachim; Luhn, Achim; Maderlechner, Gerd

    1989-07-01

    Office Automation by electronic text processing has not reduced the amount of paper used for communication and storage. The present boom of FAX-Systems proves this tendency. With this growing degree of office automation the paper-computer interface becomes increasingly important. To be useful, this interface must be able to handle documents containing text as well as graphics, and convert them into an electronic representation that not only captures content (like in current OCR readers), but also the layout and logic structure. We describe a system for the analysis of business letters which is able to extract the key elements of a letter like its sender, the date, etc. The letter can thus for instance be stored in electronic archival systems, edited by structure editors, or forwarded via electronic mail services. This system was implemented on a Symbolics Lisp machine for the high level part of the analysis and on a VAX for the low and medium level processing stages. Some practical results are presented and discussed. Apart from this application our system is a useful testbed to implement and test sophisticated control structures and model representations for image understanding.

  9. Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  10. Suboptimal choice behavior by pigeons.

    PubMed

    Stagner, Jessica P; Zentall, Thomas R

    2010-06-01

    Contrary to the law of effect and optimal foraging theory, pigeons show suboptimal choice behavior by choosing an alternative that provides 20% reinforcement over another that provides 50% reinforcement. They choose the 20% reinforcement alternative--in which 20% of the time, that choice results in a stimulus that always predicts reinforcement, and 80% of the time, it results in another stimulus that predicts its absence--rather than the 50% reinforcement alternative, which results in one of two stimuli, each of which predicts reinforcement 50% of the time. This choice behavior may be related to suboptimal human monetary gambling behavior, because in both cases, the organism overemphasizes the infrequent occurrence of the winning event and underemphasizes the more frequent occurrence of the losing event.

  11. Interpreted consultations as 'business as usual'? An analysis of organisational routines in general practices.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Voisey, Christopher; Robb, Nadia

    2007-09-01

    UK general practices operate in an environment of high linguistic diversity, because of recent large-scale immigration and of the NHS's commitment to provide a professional interpreter to any patient if needed. Much activity in general practice is co-ordinated and patterned into organisational routines (defined as repeated patterns of interdependent actions, involving multiple actors, bound by rules and customs) that tend to be stable and to persist. If we want to understand how general practices are responding to pressures to develop new routines, such as interpreted consultations, we need to understand how existing organisational routines change. This will then help us to address a second question, which is how the interpreted consultation itself is being enacted and changing as it becomes routinised (or not) in everyday general practice. In seeking answers to these two questions, we undertook a qualitative study of narratives of interpreted primary care consultations in three London boroughs with large minority ethnic populations. In 69 individual interviews and two focus groups, we sought accounts of interpreted consultations from service users, professional interpreters, family member interpreters, general practitioners, practice nurses, receptionists, and practice managers. We asked participants to tell us both positive and negative stories of their experiences. We analysed these data by searching for instances of concepts relating to the organisational routine, the meaning of the interpreted consultation to the practice, and the sociology of medical work. Our findings identified a number of general properties of the interpreted consultation as an organisational routine, including the wide variation in the form of adoption, the stability of the routine, the adaptability of the routine, and the strength of the routine. Our second key finding was that this variation could be partly explained by characteristics of the practice as an organisation, especially

  12. Comprehensive Interpretive Plans: The Next Step in Visitor Centeredness and Business Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koke, Judy

    2008-01-01

    For this author, the in-depth conversation about Comprehensive Interpretive Plans (CIP) began at an AAM Task Force meeting in May of 2004. Building on that initial discussion, the author explores the reasons, costs and benefits of engaging in the CIP development process, and makes the case for the museum field to develop proficiency in this…

  13. Comprehensive Interpretive Plans: The Next Step in Visitor Centeredness and Business Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koke, Judy

    2008-01-01

    For this author, the in-depth conversation about Comprehensive Interpretive Plans (CIP) began at an AAM Task Force meeting in May of 2004. Building on that initial discussion, the author explores the reasons, costs and benefits of engaging in the CIP development process, and makes the case for the museum field to develop proficiency in this…

  14. A shooting approach to suboptimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, David G.; Sheen, Jyh-Jong

    1991-01-01

    The shooting method is used to solve the suboptimal control problem where the control history is assumed to be piecewise linear. Suboptimal solutions can be obtained without difficulty and can lead to accurate approximate controls and good starting multipliers for the regular shooting method by increasing the number of nodes. Optimal planar launch trajectories are presented for the advanced launch system.

  15. Small Business Management. Instructor's Manual on Interpretation of Small Business Analysis Data. Entrepreneurship Education for Adults--Program Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Tables and significant figures found in a small business analysis report are explained to provide instructors with suggestions on how these items can be used by students to improve the management of small businesses. Contents of the manual are organized into two parts. Part I, The Analysis Report, contains the following chapters: (A) Business…

  16. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive

  17. Using Typologies to Interpret Study Abroad Preferences of American Business Students: Applying a Tourism Framework to International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Peter W.; Marshall, Bryan; Poddar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe research that applies a tourist framework to study abroad attitudes and preferences. A total of 371 university business students in the Southern region of the United States completed a survey that included the International Tourist Role scale and study abroad attitudes and preferences. These students were grouped into one of 4…

  18. Using Typologies to Interpret Study Abroad Preferences of American Business Students: Applying a Tourism Framework to International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Peter W.; Marshall, Bryan; Poddar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe research that applies a tourist framework to study abroad attitudes and preferences. A total of 371 university business students in the Southern region of the United States completed a survey that included the International Tourist Role scale and study abroad attitudes and preferences. These students were grouped into one of 4…

  19. Neighboring suboptimal control for vehicle guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, David G.; Nowak, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    The neighboring optimal feedback control law is developed for systems with a piecewise linear control for the case where the optimal control is obtained by nonlinear programming techniques. To develop the control perturbation for a given deviation from the nominal path, the second variation is minimized subject to the constraint that the final conditions be satisfied (neighboring suboptimal control). This process leads to a feedback relationship between the control perturbation and the measured deviation from the nominal state. Neighboring suboptimal control is applied to the lunar launch problem. Two approaches, single optimization and multiple optimization for calculating the gains are used, and the gains are tested in a guidance simulation with a mismatch in the acceleration of gravity. Both approaches give acceptable results, but multiple optimization keeps the perturbed path closer to the nominal path.

  20. Suboptimal fractal coding scheme using iterative transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun-Soo; Chung, Jae-won

    2001-05-01

    This paper presents a new fractal coding scheme to find a suboptimal transformation by performing an iterative encoding process. The optimal transformation can be defined as the transformation generating the closest attractor to an original image. Unfortunately, it is impossible in practice to find the optimal transformation, due to the heavy computational burden. In this paper, however, by means of some new theorems related with contractive transformations and attractors. It is shown that for some specific cases the optimal or suboptimal transformations can be obtained. The proposed method obtains a suboptimal transformation by performing iterative processes as is done in decoding. Thus, it requires more computation than the conventional method, but it improves the image quality. For a simple case where the optimal transformation can actually be found, the proposed method is experimentally evaluated against both the optimal method and the conventional method. For a general case where the optimal transformation in unavailable due to heavy computational complexity, the proposed method is also evaluated in comparison with the conventional method.

  1. Design of suboptimal regulators for nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Saridis, G. N.

    1985-01-01

    An optimal feedback control law is preferred for the regulation of a deterministic nonlinear system. In this paper, a practical, iterative design method leading to a sequence of suboptimal control laws with successively improved performance is presented. The design method requires the determination of an upper bound to the performance of each successive control law. This is obtained by solving a partial differential inequality by means of a linear programming technique. Robustness properties and the application of the design method to the control of a robot manipulator arm are also presented.

  2. Suboptimal Exposure to Facial Expressions When Viewing Video Messages From a Small Screen: Effects on Emotion, Attention, and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravaja, Niklas; Kallinen, Kari; Saari, Timo; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of suboptimally presented facial expressions on emotional and attentional responses and memory among 39 young adults viewing video (business news) messages from a small screen. Facial electromyography (EMG) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia were used as physiological measures of emotion and attention, respectively.…

  3. Suboptimal antidepressant use in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Philip S; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Brookhart, M Alan; Glynn, Robert J; Mogun, Helen; Patrick, Amanda R; Avorn, Jerry

    2005-04-01

    Ongoing changes in available agents and health care delivery systems have made it imperative to study the quality of antidepressant use in vulnerable and traditionally underserved elderly. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among 12,130 new antidepressant users aged > or =65 years with a recent diagnosis of depression in the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly Program from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 1999. Additional use information was available through Medicare data. Potentially hazardous antidepressant regimens were defined as use of highly anticholinergic agents or daily dosages in excess of geriatric prescribing guidelines. Low-intensity regimens were defined by lower than recommended daily dosages, too-short durations of therapy, or lack of follow-up. Of all elderly antidepressant users, 43.3% were taking suboptimal regimens. Potentially hazardous regimens were used by 11.9%, including 7.3% taking highly anticholinergic agents and 5.3% using excessively high daily dosages. Low-intensity regimens were used by 34.8% of patients, including 7.6% with excessively low daily dosages, 19.3% with short durations of therapy, and 14.8% with inadequate follow-up. Potentially hazardous regimens were associated with ages 65 to 74 years, nursing home residence, cancer diagnoses, less comorbidity, use of other psychiatric medications, making more physician visits, and earlier calendar years. Low-intensity regimens were associated with ages > or =85 years, nonwhite race, greater comorbidity, fewer physician visits or inpatient days in the baseline 6 months, and not using other psychiatric medications. Suboptimal antidepressant use remains common in the elderly, especially the use of inadequately intensive regimens. Interventions are needed to improve the quality and outcomes of antidepressant use in this vulnerable population.

  4. Interpreting Standardized Assessment Test Scores and Setting Performance Goals in the Context of Student Characteristics: The Case of the Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William; Semenik, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. The Educational Testing Service, publisher of the assessment, provides data that allow institutions to compare their own MFT-B performance to national norms, but that…

  5. Segmentation precedes face categorization under suboptimal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Boomen, Carlijn; Fahrenfort, Johannes J.; Snijders, Tineke M.; Kemner, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Both categorization and segmentation processes play a crucial role in face perception. However, the functional relation between these subprocesses is currently unclear. The present study investigates the temporal relation between segmentation-related and category-selective responses in the brain, using electroencephalography (EEG). Surface segmentation and category content were both manipulated using texture-defined objects, including faces. This allowed us to study brain activity related to segmentation and to categorization. In the main experiment, participants viewed texture-defined objects for a duration of 800 ms. EEG results revealed that segmentation-related responses precede category-selective responses. Three additional experiments revealed that the presence and timing of categorization depends on stimulus properties and presentation duration. Photographic objects were presented for a long and short (92 ms) duration and evoked fast category-selective responses in both cases. On the other hand, presentation of texture-defined objects for a short duration only evoked segmentation-related but no category-selective responses. Category-selective responses were much slower when evoked by texture-defined than by photographic objects. We suggest that in case of categorization of objects under suboptimal conditions, such as when low-level stimulus properties are not sufficient for fast object categorization, segmentation facilitates the slower categorization process. PMID:26074838

  6. Factors influencing antiretroviral treatment suboptimal adherence among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Kerim; Kanabkaew, Cheeraya; Le Coeur, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Background Existing studies have suggested decreased adherence and rebound in mortality in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared to adults and young children. Methods We used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify factors influencing adherence among perinatally infected adolescents in Thailand. We analyzed data from 568 pairs of perinatally infected adolescents (aged 12–19) and their primary caregivers in the Teens Living With Antiretrovirals (TEEWA) study, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010–2012. We also conducted 12 in-depth interviews in 2014 with infected adolescents or their primary caregivers to elicit experiences of living with long-term ART. Results From the quantitative analysis, a total of 275 (48.4%) adolescents had evidence of suboptimal adherence based on this composite outcome: adolescents self-reported missing doses in the past 7 days, caregiver rating of overall adherence as suboptimal, or latest HIV-RNA viral load ≥1000 copies/ml. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, younger age, having grandparents or extended family members as the primary caregiver, caregiver-assessed poor intellectual ability, having a boy/girlfriend, frequent online chatting, self-reported unhappiness and easiness in asking doctors questions were significantly associated with suboptimal adherence. From the in-depth interviews, tensed relationships with caregivers, forgetfulness due to busy schedules, and fear of disclosing HIV status to others, especially boy/girlfriends, were important contributors to suboptimal adherence. Social and emotional support and counseling from peer group was consistently reported as a strong adherence-promoting factor. Conclusion Our findings highlight unique barriers of ART adherence among the perinatally infected adolescents. Future interventions should be targeted at helping adolescents to improve interpersonal relationships and build adaptive skills in

  7. Optimal and suboptimal control technique for aircraft spin recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    An analytic investigation has been made of procedures for effecting recovery from equilibrium spin conditions for three assumed aircraft configurations. Three approaches which utilize conventional aerodynamic controls are investigated. Included are a constant control recovery mode, optimal recoveries, and a suboptimal control logic patterned after optimal recovery results. The optimal and suboptimal techniques are shown to yield a significant improvement in recovery performance over that attained by using a constant control recovery procedure.

  8. SUBOPT: A CAD program for suboptimal linear regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An interactive software package which provides design solutions for both standard linear quadratic regulator (LQR) and suboptimal linear regulator problems is described. Intended for time-invariant continuous systems, the package is easily modified to include sampled-data systems. LQR designs are obtained by established techniques while the large class of suboptimal problems containing controller and/or performance index options is solved using a robust gradient minimization technique. Numerical examples demonstrate features of the package and recent developments are described.

  9. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions.

  10. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering

    PubMed Central

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  11. Effects of Suboptimal Bidding in Combinatorial Auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Stefan; Shabalin, Pasha; Bichler, Martin

    Though the VCG auction assumes a central place in the mechanism design literature, there are a number of reasons for favoring iterative combinatorial auction designs. Several promising ascending auction formats have been developed throughout the past few years based on primal-dual and subgradient algorithms and linear programming theory. Prices are interpreted as a feasible dual solution and the provisional allocation is interpreted as a feasible primal solution. iBundle( 3) (Parkes and Ungar 2000), dVSV (de Vries et al. 2007) and the Ascending Proxy auction (Ausubel and Milgrom 2002) result in VCG payoffs when the coalitional value function satisfies the buyer submodularity condition and bidders bid straightforward, which is an expost Nash equilibrium in that case. iBEA and CreditDebit auctions (Mishra and Parkes 2007) do not even require the buyer submodularity condition and achieve the same properties for general valuations. In many situations, however, one cannot assume bidders to bid straightforward and it is not clear from the theory how these non-linear personalized price auctions (NLPPAs) perform in this case. Robustness of auctions with respect to different bidding behavior is therefore a critical issue for any application. We have conducted a large number of computational experiments to analyze the performance of NLPPA designs with respect to different bidding strategies and different valuation models. We compare the results of NLPPAs to those of the VCG auction and those of iterative combinatorial auctions with approximate linear prices, such as ALPS (Bichler et al. 2009) and the Combinatorial Clock auction (Porter et al. 2003).

  12. On the Origins of Suboptimality in Human Probabilistic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors), in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal). Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the priors, and by

  13. Monotherapy comparative trials: placebos and suboptimal comparators.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, S

    2001-05-01

    The superiority of a drug can be demonstrated using several comparative designs against either placebo, or a low dose of the study drug or standard anti-epileptic drug (AED). Firstly, the population could consist of inpatients admitted for presurgical monitoring. Although these trials are scientifically interpretable, and involve direct comparison of the study drug against placebo, they are, in general, too short in duration to be able to define clinical relevance. Secondly, patients with refractory epilepsy can participate in monotherapy substitution studies during which patients are randomised to one of at least two arms with the baseline AED subsequently tapered and discontinued. These patients are maintained on monotherapy for the rest of the trial. An enriched design can also be used in which patients successfully converted to a high dose of the study drug, are then randomised to either the high or low dose of the treatment. The ethics of such enriched designs is questionable. More recently, studies have been carried out in patients with new onset seizures. In such designs, patients are randomised to the study drug (possibly at different dosages), versus a placebo or pseudo-placebo control. Comparative trials in patients with newly-diagnosed epilepsy makes it more difficult to obtain significant differences due to the high number of patients needed and the usually lengthy time course of the study.

  14. Modelling mould growth under suboptimal environmental conditions and inoculum size.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    Predictive models can be a tool to develop strategies to prevent mould development and consequently mycotoxin production. The aims of this work were to assess the impact of a) high/low levels of inoculum and b) optimal/suboptimal environmental conditions on fungal responses based on both kinetic and probabilistic models. Different levels of spore suspensions of Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium expansum were prepared and inoculated centrally with a needlepoint load on malt extract agar (MEA) with 50 replicates. While optimum conditions led to a colony diameter increase which followed Baranyi's function, suboptimal conditions led to different grow functions. In general, growth rate (mu) and lag phase (lambda) were normally distributed. Specifically, the growth rate (mu) showed similar distributions under optimal growth conditions, regardless of the inoculum level, while suboptimal a(w) and temperature conditions led to higher kurtosis distributions, mainly when the inoculum levels were low. Regarding lambda, more skewed distributions were observed, mainly when the inoculum levels were low. Probability models were not much affected by the inoculum size. Lower probabilities of growth were in general predicted under marginal conditions at a given time for both strains. The slopes of the probability curves were smaller under suboptimal growth conditions due to wider distributions. Results showed that a low inoculum level and suboptimal conditions lead to high variability of the estimated growth parameters and growth probability.

  15. Suboptimal choice by pigeons: an analog of human gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2014-03-01

    Human gambling often involves the choice of a low probability but high valued outcome over a high probability (certain) low valued outcome (not gambling) that is economically more optimal. We have developed an analog of gambling in which pigeons prefer a suboptimal alternative that infrequently provides a signal for a high probability (or high magnitude) of reinforcement over an optimal alternative that always provides a signal for a lower probability (or lower magnitude) of reinforcement. We have identified two mechanisms that may be responsible for this suboptimal behavior. First, the effect of nonreinforcement results in considerably less inhibition of choice than ideally it should. Second, the frequency of the occurrence of the signal for a high probability or high magnitude of reinforcement is less important than ideally it should. Also analogous to human gambling is the finding that pigeons that are normally food restricted choose suboptimally, whereas those that are minimally food restricted choose optimally. In addition, pigeons that are singly housed choose suboptimally, whereas those that are exposed to a more enriched environment choose less suboptimally. We believe that these findings have implications for the understanding and treatment of problem gambling behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Suboptimal Choice by Pigeons: An Analog of Human Gambling Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zentall, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Human gambling often involves the choice of a low probability but high valued outcome over a high probability (certain) low valued outcome (not gambling) that is economically more optimal. We have developed an analog of gambling in which pigeons prefer a suboptimal alternative that infrequently provides a signal for a high probability (or high magnitude) of reinforcement over an optimal alternative that always provides a signal for a lower probability (or lower magnitude) of reinforcement. We have identified two mechanisms that may be responsible for this suboptimal behavior. First, the effect of nonreinforcement results in considerably less inhibition of choice than ideally it should. Second, the frequency of the occurrence of the signal for a high probability or high magnitude of reinforcement is less important than ideally it should. Also analogous to human gambling is the finding that pigeons that are normally food restricted choose suboptimally, whereas those that are minimally food restricted choose optimally. In addition, pigeons that are singly housed choose suboptimally, whereas those that are exposed to a more enriched environment choose less suboptimally. We believe that these findings have implications for the understanding and treatment of problem gambling behavior. PMID:24291801

  17. Using PPT to analyze suboptimal human-automation performance.

    PubMed

    Rice, Stephen; Trafimow, David; Hunt, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic automation aids are designed to improve human performance by increasing accuracy in event detection tasks. However, human-automation performance has frequently fallen short of expectations, particularly when the aid is highly reliable. In those cases, human-automation performance is often suboptimal, in that a human being augmented with a diagnostic aid does more poorly than the automation itself. Previously, there have been only ambiguous explanations for why this occurs, with few suggestions on how to effectively eliminate suboptimal performance. Fortunately, with the advent of a new general theory of task performance, termed Potential Performance Theory (PPT) by D. Trafimow and S. Rice (2008; 2009), one can now determine exactly why suboptimal performance occurs. Results from the present study reveal that inconsistency is the culprit, rather than just poor strategy selection. Furthermore, PPT allows one to determine exactly how much of the performance decrement is because of inconsistency.

  18. Rough-Wall Channel Analysis Using Suboptimal Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, O.; Jimenez, J.; Tenpleton, J.

    2003-01-01

    The original aim of this work was to shed some light on the physics of turbulence over rough walls using large-eddy simulations and the suboptimal-control wall boundary conditions introduced by Nicoud et al. It was hoped that, if that algorithm was used to fit the mean velocity profile of the simulations to that of a rough-walled channel, instead of to a smooth one, the wall stresses introduced by the control algorithm would give some indication of what aspects of rough walls are most responsible for the modification of the flow in real turbulence. It was similarly expected that the structure of the resulting velocity fluctuations would share some of the characteristics of rough-walled flows, thus again suggesting what is intrinsic and what is accidental in the effect of geometric wall roughness. A secondary goal was to study the effect of 'unphysical' boundary conditions on the outside flow by observing how a relatively major change of the target velocity profile, and therefore presumably of the applied wall stresses, modifies properties such as the dominant length scales of the velocity fluctuations away from the wall. As will be seen below, this secondary goal grew more important during the course of the study, which was carried out during a short summer visit of the first two authors to the CTR. It became clear that there are open questions about the way in which the control algorithm models the boundary conditions, even for smooth walls, and that these questions make the physical interpretation of the results difficult. Considerable more work in that area seems to be needed before even relatively advanced large-eddy simulations, such as these, can be used to draw conclusions about the physics of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The numerical method is the same as in Nicoud et al. The modifications introduced in the original code are briefly described in section 2, but the original paper should be consulted for a full description of the algorithm. The results are

  19. Tapping the Vast Potential of the Data Deluge in Small-scale Food-Animal Production Businesses: Challenges to Near Real-time Data Analysis and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Vial, Flavie; Tedder, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Food-animal production businesses are part of a data-driven ecosystem shaped by stringent requirements for traceability along the value chain and the expanding capabilities of connected products. Within this sector, the generation of animal health intelligence, in particular, in terms of antimicrobial usage, is hindered by the lack of a centralized framework for data storage and usage. In this Perspective, we delimit the 11 processes required for evidence-based decisions and explore processes 3 (digital data acquisition) to 10 (communication to decision-makers) in more depth. We argue that small agribusinesses disproportionally face challenges related to economies of scale given the high price of equipment and services. There are two main areas of concern regarding the collection and usage of digital farm data. First, recording platforms must be developed with the needs and constraints of small businesses in mind and move away from local data storage, which hinders data accessibility and interoperability. Second, such data are unstructured and exhibit properties that can prove challenging to its near real-time preprocessing and analysis in a sector that is largely lagging behind others in terms of computing infrastructure and buying into digital technologies. To complete the digital transformation of this sector, investment in rural digital infrastructure is required alongside the development of new business models to empower small businesses to commit to near real-time data capture. This approach will deliver critical information to fill gaps in our understanding of emerging diseases and antimicrobial resistance in production animals, eventually leading to effective evidence-based policies.

  20. Hepatic metabolite profiles in mice with a suboptimal selenium status.

    PubMed

    Geillinger, Kerstin E; Rathmann, Daniel; Köhrle, Josef; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Daniel, Hannelore; Kipp, Anna P

    2014-09-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element and mediates its functions via various selenoproteins such as glutathione peroxidases or thioredoxin reductases. A suboptimal selenium supply causes metabolic disturbances and is associated with an increased risk to develop different disorders, including cancer or cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to assess the impact of a suboptimal selenium status on the hepatic metabolome of male mice analyzed by a targeted liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and a method based on non-targeted gas chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry. Feeding animals a diet with about half of the recommended selenium content supplied as selenomethionine caused liver glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase activities to decline and lipid peroxidation to increase. Serum T3 thyroid hormone concentration also declined via a reduced hepatic deiodinase activity. Metabolite profiling revealed predominantly changes in cysteine and carbon-1 metabolism as well as in selected lipid subclasses. In particular the concentrations of palmitoylcarnitines and oleoylcarnitines (C18:1 and C16:1) and various phosphatidylcholine species containing saturated fatty acids were elevated. Increased taurine levels suggested an enhanced cysteine flux through the salvage pathway whereas increased homocysteine levels appeared to be a consequence of a massive down-regulation of cystathionine β lyase (cystathionine β synthase) and a reduced flux through the transsulfuration pathway. The findings demonstrate that a suboptimal selenium status causes alterations in lipid and carbon-1 metabolism in mouse liver. These changes may contribute to the development of diseases associated with a suboptimal selenium status.

  1. Central suboptimal H ∞ control design for nonlinear polynomial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basin, Michael V.; Shi, Peng; Calderon-Alvarez, Dario

    2011-05-01

    This article presents the central finite-dimensional H ∞ regulator for nonlinear polynomial systems, which is suboptimal for a given threshold γ with respect to a modified Bolza-Meyer quadratic criterion including the attenuation control term with the opposite sign. In contrast to the previously obtained results, the article reduces the original H ∞ control problem to the corresponding optimal H 2 control problem, using this technique proposed in Doyle et al. [Doyle, J.C., Glover, K., Khargonekar, P.P., and Francis, B.A. (1989), 'State-space Solutions to Standard H 2 and H ∞ Control Problems', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 34, 831-847]. This article yields the central suboptimal H ∞ regulator for nonlinear polynomial systems in a closed finite-dimensional form, based on the optimal H 2 regulator obtained in Basin and Calderon-Alvarez [Basin, M.V., and Calderon-Alvarez, D. (2008b), 'Optimal Controller for Uncertain Stochastic Polynomial Systems', Journal of the Franklin Institute, 345, 293-302]. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify performance of the designed central suboptimal regulator for nonlinear polynomial systems against the central suboptimal H ∞ regulator available for the corresponding linearised system.

  2. When animals misbehave: analogs of human biases and suboptimal choice.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2015-03-01

    Humans tend to value rewards more if they have had to work hard to obtain them (justification of effort). Similarly they tend to persist in a task even when they would be better off beginning a new one (sunk cost). Humans also often give greater value to objects of good quality than the same objects together with objects of lesser quality (the less is more effect). Commercial gambling (lotteries and slot machines) is another example of suboptimal choice by humans because on average the rewards are less than the investment. In another example of a systematic bias, when humans try to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a low probability event, they often give too much weight to the results of a test, in spite of the fact that the known probability of a false alarm reduces the predictive value of the test (base rate neglect). In each of these examples, we have found that pigeons show a similar tendency to choose suboptimally. When one can show comparable findings of suboptimal choice in animals it suggests that whereas culture may reinforce certain suboptimal behavior, the behavior is likely to result from the overgeneralization of basic behavioral processes or predisposed heuristics that may have been appropriate in natural environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  4. Arbuscular mycorrhiza colonization and development at suboptimal root zone temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, A; Wang, B; Hamel, C

    2004-04-01

    Temperature has a strong influence on the activity of living organisms. This study, involving two indoor experiments, evaluated the effects of root zone temperature (10, 15 and 23 degrees C) on the formation and development of arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM). In the first trial, greenhouse-grown sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] was either colonized by Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith or left non-mycorrhizal. Root length, root and shoot weight and root colonization were measured after 5, 10 and 15 weeks of plant growth. Although suboptimal root zone temperatures reduced growth in both mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal plants were larger than non-mycorrhizal plants after 15 weeks at 15 and 23 degrees C. At suboptimal root zone temperatures, mycorrhizal inoculation sometimes slightly reduced root development. AM colonization was more affected than root growth at suboptimal root zone temperatures. Colonization was markedly reduced at 15 degrees C compared with 23 degrees C, and almost completely inhibited at 10 degrees C. The second experiment was conducted in vitro using transformed carrot ( Daucus carota L.) roots supporting G. intraradices. Mycelium length and spore number were measured weekly for 15 weeks. Spore metabolic activity (iodonitrotetrazolium reduction), root length and percentage root colonization were measured after 15 weeks. G. intraradices sporulation was reduced at temperatures below 23 degrees C, while spore metabolic activity was significantly reduced only at 10 degrees C. Root length and in particular percentage colonization were decreased at suboptimal temperatures. A negative interaction between AM hyphal growth and root growth resulting in reduced probability of contact at suboptimal root zone temperatures is proposed to explain the greater reduction observed in root colonization than in root and hyphal growth.

  5. Optimality and sub-optimality in a bacterial growth law.

    PubMed

    Towbin, Benjamin D; Korem, Yael; Bren, Anat; Doron, Shany; Sorek, Rotem; Alon, Uri

    2017-01-19

    Organisms adjust their gene expression to improve fitness in diverse environments. But finding the optimal expression in each environment presents a challenge. We ask how good cells are at finding such optima by studying the control of carbon catabolism genes in Escherichia coli. Bacteria show a growth law: growth rate on different carbon sources declines linearly with the steady-state expression of carbon catabolic genes. We experimentally modulate gene expression to ask if this growth law always maximizes growth rate, as has been suggested by theory. We find that the growth law is optimal in many conditions, including a range of perturbations to lactose uptake, but provides sub-optimal growth on several other carbon sources. Combining theory and experiment, we genetically re-engineer E. coli to make sub-optimal conditions into optimal ones and vice versa. We conclude that the carbon growth law is not always optimal, but represents a practical heuristic that often works but sometimes fails.

  6. On Finding All Suboptimal Foldings of an RNA Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuker, Michael

    1989-04-01

    An algorithm and a computer program have been prepared for determining RNA secondary structures within any prescribed increment of the computed global minimum free energy. The mathematical problem of determining how well defined a minimum energy folding is can now be solved. All predicted base pairs that can participate in suboptimal structures may be displayed and analyzed graphically. Representative suboptimal foldings are generated by selecting these base pairs one at a time and computing the best foldings that contain them. A distance criterion that ensures that no two structures are ``too close'' is used to avoid multiple generation of similar structures. Thermodynamic parameters, including free-energy increments for single-base stacking at the ends of helices and for terminal mismatched pairs in interior and hairpin loops, are incorporated into the underlying folding model of the above algorithm.

  7. Suboptimal quantum-error-correcting procedure based on semidefinite programming

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Hara, Shinji; Tsumura, Koji

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we consider a simplified error-correcting problem: for a fixed encoding process, to find a cascade connected quantum channel such that the worst fidelity between the input and the output becomes maximum. With the use of the one-to-one parametrization of quantum channels, a procedure finding a suboptimal error-correcting channel based on a semidefinite programming is proposed. The effectiveness of our method is verified by an example of the bit-flip channel decoding.

  8. Hungry pigeons make suboptimal choices, less hungry pigeons do not.

    PubMed

    Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Zentall, Thomas R

    2012-10-01

    Hungry animals will often choose suboptimally by being attracted to reliable signals for food that occur infrequently (they gamble) over less reliable signals for food that occur more often. That is, pigeons prefer an option that 50 % of the time provides them with a reliable signal for the appearance of food but 50 % of the time provides them with a reliable signal for the absence of food (overall 50 % reinforcement) over an alternative that always provides them with a signal for the appearance of food 75 % of the time (overall 75 % reinforcement). The pigeons appear to choose impulsively for the possibility of obtaining the reliable signal for reinforcement. There is evidence that greater hunger is associated with greater impulsivity. We tested the hypothesis that if the pigeons were less hungry, they would be less impulsive and, thus, would choose more optimally (i.e., on the basis of the overall probability of reinforcement). We found that hungry pigeons choose the 50 % reinforcement alternative suboptimally but less hungry pigeons prefer the more optimal 75 % reinforcement. Paradoxically, pigeons that needed the food more received less of it. These findings have implications for how level of motivation may also affect human suboptimal choice (e.g., purchase of lottery tickets and playing slot machines).

  9. Design of suboptimal adaptive filter for stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jun Il; Shin, Vladimir

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of estimating the system state in for linear discrete-time systems with uncertainties is considered. In [1], [2], we have proposed the fusion formula (FF) for an arbitrary number of correlated and uncorrelated estimates. The FF is applied to detection and filtering problem. The new suboptimal adaptive filter with parallel structure is herein proposed. In consequence of parallel structure of the proposed filter, parallel computers can be used for their design. A lower computational complexity and lower memory demand are achieved with the proposed filter than in the optimal adaptive Lainiotis-Kalman filter. Example demonstrates the accuracy of the new filter.

  10. The Coming of Knowledge-Based Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stan; Botkin, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth will come from knowledge-based businesses whose "smart" products filter and interpret information. Businesses will come to think of themselves as educators and their customers as learners. (SK)

  11. The Coming of Knowledge-Based Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stan; Botkin, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth will come from knowledge-based businesses whose "smart" products filter and interpret information. Businesses will come to think of themselves as educators and their customers as learners. (SK)

  12. Optimality and sub-optimality in a bacterial growth law

    PubMed Central

    Towbin, Benjamin D.; Korem, Yael; Bren, Anat; Doron, Shany; Sorek, Rotem; Alon, Uri

    2017-01-01

    Organisms adjust their gene expression to improve fitness in diverse environments. But finding the optimal expression in each environment presents a challenge. We ask how good cells are at finding such optima by studying the control of carbon catabolism genes in Escherichia coli. Bacteria show a growth law: growth rate on different carbon sources declines linearly with the steady-state expression of carbon catabolic genes. We experimentally modulate gene expression to ask if this growth law always maximizes growth rate, as has been suggested by theory. We find that the growth law is optimal in many conditions, including a range of perturbations to lactose uptake, but provides sub-optimal growth on several other carbon sources. Combining theory and experiment, we genetically re-engineer E. coli to make sub-optimal conditions into optimal ones and vice versa. We conclude that the carbon growth law is not always optimal, but represents a practical heuristic that often works but sometimes fails. PMID:28102224

  13. Optimal inference with suboptimal models: Addiction and active Bayesian inference

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Wurst, Friedrich; Kronbichler, Martin; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    When casting behaviour as active (Bayesian) inference, optimal inference is defined with respect to an agent’s beliefs – based on its generative model of the world. This contrasts with normative accounts of choice behaviour, in which optimal actions are considered in relation to the true structure of the environment – as opposed to the agent’s beliefs about worldly states (or the task). This distinction shifts an understanding of suboptimal or pathological behaviour away from aberrant inference as such, to understanding the prior beliefs of a subject that cause them to behave less ‘optimally’ than our prior beliefs suggest they should behave. Put simply, suboptimal or pathological behaviour does not speak against understanding behaviour in terms of (Bayes optimal) inference, but rather calls for a more refined understanding of the subject’s generative model upon which their (optimal) Bayesian inference is based. Here, we discuss this fundamental distinction and its implications for understanding optimality, bounded rationality and pathological (choice) behaviour. We illustrate our argument using addictive choice behaviour in a recently described ‘limited offer’ task. Our simulations of pathological choices and addictive behaviour also generate some clear hypotheses, which we hope to pursue in ongoing empirical work. PMID:25561321

  14. Suboptimal Choice in Pigeons: Stimulus Value Predicts Choice over Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Alexandria R.; Chow, Jonathan J.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Zentall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons have shown suboptimal gambling-like behavior when preferring a stimulus that infrequently signals reliable reinforcement over alternatives that provide greater reinforcement overall. As a mechanism for this behavior, recent research proposed that the stimulus value of alternatives with more reliable signals for reinforcement will be preferred relatively independently of their frequencies. The present study tested this hypothesis using a simplified design of a Discriminative alternative that, 50% of the time, led to either a signal for 100% reinforcement or a blackout period indicative of 0% reinforcement against a Nondiscriminative alternative that always led to a signal that predicted 50% reinforcement. Pigeons showed a strong preference for the Discriminative alternative that remained despite reducing the frequency of the signal for reinforcement in subsequent phases to 25% and then 12.5%. In Experiment 2, using the original design of Experiment 1, the stimulus following choice of the Nondiscriminative alternative was increased to 75% and then to 100%. Results showed that preference for the Discriminative alternative decreased only when the signals for reinforcement for the two alternatives predicted the same probability of reinforcement. The ability of several models to predict this behavior are discussed, but the terminal link stimulus value offers the most parsimonious account of this suboptimal behavior. PMID:27441394

  15. Hypertension and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression: Why the Suboptimal Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Bidani, Anil K.; Griffin, Karen A.; Epstein, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Current therapeutic interventions to retard the progression of chronic kidney disease have yielded disappointing outcomes despite adequate renin-angiotensin system blockade. The parameters to gauge the adequacy of blood pressure control need to be reassessed because clinic blood pressure constitutes a poor gauge of such control. The biologically relevant parameter for hypertensive target organ damage is total blood pressure burden, and reliance on isolated clinic blood pressure measurements per se does not accurately reflect the total blood pressure burden. This is particularly relevant to the population with chronic kidney disease in whom masked daytime or nocturnal hypertension and blood pressure lability are both widely prevalent and more difficult to control. Consequently, it is possible that the limited success currently being achieved in preventing or attenuating chronic kidney disease progression may be attributable in part to suboptimal 24-hour blood pressure control. Recent data and analyses also indicate that blood pressure variability, instability, episodic and nocturnal blood pressure elevations, and maximum systolic blood pressure may constitute additional strong predictors of the risk of target organ damage independently of mean systolic blood pressure. Accordingly, we suggest that future research should include the development of safe and effective strategies to achieve around-the-clock blood pressure control in addition to targeting mechanisms that reduce intrarenal blood pressure transmission or interrupt subsequent downstream pathways. Meanwhile, more aggressive use of patient education and home blood pressure monitoring with selection of longer-acting antihypertensive agents or nocturnal dosing should be considered to improve the current suboptimal results. PMID:22906957

  16. Moments of solutions of evolution equations and suboptimal programmed controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrychev, D. A.

    2007-08-01

    Moments of solutions of non-linear differential equations subjected to random perturbations satisfy infinite systems of equations that do not contain finite closed subsystems. One of the methods for approximate solution of such infinite systems consists in replacing them by finite systems obtained from the original one as a result of equating to zero all the moments of sufficiently high order. It is shown that the moments of solutions of a wide class of ordinary differential equations, as well as of certain classes of partial differential equations, are approximated by solutions of those finite systems. The results obtained are used for constructing suboptimal programmed controls of dynamical systems with random parameters. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  17. Suboptimal greedy power allocation schemes for discrete bit loading.

    PubMed

    Al-Hanafy, Waleed; Weiss, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We consider low cost discrete bit loading based on greedy power allocation (GPA) under the constraints of total transmit power budget, target BER, and maximum permissible QAM modulation order. Compared to the standard GPA, which is optimal in terms of maximising the data throughput, three suboptimal schemes are proposed, which perform GPA on subsets of subchannels only. These subsets are created by considering the minimum SNR boundaries of QAM levels for a given target BER. We demonstrate how these schemes can significantly reduce the computational complexity required for power allocation, particularly in the case of a large number of subchannels. Two of the proposed algorithms can achieve near optimal performance including a transfer of residual power between subsets at the expense of a very small extra cost. By simulations, we show that the two near optimal schemes, while greatly reducing complexity, perform best in two separate and distinct SNR regions.

