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Sample records for interpreting suboptimal business

  1. Reducing suboptimal employee decisions can build the business case for employee benefits.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Christopher; Cyboran, Steven F

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal employee decisions are prevalent in employee benefit plans. Poor decisions have significant consequences for employees and employers. Improving participant decisions produces beneficial outcomes such as lower labor costs, higher productivity and better workforce management. The business case for employee benefits can be strengthened by applying lessons learned from the field of behavioral economics to employee benefit plan design and to workforce communication. This article explains the types of behavioral biases that influence suboptimal decisions and explores how enlightened employee benefit plan choice architecture and vivid behavioral messaging contribute to human and better organizational outcomes.

  2. The family resemblance metaphor: some unfinished business of interpretive inquiry.

    PubMed

    Miller, S I; Fredericks, M

    2000-07-01

    The rapidly expanding discipline of interpretive inquiry, especially in its narrative analysis form, has not been fully cognizant of certain crucial epistemological and methodological assumptions that form the ultimate basis of its purpose. Even after abandoning traditional positivist views, the related disciplines within the human sciences that are engaged in interpretive inquiry have still not discovered the core implicit assumptions that militate against a full acceptance of this form of inquiry. This article outlines the locus of these implicit assumptions and then argues that the legitimacy of these enterprises must be grounded in a well-known but heretofore undiscovered perspective, namely, Wittgenstein's notion of a family resemblance. It is argued that this metaphoric phrase is the key to unlocking the real and unique nature of narrative analysis. PMID:11010071

  3. Suboptimization of developmental enhancers.

    PubMed

    Farley, Emma K; Olson, Katrina M; Zhang, Wei; Brandt, Alexander J; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Levine, Michael S

    2015-10-16

    Transcriptional enhancers direct precise on-off patterns of gene expression during development. To explore the basis for this precision, we conducted a high-throughput analysis of the Otx-a enhancer, which mediates expression in the neural plate of Ciona embryos in response to fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and a localized GATA determinant. We provide evidence that enhancer specificity depends on submaximal recognition motifs having reduced binding affinities ("suboptimization"). Native GATA and ETS (FGF) binding sites contain imperfect matches to consensus motifs. Perfect matches mediate robust but ectopic patterns of gene expression. The native sites are not arranged at optimal intervals, and subtle changes in their spacing alter enhancer activity. Multiple tiers of enhancer suboptimization produce specific, but weak, patterns of expression, and we suggest that clusters of weak enhancers, including certain "superenhancers," circumvent this trade-off in specificity and activity. PMID:26472909

  4. Knowledge-Based Interpretation Of Scanned Business Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreich, Joachim; Luhn, Achim; Maderlechner, Gerd

    1989-07-01

    Office Automation by electronic text processing has not reduced the amount of paper used for communication and storage. The present boom of FAX-Systems proves this tendency. With this growing degree of office automation the paper-computer interface becomes increasingly important. To be useful, this interface must be able to handle documents containing text as well as graphics, and convert them into an electronic representation that not only captures content (like in current OCR readers), but also the layout and logic structure. We describe a system for the analysis of business letters which is able to extract the key elements of a letter like its sender, the date, etc. The letter can thus for instance be stored in electronic archival systems, edited by structure editors, or forwarded via electronic mail services. This system was implemented on a Symbolics Lisp machine for the high level part of the analysis and on a VAX for the low and medium level processing stages. Some practical results are presented and discussed. Apart from this application our system is a useful testbed to implement and test sophisticated control structures and model representations for image understanding.

  5. Suboptimal choice behavior by pigeons.

    PubMed

    Stagner, Jessica P; Zentall, Thomas R

    2010-06-01

    Contrary to the law of effect and optimal foraging theory, pigeons show suboptimal choice behavior by choosing an alternative that provides 20% reinforcement over another that provides 50% reinforcement. They choose the 20% reinforcement alternative--in which 20% of the time, that choice results in a stimulus that always predicts reinforcement, and 80% of the time, it results in another stimulus that predicts its absence--rather than the 50% reinforcement alternative, which results in one of two stimuli, each of which predicts reinforcement 50% of the time. This choice behavior may be related to suboptimal human monetary gambling behavior, because in both cases, the organism overemphasizes the infrequent occurrence of the winning event and underemphasizes the more frequent occurrence of the losing event.

  6. Job-Related Stress among Business- and Professional-Writing Faculty Members: Findings and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceccio, Joseph F.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the nature and extent of job-related stress among collegiate business- and professional-writing faculty. Finds that job-related stress is associated with faculty members' rank, type of institution, and sex. (KEH)

  7. A shooting approach to suboptimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, David G.; Sheen, Jyh-Jong

    1991-01-01

    The shooting method is used to solve the suboptimal control problem where the control history is assumed to be piecewise linear. Suboptimal solutions can be obtained without difficulty and can lead to accurate approximate controls and good starting multipliers for the regular shooting method by increasing the number of nodes. Optimal planar launch trajectories are presented for the advanced launch system.

  8. Interpreted consultations as 'business as usual'? An analysis of organisational routines in general practices.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Voisey, Christopher; Robb, Nadia

    2007-09-01

    UK general practices operate in an environment of high linguistic diversity, because of recent large-scale immigration and of the NHS's commitment to provide a professional interpreter to any patient if needed. Much activity in general practice is co-ordinated and patterned into organisational routines (defined as repeated patterns of interdependent actions, involving multiple actors, bound by rules and customs) that tend to be stable and to persist. If we want to understand how general practices are responding to pressures to develop new routines, such as interpreted consultations, we need to understand how existing organisational routines change. This will then help us to address a second question, which is how the interpreted consultation itself is being enacted and changing as it becomes routinised (or not) in everyday general practice. In seeking answers to these two questions, we undertook a qualitative study of narratives of interpreted primary care consultations in three London boroughs with large minority ethnic populations. In 69 individual interviews and two focus groups, we sought accounts of interpreted consultations from service users, professional interpreters, family member interpreters, general practitioners, practice nurses, receptionists, and practice managers. We asked participants to tell us both positive and negative stories of their experiences. We analysed these data by searching for instances of concepts relating to the organisational routine, the meaning of the interpreted consultation to the practice, and the sociology of medical work. Our findings identified a number of general properties of the interpreted consultation as an organisational routine, including the wide variation in the form of adoption, the stability of the routine, the adaptability of the routine, and the strength of the routine. Our second key finding was that this variation could be partly explained by characteristics of the practice as an organisation, especially

  9. Small Business Management. Instructor's Manual on Interpretation of Small Business Analysis Data. Entrepreneurship Education for Adults--Program Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    Tables and significant figures found in a small business analysis report are explained to provide instructors with suggestions on how these items can be used by students to improve the management of small businesses. Contents of the manual are organized into two parts. Part I, The Analysis Report, contains the following chapters: (A) Business…

  10. Design of suboptimal regulators for nonlinear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaram, J.; Saridis, G. N.

    1985-01-01

    An optimal feedback control law is preferred for the regulation of a deterministic nonlinear system. In this paper, a practical, iterative design method leading to a sequence of suboptimal control laws with successively improved performance is presented. The design method requires the determination of an upper bound to the performance of each successive control law. This is obtained by solving a partial differential inequality by means of a linear programming technique. Robustness properties and the application of the design method to the control of a robot manipulator arm are also presented.

  11. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive

  12. Suboptimal Exposure to Facial Expressions When Viewing Video Messages From a Small Screen: Effects on Emotion, Attention, and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravaja, Niklas; Kallinen, Kari; Saari, Timo; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of suboptimally presented facial expressions on emotional and attentional responses and memory among 39 young adults viewing video (business news) messages from a small screen. Facial electromyography (EMG) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia were used as physiological measures of emotion and attention, respectively.…

  13. Using Typologies to Interpret Study Abroad Preferences of American Business Students: Applying a Tourism Framework to International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Peter W.; Marshall, Bryan; Poddar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe research that applies a tourist framework to study abroad attitudes and preferences. A total of 371 university business students in the Southern region of the United States completed a survey that included the International Tourist Role scale and study abroad attitudes and preferences. These students were grouped into one of 4…

  14. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering

    PubMed Central

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  15. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  16. Sub-Optimal Allocation of Time in Sequential Movements

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shih-Wei; Dal Martello, Maria F.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2009-01-01

    The allocation of limited resources such as time or energy is a core problem that organisms face when planning complex actions. Most previous research concerning planning of movement has focused on the planning of single, isolated movements. Here we investigated the allocation of time in a pointing task where human subjects attempted to touch two targets in a specified order to earn monetary rewards. Subjects were required to complete both movements within a limited time but could freely allocate the available time between the movements. The time constraint presents an allocation problem to the subjects: the more time spent on one movement, the less time is available for the other. In different conditions we assigned different rewards to the two tokens. How the subject allocated time between movements affected their expected gain on each trial. We also varied the angle between the first and second movements and the length of the second movement. Based on our results, we developed and tested a model of speed-accuracy tradeoff for sequential movements. Using this model we could predict the time allocation that would maximize the expected gain of each subject in each experimental condition. We compared human performance with predicted optimal performance. We found that all subjects allocated time sub-optimally, spending more time than they should on the first movement even when the reward of the second target was five times larger than the first. We conclude that the movement planning system fails to maximize expected reward in planning sequences of as few as two movements and discuss possible interpretations drawn from economic theory. PMID:20011047

  17. On the Origins of Suboptimality in Human Probabilistic Inference

    PubMed Central

    Acerbi, Luigi; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Humans have been shown to combine noisy sensory information with previous experience (priors), in qualitative and sometimes quantitative agreement with the statistically-optimal predictions of Bayesian integration. However, when the prior distribution becomes more complex than a simple Gaussian, such as skewed or bimodal, training takes much longer and performance appears suboptimal. It is unclear whether such suboptimality arises from an imprecise internal representation of the complex prior, or from additional constraints in performing probabilistic computations on complex distributions, even when accurately represented. Here we probe the sources of suboptimality in probabilistic inference using a novel estimation task in which subjects are exposed to an explicitly provided distribution, thereby removing the need to remember the prior. Subjects had to estimate the location of a target given a noisy cue and a visual representation of the prior probability density over locations, which changed on each trial. Different classes of priors were examined (Gaussian, unimodal, bimodal). Subjects' performance was in qualitative agreement with the predictions of Bayesian Decision Theory although generally suboptimal. The degree of suboptimality was modulated by statistical features of the priors but was largely independent of the class of the prior and level of noise in the cue, suggesting that suboptimality in dealing with complex statistical features, such as bimodality, may be due to a problem of acquiring the priors rather than computing with them. We performed a factorial model comparison across a large set of Bayesian observer models to identify additional sources of noise and suboptimality. Our analysis rejects several models of stochastic behavior, including probability matching and sample-averaging strategies. Instead we show that subjects' response variability was mainly driven by a combination of a noisy estimation of the parameters of the priors, and by

  18. Suboptimal Choice by Pigeons: An Analog of Human Gambling Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zentall, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Human gambling often involves the choice of a low probability but high valued outcome over a high probability (certain) low valued outcome (not gambling) that is economically more optimal. We have developed an analog of gambling in which pigeons prefer a suboptimal alternative that infrequently provides a signal for a high probability (or high magnitude) of reinforcement over an optimal alternative that always provides a signal for a lower probability (or lower magnitude) of reinforcement. We have identified two mechanisms that may be responsible for this suboptimal behavior. First, the effect of nonreinforcement results in considerably less inhibition of choice than ideally it should. Second, the frequency of the occurrence of the signal for a high probability or high magnitude of reinforcement is less important than ideally it should. Also analogous to human gambling is the finding that pigeons that are normally food restricted choose suboptimally, whereas those that are minimally food restricted choose optimally. In addition, pigeons that are singly housed choose suboptimally, whereas those that are exposed to a more enriched environment choose less suboptimally. We believe that these findings have implications for the understanding and treatment of problem gambling behavior. PMID:24291801

  19. Modelling mould growth under suboptimal environmental conditions and inoculum size.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Daiana; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

    2010-10-01

    Predictive models can be a tool to develop strategies to prevent mould development and consequently mycotoxin production. The aims of this work were to assess the impact of a) high/low levels of inoculum and b) optimal/suboptimal environmental conditions on fungal responses based on both kinetic and probabilistic models. Different levels of spore suspensions of Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium expansum were prepared and inoculated centrally with a needlepoint load on malt extract agar (MEA) with 50 replicates. While optimum conditions led to a colony diameter increase which followed Baranyi's function, suboptimal conditions led to different grow functions. In general, growth rate (mu) and lag phase (lambda) were normally distributed. Specifically, the growth rate (mu) showed similar distributions under optimal growth conditions, regardless of the inoculum level, while suboptimal a(w) and temperature conditions led to higher kurtosis distributions, mainly when the inoculum levels were low. Regarding lambda, more skewed distributions were observed, mainly when the inoculum levels were low. Probability models were not much affected by the inoculum size. Lower probabilities of growth were in general predicted under marginal conditions at a given time for both strains. The slopes of the probability curves were smaller under suboptimal growth conditions due to wider distributions. Results showed that a low inoculum level and suboptimal conditions lead to high variability of the estimated growth parameters and growth probability.

  20. Rough-Wall Channel Analysis Using Suboptimal Control Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, O.; Jimenez, J.; Tenpleton, J.

    2003-01-01

    The original aim of this work was to shed some light on the physics of turbulence over rough walls using large-eddy simulations and the suboptimal-control wall boundary conditions introduced by Nicoud et al. It was hoped that, if that algorithm was used to fit the mean velocity profile of the simulations to that of a rough-walled channel, instead of to a smooth one, the wall stresses introduced by the control algorithm would give some indication of what aspects of rough walls are most responsible for the modification of the flow in real turbulence. It was similarly expected that the structure of the resulting velocity fluctuations would share some of the characteristics of rough-walled flows, thus again suggesting what is intrinsic and what is accidental in the effect of geometric wall roughness. A secondary goal was to study the effect of 'unphysical' boundary conditions on the outside flow by observing how a relatively major change of the target velocity profile, and therefore presumably of the applied wall stresses, modifies properties such as the dominant length scales of the velocity fluctuations away from the wall. As will be seen below, this secondary goal grew more important during the course of the study, which was carried out during a short summer visit of the first two authors to the CTR. It became clear that there are open questions about the way in which the control algorithm models the boundary conditions, even for smooth walls, and that these questions make the physical interpretation of the results difficult. Considerable more work in that area seems to be needed before even relatively advanced large-eddy simulations, such as these, can be used to draw conclusions about the physics of wall-bounded turbulent flows. The numerical method is the same as in Nicoud et al. The modifications introduced in the original code are briefly described in section 2, but the original paper should be consulted for a full description of the algorithm. The results are

  1. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  2. Interpreting Standardized Assessment Test Scores and Setting Performance Goals in the Context of Student Characteristics: The Case of the Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka; Brown, F. William; Semenik, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Major Field Test in Business (MFT-B), a standardized assessment test of business knowledge among undergraduate business seniors, is widely used to measure student achievement. The Educational Testing Service, publisher of the assessment, provides data that allow institutions to compare their own MFT-B performance to national norms, but that…

  3. Suboptimal exposure to facial expressions when viewing video messages from a small screen: effects on emotion, attention, and memory.

    PubMed

    Ravaja, Niklas; Kallinen, Kari; Saari, Timo; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2004-06-01

    The authors examined the effects of suboptimally presented facial expressions on emotional and attentional responses and memory among 39 young adults viewing video (business news) messages from a small screen. Facial electromyography (EMG) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia were used as physiological measures of emotion and attention, respectively. Several congruency priming effects were found. In particular, happy facial primes prompted increased (a) pleasure ratings, (b) orbicularis oculi EMG activity, (c) perceived trustworthiness, and (d) recognition memory for video messages with a positive emotional tone. Emotional and other responses to video messages presented on a small screen can be modified with suboptimal affective primes, but even small differences in the emotional tone of the messages should be allowed for.