  18. Suboptimal Greedy Power Allocation Schemes for Discrete Bit Loading

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We consider low cost discrete bit loading based on greedy power allocation (GPA) under the constraints of total transmit power budget, target BER, and maximum permissible QAM modulation order. Compared to the standard GPA, which is optimal in terms of maximising the data throughput, three suboptimal schemes are proposed, which perform GPA on subsets of subchannels only. These subsets are created by considering the minimum SNR boundaries of QAM levels for a given target BER. We demonstrate how these schemes can significantly reduce the computational complexity required for power allocation, particularly in the case of a large number of subchannels. Two of the proposed algorithms can achieve near optimal performance including a transfer of residual power between subsets at the expense of a very small extra cost. By simulations, we show that the two near optimal schemes, while greatly reducing complexity, perform best in two separate and distinct SNR regions. PMID:24501578

  19. Feature-preserving surface mesh smoothing via suboptimal Delaunay triangulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A method of triangular surface mesh smoothing is presented to improve angle quality by extending the original optimal Delaunay triangulation (ODT) to surface meshes. The mesh quality is improved by solving a quadratic optimization problem that minimizes the approximated interpolation error between a parabolic function and its piecewise linear interpolation defined on the mesh. A suboptimal problem is derived to guarantee a unique, analytic solution that is significantly faster with little loss in accuracy as compared to the optimal one. In addition to the quality-improving capability, the proposed method has been adapted to remove noise while faithfully preserving sharp features such as edges and corners of a mesh. Numerous experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  20. Risk of Suboptimal Iodine Intake in Pregnant Norwegian Women

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway. PMID:23389302

  1. Predictors of suboptimal breastfeeding: an opportunity for public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Šegvić, Olga; Vučković Vukušić, Ana; Lozančić, Toni; Božinović, Toni; Ćuže, Anamarija; Burmaz, Tea

    2016-04-01

    Sub-optimum breastfeeding significantly contributes to the global burden of disease. Our aim was to identify risk factors associated with suboptimal breastfeeding in Southern Croatia. Between February 2008 and August 2009, 773 mother-infant pairs were recruited from University Hospital of Split Maternity Unit. Mothers were interviewed at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Ninety-nine percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding but only 2.2% of them exclusively breastfed whilst in hospital. At 24 months, 4.1% of mothers were breastfeeding. Exclusive and any breastfeeding at 3 months was negatively associated with maternal education of 12 years or less, smoking during pregnancy, intention to use a pacifier and in-hospital formula supplementation. In addition, exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months was negatively associated with primiparity, antenatal course non-attendance and not receiving assistance with breastfeeding from hospital staff. Antenatal course non-attendance and discussing infant feeding with a health professional during pregnancy lowered the odds for any breastfeeding at 6 months. At 12 and 24 months, a lower level of education, antenatal course non-attendance and not receiving advice in hospital on feeding frequency was significantly associated with lower odds of breastfeeding. Additionally, intention to use a pacifier was found to be a negative predictor of breastfeeding at 12 months. Important modifiable risk factors found to be significantly associated with suboptimal breastfeeding include smoking during pregnancy, intention to use a pacifier, in-hospital formula supplementation, not receiving advice from hospital staff on normal feeding patterns, not receiving assistance with breastfeeding in hospital and antenatal course non-attendance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Suboptimal projective control of a pressurized water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Saif, M. )

    1989-12-01

    The time- and oxide field-dependencies of interface trap (N{sub it}) formation in MOSFETs have been studied following pulsed ionizing radiation. Results are compared with the two-stage model for Nit formation involving slow drift of radiation-induced H{sup +} ions in the SiO{sub 2}. Detailed data on the gate oxide field dependence during each individual stage are presented and discussed. A model is developed for the production of H{sup +} throughout the oxide. Calculations based on this model correctly predict the complete time dependent N{sub it} formation is at a maximum near zero first stage gate bias. This unexpected behavior apparently arises from the oxide field dependence of the H{sup +} production during the first stage. A suboptimal output feedback approach for control of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) in the H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant is presented. Optimal state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory with pole placement capability is extended to obtain a suboptimal projective controller for such cases where the entire state vector is inaccessible for measurement and feedback purposes. The appealing feature of the proposed approach is that it is possible to select the weighting matrices in the quadratic cost functional such that the resulting control law would nearly minimize the cost, and at the same time can assign a subspectrum of the closed-loop system to preassigned desired locations. Additionally, the design algorithm is computationally attractive, since regardless of the dimension of the PWR model the approach mainly involves low-order matrix computations.

  3. Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Stephen M.; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT) describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus “strength” to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time. PMID:28046006

  4. Suboptimal Criterion Learning in Static and Dynamic Environments.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elyse H; Fleming, Stephen M; Daw, Nathaniel D; Landy, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    Humans often make decisions based on uncertain sensory information. Signal detection theory (SDT) describes detection and discrimination decisions as a comparison of stimulus "strength" to a fixed decision criterion. However, recent research suggests that current responses depend on the recent history of stimuli and previous responses, suggesting that the decision criterion is updated trial-by-trial. The mechanisms underpinning criterion setting remain unknown. Here, we examine how observers learn to set a decision criterion in an orientation-discrimination task under both static and dynamic conditions. To investigate mechanisms underlying trial-by-trial criterion placement, we introduce a novel task in which participants explicitly set the criterion, and compare it to a more traditional discrimination task, allowing us to model this explicit indication of criterion dynamics. In each task, stimuli were ellipses with principal orientations drawn from two categories: Gaussian distributions with different means and equal variance. In the covert-criterion task, observers categorized a displayed ellipse. In the overt-criterion task, observers adjusted the orientation of a line that served as the discrimination criterion for a subsequently presented ellipse. We compared performance to the ideal Bayesian learner and several suboptimal models that varied in both computational and memory demands. Under static and dynamic conditions, we found that, in both tasks, observers used suboptimal learning rules. In most conditions, a model in which the recent history of past samples determines a belief about category means fit the data best for most observers and on average. Our results reveal dynamic adjustment of discrimination criterion, even after prolonged training, and indicate how decision criteria are updated over time.

  5. Suboptimal care and maternal mortality among foreign-born women in Sweden: maternal death audit with application of the 'migration three delays' model.

    PubMed

    Esscher, Annika; Binder-Finnema, Pauline; Bødker, Birgit; Högberg, Ulf; Mulic-Lutvica, Ajlana; Essén, Birgitta

    2014-04-12

    Several European countries report differences in risk of maternal mortality between immigrants from low- and middle-income countries and host country women. The present study identified suboptimal factors related to care-seeking, accessibility, and quality of care for maternal deaths that occurred in Sweden from 1988-2010. A subset of maternal death records (n = 75) among foreign-born women from low- and middle-income countries and Swedish-born women were audited using structured implicit review. One case of foreign-born maternal death was matched with two native born Swedish cases of maternal death. An assessment protocol was developed that applied both the 'migration three delays' framework and a modified version of the Confidential Enquiry from the United Kingdom. The main outcomes were major and minor suboptimal factors associated with maternal death in this high-income, low-maternal mortality context. Major and minor suboptimal factors were associated with a majority of maternal deaths and significantly more often to foreign-born women (p = 0.01). The main delays to care-seeking were non-compliance among foreign-born women and communication barriers, such as incongruent language and suboptimal interpreter system or usage. Inadequate care occurred more often among the foreign-born (p = 0.04), whereas delays in consultation/referral and miscommunication between health care providers where equally common between the two groups. Suboptimal care factors, major and minor, were present in more than 2/3 of maternal deaths in this high-income setting. Those related to migration were associated to miscommunication, lack of professional interpreters, and limited knowledge about rare diseases and pregnancy complications. Increased insight into a migration perspective is advocated for maternity clinicians who provide care to foreign-born women.

  6. Suboptimal care of the acutely unwell ward patient: a concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Quirke, Sara; Coombs, Maureen; McEldowney, Rose

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a concept analysis of suboptimal care of the acutely unwell ward patient. Acutely unwell patients exhibit abnormal vital signs which are either not recognized or are treated inappropriately. This is frequently termed 'suboptimal care'. However, use of the term 'suboptimal care' is ambiguous and not clearly defined. Critical review of this concept is required to ensure nurses have a better understanding of why and how suboptimal care occurs. Electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane) were searched for literature related to suboptimal care of acutely unwell ward patients. Reference lists from relevant publications were reviewed. No date or language restrictions were imposed. Only articles relevant to suboptimal care of the acutely unwell adult ward patient were included. All literature reviewed was in English and was published between 1990 and 2009. The Walker and Avant approach was used. The attributes of suboptimal care are delays in diagnosis, treatment or referral, poor assessment and inadequate or inappropriate patient management. These attributes are preceded by contextual antecedents which can be categorized into patient complexity, healthcare workforce, organization and education factors. Suboptimal care may have catastrophic consequences for patients such as death, Intensive Care Unit admission or cardiac arrests which are preventable or avoidable. For future research, investigators need to develop more objective measures which capture delays in the treatment and inappropriate or inadequate management of acutely unwell patients. This should occur through critical focus on the antecedents to suboptimal care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Determinants of suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hazir, Tabish; Akram, Dure-Samin; Nisar, Yasir Bin; Kazmi, Narjis; Agho, Kingsley E; Abbasi, Saleem; Khan, Amira M; Dibley, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding is estimated to reduce infant mortality in low-income countries by up to 13 %. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk factors associated with suboptimal breast-feeding practices in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study using data extracted from the multistage cluster sample survey of the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2006-2007. A nationally representative sample of households. Last-born alive children aged 0-23 months (total weighted sample size 3103). The prevalences of timely initiation of breast-feeding, bottle-feeding in children aged 0-23 months, exclusive breast-feeding and predominant breast-feeding in infants aged 0-5 months were 27·3 %, 32·1 %, 37·1 % and 18·7 %, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that working mothers (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·87; P = 0·001) and mothers who delivered by Caesarean section (OR = 1·95, 95 % CI 1·30, 2·90; P = 0·001) had significantly higher odds for no timely initiation of breast-feeding. Mothers from North West Frontier Province were significantly less likely (OR = 0·37, 95 % CI 0·23, 0·59; P < 0·001) not to breast-feed their babies exclusively. Mothers delivered by traditional birth attendants had significantly higher odds to predominantly breast-feed their babies (OR = 1·96, 95 % CI 1·18, 3·24; P = 0·009). The odds of being bottle-fed was significantly higher in infants whose mothers had four or more antenatal clinic visits (OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·46, 2·55; P < 0·001) and belonged to the richest wealth quintile (OR = 2·41, 95 % CI 1·62, 3·58; P < 0·001). The majority of Pakistani mothers have suboptimal breast-feeding practices. To gain the full benefits of breast-feeding for child health and nutrition, there is an urgent need to develop interventions to improve the rates of exclusive breast-feeding.

  8. Interpreting Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Estill, Robert

    A study investigated the immediate comprehension processes involved in the interpretation of English idiomatic expressions. Idioms such as "bury the hatchet" were presented to 48 college students in sentential contexts that either biased the subject toward a literal or a figurative interpretation or left the interpretation ambiguous. In control…

  9. Adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode control for microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incremona, Gian Paolo; Cucuzzella, Michele; Ferrara, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the design of adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode (ASSOSM) control laws for grid-connected microgrids. Due to the presence of the inverter, of unpredicted load changes, of switching among different renewable energy sources, and of electrical parameters variations, the microgrid model is usually affected by uncertain terms which are bounded, but with unknown upper bounds. To theoretically frame the control problem, the class of second-order systems in Brunovsky canonical form, characterised by the presence of matched uncertain terms with unknown bounds, is first considered. Four adaptive strategies are designed, analysed and compared to select the most effective ones to be applied to the microgrid case study. In the first two strategies, the control amplitude is continuously adjusted, so as to arrive at dominating the effect of the uncertainty on the controlled system. When a suitable control amplitude is attained, the origin of the state space of the auxiliary system becomes attractive. In the other two strategies, a suitable blend between two components, one mainly working during the reaching phase, the other being the predominant one in a vicinity of the sliding manifold, is generated, so as to reduce the control amplitude in steady state. The microgrid system in a grid-connected operation mode, controlled via the selected ASSOSM control strategies, exhibits appreciable stability properties, as proved theoretically and shown in simulation.

  10. Suboptimal health: a new health dimension for translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One critical premise of disease-related biomarkers is the definition of the counterpart normality. Contrary to pre-clinical models that can be carefully tailored according to scientific need, heterogeneity and uncontrollability is the essence of humans in health studies. Fully characterization of consistent parameters that define the normal population is the basis to individual differences normalization irrelevant to a given disease process. Self claimed normal status may not represent health because asymptomatic subjects may carry chronic diseases or diseases at their early stage such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension. Methods This paper exemplifies the characterization of the suboptimal health status (SHS) which represents a new public health problem in a population with ambiguous health complaints such as general weakness, unexplained medical syndrome and chronic fatigue. We applied clinical informatics approaches and developed a questionnaire for measuring SHS. The validity and reliability of this approach were evaluated in a small pilot study and then in a cross-sectional study of 3,405 individuals. Results The final questionnaire congregated into a score (SHSQ-25) which could significantly distinguish among several abnormal conditions. Conclusion SHSQ-25 could be used as a translational medicine instrument for health measuring in the general population. PMID:23369267

  11. Prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, M N; Kiely, M; Higgins, J R; Cashman, K D

    2008-09-01

    Low maternal vitamin D status has been associated with reduced intrauterine long bone growth and shorter gestation, decreased birth weight, as well as reduced childhood bone-mineral accrual. Despite data from other countries indicating low maternal vitamin D status is common during pregnancy, there is a dearth of information about vitamin D status during pregnancy in the Irish female population. Therefore, we prospectively assessed vitamin D nutritive status and the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in a cohort of Irish pregnant women. The mean (SD) daily intake of vitamin D by the group of pregnant women was 3.6 (1.9) microg/day. None of the women achieved the recommended daily vitamin D intake value for Irish pregnant women (10 microg/day). Taking all three trimesters collectively, 14.3-23.7% and 34.3-52.6% of Irish women had vitamin D deficiency (serum 25 (OH) D <25 nmol/l) and insufficiency (serum 25 (OH) D 25-50 nmol/l), respectively during pregnancy. Both the levels of serum 25 (OH) D and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/adequacy were dramatically influenced by season, with status being lowest during the extended winter period and best during the extended summer period. These findings show that inadequate vitamin D status is common in Irish pregnant women.

  12. Treatment of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae: suboptimal efficacy of polymyxins.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M S; de Assis, D B; Freire, M P; Boas do Prado, G V; Machado, A S; Abdala, E; Pierrotti, L C; Mangini, C; Campos, L; Caiaffa Filho, H H; Levin, A S

    2015-02-01

    Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections (KPC-EI) remains a challenge. Combined therapy has been proposed as the best choice, but there are no clear data showing which combination therapy is superior. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial regimens for treating KPC-EI. This was a retrospective cohort study of KPC-EI nosocomial infections (based on CDC criteria) between October 2009 and June 2013 at three tertiary Brazilian hospitals. The primary outcomes were the 30-day mortality for all infections and the 30-day mortality for patients with bacteraemia. Risk factors for mortality were evaluated by comparing clinical variables of survivors and nonsurvivors. In this study, 118 patients were included, of whom 78 had bacteraemia. Catheter-related bloodstream infections were the most frequent (43%), followed by urinary tract infections (n = 27, 23%). Monotherapy was used in 57 patients and combined treatment in 61 patients. The most common therapeutic combination was polymyxin plus carbapenem 20 (33%). Multivariate analysis for all infections (n = 118) and for bacteremic infections (n = 78) revealed that renal failure at the end of treatment, use of polymyxin and older age were prognostic factors for mortality. In conclusion, polymyxins showed suboptimal efficacy and combination therapy was not superior to monotherapy. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The University-Business Nexus in Australia. Go8 Backgrounder 26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    An effective innovation system requires productive interactions between all its parts. Within Australia there is a view that business-university interactions are suboptimal. Government has set a target for doubling the interactions between business and publicly funded researchers by 2020; and the Group of Eight has a strategic priority to build…

  14. Fishy Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1988-01-01

    The IRS argues that income from alumni associations group life and medical insurance policies is business profit, not tax-exempt contributions to its member associations. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) is described. (MLW)

  15. Business Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how to do business with EPA's Clean Air Markets, including registering to use the Emissions Collection and Monitoring Plan System (ECMPS), the CAMD Business System (CBS), and learn how to submit monitored emissions data.

  16. Optimal web investment in sub-optimal foraging conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmer, Aaron M. T.; Kokko, Hanna; Herberstein, Marie E.; Madin, Joshua S.

    2012-01-01

    Orb web spiders sit at the centre of their approximately circular webs when waiting for prey and so face many of the same challenges as central-place foragers. Prey value decreases with distance from the hub as a function of prey escape time. The further from the hub that prey are intercepted, the longer it takes a spider to reach them and the greater chance they have of escaping. Several species of orb web spiders build vertically elongated ladder-like orb webs against tree trunks, rather than circular orb webs in the open. As ladder web spiders invest disproportionately more web area further from the hub, it is expected they will experience reduced prey gain per unit area of web investment compared to spiders that build circular webs. We developed a model to investigate how building webs in the space-limited microhabitat on tree trunks influences the optimal size, shape and net prey gain of arboricolous ladder webs. The model suggests that as horizontal space becomes more limited, optimal web shape becomes more elongated, and optimal web area decreases. This change in web geometry results in decreased net prey gain compared to webs built without space constraints. However, when space is limited, spiders can achieve higher net prey gain compared to building typical circular webs in the same limited space. Our model shows how spiders optimise web investment in sub-optimal conditions and can be used to understand foraging investment trade-offs in other central-place foragers faced with constrained foraging arenas.

  17. Coeliac disease screening is suboptimal in a tertiary gastroenterology setting.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Heba; Gray, Darrell M; Vu, Hongha; Mirza, Faiz; Rude, Mary Katherine; Regan, Kara; Abdalla, Adil; Gaddam, Srinivas; Almaskeen, Sami; Mello, Michael; Marquez, Evelyn; Meyer, Claire; Bolkhir, Ahmed; Kanuri, Navya; Sayuk, Gregory; Gyawali, C Prakash

    2017-08-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is widely prevalent in North America, but case-finding techniques currently used may not be adequate for patient identification. We aimed to determine the adequacy of CD screening in an academic gastroenterology (GI) practice. Consecutive initial visits to a tertiary academic GI practice were surveyed over a 3-month period as a fellow-initiated quality improvement project. All electronic records were reviewed to look for indications for CD screening according to published guidelines. The timing of screening was noted (before or after referral), as well as the screening method (serology or biopsy). Data were analysed to compare CD screening practices across subspecialty clinics. 616 consecutive patients (49±0.6 years, range 16-87 years, 58.5% females, 94% Caucasian) fulfilled inclusion criteria. CD testing was indicated in 336 (54.5%), but performed in only 145 (43.2%). The need for CD screening was highest in luminal GI and inflammatory bowel disease clinics, followed by biliary and hepatology clinics (p<0.0001); CD screening rate was highest in the luminal GI clinic (p=0.002). Of 145 patients screened, 4 patients (2.4%) had serology consistent with CD, of which 2 were proven by duodenal biopsy. Using this proportion, an additional 5 patients might have been diagnosed in 191 untested patients with indications for CD screening. More than 50% of patients in a tertiary GI clinic have indications for CD screening, but <50% of indicated cases are screened. Case-finding techniques therefore are suboptimal, constituting a gap in patient care and an important target for future quality improvement initiatives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Suboptimal use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Başaran, Özcan; Dogan, Volkan; Beton, Osman; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Aykan, Ahmet Cağri; Kalaycioğlu, Ezgi; Bolat, Ismail; Taşar, Onur; Şafak, Özgen; Kalcik, Macit; Yaman, Mehmet; İnci, Sinan; Altintaş, Bernas; Kalkan, Sedat; Kirma, Cevat; Biteker, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the potential misuse of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and the physicians’ adherence to current European guideline recommendations in real-world using a large dataset from Real-life Multicenter Survey Evaluating Stroke Prevention Strategies in Turkey (RAMSES Study). RAMSES study is a prospective, multicenter, nationwide registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02344901). In this subgroup analysis of RAMSES study, patients who were on NOACs were classified as appropriately treated (AT), undertreated (UT), and overtreated (OT) according to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. The independent predictors of UT and OT were determined by multivariate logistic regression. Of the 2086 eligible patients, 1247 (59.8%) received adequate treatment. However, off-label use was detected in 839 (40.2%) patients; 634 (30.4%) patients received UT and 205 (9.8%) received OT. Independent predictors of UT included >65 years of age, creatinine clearance ≥50 mL/min, urban living, existing dabigatran treatment, and HAS-BLED score of <3, whereas that of OT were creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, ongoing rivaroxaban treatment, and HAS-BLED score of ≥3. The suboptimal use of NOACs is common because of physicians’ poor compliance to the guideline recommendations in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Older patients who were on dabigatran treatment with good renal functions and low risk of bleeding were at risk of UT, whereas patients who were on rivaroxaban treatment with renal impairment and high risk of bleeding were at risk of OT. Therefore, a greater emphasis should be given to prescribe the recommended dose for the specified patients. PMID:27583892

  19. Understanding suboptimal human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among ethnic minority girls.

    PubMed

    Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth A; Tsui, Jennifer; Chang, L Cindy; Marchand, Erica J; Taylor, Victoria M; Singhal, Rita

    2011-07-01

    The introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines represents a breakthrough in the primary prevention of cervical cancer. However, little is known about vaccination uptake and correlates among low-income, ethnic minority, and immigrant populations in the U.S. who may benefit most from the vaccine. Telephone interviews (N = 490) were conducted in six languages between January and November 2009 among mothers of vaccine-eligible girls (ages 9-18) using the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Office of Women's Health service referral hotline. HPV and vaccine awareness, knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and daughter's vaccine receipt were assessed. The sample consisted of low-income, uninsured, ethnic minority, and immigrant women. Only 29% of daughters initiated the vaccine and 11% received all three doses. No ethnic differences were observed in initiation or completion rates. Ethnic differences were observed in HPV awareness, perceived risk, and other vaccine-related beliefs. The strongest predictor of initiation was vaccine awareness (OR = 12.00). Daughter's age and reporting a younger acceptable age for vaccination were positively associated with initiation. Mothers of unvaccinated girls reported lacking information about the vaccine to make a decision (66%) and not knowing where they could obtain the vaccine (74%). Vaccination rates in this sample were lower than state and national estimates, and were associated with low levels of vaccine awareness. Interventions, including culturally targeted messaging, may be helpful for enhancing HPV-vaccine knowledge, modifying vaccine-related beliefs and increasing uptake. Our findings provide valuable guidance for developing interventions to address suboptimal HPV vaccination in high-risk groups. ©2011 AACR

  20. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  1. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  2. Indicators of suboptimal tumor necrosis factor antagonist therapy in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, James O; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Gisbert, Javier P; Bokemeyer, Bernd; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Smyth, Michael; Patel, Haridarshan

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is refractory to treatment in one-half of patients. To evaluate the occurrence of suboptimal therapy among patients with IBD treated with tumor necrosis factor antagonists (anti-TNFs). A multinational chart review in Europe and Canada was conducted among IBD patients diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) who initiated anti-TNF therapy between 2009 and 2013. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of suboptimal therapy during a two-year follow-up period, defined by the presence of the following indicators: dose escalation, discontinuation, switching, non-biologic therapy escalation, or surgery. The study included 1195 anti-TNF initiators (538 UC and 657 CD). The majority of patients (64% of UC and 58% of CD) had at least one indicator of suboptimal therapy. The median time to suboptimal therapy indicator was 12.5 and 17.5 months for UC and CD patients, respectively. Among the 111 UC and 174 CD anti-TNF switchers, 51% and 56% had an indicator of suboptimal therapy, respectively. The median time to suboptimal therapy indicator with the second anti-TNF was 14.3 and 13.0 months for UC and CD patients, respectively. The majority of IBD patients showed suboptimal therapy with current anti-TNFs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Suggestions on how to make suboptimal kidney transplantation an ethically viable option

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Vincenzo; Buccelli, Claudio; De Micco, Francesco; Casella, Claudia; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Paternoster, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To overcome kidney donation, the pool of potentially eligible donors has been widened by using suboptimal organs harvested from living donors or cadavers. These organs may engender health complications as age, risk factors, and pathologies of donors fail to meet the standard donor criteria. After examining a wide array of literature on suboptimal kidney transplants, we evidenced two major issues: the lack of standardized terminology and the lack of longterm data on the health outcomes of both suboptimal living donors and recipients. Consequently, surgeons are still unable to provide patients with thorough information to obtain a well-informed consent. Suboptimal kidney transplantation still remains in its experimental stage, thereby raising many ethical and medico-legal concerns. We suggest that one possible solution to overcome some of the ethical shortcomings of suboptimal kidney donations is to provide living donors and recipients honest, accurate, and thorough information about its health risks. To this aim, we advocate adopting a widely standardized terminology that would embrace the whole concept of suboptimal kidney transplantation, increasing the number of future publications on the health outcomes of living donors and recipients, spurring ethical reflection to improve the experience of suboptimal kidney transplantation and reduce the waiting-list for kidney transplantation. PMID:28352845

  4. Suggestions on how to make suboptimal kidney transplantation an ethically viable option.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Vincenzo; Buccelli, Claudio; Capasso, Emanuele; De Micco, Francesco; Casella, Claudia; Di Lorenzo, Pierpaolo; Paternoster, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    To overcome kidney donation, the pool of potentially eligible donors has been widened by using suboptimal organs harvested from living donors or cadavers. These organs may engender health complications as age, risk factors, and pathologies of donors fail to meet the standard donor criteria. After examining a wide array of literature on suboptimal kidney transplants, we evidenced two major issues: the lack of standardized terminology and the lack of longterm data on the health outcomes of both suboptimal living donors and recipients. Consequently, surgeons are still unable to provide patients with thorough information to obtain a well-informed consent. Suboptimal kidney transplantation still remains in its experimental stage, thereby raising many ethical and medico-legal concerns. We suggest that one possible solution to overcome some of the ethical shortcomings of suboptimal kidney donations is to provide living donors and recipients honest, accurate, and thorough information about its health risks. To this aim, we advocate adopting a widely standardized terminology that would embrace the whole concept of suboptimal kidney transplantation, increasing the number of future publications on the health outcomes of living donors and recipients, spurring ethical reflection to improve the experience of suboptimal kidney transplantation and reduce the waiting-list for kidney transplantation.

  5. Suboptimal cytoreduction in ovarian carcinoma is associated with molecular pathways characteristic of increased stromal activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenqiu; Beach, Jessica A.; Agadjanian, Hasmik; Jia, Dongyu; Aspuria, Paul-Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y.; Orsulic, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Suboptimal cytoreductive surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is associated with poor survival but it is unknown if poor outcome is due to the intrinsic biology of unresectable tumors or insufficient surgical effort resulting in residual tumor-sustaining clones. Our objective was to identify the potential molecular pathway(s) and cell type(s) that may be responsible for suboptimal surgical resection. Methods By comparing gene expression in optimally and suboptimally cytoreduced patients, we identified a gene network associated with suboptimal cytoreduction and explored the biological processes and cell types associated with this gene network. Results We show that primary tumors from suboptimally cytoreduced patients express molecular signatures that are typically present in a distinct molecular subtype of EOC characterized by increased stromal activation and lymphovascular invasion. Similar molecular pathways are present in EOC metastases, suggesting that primary tumors in suboptimally cytoreduced patients are biologically similar to metastatic tumors. We demonstrate that the suboptimal cytoreduction network genes are enriched in reactive tumor stroma cells rather than malignant tumor cells. Conclusion Our data suggest that the success of cytoreductive surgery is dictated by tumor biology, such as extensive stromal reaction and increased invasiveness, which may hinder surgical resection and ultimately lead to poor survival. PMID:26348314

  6. Practical Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, John C.

    This book provides something of a manual or “how-to” guide to the derivation of stratigraphic and structural information from multichannel seismic reflection profiles. Its emphasis is, as the title suggests, the practical business of just how one goes about extracting this information. I believe the intent is that one should be able to first read the book, then place it on the work table next to a reflection profile to be interpreted, and by examining the profile while thumbing through the book, find interpreted examples of features similar to those to be interpreted and hence be guided toward a geological interpretation of the data. The book is replete with examples—I counted more than 130 individual reflection profile segments illustrating commonly observed structural and stratigraphic features. Beyond this, the reader also gets a large amount of practical advice, such as the type of colored pencils and eraser to use, what phase of the reflecting event should be marked, how to fold the profiles to check for ties at line intersections, how to mark faults, the various types of unconformity, and many, many other intensely practical aspects of data interpretation.

  7. Suboptimal stochastic controller for an n-body spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V.

    1973-01-01

    The problem is studied of determining a stochastic optimal controller for an n-body spacecraft. The approach used in obtaining the stochastic controller involves the application, interpretation, and combination of advanced dynamical principles and the theoretical aspects of modern control theory. The stochastic controller obtained for a complicated model of a spacecraft uses sensor angular measurements associated with the base body to obtain smoothed estimates of the entire state vector, can be easily implemented, and enables system performance to be significantly improved.

  8. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  9. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  10. Interpreting Bones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weymouth, Patricia P.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity which introduces students to the nature and challenges of paleoanthropology. In the exercise, students identify diagrammed bones and make interpretations about the creature. Presents questions and tasks employed in the lesson. (ML)

  11. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Jiamsakul, Awachana; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Ditangco, Rossana; Li, Patrick CK; Phanuphak, Praphan; Sirisanthana, Thira; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Kantipong, Pacharee; Lee, Christopher KC; Mustafa, Mahiran; Merati, Tuti; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Singtoroj, Thida; Law, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) plays an important role in treatment outcomes. It is crucial to identify factors influencing adherence in order to optimize treatment responses. The aim of this study was to assess the rates of, and factors associated with, suboptimal adherence (SubAdh) in the first 24 months of ART in an Asian HIV cohort. Methods As part of a prospective resistance monitoring study, the TREAT Asia Studies to Evaluate Resistance Monitoring Study (TASER-M) collected patients’ adherence based on the World Health Organization-validated Adherence Visual Analogue Scale. SubAdh was defined in two ways: (i) <100% and (ii) <95%. Follow-up time started from ART initiation and was censored at 24 months, loss to follow-up, death, treatment switch, or treatment cessation for >14 days. Time was divided into four intervals: 0–6, 6–12, 12–18 and 18–24 months. Factors associated with SubAdh were analysed using generalized estimating equations. Results Out of 1316 patients, 32% ever reported <100% adherence and 17% ever reported <95%. Defining the outcome as SubAdh <100%, the rates of SubAdh for the four time intervals were 26%, 17%, 12% and 10%. Sites with an average of >2 assessments per patient per year had an odds ratio (OR)=0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) (0.55 to 0.90), p=0.006), compared to sites with ≤2 assessments per patient per year. Compared to heterosexual exposure, SubAdh was higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (OR=1.92, 95% CI (1.23 to 3.00), p=0.004) and lower in homosexual exposure (OR=0.52, 95% CI (0.38 to 0.71), p<0.001). Patients taking a nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor (NRTI+PI) combination were less likely to report adherence <100% (OR=0.36, 95% CI (0.20 to 0.67), p=0.001) compared to patients taking an NRTI and non-nucleoside transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI+NNRTI) combination. SubAdh decreased with increasing time on ART (all p<0.001). Similar associations were found with adherence

  12. Suboptimal response in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib: early identification and new therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2012-12-01

    In 2006 European LeukemiaNet proposed recommendations to define several categories of chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated front-line with imatinib. In 2009 an update of these recommendations was published: whereas it is clear how important is to switch rapidly to a second line of treatment in failure patients, the correct treatment of patients with sub-optimal response is still a matter of debate. Several groups have indeed shown that prognosis of patients with sub-optimal cytogenetic response is similar to that of failure patients, whereas lack of data exists for patients with sub-optimal molecular response at 18 months. In this article, we overview studies demonstrating prognostic implications of being suboptimal responders to imatinib as well as results of recent clinical trials testing new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in this setting.

  13. Effect of using suboptimal alignments in template-based protein structure prediction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Kihara, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Computational protein structure prediction remains a challenging task in protein bioinformatics. In the recent years, the importance of template-based structure prediction is increasing because of the growing number of protein structures solved by the structural genomics projects. To capitalize the significant efforts and investments paid on the structural genomics projects, it is urgent to establish effective ways to use the solved structures as templates by developing methods for exploiting remotely related proteins that cannot be simply identified by homology. In this work, we examine the effect of using suboptimal alignments in template-based protein structure prediction. We showed that suboptimal alignments are often more accurate than the optimal one, and such accurate suboptimal alignments can occur even at a very low rank of the alignment score. Suboptimal alignments contain a significant number of correct amino acid residue contacts. Moreover, suboptimal alignments can improve template-based models when used as input to Modeller. Finally, we use suboptimal alignments for handling a contact potential in a probabilistic way in a threading program, SUPRB. The probabilistic contacts strategy outperforms the partly thawed approach, which only uses the optimal alignment in defining residue contacts, and also the re-ranking strategy, which uses the contact potential in re-ranking alignments. The comparison with existing methods in the template-recognition test shows that SUPRB is very competitive and outperforms existing methods. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Effect of Using Suboptimal Alignments in Template-Based Protein Structure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Computational protein structure prediction remains a challenging task in protein bioinformatics. In the recent years, the importance of template-based structure prediction is increasing due to the growing number of protein structures solved by the structural genomics projects. To capitalize the significant efforts and investments paid on the structural genomics projects, it is urgent to establish effective ways to use the solved structures as templates by developing methods for exploiting remotely related proteins that cannot be simply identified by homology. In this work, we examine the effect of employing suboptimal alignments in template-based protein structure prediction. We showed that suboptimal alignments are often more accurate than the optimal one, and such accurate suboptimal alignments can occur even at a very low rank of the alignment score. Suboptimal alignments contain a significant number of correct amino acid residue contacts. Moreover, suboptimal alignments can improve template-based models when used as input to Modeller. Finally, we employ suboptimal alignments for handling a contact potential in a probabilistic way in a threading program, SUPRB. The probabilistic contacts strategy outperforms the partly thawed approach which only uses the optimal alignment in defining residue contacts and also the reranking strategy, which uses the contact potential in reranking alignments. The comparison with existing methods in the template-recognition test shows that SUPRB is very competitive and outperform existing methods. PMID:21058297

  15. Business Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…

  16. Business Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisk, Dorothy A.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes the increasing role of business in sponsoring Grand Awards for the top high school science students in each of 13 disciplines of the International Science and Engineering Fair. Phillips Petroleum Company and other businesses sponsor the student science awards to recognize gifted and talented students and to motivate other…

  17. Business & Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  18. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  19. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  20. Performing Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  1. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  2. 75 FR 39196 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... this notice to seek comment on its revised interpretation. In the Schwab Interpretation, the FAA... company's business. The ability of the Company to communicate with him is in no way dependent upon... nature of their employment. Recalling an individual from a vacation because of an emergency is clearly...

  3. Frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in an African diabetic population

    PubMed Central

    Kibirige, Davis; Akabwai, George Patrick; Kampiire, Leaticia; Kiggundu, Daniel Ssekikubo; Lumu, William

    2017-01-01

    Background Persistent suboptimal glycemic control is invariably associated with onset and progression of acute and chronic diabetic complications in diabetic patients. In Uganda, studies documenting the magnitude and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult ambulatory diabetic patients are limited. This study aimed at determining the frequency and predictors of suboptimal glycemic control in adult diabetic patients attending three urban outpatient diabetic clinics in Uganda. Methods In this hospital-based cross-sectional study, eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending outpatient diabetic clinics of three urban hospitals were consecutively enrolled over 11 months. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7%. Multivariable analysis was applied to determine the predictors. Results The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, and the majority of them were females (283, 66.9%). The median (interquartile range) HbA1c level was 9% (6.8%–12.4%). Suboptimal glycemic control was noted in 311 study participants, accounting for 73.52% of the participants. HbA1c levels of 7%–8%, 8.1%–9.9%, and ≥10% were noted in 56 (13.24%), 76 (17.97%), and 179 (42.32%) study participants, respectively. The documented predictors of suboptimal glycemic control were metformin monotherapy (odds ratio: 0.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.21–0.63, p<0.005) and insulin therapy (odds ratio: 2.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.41–4.12, p=0.001). Conclusion Suboptimal glycemic control was highly prevalent in this study population with an association to metformin monotherapy and insulin therapy. Strategies aimed at improving glycemic control in diabetes care in Uganda should be enhanced. PMID:28260942

  4. Predictors of suboptimal bowel preparation in asymptomatic patients undergoing average-risk screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Govani, Shail M; Elliott, Eric E; Menees, Stacy B; Judd, Stephanie L; Saini, Sameer D; Anastassiades, Constantinos P; Urganus, Annette L; Boyce, Suzanna J; Schoenfeld, Philip S

    2016-09-16

    To identify risk factors for a suboptimal preparation among a population undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy. Retrospective review of the University of Michigan and Veteran's Administration (VA) Hospital records from 2009 to identify patients age 50 and older who underwent screening or surveillance procedure and had resection of polyps less than 1 cm in size and no more than 2 polyps. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease or a family history of colorectal cancer were excluded. Suboptimal procedures were defined as procedure preparations categorized as fair, poor or inadequate by the endoscopist. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of suboptimal preparation. Of 4427 colonoscopies reviewed, 2401 met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of our population, 16% had a suboptimal preparation. African Americans were 70% more likely to have a suboptimal preparation (95%CI: 1.2-2.4). Univariable analysis revealed that narcotic and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) use, diabetes, prep type, site (VA vs non-VA), and presence of a gastroenterology (GI) fellow were associated with suboptimal prep quality. In a multivariable model controlling for gender, age, ethnicity, procedure site and presence of a GI fellow, diabetes [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.6-3.2], TCA use (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.3-4.9), narcotic use (OR = 1.7; 95%CI: 1.2-2.5) and Miralax-Gatorade prep vs 4L polyethylene glycol 3350 (OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.4-0.9) were associated with a suboptimal prep quality. Diabetes, narcotics use and TCA use were identified as predictors of poor preparation in screening colonoscopies while Miralax-Gatorade preps were associated with better bowel preparation.

  5. Predictors of suboptimal bowel preparation in asymptomatic patients undergoing average-risk screening colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Govani, Shail M; Elliott, Eric E; Menees, Stacy B; Judd, Stephanie L; Saini, Sameer D; Anastassiades, Constantinos P; Urganus, Annette L; Boyce, Suzanna J; Schoenfeld, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify risk factors for a suboptimal preparation among a population undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy. METHODS Retrospective review of the University of Michigan and Veteran’s Administration (VA) Hospital records from 2009 to identify patients age 50 and older who underwent screening or surveillance procedure and had resection of polyps less than 1 cm in size and no more than 2 polyps. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease or a family history of colorectal cancer were excluded. Suboptimal procedures were defined as procedure preparations categorized as fair, poor or inadequate by the endoscopist. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of suboptimal preparation. RESULTS Of 4427 colonoscopies reviewed, 2401 met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of our population, 16% had a suboptimal preparation. African Americans were 70% more likely to have a suboptimal preparation (95%CI: 1.2-2.4). Univariable analysis revealed that narcotic and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) use, diabetes, prep type, site (VA vs non-VA), and presence of a gastroenterology (GI) fellow were associated with suboptimal prep quality. In a multivariable model controlling for gender, age, ethnicity, procedure site and presence of a GI fellow, diabetes [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.6-3.2], TCA use (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.3-4.9), narcotic use (OR = 1.7; 95%CI: 1.2-2.5) and Miralax-Gatorade prep vs 4L polyethylene glycol 3350 (OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.4-0.9) were associated with a suboptimal prep quality. CONCLUSION Diabetes, narcotics use and TCA use were identified as predictors of poor preparation in screening colonoscopies while Miralax-Gatorade preps were associated with better bowel preparation. PMID:27668072

  6. Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Li, Ling-Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2017-01-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40–80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, <30 ng/mL) based on the 2011 Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors with the outcome. Of the 1139 participants, 25(OH)D concentration was suboptimal in 76.1%. In multivariable models, age ≤65 years (compared to age >65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. PMID:28327512

  7. Suboptimal treatment adherence in bipolar disorder: impact on clinical outcomes and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Jose Manuel; Maurino, Jorge; de Dios, Consuelo; Medina, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to assess drug treatment adherence in patients with bipolar disorder and to identify factors associated with adherence. The secondary aim was to analyze the impact of suboptimal adherence on clinical and functional outcomes. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of outpatients receiving an oral antipsychotic drug. Medication adherence was assessed combining the 10-item Drug Attitude Inventory, the Morisky Green Adherence Questionnaire, and the Compliance Rating Scale. Logistic regression was used to determine significant variables associated with suboptimal adherence to medication. Results Three hundred and three patients were enrolled into the study. The mean age was 45.9 ± 12.8 years, and 59.7% were females. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed suboptimal adherence. Disease severity and functioning were significantly worse in the suboptimal group than in the adherent group. Multivariate analysis showed depressive polarity of the last acute episode, presence of subsyndromal symptoms, and substance abuse/dependence to be significantly associated with suboptimal treatment adherence (odds ratios 3.41, 2.13, and 1.95, respectively). Conclusion A high prevalence of nonadherence was found in an outpatient sample with bipolar disorder. Identification of factors related to treatment adherence would give clinicians the opportunity to select more adequately patients who are eligible for potential adherence-focused interventions. PMID:23378745

  8. Prevalence and Determinants of Suboptimal Vitamin D Levels in a Multiethnic Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Man, Ryan Eyn Kidd; Li, Ling-Jun; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Wong, Tien Yin; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2017-03-22

    This population-based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels (assessed using circulating 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D)) in a multi-ethnic sample of Asian adults. Plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 1139 Chinese, Malay and Indians (40-80 years) were stratified into normal (≥30 ng/mL), and suboptimal (including insufficiency and deficiency, <30 ng/mL) based on the 2011 Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guidelines. Logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of demographic, lifestyle and clinical risk factors with the outcome. Of the 1139 participants, 25(OH)D concentration was suboptimal in 76.1%. In multivariable models, age ≤65 years (compared to age >65 years), Malay and Indian ethnicities (compared to Chinese ethnicity), and higher body mass index, HbA1c, education and income levels were associated with suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). In a population-based sample of Asian adults, approximately 75% had suboptimal 25(OH)D concentration. Targeted interventions and stricter reinforcements of existing guidelines for vitamin D supplementation are needed for groups at risk of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency.