  4. Hungry pigeons make suboptimal choices, less hungry pigeons do not.

    PubMed

    Laude, Jennifer R; Pattison, Kristina F; Zentall, Thomas R

    2012-10-01

    Hungry animals will often choose suboptimally by being attracted to reliable signals for food that occur infrequently (they gamble) over less reliable signals for food that occur more often. That is, pigeons prefer an option that 50 % of the time provides them with a reliable signal for the appearance of food but 50 % of the time provides them with a reliable signal for the absence of food (overall 50 % reinforcement) over an alternative that always provides them with a signal for the appearance of food 75 % of the time (overall 75 % reinforcement). The pigeons appear to choose impulsively for the possibility of obtaining the reliable signal for reinforcement. There is evidence that greater hunger is associated with greater impulsivity. We tested the hypothesis that if the pigeons were less hungry, they would be less impulsive and, thus, would choose more optimally (i.e., on the basis of the overall probability of reinforcement). We found that hungry pigeons choose the 50 % reinforcement alternative suboptimally but less hungry pigeons prefer the more optimal 75 % reinforcement. Paradoxically, pigeons that needed the food more received less of it. These findings have implications for how level of motivation may also affect human suboptimal choice (e.g., purchase of lottery tickets and playing slot machines).

  5. Supervisory sampling and control: Sources of suboptimality in a prediction task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, T. B.; Rouse, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    A process supervisor is defined as a person who decides when to sample the process input and what values of a control variable to specify in order to maximize (minimize) a given value function of input sampling period, control setting, and process state. Presented experimental data in such a process where the value function is a time-averaged sampling cost plus mean squared difference between input and control variable. The task was unpaced prediction of the output of a second order filter driven by white noise. Experimental results, when compared to the optical strategy, reveal several consistently suboptimal behaviors. One is a tendency not to choose a long prediction interval even though the optimal strategy dictates that one should. Some results are also interpreted in terms of those input parameters according to which each subjects' behavior would have been nearest optimal. Differences of those parameters from actual input parameters served to quantify how subjects' prediction behavior differed from optimal.

  6. Suboptimal Choice in Pigeons: Stimulus Value Predicts Choice over Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron P; Bailey, Alexandria R; Chow, Jonathan J; Beckmann, Joshua S; Zentall, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons have shown suboptimal gambling-like behavior when preferring a stimulus that infrequently signals reliable reinforcement over alternatives that provide greater reinforcement overall. As a mechanism for this behavior, recent research proposed that the stimulus value of alternatives with more reliable signals for reinforcement will be preferred relatively independently of their frequencies. The present study tested this hypothesis using a simplified design of a Discriminative alternative that, 50% of the time, led to either a signal for 100% reinforcement or a blackout period indicative of 0% reinforcement against a Nondiscriminative alternative that always led to a signal that predicted 50% reinforcement. Pigeons showed a strong preference for the Discriminative alternative that remained despite reducing the frequency of the signal for reinforcement in subsequent phases to 25% and then 12.5%. In Experiment 2, using the original design of Experiment 1, the stimulus following choice of the Nondiscriminative alternative was increased to 75% and then to 100%. Results showed that preference for the Discriminative alternative decreased only when the signals for reinforcement for the two alternatives predicted the same probability of reinforcement. The ability of several models to predict this behavior are discussed, but the terminal link stimulus value offers the most parsimonious account of this suboptimal behavior. PMID:27441394

  7. Optimal inference with suboptimal models: Addiction and active Bayesian inference

    PubMed Central

    Schwartenbeck, Philipp; FitzGerald, Thomas H.B.; Mathys, Christoph; Dolan, Ray; Wurst, Friedrich; Kronbichler, Martin; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    When casting behaviour as active (Bayesian) inference, optimal inference is defined with respect to an agent’s beliefs – based on its generative model of the world. This contrasts with normative accounts of choice behaviour, in which optimal actions are considered in relation to the true structure of the environment – as opposed to the agent’s beliefs about worldly states (or the task). This distinction shifts an understanding of suboptimal or pathological behaviour away from aberrant inference as such, to understanding the prior beliefs of a subject that cause them to behave less ‘optimally’ than our prior beliefs suggest they should behave. Put simply, suboptimal or pathological behaviour does not speak against understanding behaviour in terms of (Bayes optimal) inference, but rather calls for a more refined understanding of the subject’s generative model upon which their (optimal) Bayesian inference is based. Here, we discuss this fundamental distinction and its implications for understanding optimality, bounded rationality and pathological (choice) behaviour. We illustrate our argument using addictive choice behaviour in a recently described ‘limited offer’ task. Our simulations of pathological choices and addictive behaviour also generate some clear hypotheses, which we hope to pursue in ongoing empirical work. PMID:25561321

  8. Suboptimal Choice in Pigeons: Stimulus Value Predicts Choice over Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Alexandria R.; Chow, Jonathan J.; Beckmann, Joshua S.; Zentall, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Pigeons have shown suboptimal gambling-like behavior when preferring a stimulus that infrequently signals reliable reinforcement over alternatives that provide greater reinforcement overall. As a mechanism for this behavior, recent research proposed that the stimulus value of alternatives with more reliable signals for reinforcement will be preferred relatively independently of their frequencies. The present study tested this hypothesis using a simplified design of a Discriminative alternative that, 50% of the time, led to either a signal for 100% reinforcement or a blackout period indicative of 0% reinforcement against a Nondiscriminative alternative that always led to a signal that predicted 50% reinforcement. Pigeons showed a strong preference for the Discriminative alternative that remained despite reducing the frequency of the signal for reinforcement in subsequent phases to 25% and then 12.5%. In Experiment 2, using the original design of Experiment 1, the stimulus following choice of the Nondiscriminative alternative was increased to 75% and then to 100%. Results showed that preference for the Discriminative alternative decreased only when the signals for reinforcement for the two alternatives predicted the same probability of reinforcement. The ability of several models to predict this behavior are discussed, but the terminal link stimulus value offers the most parsimonious account of this suboptimal behavior. PMID:27441394

  9. Feature-preserving surface mesh smoothing via suboptimal Delaunay triangulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhanheng; Yu, Zeyun; Holst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A method of triangular surface mesh smoothing is presented to improve angle quality by extending the original optimal Delaunay triangulation (ODT) to surface meshes. The mesh quality is improved by solving a quadratic optimization problem that minimizes the approximated interpolation error between a parabolic function and its piecewise linear interpolation defined on the mesh. A suboptimal problem is derived to guarantee a unique, analytic solution that is significantly faster with little loss in accuracy as compared to the optimal one. In addition to the quality-improving capability, the proposed method has been adapted to remove noise while faithfully preserving sharp features such as edges and corners of a mesh. Numerous experiments are included to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  10. Very fast, highly reliable, suboptimal Kalman filter with internal reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, V.

    1980-06-01

    The equations of the suboptimal, recursive Kalman-Bucy filter algorithm were analyzed for a process with linear, stationary equations of evolution and observation. A breadboard model of the recursive filter system was built, using analog circuits in order to reduce the period between observations (from 0.5 msec to 15 microsec), although incurring a slight reduction in calculation precision (2 %). Active triplex redundancy was also built in. Analog circuit diagrams for each of the filters, and for three possible architectures (series, parallel, series-parallel), are given. Diagrams of the detection and breakdown localization circuitry that commands the reconfiguration are shown. Failure mode effect analysis allows for calculation of predicted reliability. Experimentally measured performance of the analog calculation circuits is assessed.

  11. Weak value amplification is suboptimal for estimation and detection.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Christopher; Combes, Joshua

    2014-01-31

    We show by using statistically rigorous arguments that the technique of weak value amplification does not perform better than standard statistical techniques for the tasks of single parameter estimation and signal detection. Specifically, we prove that postselection, a necessary ingredient for weak value amplification, decreases estimation accuracy and, moreover, arranging for anomalously large weak values is a suboptimal strategy. In doing so, we explicitly provide the optimal estimator, which in turn allows us to identify the optimal experimental arrangement to be the one in which all outcomes have equal weak values (all as small as possible) and the initial state of the meter is the maximal eigenvalue of the square of the system observable. Finally, we give precise quantitative conditions for when weak measurement (measurements without postselection or anomalously large weak values) can mitigate the effect of uncharacterized technical noise in estimation.

  12. Moments of solutions of evolution equations and suboptimal programmed controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrychev, D. A.

    2007-08-01

    Moments of solutions of non-linear differential equations subjected to random perturbations satisfy infinite systems of equations that do not contain finite closed subsystems. One of the methods for approximate solution of such infinite systems consists in replacing them by finite systems obtained from the original one as a result of equating to zero all the moments of sufficiently high order. It is shown that the moments of solutions of a wide class of ordinary differential equations, as well as of certain classes of partial differential equations, are approximated by solutions of those finite systems. The results obtained are used for constructing suboptimal programmed controls of dynamical systems with random parameters. Bibliography: 10 titles.

  13. Treatment of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae: suboptimal efficacy of polymyxins.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M S; de Assis, D B; Freire, M P; Boas do Prado, G V; Machado, A S; Abdala, E; Pierrotti, L C; Mangini, C; Campos, L; Caiaffa Filho, H H; Levin, A S

    2015-02-01

    Treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae infections (KPC-EI) remains a challenge. Combined therapy has been proposed as the best choice, but there are no clear data showing which combination therapy is superior. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial regimens for treating KPC-EI. This was a retrospective cohort study of KPC-EI nosocomial infections (based on CDC criteria) between October 2009 and June 2013 at three tertiary Brazilian hospitals. The primary outcomes were the 30-day mortality for all infections and the 30-day mortality for patients with bacteraemia. Risk factors for mortality were evaluated by comparing clinical variables of survivors and nonsurvivors. In this study, 118 patients were included, of whom 78 had bacteraemia. Catheter-related bloodstream infections were the most frequent (43%), followed by urinary tract infections (n = 27, 23%). Monotherapy was used in 57 patients and combined treatment in 61 patients. The most common therapeutic combination was polymyxin plus carbapenem 20 (33%). Multivariate analysis for all infections (n = 118) and for bacteremic infections (n = 78) revealed that renal failure at the end of treatment, use of polymyxin and older age were prognostic factors for mortality. In conclusion, polymyxins showed suboptimal efficacy and combination therapy was not superior to monotherapy. PMID:25599940

  14. Adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode control for microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incremona, Gian Paolo; Cucuzzella, Michele; Ferrara, Antonella

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the design of adaptive suboptimal second-order sliding mode (ASSOSM) control laws for grid-connected microgrids. Due to the presence of the inverter, of unpredicted load changes, of switching among different renewable energy sources, and of electrical parameters variations, the microgrid model is usually affected by uncertain terms which are bounded, but with unknown upper bounds. To theoretically frame the control problem, the class of second-order systems in Brunovsky canonical form, characterised by the presence of matched uncertain terms with unknown bounds, is first considered. Four adaptive strategies are designed, analysed and compared to select the most effective ones to be applied to the microgrid case study. In the first two strategies, the control amplitude is continuously adjusted, so as to arrive at dominating the effect of the uncertainty on the controlled system. When a suitable control amplitude is attained, the origin of the state space of the auxiliary system becomes attractive. In the other two strategies, a suitable blend between two components, one mainly working during the reaching phase, the other being the predominant one in a vicinity of the sliding manifold, is generated, so as to reduce the control amplitude in steady state. The microgrid system in a grid-connected operation mode, controlled via the selected ASSOSM control strategies, exhibits appreciable stability properties, as proved theoretically and shown in simulation.

  15. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rising, Russell; Lifshitz, Fima

    2006-01-01

    Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN). In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight) and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g). The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g). Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g) as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g). Body fat (g) decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3), 70% (15.3 ± 3.5) and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7) of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7). EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p < 0.05, respectively), PA(3.1 ± 0.8 and 1.6 ± 0.4 vs. 4.1 ± 0.9 and 2.4 ± 0.4; p < 0.05) and RQ (0.87 ± 0.04 and 0.85 ± 0.5; vs. 0.95 ± 0.03 and 0.91 ± 0.05 p < 0.05). In contrast, both light (7.1 ± 1.4) and dark period (6.2 ± 1.0) EE and PA (3.4 ± 0.9 and 2.5 ± 0.5 respectively) were reduced in rats fed 60% of ad-libitum energy intake. Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE

  16. Suboptimal use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

    PubMed Central

    Başaran, Özcan; Dogan, Volkan; Beton, Osman; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Aykan, Ahmet Cağri; Kalaycioğlu, Ezgi; Bolat, Ismail; Taşar, Onur; Şafak, Özgen; Kalcik, Macit; Yaman, Mehmet; İnci, Sinan; Altintaş, Bernas; Kalkan, Sedat; Kirma, Cevat; Biteker, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the potential misuse of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and the physicians’ adherence to current European guideline recommendations in real-world using a large dataset from Real-life Multicenter Survey Evaluating Stroke Prevention Strategies in Turkey (RAMSES Study). RAMSES study is a prospective, multicenter, nationwide registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02344901). In this subgroup analysis of RAMSES study, patients who were on NOACs were classified as appropriately treated (AT), undertreated (UT), and overtreated (OT) according to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. The independent predictors of UT and OT were determined by multivariate logistic regression. Of the 2086 eligible patients, 1247 (59.8%) received adequate treatment. However, off-label use was detected in 839 (40.2%) patients; 634 (30.4%) patients received UT and 205 (9.8%) received OT. Independent predictors of UT included >65 years of age, creatinine clearance ≥50 mL/min, urban living, existing dabigatran treatment, and HAS-BLED score of <3, whereas that of OT were creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, ongoing rivaroxaban treatment, and HAS-BLED score of ≥3. The suboptimal use of NOACs is common because of physicians’ poor compliance to the guideline recommendations in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Older patients who were on dabigatran treatment with good renal functions and low risk of bleeding were at risk of UT, whereas patients who were on rivaroxaban treatment with renal impairment and high risk of bleeding were at risk of OT. Therefore, a greater emphasis should be given to prescribe the recommended dose for the specified patients. PMID:27583892

  17. Delivered dialysis dose is suboptimal in hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Obialo, C I; Hernandez, B; Carter, D

    1998-01-01

    Underdialyzed patients have high hospitalization and mortality rates. It is unclear if such patients receive adequate dialysis during hospitalization. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated single treatment delivered dialysis dose during hospitalization and compared this to the dosage received at the free-standing outpatient clinics in the same patients. Eighty-four patients (54% male) aged 23-63 years (means +/- SD 55.5 +/- 14.6) who have been on dialysis for at least 3 months were evaluated. Hypertension and diabetes were the most common diagnoses, while thrombosed graft or fistula accounted for 40% of admissions. The mean dialysis treatment time (Td) was 30 min longer in the outpatient (OP) setting than the hospital (H): 3.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.2 h (p < 0.0001). Attained blood flow (QB) was 15% greater in the OP than H: 394 +/- 40 vs. 331 +/- 54 ml/min (p < 0.0001). The Kt/V was analyzed in 49 of 84 patients; the OP Kt/V was 20% greater than the H Kt/V: 1.38 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.11 +/- 0.1 (p < 0.0001). A further breakdown of H Kt/V according to access and membrane types showed that patients with functional grafts/fistula had a higher Kt/V than those with temporary accesses 1.14 +/- 0.1 vs. 1.07 +/- 0.1 (p = 0.01). We conclude that hospitalized patients receive suboptimal dialysis dose, this could have a negative impact on survival if hospitalization is recurrent and prolonged. Kinetic modeling should be routinely performed in such patients and Td should be increased in patients with temporary accesses. PMID:9845829

  18. Suboptimal breastfeeding practices are associated with infant illness in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite evidence supporting the importance of breastfeeding to child health, breastfeeding practices remain suboptimal in Vietnam. There is currently little evidence on the importance of breastfeeding in the prevention of morbidity during infancy in Vietnam. In order to provide country specific data for policy makers to support breastfeeding friendly policies and programs, analysis was undertaken on a cross-sectional dataset to investigate the association between breastfeeding practices and prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infection (ARI) among infants aged 0–5 months. Methods Data on socio-demographic characteristics, infant feeding practices and prevalence of diarrhea and ARI were obtained from 6,068 mother-child dyads in 11 provinces of Vietnam in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations between breastfeeding practices and child illnesses. Results On average, the prevalence of diarrhea and ARI among infants 0–5 months was 5.3% and 24.5%, respectively. Though half of all infants were breastfed within one hour of birth, 73.3% were given prelacteal foods in the first three days after birth. Only 20.2% of children 0–5 months old were exclusively breastfed, while 32.4% were predominantly breastfed and 47.4% partially breastfed. After adjusting for confounders, early initiation of breastfeeding was associated with lower prevalence of diarrhea [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.74 (95% CI 0.58, 0.93)], while prelacteal feeding was associated with higher prevalence [AOR = 1.53 (95% CI 1.15, 2.03)]. Compared to infants who were exclusively breastfed, infants who were predominantly [AOR = 1.52 (95% CI 1.05, 2.21)] or partially breastfed [AOR = 1.55 (95% CI 1.07, 2.24)] were more likely to have diarrhea. Prelacteal feeding [AOR = 1.16 (95% CI 1.01, 1.33)] and partial breastfeeding [AOR relative to exclusive breastfeeding = 1.24 (95% CI 1.03, 1.48)] were associated with higher prevalence of

  19. Suboptimal stochastic controller for an n-body spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V.

    1973-01-01

    The problem is studied of determining a stochastic optimal controller for an n-body spacecraft. The approach used in obtaining the stochastic controller involves the application, interpretation, and combination of advanced dynamical principles and the theoretical aspects of modern control theory. The stochastic controller obtained for a complicated model of a spacecraft uses sensor angular measurements associated with the base body to obtain smoothed estimates of the entire state vector, can be easily implemented, and enables system performance to be significantly improved.

  20. Suboptimal response in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib: early identification and new therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2012-12-01

    In 2006 European LeukemiaNet proposed recommendations to define several categories of chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated front-line with imatinib. In 2009 an update of these recommendations was published: whereas it is clear how important is to switch rapidly to a second line of treatment in failure patients, the correct treatment of patients with sub-optimal response is still a matter of debate. Several groups have indeed shown that prognosis of patients with sub-optimal cytogenetic response is similar to that of failure patients, whereas lack of data exists for patients with sub-optimal molecular response at 18 months. In this article, we overview studies demonstrating prognostic implications of being suboptimal responders to imatinib as well as results of recent clinical trials testing new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors in this setting.

  1. A suboptimal stochastic controller for an N-body spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, V.

    1973-01-01

    Considerable attention, in the open literature, is being focused on the problem of developing a suitable set of deterministic dynamical equations for a complex spacecraft. This paper considers the problem of determining a stochastic optimal controller for an n-body spacecraft. The approach used in obtaining the stochastic controller involves the application, interpretation, and combination of advanced dynamical principles and the theoretical aspects of modern control theory. The stochastic controller obtained herein for a complicated model of a spacecraft uses sensor angular measurements associated with the base body to obtain smoothed estimates of the entire state vector. It can be easily implemented, and it enables system performance to be significantly improved.

  2. Effect of Using Suboptimal Alignments in Template-Based Protein Structure Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hao; Kihara, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Computational protein structure prediction remains a challenging task in protein bioinformatics. In the recent years, the importance of template-based structure prediction is increasing due to the growing number of protein structures solved by the structural genomics projects. To capitalize the significant efforts and investments paid on the structural genomics projects, it is urgent to establish effective ways to use the solved structures as templates by developing methods for exploiting remotely related proteins that cannot be simply identified by homology. In this work, we examine the effect of employing suboptimal alignments in template-based protein structure prediction. We showed that suboptimal alignments are often more accurate than the optimal one, and such accurate suboptimal alignments can occur even at a very low rank of the alignment score. Suboptimal alignments contain a significant number of correct amino acid residue contacts. Moreover, suboptimal alignments can improve template-based models when used as input to Modeller. Finally, we employ suboptimal alignments for handling a contact potential in a probabilistic way in a threading program, SUPRB. The probabilistic contacts strategy outperforms the partly thawed approach which only uses the optimal alignment in defining residue contacts and also the reranking strategy, which uses the contact potential in reranking alignments. The comparison with existing methods in the template-recognition test shows that SUPRB is very competitive and outperform existing methods. PMID:21058297

  3. The Coming of Knowledge-Based Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stan; Botkin, Jim

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth will come from knowledge-based businesses whose "smart" products filter and interpret information. Businesses will come to think of themselves as educators and their customers as learners. (SK)

  4. Qualitative Case Study Research in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Bridget N.

    2002-01-01

    This guide to using qualitative case study research in business education explains methodological steps and decisions, illustrated with examples from business research. It addresses data analysis and interpretation, including discussion of software tools. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

  5. Predictors of suboptimal bowel preparation in asymptomatic patients undergoing average-risk screening colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Govani, Shail M; Elliott, Eric E; Menees, Stacy B; Judd, Stephanie L; Saini, Sameer D; Anastassiades, Constantinos P; Urganus, Annette L; Boyce, Suzanna J; Schoenfeld, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify risk factors for a suboptimal preparation among a population undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy. METHODS Retrospective review of the University of Michigan and Veteran’s Administration (VA) Hospital records from 2009 to identify patients age 50 and older who underwent screening or surveillance procedure and had resection of polyps less than 1 cm in size and no more than 2 polyps. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease or a family history of colorectal cancer were excluded. Suboptimal procedures were defined as procedure preparations categorized as fair, poor or inadequate by the endoscopist. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of suboptimal preparation. RESULTS Of 4427 colonoscopies reviewed, 2401 met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of our population, 16% had a suboptimal preparation. African Americans were 70% more likely to have a suboptimal preparation (95%CI: 1.2-2.4). Univariable analysis revealed that narcotic and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) use, diabetes, prep type, site (VA vs non-VA), and presence of a gastroenterology (GI) fellow were associated with suboptimal prep quality. In a multivariable model controlling for gender, age, ethnicity, procedure site and presence of a GI fellow, diabetes [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.6-3.2], TCA use (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.3-4.9), narcotic use (OR = 1.7; 95%CI: 1.2-2.5) and Miralax-Gatorade prep vs 4L polyethylene glycol 3350 (OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.4-0.9) were associated with a suboptimal prep quality. CONCLUSION Diabetes, narcotics use and TCA use were identified as predictors of poor preparation in screening colonoscopies while Miralax-Gatorade preps were associated with better bowel preparation. PMID:27668072

  6. Predictors of suboptimal bowel preparation in asymptomatic patients undergoing average-risk screening colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Govani, Shail M; Elliott, Eric E; Menees, Stacy B; Judd, Stephanie L; Saini, Sameer D; Anastassiades, Constantinos P; Urganus, Annette L; Boyce, Suzanna J; Schoenfeld, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify risk factors for a suboptimal preparation among a population undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy. METHODS Retrospective review of the University of Michigan and Veteran’s Administration (VA) Hospital records from 2009 to identify patients age 50 and older who underwent screening or surveillance procedure and had resection of polyps less than 1 cm in size and no more than 2 polyps. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease or a family history of colorectal cancer were excluded. Suboptimal procedures were defined as procedure preparations categorized as fair, poor or inadequate by the endoscopist. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors of suboptimal preparation. RESULTS Of 4427 colonoscopies reviewed, 2401 met our inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Of our population, 16% had a suboptimal preparation. African Americans were 70% more likely to have a suboptimal preparation (95%CI: 1.2-2.4). Univariable analysis revealed that narcotic and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) use, diabetes, prep type, site (VA vs non-VA), and presence of a gastroenterology (GI) fellow were associated with suboptimal prep quality. In a multivariable model controlling for gender, age, ethnicity, procedure site and presence of a GI fellow, diabetes [odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; 95%CI: 1.6-3.2], TCA use (OR = 2.5; 95%CI: 1.3-4.9), narcotic use (OR = 1.7; 95%CI: 1.2-2.5) and Miralax-Gatorade prep vs 4L polyethylene glycol 3350 (OR = 0.6; 95%CI: 0.4-0.9) were associated with a suboptimal prep quality. CONCLUSION Diabetes, narcotics use and TCA use were identified as predictors of poor preparation in screening colonoscopies while Miralax-Gatorade preps were associated with better bowel preparation.

  7. Suboptimal maternal and paternal mental health are associated with child bullying perpetration.

    PubMed

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-06-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20% were Latino, 15% African American, and 7% other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying.

  8. [Effects of NO3- stress on cucumber seedling growth and magnesium absorbing under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Yang, Quan-yong; Wang, Xiu-feng; Han, Yu-rui; Yang, Jing-jing; Wei, Min; Yang, Feng-juan; Shi, Qing-hua; Li, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The effects of NO3- stress on the growth and the magnesium absorption of cucumber seedlings were investigated after 1 and 14 d of suboptimal temperature [18 °C/12 °C (day/night)] treatment. The results indicated that the growth, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII of cucumber seedlings were significantly inhibited by NO3- stress under suboptimal temperature. The magnesium content of cucumber seedlings was also significantly decreased compared with control treatment, especially in the IV treatment (suboptimal temperature +140 mmol · L(-1) NO3- + 1 mmol · L(-1) Mg2+), and the antagonistic impact of magnesium ion absorption on the absorption of potassium and calcium ion was observed. The magnesium deficiency symptom of cucumber seedlings could be partly alleviated by increasing the concentration of magnesium ion in the nutrient solution.

  9. [Effects of NO3- stress on cucumber seedling growth and magnesium absorbing under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Yang, Quan-yong; Wang, Xiu-feng; Han, Yu-rui; Yang, Jing-jing; Wei, Min; Yang, Feng-juan; Shi, Qing-hua; Li, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The effects of NO3- stress on the growth and the magnesium absorption of cucumber seedlings were investigated after 1 and 14 d of suboptimal temperature [18 °C/12 °C (day/night)] treatment. The results indicated that the growth, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, Fv/Fm and ΦPSII of cucumber seedlings were significantly inhibited by NO3- stress under suboptimal temperature. The magnesium content of cucumber seedlings was also significantly decreased compared with control treatment, especially in the IV treatment (suboptimal temperature +140 mmol · L(-1) NO3- + 1 mmol · L(-1) Mg2+), and the antagonistic impact of magnesium ion absorption on the absorption of potassium and calcium ion was observed. The magnesium deficiency symptom of cucumber seedlings could be partly alleviated by increasing the concentration of magnesium ion in the nutrient solution. PMID:26571650

  10. Not Noisy, Just Wrong: The Role of Suboptimal Inference in Behavioral Variability

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jeffrey M.; Ma, Wei Ji; Pitkow, Xaq; Latham, Peter E.; Pouget, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Behavior varies from trial to trial even when the stimulus is maintained as constant as possible. In many models, this variability is attributed to noise in the brain. Here, we propose that there is another major source of variability: suboptimal inference. Importantly, we argue that in most tasks of interest, and particularly complex ones, suboptimal inference is likely to be the dominant component of behavioral variability. This perspective explains a variety of intriguing observations, including why variability appears to be larger on the sensory than on the motor side, and why our sensors are sometimes surprisingly unreliable. PMID:22500627

  11. Interpretive Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  12. Interpreting Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines some of the problems associated with interpreting metonymy, a figure of speech in which an attribute or commonly associated feature is used to name or designate something. After defining metonymy and outlining the principles of metonymy, the paper explains the differences between metonymy, synecdoche, and metaphor. It is…

  13. Estimating the diagnostic value of the trail making test for suboptimal effort in acquired brain injury rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    Powell, Matthew R; Locke, Dona E C; Smigielski, Jeffrey S; McCrea, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This investigation explored the classification accuracy of Trail Making Test (TMT; Reitan & Wolfson, 1992) indices for suboptimal effort in a sample of non-litigious acquired brain injury patients seeking outpatient rehabilitation. Patients who exhibited optimal effort completed TMT A and B faster than suboptimal effort patients. Although TMT A time to completion demonstrated adequate sensitivity to suboptimal effort, positive predictive value was fair to poor unless the base rate of suboptimal effort was inflated to 40%. TMT B time to completion yielded poor sensitivity and positive predictive value for suboptimal effort. While TMT A time to completion appears to have some value as a validity indicator, no TMT validity indicator should replace more precise symptom validity tests during neuropsychological assessment.

  14. Fishy Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Mike

    1988-01-01

    The IRS argues that income from alumni associations group life and medical insurance policies is business profit, not tax-exempt contributions to its member associations. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) is described. (MLW)

  15. Suboptimal LQR-based spacecraft full motion control: Theory and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnaccia, Leone; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Pastorelli, Stefano P.

    2016-05-01

    This work introduces a real time suboptimal control algorithm for six-degree-of-freedom spacecraft maneuvering based on a State-Dependent-Algebraic-Riccati-Equation (SDARE) approach and real-time linearization of the equations of motion. The control strategy is sub-optimal since the gains of the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) are re-computed at each sample time. The cost function of the proposed controller has been compared with the one obtained via a general purpose optimal control software, showing, on average, an increase in control effort of approximately 15%, compensated by real-time implementability. Lastly, the paper presents experimental tests on a hardware-in-the-loop six-degree-of-freedom spacecraft simulator, designed for testing new guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for nano-satellites in a one-g laboratory environment. The tests show the real-time feasibility of the proposed approach.

  16. Interpretive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  17. E-Business: The Business Officer's Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Contends e-business is particularly the domain of college and university business officers, with today's officers facing an unprecedented opportunity to exercise a critical leadership role in the deployment of advanced information technology solutions on campus. Describes relevant issues and advances, and presents ten initiatives that business…

  18. Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP): An Optimized Algorithm and Tool for Dynamical Network Analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Wart, Adam T; Durrant, Jacob; Votapka, Lane; Amaro, Rommie E

    2014-02-11

    Allostery can occur by way of subtle cooperation among protein residues (e.g., amino acids) even in the absence of large conformational shifts. Dynamical network analysis has been used to model this cooperation, helping to computationally explain how binding to an allosteric site can impact the behavior of a primary site many ångstroms away. Traditionally, computational efforts have focused on the most optimal path of correlated motions leading from the allosteric to the primary active site. We present a program called Weighted Implementation of Suboptimal Paths (WISP) capable of rapidly identifying additional suboptimal pathways that may also play important roles in the transmission of allosteric signals. Aside from providing signal redundancy, suboptimal paths traverse residues that, if disrupted through pharmacological or mutational means, could modulate the allosteric regulation of important drug targets. To demonstrate the utility of our program, we present a case study describing the allostery of HisH-HisF, an amidotransferase from T. maritima thermotiga. WISP and its VMD-based graphical user interface (GUI) can be downloaded from http://nbcr.ucsd.edu/wisp.

  19. Preoperative Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Is a Predictor of Suboptimal Cytoreduction in Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Wankyu; Kim, Hong-Bae; Lee, Yong Joo; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hyung; Kim, Heungyeol

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the preoperative lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) is a predictor of suboptimal cytoreduction in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: Preoperative clinico-pathologic and hematologic parameters were reviewed in a total of 154 patients with EOC submitted to primary cytoreductive surgery. Patients were categorized into two different groups according to the results of cytoreductive surgery: optimal and suboptimal cytoreduction. Continuous variables were categorized into two groups using the best cutoff points selected on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for suboptimal cytoreduction. Results: Based on data collected from the 154 patients, 133 (86.4%) and 21 (13.6%) patients presented with stage III and IV disease, respectively. One hundred seventeen (76.0%) patients had serous adenocarcinoma, and 92 (59.7%) had histologic tumor grade 3. The optimal and suboptimal cytoreduction groups included 96 (62.3%) and 58 patients (37.7%), respectively. The best LMR cutoff point for suboptimal cytoreduction was 3.75. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, age, cancer antigen 125, white blood cell count, and LMR were found to be the strongest predictors for suboptimal cytoreduction (P=0.0037, 0.0249, 0.0062, and 0.0015, respectively). Conclusion: Preoperative LMR is an independent predictor of suboptimal cytoreduction. It provides additional prognostic information beyond the biological parameters of the tumor. PMID:27698915

  20. Preoperative Lymphocyte-Monocyte Ratio Is a Predictor of Suboptimal Cytoreduction in Stage III-IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eo, Wankyu; Kim, Hong-Bae; Lee, Yong Joo; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hyung; Kim, Heungyeol

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the preoperative lymphocyte-monocyte ratio (LMR) is a predictor of suboptimal cytoreduction in advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Methods: Preoperative clinico-pathologic and hematologic parameters were reviewed in a total of 154 patients with EOC submitted to primary cytoreductive surgery. Patients were categorized into two different groups according to the results of cytoreductive surgery: optimal and suboptimal cytoreduction. Continuous variables were categorized into two groups using the best cutoff points selected on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for suboptimal cytoreduction. Results: Based on data collected from the 154 patients, 133 (86.4%) and 21 (13.6%) patients presented with stage III and IV disease, respectively. One hundred seventeen (76.0%) patients had serous adenocarcinoma, and 92 (59.7%) had histologic tumor grade 3. The optimal and suboptimal cytoreduction groups included 96 (62.3%) and 58 patients (37.7%), respectively. The best LMR cutoff point for suboptimal cytoreduction was 3.75. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, age, cancer antigen 125, white blood cell count, and LMR were found to be the strongest predictors for suboptimal cytoreduction (P=0.0037, 0.0249, 0.0062, and 0.0015, respectively). Conclusion: Preoperative LMR is an independent predictor of suboptimal cytoreduction. It provides additional prognostic information beyond the biological parameters of the tumor.