  9. Building Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how Washington University (St. Louis, MO) converted odd space into a program allowing students to be shopkeepers for necessary services and the school assuming the role of landlord. Tips for overseeing student businesses are highlighted. (GR)

  10. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  11. [Effects of NO3- stress on cucumber seedling growth and magnesium absorbing under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Yang, Quan-yong; Wang, Xiu-feng; Han, Yu-rui; Yang, Jing-jing; Wei, Min; Yang, Feng-juan; Shi, Qing-hua; Li, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The effects of NO3- stress on the growth and the magnesium absorption of cucumber seedlings were investigated after 1 and 14 d of suboptimal temperature [18 °C/12 °C (day/night)] treatment. The results indicated that the growth, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII of cucumber seedlings were significantly inhibited by NO3- stress under suboptimal temperature. The magnesium content of cucumber seedlings was also significantly decreased compared with control treatment, especially in the IV treatment (suboptimal temperature +140 mmol · L(-1) NO3- + 1 mmol · L(-1) Mg2+), and the antagonistic impact of magnesium ion absorption on the absorption of potassium and calcium ion was observed. The magnesium deficiency symptom of cucumber seedlings could be partly alleviated by increasing the concentration of magnesium ion in the nutrient solution.

  12. Environmental Enrichment Affects Suboptimal, Risky, Gambling-Like Choice by Pigeons

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Kristina F.; Laude, Jennifer R.; Zentall, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Pigeons prefer a risky option with a low probability of a high payoff over a less risky option that results in more food. This finding is analogous to suboptimal human monetary gambling because in both cases there appears to be an overemphasis of the occurrence of the winning event and an underemphasis of the losing event. In the present research we found that pigeons that were exposed to an enriched environment (a large cage with three other pigeons for 4 hrs a day) were less likely to show this suboptimal choice behavior compared with typically housed laboratory pigeons in a control group. These results have implications for the mechanisms underlying suboptimal choice by humans (e.g., problem gamblers) and they suggest that a enriched environment may allow for enhanced self-control. PMID:23224431

  13. Stereoelectroencephalography: Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Bulacio, Juan C; Chauvel, Patrick; McGonigal, Aileen

    2016-12-01

    Intracranial EEG has been in use for more than 50 years in the presurgical evaluation of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. The stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) method has expanded very significantly over the last 5 years, in parallel with the increase in the number of complex cases (i.e., MRI-negative) being referred with medically intractable focal epilepsy to major epilepsy surgery centers. Some centers with extensive experience in subdural electrodes are indeed changing or have changed to SEEG as the principal exploration technique, which suggests that SEEG might offer specific benefits through its approach to accurately localizing the epileptogenic zone. However, interpretation of SEEG, which is a key step to its usefulness, may vary from one center to another. This may be due to different conceptual bases and the available expertise in each center. This heterogeneity in use of SEEG should be taken into account as it could contribute to erroneous conclusions and thus unfavorable outcome of epilepsy surgery. At present, there is a lack of guidelines for optimal SEEG use, although development of these is in progress. It remains challenging to translate SEEG interpretation into a practical approach to delineating surgical strategy. Identification of clear biomarkers will help in the definition of the epileptogenic zone and subsequent cortical resection. In addition, SEEG seems to be a unique tool for the in vivo investigation of human cerebral networks distributed over several lobes or sublobar structures, allowing a better understanding of their functioning.

  14. Limitations of GD-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI: can clinical parameters predict suboptimal hepatobiliary phase?

    PubMed

    Kobi, M; Paroder, V; Flusberg, M; Rozenblit, A M; Chernyak, V

    2017-01-01

    To establish cut-off levels of the clinical parameters, which would predict suboptimal 30 minutes delayed hepatobiliary phase (HBP) with high specificity. This retrospective study included patients with chronic liver disease who underwent hepatocellular carcinoma screening with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between 1 January 2011 and 30 November 2014. For each case, HBP was graded as adequate or suboptimal, based on Liver Image Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) criteria. The following laboratory data obtained within 3 months of the MRI date was extracted: total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB), serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), and International normalised ratio (INR). Model For End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were calculated as 3.78×ln[TB] + 11.2×ln[INR] + 9.57×ln[creatinine] + 6.43. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to establish cut-off values for predicting suboptimal HBP. Of 284 patients, 242 (85.2%) patients (91; 57.6% male) had an adequate HBP and 42 (14.8%) patients (13; 61.9% male) had suboptimal HBP, with mean ages of 58.5±9.7 years and 55±12.7 years, respectively (p=0.096). Areas under the ROC curve for predicting suboptimal HBP were 0.85 (95%CI 0.79-0.91) for the MELD score, 0.88 (95%CI 0.82-0.93) for TB, and 0.91 (95%CI 0.86-0.95) for DB. Accuracy, positive likelihood ratios and cut-off values for predicting suboptimal HBP were, respectively: 86.7% and 11.2 for the MELD score ≥16.7, 88.2% and 28.7 for TB ≥4.3 mg/dl, and 91.1% and 36.4 for DB ≥1.3 mg/dl. SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were not statistically significantly different between the groups. Cut-off levels of MELD score, DB, and TB can predict an suboptimal HBP with high accuracy. Prospective identification of patients with a high likelihood of an suboptimal HBP can help to avoid

  15. Not Noisy, Just Wrong: The Role of Suboptimal Inference in Behavioral Variability

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jeffrey M.; Ma, Wei Ji; Pitkow, Xaq; Latham, Peter E.; Pouget, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Behavior varies from trial to trial even when the stimulus is maintained as constant as possible. In many models, this variability is attributed to noise in the brain. Here, we propose that there is another major source of variability: suboptimal inference. Importantly, we argue that in most tasks of interest, and particularly complex ones, suboptimal inference is likely to be the dominant component of behavioral variability. This perspective explains a variety of intriguing observations, including why variability appears to be larger on the sensory than on the motor side, and why our sensors are sometimes surprisingly unreliable. PMID:22500627

  16. 12 CFR 563d.802 - Description of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Description of business. 563d.802 Section 563d... ASSOCIATIONS Interpretations § 563d.802 Description of business. (a) This section applies to the description-of-business portion of: (1) Registration statements filed on Form 10 (item 1) (17 CFR 249.210), (2) Proxy and...

  17. Indicators of suboptimal performance embedded in the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV).

    PubMed

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Schmand, Ben A; Kessels, Roy P C; Aldenkamp, Albert P

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of suboptimal performance using an analogue study design. The patient group consisted of 59 mixed-etiology patients; the experimental malingerers were 50 healthy individuals who were asked to simulate cognitive impairment as a result of a traumatic brain injury; the last group consisted of 50 healthy controls who were instructed to put forth full effort. Experimental malingerers performed significantly lower on all WMS-IV-NL tasks than did the patients and healthy controls. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed on the experimental malingerers and the patients. The first model contained the visual working memory subtests (Spatial Addition and Symbol Span) and the recognition tasks of the following subtests: Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates, Designs, Visual Reproduction. The results showed an overall classification rate of 78.4%, and only Spatial Addition explained a significant amount of variation (p < .001). Subsequent logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis supported the discriminatory power of the subtest Spatial Addition. A scaled score cutoff of <4 produced 93% specificity and 52% sensitivity for detection of suboptimal performance. The WMS-IV-NL Spatial Addition subtest may provide clinically useful information for the detection of suboptimal performance.

  18. Central suboptimal H ∞ controller design for linear time-varying systems with unknown parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basin, Michael V.; Soto, Pedro; Calderon-Alvarez, Dario

    2011-05-01

    This article presents the central finite-dimensional H ∞ controller for linear time-varying systems with unknown parameters, that is suboptimal for a given threshold γ with respect to a modified Bolza-Meyer quadratic criterion including the attenuation control term with the opposite sign. In contrast to the previously obtained results, this article reduces the original H ∞ controller problem to the corresponding H 2 controller problem, using the technique proposed in Doyle et al. [Doyle, J.C., Glover, K., Khargonekar, P.P., and Francis, B.A. (1989), 'State-space Solutions to Standard H 2 and H Infinity Control Problems', IEEE Transactions Automatic Control, 34, 831-847]. This article yields the central suboptimal H ∞ controller for linear systems with unknown parameters in a closed finite-dimensional form, based on the corresponding H 2 controller obtained in Basin and Calderon-Alvarez [Basin, M.V., and Calderon-Alvarez, D. (2008), 'Optimal LQG Controller for Linear Systems with Unknown Parameters', Journal of The Franklin Institute, 345, 293-302]. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify performance of the designed central suboptimal controller for uncertain linear systems with unknown parameters against the conventional central suboptimal H ∞ controller for linear systems with exactly known parameter values.

  19. Are theoretical perspectives useful to explain nurses' tolerance of suboptimal care?

    PubMed

    Price, Lesley; Duffy, Kathleen; McCallum, Jacqueline; Ness, Valerie

    2015-10-01

    This paper explores two theoretical perspectives that may help nurse managers understand why staff tolerate suboptimal standards of care. Standards of care have been questioned in relation to adverse events and errors for some years in health care across the western world. More recently, the focus has shifted to inadequate nursing standards with regard to care and compassion, and a culture of tolerance by staff to these inadequate standards. The theories of conformity and cognitive dissonance are analysed to investigate their potential for helping nurse managers to understand why staff tolerate suboptimal standards of care. The literature suggests that nurses appear to adopt behaviours consistent with the theory of conformity and that they may accept suboptimal care to reduce their cognitive dissonance. Nurses may conform to be accepted by the team. This may be confounded by nurses rationalising their care to reduce the cognitive dissonance they feel. The investigation into the Mid Staffordshire National Health Service called for a change in culture towards transparency, candidness and openness. Providing insights as to why some nursing staff tolerate suboptimal care may provide a springboard to allow nurse managers to consider the complexities surrounding this required transformation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The incidence of sub-optimal sedation in the ICU: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are generally sedated for prolonged periods. Over-sedation and under-sedation both have negative effects on patient safety and resource use. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to establish the incidence of sub-optimal sedation (both over- and under-sedation) in ICUs. Methods We searched Medline, Embase and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) online literature databases from 1988 to 15 May 2008 and hand-searched conferences. English-language studies set in the ICU, in sedated adult humans on mechanical ventilation, which reported the incidence of sub-optimal sedation, were included. All abstracts were reviewed twice by two independent reviewers, with all conflicts resolved by a third reviewer, to check that they met the review inclusion criteria. Full papers of all included studies were retrieved and were again reviewed twice against inclusion criteria. Data were doubly extracted. Study aims, design, population, comparisons made, and data on the incidence of sub-optimal, optimal, over-sedation or under-sedation were extracted. Results There was considerable variation between included studies in the definition of optimal sedation and in the scale or method used to assess sedation. Across all included studies, a substantial incidence of sub-optimal sedation was reported, with a greater tendency toward over-sedation. Conclusions Our review suggests that improvements in the consistent definition and measurement of sedation may improve the quality of care of patients within the ICU. PMID:20015357

  1. Incentive salience attribution is not the sole determinant of suboptimal choice in rats: Conditioned inhibition matters.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Montserrat; Alba, Rodrigo; Rodríguez, William; Orduña, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    Previous research has identified clear differences between pigeons and rats in the suboptimal choice procedure. Pigeons behave suboptimally, preferring an alternative with discriminative stimuli and a smaller probability of reinforcement, over another with a higher probability of reinforcement, but without discriminative stimuli. In contrast, rats behave optimally showing the opposite preference. It has been proposed that these dissimilarities are consequence of a higher sensitivity to conditioned inhibition in rats than in pigeons. Alternatively, recent research suggests that differences in optimality can be accounted for by a differential incentive salience of the stimuli employed as discriminative stimuli, and that both species are suboptimal when such stimuli have high incentive salience; specifically, rats were found to be suboptimal when levers were used as discriminative stimuli. However, in the evaluation of this hypothesis, a conditioned inhibitor was not employed. In the present report, eight rats were exposed to a choice procedure that integrated both variables discussed above: a conditioned inhibitor was associated with the discriminative alternative and the stimuli had high incentive salience. A clear preference for the optimal alternative was found, suggesting that the conditioned inhibitor had a considerable impact on rats' preference, and that species-differences remain even in procedures in which the discriminative stimuli have incentive salience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 12 CFR 225.112 - Indirect control of small business concern through convertible debentures held by small business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect control of small business concern through convertible debentures held by small business investment company. 225.112 Section 225.112 Banks... Interpretations § 225.112 Indirect control of small business concern through convertible debentures held by...

  3. Business Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Genigraphics Corporation's Masterpiece 8770 FilmRecorder is an advanced high resolution system designed to improve and expand a company's in-house graphics production. GRAFTIME/software package was designed to allow office personnel with minimal training to produce professional level graphics for business communications and presentations. Products are no longer being manufactured.

  4. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  5. Unfinished Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Adult learning is not a tidy business: adults fit learning into the spaces left by the other demands on complex lives, and into the spaces left in administrative structures overwhelmingly designed for other people. No simple metric can capture adults' diverse purposes and achievements, and no single programme can capture the full range of things…

  6. Business Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    A brief definition of some fundamentals of microcomputers and of the ways they may be used in small businesses can help potential buyers make informed purchases. Hardware (the mechanical devices from which computers are made) described here are the video display, keyboard, central processing unit, "random access" and "read only" memories, cassette…

  7. Business Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pactor, Paul

    1970-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Labor has projected a 106 percent increase in the demand for office machine operators over the next 10 years. Machines with a high frequency of use include printing calculators, 10-key adding machines, and key punch machines. The 12th grade is the logical time for teaching business machines. (CH)

  8. Business Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    A brief definition of some fundamentals of microcomputers and of the ways they may be used in small businesses can help potential buyers make informed purchases. Hardware (the mechanical devices from which computers are made) described here are the video display, keyboard, central processing unit, "random access" and "read only" memories, cassette…

  9. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  10. Prior commitment: Its effect on suboptimal choice in a gambling-like task.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R; Andrews, Danielle M; Case, Jacob P

    2017-09-20

    Animals choose suboptimally when provided with cues that signal whether reinforcement is coming or not. For example, pigeons do not prefer an alternative that always provides them with a signal for reinforcement over an alternative that provides them with a signal for reinforcement only half of the time and a signal for the absence of reinforcement the rest of the time. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that if the results of the choice are delayed, pigeons will choose less suboptimally. We tested this hypothesis by forcing pigeons to wait following their choice, requiring them to complete a fixed-interval 20-s schedule prior to receiving the signals for reinforcement. In Experiment 1, we gave the pigeons a choice between (a) a 50% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement or a 50% chance of receiving a signal for the absence of reinforcement and (b) a 100% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement. When the signal for reinforcement was delayed, most of the pigeons chose optimally. When it was not delayed, most of the pigeons chose suboptimally. In Experiment 2, we gave the pigeons a choice between (a) a 25% chance of receiving a signal for reinforcement or a 75% chance of receiving a signal for nonreinforcement and (b) a 100% chance of receiving an unreliable signal for reinforcement (predicting reinforcement 75% of the time). When the signal was not delayed, the pigeons showed a strong tendency to choose suboptimally but they chose suboptimally much less when the signal was delayed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Statin therapy reduces the likelihood of suboptimal blood pressure control among Ugandan adult diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Lumu, William; Kampiire, Leaticia; Akabwai, George Patrick; Kiggundu, Daniel Ssekikubo; Kibirige, Davis

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the recognized risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in adult diabetic patients. High prevalence of suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control has been well documented in the majority of studies assessing BP control in diabetic patients in sub-Saharan Africa. In Uganda, there is a dearth of similar studies. This study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of suboptimal BP control in an adult diabetic population in Uganda. Patients and methods This was a cross-sectional study that enrolled 425 eligible ambulatory adult diabetic patients attending three urban diabetic outpatient clinics over 11 months. Data about their sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history were collected using pre-tested questionnaires. Suboptimal BP control was defined according to the 2015 American Diabetes Association standards of diabetes care guideline as BP levels ≥140/90 mmHg. Results The mean age of the study participants was 52.2±14.4 years, with the majority being females (283, 66.9%). Suboptimal BP control was documented in 192 (45.3%) study participants and was independently associated with the study site (private hospitals; odds ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.18–3.43, P=0.01) and use of statin therapy (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.26–0.96, P=0.037). Conclusion Suboptimal BP control was highly prevalent in this study population. Strategies to improve optimal BP control, especially in the private hospitals, and the use of statin therapy should be encouraged in adult diabetic patients. PMID:28260908

  12. Factors associated with suboptimal compliance to vaccinations in children in developed countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Zarkadoulia, Effie

    2008-06-01

    The suboptimal compliance to vaccinations continues to be a major public health problem. We conducted a systematic review (PubMed and Cochrane databases) to evaluate factors associated with suboptimal compliance to vaccinations, focusing on children and adolescents in developed countries. We categorized studies according to whether they used an analytical statistical approach. We identified 553 potentially relevant articles and evaluated in detail 39 with original data. Factors influencing compliance to vaccinations related to parental-childhood characteristics and healthcare structure-professionals characteristics. Specifically, among the various parental-childhood characteristics studied, non-white race, low socioeconomic status, paying for immunization, lack of health insurance, low parental education, older age of the child, younger maternal age, large family size, late birth order, lack of knowledge about disease and vaccination, negative beliefs/attitudes towards immunization, fear of side-effects/risks/contraindications, not remembering vaccination schedules and appointments, sick child delays, and delayed well child visits were statistically significantly associated with suboptimal compliance. Among healthcare structure-professional characteristics were studied. Skepticism/doubts regarding provided medical information, inadequate support from healthcare providers, lack of available health structures, and problems concerning transportation and accessibility to immunization clinics were statistically significantly associated with suboptimal compliance to vaccination. By recognizing and understanding factors associated with suboptimal compliance to vaccinations we can better approach the risk populations and target our efforts at stressing and reinforcing the vital importance of immunizations. Methods to enhance compliance to vaccinations may include reminder calls/mail notification of parents, initiation of health education programs for parents and health

  13. Business Ownership and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaser, Ken, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Includes five articles: "Women in Management" (Zimmerer); "Business Boot Camp (interviews with young entrepreneurs)" (Kaser); "Plan Your Own Business Project" (Kohns); "Business Education and the Middle Level Student" (Patterson, Leblanc); and "Small Business Ownership Planning" (Fiber). (SK)

  14. Spatial accessibility in suboptimally configured health care systems: a modified two-step floating catchment area (M2SFCA) metric.

    PubMed

    Delamater, Paul L

    2013-11-01

    The floating catchment area (FCA) family of metrics employ principles from gravity-based models to incorporate supply, demand, and distance in their characterization of the spatial accessibility of health care resources. Unlike traditional gravity models, the FCA metrics provide an output in highly interpretable container-like units (e.g., physicians per person). This work explores two significant issues related to FCA metrics. First, the Three Step Floating Catchment Area is critically examined. Next, the research shows that all FCA metrics contain an underlying assumption that supply locations are optimally configured to meet the needs of the population within the system. Because truly optimal configurations are highly unlikely in real-world health care systems, a modified two-step floating catchment area (M2SFCA) metric is offered to address this issue. The M2SFCA is built upon previous FCA metrics, but allows for spatial accessibility to be discounted as a result of the suboptimal configuration of health care facilities within the system. The utility of the new metric is demonstrated through simulated data examples and a case study exploring acute care hospitals in Michigan. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  16. Business, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea

    1998-05-01

    The annual business meeting, which all members are encouraged to attend, will take place on Tuesday afternoon. Come enjoy the President's Ice Cream Party. Come meet new officers. Come nominate candidates for the Nominating Committee. The Nominating Committee is a very important body which provides the slate of candidates for the annual AAS election. Society business will be discussed briefly. Highlighting this meeting will be a panel discussion on: "How to Get Your Paper Published Promptly" Should I mention that Notable Authority Professor Hjalmar Sciatti hates me and my papers? When is it OK to start complaining that no report has arrived? Do I have to do everything the referee says? These and related questions will be addressed at the business meeting in a panel presentation by the editors of the three main AAS publications, Paul Hodge (AJ), Helmut Abt (ApJ), Alex Dalgarno (ApJ Letters), concerning the refereeing and editing process and how authors can interface with it most effectively. There will be time for questions and discussions toward the end, or you can send your questions in advance to askeds@aas.org, so that the most frequent ones can be covered in the presentations.

  17. Effect of suboptimal breast-feeding on occurrence of autism: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M; Waly, Mostafa I; Al-Farsi, Omar A; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed A; Al-Khaduri, Maha M; Trivedi, Malav S; Deth, Richard C

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the association between suboptimal breast-feeding practices and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A case-control study was conducted in 102 ASD cases and 102 matched healthy controls. Based on adjusted odds ratios from logistic regression models, ASD was found to be associated with the late initiation of breast-feeding (odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.1), a non-intake of colostrum (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.03-4.3), prelacteal feeding, and bottle-feeding. The risk of ASD was found to decrease in a dose-response fashion over increasing periods of exclusive breast-feeding (P for trend = 0.04) and continued breast-feeding (P for trend = 0.001). The study indicates that increased ASD risk is generally associated with suboptimal breast-feeding practices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Suboptimal LQR-based spacecraft full motion control: Theory and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnaccia, Leone; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Pastorelli, Stefano P.

    2016-05-01

    This work introduces a real time suboptimal control algorithm for six-degree-of-freedom spacecraft maneuvering based on a State-Dependent-Algebraic-Riccati-Equation (SDARE) approach and real-time linearization of the equations of motion. The control strategy is sub-optimal since the gains of the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) are re-computed at each sample time. The cost function of the proposed controller has been compared with the one obtained via a general purpose optimal control software, showing, on average, an increase in control effort of approximately 15%, compensated by real-time implementability. Lastly, the paper presents experimental tests on a hardware-in-the-loop six-degree-of-freedom spacecraft simulator, designed for testing new guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for nano-satellites in a one-g laboratory environment. The tests show the real-time feasibility of the proposed approach.

  19. Peptide Suboptimal Conformation Sampling for the Prediction of Protein-Peptide Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lamiable, Alexis; Thévenet, Pierre; Eustache, Stephanie; Saladin, Adrien; Moroy, Gautier; Tuffery, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The blind identification of candidate patches of interaction on the protein surface is a difficult task that can hardly be accomplished without a heuristic or the use of simplified representations to speed up the search. The PEP-SiteFinder protocol performs a systematic blind search on the protein surface using a rigid docking procedure applied to a limited set of peptide suboptimal conformations expected to approximate satisfactorily the conformation of the peptide in interaction. All steps rely on a coarse-grained representation of the protein and the peptide. While simple, such a protocol can help to infer useful information, assuming a critical analysis of the results. Moreover, such a protocol can be extended to a semi-flexible protocol where the suboptimal conformations are directly folded in the vicinity of the receptor.

  20. Settling for second best: when should doctors agree to parental demands for suboptimal medical treatment?

    PubMed

    Nair, Tara; Savulescu, Julian; Everett, Jim; Tonkens, Ryan; Wilkinson, Dominic

    2017-09-25

    Doctors sometimes encounter parents who object to prescribed treatment for their children, and request suboptimal substitutes be administered instead (suboptimal being defined as less effective and/or more expensive). Previous studies have focused on parental refusal of treatment and when this should be permitted, but the ethics of requests for suboptimal treatment has not been explored. The paper consists of two parts: an empirical analysis and an ethical analysis. We performed an online survey with a sample of the general public to assess respondents' thresholds for acceptable harm and expense resulting from parental choice, and the role that religion played in their judgement. We also identified and applied existing ethical frameworks to the case described in the survey to compare theoretical and empirical results. Two hundred and forty-two Mechanical Turk workers took our survey and there were 178 valid responses (73.6%). Respondents' agreement to provide treatment decreased as the risk or cost of the requested substitute increased (p<0.001). More than 50% of participants were prepared to provide treatment that would involve a small absolute increased risk of death for the child (<5%) and a cost increase of US$<500, respectively. Religiously motivated requests were significantly more likely to be allowed (p<0.001). Existing ethical frameworks largely yielded ambiguous results for the case. There were clear inconsistencies between the theoretical and empirical results. Drawing on both survey results and ethical analysis, we propose a potential model and thresholds for deciding about the permissibility of suboptimal treatment requests. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming Yeong; Magarey, Judy

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the self-care practices of Malaysian adults with diabetes and sub-optimal glycaemic control. Using a one-to-one interviewing approach, data were collected from 126 diabetic adults from four settings. A 75-item questionnaire was used to assess diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices regarding, diet, medication, physical activity and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). Most subjects had received advice on the importance of self-care in the management of their diabetes and recognised its importance. Sixty-seven subjects (53%) scored below 50% in their diabetes-related knowledge. Subjects who consumed more meals per day (80%), or who did not include their regular sweetened food intakes in their daily meal plan (80%), or who were inactive in daily life (54%), had higher mean fasting blood glucose levels (p=0.04). Subjects with medication non-adherence (46%) also tended to have higher fasting blood glucose levels. Only 15% of the subjects practiced SMBG. Predictors of knowledge deficit and poor self-care were low level of education (p = <0.01), older subjects (p=0.04) and Type 2 diabetes subjects on oral anti-hyperglycaemic medication (p = <0.01). There were diabetes-related knowledge deficits and inadequate self-care practices among the majority of diabetic patients with sub-optimal glycaemic control. This study should contribute to the development of effective education strategies to promote health for adults with sub-optimal diabetes control.

  2. Suboptimal choice in rats: Incentive salience attribution promotes maladaptive decision-making.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jonathan J; Smith, Aaron P; Wilson, A George; Zentall, Thomas R; Beckmann, Joshua S

    2017-03-01

    Stimuli that are more predictive of subsequent reward also function as better conditioned reinforcers. Moreover, stimuli attributed with incentive salience function as more robust conditioned reinforcers. Some theories have suggested that conditioned reinforcement plays an important role in promoting suboptimal choice behavior, like gambling. The present experiments examined how different stimuli, those attributed with incentive salience versus those without, can function in tandem with stimulus-reward predictive utility to promote maladaptive decision-making in rats. One group of rats had lights associated with goal-tracking as the reward-predictive stimuli and another had levers associated with sign-tracking as the reward-predictive stimuli. All rats were first trained on a choice procedure in which the expected value across both alternatives was equivalent but differed in their stimulus-reward predictive utility. Next, the expected value across both alternatives was systematically changed so that the alternative with greater stimulus-reward predictive utility was suboptimal in regard to primary reinforcement. The results demonstrate that in order to obtain suboptimal choice behavior, incentive salience alongside strong stimulus-reward predictive utility may be necessary; thus, maladaptive decision-making can be driven more by the value attributed to stimuli imbued with incentive salience that reliably predict a reward rather than the reward itself.

  3. When the learning environment is suboptimal: exploring medical students' perceptions of "mistreatment".

    PubMed

    Gan, Runye; Snell, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Despite widespread implementation of policies to address mistreatment, high rates of mistreatment during clinical training are reported, prompting the question of whether "mistreatment" means more to students than delineated in official codes of conduct. Understanding "mistreatment" from students' perspective and as it relates to the learning environment is needed before effective interventions can be implemented. The authors conducted focus groups with final-year medical students at McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 2012. Participants were asked to characterize "suboptimal learning experience" and "mistreatment." Transcripts were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Forty-one of 174 eligible students participated in six focus groups. Students described "mistreatment" as lack of respect or attack directed toward the person, and "suboptimal learning experience" as that which compromised their learning. Differing perceptions emerged as students debated whether "mistreatment" can be applied to negative learning environments as well as isolated incidents of mistreatment even though some experiences fell outside of the "official" label as per institutional policies. Whether students perceived "mistreatment" versus a "suboptimal learning experience" in negative environments appeared to be influenced by several key factors. A concept map integrating these ideas is presented. How students perceived negative situations during training appears to be a complex process. When medical students say "mistreatment," they may be referring to a spectrum, with incident-based mistreatment on one end and learning-environment-based mistreatment on the other. Multiple factors influenced how students perceived an environment-based negative situation and may provide strategies to improving the learning environment.

  4. Preoperative Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Is a Predictor of Suboptimal Cytoreduction in Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Wankyu; Kim, Hong-Bae; Lee, Yong Joo; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hyung; Kim, Heungyeol

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the preoperative lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) is a predictor of suboptimal cytoreduction in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: Preoperative clinico-pathologic and hematologic parameters were reviewed in a total of 154 patients with EOC submitted to primary cytoreductive surgery. Patients were categorized into two different groups according to the results of cytoreductive surgery: optimal and suboptimal cytoreduction. Continuous variables were categorized into two groups using the best cutoff points selected on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for suboptimal cytoreduction. Results: Based on data collected from the 154 patients, 133 (86.4%) and 21 (13.6%) patients presented with stage III and IV disease, respectively. One hundred seventeen (76.0%) patients had serous adenocarcinoma, and 92 (59.7%) had histologic tumor grade 3. The optimal and suboptimal cytoreduction groups included 96 (62.3%) and 58 patients (37.7%), respectively. The best LMR cutoff point for suboptimal cytoreduction was 3.75. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, age, cancer antigen 125, white blood cell count, and LMR were found to be the strongest predictors for suboptimal cytoreduction (P=0.0037, 0.0249, 0.0062, and 0.0015, respectively). Conclusion: Preoperative LMR is an independent predictor of suboptimal cytoreduction. It provides additional prognostic information beyond the biological parameters of the tumor. PMID:27698915

  5. Patients' characteristics and clinical implications of suboptimal CD4 T-cell gains after 1 year of successful antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Félix; Padilla, Sergio; Masiá, Mar; Iribarren, José A; Moreno, Santiago; Viciana, Pompeyo; Hernández-Quero, José; Alemán, Remedios; Vidal, Francesc; Salavert, Miguel; Blanco, José R; Leal, Manuel; Dronda, Fernando; Perez Hoyos, Santiago; del Amo, Julia

    2008-03-01

    To describe characteristics and prognosis of patients with suboptimal immunological response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART). Using data from a multicenter cohort study, we selected patients who initiated CART and showed suboptimal CD4-T cell response (defined as <50 cells/L increase) after 1 year of therapy, despite sustained virological suppression. Characteristics of those patients were compared with subjects who showed optimal immunological response. Of 650 patients with virological suppression, 108 (16.6%) showed suboptimal CD4-T cell response. Independent predictors of suboptimal response were previous injection drug use (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.12-2.98) and age at CART initiation (OR, 1.04 per year increase; 95%CI, 1.01-1.06). Hepatitis C virus coinfection was not associated with impaired immunological response. As compared with patients with optimal immunological response, those with suboptimal response had a higher mortality rate (3.22 versus 0.71 per 100 person-years; p=.001), but a similar rate of new AIDS-defining events. In patients with sustained virological suppression with CART, previous injection drug use, but not hepatitis C virus coinfection, and older age at initiation of therapy were associated with suboptimal CD4 T-cell responses. Patients with suboptimal response had a higher mortality over time, mainly due to diseases other than AIDS-defining events.

  6. Business Continuity Management Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    13 B. BUSINESS IMPACT ANALYSIS ................................................................17 C. RECOVERY STRATEGY...Business Continuity Institute BCM business continuity management BCP business continuity plan BIA business impact analysis... environmental , health and safety ERP Enterprise Resource Planning FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FISMA Federal Information Security Management

  7. Tribal Business Assistance Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansdowne, Michele

    The Salish Kootenai College Tribal Business Assistance Center was established in 1994 to provide technical assistance to individuals who are pursuing a small business. The center assists the entrepreneur by way of individual consultation with business advisors, small business workshops, and business administration courses that have been created…

  8. [Effects of chlorophyllin-iron on osmotic adjustment and activities of antioxidantive enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Fan-yang; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cucumber cultivar 'Jinyan 4' was subjected to suboptimal temperature treatment of 18/12 degrees C (day/night) in the growth chambers. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenously spraying 5 mg x L(-1) chlorophyllin-iron solution on plant growth, the content of proline, soluble sugar, MDA and activity of peroxidase in the leaves of cucumber seedling under suboptimal temperature. Application of chlorophyllin-iron showed prominent effects on mitigating the stress of suboptimal temperature on growth of the cucumber seedlings, significantly increasing the plant height, leaf area, shoot dry mass, the contents of soluble sugar and proline and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX. Exogenously spraying chlorophyllin-iron could promote the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, raise the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decrease the membrane lipid peroxidation and improve the adaptability of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature.

  9. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  10. On the design of suboptimal sliding manifold for a class of nonlinear uncertain time-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batmani, Yazdan; Khaloozadeh, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new method to design suboptimal sliding manifolds for a class of nonlinear uncertain systems with state and input delays. A switching control law is obtained based on the designed suboptimal sliding manifold. It is proved that the proposed method is able to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system in the presence of uncertainty. Three numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Hypothesis: high levels of maternal adrenal androgens are a major cause of miscarriage and other forms of reproductive suboptimality.

    PubMed

    James, William H

    2015-01-07

    A cause is proposed for several forms of reproductive suboptimality (viz foetal loss, preterm birth and low birth weight). The point is illustrated here in the case of miscarriage. I suggest that all these forms of reproductive suboptimality are partially caused by high levels of stress-related maternal adrenal androgens. The argument is supported by both experimental and epidemiological data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. When the Learning Environment Is Suboptimal: Exploring Medical Students’ Perceptions of “Mistreatment”

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite widespread implementation of policies to address mistreatment, high rates of mistreatment during clinical training are reported, prompting the question of whether “mistreatment” means more to students than delineated in official codes of conduct. Understanding “mistreatment” from students’ perspective and as it relates to the learning environment is needed before effective interventions can be implemented. Method The authors conducted focus groups with final-year medical students at McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 2012. Participants were asked to characterize “suboptimal learning experience” and “mistreatment.” Transcripts were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Results Forty-one of 174 eligible students participated in six focus groups. Students described “mistreatment” as lack of respect or attack directed toward the person, and “suboptimal learning experience” as that which compromised their learning. Differing perceptions emerged as students debated whether “mistreatment” can be applied to negative learning environments as well as isolated incidents of mistreatment even though some experiences fell outside of the “official” label as per institutional policies. Whether students perceived “mistreatment” versus a “suboptimal learning experience” in negative environments appeared to be influenced by several key factors. A concept map integrating these ideas is presented. Conclusions How students perceived negative situations during training appears to be a complex process. When medical students say “mistreatment,” they may be referring to a spectrum, with incident-based mistreatment on one end and learning-environment-based mistreatment on the other. Multiple factors influenced how students perceived an environment-based negative situation and may provide strategies to improving the learning environment. PMID:24556767

  13. Suboptimal temperature favors reserve formation in biennial carrot (Daucus carota) plants.

    PubMed

    González, María V; Sadras, Victor O; Equiza, María A; Tognetti, Jorge A

    2009-09-01

    In response to suboptimal temperatures, temperate annual plants often increase root:shoot ratios, build-up carbohydrates and display typical morphological and anatomical changes. We know less about the responses of biennials such as carrot. As a model plant, carrot has the additional feature of two functionally and morphologically distinct root parts: the taproot, which stores carbohydrate and other compounds, and the fibrous root system involved in acquisition of water and nutrients. Here, we analyze the effects of temperature (12 vs 25°C) on growth, carbohydrate accumulation and whole-plant morphology in two carrot cultivars. Our working hypothesis is that suboptimal temperature favors active formation of reserve structures, rather than passive accumulation of storage carbohydrates. In comparison with plants grown at 25°C, plants grown at 12°C had: (1) higher fibrous root:shoot ratio (13%) , (2) thicker (10-15%) and smaller (up to two- to three-fold) leaves, (3) lower leaf cuticular permeance (two- to four-fold), (4) higher taproot:shoot ratio (two-fold), (5) higher phloem:xylem ratios in taproot (two- to six-fold), (6) unchanged percentage dry matter content (%DMC) in leaves, petioles or fibrous roots and (7) higher %DMC in taproot (20%). However, %DMC of individual taproot tissues (phloem and xylem) was unaffected by temperatures and was consistently higher in the phloem (up to 30%). Therefore, the higher %DMC of whole taproots at 12°C was attributed solely to the increased development of phloem tissue. Carrot, therefore, shares many of the most conspicuous elements of temperate plant responses to low temperatures. Consistently with our hypothesis, however, carrots grown at suboptimal temperature promoted reserve structures, rather than the increase in carbohydrate concentration typical of most temperate annual species and woody perennials. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2009.

  14. Determinants of suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Nigeria: evidence from the 2008 demographic and health survey.

    PubMed

    Ogbo, Felix A; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew

    2015-03-18

    In Nigeria, suboptimal breastfeeding practices are contributing to the burden of childhood diseases and mortality. This study identified the determinants of key suboptimal breastfeeding practices among children 0-23 months in Nigeria. Data on 10,225 children under-24 months were obtained from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). Socio-economic, health service and individual factors associated with key breastfeeding indicators (early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, predominant breastfeeding and bottle feeding) were investigated using multiple logistic regression analyses. Among infants 0-5 months of age, 14% [95% confidence Interval (CI): 13%, 15%] were exclusively breastfed and 48% [95% CI: 46, 50%] were predominantly breastfed. Among children aged 0-23 months, 38% [95% CI 36, 39%] were breastfed within the first hour of birth, and 15% [95% CI: 14, 17%] were bottle-fed. Early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with higher maternal education, frequent antenatal care (ANC) visits and birth interval but deliveries at a health facility with caesarean section was associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Educated mothers, older mothers and mothers from wealthier households exclusively breastfeed their babies. The risk for bottle feeding was higher among educated mothers and fathers, and women from wealthier households including mothers who made frequent ANC visits. Socio-economic and health service factors were associated with suboptimal breastfeeding practices in Nigeria. To improve the current breastfeeding practices, breastfeeding initiatives should target all mothers - particularly low SES mothers - including, national and sub-national health policies that ensure improved access to maternal health services, and improvements to baby friendly hospital and community initiatives for mothers.

  15. Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?12

    PubMed Central

    Rosanoff, Andrea; Dai, Qi; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2–2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios <1.7 and >2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg <1.7) showed increased risks of CVD. Oral vitamin D is widely recommended in US age-sex groups with low dietary magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study. PMID:26773013

  16. Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?

    PubMed

    Rosanoff, Andrea; Dai, Qi; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2-2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios <1.7 and >2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg <1.7) showed increased risks of CVD. Oral vitamin D is widely recommended in US age-sex groups with low dietary magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Suboptimal filtering of 1/ƒ;-noise in detector charge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, E.; Manfredi, P. F.; Sampietro, M.; Speziali, V.

    1990-12-01

    Processing of {1}/{tf}- noise by suboptimal filters in detector charge measurements is considered. The achievable values of equivalent noise charge are compared to those provided by the optimum filter. Some aspects of filters processing {1}/{tf}- noise, like the degradation in the accuracy of charge measurements due to a bipolar or to a unipolar, flat-topped weighting function are described. Several conclusions are expected to be useful in the design of analog processors for radiation detectors when the front-end {1}/{tf}- noise is not negligible.

  18. An analysis of suboptimal outcomes of medial malleolus fractures in skeletally immature children.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Scott J; Oda, Jon E; O'Donnell, June; Keeler, Kathryn A; Schoenecker, Perry L; Dobbs, Matthew B; Gordon, J Eric

    2012-03-01

    We retrospectively analyzed cases of intra-articular medial malleolar fractures in skeletally-immature patients (Salter-Harris III and IV) with suboptimal outcomes at St. Louis Children's Hospital and Shriner's Hospital for Children. Common causes of poor outcome were frac­ture malunion or malreduction and physeal damage. Malreductions of only 2 mm does not appear to be toler­ated and the concept of "remodeling" does not apply to these fracture patterns. Based on this study, we "recom­mend" fracture reduction and fixation if there is greater than 1 mm of fracture step-off..

  19. Variability in nucleus accumbens activity mediates age-related suboptimal financial risk taking

    PubMed Central

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Kuhnen, Camelia M.; Yoo, Daniel J.; Knutson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    As human life expectancy continues to rise, financial decisions of aging investors may have an increasing impact on the global economy. In this study, we examined age differences in financial decisions across the adult life span by combining functional neuroimaging with a dynamic financial investment task. During the task, older adults made more suboptimal choices than younger adults when choosing risky assets. This age-related effect was mediated by a neural measure of temporal variability in nucleus accumbens activity. These findings reveal a novel neural mechanism by which aging may disrupt rational financial choice. PMID:20107069

  20. Targeting Lexicon in Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farghal, Mohammed; Shakir, Abdullah

    1994-01-01

    Studies student interpreters in the Master's Translation Program at Yarmouk University in Jordan. Analyzes the difficulties of these students, particularly regarding lexical competence, when interpreting from Arabic to English, emphasizing the need to teach lexicon all through interpreting programs. (HB)

  1. School-Business Partnerships: Understanding Business Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badgett, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    School-business partnerships have been shown to enhance educational experiences for students. There has, however, been limited research demonstrating the priorities and perspectives of for-profit business leaders on those partnerships. In order to address that gap, the researcher interviewed business leaders in two different areas of Texas. After…

  2. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  3. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  4. The Business of Business is "English"!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horning, Alice S.