  1. [Effects of chlorophyllin-iron on osmotic adjustment and activities of antioxidantive enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Fan-yang; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cucumber cultivar 'Jinyan 4' was subjected to suboptimal temperature treatment of 18/12 degrees C (day/night) in the growth chambers. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenously spraying 5 mg x L(-1) chlorophyllin-iron solution on plant growth, the content of proline, soluble sugar, MDA and activity of peroxidase in the leaves of cucumber seedling under suboptimal temperature. Application of chlorophyllin-iron showed prominent effects on mitigating the stress of suboptimal temperature on growth of the cucumber seedlings, significantly increasing the plant height, leaf area, shoot dry mass, the contents of soluble sugar and proline and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX. Exogenously spraying chlorophyllin-iron could promote the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, raise the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decrease the membrane lipid peroxidation and improve the adaptability of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature. PMID:25876404

  2. On the design of suboptimal sliding manifold for a class of nonlinear uncertain time-delay systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batmani, Yazdan; Khaloozadeh, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    This paper proposes a new method to design suboptimal sliding manifolds for a class of nonlinear uncertain systems with state and input delays. A switching control law is obtained based on the designed suboptimal sliding manifold. It is proved that the proposed method is able to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop system in the presence of uncertainty. Three numerical simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Suboptimal temperature favors reserve formation in biennial carrot (Daucus carota) plants.

    PubMed

    González, María V; Sadras, Victor O; Equiza, María A; Tognetti, Jorge A

    2009-09-01

    In response to suboptimal temperatures, temperate annual plants often increase root:shoot ratios, build-up carbohydrates and display typical morphological and anatomical changes. We know less about the responses of biennials such as carrot. As a model plant, carrot has the additional feature of two functionally and morphologically distinct root parts: the taproot, which stores carbohydrate and other compounds, and the fibrous root system involved in acquisition of water and nutrients. Here, we analyze the effects of temperature (12 vs 25°C) on growth, carbohydrate accumulation and whole-plant morphology in two carrot cultivars. Our working hypothesis is that suboptimal temperature favors active formation of reserve structures, rather than passive accumulation of storage carbohydrates. In comparison with plants grown at 25°C, plants grown at 12°C had: (1) higher fibrous root:shoot ratio (13%) , (2) thicker (10-15%) and smaller (up to two- to three-fold) leaves, (3) lower leaf cuticular permeance (two- to four-fold), (4) higher taproot:shoot ratio (two-fold), (5) higher phloem:xylem ratios in taproot (two- to six-fold), (6) unchanged percentage dry matter content (%DMC) in leaves, petioles or fibrous roots and (7) higher %DMC in taproot (20%). However, %DMC of individual taproot tissues (phloem and xylem) was unaffected by temperatures and was consistently higher in the phloem (up to 30%). Therefore, the higher %DMC of whole taproots at 12°C was attributed solely to the increased development of phloem tissue. Carrot, therefore, shares many of the most conspicuous elements of temperate plant responses to low temperatures. Consistently with our hypothesis, however, carrots grown at suboptimal temperature promoted reserve structures, rather than the increase in carbohydrate concentration typical of most temperate annual species and woody perennials.

  4. Suboptimal glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: a key role for anhedonia?

    PubMed

    Nefs, G; Pouwer, F; Denollet, J; Kramer, H; Wijnands-van Gent, C J M; Pop, V J M

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies examining the relationship between depression and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes have yielded mixed findings. One explanation may lie in the heterogeneity of depression. Therefore, we examined whether distinct features of depression were differentially associated with suboptimal glycemic control. Cross-sectional baseline data from a dynamic cohort study of primary care patients with type 2 diabetes from the Eindhoven region, The Netherlands, were analyzed. A total of 5772 individuals completed baseline measurements of demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychological factors between 2005 and 2009. The Edinburgh Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of depressed mood, anhedonia and anxiety. Suboptimal glycemic control was defined as HbA(1c) values ≥7%, with 29.8% of the sample (n=1718) scoring above this cut-off. In univariate logistic regression analyses, anhedonia was significantly associated with suboptimal glycemic control (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.09-1.52), while both depressed mood (OR 1.04, 0.88-1.22) and anxiety (OR 0.99, 0.83-1.19) were not. The association between anhedonia and glycemic control remained after adjustment for the other depression measures (OR 1.33, 1.11-1.59). Alcohol consumption and physical activity met criteria for mediation, but did not attenuate the association between anhedonia and glycemic control by more than 5%. Although diabetes duration was identified as a confounder and controlled for, the association was still significant (OR 1.20, 1.01-1.43). Studying different symptoms of depression, in particular anhedonia, may add to a better understanding of the relationship between depression and glycemic control.

  5. When the Learning Environment Is Suboptimal: Exploring Medical Students’ Perceptions of “Mistreatment”

    PubMed Central

    Snell, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite widespread implementation of policies to address mistreatment, high rates of mistreatment during clinical training are reported, prompting the question of whether “mistreatment” means more to students than delineated in official codes of conduct. Understanding “mistreatment” from students’ perspective and as it relates to the learning environment is needed before effective interventions can be implemented. Method The authors conducted focus groups with final-year medical students at McGill University Faculty of Medicine in 2012. Participants were asked to characterize “suboptimal learning experience” and “mistreatment.” Transcripts were analyzed via inductive thematic analysis. Results Forty-one of 174 eligible students participated in six focus groups. Students described “mistreatment” as lack of respect or attack directed toward the person, and “suboptimal learning experience” as that which compromised their learning. Differing perceptions emerged as students debated whether “mistreatment” can be applied to negative learning environments as well as isolated incidents of mistreatment even though some experiences fell outside of the “official” label as per institutional policies. Whether students perceived “mistreatment” versus a “suboptimal learning experience” in negative environments appeared to be influenced by several key factors. A concept map integrating these ideas is presented. Conclusions How students perceived negative situations during training appears to be a complex process. When medical students say “mistreatment,” they may be referring to a spectrum, with incident-based mistreatment on one end and learning-environment-based mistreatment on the other. Multiple factors influenced how students perceived an environment-based negative situation and may provide strategies to improving the learning environment. PMID:24556767

  6. An analysis of suboptimal outcomes of medial malleolus fractures in skeletally immature children.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Scott J; Oda, Jon E; O'Donnell, June; Keeler, Kathryn A; Schoenecker, Perry L; Dobbs, Matthew B; Gordon, J Eric

    2012-03-01

    We retrospectively analyzed cases of intra-articular medial malleolar fractures in skeletally-immature patients (Salter-Harris III and IV) with suboptimal outcomes at St. Louis Children's Hospital and Shriner's Hospital for Children. Common causes of poor outcome were frac­ture malunion or malreduction and physeal damage. Malreductions of only 2 mm does not appear to be toler­ated and the concept of "remodeling" does not apply to these fracture patterns. Based on this study, we "recom­mend" fracture reduction and fixation if there is greater than 1 mm of fracture step-off..

  7. Variability in nucleus accumbens activity mediates age-related suboptimal financial risk taking

    PubMed Central

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Kuhnen, Camelia M.; Yoo, Daniel J.; Knutson, Brian

    2010-01-01

    As human life expectancy continues to rise, financial decisions of aging investors may have an increasing impact on the global economy. In this study, we examined age differences in financial decisions across the adult life span by combining functional neuroimaging with a dynamic financial investment task. During the task, older adults made more suboptimal choices than younger adults when choosing risky assets. This age-related effect was mediated by a neural measure of temporal variability in nucleus accumbens activity. These findings reveal a novel neural mechanism by which aging may disrupt rational financial choice. PMID:20107069

  8. Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?

    PubMed

    Rosanoff, Andrea; Dai, Qi; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2-2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios <1.7 and >2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg <1.7) showed increased risks of CVD. Oral vitamin D is widely recommended in US age-sex groups with low dietary magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study.

  9. Business Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a business writing course. The course presents the fundamentals of effective business letter writing, focusing on logical organization, word choice, style, tone, and clarity. The course uses students' own examples as well as practice exercises for reinforcement.…

  10. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longqiang; Deng, Huihui; Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  11. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  12. Gibberellin Is Involved in Inhibition of Cucumber Growth and Nitrogen Uptake at Suboptimal Root-Zone Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longqiang; Deng, Huihui; Zhang, Xiaocui; Yu, Xianchang; Li, Yansu

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal temperature stress often causes heavy yield losses of vegetables by suppressing plant growth during winter and early spring. Gibberellin acid (GA) has been reported to be involved in plant growth and acquisition of mineral nutrients. However, no studies have evaluated the role of GA in the regulation of growth and nutrient acquisition by vegetables under conditions of suboptimal temperatures in greenhouse. Here, we investigated the roles of GA in the regulation of growth and nitrate acquisition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants under conditions of short-term suboptimal root-zone temperatures (Tr). Exposure of cucumber seedlings to a Tr of 16°C led to a significant reduction in root growth, and this inhibitory effect was reversed by exogenous application of GA. Expression patterns of several genes encoding key enzymes in GA metabolism were altered by suboptimal Tr treatment, and endogenous GA concentrations in cucumber roots were significantly reduced by exposure of cucumber plants to 16°C Tr, suggesting that inhibition of root growth by suboptimal Tr may result from disruption of endogenous GA homeostasis. To further explore the mechanism underlying the GA-dependent cucumber growth under suboptimal Tr, we studied the effect of suboptimal Tr and GA on nitrate uptake, and found that exposure of cucumber seedlings to 16°C Tr led to a significant reduction in nitrate uptake rate, and exogenous application GA can alleviate the down-regulation by up regulating the expression of genes associated with nitrate uptake. Finally, we demonstrated that N accumulation in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal Tr conditions was improved by exogenous application of GA due probably to both enhanced root growth and nitrate absorption activity. These results indicate that a reduction in endogenous GA concentrations in roots due to down-regulation of GA biosynthesis at transcriptional level may be a key event to underpin the suboptimal Tr-induced inhibition of root

  13. Suboptimal inhaler medication adherence and incorrect technique are common among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishna B; Percival, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are routinely prescribed one or more inhaled medications. Adherence to inhaler medications and correct inhaler device technique are crucial to successful COPD management. The goals of this study were to estimate adherence and inhaler technique in a cohort of COPD patients. This was an observational study conducted on a sample of 150 COPD patients. Medication adherence was assessed using the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS). Inhaler technique was assessed using standardized checklists. Clinical data were collected using a proforma. Of the 150 patients (mean age 70.3 years, 52% male), 58% reported suboptimal adherence (MARS ≤ 24). High adherence to therapy (MARS = 25) was associated with older age (p = 0.001), but not any of the other studied variables. Medication non-adherence was not associated with COPD exacerbations. Errors (≥ 1) in inhaler technique were common across all of the types of inhaler devices reportedly used by patients, with the highest proportion of errors among Turbuhaler users (83%) and the least proportion of errors among Handihaler users (50%). No clinical variables were associated with errors in inhaler technique. Suboptimal adherence and errors in inhaler technique are common among COPD patients. No clinical variables to assist in the prediction of medication non-adherence and poor inhaler technique were identifiable. Consequently, regular assessment of medication adherence and inhaler technique should be incorporated into routine clinical practice to facilitate improved health outcomes among patients with COPD. PMID:26396159

  14. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii.

    PubMed

    Suh, Eunho; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Saveer, Ahmed M; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2016-01-01

    Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone) each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females.

  15. Maize grain and soil surveys reveal suboptimal dietary selenium intake is widespread in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Chilimba, Allan D. C.; Young, Scott D.; Black, Colin R.; Rogerson, Katie B.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Lammel, Joachim; Broadley, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element in human diets but the risk of suboptimal intake increases where food choices are narrow. Here we show that suboptimal dietary intake (i.e. 20–30 µg Se person−1 d−1) is widespread in Malawi, based on a spatial integration of Se concentrations of maize (Zea mays L.) grain and soil surveys for 88 field sites, representing 10 primary soil types and >75% of the national land area. The median maize grain Se concentration was 0.019 mg kg−1 (range 0.005–0.533), a mean intake of 6.7 µg Se person−1 d−1 from maize flour based on national consumption patterns. Maize grain Se concentration was up to 10-fold higher in crops grown on soils with naturally high pH (>6.5) (Eutric Vertisols). Under these less acidic conditions, Se becomes considerably more available to plants due to the greater solubility of Se(IV) species and oxidation to Se(VI). PMID:22355591

  16. Identification of Metabolic Engineering Targets through Analysis of Optimal and Sub-Optimal Routes

    PubMed Central

    Soons, Zita I. T. A.; Ferreira, Eugénio C.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of optimal genetic manipulation strategies for redirecting substrate uptake towards a desired product is a challenging task owing to the complexity of metabolic networks, esp. in terms of large number of routes leading to the desired product. Algorithms that can exploit the whole range of optimal and suboptimal routes for product formation while respecting the biological objective of the cell are therefore much needed. Towards addressing this need, we here introduce the notion of structural flux, which is derived from the enumeration of all pathways in the metabolic network in question and accounts for the contribution towards a given biological objective function. We show that the theoretically estimated structural fluxes are good predictors of experimentally measured intra-cellular fluxes in two model organisms, namely, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For a small number of fluxes for which the predictions were poor, the corresponding enzyme-coding transcripts were also found to be distinctly regulated, showing the ability of structural fluxes in capturing the underlying regulatory principles. Exploiting the observed correspondence between in vivo fluxes and structural fluxes, we propose an in silico metabolic engineering approach, iStruF, which enables the identification of gene deletion strategies that couple the cellular biological objective with the product flux while considering optimal as well as sub-optimal routes and their efficiency. PMID:23626708

  17. Suboptimal Larval Habitats Modulate Oviposition of the Malaria Vector Mosquito Anopheles coluzzii

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Eunho; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Saveer, Ahmed M.; Zwiebel, Laurence J.