    A current trend indicates that credentials in English can and do move people successfully into business related careers. Colleges of business administration and English departments might take an important cue from the trend and work together to offer a double major or co-major in English business. Such a program would offer undergraduate students…

  5. Risky Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarbrough, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    During my internship I worked on two major projects, recommending improvements for the Center's Risk Management Workshop and helping with the strategic planning efforts for Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA). The risk management improvements is the key project I worked on this semester through my internship, while the strategic planning is the secondary assignment. S&MA Business Office covers both aspects in its delegation, getting both spans some of the work done in the office. A risk is a future event with a negative consequence that has some probability of occurring. Safety and Mission Assurance identifies, analyzes, plans, and tracks risk. The directorate offers the Center a Risk Management Workshop, and part of the ongoing efforts of S&MA is to make continuous improvements to the RM Workshop. By using the Project Management Institute's (PMI) Standard for Risk Management, I performed a gap analysis to make improvements for our materials. I benchmarked the PMI's Risk Management Standard, compared our Risk Management Workshop materials to PMI's standard, and identified any gaps in our material. My major findings were presented to the Business Office of S&MA for a decision on whether or not to incorporate the improvements. These suggestions were made by attending JSC working group meetings, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) panel reviews and various risk review meetings. The improvements provide better understanding of risk management processes and enhanced risk tracking knowledge and skills. Risk management is an integral part of any engineering discipline, getting exposed to this section of engineering will greatly help shape my career in the future. Johnson Space Center is a world leader in risk management processes; learning risk management here gives me a huge advantage over my peers, as well as understanding decision making in the context of risk management will help me to be a well-rounded engineer. Strategic planning is an area I had not previously

  6. 31 CFR 50.9 - Procedure for requesting general interpretations of statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requester should segregate and mark any confidential business or trade secret information clearly. Treasury... business or trade secret information, Treasury will make written requests for interpretations and responses... for information that had been designated by a requester as confidential business or trade...

  7. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longqiang; Deng, Huihui; Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  8. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  9. Risk factors for a suboptimal response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist trigger during in vitro fertilization cycles.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Laura; Murphy, Lauren A; Gumer, Arielle; Reichman, David E; Rosenwaks, Zev; Cholst, Ina N

    2015-09-01

    To identify risk factors for a suboptimal response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist trigger in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Academic medical center. All 424 patients undergoing fresh IVF cycles (n = 500) between August 2007 and June 2013 in whom a GnRH agonist was used as all or part of the ovulation trigger. GnRH-antagonist-based IVF cycles triggered with leuprolide acetate alone or in combination with low-dose human chorionic gonadotropin. Suboptimal response to GnRH-agonist trigger, as defined by a serum luteinizing hormone (LH) level <15 mIU/mL on the morning after trigger. The rate of suboptimal response to the GnRH-agonist trigger was 5.2%. Patients with a suboptimal hormone response had lower follicle-stimulating hormone (<0.1 vs. 3.48) and LH (<0.1 vs. 2.51) levels on day 2 of the cycle start, lower LH (0.109 vs. 0.596) on the day of trigger, and required longer stimulation and more gonadotropins than those with an adequate response. Suboptimal responders were also more likely to have irregular menses and be on long-term oral contraception. Patients with an undetectable LH on the day of trigger had a 25% chance of a suboptimal LH surge. In our study cohort, limiting the use of the GnRH-agonist trigger alone to patients with a trigger day LH ≥0.5 would have reduced the rate of suboptimal response from 5.2% to 0.2%. Long-term hormonal contraception use is an independent risk factor for suboptimal response to GnRH-agonist trigger. Patients with very low endogenous serum LH levels on the day of LH trigger are at increased risk for a suboptimal GnRH-agonist trigger response. Understanding the at-risk phenotype and using trigger day LH as a marker for increased risk of suboptimal GnRH-agonist trigger response can be helpful for individualizing treatment and selecting a safe and efficacious trigger medication for patients undergoing IVF. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by

  10. Maize grain and soil surveys reveal suboptimal dietary selenium intake is widespread in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chilimba, Allan D C; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Rogerson, Katie B; Ander, E Louise; Watts, Michael J; Lammel, Joachim; Broadley, Martin R

    2011-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element in human diets but the risk of suboptimal intake increases where food choices are narrow. Here we show that suboptimal dietary intake (i.e. 20-30 µg Se person(-1) d(-1)) is widespread in Malawi, based on a spatial integration of Se concentrations of maize (Zea mays L.) grain and soil surveys for 88 field sites, representing 10 primary soil types and >75% of the national land area. The median maize grain Se concentration was 0.019 mg kg(-1) (range 0.005-0.533), a mean intake of 6.7 µg Se person(-1) d(-1) from maize flour based on national consumption patterns. Maize grain Se concentration was up to 10-fold higher in crops grown on soils with naturally high pH (>6.5) (Eutric Vertisols). Under these less acidic conditions, Se becomes considerably more available to plants due to the greater solubility of Se((IV)) species and oxidation to Se((VI)).

  11. Maize grain and soil surveys reveal suboptimal dietary selenium intake is widespread in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Chilimba, Allan D. C.; Young, Scott D.; Black, Colin R.; Rogerson, Katie B.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Lammel, Joachim; Broadley, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element in human diets but the risk of suboptimal intake increases where food choices are narrow. Here we show that suboptimal dietary intake (i.e. 20–30 µg Se person−1 d−1) is widespread in Malawi, based on a spatial integration of Se concentrations of maize (Zea mays L.) grain and soil surveys for 88 field sites, representing 10 primary soil types and >75% of the national land area. The median maize grain Se concentration was 0.019 mg kg−1 (range 0.005–0.533), a mean intake of 6.7 µg Se person−1 d−1 from maize flour based on national consumption patterns. Maize grain Se concentration was up to 10-fold higher in crops grown on soils with naturally high pH (>6.5) (Eutric Vertisols). Under these less acidic conditions, Se becomes considerably more available to plants due to the greater solubility of Se(IV) species and oxidation to Se(VI). PMID:22355591

  12. Identification of Metabolic Engineering Targets through Analysis of Optimal and Sub-Optimal Routes

    PubMed Central

    Soons, Zita I. T. A.; Ferreira, Eugénio C.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of optimal genetic manipulation strategies for redirecting substrate uptake towards a desired product is a challenging task owing to the complexity of metabolic networks, esp. in terms of large number of routes leading to the desired product. Algorithms that can exploit the whole range of optimal and suboptimal routes for product formation while respecting the biological objective of the cell are therefore much needed. Towards addressing this need, we here introduce the notion of structural flux, which is derived from the enumeration of all pathways in the metabolic network in question and accounts for the contribution towards a given biological objective function. We show that the theoretically estimated structural fluxes are good predictors of experimentally measured intra-cellular fluxes in two model organisms, namely, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For a small number of fluxes for which the predictions were poor, the corresponding enzyme-coding transcripts were also found to be distinctly regulated, showing the ability of structural fluxes in capturing the underlying regulatory principles. Exploiting the observed correspondence between in vivo fluxes and structural fluxes, we propose an in silico metabolic engineering approach, iStruF, which enables the identification of gene deletion strategies that couple the cellular biological objective with the product flux while considering optimal as well as sub-optimal routes and their efficiency. PMID:23626708

  13. Suboptimal and optimal order policies for fixed and varying replenishment interval with declining market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wee, H. M.; Yang, P. C.; Wu, Simon

    2016-06-01

    One of the supply chain risks for hi-tech products is the result of rapid technological innovation; it results in a significant decline in the selling price and demand after the initial launch period. Hi-tech products include computers and communication consumer's products. From a practical standpoint, a more realistic replenishment policy is needed to consider the impact of risks; especially when some portions of shortages are lost. In this paper, suboptimal and optimal order policies with partial backordering are developed for a buyer when the component cost, the selling price, and the demand rate decline at a continuous rate. Two mathematical models are derived and discussed: one model has the suboptimal solution with the fixed replenishment interval and a simpler computational process; the other one has the optimal solution with the varying replenishment interval and a more complicated computational process. The second model results in more profit. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two replenishment models. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters and the net profit.

  14. Identifying sub-optimal responses to ivermectin in the treatment of River Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Churcher, Thomas S.; Pion, Sébastien D. S.; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Prichard, Roger K.; Awadzi, Kwablah; Boussinesq, Michel; Collins, Richard C.; Whitworth, James A.; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2009-01-01

    Identification of drug resistance before it becomes a public health concern requires a clear distinction between what constitutes a normal and a suboptimal treatment response. A novel method of analyzing drug efficacy studies in human helminthiases is proposed and used to investigate recent claims of atypical responses to ivermectin in the treatment of River Blindness. The variability in the rate at which Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae repopulate host's skin following ivermectin treatment is quantified using an individual-based onchocerciasis mathematical model. The model estimates a single skin repopulation rate for every host sampled, allowing reports of suboptimal responses to be statistically compared with responses from populations with no prior exposure to ivermectin. Statistically faster rates of skin repopulation were observed in 3 Ghanaian villages (treated 12–17 times), despite the wide variability in repopulation rates observed in ivermectin-naïve populations. Another village previously thought to have high rates of skin repopulation was shown to be indistinguishable from the normal treatment response. The model is used to generate testable hypotheses to identify whether atypical rates of skin repopulation by microfilariae could result from low treatment coverage alone or provide evidence of decreased ivermectin efficacy. Further work linking phenotypic poor responses to treatment with parasite molecular genetics markers will be required to confirm drug resistance. Limitations of the skin-snipping method for estimating parasite load indicates that changes in the distribution of microfilarial repopulation rates, rather than their absolute values, maybe a more sensitive indicator of emerging ivermectin resistance. PMID:19805362

  15. Rescue Procedures after Suboptimal Deep Brain Stimulation Outcomes in Common Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Adam M.; Tolleson, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a unique, functional neurosurgical therapy indicated for medication refractory movement disorders as well as some psychiatric diseases. Multicontact electrodes are placed in “deep” structures within the brain with targets varying depending on the surgical indication. An implanted programmable pulse generator supplies the electrodes with a chronic, high frequency electrical current that clinically mimics the effects of ablative lesioning techniques. DBS’s efficacy has been well established for its movement disorder indications (Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia). However, clinical outcomes are sometimes suboptimal, even in the absence of common, potentially reversible complications such as hardware complications, infection, poor electrode placement, and poor programming parameters. This review highlights some of the rescue procedures that have been explored in suboptimal DBS cases for Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. To date, the data is limited and difficult to generalize, but a large majority of published reports demonstrate positive results. The decision to proceed with such treatments should be made on a case by case basis. Larger studies are needed to clearly establish the benefit of rescue procedures and to establish for which patient populations they may be most appropriate. PMID:27740598

  16. Suboptimal inhaler medication adherence and incorrect technique are common among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishna B; Percival, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are routinely prescribed one or more inhaled medications. Adherence to inhaler medications and correct inhaler device technique are crucial to successful COPD management. The goals of this study were to estimate adherence and inhaler technique in a cohort of COPD patients. This was an observational study conducted on a sample of 150 COPD patients. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS). Inhaler technique was assessed using standardized checklists. Clinical data were collected using a proforma. Of the 150 patients (mean age 70.3 years, 52% male), 58% reported suboptimal adherence (MARS ≤ 24). High adherence to therapy (MARS = 25) was associated with older age (p = 0.001), but not any of the other studied variables. Medication non-adherence was not associated with COPD exacerbations. Errors (≥ 1) in inhaler technique were common across all of the types of inhaler devices reportedly used by patients, with the highest proportion of errors among Turbuhaler users (83%) and the least proportion of errors among Handihaler users (50%). No clinical variables were associated with errors in inhaler technique. Suboptimal adherence and errors in inhaler technique are common among COPD patients. No clinical variables to assist in the prediction of medication non-adherence and poor inhaler technique were identifiable. Consequently, regular assessment of medication adherence and inhaler technique should be incorporated into routine clinical practice to facilitate improved health outcomes among patients with COPD.

  17. Decision making by humans in a behavioral task: do humans, like pigeons, show suboptimal choice?

    PubMed

    Molet, Mikael; Miller, Holly C; Laude, Jennifer R; Kirk, Chelsea; Manning, Brandon; Zentall, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    Consistent with human gambling behavior but contrary to optimal foraging theory, pigeons show a strong preference for an alternative with low probability and high payoff (a gambling-like alternative) over an alternative with a greater net payoff (Zentall & Stagner, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278, 1203-1208, 2011). In the present research, we asked whether humans would show suboptimal choice on a task involving choices with probabilities similar to those for pigeons. In Experiment 1, when we selected participants on the basis of their self-reported gambling activities, we found a significantly greater choice of the alternative involving low probability and high payoff (gambling-like alternative) than for a group that reported an absence of gambling activity. In Experiment 2, we found that when the inhibiting abilities of typical humans were impaired by a self-regulatory depletion manipulation, they were more likely to choose the gambling-like alternative. Taken together, the results suggest that this task is suitable for the comparative study of suboptimal decision-making behavior and the mechanisms that underlie it.

  18. A technical strategy for carotid artery stenting: suboptimal prestent balloon angioplasty without poststenting balloon dilatation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung-Chul; Kwon, O-Ki; Oh, Chang Wan; Jung, Cheolkyu; Han, Moon Gu; Bae, Hee-Joon; Lee, Sang Hyung; Jung, Young Sub; Han, Moon Hee; Kang, Hyun-Seung

    2010-11-01

    Traditional carotid artery stenting (CAS) consists of predilatation, optional deployment of embolic protection devices, stenting, and poststent angioplasty. Each step carries a risk of thromboembolism. To design a new and simplified procedural protocol, suboptimal balloon angioplasty without routine poststenting balloon dilatation, and to describe the efficacy this protocol in terms of procedural risks and angiographic and clinical outcomes. Over a period of 6 years, 161 carotid artery stenoses in 156 consecutive patients were treated by CAS with embolic protection devices. Among them, 110 lesions in 107 patients (68.3%) were treated by our simplified method (symptomatic, > 50% stenosis; asymptomatic, > 70% stenosis). Overall, 98 lesions (88.3%) had severe stenosis (> 70%). The mean stenosis was reduced from 77% to 10% after CAS. A persistent neurological deficit developed in 2 patients from thromboembolism. Hemodynamic insufficiency developed in 14 lesions during CAS (12.7%). The ipsilateral stroke and mortality rate was 4.5% within 1 month after CAS (asymptomatic, 3.6%; symptomatic, 4.8%). Over a mean of 19 months of follow-up, additive angioplasty was performed in 2 patients as a result of progressive restenosis (≥ 50%). A comparison of the balloon sizes of the prestent angioplasty for group 1 (balloon, ≤ 4 mm) and group 2 (balloon, ≥ 5 mm) showed no difference in restenosis between the groups at 15 months of follow-up after CAS. Our CAS technique with suboptimal prestenting angioplasty without routine use of poststenting dilatation is safe, simple, and efficient with acceptable risks.

  19. Common experiences of patients following suboptimal treatment outcomes: implications for epilepsy surgery.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Dinusha K; McIntosh, Anne M; Bladin, Peter F; Wilson, Sarah J

    2014-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the patient experience of unsuccessful medical interventions, particularly in the epilepsy surgery field. The present review aimed to gain insight into the patient experience of seizure recurrence after epilepsy surgery by examining the broader literature dealing with suboptimal results after medical interventions (including epilepsy surgery). To capture the patient experience, the literature search focused on qualitative research of patients who had undergone medically unsuccessful interventions, published in English in scholarly journals. Twenty-two studies were found of patients experiencing a range of suboptimal outcomes, including seizure recurrence, cancer recurrence and progression, unsuccessful joint replacement, unsuccessful infertility treatment, organ transplant rejection, coronary bypass graft surgery, and unsuccessful weight-loss surgery. In order of frequency, the most common patient experiences included the following: altered social dynamics and stigma, unmet expectations, negative emotions, use of coping strategies, hope and optimism, perceived failure of the treating team, psychiatric symptoms, and control issues. There is support in the epilepsy surgery literature that unmet expectations and psychiatric symptoms are key issues for patients with seizure recurrence, while other common patient experiences have been implied but not systematically examined. Several epilepsy surgery specific factors influence patient perceptions of seizure recurrence, including the nature of postoperative seizures, the presence of postoperative complications, and the need for increased postoperative medications. Knowledge of common patient experiences can assist in the delivery of patient follow-up and rehabilitation services tailored to differing outcomes after epilepsy surgery.

  20. Indirect and suboptimal control of gene expression is widespread in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Price, Morgan N; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Wetmore, Kelly M; Ruths, Troy; Mar, Jordan S; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Shao, Wenjun; Arkin, Adam P

    2013-01-01

    Gene regulation in bacteria is usually described as an adaptive response to an environmental change so that genes are expressed when they are required. We instead propose that most genes are under indirect control: their expression responds to signal(s) that are not directly related to the genes' function. Indirect control should perform poorly in artificial conditions, and we show that gene regulation is often maladaptive in the laboratory. In Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, 24% of genes are detrimental to fitness in some conditions, and detrimental genes tend to be highly expressed instead of being repressed when not needed. In diverse bacteria, there is little correlation between when genes are important for optimal growth or fitness and when those genes are upregulated. Two common types of indirect control are constitutive expression and regulation by growth rate; these occur for genes with diverse functions and often seem to be suboptimal. Because genes that have closely related functions can have dissimilar expression patterns, regulation may be suboptimal in the wild as well as in the laboratory. PMID:23591776

  1. Pigeon's (Columba livia) paradoxical preference for the suboptimal alternative in a complex foraging task.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Luong, Jasmine

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has examined a task in which choice of 1 alternative A provides reinforcement and in addition, allows access to alternative B that also provides reinforcement. However, although initial choice of B also provides reinforcement, it does not also allow access to A. Thus, optimal performance would be to always choose A. Curiously, Salwiczek et al. (2012) reported that adult wrasse (cleaner) fish mastered this task within 50 trials, whereas monkeys and apes had great difficulty with it. The authors attributed the species differences to ecological differences in the species foraging experiences. However, Pepperberg and Hartsfield (2014) found that parrots too learned this task. In Experiment 1, using the manual presentation of stimuli, we found that pigeons actually showed a reliable preference for B, the suboptimal alternative. In Experiment 2, we replicated the suboptimal preference using an automated version of the task. We hypothesized that the pigeons may have been basing their preference on the frequency of reinforcement associated with each alternative (initially, all trials ended with choice of B, whereas only half of the trials involved choice of A). In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that the pigeons' preference was influenced by the frequency of reinforcements associated with A and B. Thus, when the pigeon chose A, we replaced B with C, so reinforcement occurred to B only when they chose it first. With this procedure we found that B was no longer preferred over A. Thus, the data supported our hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Sub-optimal parenting is associated with schizotypic and anxiety personality traits in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Giakoumaki, S G; Roussos, P; Zouraraki, C; Spanoudakis, E; Mavrikaki, M; Tsapakis, E M; Bitsios, P

    2013-05-01

    Part of the variation in personality characteristics has been attributed to the child-parent interaction and sub-optimal parenting has been associated with psychiatric morbidity. In the present study, an extensive battery of personality scales (Trait Anxiety Inventory, Behavioural Inhibition/Activation System questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Temperament and Character Inventory, Schizotypal Traits Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were administered in 324 adult healthy males to elucidate the effects of parenting on personality configuration. Personality variables were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the factors "Schizotypy", "Anxiety", "Behavioural activation", "Novelty seeking" and "Reward dependence" were extracted. Associations between personality factors with PBI "care" and "overprotection" scores were examined with regression analyses. Subjects were divided into "parental style" groups and personality factors were subjected to categorical analyses. "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" were significantly predicted by high maternal overprotection and low paternal care. In addition, the Affectionless control group (low care/high overprotection) had higher "Schizotypy" and "Anxiety" compared with the Optimal Parenting group (high care/low overprotection). These results further validate sub-optimal parenting as an important environmental exposure and extend our understanding on the mechanisms by which it increases risk for psychiatric morbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

    PubMed

    Suh, Eunho; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Saveer, Ahmed M; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2016-01-01

    Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone) each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.

  4. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Eunho; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Saveer, Ahmed M.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2016-01-01

    Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone) each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females. PMID:26900947

  5. Identifying sub-optimal responses to ivermectin in the treatment of River Blindness.

    PubMed

    Churcher, Thomas S; Pion, Sébastien D S; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Prichard, Roger K; Awadzi, Kwablah; Boussinesq, Michel; Collins, Richard C; Whitworth, James A; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2009-09-29

    Identification of drug resistance before it becomes a public health concern requires a clear distinction between what constitutes a normal and a suboptimal treatment response. A novel method of analyzing drug efficacy studies in human helminthiases is proposed and used to investigate recent claims of atypical responses to ivermectin in the treatment of River Blindness. The variability in the rate at which Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae repopulate host's skin following ivermectin treatment is quantified using an individual-based onchocerciasis mathematical model. The model estimates a single skin repopulation rate for every host sampled, allowing reports of suboptimal responses to be statistically compared with responses from populations with no prior exposure to ivermectin. Statistically faster rates of skin repopulation were observed in 3 Ghanaian villages (treated 12-17 times), despite the wide variability in repopulation rates observed in ivermectin-naïve populations. Another village previously thought to have high rates of skin repopulation was shown to be indistinguishable from the normal treatment response. The model is used to generate testable hypotheses to identify whether atypical rates of skin repopulation by microfilariae could result from low treatment coverage alone or provide evidence of decreased ivermectin efficacy. Further work linking phenotypic poor responses to treatment with parasite molecular genetics markers will be required to confirm drug resistance. Limitations of the skin-snipping method for estimating parasite load indicates that changes in the distribution of microfilarial repopulation rates, rather than their absolute values, maybe a more sensitive indicator of emerging ivermectin resistance.

  6. A test of stress, cues, and re-exposure to large wins as potential reinstaters of suboptimal decision making in rats

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Nina P.; Kim, Jung S.; Tunstall, Brendan J.; Kearns, David N.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment investigated potential reinstaters of suboptimal economic decision making in rats. Rats were first trained on a version of the rat Gambling Task under conditions designed to promote choice of a suboptimal option that occasionally resulted in large “wins” (four sucrose pellets). In a second phase, preference for this economically suboptimal option was reduced by substantially increasing the probability of punishment when this option was chosen. Then, three events were tested for their ability to reinstate choice of the suboptimal option. A brief period of re-exposure to a high frequency of large wins significantly increased choice of the suboptimal option. The pharmacological stressor yohimbine did not reinstate suboptimal choice, but did increase impulsive action as indexed by premature responding. Presentation of cues previously associated with large wins did not alter behavior. Results suggest reinstaters of suboptimal choice may differ from reinstaters of extinguished drug- and food-seeking behavior. PMID:25904885

  7. Development of Sub-optimal Airway Protocols for the International Space Station (ISS) by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James D.; Parazynski, Scott; Kelly, Scott; Hurst, Victor, IV; Doerr, Harold K.

    2007-01-01

    Airway management techniques are necessary to establish and maintain a patent airway while treating a patient undergoing respiratory distress. There are situations where such settings are suboptimal, thus causing the caregiver to adapt to these suboptimal conditions. Such occurrences are no exception aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a result, the NASA flight surgeon (FS) and NASA astronaut cohorts must be ready to adapt their optimal airway management techniques for suboptimal situations. Based on previous work conducted by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST) and other investigators, the MOST had members of both the FS and astronaut cohorts evaluate two oral airway insertion techniques for the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) to determine whether either technique is sufficient to perform in suboptimal conditions within a microgravity environment. Methods All experiments were conducted in a simulated microgravity environment provided by parabolic flight aboard DC-9 aircraft. Each participant acted as a caregiver and was directed to attempt both suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques following a preflight instruction session on the day of the flight and a demonstration of the technique by an anesthesiologist physician in the simulated microgravity environment aboard the aircraft. Results Fourteen participants conducted 46 trials of the suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques. Overall, 43 of 46 trials (94%) conducted were properly performed based on criteria developed by the MOST and other investigators. Discussion The study demonstrated the use of airway management techniques in suboptimal conditions relating to space flight. Use of these techniques will provide a crew with options for using the ILMA to manage airway issues aboard the ISS. Although it is understood that the optimal method for patient care during space flight is to have both patient and caregiver restrained, these techniques provide a needed backup should conditions not present

  8. Business Management Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This course guide is designed for teaching about the U.S. business system. Students are introduced to management functions and the background knowledge/skills necessary to be a successful manager. The guide contains 10 competency goals: (1) nature of U.S. business; (2) environment of business; (3) types of business ownership; (4) management…

  9. Is Business Ethics Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamental, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the need for business ethics courses in undergraduate and graduate business degree programs. Describes reasons for and objections to such programs. Explains that business ethics instruction requires varied case studies, adequate teaching materials, cooperation between philosophers and business faculty, and instructors who are forthcoming…

  10. 12 CFR 194.802 - Description of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Description of business. 194.802 Section 194.802 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Interpretations § 194.802 Description of business. (a) This section applies to the...

  11. 12 CFR 194.802 - Description of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Description of business. 194.802 Section 194.802 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Interpretations § 194.802 Description of business. (a) This section applies to the...

  12. 12 CFR 563d.802 - Description of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Description of business. 563d.802 Section 563d.802 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Interpretations § 563d.802 Description of business. (a) This section applies to the description-of...

  13. 12 CFR 563d.802 - Description of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Description of business. 563d.802 Section 563d.802 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Interpretations § 563d.802 Description of business. (a) This section applies to the description-of...

  14. Electrocardiographic interpretation skills of cardiology residents: are they competent?

    PubMed

    Sibbald, Matthew; Davies, Edward G; Dorian, Paul; Yu, Eric H C

    2014-12-01

    Achieving competency at electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation among cardiology subspecialty residents has traditionally focused on interpreting a target number of ECGs during training. However, there is little evidence to support this approach. Further, there are no data documenting the competency of ECG interpretation skills among cardiology residents, who become de facto the gold standard in their practice communities. We tested 29 Cardiology residents from all 3 years in a large training program using a set of 20 ECGs collected from a community cardiology practice over a 1-month period. Residents interpreted half of the ECGs using a standard analytic framework, and half using their own approach. Residents were scored on the number of correct and incorrect diagnoses listed. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 58%. Of 6 potentially life-threatening diagnoses, residents missed 36% (123 of 348) including hyperkalemia (81%), long QT (52%), complete heart block (35%), and ventricular tachycardia (19%). Residents provided additional inappropriate diagnoses on 238 ECGs (41%). Diagnostic accuracy was similar between ECGs interpreted using an analytic framework vs ECGs interpreted without an analytic framework (59% vs 58%; F(1,1333) = 0.26; P = 0.61). Cardiology resident proficiency at ECG interpretation is suboptimal. Despite the use of an analytic framework, there remain significant deficiencies in ECG interpretation among Cardiology residents. A more systematic method of addressing these important learning gaps is urgently needed.

  15. The use of marginal-suboptimal donor organs: a practical solution for organ shortage.

    PubMed

    Abouna, George M

    2004-01-01

    The demand for organ transplantation has been rapidly increasing as a result of rising incidence of end-stage organ failure while the supply of cadaver organs from "ideal" or optimal donors has remained low and inadequate to meet the increasing demand. Yet many so called "marginal" or "suboptimal" organs have been discarded by many centers when many patients die each day while on the waiting list. In this review important data from our experience and that of several other centers have confirmed that using such marginal organs can provide a viable solution to organ shortage. Such organs include those from donors > 55 years, children < 5 years, diabetics, non-heart beating cadavers, and organs with extended preservation. Such organs can be successfully used with appropriate surgical techniques and immunosuppression protocols and the supply of donor organs can be increased by 25% to 30%.

  16. Sub-optimal asthma control in teenagers in the midland region of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, I; Fitzpatrick, P

    2011-12-01

    Internationally, many children with asthma are not attaining achievable asthma control. To examine the prevalence of asthma in teenagers in four midland counties, their asthma control and the barriers, if any, to gaining control of asthma. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) methodology was used in a survey of Junior Cycle Year 2 second-level students. The prevalence of "wheeze ever" was 49.8%, "wheeze in the last 12 months" was 32.6% and "asthma ever" was 23.5%. Of teenagers with current asthma, 96% had evidence of sub-optimal asthma control during the previous year. For the majority of the teenagers with asthma, treatment was not guideline concordant; infrequent lung function testing, insufficient review after acute care and poor use of written asthma action plans. Barriers included lack of awareness of need for treatment. If asthma guidelines are implemented fully, these children may experience better health.

  17. A Wavelet Based Suboptimal Kalman Filter for Assimilation of Stratospheric Chemical Tracer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auger, Ludovic; Tangborn, Andrew; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A suboptimal Kalman filter system which evolves error covariances in terms of a truncated set of wavelet coefficients has been developed for the assimilation of chemical tracer observations of CH4. The truncation is carried out in such a way that the resolution of the error covariance, is reduced only in the zonal direction, where gradients are smaller. Assimilation experiments which last 24 days, and used different degrees of truncation were carried out. These reduced the covariance, by 90, 97 and 99 % and the computational cost of covariance propagation by 80, 93 and 96 % respectively. The difference in both error covariance and the tracer field between the truncated and full systems over this period were found to be not growing in the first case, and a growing relatively slowly in the later two cases. The largest errors in the tracer fields were found to occur in regions of largest zonal gradients in the tracer field.

  18. The design of suboptimal asymptotic stabilising controllers for nonlinear slowly varying systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binazadeh, T.; Shafiei, M. H.

    2014-04-01

    The design of asymptotic stabilising controllers for slowly varying nonlinear systems is considered in this paper. The designed control law is based on finding a slowly varying control Lyapunov function. Also, consideration of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation showed that the proposed controller is a suboptimal controller and the response of the system may be very close to its optimal solution. The maximum admissible rate of changes of the system dynamic is also evaluated. This technique is first applied to a created example and then to a practical example (optimal autopilot design for an air vehicle). The air vehicle is modelled as a nonlinear slowly varying system and the efficiency of the designed autopilot in terms of transient responses, control signals and the values of cost function are shown by numerical simulations.

  19. Feature-preserving surface mesh smoothing via suboptimal Delaunay triangulation ☆

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A method of triangular surface mesh smoothing is presented to improve angle quality by extending the original optimal Delaunay triangulation (ODT) to surface meshes. The mesh quality is improved by solving a quadratic optimization problem that minimizes the approximated interpolation error between a parabolic function and its piecewise linear interpolation defined on the mesh. A suboptimal problem is derived to guarantee a unique, analytic solution that is significantly faster with little loss in accuracy as compared to the optimal one. In addition to the quality-improving capability, the proposed method has been adapted to remove noise while faithfully preserving sharp features such as edges and corners of a mesh. Numerous experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of the method. PMID:23580890

  20. Sub-optimality in motor planning is retained throughout 9 days practice of 2250 trials

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Keiji; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Optimality in motor planning, as well as accuracy in motor execution, is required to maximize expected gain under risk. In this study, we tested whether humans are able to update their motor planning. Participants performed a coincident timing task with an asymmetric gain function, in which optimal response timing to gain the highest total score depends on response variability. Their behaviours were then compared using a Bayesian optimal decision model. After 9 days of practicing 2250 trials, the total score increased, and temporal variance decreased. On the other hand, the participants showed consistent risk-seeking or risk-averse behaviour, preserving suboptimal motor planning. These results suggest that a human’s computational ability to calculate an optimal motor plan is limited, and it is difficult to improve it through repeated practice with a score feedback. PMID:27869198

  1. Airway Microbiota and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness in Patients with Sub-optimally Controlled Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yvonne J.; Nelson, Craig E.; Brodie, Eoin L.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Baek, Marshall S.; Liu, Jane; Woyke, Tanja; Allgaier, Martin; Bristow, Jim; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P.; Sutherland, E. Rand; King, Tonya S.; Icitovic, Nikolina; Martin, Richard J.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Denlinger, Loren C.; DiMango, Emily; Kraft, Monica; Peters, Stephen P.; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Wechsler, Michael E.; Boushey, Homer A.; Lynch, Susan V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Improvement in lung function following macrolide antibiotic therapy has been attributed to reduction in bronchial infection due to specific bacteria. However, the airway may be populated by a more diverse microbiota, and clinical features of asthma may be associated with characteristics of the airway microbiota present. Objective To determine if relationships exist between the composition of the airway bacterial microbiota and clinical features of asthma, using culture-independent tools capable of detecting the presence and relative abundance of most known bacteria. Methods In this pilot study, bronchial epithelial brushings were collected from sixty-five adults with sub-optimally controlled asthma participating in a multicenter study of the effects of clarithromycin on asthma control, and ten healthy subjects. A combination of high-density 16S rRNA microarray and parallel clone library-sequencing analysis was used to profile the microbiota and examine relationships with clinical measurements. Results Compared to controls, 16S rRNA amplicon concentrations (a proxy for bacterial burden) and bacterial diversity were significantly higher among asthmatic patients. In multivariate analyses, airway microbiota composition and diversity were significantly correlated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Specifically, the relative abundance of particular phylotypes, including members of the Comamonadaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae and other bacterial families, were highly correlated with the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Conclusion The composition of bronchial airway microbiota is associated with the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness among patients with sub-optimally controlled asthma. These findings support the need for further functional studies to examine the potential contribution of members of the airway microbiota in asthma pathogenesis. PMID:21194740

  2. The problem of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in West Africa: what is the way forward?

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the policy implications of inadequate complementary feeding among children aged 6-23 months in West Africa. The review was undertaken from the initial results and findings from a series of studies on the comparison of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone and seven francophone West African countries. It also examined a study of the determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in those countries. Among the four complementary feeding indicators, it was only the introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods that was adequate among children in all the West African countries surveyed. The rates of the other complementary feeding indicators were found to be inadequate in all countries surveyed, although relatively better among children in the anglophone countries. Alarmingly, low rates of minimum acceptable diet were reported among children from both the anglophone and the francophone countries. Infants 6-11 months of age, children living in poor households, administrative/geographical regional differences and mothers' access to the media were some of the common risk factors for optimal complementary feeding practices in these countries. Assessing complementary feeding indicators and determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in these West African countries is crucial to improving infant and young child feeding practices. It is recommended that governments and stakeholders of the West African countries studied make greater efforts to improve these critical practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality in the West Africa sub-region. Intervention studies on complementary feeding should target those socio-demographic factors that pose risks to optimal complementary feeding.

  3. Maximizing DNA profiling success from sub-optimal quantities of DNA: a staged approach.

    PubMed

    Roeder, Amy D; Elsmore, Paul; Greenhalgh, Matt; McDonald, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Obtaining genetic profiles from samples containing minimal amounts of DNA can be difficult. In forensic science, the vast majority of genetic profiles are generated using commercial kits that have been optimized for the amplification of a specific range of DNA concentrations. DNA extracted from many forensic samples falls below the kit manufacturers' specified concentrations either because there is not enough total DNA in the extract or the extract is so dilute that not enough volume of the extract can be added to the PCR. In order to develop a method to maximize SGM Plus and Identifiler profiling success from samples with sub-optimal quantities of DNA, thermocycle numbers and/or the amount of PCR product injected during capillary electrophoresis (termed Enhancement) of PCR products were increased. Increasing the number of thermocycles from 28 to 30 and/or two phases of Enhancement of both 28 and 30 thermocycle PCR products resulted in an increased number of scorable peaks. As expected with low template amounts of DNA, many of the samples showed allelic drop-out, heterozygote imbalances and sporadic, large stutter peaks. Enhancement decreased the amount of allelic drop-out observed and did not affect stutter peak or heterozygous peak height ratios. Although the PCR reactions from these samples should always be replicated before a reportable consensus profile is reached, Phase 1 and 2 Enhancement can maximize the profiling success from each reaction. Finally, a flexible, staged approach using 28 or 30 thermocycle PCR in combination with the Enhancement techniques described here is proposed for processing samples with sub-optimal quantities of DNA.

  4. Using Symbols in International Business Presentations: How Well Are They Understood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert E.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to measure how well business and professional people from various cultures interpret symbols commonly used in international business presentations. Questionnaires contained 15 black and white symbols, selected from the clip art collection of Harvard Graphics business graphics software. Respondents from the United…

  5. Characteristics of antimuscarinic responders versus suboptimal responders in a randomized clinical trial of patients with overactive bladder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Grenabo, Lars; Herschorn, Sender; Kaplan, Steven A; Cardozo, Linda; Scholfield, David; Arumi, Daniel; Carlsson, Martin; Chapman, Douglass; Ntanios, Fady

    2017-10-01

    To assess the characteristics of tolterodine extended-release (ER) 4 mg responders and suboptimal responders (≤50% decrease in UUI episodes/24 h) among patients with overactive bladder (OAB), including urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), and identify predictors of a >50% UUI response with fesoterodine 8 mg in tolterodine suboptimal responders. Adult patients with OAB symptoms for ≥6 months and ≥8 micturitions, and ≥2 and <15 UUI episodes/24 h at week -2 received open-label tolterodine ER 4 mg during a 2 week run-in. Suboptimal responders after tolterodine treatment (week 0) were randomized to fesoterodine (4 mg for 1 week, 8 mg for weeks 2-12) or placebo once daily. Post-hoc analyses compared the percentage change from week -2 to week 0 in UUI episodes/24 h in tolterodine responders versus suboptimal responders and identified significant predictors of a UUI response at week 12 with fesoterodine 8 mg among tolterodine suboptimal responders. Of 897 patients, 610 (68%) were UUI suboptimal responders during the run-in period. UUI episodes/24 h at week -2 were similar in tolterodine responders and suboptimal responders (4.2 vs. 4.3), but responders showed a significantly greater median percentage decrease in UUI episodes/24 h after tolterodine treatment at week 0 (80.0% versus 15.3%; p < .0001). During double-blind treatment, the percentage of patients with a UUI response at week 12 was significantly greater with fesoterodine (69.9%) than placebo (57.0%; p = .0027). Fesoterodine (vs. placebo), no previous antimuscarinic use before tolterodine run-in, and less UUI severity at baseline were significant predictors of a UUI response. For patients with OAB, including UUI, who were treated initially with tolterodine and showed a suboptimal UUI response, nearly 70% demonstrated a UUI response with second-line fesoterodine 8 mg. No antimuscarinic use before tolterodine and fewer baseline UUI episodes were significant predictors of a UUI

  6. Hybrid Stochastic Search Technique based Suboptimal AGC Regulator Design for Power System using Constrained Feedback Control Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibraheem, Omveer, Hasan, N.

    2010-10-01

    A new hybrid stochastic search technique is proposed to design of suboptimal AGC regulator for a two area interconnected non reheat thermal power system incorporating DC link in parallel with AC tie-line. In this technique, we are proposing the hybrid form of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) based regulator. GASA has been successfully applied to constrained feedback control problems where other PI based techniques have often failed. The main idea in this scheme is to seek a feasible PI based suboptimal solution at each sampling time. The feasible solution decreases the cost function rather than minimizing the cost function.

  7. Interpretation in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Sven-G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the interpretive developments underway in Sweden. Discusses some programs in both natural and cultural interpretation. Calls for increasing the purpose and content of heritage preservation and conservation to the general public. (TW)

  8. Interpretation in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Sven-G.

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the interpretive developments underway in Sweden. Discusses some programs in both natural and cultural interpretation. Calls for increasing the purpose and content of heritage preservation and conservation to the general public. (TW)

  9. U-interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Arvind; Gostelow, K.P.

    1982-02-01

    The author argues that by giving a unique name to every activity generated during a computation, the u-interpreter can provide greater concurrency in the interpretation of data flow graphs. 19 references.

  10. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  11. Business-to-business: Buying Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millberg, Laura

    1994-01-01

    A survey of Minnesota businesses about their efforts to buy recycled content products. Results discuss reactive versus proactive policies, the corporate advantage of environmental protection, how efforts are hampered by confusion, suppliers as key informants, and businesses' need for information. (MDH)

  12. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  13. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  14. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

    1998-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  15. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  16. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  17. Interpreting. NETAC Teacher Tipsheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darroch, Kathy; Marshall, Liza

    This tipsheet explains that an interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that individuals with and without hearing may fully interact. It outlines the common types of services provided by interpreters, and discusses principles guiding the professional behaviors of interpreters. When working…

  18. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  19. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  20. Military Business Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Military Business Success By: Lieutenant...TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Military Business Success 6. AUTHOR(S) Ahmad, Mohamad Krastev, Radostin Puciato, Arkadiusz 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING...unlimited. MILITARY BUSINESS SUCCESS Mohamad Ahmad, Lieutenant Colonel, Malaysian Air Force Radostin Krastev, Captain, Bulgarian Air

  1. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  2. Discovering the Business Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous business schools have begun experimenting with studio-based inquiry, often drawing inspiration from professional studios used within art and design schools and from business and governmental studios used for problem-solving and innovation. Business school studios vary considerably in form, ranging from temporary…

  3. Food Business Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Peter

    Though not a very traditional career path for food scientists, one option is to go into business for yourself by starting a food business. Food business entrepreneurship is a difficult career that entails long work hours, extensive decision making, and tasks that require knowledge beyond food science. However, there is high potential for rewards, including financial rewards, career progression, and personal flexibility.