    2016-01-01

    Selection of oviposition sites by gravid females is a critical behavioral step in the reproductive cycle of Anopheles coluzzii, which is one of the principal Afrotropical malaria vector mosquitoes. Several studies suggest this decision is mediated by semiochemicals associated with potential oviposition sites. To better understand the chemosensory basis of this behavior and identify compounds that can modulate oviposition, we examined the generally held hypothesis that suboptimal larval habitats give rise to semiochemicals that negatively influence the oviposition preference of gravid females. Dual-choice bioassays indicated that oviposition sites conditioned in this manner do indeed foster significant and concentration dependent aversive effects on the oviposition site selection of gravid females. Headspace analyses derived from aversive habitats consistently noted the presence of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (sulcatone) each of which unitarily affected An. coluzzii oviposition preference. Electrophysiological assays across the antennae, maxillary palp, and labellum of gravid An. coluzzii revealed differential responses to these semiochemicals. Taken together, these findings validate the hypothesis in question and suggest that suboptimal environments for An. coluzzii larval development results in the release of DMDS, DMTS and sulcatone that impact the response valence of gravid females. PMID:26900947

  18. Pigeon's (Columba livia) paradoxical preference for the suboptimal alternative in a complex foraging task.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Luong, Jasmine

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has examined a task in which choice of 1 alternative A provides reinforcement and in addition, allows access to alternative B that also provides reinforcement. However, although initial choice of B also provides reinforcement, it does not also allow access to A. Thus, optimal performance would be to always choose A. Curiously, Salwiczek et al. (2012) reported that adult wrasse (cleaner) fish mastered this task within 50 trials, whereas monkeys and apes had great difficulty with it. The authors attributed the species differences to ecological differences in the species foraging experiences. However, Pepperberg and Hartsfield (2014) found that parrots too learned this task. In Experiment 1, using the manual presentation of stimuli, we found that pigeons actually showed a reliable preference for B, the suboptimal alternative. In Experiment 2, we replicated the suboptimal preference using an automated version of the task. We hypothesized that the pigeons may have been basing their preference on the frequency of reinforcement associated with each alternative (initially, all trials ended with choice of B, whereas only half of the trials involved choice of A). In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that the pigeons' preference was influenced by the frequency of reinforcements associated with A and B. Thus, when the pigeon chose A, we replaced B with C, so reinforcement occurred to B only when they chose it first. With this procedure we found that B was no longer preferred over A. Thus, the data supported our hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Pigeon's (Columba livia) paradoxical preference for the suboptimal alternative in a complex foraging task.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Luong, Jasmine

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has examined a task in which choice of 1 alternative A provides reinforcement and in addition, allows access to alternative B that also provides reinforcement. However, although initial choice of B also provides reinforcement, it does not also allow access to A. Thus, optimal performance would be to always choose A. Curiously, Salwiczek et al. (2012) reported that adult wrasse (cleaner) fish mastered this task within 50 trials, whereas monkeys and apes had great difficulty with it. The authors attributed the species differences to ecological differences in the species foraging experiences. However, Pepperberg and Hartsfield (2014) found that parrots too learned this task. In Experiment 1, using the manual presentation of stimuli, we found that pigeons actually showed a reliable preference for B, the suboptimal alternative. In Experiment 2, we replicated the suboptimal preference using an automated version of the task. We hypothesized that the pigeons may have been basing their preference on the frequency of reinforcement associated with each alternative (initially, all trials ended with choice of B, whereas only half of the trials involved choice of A). In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that the pigeons' preference was influenced by the frequency of reinforcements associated with A and B. Thus, when the pigeon chose A, we replaced B with C, so reinforcement occurred to B only when they chose it first. With this procedure we found that B was no longer preferred over A. Thus, the data supported our hypothesis. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27064201

  20. An Approach to Streaming Video Segmentation With Sub-Optimal Low-Rank Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenglong; Lin, Liang; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Wenzhong; Tang, Jin

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates how to perform robust and efficient video segmentation while suppressing the effects of data noises and/or corruptions, and an effective approach is introduced to this end. First, a general algorithm, called sub-optimal low-rank decomposition (SOLD), is proposed to pursue the low-rank representation for video segmentation. Given the data matrix formed by supervoxel features of an observed video sequence, SOLD seeks a sub-optimal solution by making the matrix rank explicitly determined. In particular, the representation coefficient matrix with the fixed rank can be decomposed into two sub-matrices of low rank, and then we iteratively optimize them with closed-form solutions. Moreover, we incorporate a discriminative replication prior into SOLD based on the observation that small-size video patterns tend to recur frequently within the same object. Second, based on SOLD, we present an efficient inference algorithm to perform streaming video segmentation in both unsupervised and interactive scenarios. More specifically, the constrained normalized-cut algorithm is adopted by incorporating the low-rank representation with other low level cues and temporal consistent constraints for spatio-temporal segmentation. Extensive experiments on two public challenging data sets VSB100 and SegTrack suggest that our approach outperforms other video segmentation approaches in both accuracy and efficiency.

  1. Suboptimal and optimal order policies for fixed and varying replenishment interval with declining market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wee, H. M.; Yang, P. C.; Wu, Simon

    2016-06-01

    One of the supply chain risks for hi-tech products is the result of rapid technological innovation; it results in a significant decline in the selling price and demand after the initial launch period. Hi-tech products include computers and communication consumer's products. From a practical standpoint, a more realistic replenishment policy is needed to consider the impact of risks; especially when some portions of shortages are lost. In this paper, suboptimal and optimal order policies with partial backordering are developed for a buyer when the component cost, the selling price, and the demand rate decline at a continuous rate. Two mathematical models are derived and discussed: one model has the suboptimal solution with the fixed replenishment interval and a simpler computational process; the other one has the optimal solution with the varying replenishment interval and a more complicated computational process. The second model results in more profit. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the two replenishment models. Sensitivity analysis is carried out to investigate the relationship between the parameters and the net profit.

  2. Development of Sub-optimal Airway Protocols for the International Space Station (ISS) by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James D.; Parazynski, Scott; Kelly, Scott; Hurst, Victor, IV; Doerr, Harold K.

    2007-01-01

    Airway management techniques are necessary to establish and maintain a patent airway while treating a patient undergoing respiratory distress. There are situations where such settings are suboptimal, thus causing the caregiver to adapt to these suboptimal conditions. Such occurrences are no exception aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a result, the NASA flight surgeon (FS) and NASA astronaut cohorts must be ready to adapt their optimal airway management techniques for suboptimal situations. Based on previous work conducted by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST) and other investigators, the MOST had members of both the FS and astronaut cohorts evaluate two oral airway insertion techniques for the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) to determine whether either technique is sufficient to perform in suboptimal conditions within a microgravity environment. Methods All experiments were conducted in a simulated microgravity environment provided by parabolic flight aboard DC-9 aircraft. Each participant acted as a caregiver and was directed to attempt both suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques following a preflight instruction session on the day of the flight and a demonstration of the technique by an anesthesiologist physician in the simulated microgravity environment aboard the aircraft. Results Fourteen participants conducted 46 trials of the suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques. Overall, 43 of 46 trials (94%) conducted were properly performed based on criteria developed by the MOST and other investigators. Discussion The study demonstrated the use of airway management techniques in suboptimal conditions relating to space flight. Use of these techniques will provide a crew with options for using the ILMA to manage airway issues aboard the ISS. Although it is understood that the optimal method for patient care during space flight is to have both patient and caregiver restrained, these techniques provide a needed backup should conditions not present

  3. Building Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how Washington University (St. Louis, MO) converted odd space into a program allowing students to be shopkeepers for necessary services and the school assuming the role of landlord. Tips for overseeing student businesses are highlighted. (GR)

  4. A Wavelet Based Suboptimal Kalman Filter for Assimilation of Stratospheric Chemical Tracer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auger, Ludovic; Tangborn, Andrew; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A suboptimal Kalman filter system which evolves error covariances in terms of a truncated set of wavelet coefficients has been developed for the assimilation of chemical tracer observations of CH4. The truncation is carried out in such a way that the resolution of the error covariance, is reduced only in the zonal direction, where gradients are smaller. Assimilation experiments which last 24 days, and used different degrees of truncation were carried out. These reduced the covariance, by 90, 97 and 99 % and the computational cost of covariance propagation by 80, 93 and 96 % respectively. The difference in both error covariance and the tracer field between the truncated and full systems over this period were found to be not growing in the first case, and a growing relatively slowly in the later two cases. The largest errors in the tracer fields were found to occur in regions of largest zonal gradients in the tracer field.

  5. An RNA secondary structure prediction method based on minimum and suboptimal free energy structures.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haoyue; Yang, Lianping; Zhang, Xiangde

    2015-09-01

    The function of an RNA-molecule is mainly determined by its tertiary structures. And its secondary structure is an important determinant of its tertiary structure. The comparative methods usually give better results than the single-sequence methods. Based on minimum and suboptimal free energy structures, the paper presents a novel method for predicting conserved secondary structure of a group of related RNAs. In the method, the information from the known RNA structures is used as training data in a SVM (Support Vector Machine) classifier. Our method has been tested on the benchmark dataset given by Puton et al. The results show that the average sensitivity of our method is higher than that of other comparative methods such as CentroidAlifold, MXScrana, RNAalifold, and TurboFold. PMID:26100179

  6. Major liver resection for recurrent hydatid cyst of the liver after suboptimal treatment.

    PubMed

    Vennarecci, Giovanni; Manfredelli, Simone; Guglielmo, Nicola; Laurenzi, Andrea; Goletti, Delia; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2016-06-01

    Recurrent hydatid disease (HD) of the liver after a previous suboptimal invasive treatment is a clinical situation not well codified in terms of management and surgical treatment. Between June 2001 and July 2015, 1525 liver resection were performed at our unit, of whom 217 were with a laparoscopic and 20 with a robotic approach. The most common indications were hepatocellular carcinoma grown on a cirrhotic liver and colorectal metastasis. During the same period, we performed liver surgery for HD in 34 patients (21 females, 13 males). This retrospective study focused on the management and surgical treatment of three unusual cases of recurrent hydatid cyst. All patients had a course of perioperative albendazole. Thirty-four patients had a surgical treatment [open surgery in 30 (88 %) and laparoscopic in four (12 %)]. Surgical procedures were classified as radical resections in 33 patients [total cystopericystectomy (10), left lateral hepatectomy (5), left hepatectomy (2), right hepatectomy (7), segmentectomy/bisegmentectomy (9)]. One patient underwent subtotal pericystectomy as the cyst was close to a major vascular pedicle in a cirrhotic liver. Post operative complications of grade I-II occurred in 11 (32 %) patients, of grade III-IV in one (3 %). Three patients had HD recurrence after a previous suboptimal invasive treatment [PAIR (2), unroofing (1)] and all had to undergo a major liver resection for the complete removal of parasites. The HD first relapse rate for the whole surgical series was 3 %. The second relapse rate was 33 %. The overall survival rate was 100 %. Operations for recurrent HD of the liver represent a surgical challenge due to volume of the cyst, presence of adhesions related to previous invasive treatments and proximity to major vascular structures of the liver. In such instances, pericystectomy can be difficultly achieved making necessary a formal major liver resection.

  7. The problem of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in West Africa: what is the way forward?

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the policy implications of inadequate complementary feeding among children aged 6-23 months in West Africa. The review was undertaken from the initial results and findings from a series of studies on the comparison of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone and seven francophone West African countries. It also examined a study of the determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in those countries. Among the four complementary feeding indicators, it was only the introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods that was adequate among children in all the West African countries surveyed. The rates of the other complementary feeding indicators were found to be inadequate in all countries surveyed, although relatively better among children in the anglophone countries. Alarmingly, low rates of minimum acceptable diet were reported among children from both the anglophone and the francophone countries. Infants 6-11 months of age, children living in poor households, administrative/geographical regional differences and mothers' access to the media were some of the common risk factors for optimal complementary feeding practices in these countries. Assessing complementary feeding indicators and determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in these West African countries is crucial to improving infant and young child feeding practices. It is recommended that governments and stakeholders of the West African countries studied make greater efforts to improve these critical practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality in the West Africa sub-region. Intervention studies on complementary feeding should target those socio-demographic factors that pose risks to optimal complementary feeding. PMID:26364791

  8. The problem of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in West Africa: what is the way forward?

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the policy implications of inadequate complementary feeding among children aged 6-23 months in West Africa. The review was undertaken from the initial results and findings from a series of studies on the comparison of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone and seven francophone West African countries. It also examined a study of the determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in those countries. Among the four complementary feeding indicators, it was only the introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods that was adequate among children in all the West African countries surveyed. The rates of the other complementary feeding indicators were found to be inadequate in all countries surveyed, although relatively better among children in the anglophone countries. Alarmingly, low rates of minimum acceptable diet were reported among children from both the anglophone and the francophone countries. Infants 6-11 months of age, children living in poor households, administrative/geographical regional differences and mothers' access to the media were some of the common risk factors for optimal complementary feeding practices in these countries. Assessing complementary feeding indicators and determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in these West African countries is crucial to improving infant and young child feeding practices. It is recommended that governments and stakeholders of the West African countries studied make greater efforts to improve these critical practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality in the West Africa sub-region. Intervention studies on complementary feeding should target those socio-demographic factors that pose risks to optimal complementary feeding.

  9. Major liver resection for recurrent hydatid cyst of the liver after suboptimal treatment.

    PubMed

    Vennarecci, Giovanni; Manfredelli, Simone; Guglielmo, Nicola; Laurenzi, Andrea; Goletti, Delia; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria

    2016-06-01

    Recurrent hydatid disease (HD) of the liver after a previous suboptimal invasive treatment is a clinical situation not well codified in terms of management and surgical treatment. Between June 2001 and July 2015, 1525 liver resection were performed at our unit, of whom 217 were with a laparoscopic and 20 with a robotic approach. The most common indications were hepatocellular carcinoma grown on a cirrhotic liver and colorectal metastasis. During the same period, we performed liver surgery for HD in 34 patients (21 females, 13 males). This retrospective study focused on the management and surgical treatment of three unusual cases of recurrent hydatid cyst. All patients had a course of perioperative albendazole. Thirty-four patients had a surgical treatment [open surgery in 30 (88 %) and laparoscopic in four (12 %)]. Surgical procedures were classified as radical resections in 33 patients [total cystopericystectomy (10), left lateral hepatectomy (5), left hepatectomy (2), right hepatectomy (7), segmentectomy/bisegmentectomy (9)]. One patient underwent subtotal pericystectomy as the cyst was close to a major vascular pedicle in a cirrhotic liver. Post operative complications of grade I-II occurred in 11 (32 %) patients, of grade III-IV in one (3 %). Three patients had HD recurrence after a previous suboptimal invasive treatment [PAIR (2), unroofing (1)] and all had to undergo a major liver resection for the complete removal of parasites. The HD first relapse rate for the whole surgical series was 3 %. The second relapse rate was 33 %. The overall survival rate was 100 %. Operations for recurrent HD of the liver represent a surgical challenge due to volume of the cyst, presence of adhesions related to previous invasive treatments and proximity to major vascular structures of the liver. In such instances, pericystectomy can be difficultly achieved making necessary a formal major liver resection. PMID:27126358

  10. Interpreters, Interpreting, and the Study of Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Guadalupe; Angelelli, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research on interpreting focused specifically on issues raised by this literature about the nature of bilingualism. Suggests research carried out on interpreting--while primarily produced with a professional audience in mind and concerned with improving the practice of interpreting--provides valuable insights about complex aspects of…

  11. Tell It as It Is, Business Education: 7713.13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thelma B.

    In the area of business education, this pamphlet describes a course in the methods and arts of business communications, stressing oral, written, and visual proficiency in telephone techniques, letters, telegrams, telefax, posters, memos, and the interpretation of business charts and graphs. Described specifically are course guidelines, performance…

  12. Efficient Methods to Assimilate Satellite Retrievals Based on Information Content. Part 2; Suboptimal Retrieval Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Dee, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in data assimilation has been and continues to be how best to utilize satellite data while balancing the tradeoff between accuracy and computational cost. A number of weather prediction centers have recently achieved remarkable success in improving their forecast skill by changing the method by which satellite data are assimilated into the forecast model from the traditional approach of assimilating retrievals to the direct assimilation of radiances in a variational framework. The operational implementation of such a substantial change in methodology involves a great number of technical details, e.g., pertaining to quality control procedures, systematic error correction techniques, and tuning of the statistical parameters in the analysis algorithm. Although there are clear theoretical advantages to the direct radiance assimilation approach, it is not obvious at all to what extent the improvements that have been obtained so far can be attributed to the change in methodology, or to various technical aspects of the implementation. The issue is of interest because retrieval assimilation retains many practical and logistical advantages which may become even more significant in the near future when increasingly high-volume data sources become available. The central question we address here is: how much improvement can we expect from assimilating radiances rather than retrievals, all other things being equal? We compare the two approaches in a simplified one-dimensional theoretical framework, in which problems related to quality control and systematic error correction are conveniently absent. By assuming a perfect radiative transfer model and perfect knowledge of radiance and background error covariances, we are able to formulate a nonlinear local error analysis for each assimilation method. Direct radiance assimilation is optimal in this idealized context, while the traditional method of assimilating retrievals is suboptimal because it

  13. Strictly Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When Jackson State University opened for classes this year, it marked its fifth anniversary in the online education business by adding a full four-year, undergraduate degree program in early childhood education to its offerings. Jackson State is among a growing number of historically Black colleges tying part of their future survival and growth…

  14. Business Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Genigraphics Corporation's Masterpiece 8770 FilmRecorder is an advanced high resolution system designed to improve and expand a company's in-house graphics production. GRAFTIME/software package was designed to allow office personnel with minimal training to produce professional level graphics for business communications and presentations. Products are no longer being manufactured.

  15. Business Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    A brief definition of some fundamentals of microcomputers and of the ways they may be used in small businesses can help potential buyers make informed purchases. Hardware (the mechanical devices from which computers are made) described here are the video display, keyboard, central processing unit, "random access" and "read only" memories, cassette…

  16. Unfinished Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckett, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Adult learning is not a tidy business: adults fit learning into the spaces left by the other demands on complex lives, and into the spaces left in administrative structures overwhelmingly designed for other people. No simple metric can capture adults' diverse purposes and achievements, and no single programme can capture the full range of things…

  17. Targeting Lexicon in Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farghal, Mohammed; Shakir, Abdullah

    1994-01-01

    Studies student interpreters in the Master's Translation Program at Yarmouk University in Jordan. Analyzes the difficulties of these students, particularly regarding lexical competence, when interpreting from Arabic to English, emphasizing the need to teach lexicon all through interpreting programs. (HB)

  18. The Non Business Doctorate in the College of Business: Terminal Scholar or Transitory Staff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walle, Alf H.

    1990-01-01

    The American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) has liberalized its employment and evaluation standards for business administration faculty with doctorates from nonbusiness disciplines. The guidelines are examined and interpreted for use by deans who must make employment decisions and counsel these faculty concerning their status.…

  19. Suboptimal inhibition of platelet cyclo-oxygenase-1 (COX-1) by aspirin in lupus erythematosus: Association with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Vivian K.; Avalos, Ingrid; Oeser, Annette; Oates, John A.; Milne, Ginger L.; Solus, Joseph F.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Stein, C. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Low-dose aspirin prevents platelet aggregation by suppressing thromboxane A2 synthesis. However, in some individuals thromboxane A2 suppression by aspirin is impaired, indicating suboptimal inhibition of platelet COX-1 by aspirin. Because patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have increased risk of thrombotic events, many receive aspirin; however, the efficacy of aspirin in SLE has not been determined. We examined the hypothesis that aspirin response is impaired in SLE. Methods We assessed the effect of aspirin by measuring concentrations of the stable metabolite of thromboxane A2 - serum thromboxane B2 (sTxB2), before and after treatment with 81 mg daily aspirin for 7 days in 34 patients with SLE and 36 control subjects. The inability to suppress sTxB2 synthesis to <10 ng/ml represents suboptimal inhibition of platelet COX-1 by aspirin. Results Aspirin almost completely suppressed sTXB2 in control subjects to 1.5, [0.8–2.7] ng/ml (median and interquartile ranges [IQR]), but had less effect in patients with SLE (3.1, [2.2–5.3] ng/ml) (P=0.002). A suboptimal effect of aspirin was present in 15% (5/34) of the patients with SLE but not in control subjects (0/36) (P=0.023). Incomplete responders were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (P=0.048), obesity (P=0.048) and higher concentrations of CRP (P=0.018). Conclusion The pharmacologic effect of aspirin is suboptimal in 15% of patients with SLE but in none of the control subjects, and the suboptimal response was associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity, and higher CRP concentrations. PMID:24022862

  20. Suboptimal Response to or Failure of Imatinib Treatment for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: What Is the Optimal Strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Cortes, Jorge E.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2009-01-01

    Treatment responses to imatinib vary among patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and definitions of treatment failure and suboptimal response have been published. This article discusses monitoring and treatment of patients with CML after failure of or suboptimal response to imatinib therapy. We reviewed articles listed on PubMed from January 1, 2002, to July 31, 2008, and abstracts from the 2007 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology. Search terms used were chronic myeloid/myelogenous leukemia, imatinib, and BCR-ABL. To enable early recognition of suboptimal responses, patients should be frequently monitored according to published guidelines, including cytogenetic analysis every 6 months until a complete response is achieved and molecular monitoring every 3 months from the start of therapy or monthly if an increasing BCR-ABL1 transcript level is detected. Mutational analysis of BCR-ABL1 may assist with treatment selection. A recent survey suggests that a notable proportion of physicians do not follow treatment guidelines and that broader communication is required. Recent recommendations state that, in patients whose response to imatinib at 400 mg/d is suboptimal, the dose should be increased, whereas alternative therapies, such as dasatinib, nilotinib, and allogeneic stem cell transplant (in eligible patients), and imatinib dose escalation should be considered after imatinib failure. However, clinical data are lacking to confirm this sequence of treatments, and introducing alternative therapies at an earlier stage of treatment, for example, after a suboptimal response, may produce better long-term outcomes in a higher proportion of patients. Patient and disease characteristics should be carefully considered to optimize treatment strategy for CML. PMID:19181650

  1. Suboptimal antiretroviral therapy adherence among HIV-infected adults in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Muessig, Kathryn E; McLaughlin, Megan M; Nie, Jing Min; Cai, Weiping; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Ligang; Tucker, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Despite China's free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program, there are high rates of treatment failure, large sociodemographic disparities in care outcomes and emerging medication resistance. Understanding patient medication adherence behaviors and challenges could inform adherence interventions to maximize the individual and prevention benefits of ART. This study assessed recent nonadherence and treatment interruption among 813 HIV-infected adult outpatients in Guangzhou, China. Participants completed a behavioral survey, underwent chart review, and were tested for syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Among 721 HIV-infected adults receiving ART, 18.9% reported recent nonadherence (any missed ART in the past four weeks) and 6.8% reported treatment interruption (four or more weeks of missed ART in the past year). Lower education, living alone, alcohol use, and being on ART one to three years were associated with recent nonadherence. Male gender, lower education, and being on ART one to three years were associated with treatment interruption. ART medication adherence interventions are needed in China that include individualized, long-term adherence plans sensitive to patients' educational and economic situations. These interventions should also consider possible gender disparities in treatment outcomes and address the use of alcohol during ART. Successful ART medication adherence interventions in China can inform other international settings that face similar adherence challenges and disparities.

  2. Effects of Suboptimally Presented Erotic Pictures on Moral Judgments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    PubMed

    Olivera-La Rosa, Antonio; Corradi, Guido; Villacampa, Javier; Martí-Vilar, Manuel; Arango, Olber Eduardo; Rosselló, Jaume

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified a set of core factors that influence moral judgments. The present study addresses the interplay between moral judgments and four factors: (a) incidental affects, (b) sociocultural context, (c) type of dilemma, and (d) participant's sex. We asked participants in two different countries (Colombia and Spain) to judge the acceptability of actions in response to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas. Before each dilemma an affective prime (erotic, pleasant or neutral pictures) was presented suboptimally. Our results show that: a) relative to neutral priming, erotic primes increase the acceptance of harm for a greater good (i.e., more utilitarian judgments), b) relative to Colombians, Spanish participants rated causing harm as less acceptable, c) relative to impersonal dilemmas, personal dilemmas reduced the acceptance of harm, and d) relative to men, women were less likely to consider harm acceptable. Our results are congruent with findings showing that sex is a crucial factor in moral cognition, and they extend previous research by showing the interaction between culture and incidental factors in the making of moral judgments. PMID:27367795

  3. Critical phenomena in communication/computation networks with various topologies and suboptimal to optimal resource allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogoni, Marco; Busonera, Giovanni; Anedda, Paolo; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize previous studies on critical phenomena in communication networks [1,2] by adding computational capabilities to the nodes. In our model, a set of tasks with random origin, destination and computational structure is distributed on a computational network, modeled as a graph. By varying the temperature of a Metropolis Montecarlo, we explore the global latency for an optimal to suboptimal resource assignment at a given time instant. By computing the two-point correlation function for the local overload, we study the behavior of the correlation distance (both for links and nodes) while approaching the congested phase: a transition from peaked to spread g(r) is seen above a critical (Montecarlo) temperature Tc. The average latency trend of the system is predicted by averaging over several network traffic realizations while maintaining a spatially detailed information for each node: a sharp decrease of performance is found over Tc independently of the workload. The globally optimized computational resource allocation and network routing defines a baseline for a future comparison of the transition behavior with respect to existing routing strategies [3,4] for different network topologies.

  4. Effects of Suboptimally Presented Erotic Pictures on Moral Judgments: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Vilar, Manuel; Arango, Olber Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified a set of core factors that influence moral judgments. The present study addresses the interplay between moral judgments and four factors: (a) incidental affects, (b) sociocultural context, (c) type of dilemma, and (d) participant’s sex. We asked participants in two different countries (Colombia and Spain) to judge the acceptability of actions in response to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas. Before each dilemma an affective prime (erotic, pleasant or neutral pictures) was presented suboptimally. Our results show that: a) relative to neutral priming, erotic primes increase the acceptance of harm for a greater good (i.e., more utilitarian judgments), b) relative to Colombians, Spanish participants rated causing harm as less acceptable, c) relative to impersonal dilemmas, personal dilemmas reduced the acceptance of harm, and d) relative to men, women were less likely to consider harm acceptable. Our results are congruent with findings showing that sex is a crucial factor in moral cognition, and they extend previous research by showing the interaction between culture and incidental factors in the making of moral judgments. PMID:27367795

  5. Social Determinants, Suboptimal Health Behavior, and Morbidity in Urban Slum Population: An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Palipudi VenkataTrinadaKrishna; Bansal, Rajkumar K.

    2008-01-01

    Improving the health of urban residents, particularly those living in slum areas, requires an integrated approach. Appropriate interventions must be based on a well-grounded understanding of health determinants. Social factors are as important as physical factors in determining health status and suggest alternative interventions. Employment, stress, social exclusion, social support, substance use, nutrition, transport, and conditions during childhood are among the most important social determinants of health status identified by the International Center for Health and Society. This paper uses social determinants of health approach to understand morbidity outcomes for people residing in the slums of Surat City, India. To quantify suboptimal health behavior and identify the determinants of health status for this population survey data on household characteristics, health-seeking behavior, socioeconomic status, food and personal habits, social life, and physical activity has been used. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, logistic regression analysis reveals that social exclusion, stress, and lack of social support are significantly associated with morbidity. Thus, understanding of social determinants of health by policy makers is important as the health sector has a crucial role in addressing disparities in social determinants. PMID:18404392

  6. Suboptimal evolutionary novel environments promote singular altered gravity responses of transcriptome during Drosophila metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous experiments have shown that the reduced gravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene expression. These changes were shown to be intimately linked to environmental space-flight related constraints. Results Here, we use an array of different techniques for ground-based simulation of microgravity effects to assess the effect of suboptimal environmental conditions on the gene expression of Drosophila in reduced gravity. A global and integrative analysis, using “gene expression dynamics inspector” (GEDI) self-organizing maps, reveals different degrees in the responses of the transcriptome when using different environmental conditions or microgravity/hypergravity simulation devices. Although the genes that are affected are different in each simulation technique, we find that the same gene ontology groups, including at least one large multigene family related with behavior, stress response or organogenesis, are over represented in each case. Conclusions These results suggest that the transcriptome as a whole can be finely tuned to gravity force. In optimum environmental conditions, the alteration of gravity has only mild effects on gene expression but when environmental conditions are far from optimal, the gene expression must be tuned greatly and effects become more robust, probably linked to the lack of experience of organisms exposed to evolutionary novel environments such as a gravitational free one. PMID:23806134

  7. A Wavelet based Suboptimal Kalman Filter for Assimilation of Stratospheric Chemical Tracer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Auger, Ludovic

    2003-01-01

    A suboptimal Kalman filter system which evolves error covariances in terms of a truncated set of wavelet coefficients has been developed for the assimilation of chemical tracer observations of CH4. This scheme projects the discretized covariance propagation equations and covariance matrix onto an orthogonal set of compactly supported wavelets. Wavelet representation is localized in both location and scale, which allows for efficient representation of the inherently anisotropic structure of the error covariances. The truncation is carried out in such a way that the resolution of the error covariance is reduced only in the zonal direction, where gradients are smaller. Assimilation experiments which last 24 days, and used different degrees of truncation were carried out. These reduced the covariance size by 90, 97 and 99 % and the computational cost of covariance propagation by 80, 93 and 96 % respectively. The difference in both error covariance and the tracer field between the truncated and full systems over this period were found to be not growing in the first case, and growing relatively slowly in the later two cases. The largest errors in the tracer fields were found to occur in regions of largest zonal gradients in the constituent field. This results indicate that propagation of error covariances for a global two-dimensional data assimilation system are currently feasible. Recommendations for further reduction in computational cost are made with the goal of extending this technique to three-dimensional global assimilation systems.

  8. A real-time processor for imaging through turbulence and other sub-optimal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochrane, John A.; Collier, Steve; Mitchell, Nigel; Shadforth, Jon

    2012-10-01

    A real time processor package called IT4 is described, which has been developed to improve the quality of Imaging Through the 4 artefacts of sub-optimal surveillance (jitter, shimmer, contrast and noise). The package is able to operate on a wide range of video standards and can process imagery from the camera sensor directly or from previously recorded (movie file) sequences. The platform is currently a PC or a laptop but no other requirements such as special optics or camera hardware are necessary. IT4 removes both translational and rotational camera movement using a de-jitter algorithm and the image frames are analyzed to discriminate atmospheric shimmer from real image motion. The frames are then de-shimmered but any scene motion is accurately rendered. Sharpening and contrast options are available to the user to further improve visual quality and the contrast can be enhanced locally if so desired. IT4 improves fixed pattern noise in the image at all light levels and also reduces random noise, which is particularly useful during low light level image capture leading to better processing of both static and dynamic scenes.

  9. Motor planning under temporal uncertainty is suboptimal when the gain function is asymmetric

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Keiji; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    For optimal action planning, the gain/loss associated with actions and the variability in motor output should both be considered. A number of studies make conflicting claims about the optimality of human action planning but cannot be reconciled due to their use of different movements and gain/loss functions. The disagreement is possibly because of differences in the experimental design and differences in the energetic cost of participant motor effort. We used a coincident timing task, which requires decision making with constant energetic cost, to test the optimality of participant's timing strategies under four configurations of the gain function. We compared participant strategies to an optimal timing strategy calculated from a Bayesian model that maximizes the expected gain. We found suboptimal timing strategies under two configurations of the gain function characterized by asymmetry, in which higher gain is associated with higher risk of zero gain. Participants showed a risk-seeking strategy by responding closer than optimal to the time of onset/offset of zero gain. Meanwhile, there was good agreement of the model with actual performance under two configurations of the gain function characterized by symmetry. Our findings show that human ability to make decisions that must reflect uncertainty in one's own motor output has limits that depend on the configuration of the gain function. PMID:26236227

  10. Electrocardiographic interpretation skills of cardiology residents: are they competent?

    PubMed

    Sibbald, Matthew; Davies, Edward G; Dorian, Paul; Yu, Eric H C

    2014-12-01

    Achieving competency at electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation among cardiology subspecialty residents has traditionally focused on interpreting a target number of ECGs during training. However, there is little evidence to support this approach. Further, there are no data documenting the competency of ECG interpretation skills among cardiology residents, who become de facto the gold standard in their practice communities. We tested 29 Cardiology residents from all 3 years in a large training program using a set of 20 ECGs collected from a community cardiology practice over a 1-month period. Residents interpreted half of the ECGs using a standard analytic framework, and half using their own approach. Residents were scored on the number of correct and incorrect diagnoses listed. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 58%. Of 6 potentially life-threatening diagnoses, residents missed 36% (123 of 348) including hyperkalemia (81%), long QT (52%), complete heart block (35%), and ventricular tachycardia (19%). Residents provided additional inappropriate diagnoses on 238 ECGs (41%). Diagnostic accuracy was similar between ECGs interpreted using an analytic framework vs ECGs interpreted without an analytic framework (59% vs 58%; F(1,1333) = 0.26; P = 0.61). Cardiology resident proficiency at ECG interpretation is suboptimal. Despite the use of an analytic framework, there remain significant deficiencies in ECG interpretation among Cardiology residents. A more systematic method of addressing these important learning gaps is urgently needed.

  11. Business Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Citation Jet, developed by Cessna Aircraft Company, Wichita, KS, is the first business jet to employ Langley Research Center's natural laminar flow (NLF) technology. NLF reduces drag and therefore saves fuel by using only the shape of the wing to keep the airflow smooth, or laminar. This reduces friction between the air and wing, and therefore, reduces drag. NASA's Central Industrial Applications Center, Rural Enterprises, Inc., Durant, OK, its Kansas affiliate, and Wichita State University assisted in the technology transfer.