  4. Partnering with Business Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Many career and technical education (CTE) programs rely heavily on support from the business community to serve their students. However, there is very little information available on building solid business-education partnerships. Most people in the business world will say that they care about education, but how can educators find the people…

  5. Business English: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montag, Elizabeth J.; Shaw, Warren

    Intended as an English elective subject for senior high school students, this business English course guide provides students with the communication tools that can lead to success in the business world. Units cover the following topics: introduction to Business English (punctuation, grammar, spelling, vocabulary, and use of reference tools);…

  6. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  7. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  8. The Business Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha; Meggison, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The business education curriculum encompasses the educational experiences of business students at all levels. Business education curricula include a variety of programs, courses, units, course objectives, student competencies, assessments, and extracurricular activities that have evolved over the years. Curricula are driven by numerous internal…

  9. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  10. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  11. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  12. Discovering the Business Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous business schools have begun experimenting with studio-based inquiry, often drawing inspiration from professional studios used within art and design schools and from business and governmental studios used for problem-solving and innovation. Business school studios vary considerably in form, ranging from temporary…

  13. Open for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Edward

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and outcomes of Lane Community College's (LCC) Business Assistance Center, which offers a wide range of management assistance services to local small businesses. Explains how state-funded programs, based on the LCC model, resulted in a network of Small Business Development Centers. (CBC)

  14. First Business Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Business Development.

    This guide offers first-time business persons information as well as administrative and operational techniques for one-person business enterprises that have low initial start-up costs and low operational and overhead costs. These one-person businesses can be home based or have site locations outside the home. Included in this guide is a list of…

  15. Business Reengineering - Government Viability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    3 EXPLANATION OF THE DOD FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING PROCESS IMPROVEMENT..... 5 STRATEGIC AND BUSINESS PLANNING PHASE (1...STRATEGIC AND BUSINESS PLANNING PHASE (1): Planning activities analyze the current process baseline benchmarking the current external environment and...these questions to access the status of your organization and its need for reorganization change. Strategic Business Planning " What, if any, change

  16. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Because many U.S. businesses and companies want to do business with NASA, the Agency sends out procurement specialists to trade shows and conferences and organizes seminars to educate the business public on how to get on procurement lists to become product and service providers to the federal government.

  17. Sub-Optimal Ensemble Filters and distributed hydrologic modeling: a new challenge in flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroncini, F.; Castelli, F.

    2009-09-01

    Data assimilation techniques based on Ensemble Filtering are widely regarded as the best approach in solving forecast and calibration problems in geophysics models. Often the implementation of statistical optimal techniques, like the Ensemble Kalman Filter, is unfeasible because of the large amount of replicas used in each time step of the model for updating the error covariance matrix. Therefore the sub optimal approach seems to be a more suitable choice. Various sub-optimal techniques were tested in atmospheric and oceanographic models, some of them are based on the detection of a "null space". Distributed Hydrologic Models differ from the other geo-fluid-dynamics models in some fundamental aspects that make complex to understanding the relative efficiency of the different suboptimal techniques. Those aspects include threshold processes , preferential trajectories for convection and diffusion, low observability of the main state variables and high parametric uncertainty. This research study is focused on such topics and explore them through some numerical experiments on an continuous hydrologic model, MOBIDIC. This model include both water mass balance and surface energy balance, so it's able to assimilate a wide variety of datasets like traditional hydrometric "on ground" measurements or land surface temperature retrieval from satellite. The experiments that we present concern to a basin of 700 kmq in center Italy, with hourly dataset on a 8 months period that includes both drought and flood events, in this first set of experiment we worked on a low spatial resolution version of the hydrologic model (3.2 km). A new Kalman Filter based algorithm is presented : this filter try to address the main challenges of hydrological modeling uncertainty. The proposed filter use in Forecast step a COFFEE (Complementary Orthogonal Filter For Efficient Ensembles) approach with a propagation of both deterministic and stochastic ensembles to improve robustness and convergence

  18. Efficient Methods to Assimilate Satellite Retrievals Based on Information Content. Part 2; Suboptimal Retrieval Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Dee, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in data assimilation has been and continues to be how best to utilize satellite data while balancing the tradeoff between accuracy and computational cost. A number of weather prediction centers have recently achieved remarkable success in improving their forecast skill by changing the method by which satellite data are assimilated into the forecast model from the traditional approach of assimilating retrievals to the direct assimilation of radiances in a variational framework. The operational implementation of such a substantial change in methodology involves a great number of technical details, e.g., pertaining to quality control procedures, systematic error correction techniques, and tuning of the statistical parameters in the analysis algorithm. Although there are clear theoretical advantages to the direct radiance assimilation approach, it is not obvious at all to what extent the improvements that have been obtained so far can be attributed to the change in methodology, or to various technical aspects of the implementation. The issue is of interest because retrieval assimilation retains many practical and logistical advantages which may become even more significant in the near future when increasingly high-volume data sources become available. The central question we address here is: how much improvement can we expect from assimilating radiances rather than retrievals, all other things being equal? We compare the two approaches in a simplified one-dimensional theoretical framework, in which problems related to quality control and systematic error correction are conveniently absent. By assuming a perfect radiative transfer model and perfect knowledge of radiance and background error covariances, we are able to formulate a nonlinear local error analysis for each assimilation method. Direct radiance assimilation is optimal in this idealized context, while the traditional method of assimilating retrievals is suboptimal because it

  19. Lean business model and implementation of a geriatric fracture center.

    PubMed

    Kates, Stephen L

    2014-05-01

    Geriatric hip fracture is a common event associated with high costs of care and often with suboptimal outcomes for the patients. Ideally, a new care model to manage geriatric hip fractures would address both quality and safety of patient care as well as the need for reduced costs of care. The geriatric fracture center model of care is one such model reported to improve both outcomes and quality of care. It is a lean business model applied to medicine. This article describes basic lean business concepts applied to geriatric fracture care and information needed to successfully implement a geriatric fracture center. It is written to assist physicians and surgeons in their efforts to implement an improved care model for their patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interpreters' Involvement in Multi-Party Interactions: The Nature of Participation as Listener and Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates two naturally occurring business interpreting situations where there are a number of participants. Unlike dialogue interpreting situations where there are only two primary interlocutors, the overall interaction shows more complexity in these multi-party situations. This, in turn, means that the interpreters' functions and…

  1. Predictors of Suboptimal Virologic Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Helen; Wilson, Craig M.; Modjarrad, Kayvon; McGwin, Gerald; Tang, Jianming; Vermund, Sten H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence and biopsychosocial predictors of sub-optimal virologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adolescents. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Sixteen academic medical centers across thirteen cities in the United States. Participants One hundred and fifty four HIV-infected adolescents who presented for at least two consecutive visits after initiation of HAART. Main Outcome Measures Viral load (plasma concentration of HIV RNA), CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. Results Of the 154 adolescents enrolled in the study, 50 (32.5%) demonstrated early and sustained virologic suppression while receiving HAART. The remaining 104 adolescents (67.5%) had a poor virologic response. Adequate adherence (>50%) to HAART—reported by 70.8% of respondents—was associated with a 60% reduced odds of suboptimal virologic suppression in a multivariable logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio = 0.4; 95% confidence interval : 0.2 – 1.0). Exposure to sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to HAART, on the other hand, was associated with more than a two-fold increased odds of sub-optimal virologic response (adjusted odds ratio = 2.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.1 – 5.7). Conclusions Fully two-thirds of HIV-infected adolescents in the current study demonstrated a sub-optimal virologic response to HAART. Non-adherence and prior single or dual ART were associated with subsequent poor virologic responses to HAART. These predictors of HAART failure echo findings in pediatric and adult populations. Given the unique developmental stage of adolescence, age-specific interventions are indicated to address high rates of non-adherence and therapeutic failure. PMID:19996046

  2. Compressing with dominant hand improves quality of manual chest compressions for rescuers who performed suboptimal CPR in manikins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Tang, Ce; Zhang, Lei; Gong, Yushun; Yin, Changlin; Li, Yongqin

    2015-07-01

    The question of whether the placement of the dominant hand against the sternum could improve the quality of manual chest compressions remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of dominant vs nondominant hand positioning on the quality of conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during prolonged basic life support (BLS) by rescuers who performed optimal and suboptimal compressions. Six months after completing a standard BLS training course, 101 medical students were instructed to perform adult single-rescuer BLS for 8 minutes on a manikin with a randomized hand position. Twenty-four hours later, the students placed the opposite hand in contact with the sternum while performing CPR. Those with an average compression depth of less than 50 mm were considered suboptimal. Participants who had performed suboptimal compressions were significantly shorter (170.2 ± 6.8 vs 174.0 ± 5.6 cm, P = .008) and lighter (58.9 ± 7.6 vs 66.9 ± 9.6 kg, P < .001) than those who performed optimal compressions. No significant differences in CPR quality were observed between dominant and nondominant hand placements for these who had an average compression depth of greater than 50 mm. However, both the compression depth (49.7 ± 4.2 vs 46.5 ± 4.1 mm, P = .003) and proportion of chest compressions with an appropriate depth (47.6% ± 27.8% vs 28.0% ± 23.4%, P = .006) were remarkably higher when compressing the chest with the dominant hand against the sternum for those who performed suboptimal CPR. Chest compression quality significantly improved when the dominant hand was placed against the sternum for those who performed suboptimal compressions during conventional CPR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Suboptimal inhibition of platelet cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) by aspirin in lupus erythematosus: Association with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Vivian K.; Avalos, Ingrid; Oeser, Annette; Oates, John A.; Milne, Ginger L.; Solus, Joseph F.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Stein, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Low-dose aspirin prevents platelet aggregation by suppressing thromboxane A2 synthesis. However, in some individuals thromboxane A2 suppression by aspirin is impaired, indicating suboptimal inhibition of platelet COX-1 by aspirin. Because patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased risk of thrombotic events, many receive aspirin; however, the efficacy of aspirin in SLE has not been determined. We examined the hypothesis that aspirin response is impaired in SLE. Methods We assessed the effect of aspirin by measuring concentrations of the stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 - serum thromboxane B2 (sTxB2), before and after treatment with 81 mg daily aspirin for 7 days in 34 patients with SLE and 36 control subjects. The inability to suppress sTxB2 synthesis to <10 ng/ml represents suboptimal inhibition of platelet COX-1 by aspirin. Results Aspirin almost completely suppressed sTXB2 in control subjects to 1.5, [0.8–2.7] ng/ml (median and interquartile ranges [IQR]), but had less effect in patients with SLE (3.1, [2.2–5.3] ng/ml) (P=0.002). A suboptimal effect of aspirin was present in 15% (5/34) of the patients with SLE but not in control subjects (0/36) (P=0.023). Incomplete responders were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (P=0.048), obesity (P=0.048) and higher concentrations of CRP (P=0.018). Conclusion The pharmacologic effect of aspirin is suboptimal in 15% of patients with SLE but in none of the control subjects, and the suboptimal response was associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and higher CRP concentrations. PMID:24022862

  4. Suboptimal vitamin D status is a highly prevalent but treatable condition in both hospitalized patients and the general population.

    PubMed

    Moore, Nicole L; Kiebzak, Gary M

    2007-12-01

    To heighten awareness of the problems related to the high prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in hospitalized patients and the general population, including an overview of vitamin D biology, how vitamin D status is defined, the negative health issues associated with suboptimal vitamin D status, indications for treatment, treatment strategies, and controversies in the field. (a) Literature review was performed using PubMed and CINAHL databases to locate and review medical, nursing, and nutritional journals. (b) Authors' recent prospective studies of 100 patients in a general tertiary hospital rehabilitation unit and 51 nonhospitalized volunteers. Poor vitamin D status (ranging from suboptimal to overt deficiency) is common in both hospitalized patients and ostensibly healthy individuals of all ages and geographic latitude. Suboptimal vitamin D status is associated with muscle weakness, functional deficits, and perhaps longer length of stay of hospitalized patients. Predictors of vitamin D status include race, poor nutrition, advanced age, use of multivitamins, ultraviolet light exposure, and grip strength. Fortunately, treatment with 50,000 IU of vitamin D(2) for several weeks is a very inexpensive and safe yet effective treatment to replete vitamin D status. NPs should be aware of the indications for monitoring vitamin D status and the appropriate treatment for suboptimal vitamin D status. Improving vitamin D status may improve a patient's functional ability, therefore decreasing falls and preventing fractures, decreasing length of stay in the hospital, and decreasing the cost of health care. Providers can potentially improve the life of older adults by educating patients on the importance of vitamin D supplementation.

  5. Patterns of marijuana and tobacco use associated with suboptimal self-rated health among US adult ever users of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Tsai, James; Rolle, Italia V; Singh, Tushar; Boulet, Sheree L; McAfee, Timothy A; Grant, Althea M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of marijuana and tobacco use and their associations with suboptimal self-rated health (SRH) among US adults who reported "ever, even once, using marijuana or hashish." Data came from the 2009-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, restricting to respondents aged 20 years and older who reported using marijuana at least once in their lifetime (n = 3,210). We assessed the age-adjusted prevalence of mutually exclusive groups of regular (at least once a month for more than one year) and non-regular marijuana smoking by current (serum cotinine ≥ 3.08 ng/mL) and not current use of tobacco. Suboptimal SRH status was defined as "fair" or "poor" in response to the question "Would you say that in general your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?" We produced prevalence ratios with multivariable log-linear regression models. Among ever users of marijuana, the age-adjusted prevalence of regular marijuana smoking with current tobacco use, non-regular marijuana smoking with current tobacco use, and regular marijuana smoking without current tobacco use was 24.7%, 15.2%, and 21.1%, respectively. When compared to non-regular marijuana smokers without current tobacco use, the adjusted prevalence ratio for reporting suboptimal SRH was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.50-2.61), 1.82 (95% CI: 1.40-2.37), and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.05-1.69), respectively. In conclusion, among adult ever users of marijuana, current tobacco use is high and strongly associated with suboptimal SRH; regular marijuana smoking with or without current tobacco use is significantly associated with suboptimal SRH.

  6. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms.

  7. Hybrid suboptimal control of multi-rate multi-loop sampled-data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieh, Leang S.; Chen, Gwangchywan; Tsai, Jason S. H.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid state-space controller is developed for suboptimal digital control of multirate multiloop multivariable continuous-time systems. First, an LQR is designed for a continuous-time subsystem which has a large bandwidth and is connnected in the inner loop of the overall system. The designed LQR would optimally place the eigenvalues of a closed-loop subsystem in the common region of an open sector bounded by sector angles + or - pi/2k for k = 2 or 3 from the negative real axis and the left-hand side of a vertical line on the negative real axis in the s-plane. Then, the developed continuous-time state-feedback gain is converted into an equivalent fast-rate discrete-time state-feedback gain via a digital redesign technique (Tsai et al. 1989, Shieh et al. 1990) reviewed here. A real state reconstructor is redeveloped utilizing the fast-rate input-output data of the system of interest. The design procedure of multiloop multivariable systems using multirate samplers is shown, and a terminal homing missile system example is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Las Vegas algorithms for gene recognition: Suboptimal and error-tolerant spliced alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, Sing-Hoi; Pevzner, P.A.

    1997-12-01

    Recently, Gelfand, Mironov and Pevzner proposed a spliced alignment approach to gene recognition that provides 99% accurate recognition of human gene if a related mammalian protein is available. However, even 99% accurate gene predictions are insufficient for automated sequence annotation in large-scale sequencing projects and therefore have to be complemented by experimental gene verification. 100% accurate gene predictions would lead to a substantial reduction of experimental work on gene identification. Our goal is to develop an algorithm that either predicts an exon assembly with accuracy sufficient for sequence annotation or warns a biologist that the accuracy of a prediction is insufficient and further experimental work is required. We study suboptimal and error-tolerant spliced alignment problems as the first steps towards such an algorithm, and report an algorithm which provides 100% accurate recognition of human genes in 37% of cases (if a related mammalian protein is available). For 52% of genes, the algorithm predicts at least one exon with 100% accuracy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Critical phenomena in communication/computation networks with various topologies and suboptimal to optimal resource allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogoni, Marco; Busonera, Giovanni; Anedda, Paolo; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize previous studies on critical phenomena in communication networks [1,2] by adding computational capabilities to the nodes. In our model, a set of tasks with random origin, destination and computational structure is distributed on a computational network, modeled as a graph. By varying the temperature of a Metropolis Montecarlo, we explore the global latency for an optimal to suboptimal resource assignment at a given time instant. By computing the two-point correlation function for the local overload, we study the behavior of the correlation distance (both for links and nodes) while approaching the congested phase: a transition from peaked to spread g(r) is seen above a critical (Montecarlo) temperature Tc. The average latency trend of the system is predicted by averaging over several network traffic realizations while maintaining a spatially detailed information for each node: a sharp decrease of performance is found over Tc independently of the workload. The globally optimized computational resource allocation and network routing defines a baseline for a future comparison of the transition behavior with respect to existing routing strategies [3,4] for different network topologies.

  10. Motor planning under temporal uncertainty is suboptimal when the gain function is asymmetric

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Keiji; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    For optimal action planning, the gain/loss associated with actions and the variability in motor output should both be considered. A number of studies make conflicting claims about the optimality of human action planning but cannot be reconciled due to their use of different movements and gain/loss functions. The disagreement is possibly because of differences in the experimental design and differences in the energetic cost of participant motor effort. We used a coincident timing task, which requires decision making with constant energetic cost, to test the optimality of participant's timing strategies under four configurations of the gain function. We compared participant strategies to an optimal timing strategy calculated from a Bayesian model that maximizes the expected gain. We found suboptimal timing strategies under two configurations of the gain function characterized by asymmetry, in which higher gain is associated with higher risk of zero gain. Participants showed a risk-seeking strategy by responding closer than optimal to the time of onset/offset of zero gain. Meanwhile, there was good agreement of the model with actual performance under two configurations of the gain function characterized by symmetry. Our findings show that human ability to make decisions that must reflect uncertainty in one's own motor output has limits that depend on the configuration of the gain function. PMID:26236227

  11. Sub-optimal pit construction in predatory ant lion larvae (Myrmeleon sp.).

    PubMed

    Burgess, Matthew G

    2009-10-07

    The impacts on energy gains of two aspects of ant lion pit architecture were investigated in a natural population of pit-building ant lion larvae (Myrmeleon sp.) in Costa Rica. Field and laboratory settings were used to examine the impacts of circumference and depth of the pit on net energy gain rate. An optimization model predicted a point optimum circumference and angle of depression in an unconstrained system, and positive correlations between body mass, pit circumference, and pit angle of depression in the presence of physiological constraints on both measures. Such a physiological constraint is possible in this system due to a large one-time construction cost. All of these correlations were observed in a lab setting with filtered substrate and no competition; though none were significant in the field. Individuals additionally constructed wider, shallower pits in the field. These results are consistent with an angle of depression that is limited by the angle of repose of the substrate in the field, rather than physiology. These results provided suggestive evidence for sub-optimal pit dimensions in Myrmeleon sp., and for the importance of substrate type in understanding the architecture of natural ant lion pits. The model predicted that the frequency of relocation would not affect the optimal angle of depression, but it would affect the optimal pit circumference to a degree proportional to the square root of the change in the average time an ant lion occupies a single pit. These findings challenge the widely held assumption of adaptive optimality in animal foraging.

  12. Lansoprazole induces sensitivity to suboptimal doses of paclitaxel in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Azzarito, Tommaso; Venturi, Giulietta; Cesolini, Albino; Fais, Stefano

    2015-01-28

    Tumor acidity is now considered an important determinant of drug-resistance and tumor progression, and anti-acidic approaches, such as Proton Pump inhibitors (PPIs), have demonstrated promising antitumor and chemo-sensitizing efficacy. The main purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible PPI-induced sensitization of human melanoma cells to Paclitaxel (PTX). Our results show that PTX and the PPI Lansoprazole (LAN) combination was extremely efficient against metastatic melanoma cells, as compared to the single treatments, both in vitro and in vivo. We also showed that acidity plays an important role on the anti-tumor activity of these drugs, being detrimental for PTX activity, while crucial for the synergistic effect of PTX following pretreatment with LAN, due to its nature of pro-drug needing protonation for a full activation. We obtained straightforward results in a human melanoma xenograft model combining well tolerated LAN doses with suboptimal and poorly toxic doses of PTX. With this study we provide a clear evidence that the PPI LAN may be included in new combined therapy of human melanoma together with low doses of PTX.

  13. Suboptimal evolutionary novel environments promote singular altered gravity responses of transcriptome during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Raul; Larkin, Oliver J; Hill, Richard J A; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; van Loon, Jack J W A; Medina, F Javier

    2013-06-27

    Previous experiments have shown that the reduced gravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene expression. These changes were shown to be intimately linked to environmental space-flight related constraints. Here, we use an array of different techniques for ground-based simulation of microgravity effects to assess the effect of suboptimal environmental conditions on the gene expression of Drosophila in reduced gravity. A global and integrative analysis, using "gene expression dynamics inspector" (GEDI) self-organizing maps, reveals different degrees in the responses of the transcriptome when using different environmental conditions or microgravity/hypergravity simulation devices. Although the genes that are affected are different in each simulation technique, we find that the same gene ontology groups, including at least one large multigene family related with behavior, stress response or organogenesis, are over represented in each case. These results suggest that the transcriptome as a whole can be finely tuned to gravity force. In optimum environmental conditions, the alteration of gravity has only mild effects on gene expression but when environmental conditions are far from optimal, the gene expression must be tuned greatly and effects become more robust, probably linked to the lack of experience of organisms exposed to evolutionary novel environments such as a gravitational free one.

  14. Suboptimal antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-infected adults in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Muessig, Kathryn E.; McLaughlin, Megan M.; Nie, Jing Min; Cai, Weiping; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Ligang; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite China“s free antiretroviral treatment (ART) program, there are high rates of treatment failure, large sociodemographic disparities in care outcomes and emerging medication resistance. Understanding patient medication adherence behaviors and challenges could inform adherence interventions to maximize the individual and prevention benefits of ART. This study assessed recent non-adherence and treatment interruption among 813 HIV-infected adult outpatients in Guangzhou, China. Participants completed a behavioral survey, underwent chart review, and were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Among 721 HIV-infected adults receiving ART, 18.9% reported recent non-adherence (any missed ART in the past 4 weeks) and 6.8% reported treatment interruption (four or more weeks of missed ART in the past year). Lower education, living alone, alcohol use and being on ART one to three years were associated with recent non-adherence. Male gender, lower education and being on ART one to three years were associated with treatment interruption. ART medication adherence interventions are needed in China that include individualized, long-term adherence plans sensitive to patients“ educational and economic situations. These interventions should also consider possible gender disparities in treatment outcomes and address the use of alcohol during ART. Successful ART medication adherence interventions in China can inform other international settings that face similar adherence challenges and disparities. PMID:24666239

  15. Suboptimal chlorine treatment of drinking water leads to selection of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Richa; Upreti, R K; Jain, S R; Prasad, K N; Seth, P K; Chaturvedi, U C

    2004-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the spectrum of bacteria present in the River Gomti water before and after chlorination for drinking purposes. We observed that the strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that survived chlorination on three out of seven occasions were resistant to almost all the antibiotics tested. The chlorine-resistant bacteria had mucoid colonies and grew better at 24 degrees C. All attempts to isolate the plasmid responsible for chlorine resistance were unsuccessful. Laboratory experiments using different strains of the P. aeruginosa in distilled water showed that only the resistant strain survived chlorine treatment at a dose of < or =500 microg/L. Similar results were obtained when water collected from seven different sites on the River Gomti was treated with graded doses of chlorine. At the higher dose of chlorine, all the bacteria died in 30 min, whereas with lower doses all the bacteria survived. The present study underscores the importance of measuring water chlorine concentrations to assure they are sufficiently high to remove pathogenic bacteria from drinking water. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of the selection of multidrug-resistant bacteria by suboptimal chlorine treatment of water.

  16. Suboptimal evolutionary novel environments promote singular altered gravity responses of transcriptome during Drosophila metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous experiments have shown that the reduced gravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene expression. These changes were shown to be intimately linked to environmental space-flight related constraints. Results Here, we use an array of different techniques for ground-based simulation of microgravity effects to assess the effect of suboptimal environmental conditions on the gene expression of Drosophila in reduced gravity. A global and integrative analysis, using “gene expression dynamics inspector” (GEDI) self-organizing maps, reveals different degrees in the responses of the transcriptome when using different environmental conditions or microgravity/hypergravity simulation devices. Although the genes that are affected are different in each simulation technique, we find that the same gene ontology groups, including at least one large multigene family related with behavior, stress response or organogenesis, are over represented in each case. Conclusions These results suggest that the transcriptome as a whole can be finely tuned to gravity force. In optimum environmental conditions, the alteration of gravity has only mild effects on gene expression but when environmental conditions are far from optimal, the gene expression must be tuned greatly and effects become more robust, probably linked to the lack of experience of organisms exposed to evolutionary novel environments such as a gravitational free one. PMID:23806134

  17. A Sensor Network Data Compression Algorithm Based on Suboptimal Clustering and Virtual Landmark Routing Within Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Li, Shengqiang

    2010-01-01

    A kind of data compression algorithm for sensor networks based on suboptimal clustering and virtual landmark routing within clusters is proposed in this paper. Firstly, temporal redundancy existing in data obtained by the same node in sequential instants can be eliminated. Then sensor networks nodes will be clustered. Virtual node landmarks in clusters can be established based on cluster heads. Routing in clusters can be realized by combining a greedy algorithm and a flooding algorithm. Thirdly, a global structure tree based on cluster heads will be established. During the course of data transmissions from nodes to cluster heads and from cluster heads to sink, the spatial redundancy existing in the data will be eliminated. Only part of the raw data needs to be transmitted from nodes to sink, and all raw data can be recovered in the sink based on a compression code and part of the raw data. Consequently, node energy can be saved, largely because transmission of redundant data can be avoided. As a result the overall performance of the sensor network can obviously be improved. PMID:22163396

  18. Suboptimal Nutritional Characteristics in Male and Female Soldiers Compared to Sports Nutrition Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Beals, Kim; Darnell, Matthew E; Lovalekar, Mita; Baker, Rachel A; Nagai, Takashi; San-Adams, Thida; Wirt, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutrient intake of male and female Soldiers in the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) compared to sports nutrition standards for athletes, and to identify suboptimal eating characteristics that may impair physical performance and jeopardize military readiness. Male and female Soldiers from the 101 st Airborne Division (Air Assault) completed a 24-hour dietary recall and nutrition history questionnaire before anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken. Compared to sports nutrition guidelines, Soldiers of the 101 st under consume carbohydrates (males: 3.9 ± 2.0 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p < 0.001; females: 4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 5.0 g/kg, p = 0.001), male Soldiers eat too much fat (32.4% of kcal vs. <30% of kcal, p = 0.000) and saturated fat (males: 10.5 ± 3.9% of kcal vs. 10.0% of kcal, p = 0.044), and both males and females follow a meal pattern that may not optimize energy availability throughout the day. Eating too much fat and under fueling carbohydrate may negatively impact the adaptations to physical training and compromise overall health. Although Soldiers continue to participate in arduous training programs, future research should be aimed at determining the energy and macronutrient needs to fuel and recover from specific types of military training.

  19. Hybrid suboptimal control of multi-rate multi-loop sampled-data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieh, Leang S.; Chen, Gwangchywan; Tsai, Jason S. H.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid state-space controller is developed for suboptimal digital control of multirate multiloop multivariable continuous-time systems. First, an LQR is designed for a continuous-time subsystem which has a large bandwidth and is connnected in the inner loop of the overall system. The designed LQR would optimally place the eigenvalues of a closed-loop subsystem in the common region of an open sector bounded by sector angles + or - pi/2k for k = 2 or 3 from the negative real axis and the left-hand side of a vertical line on the negative real axis in the s-plane. Then, the developed continuous-time state-feedback gain is converted into an equivalent fast-rate discrete-time state-feedback gain via a digital redesign technique (Tsai et al. 1989, Shieh et al. 1990) reviewed here. A real state reconstructor is redeveloped utilizing the fast-rate input-output data of the system of interest. The design procedure of multiloop multivariable systems using multirate samplers is shown, and a terminal homing missile system example is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Suboptimal HIV Testing Uptake Among Men Who Engage in Commercial Sex Work with Men in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Harry; Friedman, Mackey Reuel; Lim, Sin How; Guadamuz, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Men who have sex with men and are sex workers (MSMSW) are disproportionately affected by the growing and emerging HIV epidemic. As sex work and same-sex behavior are heavily stigmatized and often illegal in most Asian countries, HIV research focusing on MSMSW has been limited. The goal of this analysis is to examine HIV testing practices and identify correlates of HIV testing among MSMSW in Asia. Methods: The Asia Internet MSM Sex Survey, an online cross-sectional survey of 10,861 men who have sex with men (MSM), was conducted in 2010. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, HIV testing behaviors, and sexual behaviors were collected. Five hundred and seventy-four HIV-negative/unknown respondents reported receiving payment for sex with men at least once in the past 6 months and were included in this analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to identify independent correlates of HIV testing in the past year. Results: About half (48.6%) of the participants had been tested for HIV at least once within the past year, and 30.5% had never been tested. We also found that MSMSW participants who engaged in risky behaviors were less likely to be tested. Conclusion: While one might expect a high HIV testing rate among MSMSW due to the risks associated with engaging in sex work, we found that HIV testing uptake is suboptimal among MSMSW in Asia. These results suggest that targeted HIV prevention and testing promotion among MSMSW are needed. PMID:26982598

  1. Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia: suboptimal treatment when the 2008/2016 WHO classification is used

    PubMed Central

    Pomerantz, Alan; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Sergio; Demichelis-Gomez, Roberta; Barrera-Lumbreras, Georgina; Barrales-Benitez, Olga; Lopez-Karpovitch, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background Different criteria have been used to diagnose mixed-phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), which has impacted the number of individuals diagnosed with this pathology. Better outcomes have been reported when using acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-type chemotherapy in the treatment of MPAL. Methods We compared the outcome of 4 groups of patients with MPAL. Group 1 included patients diagnosed using the 2008/2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification; group 2 included patients diagnosed using the European Group for the Immunological Characterization of Leukemias (EGIL) criteria; group 3 included patients diagnosed using either the EGIL or the 2008/2016 WHO criteria; and group 4 was comprised of patients diagnosed with MPAL using the EGIL classification only. Results We found a significantly worse disease-free survival (groups 1-4) and overall survival (OS) (groups 2 and 3) when comparing MPAL patients to other acute leukemia (AL) patients. A significantly better OS was obtained in patients (groups 2-4) treated with ALL-type chemotherapy compared to acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-type regimens. Conclusion In light of these results, and because a trend (P=0.06) was found with regard to a better OS in group 4 when compared to other AL patients, an argument can be made that the 2008/2016 WHO classification is underpowered to diagnose all MPAL cases, potentially resulting in the suboptimal treatment of some individuals with AL. PMID:28090485

  2. A pseudo-dynamic sub-optimal filter for elastography under static loading and measurements.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, B; Roy, D; Vasu, R M

    2009-01-21

    We propose a pseudo-dynamic form of a sub-optimal Kalman filter for elastography of plane-strain models of soft tissues under strictly static deformations and partial measurements. Since the tissue material is nearly incompressible and is thus prone to volumetric locking via standard displacement-based finite element formulations, we use a Cosserat point approach for deriving the static equilibrium equations. A pseudo-dynamical form of the equilibrium equations, with added noise and appropriate augmentation by the discretized shear modulus as additional states, is then adopted as the process equation such that its steady-state solution approaches the static response of the plane-strain model. A fictitious noise of small intensity is also added to the measurement equation and, following linearization of the process equation, a Kalman filter is applied to reconstruct the shear modulus profile. We present several numerical experiments, some of which also bring forth the relative advantages of the proposed approach over a deterministic reconstruction based on a quasi-Newton search.

  3. Suboptimal herd performance amplifies the spread of infectious disease in the cattle industry.

    PubMed

    Gates, M Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E J

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity.

  4. Effects of Suboptimally Presented Erotic Pictures on Moral Judgments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Vilar, Manuel; Arango, Olber Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified a set of core factors that influence moral judgments. The present study addresses the interplay between moral judgments and four factors: (a) incidental affects, (b) sociocultural context, (c) type of dilemma, and (d) participant’s sex. We asked participants in two different countries (Colombia and Spain) to judge the acceptability of actions in response to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas. Before each dilemma an affective prime (erotic, pleasant or neutral pictures) was presented suboptimally. Our results show that: a) relative to neutral priming, erotic primes increase the acceptance of harm for a greater good (i.e., more utilitarian judgments), b) relative to Colombians, Spanish participants rated causing harm as less acceptable, c) relative to impersonal dilemmas, personal dilemmas reduced the acceptance of harm, and d) relative to men, women were less likely to consider harm acceptable. Our results are congruent with findings showing that sex is a crucial factor in moral cognition, and they extend previous research by showing the interaction between culture and incidental factors in the making of moral judgments. PMID:27367795

  5. An interrupted time series analysis showed suboptimal improvement in reporting quality of trial abstract.

    PubMed

    Chhapola, Viswas; Tiwari, Soumya; Brar, Rekha; Kanwal, Sandeep Kumar

    2016-03-01

    To assess and compare the immediate and long-term change in reporting quality of randomized controlled trial (RCT) abstracts published in Pediatrics, The Journal of Pediatrics, and JAMA Pediatrics before and after the publication of Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trial (CONSORT)-abstract statement. Study had "Interrupted time-series" design. Eligible RCT abstracts were retrieved by PubMed search in two study periods from January 2003 to December 2007 (pre-CONSORT) and January 2010 to December 2014 (post-CONSORT). These abstracts were matched with the CONSORT checklist for abstracts. The primary outcome measure was CONSORT-abstract score defined as number of CONSORT items correctly reported divided by 18 and expressed as percentage. The mean percentage scores were used to compare reporting quality between pre- and post-CONSORT using segmented linear regression. A total of 424 RCT abstracts in pre-CONSORT and 467 in post-CONSORT were analyzed. A significant change in slope of regression line between two time periods (0.151 [confidence interval CI, 0.004-0.298], P = 0.044) was observed. Intercepts did not show a significant difference (-2.39 [CI, 4.93-0.157], P = 0.065). The overall reporting quality of RCT abstracts in the high-impact pediatrics journals was suboptimal (<50%); however, it improved when assessed over a 5-year period, implying slow but gradual adoption of guideline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Wavelet based Suboptimal Kalman Filter for Assimilation of Stratospheric Chemical Tracer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Auger, Ludovic

    2003-01-01

    A suboptimal Kalman filter system which evolves error covariances in terms of a truncated set of wavelet coefficients has been developed for the assimilation of chemical tracer observations of CH4. This scheme projects the discretized covariance propagation equations and covariance matrix onto an orthogonal set of compactly supported wavelets. Wavelet representation is localized in both location and scale, which allows for efficient representation of the inherently anisotropic structure of the error covariances. The truncation is carried out in such a way that the resolution of the error covariance is reduced only in the zonal direction, where gradients are smaller. Assimilation experiments which last 24 days, and used different degrees of truncation were carried out. These reduced the covariance size by 90, 97 and 99 % and the computational cost of covariance propagation by 80, 93 and 96 % respectively. The difference in both error covariance and the tracer field between the truncated and full systems over this period were found to be not growing in the first case, and growing relatively slowly in the later two cases. The largest errors in the tracer fields were found to occur in regions of largest zonal gradients in the constituent field. This results indicate that propagation of error covariances for a global two-dimensional data assimilation system are currently feasible. Recommendations for further reduction in computational cost are made with the goal of extending this technique to three-dimensional global assimilation systems.

  7. Effects of Suboptimally Presented Erotic Pictures on Moral Judgments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    PubMed

    Olivera-La Rosa, Antonio; Corradi, Guido; Villacampa, Javier; Martí-Vilar, Manuel; Arango, Olber Eduardo; Rosselló, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified a set of core factors that influence moral judgments. The present study addresses the interplay between moral judgments and four factors: (a) incidental affects, (b) sociocultural context, (c) type of dilemma, and (d) participant's sex. We asked participants in two different countries (Colombia and Spain) to judge the acceptability of actions in response to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas. Before each dilemma an affective prime (erotic, pleasant or neutral pictures) was presented suboptimally. Our results show that: a) relative to neutral priming, erotic primes increase the acceptance of harm for a greater good (i.e., more utilitarian judgments), b) relative to Colombians, Spanish participants rated causing harm as less acceptable, c) relative to impersonal dilemmas, personal dilemmas reduced the acceptance of harm, and d) relative to men, women were less likely to consider harm acceptable. Our results are congruent with findings showing that sex is a crucial factor in moral cognition, and they extend previous research by showing the interaction between culture and incidental factors in the making of moral judgments.

  8. Suboptimal maximum likelihood detection of on-off keying for a wireless optical communication system.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijie; Ding, Shengli; Dang, Anhong

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates a detection scheme without channel state information for wireless optical communication systems. Employing conventional on-off keying signals, we supposed that conditional probability density function P(r|0) is much bigger than P(r|1) when r<0. Under this assumption, the suboptimal maximum likelihood scheme is obtained by utilizing the probability density function without channel information. Theoretical analysis shows the performance of the proposed scheme is close to the maximum likelihood symbol-by-symbol detection. Compared with the maximum likelihood symbol by symbol detection, Monte Carlo simulations show that the performance of the proposed scheme is about 0.62 dB loss for a gamma-gamma channel with a Rytov variance of 1 at the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 dB, but the efficient algorithm makes the real-time implementation of detection based on maximum likelihood feasible. Besides, the experiment is set up under 2 Gbps, and the experimental results match well with that of the theory and simulation.

  9. Suboptimal Iodine Concentration in Breastmilk and Inadequate Iodine Intake among Lactating Women in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Henjum, Sigrun; Lilleengen, Anne Marie; Aakre, Inger; Dudareva, Anna; Gjengedal, Elin Lovise Folven; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Brantsæter, Anne Lise

    2017-01-01

    Breastfed infants depend on sufficient maternal iodine intake for optimal growth and neurological development. Despite this, few studies have assessed iodine concentrations in human milk and there is currently no published data on iodine status among lactating women in Norway. The aim of this study was to assess iodine concentrations in breast milk (BMIC) in lactating women and estimate iodine intake. Five Mother and Child Health Centres in Oslo were randomly selected during 2016, and 175 lactating women between 2nd and 28th weeks postpartum participated. Each of the women provided four breastmilk samples which were pooled and analysed for iodine concentrations. Participants also provided information on iodine intake from food and supplements covering the last 24 h and the habitual iodine intake (food frequency questionnaire). The median (p25, p75 percentiles) BMIC was 68 (45, 98) µg/L and 76% had BMIC <100 µg/L. Only 19% had taken an iodine-containing supplement during the last 24 h. The median 24 h iodine intake from food (p25, p75) was 121 (82, 162) µg/day and the total intake (food and supplements) was 134 (95, 222) µg/day. The majority of lactating women had suboptimal BMIC and inadequate intake of iodine from food and supplements. PMID:28640217

  10. A pseudo-dynamic sub-optimal filter for elastography under static loading and measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, B.; Roy, D.; Vasu, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a pseudo-dynamic form of a sub-optimal Kalman filter for elastography of plane-strain models of soft tissues under strictly static deformations and partial measurements. Since the tissue material is nearly incompressible and is thus prone to volumetric locking via standard displacement-based finite element formulations, we use a Cosserat point approach for deriving the static equilibrium equations. A pseudo-dynamical form of the equilibrium equations, with added noise and appropriate augmentation by the discretized shear modulus as additional states, is then adopted as the process equation such that its steady-state solution approaches the static response of the plane-strain model. A fictitious noise of small intensity is also added to the measurement equation and, following linearization of the process equation, a Kalman filter is applied to reconstruct the shear modulus profile. We present several numerical experiments, some of which also bring forth the relative advantages of the proposed approach over a deterministic reconstruction based on a quasi-Newton search.

  11. Noisy decision thresholds can account for suboptimal detection of low coherence motion.

    PubMed

    Price, Nicholas S C; VanCuylenberg, John B

    2016-01-04

    Noise in sensory signals can vary over both space and time. Moving random dot stimuli are commonly used to quantify how the visual system accounts for spatial noise. In these stimuli, a fixed proportion of "signal" dots move in the same direction and the remaining "noise" dots are randomly replotted. The spatial coherence, or proportion of signal versus noise dots, is fixed across time; however, this means that little is known about how temporally-noisy signals are integrated. Here we use a stimulus with low temporal coherence; the signal direction is only presented on a fraction of frames. Human observers are able to reliably detect and discriminate the direction of a 200 ms motion pulse, even when just 25% of frames within the pulse move in the signal direction. Using psychophysical reverse-correlation analyses, we show that observers are strongly influenced by the number of near-target directions spread throughout the pulse, and that consecutive signal frames have only a small additional influence on perception. Finally, we develop a model inspired by the leaky integration of the responses of direction-selective neurons, which reliably represents motion direction, and which can account for observers' sub-optimal detection of motion pulses by incorporating a noisy decision threshold.

  12. Suboptimal antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-infected adults in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Muessig, Kathryn E; McLaughlin, Megan M; Nie, Jing Min; Cai, Weiping; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Ligang; Tucker, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Despite China's free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program, there are high rates of treatment failure, large sociodemographic disparities in care outcomes and emerging medication resistance. Understanding patient medication adherence behaviors and challenges could inform adherence interventions to maximize the individual and prevention benefits of ART. This study assessed recent nonadherence and treatment interruption among 813 HIV-infected adult outpatients in Guangzhou, China. Participants completed a behavioral survey, underwent chart review, and were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Among 721 HIV-infected adults receiving ART, 18.9% reported recent nonadherence (any missed ART in the past four weeks) and 6.8% reported treatment interruption (four or more weeks of missed ART in the past year). Lower education, living alone, alcohol use, and being on ART one to three years were associated with recent nonadherence. Male gender, lower education, and being on ART one to three years were associated with treatment interruption. ART medication adherence interventions are needed in China that include individualized, long-term adherence plans sensitive to patients' educational and economic situations. These interventions should also consider possible gender disparities in treatment outcomes and address the use of alcohol during ART. Successful ART medication adherence interventions in China can inform other international settings that face similar adherence challenges and disparities.

  13. Preimplant Normothermic Liver Perfusion of a Suboptimal Liver Donated After Circulatory Death.

    PubMed

    Watson, C J E; Kosmoliaptsis, V; Randle, L V; Russell, N K; Griffiths, W J H; Davies, S; Mergental, H; Butler, A J

    2016-01-01

    Livers retrieved after circulatory death are associated with an increased incidence of primary nonfunction, early allograft dysfunction, and biliary strictures. The authors report a case of preimplant normothermic perfusion of a suboptimal liver from a 57-year-old donor after circulatory death who had been hospitalized for 9 days; predonation alanine transaminase level was 63 IU/L, and the period from withdrawal of life-supporting treatment to circulatory arrest was 150 minutes. After 5 hours of static cold storage, the liver was subject to normothermic machine perfusion with a plasma-free red cell-based perfusate. Perfusate lactate level fell from 7.2 to 0.3 mmol/L within 74 minutes of ex situ perfusion, at which point perfusate alanine transaminase level was 1152 IU/L and urea concentration was 9.4 mmol/L. After 132 minutes, normothermic perfusion was stopped and implantation begun. After transplantation, the patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on day 8; liver biochemistry was normal by day 19 and has remained normal thereafter. Donor common bile duct excised at implantation showed preservation of peribiliary glands, and cholangiography 6 months posttransplantation showed no evidence of cholangiopathy. Preimplant ex situ normothermic perfusion of the liver appears to be a promising way to evaluate a marginal liver before transplantation and may modify the response to ischemia.

  14. Progress in enzyme immunoassays: production of reagents, experimental design, and interpretation*

    PubMed Central

    Kurstak, Edouard

    1985-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays represent in many cases the preferred procedure for the detection of antigens or corresponding antibodies. However, many of the current procedures are performed suboptimally. This article reviews the available designs, auxiliary recognition systems, production and purification of antibodies, conjugation procedures, solid-phase materials, recording and interpretation of results, and quality control and standardization of procedures to improve the reproducibility of tests. PMID:3910300

  15. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  16. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  17. Central suboptimal H ∞ filter design for linear time-varying systems with state and measurement delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basin, Michael; Shi, Peng; Calderon-Alvarez, Dario

    2010-04-01

    This article presents the central finite-dimensional H ∞ filters for linear systems with state and measurement delay that are suboptimal for a given threshold γ with respect to a modified Bolza-Meyer quadratic criterion including the attenuation control term with the opposite sign. In contrast to the results previously obtained for linear time delay systems, this article reduces the original H ∞ filtering problem to H 2 (optimal mean-square) filtering problem using the technique proposed in Doyle, Glover, Khargonekar, and Francis (1989 'State-space Solutions to Standard H 2 and H ∞ Control Problems', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 34, 831-847). Application of the reduction technique becomes possible, since the optimal closed-form filtering equations solving the H 2 (mean-square) filtering problem have been obtained for linear systems with state and measurement delays. This article first presents the central suboptimal H ∞ filter for linear systems with state and measurement delays, based on the optimal H 2 filter from Basin, Alcorta-Garcia, and Rodriguez-Gonzalez (2005, 'Optimal Filtering for Linear Systems with State and Observation Delays', International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, 15, 859-871), which consists, in the general case, of an infinite set of differential equations. Then, the finite-dimensional central suboptimal H ∞ filter is designed in case of linear systems with commensurable state and measurement delays, which contains a finite number of equations for any fixed filtering horizon; however, this number still grows unboundedly as time goes to infinity. To overcome that difficulty, the alternative central suboptimal H ∞ filter is designed for linear systems with state and measurement delays, which is based on the alternative optimal H 2 filter from Basin, Perez, and Martinez-Zuniga (2006, 'Alternative Optimal Filter for Linear State Delay Systmes', International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, 20

  18. Suboptimal response to ferrous sulfate in iron-deficient patients taking omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Ajmera, Akash V; Shastri, Ghanshyam S; Gajera, Mithil J; Judge, Thomas A

    2012-05-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is commonly encountered in outpatient practice. Gastric acid is one of the important factors for optimum absorption of iron. Proton pump inhibitors are very commonly prescribed medications. One of the debated effects of proton pump inhibitors is on oral iron absorption. Their effect on absorption of oral iron supplementation in iron-deficient patients has not been studied. At the Cooper Hematology Outpatient office, we reviewed charts of iron-deficient anemic patients who were on omeprazole for the last 4 years. Fifty patients having no apparent ongoing blood loss, having other causes of anemia especially that of chronic diseases ruled out, and on omeprazole while starting ferrous sulfate therapy for iron deficiency were selected for chart review. The iron-study results at the start of oral ferrous sulfate therapy and at 3 months follow-up were compared to evaluate the response of ferrous sulfate. The mean hemoglobin change was 0.8 ± 1.2 g/L. The mean change in ferrtin values was 10.2 ± 7.8 μg/L. Only 16% of the patients had a normal response to hemoglobin levels (rise of >2 g/dL), and only 40% had a normal response to ferritin levels (rise of >20 μg/dL). The average age of patients having a suboptimal response to both hemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher compared with that of the patients with an optimal response. Omeprazole and possibly all proton pump inhibitors decrease the absorption of oral iron supplementation. Iron-deficient patients taking proton pump inhibitors may have to be treated with high dose iron therapy for a longer duration or with intravenous iron therapy.

  19. Intravenous iron supplementation in distance runners with low or suboptimal ferritin.

    PubMed

    Garvican, Laura A; Saunders, Philo U; Cardoso, Tanusha; Macdougall, Iain C; Lobigs, Louisa M; Fazakerley, Ruth; Fallon, Kieran E; Anderson, Bev; Anson, Judith M; Thompson, Kevin G; Gore, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    Iron deficiency is prevalent in distance runners and may impair endurance performance. The current practice of oral supplementation is slow and often not well tolerated. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of intravenous (IV) iron supplementation (ferric carboxymaltose) compared with oral supplementation (ferrous sulfate) on iron status, hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and physiological indices of running performance in distance runners. Twenty-seven highly trained distance runners with low (LOW) (ferritin <35 μg·L(-1) and transferrin saturation <20%, or ferritin <15 μg·L(-1)) or suboptimal (SUB) iron status (ferritin <65 μg·L(-1)) were supplemented with either IV iron (Ferinject®) or oral (ORAL) supplements (Ferrogradumet) for 6 wk. Iron status and Hbmass were assessed before supplementation and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk in the four groups (IV LOW, IV SUB, ORAL LOW, and ORAL SUB). In addition, athletes completed a treadmill running test for running economy, lactate threshold, and V˙O2max before and after supplementation. Both forms of supplementation substantially increased ferritin levels in all four groups. IV supplementation resulted in higher ferritin in both IV groups compared with both ORAL groups from week 1 onward. Hemoglobin concentration did not change substantially in any group. Hbmass increased in IV LOW (mean = +4.9%, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1%-8.9%) and was accompanied by an increase in V˙O2max (mean = +3.3%, 90% CI = 0.4%-6.3%) and run time to exhaustion (mean = +9.3%, 90% CI = 0.9%-18.3%. IV supplementation can effectively increase iron stores in iron-deficient runners within 6 wk and, if Hbmass is compromised, may enhance endurance capacity by facilitating erythropoiesis. Hbmass appears a more sensitive tool for measuring changes in whole body hemoglobin than hemoglobin concentration and may be useful in the diagnosis and follow-up for iron deficiency.

  20. Suboptimal Herd Performance Amplifies the Spread of Infectious Disease in the Cattle Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gates, M. Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity. PMID:24671129

  1. Root Cortical Senescence Improves Growth under Suboptimal Availability of N, P, and K1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Hannah M.

    2017-01-01

    Root cortical senescence (RCS) in Triticeae reduces nutrient uptake, nutrient content, respiration, and radial hydraulic conductance of root tissue. We used the functional-structural model SimRoot to evaluate the functional implications of RCS in barley (Hordeum vulgare) under suboptimal nitrate, phosphorus, and potassium availability. The utility of RCS was evaluated using sensitivity analyses in contrasting nutrient regimes. At flowering (80 d), RCS increased simulated plant growth by up to 52%, 73%, and 41% in nitrate-, phosphorus-, and potassium-limiting conditions, respectively. Plants with RCS had reduced nutrient requirement of root tissue for optimal plant growth, reduced total cumulative cortical respiration, and increased total carbon reserves. Nutrient reallocation during RCS had a greater effect on simulated plant growth than reduced respiration or nutrient uptake. Under low nutrient availability, RCS had greater benefit in plants with fewer tillers. RCS had greater benefit in phenotypes with fewer lateral roots at low nitrate availability, but the opposite was true in low phosphorus or potassium availability. Additionally, RCS was quantified in field-grown barley in different nitrogen regimes. Field and virtual soil coring simulation results demonstrated that living cortical volume per root length (an indicator of RCS) decreased with depth in younger plants, while roots of older plants had very little living cortical volume per root length. RCS may be an adaptive trait for nutrient acquisition by reallocating nutrients from senescing tissue and secondarily by reducing root respiration. These simulated results suggest that RCS merits investigation as a breeding target for enhanced soil resource acquisition and edaphic stress tolerance. PMID:28667049

  2. Correlations in state space can cause sub-optimal adaptation of optimal feedback control models.

    PubMed

    Aprasoff, Jonathan; Donchin, Opher

    2012-04-01

    Control of our movements is apparently facilitated by an adaptive internal model in the cerebellum. It was long thought that this internal model implemented an adaptive inverse model and generated motor commands, but recently many reject that idea in favor of a forward model hypothesis. In theory, the forward model predicts upcoming state during reaching movements so the motor cortex can generate appropriate motor commands. Recent computational models of this process rely on the optimal feedback control (OFC) framework of control theory. OFC is a powerful tool for describing motor control, it does not describe adaptation. Some assume that adaptation of the forward model alone could explain motor adaptation, but this is widely understood to be overly simplistic. However, an adaptive optimal controller is difficult to implement. A reasonable alternative is to allow forward model adaptation to 're-tune' the controller. Our simulations show that, as expected, forward model adaptation alone does not produce optimal trajectories during reaching movements perturbed by force fields. However, they also show that re-optimizing the controller from the forward model can be sub-optimal. This is because, in a system with state correlations or redundancies, accurate prediction requires different information than optimal control. We find that adding noise to the movements that matches noise found in human data is enough to overcome this problem. However, since the state space for control of real movements is far more complex than in our simple simulations, the effects of correlations on re-adaptation of the controller from the forward model cannot be overlooked.

  3. Association of suboptimal health status and cardiovascular risk factors in urban Chinese workers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu X; Dong, Jing; Liu, You Q; Yang, Xing H; Li, Man; Shia, Gilbert; Wang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in urban China. Despite indications that SHS may be associated with progression or development of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, there are few reports on SHS investigations. To explore the relationship between SHS and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 4,881 workers employed in 21 companies in urban Beijing. Blood pressure, glucose, lipid levels (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol and triglycerides), cortisol, and body mass index were measured. SHS score was derived from data collection in the SHS questionnaire (SHSQ-25). Univariate analysis and linear two-level model were used to analyze the association of SHS with the cardiovascular risk factors. Serum cortisol level was much higher among the SHS high-score group than that among the low SHS score group (204.31 versus 161.33 ng/ml, P < 0.001). In a linear two-level model, we found correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol among men, and correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol among women after controlling for age, education background, occupation, smoking, and physical activity. SHS is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease. SHS should be recognized in the health care system, especially in primary care.

  4. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Francesca S. M.; Foxley, Gloria J.; Gibson, Peter G.; Burgess, Janette K.; Baines, Katherine J.; Oliver, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood) and suboptimal (ASubopt) asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ < 0.75, n = 11), ASubopt (ACQ > 0.75, n = 7), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 9) were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL), fMLF (100 nM)), and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL), R848 (1.5 μg/mL), and poly I:C (10 μg/mL)) surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV) 16 (MOI1). Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE) and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control. PMID:26663987

  5. SUBOPTIMAL INHIBITION OF PLATELET CYCLOOXYGENASE-1 BY ASPIRIN IN METABOLIC SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Haddad, Elias V.; Taylor, Mary B.; Oram, Denise; Blakemore, Dana; Chen, Qingxia; Boutaud, Olivier; Oates, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Interindividual variation in the ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) could account for some on-treatment cardiovascular events. Here, we sought to determine whether there are clinical phenotypes that are associated with a suboptimal pharmacological effect of aspirin. In a prospective, 2-week study, we evaluated the effect of aspirin 81 mg on platelet COX-1 in 135 patients with stable CAD by measuring serum thromboxane B2 (sTxB2) as an indicator of inhibition of platelet COX-1. A nested randomized study compared enteric-coated with immediate-release formulations of aspirin. We found that sTxB2 was systematically higher among the 83 patients with metabolic syndrome than among the 52 patients without (median 4.0 ng/mL vs. 3.02 ng/mL, P=0.013). Twelve (14%) patients with metabolic syndrome, but none without metabolic syndrome, had sTxB2 levels consistent with inadequate inhibition of COX (sTxB2 ≥13 ng/mL). In linear regression models, metabolic syndrome (but none of its individual components) significantly associated with higher levels of log-transformed sTxB2 (P=0.006). Higher levels of sTxB2 associated with greater residual platelet function measured by aggregometry-based methods. Among the randomized subset, sTxB2 levels were systematically higher among patients receiving enteric-coated aspirin. Last, urinary 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 did not correlate with sTxB2, suggesting that the former should not be used to quantitate aspirin’s pharmacological effect on platelets. In conclusion, metabolic syndrome, which places patients at high risk for thrombotic cardiovascular events, strongly and uniquely associates with less effective inhibition of platelet COX-1 by aspirin. PMID:22311905

  6. Therapy of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Novel Approaches for Patients with Suboptimal Response to Ursodeoxycholic Acid.

    PubMed

    Parés, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic disease of presumed autoimmune pathogenesis, characterized by the inflammation and damage of the intrahepatic intermediate and small bile ducts, which eventually results in cirrhosis. A number of randomized and observational and pilot studies using several agents were carried out in the 80s, but no clear results or even harmful effects were reported. Over the past 2 decades, increasing evidence indicates that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) - 13 to 16 mg/kg/day--is the treatment of choice for patients with PBC. Biochemical response to UDCA, assessed at 1 year, clearly predicts the long-term outcome, since in UDCA, responders survival is similar to that estimated for the matched control population. However, about 40% of patients have incomplete biochemical response and increased risk of progression and decreased survival free of transplantation. Patients with suboptimal biochemical response to UDCA outline the group in whom further single or combined treatments with UDCA are needed. Accordingly, data on the effect of fibrates alone or in combination with UDCA, and budesonide in combination with UDCA have been reported. The combined treatment of UDCA and fibrates in patients without optimal biochemical response to UDCA improves the degree of cholestasis and may minimize the long-term management of these patients. The results of the combined therapy of UDCA with budesonide are appealing but they should be established in large randomized trials. The effect of new agents such obeticholic acid are promising, since the addition of this farnesoide-X-receptor agonist bile acid in patients with stable UDCA dosage and increased alkaline phosphatase levels results in an improvement of cholestasis as compared to placebo, with a parallel decrease of aminotransferases and immunoglobulin M, as well as one surrogate marker of bile acid synthesis. New molecular therapies are currently being investigated.

  7. Suboptimal perception of illness due to self-realization constraints impairs psychological welfare in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Sak, Jarosław; Sagan, Dariusz; Wiechetek, Michał; Pawlikowski, Jakub

    2012-04-01

    Recognizing patients' psychological problems and understanding their social needs constitute important tasks for medical personnel, because these issues substantially contribute to overall outcome of treatment. People afflicted with surgical diseases need to determine the sense of everyday pursuits and activities and balance it against the therapeutic process. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between the perception of illness, satisfaction with life and meaning of life among surgical patients. A total of 225 patients undergoing surgical treatment in the thoracic surgery department were enrolled in the questionnaire study using Multidimensional Essence of Disease and Illness Scale (MEDIS), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and Life Meaningfulness Scale (LMS). Relationships between variables were assessed with Pearson's correlation. The analysis disclosed negative correlations between the perception of the disease in the light of self-realization constraints and the feeling of satisfaction with one's life (R = -0.25; P < 0.01), an affective component of the LMS (R = -0.29; P < 0.001) and the total result of the LMS (R = -0.21; P < 0.01). Similar relationships were observed between the MEDIS dimension describing a disease as a social withdrawal and the total result of the SWLS (R = -0.21; P < 0.05) and the affective component of the LMS (R = -0.23; P < 0.01). Suboptimal hospitalization-related perception of the disease due to self-realization constraints profoundly impairs psychological welfare of patients and may exert negative impact on the overall outcome of treatment. We believe that surgical patients require early psychological, social and spiritual support to prevent these harmful psycho-social consequences of illness and hospital stay. Preoperative clinical application of presented scales may be useful to select patients who require more psychological attention in providing information about planned surgical treatment and expected outcomes.

  8. FFR result post PCI is suboptimal in long diffuse coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Baranauskas, Arvydas; Peace, Aaron; Kibarskis, Aleksandras; Shannon, Joanne; Abraitis, Vytautas; Bajoras, Vilhelmas; Bilkis, Valdas; Aidietis, Audrius; Laucevicius, Aleksandras; Davidavicius, Giedrius

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional result immediately post PCI and at nine-month follow-up, and to ascertain how often a functionally optimal result of >0.95 can be achieved in long coronary lesions treated with long second- or newer-generation DES. Patients receiving DES measuring ≥30 mm with FFR value ≤0.8 were included in the study. Stent length was defined as long (30 to 49 mm; L-DES) and ultra-long (≥50 mm; UL-DES). Angiographic and FFR evaluation was performed before and after PCI and at nine-month follow-up. A total of 74 patients each received a mean stent length of 50.72±14.6 mm. Mean FFR post PCI was 0.88±0.06. An optimal post PCI FFR value of >0.95 was achieved in only 9/74 patients (12.2%), and was not achieved in any UL-DES patients. Only 12/74 (16.2%) had FFR post PCI of 0.91 to 0.95; 8/74 (10.8%) patients remained ischaemic (≤0.8). FFR gradient across the stent was higher in UL-DES patients compared to L-DES patients (0.07±0.03 vs. 0.04±0.03; p=0.001). At follow-up, the angiographic restenosis rate was 4.7%, and the functional restenosis rate was 15.1%. The FFR result post PCI was suboptimal in the majority of patients treated with long DES and was particularly poor when the total stent length exceeded 50 mm.

  9. Thrombocytosis at secondary cytoreduction for recurrent ovarian cancer predicts suboptimal resection and poor survival.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua G; Tran, Arthur-Quan; Rimel, B J; Cass, Ilana; Walsh, Christine S; Karlan, Beth Y; Li, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    A growing body of evidence supports a role for thrombocytosis in the promotion of epithelial ovarian cancer biology. However, studies have only linked preoperative platelet count at time of initial cytoreductive surgery to clinical outcome. Here, we sought to determine the impact of elevated platelet count at time of secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCS) for recurrent disease. Under an IRB-approved protocol, we identified 107 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent SCS between January 1997 and June 2012. We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and pathologic records from this retrospective cohort. The data was analyzed using the chi-squared, Fisher's exact, Cox proportional hazards, and Kaplan-Meier tests. We defined thrombocytosis as a platelet count ≥ 350 × 10(9)/L and optimal resection at SCS as microscopic residual disease. Thirteen of 107 women (12%) with recurrent ovarian cancer had thrombocytosis prior to SCS. Preoperative thrombocytosis at SCS was associated with failure to undergo optimal resection (p=0.0001). Women with preoperative thrombocytosis at time of SCS demonstrated shorter overall survival (33 months) compared to those with normal platelet counts (46 months, p=0.004). On multivariate analysis, only preoperative platelet count retained significance as an independent prognostic factor (p=0.025) after controlling for age at SCS (p=0.90), disease free interval from primary treatment (0.06), and initial stage of disease (0.66). Elevated platelet count at time of SCS is associated with suboptimal resection and shortened overall survival. These data provide further evidence supporting a plausible role for thrombocytosis in aggressive ovarian tumor biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Suboptimal schemes for atmospheric data assimilation based on the Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo; Cohn, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    This work is directed toward approximating the evolution of forecast error covariances for data assimilation. The performance of different algorithms based on simplification of the standard Kalman filter (KF) is studied. These are suboptimal schemes (SOSs) when compared to the KF, which is optimal for linear problems with known statistics. The SOSs considered here are several versions of optimal interpolation (OI), a scheme for height error variance advection, and a simplified KF in which the full height error covariance is advected. To employ a methodology for exact comparison among these schemes, a linear environment is maintained, in which a beta-plane shallow-water model linearized about a constant zonal flow is chosen for the test-bed dynamics. The results show that constructing dynamically balanced forecast error covariances rather than using conventional geostrophically balanced ones is essential for successful performance of any SOS. A posteriori initialization of SOSs to compensate for model - data imbalance sometimes results in poor performance. Instead, properly constructed dynamically balanced forecast error covariances eliminate the need for initialization. When the SOSs studied here make use of dynamically balanced forecast error covariances, the difference among their performances progresses naturally from conventional OI to the KF. In fact, the results suggest that even modest enhancements of OI, such as including an approximate dynamical equation for height error variances while leaving height error correlation structure homogeneous, go a long way toward achieving the performance of the KF, provided that dynamically balanced cross-covariances are constructed and that model errors are accounted for properly. The results indicate that such enhancements are necessary if unconventional data are to have a positive impact.

  11. Suboptimal culture conditions induce more deviations in gene expression in male than female bovine blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Heras, Sonia; De Coninck, Dieter I M; Van Poucke, Mario; Goossens, Karen; Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; De Sutter, Petra; Leroy, Jo L M R; Gutierrez-Adan, Alfonso; Peelman, Luc; Van Soom, Ann

    2016-01-22

    embryos appeared to be most affected by suboptimal in vitro culture, i.e. in the presence of serum.

  12. Understanding sub-optimal HPV vaccine uptake among ethnic minority girls

    PubMed Central

    Bastani, Roshan; Glenn, Beth; Tsui, Jennifer; Chang, L. Cindy; Marchand, Erica; Taylor, Victoria M.; Singhal, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Background The introduction of HPV vaccines represents a breakthrough in the primary prevention of cervical cancer. However, little is known about vaccination uptake and correlates among U.S. low-income, ethnic minority and immigrant populations who may benefit most from the vaccine. Methods Telephone interviews (N=490) were conducted in six languages between January and November 2009 among mothers of vaccine-eligible girls (ages 9–18) using the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health, Office of Women’s Health service referral hotline. HPV and vaccine awareness, knowledge, beliefs, barriers, and daughter’s vaccine receipt were assessed. Results The sample consisted of low-income, uninsured, ethnic minority and immigrant women. Only 29% of daughters initiated the vaccine and 11% received all three doses. No ethnic differences were observed in initiation or completion rates. Ethnic differences were observed in HPV awareness, perceived risk, and other immunization related beliefs. The strongest predictor of initiation was vaccine awareness (OR=12.00). Daughter’s age and reporting a younger acceptable age for vaccination were positively associated with initiation. Mothers of unvaccinated girls reported lacking information about the vaccine to make a decision (66%) and not knowing where they could obtain the vaccine (74%). Conclusion Vaccination rates in this sample were lower than state and national estimates, and were associated with low levels of vaccine awareness. Interventions, including culturally targeted messaging, may be helpful for enhancing HPV vaccine knowledge, modifying vaccine-related beliefs and increasing uptake. Impact Our findings provide valuable guidance for developing interventions to address sub-optimal HPV vaccination in high risk groups. PMID:21602307

  13. Suboptimal Addiction Interventions for Patients Hospitalized with Injection Drug Use-Associated Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Elana S; Karchmer, Adolf W; Theisen-Toupal, Jesse; Castillo, Roger Araujo; Rowley, Chris F

    2016-05-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious infection, often resulting from injection drug use. Inpatient treatment regularly focuses on management of infection without attention to the underlying addiction. We aimed to determine the addiction interventions done in patients hospitalized with injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis. This is a retrospective review of patients hospitalized with injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis from January, 2004 through August, 2014 at a large academic tertiary care center in Boston, Massachusetts. For the initial and subsequent admissions, data were collected regarding addiction interventions, including consultation by social work, addiction clinical nurse and psychiatry, documentation of addiction in the discharge summary plan, plan for medication-assisted treatment and naloxone provision. There were 102 patients admitted with injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis, 50 patients (49.0%) were readmitted and 28 (27.5%) patients had ongoing injection drug use at readmission. At initial admission, 86.4% of patients had social work consultation, 23.7% had addiction consultation, and 24.0% had psychiatry consultation. Addiction was mentioned in 55.9% of discharge summary plans, 7.8% of patients had a plan for medication-assisted treatment, and naloxone was never prescribed. Of 102 patients, 26 (25.5%) are deceased. The median age at death was 40.9 years (interquartile range 28.7-48.7). We found that patients hospitalized with injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis had high rates of readmission, recurrent infective endocarditis and death. Despite this, addiction interventions were suboptimal. Improved addiction interventions are imperative in the treatment of injection drug use-associated infective endocarditis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Working With Educational Interpreters.

    PubMed

    Seal, Brenda C

    2000-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students who are deaf or hard of hearing are being educated in their local schools. Accommodations frequently made for these students include the provision of educational interpreting services. Educational interpreters serve to equalize the source language or source communication mode (usually spoken English) with a target language or target mode (either sign language, cued speech, or oral transliterating). Educational interpreters' expertise in sign language or cued speech will likely exceed that of speech-language pathologists, whose expertise in speech and language development and in discourse demands of the classroom will likely exceed that of the educational interpreters. This article addresses the mutual needs of speech-language pathologists and educational interpreters in providing services to their students. Guidelines supported by recent research reports and survey data collected from interpreters are offered to speech-language pathologists as ways to improve the working relationships with educational interpreters in three areas: (a) evaluating a student's communication skills, (b) establishing treatment goals and intervening to meet those goals, and (c) providing inservice workshops to teachers about educational interpreting services.

  15. Higher Education Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Bencie; Porcari li Destri, Giulia

    This paper discusses issues related to the training and provision of interpreters for deaf students at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. Background information provided notes the increasing numbers of deaf and partially hearing students, the existence of funding to pay for interpreters, and trends in the availability of…

  16. Working with Educational Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Brenda C.

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the mutual needs of speech-language pathologists and educational interpreters in providing services to their students. Guidelines supported by recent research reports and survey data collected from interpreters are offered to speech-language pathologists as ways to improve the working relationship with educational…

  17. Why business models matter.

    PubMed

    Magretta, Joan

    2002-05-01

    "Business model" was one of the great buzz-words of the Internet boom. A company didn't need a strategy, a special competence, or even any customers--all it needed was a Web-based business model that promised wild profits in some distant, ill-defined future. Many people--investors, entrepreneurs, and executives alike--fell for the fantasy and got burned. And as the inevitable counterreaction played out, the concept of the business model fell out of fashion nearly as quickly as the .com appendage itself. That's a shame. As Joan Magretta explains, a good business model remains essential to every successful organization, whether it's a new venture or an established player. To help managers apply the concept successfully, she defines what a business model is and how it complements a smart competitive strategy. Business models are, at heart, stories that explain how enterprises work. Like a good story, a robust business model contains precisely delineated characters, plausible motivations, and a plot that turns on an insight about value. It answers certain questions: Who is the customer? How do we make money? What underlying economic logic explains how we can deliver value to customers at an appropriate cost? Every viable organization is built on a sound business model, but a business model isn't a strategy, even though many people use the terms interchangeably. Business models describe, as a system, how the pieces of a business fit together. But they don't factor in one critical dimension of performance: competition. That's the job of strategy. Illustrated with examples from companies like American Express, EuroDisney, WalMart, and Dell Computer, this article clarifies the concepts of business models and strategy, which are fundamental to every company's performance.

  18. Understanding Business Analytics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    Business Analytics, Decision Analytics, Business Intelligence, Advanced Analytics, Data Science . . . to a certain degree, to label is to limit - if only...broad category of inquiry that can be used to help drive changes and improvements in business practices. Data Science : the study of where infor...Management Sciences (INFORMS) This scientific process of transforming data into insight with ana- lytics for better decision-making has taken the form

  19. Small Business Procurement Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event , 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT...18 Target the Small Business Accessible Market within the Department of the Navy $77.8B Department of the Navy Total SB Eligible Spend

  20. Dietary anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min) mice fed suboptimal levels of sulindac.

    PubMed

    Bobe, Gerd; Wang, Bing; Seeram, Navindra P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2006-12-13

    A promising approach for cancer chemoprevention might be a combination therapy utilizing dietary phytochemicals and anticarcinogenic pharmaceuticals at a suboptimal dosage to minimize any potential adverse side effects. To test this hypothesis, various dosages of anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract were fed in combination with suboptimal levels of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac to APCMin mice for 19 weeks. By the end of the feeding period, fewer mice that were fed the anthocyanin-rich extract in combination with sulindac lost more than 10% of body weight than mice fed sulindac alone. Mice that were fed anthocyanin-rich extract (at any dose) in combination with sulindac had fewer tumors and a smaller total tumor burden (total tumor area per mouse) in the small intestine when compared to mice fed sulindac alone. These results suggest that a dietary combination of tart cherry anthocyanins and sulindac is more protective against colon cancer than sulindac alone.

  1. The base rate of suboptimal effort in a pediatric mild TBI sample: performance on the Medical Symptom Validity Test.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Michael W; Kirk, John W

    2010-01-01

    Performance on the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) was examined in 193 consecutively referred patients aged 8 through 17 years who had sustained a mild traumatic brain injury. A total of 33 participants failed to meet actuarial criteria for valid effort on the MSVT. After accounting for possible false positives and false negatives, the base rate of suboptimal effort in this clinical sample was 17%. Only one MSVT failure was thought to be influenced by litigation. The present results suggest that a sizable minority of children is capable of putting forth suboptimal effort during neuropsychological exam, even when external incentives are not readily apparent. The MSVT appears to have good potential value as an objective measure for detecting symptom invalidity in school-age youth.

  2. Accessibility versus Accuracy in Retrieving Spatial Memory: Evidence for Suboptimal Assumed Headings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerramsetti, Ashok; Marchette, Steven A.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation dependence in spatial memory has often been interpreted in terms of accessibility: Object locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation that affords the most accurate access to spatial memory. An open question, however, is whether people naturally use this "preferred" orientation whenever recalling the space. We…

  3. Accessibility versus Accuracy in Retrieving Spatial Memory: Evidence for Suboptimal Assumed Headings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerramsetti, Ashok; Marchette, Steven A.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation dependence in spatial memory has often been interpreted in terms of accessibility: Object locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation that affords the most accurate access to spatial memory. An open question, however, is whether people naturally use this "preferred" orientation whenever recalling the space. We…

  4. Coping with sub-optimal water temperature: modifications in fatty acid profile of barramundi as influenced by dietary lipid.

    PubMed

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Bridle, Andrew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic responses to sub-optimal temperature deplete lipid depots, remodel membrane lipid and alter the fatty acid profile in the whole body and tissues of ectothermic vertebrates including fish. The magnitude of these changes may depend on dietary history including oil sources with different fatty acid compositions. Barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes, Latidae), a tropical ectothermic fish, was fed on diets either rich in dietary long-chain (≥C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) from fish oil, rich in stearidonic and γ-linolenic acid (SDA and GLA, respectively) from Echium plantagineum, or rapeseed oil deficient in LC-PUFA. Following 5 weeks at the optimum temperature of 30 °C when growth rates were comparable amongst dietary treatments, water temperature was dropped to 20 °C for 1 week for half of the animals and maintained at 30 °C for the other half. Decreased temperature increased the liver and skeletal muscle content of LC-PUFA in fish fed on echium oil compared with rapeseed oil, while dietary LC-PUFA depots in fish oil fed-fish depleted rapidly in the week of sub-optimal temperature. The lipid unsaturation index of cellular membrane in the liver and muscle increased under low temperature at the same rate regardless of dietary oil. Therefore, rapid exposure of an ectothermic vertebrate to a lower and sub-optimal temperature caused significant modulation in fatty acid composition. We propose that the tolerance of barramundi, a representative of tropical farmed fish, to sub-optimal temperature will be enhanced when fatty acid substrates closer to the LC-PUFA are available in their diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and suboptimal B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  6. Consumer behaviour towards price-reduced suboptimal foods in the supermarket and the relation to food waste in households.

    PubMed

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Jensen, Jacob Haagen; Jensen, Mette Hyldetoft; Kulikovskaja, Viktorija

    2017-09-01

    To combat food waste, supermarkets offer food items at a reduced price in-store when they are close to the expiration date or perceived as suboptimal. It is yet unknown, however, which considerations consumers engage in when deciding about the offer, and whether focusing particularly on the price during food purchase might be related to greater food waste at home. Knowledge about both the consumers' food purchase process for these price-reduced foods and the potential wastage of price-focused consumers can contribute to the assessment of whether or not offering suboptimal food at reduced prices in-store actually reduces food waste across the supply chain. We explore these questions in a mixed-method study including 16 qualitative accompanied shopping interviews and a quantitative online experimental survey with 848 consumers in Denmark. The interviews reveal that the consumers interviewed assess their ability to consume the price-reduced suboptimal food at home already while in the store. Consumers consider the relation between product-related factors of package unit, expiration date, and product quality, in interaction with household-related factors of freezing/storing, household size/demand, and possible meal/cooking. The survey shows that consumers who are more price-focused report lower food waste levels and lower tendency to choose the optimal food item first at home, than those who are not emphasizing the price-quality relation or do not search for price offers to the same extent. Higher age and high education also played a role, and the price-focus is lower in high-income groups and among single households. The findings allow deriving recommendations for retailers and policy makers to support both the marketability and the subsequent actual consumption of price-reduced suboptimal food, but they also raise questions for further research of this underexplored area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  8. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Suboptimal Use of Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation: Has the Introduction of Direct Oral Anticoagulants Improved Prescribing Practices?

    PubMed

    Alamneh, Endalkachew A; Chalmers, Leanne; Bereznicki, Luke R

    2016-06-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and the associated risk of stroke are emerging epidemics throughout the world. Suboptimal use of oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention has been widely reported from observational studies. In recent years, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been introduced for thromboprophylaxis. We conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate current practices of anticoagulation in AF, pharmacologic features and adoption patterns of DOACs, their impacts on proportion of eligible patients with AF who receive oral anticoagulants, persisting challenges and future prospects for optimal anticoagulation. In conducting this review, we considered the results of relevant prospective and retrospective observational studies from real-world practice settings. PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus (RIS), Google Scholar, EMBASE and Web of Science were used to source relevant literature. There were no date limitations, while language was limited to English. Selection was limited to articles from peer reviewed journals and related to our topic. Most studies identified in this review indicated suboptimal use of anticoagulants is a persisting challenge despite the availability of DOACs. Underuse of oral anticoagulants is apparent particularly in patients with a high risk of stroke. DOAC adoption trends are quite variable, with slow integration into clinical practice reported in most countries; there has been limited impact to date on prescribing practice. Available data from clinical practice suggest that suboptimal oral anticoagulant use in patients with AF and poor compliance with guidelines still remain commonplace despite transition to a new era of anticoagulation featuring DOACs.

  10. Rectal site and suboptimal nodal yield predict systemic recurrence in resected colorectal carcinoma: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brian D; O'Riordan, James M; Stuart, Charlotte; Muldoon, Cian

    2014-09-01

    We assessed the contribution of histopathological features to systemic recurrence (SR) in patients with colorectal cancer, using a case-control design: 71 cases and 184 controls were included, with a mean time until SR of 1.4 ± 0.1 years and a mean follow-up of controls of 1.6 ± 0.06 years. Cases had significantly greater odds of rectal site (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82), stage ≥ pT3 (OR = 2.11), suboptimal (<12) lymph node yield (OR = 4.6), stage ≥ pN1 (OR = 2.46), KRAS mutation (OR = 2.76), and extramural venous invasion (OR = 1.97). By multiple regression analysis, rectal site, stage ≥ pT3, suboptimal lymph node yield, and lymph node positivity independently predicted SR. Rectal cancers were more likely to have a suboptimal node yield than nonrectal cancers (relative risk = 1.6) among the entire cohort. We conclude that rectal cancers have greater risk of SR than colon cancers. A lower yield of lymph nodes in rectal cancer specimens may contribute to this.

  11. Sub-optimal presentation of painful facial expressions enhances readiness for action and pain perception following electrocutaneous stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Khatibi, Ali; Schrooten, Martien; Bosmans, Katrien; Volders, Stephanie; Vlaeyen, Johan W.S.; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Observation of others’ painful facial expressions has been shown to facilitate behavioral response tendencies and to increase pain perception in the observer. However, in previous studies, expressions were clearly visible to the observer and none of those studies investigated the effect of presence of peripheral stimulation on response tendencies. This study focuses on the effect of sub-optimal presentation of painful facial expressions in the presence and absence of an electrocutaneous stimulus. Twenty-two healthy individuals categorized arrow targets which were preceded by a sub-optimally presented facial expression (painful, happy, or neutral in different blocks). On half of the trials, aversive electrocutaneous stimulation was delivered to the wrist of the non-dominant hand between the presentation of facial expression and target (an arrow directing to right or left). Participants’ task was to indicate direction of the arrow as soon as it appears on the screen by pressing the corresponding key on the keyboard and to rate their pain at the end of block. Analysis showed that responses were faster to targets preceded by aversive stimulation than to targets not preceded by stimulation, especially following painful expressions. Painfulness ratings were higher following painful expressions than following happy expressions. These findings suggest that sub-optimally presented painful expressions can enhance readiness to act to neutral, non-pain-related targets after aversive stimulation and can increase pain perception. PMID:26217260

  12. Negotiating Diversity: Fostering Collaborative Interpretations of Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shujie; Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Munshi, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    The intercultural divides in values, perceptions, and interpretations of concepts have been studied extensively by international business and intercultural communication scholars. Consequentially, much effort in university classrooms is spent on focusing on the differences between groups and on finding ways to "manage" cultural…

  13. Negotiating Diversity: Fostering Collaborative Interpretations of Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shujie; Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Munshi, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    The intercultural divides in values, perceptions, and interpretations of concepts have been studied extensively by international business and intercultural communication scholars. Consequentially, much effort in university classrooms is spent on focusing on the differences between groups and on finding ways to "manage" cultural…

  14. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  15. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  16. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Kevin L.; Schmidt, Rachel; Moiseenko, Vitali; Olsen, Lindsey A.; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James; Pugh, Stephanie; Seider, Michael J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. Methods and Materials: A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH{sub 0126,top10%}). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed “high-quality,” “low-quality,” and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Results: Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH{sub 0126,top10%} to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the

  17. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126.

    PubMed

    Moore, Kevin L; Schmidt, Rachel; Moiseenko, Vitali; Olsen, Lindsey A; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James; Pugh, Stephanie; Seider, Michael J; Dicker, Adam P; Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH0126,top10%). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed "high-quality," "low-quality," and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH0126,top10% to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the predicted NTCP reductions while maintaining the volume of the PTV

  18. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    PubMed

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., <5°). Generalizable muscle activation patterns were suboptimal in terms of effort, often exceeding 50% of the maximum possible effort (cf. ~5% in minimum-effort muscle activation patterns). The feasible muscle activation ranges of individual

  19. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, M. Hongchul; Ting, Lena H.