  12. Business, Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, Andrea

    1998-05-01

    The annual business meeting, which all members are encouraged to attend, will take place on Tuesday afternoon. Come enjoy the President's Ice Cream Party. Come meet new officers. Come nominate candidates for the Nominating Committee. The Nominating Committee is a very important body which provides the slate of candidates for the annual AAS election. Society business will be discussed briefly. Highlighting this meeting will be a panel discussion on: "How to Get Your Paper Published Promptly" Should I mention that Notable Authority Professor Hjalmar Sciatti hates me and my papers? When is it OK to start complaining that no report has arrived? Do I have to do everything the referee says? These and related questions will be addressed at the business meeting in a panel presentation by the editors of the three main AAS publications, Paul Hodge (AJ), Helmut Abt (ApJ), Alex Dalgarno (ApJ Letters), concerning the refereeing and editing process and how authors can interface with it most effectively. There will be time for questions and discussions toward the end, or you can send your questions in advance to askeds@aas.org, so that the most frequent ones can be covered in the presentations.

  13. Suboptimal use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants: Results from the RAMSES study.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Özcan; Dogan, Volkan; Beton, Osman; Tekinalp, Mehmet; Aykan, Ahmet Cağri; Kalaycioğlu, Ezgi; Bolat, Ismail; Taşar, Onur; Şafak, Özgen; Kalcik, Macit; Yaman, Mehmet; İnci, Sinan; Altintaş, Bernas; Kalkan, Sedat; Kirma, Cevat; Biteker, Murat

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential misuse of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and the physicians' adherence to current European guideline recommendations in real-world using a large dataset from Real-life Multicenter Survey Evaluating Stroke Prevention Strategies in Turkey (RAMSES Study).RAMSES study is a prospective, multicenter, nationwide registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02344901). In this subgroup analysis of RAMSES study, patients who were on NOACs were classified as appropriately treated (AT), undertreated (UT), and overtreated (OT) according to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. The independent predictors of UT and OT were determined by multivariate logistic regression.Of the 2086 eligible patients, 1247 (59.8%) received adequate treatment. However, off-label use was detected in 839 (40.2%) patients; 634 (30.4%) patients received UT and 205 (9.8%) received OT. Independent predictors of UT included >65 years of age, creatinine clearance ≥50 mL/min, urban living, existing dabigatran treatment, and HAS-BLED score of <3, whereas that of OT were creatinine clearance <50 mL/min, ongoing rivaroxaban treatment, and HAS-BLED score of ≥3.The suboptimal use of NOACs is common because of physicians' poor compliance to the guideline recommendations in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Older patients who were on dabigatran treatment with good renal functions and low risk of bleeding were at risk of UT, whereas patients who were on rivaroxaban treatment with renal impairment and high risk of bleeding were at risk of OT. Therefore, a greater emphasis should be given to prescribe the recommended dose for the specified patients. PMID:27583892

  14. Suboptimal schemes for atmospheric data assimilation based on the Kalman filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todling, Ricardo; Cohn, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    This work is directed toward approximating the evolution of forecast error covariances for data assimilation. The performance of different algorithms based on simplification of the standard Kalman filter (KF) is studied. These are suboptimal schemes (SOSs) when compared to the KF, which is optimal for linear problems with known statistics. The SOSs considered here are several versions of optimal interpolation (OI), a scheme for height error variance advection, and a simplified KF in which the full height error covariance is advected. To employ a methodology for exact comparison among these schemes, a linear environment is maintained, in which a beta-plane shallow-water model linearized about a constant zonal flow is chosen for the test-bed dynamics. The results show that constructing dynamically balanced forecast error covariances rather than using conventional geostrophically balanced ones is essential for successful performance of any SOS. A posteriori initialization of SOSs to compensate for model - data imbalance sometimes results in poor performance. Instead, properly constructed dynamically balanced forecast error covariances eliminate the need for initialization. When the SOSs studied here make use of dynamically balanced forecast error covariances, the difference among their performances progresses naturally from conventional OI to the KF. In fact, the results suggest that even modest enhancements of OI, such as including an approximate dynamical equation for height error variances while leaving height error correlation structure homogeneous, go a long way toward achieving the performance of the KF, provided that dynamically balanced cross-covariances are constructed and that model errors are accounted for properly. The results indicate that such enhancements are necessary if unconventional data are to have a positive impact.

  15. Suboptimal Herd Performance Amplifies the Spread of Infectious Disease in the Cattle Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gates, M. Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity. PMID:24671129

  16. Suboptimal management of central nervous system infections in children: a multi-centre retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective We aimed to audit the regional management of central nervous system (CNS) infection in children. Methods The study was undertaken in five district general hospitals and one tertiary paediatric hospital in the Mersey region of the UK. Children admitted to hospital with a suspected CNS infection over a three month period were identified. Children were aged between 4 weeks and 16 years old. Details were recorded from the case notes and electronic records. We measured the appropriateness of management pathways as outlined by national and local guidelines. Results Sixty-five children were identified with a median age of 6 months (range 1 month to 15 years). Ten had a CNS infection: 4 aseptic meningitis, 3 purulent meningitis, 3 encephalitis [2 with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1]. A lumbar puncture (LP) was attempted in 50 (77%) cases but only 43 had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) available for analysis. Of these 24 (57%) had a complete standard set of tests performed. Fifty eight (89%) received a third generation cephalosporin. Seventeen (26%) also received aciclovir with no obvious indication in 9 (53%). Only 11 (65%) of those receiving aciclovir had CSF herpes virus PCR. Seventeen had cranial imaging and it was the first management step in 14. Treatment lengths of both antibiotics and aciclovir were highly variable: one child with HSV encephalitis was only treated with aciclovir for 7 days. Conclusions The clinical management of children with suspected CNS infections across the Mersey region is heterogeneous and often sub-optimal, particularly for the investigation and treatment of viral encephalitis. National guidelines for the management of viral encephalitis are needed. PMID:22958329

  17. Altered Innate Immune Responses in Neutrophils from Patients with Well- and Suboptimally Controlled Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Francesca S. M.; Foxley, Gloria J.; Gibson, Peter G.; Burgess, Janette K.; Baines, Katherine J.; Oliver, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Respiratory infections are a major cause of asthma exacerbations where neutrophilic inflammation dominates and is associated with steroid refractory asthma. Structural airway cells in asthma differ from nonasthmatics; however it is unknown if neutrophils differ. We investigated neutrophil immune responses in patients who have good (AGood) and suboptimal (ASubopt) asthma symptom control. Methods. Peripheral blood neutrophils from AGood (ACQ < 0.75, n = 11), ASubopt (ACQ > 0.75, n = 7), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 9) were stimulated with bacterial (LPS (1 μg/mL), fMLF (100 nM)), and viral (imiquimod (3 μg/mL), R848 (1.5 μg/mL), and poly I:C (10 μg/mL)) surrogates or live rhinovirus (RV) 16 (MOI1). Cell-free supernatant was collected after 1 h for neutrophil elastase (NE) and matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9 measurements or after 24 h for CXCL8 release. Results. Constitutive NE was enhanced in AGood neutrophils compared to HC. fMLF stimulated neutrophils from ASubopt but not AGood produced 50% of HC levels. fMLF induced MMP-9 was impaired in ASubopt and AGood compared to HC. fMLF stimulated CXCL8 but not MMP-9 was positively correlated with FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. ASubopt and AGood responded similarly to other stimuli. Conclusions. Circulating neutrophils are different in asthma; however, this is likely to be related to airflow limitation rather than asthma control. PMID:26663987

  18. Territorial behaviour and hormones of pied flycatchers in optimal and suboptimal habitats.

    PubMed

    Silverin

    1998-10-01

    Since pied flycatchers, Ficedula hypoleuca, breed at higher densities in deciduous forests than in coniferous forests, competition for territories is likely to be greater in the former, optimal habitat. I tested the hypotheses that males in a deciduous forest defend their newly established territories more intensely and have higher plasma levels of testosterone than males in a suboptimal coniferous forest. In the deciduous forest, breeding density was higher, egg laying started earlier and more fledglings were produced. Morphological characters such as wing length, plumage colour and the size of the white forehead patch did not differ consistently between males establishing territories in deciduous and coniferous forests. Before the nest-building period, males in the deciduous forest were heavier, and had significantly larger furcula fat depots. I tested territorial aggressiveness by exposing unmated territorial males to simulated territorial intrusions. A significantly higher proportion of territorial males in the deciduous forest physically attacked the intruder; those that did attack also attacked more frequently than did males in the coniferous forest. Furthermore, males in the deciduous forest stayed closer to the decoy, and were more restless during the simulated territorial intrusion. Males in the deciduous forest had higher plasma levels of testosterone and corticosterone than did males in the coniferous forest, but there was no difference in dihydrotestosterone levels. These hormonal differences are most likely to be the result of a higher intrusion rate and a higher population density in the deciduous forest. I conclude that prior ownership is a crucial factor in maintaining a territory, and that differences in aggressive motivation between unmated males in the deciduous and coniferous forests reflect the value of the nestboxes defended. The high testosterone levels observed in males from the deciduous forest are likely to be the physiological factor

  19. 25 CFR 141.4 - Interpretation and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interpretation and construction. 141.4 Section 141.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Interpretation and Construction Guides § 141.4...

  20. 25 CFR 141.4 - Interpretation and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interpretation and construction. 141.4 Section 141.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Interpretation and Construction Guides § 141.4...

  1. 25 CFR 141.4 - Interpretation and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Interpretation and construction. 141.4 Section 141.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Interpretation and Construction Guides § 141.4...

  2. 25 CFR 141.4 - Interpretation and construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interpretation and construction. 141.4 Section 141.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Interpretation and Construction Guides § 141.4...

  3. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and suboptimal B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements. PMID:26579949

  4. High prevalence of suboptimal vitamin B12 status in young adult women of South Asian and European ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Quay, Teo A W; Schroder, Theresa H; Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Li, Wangyang; Devlin, Angela M; Barr, Susan I; Lamers, Yvonne

    2015-12-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B12 (B12) status has been associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies, preterm birth, and childhood insulin resistance. South Asians - Canada's largest minority group - and women of reproductive age are vulnerable to B12 deficiency. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with B12 deficiency and suboptimal B12 status in a convenience sample of young adult women of South Asian and European descent in Metro Vancouver. We measured serum B12, holotranscobalamin, plasma methylmalonic acid, red blood cell and plasma folate, and hematologic parameters in 206 nonpregnant, healthy women aged 19-35 years. Categorization for B12 status adhered to serum B12 cutoffs for deficiency (<148 pmol/L) and suboptimal B12 status (148-220 pmol/L). We collected demographic, lifestyle, and dietary intake data and conducted genotyping for common genetic variants linked to B-vitamin metabolism. The prevalence of deficiency and suboptimal B12 status were 14% and 20%, respectively. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations were negatively associated with oral contraceptive use and first-generation immigrant status, and positively with dietary B12 intake and B12 supplement use. The prevalence of B12 inadequacy in this sample of highly educated women is higher than in the general Canadian population. In light of maternal and fetal health risks associated with B12 inadequacy in early-pregnancy, practitioners should consider monitoring B12 status before and during early pregnancy, especially in immigrants and women with low dietary B12 intakes including non-users of vitamin supplements.

  5. Suboptimal Activation of Protease-activated Receptors Enhances α2β1 Integrin-mediated Platelet Adhesion to Collagen*

    PubMed Central

    Marjoram, Robin J.; Voss, Bryan; Pan, Yumei; Dickeson, S. Kent; Zutter, Mary M.; Hamm, Heidi E.; Santoro, Samuel A.

    2009-01-01

    Thrombin and fibrillar collagen are potent activators of platelets at sites of vascular injury. Both agonists cause platelet shape change, granule secretion, and aggregation to form the primary hemostatic plug. Human platelets express two thrombin receptors, protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 (PAR1 and PAR4) and two collagen receptors, the α2β1 integrin (α2β1) and the glycoprotein VI (GPVI)/FcRγ chain complex. Although these receptors and their signaling mechanisms have been intensely studied, it is not known whether and how these receptors cooperate in the hemostatic function of platelets. This study examined cooperation between the thrombin and collagen receptors in platelet adhesion by utilizing a collagen-related peptide (α2-CRP) containing the α2β1-specific binding motif, GFOGER, in conjunction with PAR-activating peptides. We demonstrate that platelet adhesion to α2-CRP is substantially enhanced by suboptimal PAR activation (agonist concentrations that do not stimulate platelet aggregation) using the PAR4 agonist peptide and thrombin. The enhanced adhesion induced by suboptimal PAR4 activation was α2β1-dependent and GPVI/FcRγ-independent as revealed in experiments with α2β1- or FcRγ-deficient mouse platelets. We further show that suboptimal activation of other platelet Gq-linked G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) produces enhanced platelet adhesion to α2-CRP. The enhanced α2β1-mediated platelet adhesion is controlled by phospholipase C (PLC), but is not dependent on granule secretion, activation of αIIbβ3 integrin, or on phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate a platelet priming mechanism initiated by suboptimal activation of PAR4 or other platelet Gq-linked GPCRs through a PLC-dependent signaling cascade that promotes enhanced α2β1 binding to collagens containing GFOGER sites. PMID:19815553

  6. Pilot study on the additive effects of berberine and oral type 2 diabetes agents for patients with suboptimal glycemic control

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Villanova, Nicola; Agostini, Federica; Marzocchi, Rebecca; Soverini, Valentina; Marchesini, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Background Suboptimal glycemic control is a common situation in diabetes, regardless of the wide range of drugs available to reach glycemic targets. Basic research in diabetes is endeavoring to identify new actives working as insulin savers, use of which could delay the introduction of injectable insulin or reduce the insulin dose needed. Commonly available as a nutraceutical, berberine is a potential candidate. Methods and results Because its low oral bioavailability can be overcome by P-glycoprotein inhibitors like herbal polyphenols, we have tested the nutraceutical combination of Berberis aristata extract and Silybum marianum extract (Berberol®) in type 2 diabetes in terms of its additive effect when combined with a conventional oral regimen for patients with suboptimal glycemic control. After 90 days of treatment, the nutraceutical association had a positive effect on glycemic and lipid parameters, significantly reducing glycosylated hemoglobin, basal insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. A relevant effect was also observed in terms of liver function by measuring aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase. The product had a good safety profile, with distinctive gastrointestinal side effects likely due to its acarbose-like action. Conclusion Although further studies should be carried out to confirm our data, Berberol could be considered a good candidate as an adjunctive treatment option in diabetes, especially in patients with suboptimal glycemic control. PMID:22924000

  7. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  8. Recommendations for managing a suboptimal response to biologics for moderate-to-severe psoriasis: A Belgian perspective.

    PubMed

    de la Brassinne, Michel; Ghislain, Pierre-Dominique; Lambert, Jo L W; Lambert, Julien; Segaert, Siegfried; Willaert, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, biologics have become the gold standard in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis for patients who have failed or who have contraindications to traditional systemic treatments. However, although practical recommendations on how to treat a suboptimal response to biologics exist in other chronic inflammatory diseases, they are only just beginning to emerge for psoriasis. This article aims to formulate recommendations in the case of a suboptimal response of psoriasis to biologics in the Belgian setting. A Belgian taskforce of psoriasis experts was convened to review the results of a literature search and formulate recommendations based on the available evidence and provide expert opinion to address gaps in the evidence. The taskforce has proposed a treatment algorithm for patients with a primary non-response or a secondary loss of response to help address an unmet need. Expert recommendations have been developed to address treatment strategies in case of a primary or secondary suboptimal response to biologics in the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis in Belgium.

  9. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions.

  10. [Effects of brassinolide on the antioxidant system and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu; Lu, Xiao-min

    2015-09-01

    The effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on antioxidant system and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings were studied under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment. Compared with the control, the leaf H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation and cell membrane permeability significantly increased, and the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr) and dry matter accumulation decreased by 39.3%, 40.0%, 21.2%, 47.2% and 35.9% in the suboptimal environment, respectively. Applying EBR could further improve the antioxidant enzyme activity, reduce the H2O2 content and membrane permeability of seedlings, alleviate the drop range of Pn, g(s) and Tr, improve the growth of seedlings and increase the dry matter accumulation by 25.9%. Therefore, EBR treatment could keep higher photosynthetic performance to effectively promote cucumber seedlings growth through adjusting the protective enzyme activity and reducing membrane lipid peroxide level under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment.