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., <5°). Generalizable muscle activation patterns were suboptimal in terms of effort, often exceeding 50% of the maximum possible effort (cf. ~5% in minimum-effort muscle activation patterns). The feasible muscle activation ranges of individual

  20. Rising burden of gout in the UK but continuing suboptimal management: a nationwide population study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J; Mallen, Christian; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe trends in the epidemiology of gout and patterns of urate-lowering treatment (ULT) in the UK general population from 1997 to 2012. Methods We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the prevalence and incidence of gout for each calendar year from 1997 to 2012. We also investigated the pattern of gout management for both prevalent and incident gout patients. Results In 2012, the prevalence of gout was 2.49% (95% CI 2.48% to 2.51%) and the incidence was 1.77 (95% CI 1.73 to 1.81) per 1000 person-years. Prevalence and incidence both were significantly higher in 2012 than in 1997, with a 63.9% increase in prevalence and 29.6% increase in incidence over this period. Regions with highest prevalence and incidence were the North East and Wales. Among prevalent gout patients in 2012, only 48.48% (95% CI 48.08% to 48.89%) were being consulted specifically for gout or treated with ULT and of these 37.63% (95% CI 37.28% to 38.99%) received ULT. In addition, only 18.6% (95% CI 17.6% to 19.6%) of incident gout patients received ULT within 6 months and 27.3% (95% CI 26.1% to 28.5%) within 12 months of diagnosis. The management of prevalent and incident gout patients remained essentially the same during the study period, although the percentage of adherent patients improved from 28.28% (95% CI 27.33% to 29.26%) in 1997 to 39.66% (95% CI 39.11% to 40.22%) in 2012. Conclusions In recent years, both the prevalence and incidence of gout have increased significantly in the UK. Suboptimal use of ULT has not changed between 1997 and 2012. Patient adherence has improved during the study period, but it remains poor. PMID:24431399

  1. Business Economics Courses for Business Students: A Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Evan J.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that business students should be offered business-related economics courses on subjects such as managerial economics and business conditions analysis. Philosophy and content of these courses are suggested. (DB)

  2. Business Economics Courses for Business Students: A Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Evan J.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests that business students should be offered business-related economics courses on subjects such as managerial economics and business conditions analysis. Philosophy and content of these courses are suggested. (DB)

  3. Conducting business under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

    SciTech Connect

    Ittig, J.

    1982-07-01

    The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act inhibits many businesses conducting international transactions. Although the Senate has proposed revisions to the FCPA to alleviate some of the handicaps of U.S. citizens doing business abroad, the House of Representatives has yet to approve a bill. This study identifies the critical interpretive problems, and suggests protective measures a company can take to avoid problems until the FCPA is amended.

  4. Interpreting the X(5568)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, T. J.; Swanson, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    A variety of options for interpreting the DØ state, X (5568), are examined. We find that threshold, cusp, molecular, and tetraquark models are all unfavoured. Several experimental tests for unravelling the nature of the signal are suggested.

  5. Interpretation of dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Interpretation of dental radiographs is fairly straightforward, with a handful of common patterns making up the majority of pathology. This article covers normal radiographic anatomy, endodontic disease, periodontal disease, neoplastic changes, tooth resorption, caries, and radiographic signs of oral trauma.

  6. Interpreting Weather Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a brief introduction of our atmosphere, a guide to reading and interpreting weather maps, and a set of activities to facilitate teachers in helping to enhance student understanding of the Earth's atmosphere. (ZWH)

  7. Programs for Training Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Annals of the Deaf, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This listing provides directory information on U.S. programs for training interpreters for individuals with deafness. Schools are listed by state and include director and degree information. (Author/CR)

  8. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  9. Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

  10. Polysomnography methods and interpretations.

    PubMed

    Rundell, O H; Jones, R K

    1990-08-01

    As the field of sleep disorders medicine continues to mature, appropriate diagnostic techniques are becoming properly defined and standardized. This article focuses principally upon diagnostic testing for sleep apnea, although other sleep disorders are discussed briefly. When interpreting a polysomnogram, one must consider a number of complex variables. A critical discussion of the methods for adequately measuring these variables is provided together with guidelines for appropriate interpretation.

  11. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  12. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  13. Business and Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…

  14. Exploration of Business (9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This guide provides teachers with a business exploration curriculum for grade 9. The course is designed to introduce beginning students to the language of business, to careers, to consumerism, to economics, and to technology. An "Overview" section presents the rationale, describes the program structure, and lists program goals and…

  15. Business Communication in BELF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  16. General Business 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide contains guidelines for conducting a secondary-level general business course. Intended to serve as an introduction to business and consumer fundamentals, the course provides socioeconomic background useful to students seeking vocational preparation for office and clerical occupations. The goals and objectives of the course are…

  17. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  18. Selective Lessons from Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the author has participated in many gatherings where business leaders have been invited to provide educational leaders with advice regarding the way they should lead their schools. Some of these events proved satisfying, but others proved disastrous. In this article, the author argues that it is a mistake to invite business leaders…

  19. Teaching Business Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKillop, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Business is integral to the functioning of the national economy, politics, education and everyday living. It is without question that business education is a vital part of the high school experience, and should be seen as required courses rather than electives. Preparing high school students for real life beyond high school happens in the business…

  20. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  1. Learning About Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    In the teacher's guide, learning experiences focus on helping students in primary grades develop their understanding of the interrelationships among businesses, workers, and families through examinations of local stores and businesses and of the workers who work in them. Students are given the opportunity to acquire economical awareness and…

  2. Social enterprise. Risky business.

    PubMed

    2007-02-15

    The skills needed to run a social enterprise are similar to those needed for conventional business. Accounts for social enterprises will have a 'double bottom line', showing social benefit as well as profit. Finding a good mentor is vital, as is setting out a clear vision and values in your business plan.

  3. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  4. IBM Small Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

    A telephone survey conducted March 15-22, 1991, examined how small businesses are currently performing. Interviewees were 400 small business owners randomly selected from a Dun and Bradstreet list of companies with 50 or fewer employees. Major findings were as follows: (1) owners were survivors, highly confident in their own abilities, and…

  5. Veterans in Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC. National Small Business Training Network.

    These materials provide information on conducting small business training seminars for veterans. First, a discussion is presented of the development of the guide based on 1983 field testing of the seminar and evaluations conducted by Small Business Administration (SBA) officials, the seminar contracts, and trainers. The next sections deal with the…

  6. General Business 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide contains guidelines for conducting a secondary-level general business course. Intended to serve as an introduction to business and consumer fundamentals, the course provides socioeconomic background useful to students seeking vocational preparation for office and clerical occupations. The goals and objectives of the course are…

  7. Comprehensive Business Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Bureau of Vocational Program Planning and Development.

    This curriculum is designed to provide elective courses in business for academic track high school students in Connecticut. The guide is organized in three sections. The first section introduces the concept of business education for nonvocational students, lists the objectives of the courses, describes the course structure, explains the idea of…

  8. A Bilingual Business Major?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger-Merino, Kathleen A.

    Foreign language skills are necessary not only in international commerce but also in domestic business with the growing Hispanic American population. Many Hispanics have only minimal English skills and prefer to do business in Spanish and use Spanish language media. Because Hispanic Americans account for a significant portion of the consumer…

  9. Business Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Nancy; And Others

    This curriculum guide recommends the essential content for high school programs in business education in South Carolina. It contains course outlines which are based on competencies needed in the labor market and/or for personal business management. The guide contains 20 course descriptions which are arranged in alphabetical order. Each course is…

  10. The Business Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, William H., Jr.

    The publication is designed to serve as a guide for those responsible for business education in Pennsylvania, emphasizing curriculum planning and the development of course guidelines. Chapter one deals with planning the business education program within the framework of the principles of curriculum construction. Program implementation at the…

  11. Supervised Business Experience Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This handbook explains how to conduct a supervised business education experience program in Missouri, outlining the program, rationale, components, principles, and resources. Specifically, the 11 units cover the following: (1) introduction to supervised business experience; (2) program design; (3) state policies; (4) the advisory committee; (5)…

  12. None of Your Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Jana

    1989-01-01

    Local business owners in college towns say they can't compete when an institution sells computers, pizza, or books. With unrelated-business income tax legislation a threat, institutions are addressing these concerns by cooperating with retailers. (Author/MSE)

  13. The Business Writer's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusaw, Charles T.; And Others

    This handbook is designed to be a comprehensive, practical reference guide for courses in business writing or business communication. Alphabetical entries provide coverage of grammar, usage, style, format, and writing procedure--planning, research, outlining, methods of development, and so on--and also include specific information on letters,…

  14. Teaching Business Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo J.

    The University of Rhode Island's business Italian course is an advanced language course whose focus is the Italian business world and its reflection of values, customs, and traditions. The course begins with presentations on salient features of contemporary Italian, such as syntactical simplification and nominalization, and how the social,…

  15. Business Schools at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BizEd, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Explores pervasive forces, such as faculty shortages, pressures to enhance curricular relevance, and intense, worldwide competition, that are threatening traditional business schools. Describes recommendations reached by the Management Education Task Force formed by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, which addressed these…

  16. Business Education Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This handbook covers the field of business education in Missouri, outlining the program, rationale, components, principles, and resources. Specifically, the 13 sections cover the following: (1) the mission of business education; (2) the secondary program; (3) the postsecondary program; (4) adult education; (5) student organizations; (6)…

  17. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  18. Business Communication in BELF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  19. Mind Your Own Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Judith M.; Kirkwood, Hal P., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Like any well-run company deciding on what products and services to offer, a good library should pay attention to customer demand when it is building its business reference collection. What kind of information do business patrons want? Most are looking for company and industry details: a corporate address or name of an officer, financial data for…

  20. Business Principles 201.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This teaching guide consists of guidelines for conducting a secondary-level course on business principles. Intended as part of an office skills or accounting/data processing program, the course provides the management viewpoint toward the planning and operation of a business. First, the goals and objectives of the course are outlined. Provided…

  1. Defining Business English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, G. D.

    Business language is directed both outward, toward the general public and inward, toward the particular type of business. In the first instance, it approximates lay language and has contributed some expressions to common usage. In the second instance, it departs from lay language and becomes specialized within each industry, sometimes to the point…

  2. Personal Achievement Reading: Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Janet R.

    Exercises are provided in this set of four workbooks designed to aid students in business programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from business terminology to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on developing the ability to determine…

  3. Microcomputers in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscat, Eugene

    1980-01-01

    This article acquaints business educators with the equipment, terminology, and the wide range of applications microcomputers have in business education programs. Areas examined include hardware, software, computer-assisted instruction (drill and practice, simulation, and tutorial), computer-managed instruction, and word processing. (CT)

  4. Building Tomorrow's Business Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Modern automobile maintenance, like most skilled-trades jobs, is more than simple nuts and bolts. Today, skilled-trades jobs might mean hydraulics, computerized monitoring equipment, electronic blueprints, even lasers. As chief executive officer of Grainger, a business-to-business maintenance, repair, and operating supplies company that…

  5. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  6. Learning About Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    In the teacher's guide, learning experiences focus on helping students in primary grades develop their understanding of the interrelationships among businesses, workers, and families through examinations of local stores and businesses and of the workers who work in them. Students are given the opportunity to acquire economical awareness and…

  7. Building Tomorrow's Business Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Modern automobile maintenance, like most skilled-trades jobs, is more than simple nuts and bolts. Today, skilled-trades jobs might mean hydraulics, computerized monitoring equipment, electronic blueprints, even lasers. As chief executive officer of Grainger, a business-to-business maintenance, repair, and operating supplies company that…

  8. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals.

  9. Effects of time at suboptimal pH on rumen fermentation in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Cerrato-Sánchez, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A

    2007-03-01

    Ruminal pH varies considerably during the day, achieving values below 6.0 when cows consume large amounts of concentrates. Low ruminal pH has negative effects on ruminal fermentation. However, previous studies have indicated that rumen bacteria may resist short periods of low ruminal pH, and it is not clear how long this period may be before rumen microbial fermentation is negatively affected. Seven dual-flow continuous culture fermenters (1,320 mL) were used in 3 replicated periods with the same diet (97 g of dry matter/d of a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate diet, 18.3% crude protein, 35.9% neutral detergent fiber), temperature (39 degrees C), and solid (5%/h) and liquid (10%/h) dilution rates to study the effects of increasing time at suboptimal pH on rumen microbial fermentation and nutrient flow. Treatments were a constant pH of 6.4 and 6 different intervals of time during the day (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 h) at suboptimal pH (5.5), with the rest of the day being at pH 6.4. Polynomial equations were derived using the Mixed procedure of SAS, and linear, quadratic and cubic terms were left in the equation if P < 0.10. True organic matter digestion decreased with increasing time at suboptimal pH and was best described by a cubic regression (TOMD = 58.5 - 2.15x + 0.16x2 -0.0037x3; R2 = 0.74). Digestion of NDF (DNDF = 55.1 - 1.00x; R2 = 0.75) and digestion of ADF (DADF = 56.2 - 1.33x; R2 = 0.78) decreased linearly with increasing time at suboptimal pH. Total VFA had a cubic response (VFA = 112.7 - 2.09x + 0.17x2 - 0.0054x3; R2 = 0.82). The proportion of acetate decreased linearly (acetate = 58.7 - 0.61x; R2 = 0.79). The propionate proportion increased (propionate = 17.6 + 2.09 x -0.044x2; R2 = 0.85) and branched-chain VFA decreased (BCVFA = 4.45 -0.51x + 0.014x2; R2 = 0.75) quadratically. The ammonia N concentration (NH3-N = 5.85 - 0.13x; R2 = 0.46) and flow (NH3-N flow = 0.18 - 0.0039x; R2 = 0.43) decreased linearly as the time at suboptimal pH increased. Crude protein

  10. 77 FR 28237 - Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... / Monday, May 14, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 124 RIN 3245-AF53 Small Business Size Regulations; 8(a) Business Development/Small Disadvantaged Business Status Determinations; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION:...

  11. Business size distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2001-10-01

    In a recent work, we introduced two models for the dynamics of customers trying to find the business that best corresponds to their expectation for the price of a commodity. In agreement with the empirical data, a power-law distribution for the business sizes was obtained, taking the number of customers of a business as a proxy for its size. Here, we extend one of our previous models in two different ways. First, we introduce a business aggregation rate that is fitness dependent, which allows us to reproduce a spread in empirical data from one country to another. Second, we allow the bankruptcy rate to take a different functional form, to be able to obtain a log-normal distribution with power-law tails for the size of the businesses.

  12. Learning Activities for International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  13. English through Business and Business through English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Tay

    This paper describes a highly specialized ESL program for a group of foreign students at the University of Southern California. The students were foreign graduates in business administration and economics who were entering the MBA program at USC. Previous experience with such students indicated that many entered the program with an insufficient…

  14. Business Communications Students Demonstrate Realistic Business Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Carol M.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that business communication students can improve their management and communications skills by forming teams and playing the roles of corporate employees, including holding stockholders' meetings, drawing up reports, discussing new products, and in general honing their professional appearance and conduct. (JC)

  15. English through Business and Business through English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Tay

    This paper describes a highly specialized ESL program for a group of foreign students at the University of Southern California. The students were foreign graduates in business administration and economics who were entering the MBA program at USC. Previous experience with such students indicated that many entered the program with an insufficient…

  16. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  17. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  18. Localized Smart-Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f

  19. Considerations When Working with Interpreters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwa-Froelich, Deborah A.; Westby, Carol E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the current training and certification procedures in place for linguistic interpreters, the continuum of interpreter roles, and how interpreters' perspectives may influence the interpretive interaction. The specific skills needed for interpreting in either health care or educational settings are identified. A table compares…

  20. Unfinished Business in Bereavement

    PubMed Central

    Klingspon, Kara L.; Holland, Jason M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.

    2016-01-01

    Unfinished business (incomplete, unexpressed or unresolved relationship issues with the deceased) is frequently discussed as a risk factor for chronic and severe grief reactions. However, few empirical studies have examined this construct. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the presence and severity of unfinished business as well as common themes of unfinished business reported in open-ended qualitative narratives among a sample of 224 bereaved individuals. In bivariate analyses, self-reported presence of unfinished business and the severity of distress due to unfinished business were both found to be associated with poorer bereavement outcomes. However, after controlling for potential confounds, distress related to unresolved issues with the deceased emerged as a more robust correlate of these outcomes. Qualitative responses were categorized, and the type of reported unfinished business was not significantly related to the degree of unfinished business distress or other bereavement outcomes. These findings provide preliminary justification for bereavement interventions that aim to ameliorate distress related to unresolved relational issues with the deceased. PMID:26057117

  1. Street drugs: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Su'a, F

    1989-11-01

    In the profession of law enforcement, we see drug abuse as our most serious crime problem. We also realize that simply making arrests, by itself, won't solve the problem. The drug business might be the filthiest business on earth, but it's not a business that forces customers to buy dope. Dope dealers may be ruthless and may even kill, but no one forces anyone to buy drugs at gunpoint. The truth is that drug dealers would go nowhere, were it not for the customers.

  2. The ADAMS interactive interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Rietscha, E.R.

    1990-12-17

    The ADAMS (Advanced DAta Management System) project is exploring next generation database technology. Database management does not follow the usual programming paradigm. Instead, the database dictionary provides an additional name space environment that should be interactively created and tested before writing application code. This document describes the implementation and operation of the ADAMS Interpreter, an interactive interface to the ADAMS data dictionary and runtime system. The Interpreter executes individual statements of the ADAMS Interface Language, providing a fast, interactive mechanism to define and access persistent databases. 5 refs.

  3. Rethinking How Business Purpose Is Taught in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyman; Naughton, Michael; Bojan, William

    2013-01-01

    Business education at a Catholic university should engage students and faculty across the university in critically examining the purpose of business in society. Following the best practices of leading business schools, the Catholic business curriculum has mostly focused on the shareholder and stakeholder approaches--with the shareholder approach…

  4. Rethinking How Business Purpose Is Taught in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyman; Naughton, Michael; Bojan, William

    2013-01-01

    Business education at a Catholic university should engage students and faculty across the university in critically examining the purpose of business in society. Following the best practices of leading business schools, the Catholic business curriculum has mostly focused on the shareholder and stakeholder approaches--with the shareholder approach…

  5. Patient compliance and suboptimal bowel preparation with split-dose bowel regimen in average-risk screening colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Menees, Stacy B.; Kim, H. Myra; Wren, Patricia; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Elta, Grace H.; Foster, Stephanie; Korsnes, Sheryl; Graustein, Brittany; Schoenfeld, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Background Although split-dose bowel regimen is recommended in colon cancer screening and surveillance guidelines, implementation in clinical practice has seemingly lagged because of concerns of patient compliance. Objectives To assess patient compliance with the split-dose bowel regimen and assess patient- and preparation process–related factors associated with compliance and bowel preparation adequacy. Design Prospective survey cohort. Setting Tertiary care setting. Patients Average-risk patients undergoing colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening between August 2011 and January 2013. Main Outcome Measurements Split-dose bowel regimen patient-reported compliance and bowel preparation adequacy with the Boston Bowel Preparation Scale score. Results Surveys and Boston Bowel Preparation Scale score data were completed in 462 participants; 15.4% were noncompliant with the split-dose bowel regimen, and suboptimal bowel preparation (score < 5) was reported in 16% of all procedures. White (P = .009) and married (P = .01) subjects were least likely to be noncompliant, whereas Hispanic subjects and those who reported incomes of US$75,000 or less were most likely to be noncompliant (P = .004). Participants who were noncompliant with split-dosing were less likely to follow the other laxative instructions and more likely to have their colonoscopy appointment before 10:30 am. Compliance differed by bowel preparation type (P = .003, χ2 test), with those who used MiraLAX showing the highest compliance, followed by polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution and other bowel preparations. Noncompliance with split-dose bowel preparation (odds ratio 6.7; 95% confidence interval, 3.2–14.2) was the strongest predictor of suboptimal bowel preparation. Limitations Patient self-report, performed at tertiary care center. Conclusions Overall, 1 in 7 patients do not comply with a split-dose bowel regimen. Ensuring compliance with the split-dose bowel regimen will reduce the risk of a

  6. Impact of suboptimal breastfeeding on the healthcare and mortality costs of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Colaizy, Tarah T.; Bartick, Melissa C.; Jegier, Briana J.; Green, Brittany D.; Reinhold, Arnold G.; Schaefer, Andrew J.; Bogen, Debra L.; Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Stuebe, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate risk of NEC for ELBW infants as a function of preterm formula and maternal milk (MM) intake and calculate the impact of suboptimal feeding on NEC incidence and costs. Design We used adjusted odds ratios (aORs) derived from the Glutamine Trial to perform Monte Carlo simulation of a cohort of ELBW infants under current suboptimal feeding practices, compared to a theoretical cohort in which 90% of infants received at least 98% MM. Results NEC incidence among infants receiving ≥98% MM was 1.3%; 11.1% among infants fed only preterm formula; and 8.2% among infants fed a mixed diet (p=0.002). In adjusted models, compared with infants fed predominantly MM, we found an increased risk of NEC associated with exclusive preterm formula (aOR=12.1, 95% CI 1.5, 94.2), or a mixed diet (aOR 8.7, 95% CI 1.2-65.2). In Monte Carlo simulation, current feeding of ELBW infants was associated with 928 excess NEC cases and 121 excess deaths annually, compared with a model in which 90% of infants received ≥ 98% MM. These models estimated an annual cost of suboptimal feeding of ELBW infants of $27.1 million (CI $24million, $30.4 million) in direct medical costs, $563,655 (CI $476,191, $599,069) in indirect nonmedical costs, and $1.5 billion (CI $1.3 billion, $1.6 billion) in cost attributable to premature death. Conclusions Among ELBW infants, not being fed predominantly MM is associated with an increased risk of NEC. Efforts to support milk production by mothers of ELBW infants may prevent infant deaths and reduce costs. PMID:27131403

  7. Efficacy and safety of fesoterodine 8 mg in subjects with overactive bladder after a suboptimal response to tolterodine ER.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S A; Cardozo, L; Herschorn, S; Grenabo, L; Carlsson, M; Arumi, D; Crook, T J; Whelan, L; Scholfield, D; Ntanios, F

    2014-09-01

    To assess fesoterodine 8 mg efficacy over time and vs. placebo in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) who responded suboptimally to tolterodine extended release (ER) 4 mg. In a 12-week, double-blind trial, subjects with self-reported OAB symptoms for ≥ 6 months, mean of ≥ 8 micturitions and ≥ 2 to < 15 urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) episodes/24 h, and suboptimal response to tolterodine ER 4 mg (defined as ≤ 50% reduction in UUI episodes during 2-week run-in) were randomised to fesoterodine (4 mg for 1 week, 8 mg for 11 weeks) or placebo once daily. Change from baseline to week 12 in UUI episodes (primary end-point) was analysed in step-wise fashion: first, baseline vs. week 12 for fesoterodine; if significant, then change from baseline to week 12 for fesoterodine vs. placebo. By week 12, subjects receiving fesoterodine 8 mg had significantly greater improvement from baseline vs. placebo in UUI episodes, urgency episodes and scores on the Patient Perception of Bladder Control, Urgency Perception Scale and OAB Questionnaire Symptom Bother and Health-Related Quality of Life scales and domains (all p < 0.05). 50% and 70% UUI responder rates were also significantly higher with fesoterodine 8 mg vs. placebo at week 12 (p < 0.05). Dry mouth (placebo, 4%, 12/301; fesoterodine, 16.6%, 51/308) and constipation (placebo, 1.3%, 4/301; fesoterodine, 3.9%, 12/308) were the most frequent adverse events. Subjects who responded suboptimally to tolterodine ER 4 mg showed significant improvements in UUI and other OAB symptoms and patient-reported outcomes, with good tolerability, during treatment with fesoterodine 8 mg vs. placebo. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Suboptimal CT pulmonary angiography in the emergency department: a retrospective analysis of outcomes in a large academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Bates, David D B; Tkacz, Jaroslaw N; LeBedis, Christina A; Holalkere, Nagaraj

    2016-12-01

    Optimal CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is a prerequisite for accurate diagnosis and management of suspected venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) in the emergency department (ED). However, a certain proportion of CTPA studies are diagnostically limited or non-diagnostic due to various technical causes. In this study, we analyze the incidence and cause of suboptimal CTPA studies in the ED and assess the need for additional imaging. Reports of 1444 consecutive CTPAs performed in an ED on adult patients over a 25-month period beginning November 30, 2011, were reviewed. The observed suboptimal CTPA rate was 4.2 % (60/1444). The most common causes of limited or non-diagnostic CTPA in the ED were related to timing of contrast bolus or IV infiltration (26/60, 43.4 %), respiratory motion (16/60, 26.7 %), multifactorial causes (10/60, 16.7 %), and patient motion (8/60, 13.3 %). Of the 60 studies included, only 7 patients (11.7 %) underwent additional diagnostic imaging during the same hospital visit for VTE, while 3 patients (5.0 %) underwent additional imaging for suspected VTE over the next 2 months. A total of 2/60 (3.4 %) patients had documented acute PE on additional imaging performed either on the same hospital visit or within 2 months. Regardless of the factors contributing to suboptimal CTPA, only a very small proportion of patients receive additional imaging to evaluate for VTE, either on the same visit or during the next 2 months (16.7 %, 10/60 patients). A small number (3.4 %) of these patients have documented acute PE within 2 months when additional imaging tests were performed.

  9. A randomised controlled trial of educational counselling on the management of women who have suffered suboptimal outcomes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tam, Wing Hung; Lee, Dominic Tak Sing; Chiu, Helen Fung Kum; Ma, Kwok Chiu; Lee, Albert; Chung, Tony Kwok Hung

    2003-09-01

    To study whether proactive educational counselling, in addition to routine clinical care, reduces psychological morbidity and improves quality of life and client satisfaction among women who suffer suboptimal outcomes during childbirth. A randomised controlled trial. Obstetric unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. Women who had unexpected antenatal, intrapartum or postpartum events leading to suboptimal outcomes during pregnancy and childbirth. Educational counselling provided by a trained research nurse in the postnatal ward after delivery. Women in the control group received routine clinical care. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the General Health Questionnaire and the Clinical Global Impression (before and after counselling, at six weeks and six months post-delivery) and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life scale (WHO-QOL) (at six weeks and six months post-delivery). There was no significant difference in psychological morbidity, quality of life or client satisfaction between the counselling group and the control group. Participants who underwent elective caesarean section and who had the educational counselling had significantly lower depression scores [mean 2.6 (SD 2.6)] compared with those receiving routine care [mean 3.9 (SD 3.2)]. On the other hand, educational counselling may have deleterious effect to women's quality of life in those who had instrumental delivery. Participants allocated to the counselling group had a lower mean score 68 (SD 13) in the physical domain of WHO-QOL than those in the intervention group 74 (SD 13). Educational counselling, given on top of routine clinical care, does not give additional beneficial effects on the psychological wellbeing and quality of life of women who encountered suboptimal outcomes during pregnancy.

  10. Does Increasing Treatment Frequency Address Suboptimal Responses to Ivermectin for the Control and Elimination of River Blindness?

    PubMed Central

    Frempong, Kwadwo K.; Walker, Martin; Cheke, Robert A.; Tetevi, Edward Jenner; Gyan, Ernest Tawiah; Owusu, Ebenezer O.; Wilson, Michael D.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Taylor, Mark J.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several African countries have adopted a biannual ivermectin distribution strategy in some foci to control and eliminate onchocerciasis. In 2010, the Ghana Health Service started biannual distribution to combat transmission hotspots and suboptimal responses to treatment. We assessed the epidemiological impact of the first 3 years of this strategy and quantified responses to ivermectin over 2 consecutive rounds of treatment in 10 sentinel communities. Methods. We evaluated Onchocerca volvulus community microfilarial intensity and prevalence in persons aged ≥20 years before the first, second, and fifth (or sixth) biannual treatment rounds using skin snip data from 956 participants. We used longitudinal regression modeling to estimate rates of microfilarial repopulation of the skin in a cohort of 217 participants who were followed up over the first 2 rounds of biannual treatment. Results. Biannual treatment has had a positive impact, with substantial reductions in infection intensity after 4 or 5 rounds in most communities. We identified 3 communities—all having been previously recognized as responding suboptimally to ivermectin—with statistically significantly high microfilarial repopulation rates. We did not find any clear association between microfilarial repopulation rate and the number of years of prior intervention, coverage, or the community level of infection. Conclusions. The strategy of biannual ivermectin treatment in Ghana has reduced O. volvulus microfilarial intensity and prevalence, but suboptimal responses to treatment remain evident in a number of previously and consistently implicated communities. Whether increasing the frequency of treatment will be sufficient to meet the World Health Organization's 2020 elimination goals remains uncertain. PMID:27001801

  11. Adjustment of Eculizumab Dosage Pattern in Patients with Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome with Suboptimal Response to Standard Treatment Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Peralta Roselló, Carmen; Baltar Martín, José María; Castillo Eraso, Lorena; de Álvaro Moreno, Fernando; Martínez Vea, Alberto; Visus-Fernández de Manzanos, María Teresa

    2016-01-01

    In patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), complement blocking by eculizumab rapidly halts the process of thrombotic microangiopathy and it is associated with clear long-term hematologic and renal improvements. Eculizumab treatment consists of a 4-week initial phase with weekly IV administration of 900 mg doses, followed by a maintenance phase with a 1,200 mg dose in the fifth week and every 14 ± 2 days thereafter. We present three patients with aHUS and suboptimal response to eculizumab treatment at the usual administration dosage who showed hematologic and renal improvements after an adjustment in the eculizumab treatment protocol. PMID:28025630

  12. Exercise thallium stress testing compared with coronary angiography in patients without exclusions for suboptimal exercise or cardioactive medications

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, N.R.; Denis, L.

    1986-10-01

    From 1293 patients who underwent thallium stress testing and 1099 patients who had coronary angiography, a consecutive series of 122 who had both studies is evaluated. This group includes suboptimally exercised patients and those receiving one or several cardiovascular drugs that were not discontinued prior to exercise. When compared with the EKG stress test, thallium stress imaging was superior in sensitivity (80% vs 68%), specificity (84% vs 49%), accuracy (81% vs 62%), positive predictive value, (92% vs 75%), and negative predictive value (65% vs 45%) in this group, with 71% prevalence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease.

  13. The role of the health insurance industry in perpetuating suboptimal pain management.

    PubMed

    Schatman, Michael E

    2011-03-01

    Unlike pain practitioners, health care insurers in the United States are not expected to function according to a system of medical ethics. Rather, they are permitted to function under the business "ethic" of cost-containment and profitability. Despite calls for balancing the disparate agendas of stakeholders in pain management in a pluralistic system, the health insurance industry has continued to fail to take the needs of suffering chronic pain patients into consideration in developing and enacting their policies that ultimately dictate the quality and quantity of pain management services available to enrollees. This essay examined these self-serving strategies, which include failure to reimburse services and certain medications irrespective of their evidence-bases for clinical efficacy and cost-efficiency; "carving out" specific services from interdisciplinary treatment programs; and delaying and/or interrupting the provision of medically necessary treatment. Blatant and more subtle strategies utilized by insurers to achieve these ethically questionable goals are examined. Additionally, this essay addressed some of the insurance industry's efforts to delegitimize chronic pain and its treatment as a whole. The author concludes that the outlook for chronic pain sufferers is not particularly bright, until such time that a not-for-profit single-payer system replaces the current treatment/reimbursement paradigm. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Give Kids the Business!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Teachers' ideas for teaching elementary secondary school students about business, industry, economics, consumerism, and money management are presented. Class activities involving a toy automotive industry, a consumer convention, and a class "microtown" are described. (CJ)

  15. Maintenance Business Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  16. Communicating with Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Anne

    1983-01-01

    States that schools should work directly with businesses in developing new curricula. Lists general principles to be observed during this process in order to facilitate communication between the two groups. (NRJ)

  17. "Education Is Everybody's Business."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Janean G.

    1982-01-01

    A school-business partnership in Indianapolis (Indiana) has had significant results in raising student test scores, increasing attendance and reducing tardiness, and meeting schools' curriculum objectives. (Author/MLF)

  18. Business Process Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendling, Jan

    The recent progress of Business Process Management (BPM) is reflected by the figures of the related industry. Wintergreen Research estimates that the international market for BPM-related software and services accounted for more than USD 1 billion in 2005 with a tendency towards rapid growth in the subsequent couple of years [457]. The relevance of business process modeling to general management initiatives has been previously studied in the 1990s [28]. Today, Gartner finds that organizations that had the best results in implementing business process management spent more than 40 percent of the total project time on discovery and construction of their initial process model [265]. As a consequence, Gartner considers Business Process Modeling to be among the Top 10 Strategic Technologies for 2008.

  19. The Business Flight Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, P.; Simpson, D.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a simulation program based on a workshop approach designed for postsecondary business students. Features and benefits of the workshop technique are discussed. The authors cover practical aspects of designing and implementing simulation workshops. (CH)

  20. Fractal interpretation of intermittency

    SciTech Connect

    Hwa, R.C.

    1991-12-01

    Implication of intermittency in high-energy collisions is first discussed. Then follows a description of the fractal interpretation of intermittency. A basic quantity with asymptotic fractal behavior is introduced. It is then shown how the factorial moments and the G moments can be expressed in terms of it. The relationship between the intermittency indices and the fractal indices is made explicit.

  1. Interpreting Contradictory Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Cynthia

    Preschool children, elementary school students, and adults participated in a study that examined various processes used to interpret contradictory communications. A screening test determined that all subjects were capable of discriminating between contradictory and congruent communications. Subjects were presented with contradictory verbal-facial…

  2. Comprehensions and Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Alexander H.

    1987-01-01

    Argues that second-language reading comprehension and its assessment can be usefully divided into two aspects: (1) comprehensions (different levels of comprehension the reader adopts to suit different purposes of reading); and (2) interpretations (different readings of the same text resulting from different background knowledge or preoccupations…

  3. Parametric Interpretation in Yorktalk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Richard

    The method of parametric interpretation used in the computer program "Yorktalk," software that creates synthetic parameter files from phonological representations of speech, is explained. First, the design of the program is described, and the concept of "exponency" in prosodic analysis is explained as it is applied in the…

  4. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  5. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  6. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  7. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  8. Psychosemantics and Simultaneous Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    A comprehension model of simultaneous interpretation activity raises three types of problems: structure of semantic information stored in long-term memory, modalities of input processing and specific restrictions due to situation. A useful concept of semantic mnesic structures includes: (1) a componential-predicative lexicon; (2) a propositional…

  9. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  10. Deafness and Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Labor, Trenton. Div. of the Deaf.

    This paper explains how the hearing loss of deaf persons affects communication, describes methods deaf individuals use to communicate, and addresses the role of interpreters in the communication process. The volume covers: communication methods such as speechreading or lipreading, written notes, gestures, or sign language (American Sign Language,…

  11. Social Maladjustment: An Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center, David B.

    The exclusionary term, "social maladjustment," the definition in Public Law 94-142 (the Education for All Handicapped Children Act) of serious emotional disturbance, has been an enigma for special education. This paper attempts to limit the interpretation of social maladjustment in order to counter effects of such decisions as…

  12. The act of interpretation.

    PubMed

    D'Abreu, Aloysio Augusto

    2006-08-01

    The author understands the interpreting act as an attempt to perceive what happens in the transference/countertransference field and not just what happens in the patient's mind. Interpretation transcends mere intellectual communication. It is also an experience in which analysts' emotions work as an important instrument in understanding their patients. Interpretation is seen to possess manifest as well as latent content; the latter would contain the analysts' feelings, emotions and personality. The unconscious content of an interpretation does not inconvenience or preclude the development of the analytic process, but, on the contrary, it allows new associative material to emerge, and it transforms the analytic session into a human relationship. Analysts' awareness of this content derived from patients' apperceptions is a significant instrument for understanding what is happening in the analytic relationship, and what transpires in these sessions provides fundamental elements for analysts' self-analysis. Some clinical examples demonstrate these occurrences in analytic sessions, and how they can be apprehended and used for a better understanding of the patient. The author also mentions the occurrence of difficulties during the analytic process. These difficulties are often the result of lapses in an analyst's perception related to unconscious elements of the relationship.

  13. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 6 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The General Aviation Propulsion Program (GAP). AGATE and GAP are providing industry partners with technologies leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) in the early 21st century. These investments support the national general aviation 'roadmap' goal to 'enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times highway speeds to virtually all of the nation's suburban, rural and remote communities.' Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  14. Small Business Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) invites small businesses, or those with 500 employees or less, to write for a copy of its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program solicitation, to be issued January 2, 1985. To receive a copy, contact the SBIR Program Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20545; telephone 301-353-5707. The closing date for this solicitation is March 15, 1985.

  15. Medicine as a business.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Merrill

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing debate over whether medicine should function like a business, guided, as businesses are, by concerns such as profits and customer satisfaction. Of course, for-profit businesses already permeate medicine, and those businesses are not confused about their priorities: providing high quality goods and services people want, at affordable prices. These companies know that they must do well in order to continue doing good. Critics of the business model argue that the profit motive makes health care too expensive and that only by nationalizing the health care system can doctors provide high quality care at an affordable cost to society. However, a survey of journals and newspaper articles about the Canadian health care system, often cited as an anti-business model for U.S. reform, reveals that quality has suffered significantly under that system. Patients wait in long lines for health care, and sometimes cannot get help at all. This paper argues that incentives in the U.S. health care system are complicated, and that health care needs to work more like a business--not less. Doctors don't know whom they are serving--patients, insurers, employers or the government--because it is usually someone other than the patient who it paying the bill. The way to get the incentives structured properly is to allow patients to control more of their health care dollars--perhaps through a system of Medical Savings Accounts. Following the business model is the only way to ensure that medicine provides high quality services at affordable prices--just like every other sector of the economy.

  16. 76 FR 32231 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business... Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales Solution Department, off-site... and location is International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit,...

  17. Bringing science to business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemetti, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Bringing science to business seems rather straight forward. Technology is constantly moving forward and new inventions are being brought into the market place. Science parks and technology parks have sprung out all around the globe competing against each other and trying to keep their own doors open by bringing in new business, thereby creating much needed income to keep their operations moving forward. However, only a small handful ofthese centers around the world can truly be considered successful. It is the relationship between the scientists, start-up business, local universities, local government, and invited bigger business that allows the parks to succeed. The individual scientist wishing to enter into business or just hoping to get his invention into the pool of potential ideas; which might end up in the hands of an entrepreneur or an established company, is not always that simple. Universal success principles must be embraced to ensure success. One must believe in oneself and to strive for excellence. One must be able to see the other persons viewpoint and adapt and change his behavior in order to succeed. One must learn to create trust as well as learn to trust. Furthermore, one must learn to focus on the why of the process and not on the how. A market must be identified and benefits of local area must be sold to potential investor or business partners. A local success has in part to do with local cooperation.

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Business Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Bureau of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for five courses for the secondary business technology programs in Mississippi: intensive business training; information processing; business computer applications; and computer programing technology (CPT) I and II. The 20 units of intensive business training include the following: keyboarding; operation of…

  19. Developing an effective business plan.

    PubMed

    Lehman, L B

    1996-06-01

    At some time, virtually all managed care executives, and most physician executives, will be asked to develop business plans. Business plans are thoughtful, comprehensive, and realistic descriptions of the many aspects of the formulation of a new business product or line for market. The author describes what goes into the writing of a business plan and how the physician executive should approach this task.

  20. Information Systems and Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beswick, Raymond W., Ed.; Williams, Alfred B., Ed.

    Intended to provide orientation about the integration of business communication, business systems, and the researching and teaching of business communication, this books offers articles on a variety of topics concerning business communication. Titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Office Technology: Voice Store-and-Forward"…

  1. Developing an effective business plan.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E

    1990-01-01

    The cost-consciousness of today's health care industry demands that nurses function as business people as well as care givers. One critical business skill that nurses must develop is writing effective business plans. This article describes a framework for developing successful business plans for both beginning new services and expanding current nursing programs.

  2. Small Business Management. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide, which is designed to assist teachers in providing instruction and technical support to small business owners and managers, contains 17 competency-based units of instruction on the following areas that both small business instructors and small business owners have deemed critical to the success of any business:…

  3. Small Business Management. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide, which is designed to assist teachers in providing instruction and technical support to small business owners and managers, contains 17 competency-based units of instruction on the following areas that both small business instructors and small business owners have deemed critical to the success of any business:…

  4. Navigating the Interface between Design Education and Fashion Business Start-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Colleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the interface between design education and business start-up in the designer fashion industry (DFI) and provide a new framework for reflecting on ways to improve design education and graduates' business start-up preparedness. Design/methodology/approach: This interpretive study employed…

  5. 12 CFR 225.107 - Acquisition of stock in small business investment company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.107 Acquisition of stock in small business... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquisition of stock in small business investment company. 225.107 Section 225.107 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF...

  6. Navigating the Interface between Design Education and Fashion Business Start-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Colleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the interface between design education and business start-up in the designer fashion industry (DFI) and provide a new framework for reflecting on ways to improve design education and graduates' business start-up preparedness. Design/methodology/approach: This interpretive study employed…

  7. Suboptimal implementation of diagnostic algorithms and overuse of computed tomography-pulmonary angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Sulaiman; Sayf, Alaa Abu; Arsene, Camelia; Krayem, Hicham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Majority of our computed tomography-pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scans report negative findings. We hypothesized that suboptimal reliance on diagnostic algorithms contributes to apparent overuse of this test. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 2031 CTPA cases in a large hospital system. Investigators retrospectively calculated pretest probability (PTP). Use of CTPA was considered as inappropriate when it was ordered for patients with low PTP without checking D-dimer (DD) or following negative DD. RESULTS: Among the 2031 cases, pulmonary embolism (PE) was found in 7.4% (151 cases). About 1784 patients (88%) were considered “PE unlikely” based on Wells score. Out of those patients, 1084 cases (61%) did not have DD test prior to CTPA. In addition, 78 patients with negative DD underwent unnecessary CTPA; none of them had PE. CONCLUSIONS: The suboptimal implementation of PTP assessment tools can result in the overuse of CTPA, contributing to ineffective utilization of hospital resources, increased cost, and potential harm to patients. PMID:27803751

  8. Observations of simple RNA suboptimal structures including pseudoknots suggests that the folding landscape is often funnel shaped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Wayne; Kawai, Gota

    2008-03-01

    Many RNA structure are known to fold up into complex function structures such as ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), riboswitches, etc. We are currently developing a novel theoretical approach for predicting the base pairing topology of folded RNA structures [1,2], a term known as RNA secondary structure. A good prediction of this base pairing can significantly speed up computation of the full 3D structure of these complex molecules. In recent work, we reported a pseudoknot prediction application using this model [3]. We have now upgraded this application to also predict suboptimal structures. The results of this model suggest that structures like tRNA often have a folding landscape of suboptimal structures that is essentially funnel shaped; similar to what is known to be the case for many simple proteins. This model has also been applied to simple protein structure topology prediction in a similar fashion. [1] Dawson, et al. (2001). J Theor Biol. 213, 359-386 and 387-412. [2] Dawson, et al. (2006). Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids 25, 171-189. [3]Dawson, et al. (2007). PLoS One, 2, 905.

  9. Combined suboptimal schedules of topical paromomycin, meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine to treat experimental infection caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    de Morais-Teixeira, Eliane; Aguiar, Marta Gontijo; Soares de Souza Lima, Bruna; Ferreira, Lucas Antônio Miranda; Rabello, Ana

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of binary combinations of suboptimal schedules of drugs with different administration routes (topical paromomycin, intramuscular meglumine antimoniate and oral miltefosine) to treat animals infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Hamsters were inoculated with L. (V.) braziliensis and after ulceration of lesions, divided into seven groups: untreated control, paromomycin, miltefosine, meglumine antimoniate, meglumine antimoniate + paromomycin, miltefosine + paromomycin and meglumine antimoniate + miltefosine. Meglumine antimoniate and miltefosine were administered at low doses and topical paromomycin at a single daily application regimen. The animals were treated for 20 consecutive days (meglumine antimoniate and/or paromomycin) and/or 10 alternate days (miltefosine). Lesion sizes were determined weekly. Upon completion of treatment, parasites were recovered from skin lesions and spleens and evaluated by limiting dilution assay. The combinations of a once daily application of paromomycin with low doses of miltefosine or meglumine antimoniate yielded higher efficacies in reducing the parasite load as well as lesion size when compared with any of these drugs administered as monotherapy regimens at the same suboptimal schedules. Considering the parameters evaluated, the combinations of a systemic therapy with topical treatment were more effective than monotherapy with each of these drugs. These combinations may represent an alternative combination strategy for the treatment of leishmaniasis caused by L. (V.) braziliensis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A five-gene stress survival islet (SSI-1) that contributes to the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in suboptimal conditions.

    PubMed

    Ryan, S; Begley, M; Hill, C; Gahan, C G M

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of a five-gene islet (lmo0444 - lmo0448) to the growth of Listeria monocytogenes under suboptimal conditions. Bioinformatics and PCR analyses revealed that a five-gene islet is present in c. half of all L. monocytogenes strains examined (66 in total). A deletion mutant that lacks the entire c. 8·7-kb islet was created in L. monocytogenes strain LO28. This mutant was impaired in growth at low pH and at high salt concentrations and demonstrated a decreased ability to survive and grow in a model food system (frankfurters). Transcriptional analysis revealed that the islet is self-regulated in that the product of lmo0445 regulates the expression of the other four genes. A role of the alternative stress sigma factor SigB in regulating the islet was also uncovered. The five-gene islet (herein designated as SSI-1; stress survival islet 1) contributes to the growth of L. monocytogenes under suboptimal conditions. SSI-1 may contribute to the survival of certain strains of L. monocytogenes in food environments. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. The relationship between suboptimal effort and post-concussion symptoms in children and adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Gabriel C; Antonini, Tanya N; Monahan, Kerry; Gelfius, Carl; Klamar, Karl; Potts, Michelle; Yeates, Keith O; Bodin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective chart review study explored the relationship between suboptimal effort and post-concussion symptoms in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Participants were 382 clinically referred children and adolescents between 8 and 16 years of age who sustained an mTBI. Suboptimal effort was identified using reliable digit span and age-corrected scaled scores from the Numbers subtest of the Children's Memory Scale (CMS); 20% of the sample were classified as non-credible performers. Chi-square analyses and t-tests were used to examine differences in post-concussion symptoms and neuropsychological test performance between credible and non-credible performers. Linear regression was used to examine whether CMS Numbers performance predicted post-concussion symptoms after controlling for baseline symptoms and other relevant demographic- and injury-related factors. We found that non-credible performers presented with a greater number of post-concussion symptoms as compared with credible performers. Additionally, non-credible performers demonstrated comparatively poorer performance on neuropsychological tests of focused attention and processing speed. These results suggest that children and adolescents with mTBI who fail effort testing might have a greater tendency to exaggerate post-concussion symptoms and cognitive impairment. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of Psychotherapeutic Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    POGGE, DAVID L.; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.

    1992-01-01

    If much psychotherapy literature goes unread and unused by therapists, one reason may be the apparent irrelevance of theory-derived hypotheses to actual practice. Methods that uncover tacit knowledge that practicing therapists already possess can provide the empirical basis for more relevant theories and the testing of more meaningful hypotheses. This study demonstrates application of the phenomenological method to the question of evaluating psychotherapy. To discover how experienced psychotherapists evaluate interpretations made in actual psychotherapy sessions, therapists were asked to evaluate such interpretations from videotapes; analysis of responses yielded a set of 10 dimensions of evaluation. Such methods offer both practical utility and a source of theoretical growth anchored in the real world of the practicing therapist. PMID:22700101

  13. Analysis of Farm Records. Teacher Edition. Farm Business Management Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide for the Oklahoma Farm Business Management Program contains three instructional units that teach students how to interpret farm records to get optimum use of facilities and maximize profits. Each unit of instruction includes some or all of these components: performance objectives, suggested activities for the instructor,…

  14. United States History in the Secondary Schools. Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. One of the most important developments in the recent interpretations of American economic history has been the emphasis placed on business. The specific objectives of this unit are enumerated: 1) to realize that all resources are limited and the utilization of these resources is determined by…

  15. Catholic Business Schools and the Crisis of the Academic Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoevel, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    According to many analysts, after the dot-com, housing and financial bubbles, the next bubble to burst may be that of higher education and especially business education schools. Given this possible scenario, there are two ways one might interpret the current crisis in education, accompanied by two proposals for addressing the problems. According…

  16. Catholic Business Schools and the Crisis of the Academic Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoevel, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    According to many analysts, after the dot-com, housing and financial bubbles, the next bubble to burst may be that of higher education and especially business education schools. Given this possible scenario, there are two ways one might interpret the current crisis in education, accompanied by two proposals for addressing the problems. According…

  17. Third Party Services for Enabling Business-to-Business Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Santosh

    Business-to-business (B2B) interactions concerned with the fulfilment of a given business function (e.g., order processing) requires business partners to exchange electronic business documents and to act on them. This activity can be viewed as the business partners taking part in the execution of a shared business process, where each partner is responsible for performing their part in the process. Naturally, business process executions at each partner must be coordinated at run-time to ensure that the partners are performing mutually consistent actions (e.g., the seller is not hipping a product when the corresponding order has been cancelled by the buyer). A number of factors combine to make the task of business process coordination surprisingly hard:

  18. Interpretation of metallographic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rostoker, W. ); Dvorak, J. )

    1990-01-01

    This book provides insight into the interpretation of metallographers' and metallurgists' results and an analysis of the view as seen through an optical microscope. It discusses the strengths and weaknesses of various metallographic techniques such as light optics, electron optics, and microbeam spectroscopy. The authors also cover metallographic evidences and their relation to physical compositions and transformations, distinguishing between equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions in a solid, and deduction of the origins of failure.

  19. Tips for Mental Health Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsett, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…

  20. Radiology interpretation process modeling.

    PubMed

    Noumeir, Rita

    2006-04-01

    Information and communication technology in healthcare promises optimized patient care while ensuring efficiency and cost-effectiveness. However, the promised results are not yet achieved; the healthcare process requires analysis and radical redesign to achieve improvements in care quality and productivity. Healthcare process reengineering is thus necessary and involves modeling its workflow. Even though the healthcare process is very large and not very well modeled yet, its sub-processes can be modeled individually, providing fundamental pieces of the whole model. In this paper, we are interested in modeling the radiology interpretation process that results in generating a diagnostic radiology report. This radiology report is an important clinical element of the patient healthcare record and assists in healthcare decisions. We present the radiology interpretation process by identifying its boundaries and by positioning it on the large healthcare process map. Moreover, we discuss an information data model and identify roles, tasks and several information flows. Furthermore, we describe standard frameworks to enable radiology interpretation workflow implementations between heterogeneous systems.

  1. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on.

  2. Interpretation and creationism.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, J L

    1994-08-01

    This paper is an attempt to raise questions about certain underlying and implicit assumptions in some hermeneutic and narrative approaches to psychoanalysis. Starting from the view that Freud saw interpretation in the clinical setting as an attempt to unveil the analysand's psychic reality, it is argued that he envisaged that psychoanalysis aims to interpret what is real in the analysand's inner world--an empirical line of thought underpinned by the idea of analytic neutrality and an emphasis on the analysand's capacity to judge reality. By contrast, the tendency within the hermeneutic-narrative tradition is to demote psychic reality in favour of an emphasis on the analyst's capacity to interpret in order to help his analysand construct meaning. This approach may be said to put the analyst's words in the place of those of the Creator; in other words, it amounts to a 'verbal creationism', which the author argues is rooted in the idealistic philosophy of Hegel, Vico and Descartes and, further back, can be traced to the Book of Genesis--a conclusion causing the author to express some reservations.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of suboptimal vitamin D status in people living with psychotic disorders: Data from the Australian Survey of High Impact Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Suetani, Shuichi; Saha, Sukanta; Eyles, Darryl W; Scott, James G; McGrath, John J

    2017-09-01

    Having sufficient sera concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D is important for a range of health outcomes including cardiometabolic diseases. Clinical studies in people with psychotic disorders suggest that a sizable proportion has suboptimal vitamin D status (i.e. vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency). Individuals with psychosis also have many of the risk factors associated with suboptimal vitamin D status such as smoking, obesity, and reduced physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and socio-demographic and clinical correlates of vitamin D status using a large, population-based sample of adults with psychotic disorders. Data were collected as part of the Survey of High Impact Psychosis, a population-based survey of Australians aged 18-64 years with a psychotic disorder. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was measured in 463 participants. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was dichotomised into optimal (above 50 nmol/L) and suboptimal (below 50 nmol/L). The influence of a range of socio-demographic and clinical variables on vitamin D status was examined using logistic regression. Nearly half (43.6%) of the participants had suboptimal vitamin D status. Those with (a) increased physical activity or (b) positive symptoms had significantly reduced odds of having suboptimal vitamin D status. However, there were no significant associations between suboptimal vitamin D status and other psychiatric symptom measures or cardiometabolic risk factors. Many people with psychotic disorders have suboptimal vitamin D status. As part of the routine assessment of physical health status, clinicians should remain mindful of vitamin D status in this vulnerable population and encourage the use of appropriate vitamin D supplements.

  4. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  5. Knowledge and Awareness of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia among Registered Medical Practitioners in Tamil Nadu: Are They Suboptimal?

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Shanthi; Pang, Jing; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common monogenic disorder causing premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). However, the majority of people with FH are undiagnosed and under treated. Aim To determine awareness, knowledge and practices of registered medical practitioners regarding FH in India. Materials and Methods Physicians from a southern state of India (Tamil Nadu) who see the general cases were requested to complete a structured online survey questionnaire based on the outcomes on screening, diagnostic and service aspects of FH. Results A total of 133 physicians were surveyed, 27.9% perceived themselves to have above average familiarity with FH and 71.4% correctly described FH. 41.4% of physicians were unaware and unsure whether they had FH patients under their care. The awareness of specific aspects of FH were as follows: heritability 35.3%, prevalence 31.6%, typical lipid profile 34.6%, CVD relating to FH13.5%, genetic testing 33.1%, cascade screening 41.4%, preventive, management and referral services for FH 12.8%, 49.6% of them thought that the age for screening young people for FH should be 13 to 18 years. 84.2% selected GP’s as the most effective health care provider for the early detection and care of FH as being useful. 69.2% selected interpretive commenting on lipid profile to highlight patients at risk of FH. 91.7% and 19.5% of physicians identified statins as monotherapy and statin with ezetimibe as combination therapy for FH, respectively. Conclusion The study identified substantial deficit in the awareness and knowledge of FH among primary care physicians in Tamil Nadu. Extensive and continuous medical education programs are required to close the gap in coronary prevention. PMID:27437273

  6. Socioeconomic factors explain suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected Australian adults with viral suppression

    PubMed Central

    Siefried, Krista J.; Mao, Limin; Kerr, Stephen; Cysique, Lucette A.; Gates, Thomas M.; McAllister, John; Maynard, Anthony; de Wit, John; Carr, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Background Missing more than one tablet of contemporary antiretroviral therapy (ART) per month increases the risk of virological failure. Recent studies evaluating a comprehensive range of potential risk factors for suboptimal adherence are not available for high-income settings. Methods Adults on ART with undetectable viral load (UDVL) were recruited into a national, multi-centre cohort, completing a comprehensive survey assessing demographics, socio-economic indicators, physical health, well-being, life stressors, social supports, HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma and discrimination, healthcare access, ART regimen, adherence, side effects, costs and treatment beliefs. Baseline data were assessed, and suboptimal adherence was defined as self-reported missing ≥1 ART dose/month over the previous 3-months; associated factors were identified using bivariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Results We assessed 522 participants (494 [94.5%] men, mean age = 50.8 years, median duration UDVL = 3.3 years [IQR = 1.2–6.8]) at 17 sexual health, hospital, and general practice clinics across Australia. Seventy-eight participants (14.9%) reported missing ≥1 dose/month over the previous three months, which was independently associated with: being Australian-born (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] = 2.4 [95%CI = 1.2–4.9], p = 0.014), not being in a relationship (AOR = 3.3 [95%CI = 1.5–7.3], p = 0.004), reaching the “Medicare safety net” (capping annual medical/pharmaceutical costs) (AOR = 2.2 [95%CI = 1.1–4.5], p = 0.024), living in subsidised housing (AOR = 2.5 [95%CI = 1.0–6.2], p = 0.045), receiving home-care services (AOR = 4.4 [95%CI = 1.0–18.8], p = 0.046), HIV community/outreach services linkage (AOR = 2.4 [95%CI = 1.1–5.4], p = 0.033), and starting ART following self-request (AOR = 3.0 [95%CI = 1.3–7.0], p = 0.012). Conclusions In this population, 15% reported recent suboptimal ART adherence at levels associated in prospective studies with

  7. Traditional Chinese medicine and new concepts of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine in diagnosis and treatment of suboptimal health

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The premise of disease-related phenotypes is the definition of the counterpart normality in medical sciences. Contrary to clinical practices that can be carefully planned according to clinical needs, heterogeneity and uncontrollability is the essence of humans in carrying out health studies. Full characterization of consistent phenotypes that define the general population is the basis to individual difference normalization in personalized medicine. Self-claimed normal status may not represent health because asymptomatic subjects may carry chronic diseases at their early stage, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Currently, treatments for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) are implemented after disease onset, which is a very much delayed approach from the perspective of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM). A NCD pandemic will develop and be accompanied by increased global economic burden for healthcare systems throughout both developed and developing countries. This paper examples the characterization of the suboptimal health status (SHS) which represents a new PPPM challenge in a population with ambiguous health complaints such as general weakness, unexplained medical syndrome (UMS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS). Methods We applied clinical informatic approaches and developed a questionnaire—suboptimal health status questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) for measuring SHS. The validity and reliability of this approach were evaluated in a small pilot study and then in a cross-sectional study of 3,405 participants in China. Results We found a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol among men, and a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total

  8. Adaptive response to Eimeria acervulina in rearing hens is affected by suboptimal incubation temperature and heat exposure in later life.

    PubMed

    Walstra, I; Ten Napel, J; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether suboptimal incubation (SI) temperature in weeks 1 and 3 of layer embryo incubation affects their development and post-hatch adaptive capacity during infectious challenges, by using Eimeria as a model infection under normal and immediately after more challenging environmental conditions of 72 h heat exposure. Eggs (n = 160 per treatment) were incubated at optimal (OI = 37.8°C continuously) or suboptimal eggshell temperature (36.7°C, 37.8°C and 38.9°C in weeks 1, 2 and 3, respectively). At day 33 of age, half the chickens of each incubation treatment were exposed to 72 h heat (35°C), whereas the other half remained under control conditions (21°C). At day 36 of age, all chickens were inoculated with 1 ml of a phosphate buffer saline solution containing 25 000 sporulated Eimeria acervulina oocysts/ml. The adaptive response to E. acervulina was measured by BW gain and FI from days 0 to 3 post infection (p.i.), days 3 to 5 p.i. and days 5 to 7 p.i., and by oocyst production (days 4 and 7 p.i.) and lesion scores in the duodenum (day 3, 4 and 7 p.i.). Our results demonstrated that SI temperatures in weeks 1 and 3 of incubation resulted in a reduction in yolk-free BW, chick length and navel condition. Moreover, SI temperature appeared to reduce the adaptive capacity to E. acervulina. This was demonstrated by tendencies to lower FI (P = 0.07) and BW gain (P = 0.08), more duodenal lesions (P = 0.09) and higher oocyst production (P = 0.02) after inoculation of E. acervulina. Higher lesion scores and faecal oocyst numbers were especially found when suboptimal incubation was combined with heat exposure preceding the infection. In conclusion, SI layer chickens tend to be less able to cope with an infectious challenge post hatch.

  9. A flexible business focus

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-11-01

    The challenge of sourcing equipment to meet customer needs around the world remains a prerequisite for boiler and CFB manufacturers as they strive to maintain a strong business presence in key markets. Boiler vendors are learning to meet their targets based upon what the market is, not what they hope it will become. An elastic equipment supply strategy is bolstering new business activity for internationally active boiler and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFB) vendors. Techniques such as flexible sourcing and expanded scope capability are helping suppliers gain market advantage in new global growth areas.

  10. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 4 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The AGATE program is complimented by a NASA Lewis-led program to develop safe, smooth, quiet and affordable propulsion systems for future four-to-six-seat general aviation airplanes. The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program is developing diesel prop and jet engines to be flight demonstrated at the year 2000 EAA AirVenture Air Show & Convention in Oshkosh, Wisc. Commericially produced engines based on these demonstrator engines and their manufacturing technologies will soon follow. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  11. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Interpreting Transistor Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszalski, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    The simple noise models of field effect and bipolar transistors reviewed in this article are quite useful in engineering practice, as illustrated by measured and modeled results. The exact and approximate expressions for the noise parameters of FETs and bipolar transistors reveal certain common noise properties and some general noise properties of both devices. The usefulness of these expressions in interpreting the dependence of measured noise parameters on frequency, bias, and temperature and, consequently, in checking of consistency of measured data has been demonstrated.

  13. Interpretation of the geoid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runcorn, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The superposition of the first satellite geoid determined by Iszak upon Ootilla's geoid was based on surface gravity determinations. Good agreement was observed except over the Pacific area of the globe. The poor agreement over the Pacific was interpreted as the result of inadequate observations there. Many geoids were determined from satellite observations, including Doppler measurements. It is found that the geoid is the result of density differences in the mantle maintained since the primeval Earth by its finite strength. Various models based on this assumption are developed.

  14. Minority Business Enterprises and Woman Business Enterprises Grant Utilization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The policy goal of the MBE/WBE Programs is to assure that minority business enterprises and woman business enterprises are given the opportunity to participate in contract and procurement for supplies, construction, equipment & services under any EPA grant

  15. The Role of Communication in Global Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Richard David

    1994-01-01

    Argues that American business schools fail to emphasize business communication, despite research indicating its huge importance to qualitative improvement. Considers the importance of communication in business success. (HB)

  16. [The telephone interpreter. A good alternative to the traditional interpreter].

    PubMed

    Karlsen, W B; Haabeth, A L

    1998-01-20

    In the health care system, good communication is of vital importance for correct information, diagnosis and treatment. When the health care worker and the patient have no common language, an interpreter is needed. In a small population the patient and the interpreter will often be acquainted. In small, local communities few professional interpreters are available. These communities can be served by offering a telephone interpreter, thus providing foreign citizens with a better health service. The presence of an interpreter reduces the possibility of being anonymous. The patient may withhold important information, or give incorrect information. By using a telephone interpreter, neither the patient nor the interpreter needs to know who the other person is. We found this to be a very good alternative in most cases, and sometimes a better solution. A good, loud-speaking telephone was needed. The interpreters were not as satisfied as the doctors and patients. Further development of the service is therefore required.

  17. Deleterious effect of suboptimal diet on rest-activity cycle in Anastrepha ludens manifests itself with age

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Joanna C.; Kaub, Kevin; Zou, Sige; Liedo, Pablo; Altamirano-Robles, Leopoldo; Ingram, Donald; Carey, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Activity patterns and sleep-wake cycles are among the physiological processes that change most prominently as animals age, and are often good indicators of healthspan. In this study, we used the video-based high-resolution Behavioral Monitoring System (BMS) to monitor the daily activity cycle of tephritid fruit flies Anastrepha ludens over their lifetime. Surprisingly, there was no dramatic change in activity profile with respect to age if flies were consistently fed with a nutritionally balanced diet. However, if flies were fed with sugar-only diet, their activity profile decreased in amplitude at old age, suggesting that suboptimal diet affected activity patterns, and its detrimental effect may not manifest itself until the animal ages. Moreover, by simulating different modes of behavior monitoring with a range of resolution and comparing the resulting conclusions, we confirmed the superior performance of video-based monitoring using high-resolution BMS in accurately representing activity patterns in an insect model. PMID:23639915

  18. Deleterious effect of suboptimal diet on rest-activity cycle in Anastrepha ludens manifests itself with age.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Joanna C; Kaub, Kevin; Zou, Sige; Liedo, Pablo; Altamirano-Robles, Leopoldo; Ingram, Donald; Carey, James R

    2013-01-01

    Activity patterns and sleep-wake cycles are among the physiological processes that change most prominently as animals age, and are often good indicators of healthspan. In this study, we used the video-based high-resolution behavioral monitoring system (BMS) to monitor the daily activity cycle of tephritid fruit flies Anastrepha ludens over their lifetime. Surprisingly, there was no dramatic change in activity profile with respect to age if flies were consistently fed with a nutritionally balanced diet. However, if flies were fed with sugar-only diet, their activity profile decreased in amplitude at old age, suggesting that suboptimal diet affected activity patterns, and its detrimental effect may not manifest itself until the animal ages. Moreover, by simulating different modes of behavior monitoring with a range of resolution and comparing the resulting conclusions, we confirmed the superior performance of video-based monitoring using high-resolution BMS in accurately representing activity patterns in an insect model.

  19. Nonadaptive methods for polyhedral approximation of the Edgeworth—Pareto hull using suboptimal coverings on the direction sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotov, A. V.; Maiskaya, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    For multicriteria convex optimization problems, new nonadaptive methods are proposed for polyhedral approximation of the multidimensional Edgeworth-Pareto hull (EPH), which is a maximal set having the same Pareto frontier as the set of feasible criteria vectors. The methods are based on evaluating the support function of the EPH for a collection of directions generated by a suboptimal covering on the unit sphere. Such directions are constructed in advance by applying an asymptotically effective adaptive method for the polyhedral approximation of convex compact bodies, namely, by the estimate refinement method. Due to the a priori definition of the directions, the proposed EPH approximation procedure can easily be implemented with parallel computations. Moreover, the use of nonadaptive methods considerably simplifies the organization of EPH approximation on the Internet. Experiments with an applied problem (from 3 to 5 criteria) showed that the methods are fairly similar in characteristics to adaptive methods. Therefore, they can be used in parallel computations and on the Internet.

  20. Optimal and suboptimal protocols for a mathematical model for tumor anti-angiogenesis in combination with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ledzewicz, Urszula; Maurer, Helmut; Schättler, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    We consider the problem of minimizing the tumor volume with a priori given amounts of anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic agents. For one underlying mathematical model, optimal and suboptimal solutions are given for four versions of this problem: the case when only anti-angiogenic agents are administered, combination treatment with a cytotoxic agent, and when a standard linear pharmacokinetic equation for the anti-angiogenic agent is added to each of these models. It is shown that the solutions to the more complex models naturally build upon the simplified versions. This gives credence to a modeling approach that starts with the analysis of simplified models and then adds increasingly more complex and medically relevant features. Furthermore, for each of the problem formulations considered here, there exist excellent simple piecewise constant controls with a small number of switchings that virtually replicate the optimal values for the objective.

  1. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  2. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  3. Cultural interpretations of contagion.

    PubMed

    Caprara, A

    1998-12-01

    Anthropological research in recent years has examined how single diseases such as Aids, tuberculosis, measles, malaria and leprosy are conceptualized by laypersons in non-Western societies. But how is disease transmission itself interpreted in other cultures? Data from ethnographical studies in Côte d'Ivoire and the Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, Brazil show that the interpretations of contagion and preventive practices cut across society involving five main relationships: empirical and analogical thinking, symbolic factors and social organization, the concept of person and body elements, natural and supernatural powers and individual and contextual factors. There is not a general theory, such as Pasteur's theory of germs. Instead, contagion presents itself as a transversal, multidimensional concept crossing and interconnecting society and culture. Public health programmes aimed at controlling infectious diseases need first to understand how contagion is conceptualized by laypersons, the extent to which diseases are considered infectious and the relation between perceptions and preventive practices. This would help in implementing infectious disease control programmes within local contexts based on meaningful community participation.

  4. Two Liters a Day Keep the Doctor Away? Considerations on the Pathophysiology of Suboptimal Fluid Intake in the Common Population.

    PubMed

    Lang, Florian; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Lemetais, Guillaume; Melander, Olle

    2017-08-09

    Suboptimal fluid intake may require enhanced release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin for the maintenance of adequate hydration. Enhanced copeptin levels (reflecting enhanced vasopressin levels) in 25% of the common population are associated with enhanced risk of metabolic syndrome with abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, vascular dementia, cognitive impairment, microalbuminuria, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, and premature mortality. Vasopressin stimulates the release of glucocorticoids which in turn up-regulate the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). Moreover, dehydration upregulates the transcription factor NFAT5, which in turn stimulates SGK1 expression. SGK1 is activated by insulin, growth factors and oxidative stress via phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1 and mTOR. SGK1 is a powerful stimulator of Na+/K+-ATPase, carriers (e.g. the Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter NKCC, the NaCl cotransporter NCC, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, and the Na+ coupled glucose transporter SGLT1), and ion channels (e.g. the epithelial Na+ channel ENaC, the Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel Orai1 with its stimulator STIM1, and diverse K+ channels). SGK1 further participates in the regulation of the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa-B NFκB, p53, cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB), activator protein-1, and forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1 (FOXO3a). Enhanced SGK1 activity fosters the development of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, thrombosis, stroke, inflammation including inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmune disease, cardiac fibrosis, proteinuria, renal failure as well as tumor growth. The present brief review makes the case that suboptimal fluid intake in the common population may enhance vasopressin and glucocorticoid levels thus up-regulating SGK1 expression and favouring the development of SGK1 related

  5. Additional low-dose antimuscarinics can improve overactive bladder symptoms in patients with suboptimal response to beta 3 agonist monotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hyun; Kim, Aram; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to assess the patient-reported outcome (PRO) and efficacy of add-on low-dose antimuscarinic therapy in over-active bladder (OAB) patients with suboptimal response to 4-week treatment with beta 3 agonist monotherapy (mirabegron, 50 mg). We enrolled OAB patients with 4-week mirabegron (50 mg) treatment if the patients' symptoms improved, but not to a satisfactory extent (patient perception of bladder condition [PPBC] ≥4). Enrolled patients had 8-week low-dose antimuscarinics add-on therapy (propiverine HCl, 10 mg). Patients recorded 3-day voiding diary at screening, enrollment (after 4 weeks of mirabegron monotherapy) and after 8 weeks of add-on therapy. We assessed the change of PRO (PPBC) as a primary end point and the efficacy of add-on therapy (change of frequency, urgency, urinary urgency incontinence [UUI] based on voiding diary) as a secondary end point. Thirty patients (mean age, 62.3±12.8 years; mean symptom duration, 16.0±12.3 months) were finally enrolled in the study. The mean PPBC value was 4.3±0.4 after mirabegron monotherapy, and decreased to 3.2±1.0 after 8-week add-on therapy. The mean urinary frequency decreased from 10.1±3.1 to 8.8±3, the mean number of urgency episodes decreased from 3.6±1.6 to 1.8±1.2 and the number of urgency incontinence episodes decreased from 0.7±1.0 to 0.2±0.5 after add-on therapy. No patients had event of acute urinary retention and three patients complained of mild dry mouth after add-on therapy. Add-on therapy of low-dose antimuscarinics exhibits good efficacy and safety in patients with suboptimal response after 4-week of mirabegron (50 mg) monotherapy.

  6. Sickness presenteeism predicts suboptimal self-rated health and sickness absence: a nationally representative study of the Swedish working population.

    PubMed

    Taloyan, Marina; Aronsson, Gunnar; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Alexanderson, Kristina; Westerlund, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Earlier studies have suggested that sickness presenteeism (SP) may be a risk factor for future health problems. The purpose of the present study was to test this in a nationally representative prospective study of Swedish workers. Prospective cohort with a representative sample of the Swedish working population surveyed in 2008 and 2010. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Those who reported more than 7 days of SP had higher risk of suboptimal SRH compared to those who reported no SP (OR = 5.95; 95% CI 4.98-7.12), also after adjustment for confounders (OR = 1.64; 95% CI 1.30-2.06). Those who reported 1-7 days of SP also had an increased risk before and after adjustments. Inclusion of self-rated physical and psychological work capacity did not attenuate the associations, whereas of emotional exhaustion attenuated the ORs to non-significance for both outcomes, indicating that the health consequences associated with SP are largely related to mental health. The results strengthen earlier findings suggesting that SP can be a risk factor for future suboptimal general health and sickness absence, particularly through mental health problems. This indicates that asking about SP could yield important information for employers, occupational health practitioners and GPs, possibly leading to more timely intervention that could decrease the risk of future sickness absence and more serious health problems, especially in the mental domain. Further studies of the possible causal pathways between SP and future health development are also warranted, especially since going to work is often seen as desirable also for those with poor health.

  7. Hyperplastic obesity and liver steatosis as long-term consequences of suboptimal in vitro culture of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonia; Decara, Juan M; Fernández-González, Raúl; López-Cardona, Angela P; Pavón, Francisco J; Orio, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we identify and describe an obese phenotype in mice as a long-term consequence of a suboptimal in vitro culture that resulted from the addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) into the culture medium. Mice produced with FCS displayed a high mortality rate (approximately 55% versus 15% in control mice within 20 mo) and increased sensitivity to the development of obesity in adulthood when fed either a standard or a high-fat diet. These mice developed hyperplastic obesity that was characterized by a significant expansion of the fat pads (approximately 25% and 32% higher body weight in male and female mice over controls, respectively) with unchanged adipocyte size. We observed a sexual dimorphism in the development of obesity in the mice produced with FCS. Whereas the female mice displayed hypertension, hyperleptinemia, and fatty liver, the male mice only displayed glucose intolerance. The mRNA expression of metabolically relevant genes in the adipose tissue was also affected. The males produced with FCS expressed higher mRNA levels of the genes that activate fatty acid oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha [Ppara, PPARalpha] and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 [Acox1, ACOX1]) and thermogenesis (uncoupling protein 1 [Ucp1, UCP1]), which may counteract the metabolic phenotype. Conversely, the females produced with FCS generally expressed lower levels of these metabolic genes. In the females, the obese phenotype was associated with inhibition of the lipogenic pathway (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [Pparg, PPARgamma] and fatty acid synthase [Fasn, FAS]), indicating a saturation of the storage capacity of the adipose tissue. Overall, our data indicate that the exposure to suboptimal in vitro culture conditions can lead to the sexually dimorphic development of obesity in adulthood.

  8. Do Business Schools Value the Competencies that Businesses Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Steven Eric; Karns, Lanny A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors used survey research to determine the congruence among the competencies that businesses identify as being indicative of successful managers, the competencies that business schools identify as being indicative of successful graduates, and the competencies that are emphasized in business school curricula. The results show that although…

  9. The Great Divide between Business School Research and Business Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostaler, Isabelle; Tomberlin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    In their 2005 "Harvard Business Review" article, Bennis and O'Toole described business schools as being "on the wrong track" as a result of their focus on so-called scientific research. Some commentators argue that business schools have slowly lost their relevance since the end of the 1950s when they undertook a major overhaul in response to the…

  10. The Teaching of Business Ethics: An Imperative at Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Frederick G.

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the findings of an investigation of MBAs and their views on the teaching of business ethics. The author found that tomorrow's business leaders believe that there are ethical standards that should be followed in business but that current ethical standards do not meet society's needs adequately. Moreover, although most respondents…

  11. Taking Care of Business: Equipping Students to Become Business Journalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannis, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Informed, critical business journalism is vital to a well-functioning society. But students are typically reluctant to study business journalism, often finding the topic intimidating. This article outlines how the author has taught a business journalism course in New Zealand and the United States. The course uses a variety of methods to help the…

  12. Our Business World, Business Education: 7711.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAskill, Ava

    This Quinmester pamphlet presents an overview of the business world and the American free enterprise system, delving into the concept of profit, satisfaction of wants and needs through production and distribution of goods and services, and primary forms of business organization, the effects of business activity on economic growth, and the use of…

  13. Business Office Clerical/Business Office Services. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide for business office clerical/business office services provides instructional materials for Texas business course instructors. The following sections are included: (1) introduction; (2) keyboarding--skills, proofreading, and word processing; (3) filing--alphabetic, numeric, and electronic; (4) operating office…

  14. Business and Technology Concepts--Business Computations. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This Illinois State Board of Education teacher's guide on business computations is for students enrolled in the 9th or 10th grade. The course provides a foundation in arithmetic skills and their applications to common business problems for the senior high school vocational business courses. The curriculum guide includes teacher and student…

  15. Business as a Vocation: Catholic Social Teaching and Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkson, Peter K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Building on "Vocation of the Business Leader," the recently released document from the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, along with input from Catholic business and educational leaders from around the world, this essay examines five pillars on which a Catholic business school should build its mission: foundations; the purpose of…

  16. Incorporating Business Communication in an Integrative Business Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luse, Donna W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Integrative Business Seminar in the College of Business Administration at Northeast Louisiana University in which the principal courses in business communication, management, marketing, and finance as well as a segment in problem solving, are taught as one 15-credit hour block in which subject areas are treated as an integrated…

  17. Business Speech, Language Arts, Business English: 5128.21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Developed as part of a high school quinmester unit on business speech, this guide provides the teacher with teaching strategies for a course designed to help people in the business world. The course covers the preparation and delivery of a speech and other business situations which require skill in speaking (sales techniques, committee and group…

  18. Taking Care of Business: Equipping Students to Become Business Journalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannis, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Informed, critical business journalism is vital to a well-functioning society. But students are typically reluctant to study business journalism, often finding the topic intimidating. This article outlines how the author has taught a business journalism course in New Zealand and the United States. The course uses a variety of methods to help the…

  19. Education Business Plan 2008-11: Ministry Business Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has identified one core business that is an ongoing key responsibility. It is called "Core Business One: Lead and Support the Education System So That All Students Are Successful at Learning." The core business includes three goals with specific outcomes that describe the end results the Ministry wants to…

  20. Business and Technology Concepts--Business Computations. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This Illinois State Board of Education teacher's guide on business computations is for students enrolled in the 9th or 10th grade. The course provides a foundation in arithmetic skills and their applications to common business problems for the senior high school vocational business courses. The curriculum guide includes teacher and student…

  1. Do Business Schools Value the Competencies that Businesses Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Steven Eric; Karns, Lanny A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors used survey research to determine the congruence among the competencies that businesses identify as being indicative of successful managers, the competencies that business schools identify as being indicative of successful graduates, and the competencies that are emphasized in business school curricula. The results show that although…

  2. Business Education--Business Law: Grades 10-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    Thirty-seven objectives and related test items for business law courses taught in grades 10 through 12 are organized into the following categories: (1) foundations of law; (2) law of contracts, property, and negotiable instruments; (3) business relations and business organizations; and (4) vocabulary. Each objective contains three elements: the…

  3. Business as a Vocation: Catholic Social Teaching and Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkson, Peter K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Building on "Vocation of the Business Leader," the recently released document from the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, along with input from Catholic business and educational leaders from around the world, this essay examines five pillars on which a Catholic business school should build its mission: foundations; the purpose of…

  4. Common Core Units in Business Education: Preparing Simple Business Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dellis, George P.

    This secondary unit of instruction on preparing simple business records is one of sixteen Common Core Units in Business Education (CCUBE). The units were designed for implementing the sixteen common core competencies identified in the California Business Education Program Guide for Office and Distributive Education. Each competency-based unit is…

  5. The English of Business Is the Business of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versluis, Edward B.

    Three arguments lead to the conclusion that the English of business is the business of English. First, reluctance to fully appreciate the English of Business stems in part from a serious misunderstanding about the development of written language in the Western tradition. While studying folktales and the origins of myths has made an awareness of…

  6. The Teaching of Business Ethics: An Imperative at Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Frederick G.

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the findings of an investigation of MBAs and their views on the teaching of business ethics. The author found that tomorrow's business leaders believe that there are ethical standards that should be followed in business but that current ethical standards do not meet society's needs adequately. Moreover, although most respondents…

  7. Introducing a New Business Course: "Global Business and Sustainability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, R. Scott; Harry, Sean P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--To outline the themes, topics and material used in a new course, Global business and sustainability, for business educators interested in integrating this emerging paradigm into their courses. Design/methodology/approach--The structure, design and reference materials for the Global business and sustainability course are reviewed. Specific…

  8. Getting down to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    This article describes The Villages High School (VHS), a charter school where students are taught with real-world skills. At Villages High, a unique creation of local development company The Villages Of Lake-Sumter Inc., the curriculum is serious business. Under its charter agreement with the Sumter County school district, the school must provide…

  9. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  10. Hispanic Business Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.

    This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…

  11. Business Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide gives information on the skills and knowledge that students should acquire in a secondary-level business education program. Section 1 introduces the competency-based curriculum and discusses curriculum delivery systems, the role of the teacher in curriculum development, and options for program development. Goals, competencies, and…

  12. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  13. Business in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, Dennis M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Beginning with a theme article supplying teacher background material on the role of business in the community, this issue focuses on the profit motive, competition, and the use of resources. Four instructional units on this topic are included for young children. The pre-kindergarten unit, "Pancake Producers," has children observe workers cooking…

  14. A Business Plan Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Charles, Ed.

    This document identifies the information that should be included in a business plan, and in what order, to make it an effective management tool and an effective tool to communicate a proposed or existing company's strengths and potential to potential financiers. Following an introduction, the document explains the following sections of a business…

  15. Getting down to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    This article describes The Villages High School (VHS), a charter school where students are taught with real-world skills. At Villages High, a unique creation of local development company The Villages Of Lake-Sumter Inc., the curriculum is serious business. Under its charter agreement with the Sumter County school district, the school must provide…

  16. Dancing Partners: Schools & Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Business and education partnerships can be cornerstones of major school improvement efforts and meaningful corporate philanthropy. They also can be frustrating and wasteful if not planned and managed carefully. Partnerships, with their objectives, agreements, memorandums of understanding and budgets, may look like well-planned and carefully…

  17. Business Applications of WAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steenderen, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explains the development of WAP (wireless application protocol), how it works, and what the major advantages and disadvantages are, especially when applied to the use of information. Topics include standardization; mobile communications; the effect of WAP on business tools, electronic commerce, and information services; consumers; corporate users;…

  18. Today's Business Simulation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are transforming the business simulation industry. The technologies come from research in computational fields of science, and they endow simulations with new capabilities and qualities. These capabilities and qualities include computerized behavioral simulations, online feedback and coaching, advanced interfaces, learning on…

  19. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  20. Doing Business with China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Industry and Trade Administration.

    This publication provides background and practical information for those interested in doing business with China. The United States officially recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979. Chinese leaders view international trade as an important factor in transforming China into a modern industrial state as well as an…