  11. [Effects of brassinolide on the antioxidant system and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu; Lu, Xiao-min

    2015-09-01

    The effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on antioxidant system and photosynthesis of cucumber seedlings were studied under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment. Compared with the control, the leaf H2O2 content, lipid peroxidation and cell membrane permeability significantly increased, and the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr) and dry matter accumulation decreased by 39.3%, 40.0%, 21.2%, 47.2% and 35.9% in the suboptimal environment, respectively. Applying EBR could further improve the antioxidant enzyme activity, reduce the H2O2 content and membrane permeability of seedlings, alleviate the drop range of Pn, g(s) and Tr, improve the growth of seedlings and increase the dry matter accumulation by 25.9%. Therefore, EBR treatment could keep higher photosynthetic performance to effectively promote cucumber seedlings growth through adjusting the protective enzyme activity and reducing membrane lipid peroxide level under suboptimal temperature, light and salt environment. PMID:26785558

  12. Accessibility versus Accuracy in Retrieving Spatial Memory: Evidence for Suboptimal Assumed Headings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerramsetti, Ashok; Marchette, Steven A.; Shelton, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation dependence in spatial memory has often been interpreted in terms of accessibility: Object locations are encoded relative to a reference orientation that affords the most accurate access to spatial memory. An open question, however, is whether people naturally use this "preferred" orientation whenever recalling the space. We…

  13. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, M. Hongchul; Ting, Lena H.

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., <5°). Generalizable muscle activation patterns were suboptimal in terms of effort, often exceeding 50% of the maximum possible effort (cf. ~5% in minimum-effort muscle activation patterns). The feasible muscle activation ranges of individual

  14. Quantifying Unnecessary Normal Tissue Complication Risks due to Suboptimal Planning: A Secondary Study of RTOG 0126

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Kevin L.; Schmidt, Rachel; Moiseenko, Vitali; Olsen, Lindsey A.; Tan, Jun; Xiao, Ying; Galvin, James; Pugh, Stephanie; Seider, Michael J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Bosch, Walter; Michalski, Jeff; Mutic, Sasa

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the frequency and clinical severity of quality deficiencies in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol. Methods and Materials: A total of 219 IMRT patients from the high-dose arm (79.2 Gy) of RTOG 0126 were analyzed. To quantify plan quality, we used established knowledge-based methods for patient-specific dose-volume histogram (DVH) prediction of organs at risk and a Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model for grade ≥2 rectal complications to convert DVHs into normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCPs). The LKB model was validated by fitting dose-response parameters relative to observed toxicities. The 90th percentile (22 of 219) of plans with the lowest excess risk (difference between clinical and model-predicted NTCP) were used to create a model for the presumed best practices in the protocol (pDVH{sub 0126,top10%}). Applying the resultant model to the entire sample enabled comparisons between DVHs that patients could have received to DVHs they actually received. Excess risk quantified the clinical impact of suboptimal planning. Accuracy of pDVH predictions was validated by replanning 30 of 219 patients (13.7%), including equal numbers of presumed “high-quality,” “low-quality,” and randomly sampled plans. NTCP-predicted toxicities were compared to adverse events on protocol. Results: Existing models showed that bladder-sparing variations were less prevalent than rectum quality variations and that increased rectal sparing was not correlated with target metrics (dose received by 98% and 2% of the PTV, respectively). Observed toxicities were consistent with current LKB parameters. Converting DVH and pDVH{sub 0126,top10%} to rectal NTCPs, we observed 94 of 219 patients (42.9%) with ≥5% excess risk, 20 of 219 patients (9.1%) with ≥10% excess risk, and 2 of 219 patients (0.9%) with ≥15% excess risk. Replanning demonstrated the

  15. Progress in enzyme immunoassays: production of reagents, experimental design, and interpretation*

    PubMed Central

    Kurstak, Edouard

    1985-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassays represent in many cases the preferred procedure for the detection of antigens or corresponding antibodies. However, many of the current procedures are performed suboptimally. This article reviews the available designs, auxiliary recognition systems, production and purification of antibodies, conjugation procedures, solid-phase materials, recording and interpretation of results, and quality control and standardization of procedures to improve the reproducibility of tests. PMID:3910300

  16. Comprehensive Interpretive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Richard; Sikoryak, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Discusses interpretive planning and provides information on how to maximize a sense of ownership shared by managers, staff, and other organizational shareholders. Presents practical and effective plans for providing interpretive services. (CCM)

  17. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  18. On Developing Business Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  19. Interpreting Abstract Interpretations in Membership Equational Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Rosu, Grigore

    2001-01-01

    We present a logical framework in which abstract interpretations can be naturally specified and then verified. Our approach is based on membership equational logic which extends equational logics by membership axioms, asserting that a term has a certain sort. We represent an abstract interpretation as a membership equational logic specification, usually as an overloaded order-sorted signature with membership axioms. It turns out that, for any term, its least sort over this specification corresponds to its most concrete abstract value. Maude implements membership equational logic and provides mechanisms to calculate the least sort of a term efficiently. We first show how Maude can be used to get prototyping of abstract interpretations "for free." Building on the meta-logic facilities of Maude, we further develop a tool that automatically checks and abstract interpretation against a set of user-defined properties. This can be used to select an appropriate abstract interpretation, to characterize the specified loss of information during abstraction, and to compare different abstractions with each other.

  20. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 5 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). 'Smart airport' technologies are expected to be available in 5-10 years for both recreational and business transportation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  1. Risky Business

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yarbrough, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    During my internship I worked on two major projects, recommending improvements for the Center's Risk Management Workshop and helping with the strategic planning efforts for Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA). The risk management improvements is the key project I worked on this semester through my internship, while the strategic planning is the secondary assignment. S&MA Business Office covers both aspects in its delegation, getting both spans some of the work done in the office. A risk is a future event with a negative consequence that has some probability of occurring. Safety and Mission Assurance identifies, analyzes, plans, and tracks risk. The directorate offers the Center a Risk Management Workshop, and part of the ongoing efforts of S&MA is to make continuous improvements to the RM Workshop. By using the Project Management Institute's (PMI) Standard for Risk Management, I performed a gap analysis to make improvements for our materials. I benchmarked the PMI's Risk Management Standard, compared our Risk Management Workshop materials to PMI's standard, and identified any gaps in our material. My major findings were presented to the Business Office of S&MA for a decision on whether or not to incorporate the improvements. These suggestions were made by attending JSC working group meetings, Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) panel reviews and various risk review meetings. The improvements provide better understanding of risk management processes and enhanced risk tracking knowledge and skills. Risk management is an integral part of any engineering discipline, getting exposed to this section of engineering will greatly help shape my career in the future. Johnson Space Center is a world leader in risk management processes; learning risk management here gives me a huge advantage over my peers, as well as understanding decision making in the context of risk management will help me to be a well-rounded engineer. Strategic planning is an area I had not previously

  2. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms.

  3. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  4. Does Increasing Treatment Frequency Address Suboptimal Responses to Ivermectin for the Control and Elimination of River Blindness?

    PubMed Central

    Frempong, Kwadwo K.; Walker, Martin; Cheke, Robert A.; Tetevi, Edward Jenner; Gyan, Ernest Tawiah; Owusu, Ebenezer O.; Wilson, Michael D.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Taylor, Mark J.; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several African countries have adopted a biannual ivermectin distribution strategy in some foci to control and eliminate onchocerciasis. In 2010, the Ghana Health Service started biannual distribution to combat transmission hotspots and suboptimal responses to treatment. We assessed the epidemiological impact of the first 3 years of this strategy and quantified responses to ivermectin over 2 consecutive rounds of treatment in 10 sentinel communities. Methods. We evaluated Onchocerca volvulus community microfilarial intensity and prevalence in persons aged ≥20 years before the first, second, and fifth (or sixth) biannual treatment rounds using skin snip data from 956 participants. We used longitudinal regression modeling to estimate rates of microfilarial repopulation of the skin in a cohort of 217 participants who were followed up over the first 2 rounds of biannual treatment. Results. Biannual treatment has had a positive impact, with substantial reductions in infection intensity after 4 or 5 rounds in most communities. We identified 3 communities—all having been previously recognized as responding suboptimally to ivermectin—with statistically significantly high microfilarial repopulation rates. We did not find any clear association between microfilarial repopulation rate and the number of years of prior intervention, coverage, or the community level of infection. Conclusions. The strategy of biannual ivermectin treatment in Ghana has reduced O. volvulus microfilarial intensity and prevalence, but suboptimal responses to treatment remain evident in a number of previously and consistently implicated communities. Whether increasing the frequency of treatment will be sufficient to meet the World Health Organization's 2020 elimination goals remains uncertain. PMID:27001801

  5. Exercise thallium stress testing compared with coronary angiography in patients without exclusions for suboptimal exercise or cardioactive medications

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, N.R.; Denis, L.

    1986-10-01

    From 1293 patients who underwent thallium stress testing and 1099 patients who had coronary angiography, a consecutive series of 122 who had both studies is evaluated. This group includes suboptimally exercised patients and those receiving one or several cardiovascular drugs that were not discontinued prior to exercise. When compared with the EKG stress test, thallium stress imaging was superior in sensitivity (80% vs 68%), specificity (84% vs 49%), accuracy (81% vs 62%), positive predictive value, (92% vs 75%), and negative predictive value (65% vs 45%) in this group, with 71% prevalence of angiographically significant coronary artery disease.

  6. Using Rivaroxaban as Thrombolytic Treatment for a Patient of Pedal Arch Arterial Thrombosis with Suboptimal Result of Endovascular Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hsin-Fu; Chan, Yi-Hsin; Wang, Chun-Li

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old male with subacute right foot ischemia was treated with endovascular therapy to relieve total thrombosis of the pedal arch extending from the dorsalis pedis of the anterior tibial artery into the posterior tibial artery, plantar segment. Because the procedure was only partially successful, rivaroxaban was used for thrombolytic treatment resulting in improvement of the patient’s ischemic pain and avoidance of gangrenous progression and surgical amputation. This is the first report describing successful recanalization of pedal arch arterial thrombosis using rivaroxaban in a patient after suboptimal results of endovascular therapy. PMID:27713614

  7. Interpreters' Involvement in Multi-Party Interactions: The Nature of Participation as Listener and Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takimoto, Masato

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates two naturally occurring business interpreting situations where there are a number of participants. Unlike dialogue interpreting situations where there are only two primary interlocutors, the overall interaction shows more complexity in these multi-party situations. This, in turn, means that the interpreters' functions and…

  8. Suboptimal implementation of diagnostic algorithms and overuse of computed tomography-pulmonary angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Sulaiman; Sayf, Alaa Abu; Arsene, Camelia; Krayem, Hicham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Majority of our computed tomography-pulmonary angiography (CTPA) scans report negative findings. We hypothesized that suboptimal reliance on diagnostic algorithms contributes to apparent overuse of this test. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on 2031 CTPA cases in a large hospital system. Investigators retrospectively calculated pretest probability (PTP). Use of CTPA was considered as inappropriate when it was ordered for patients with low PTP without checking D-dimer (DD) or following negative DD. RESULTS: Among the 2031 cases, pulmonary embolism (PE) was found in 7.4% (151 cases). About 1784 patients (88%) were considered “PE unlikely” based on Wells score. Out of those patients, 1084 cases (61%) did not have DD test prior to CTPA. In addition, 78 patients with negative DD underwent unnecessary CTPA; none of them had PE. CONCLUSIONS: The suboptimal implementation of PTP assessment tools can result in the overuse of CTPA, contributing to ineffective utilization of hospital resources, increased cost, and potential harm to patients. PMID:27803751

  9. Twin children in The Gambia: evidence for genetic regulation of physical characteristics in the presence of sub-optimal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jepson, A; Banya, W; Hassan-King, M; Sisay, F; Bennett, S; Whittle, H

    1994-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that physical growth characteristics are subject to genetic regulation. However, in developing countries, environmental factors such as food availability and frequent infections are associated with growth faltering which is particularly marked in infancy. We have conducted anthropometric measurements of a cohort of twin children aged less than 14 years living in a rural area of The Gambia to ascertain the extent to which genetic factors influence physical growth in the presence of a sub-optimal diet. Almost 25% of the children were more than 2SD below the median of the reference population in terms of their height-for-age Z score, indicating a marked level of undernutrition. Nevertheless, the within-pair variances were significantly less for monozygous than for dizygous twin pairs for the following variables: height, head circumference and body mass index (p < 0.01); weight (p < 0.02) and mid upper arm circumference (p < 0.1), indicating that there is a strong genetic influence on growth regulation despite the sub-optimal nutrition. PMID:7880093

  10. The relationship between suboptimal effort and post-concussion symptoms in children and adolescents with mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Gabriel C; Antonini, Tanya N; Monahan, Kerry; Gelfius, Carl; Klamar, Karl; Potts, Michelle; Yeates, Keith O; Bodin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective chart review study explored the relationship between suboptimal effort and post-concussion symptoms in pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Participants were 382 clinically referred children and adolescents between 8 and 16 years of age who sustained an mTBI. Suboptimal effort was identified using reliable digit span and age-corrected scaled scores from the Numbers subtest of the Children's Memory Scale (CMS); 20% of the sample were classified as non-credible performers. Chi-square analyses and t-tests were used to examine differences in post-concussion symptoms and neuropsychological test performance between credible and non-credible performers. Linear regression was used to examine whether CMS Numbers performance predicted post-concussion symptoms after controlling for baseline symptoms and other relevant demographic- and injury-related factors. We found that non-credible performers presented with a greater number of post-concussion symptoms as compared with credible performers. Additionally, non-credible performers demonstrated comparatively poorer performance on neuropsychological tests of focused attention and processing speed. These results suggest that children and adolescents with mTBI who fail effort testing might have a greater tendency to exaggerate post-concussion symptoms and cognitive impairment. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. Observations of simple RNA suboptimal structures including pseudoknots suggests that the folding landscape is often funnel shaped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Wayne; Kawai, Gota

    2008-03-01

    Many RNA structure are known to fold up into complex function structures such as ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), riboswitches, etc. We are currently developing a novel theoretical approach for predicting the base pairing topology of folded RNA structures [1,2], a term known as RNA secondary structure. A good prediction of this base pairing can significantly speed up computation of the full 3D structure of these complex molecules. In recent work, we reported a pseudoknot prediction application using this model [3]. We have now upgraded this application to also predict suboptimal structures. The results of this model suggest that structures like tRNA often have a folding landscape of suboptimal structures that is essentially funnel shaped; similar to what is known to be the case for many simple proteins. This model has also been applied to simple protein structure topology prediction in a similar fashion. [1] Dawson, et al. (2001). J Theor Biol. 213, 359-386 and 387-412. [2] Dawson, et al. (2006). Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids 25, 171-189. [3]Dawson, et al. (2007). PLoS One, 2, 905.

  12. The role of surgery in locally advanced carcinoma of cervix after sub-optimal chemoradiation: Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Kundargi, Rajshekar S.; Guruprasad, B.; Hanumantappa, Nikesh; Rathod, Praveen Shankar; Devi, Uma K.; Bafna, U. D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Standard treatment of advanced cervical cancer is concurrent chemoradiation. Radical radiotherapy for carcinoma cervix includes pelvic external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with the concomitant platinum based chemotherapy followed by intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) to boost central disease. Management of patients who are suboptimally treated, especially, after unsuccessful ICBT insertion is not well-defined. This study explores the role of hysterectomy in these patients. Materials and Methods: From January 2006 to December 2011, 38 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, in whom ICBT insertion was unsuccessful, were analyzed retrospectively. Operable patients with no parametrial involvement underwent hysterectomy and outcomes (recurrence free and overall survival) were noted. Results: The major complications in post operative period were wound infection, paralytic ileus and bladder atony all of which were conservatively managed with no mortality. At median follow-up of 36 months (range 12-60 months) there was no recurrence in patients with stage 1B2 and stage IIA, 25 out of 38 (65.8%) were event free and the overall survival was 71%. Conclusion: Many patients in Indian scenario receive suboptimal therapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. EBRT with chemotherapy followed by type 1 extra-fascial hysterectomy can be a good alternative for these patients. PMID:24455590

  13. Business Management Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This course guide is designed for teaching about the U.S. business system. Students are introduced to management functions and the background knowledge/skills necessary to be a successful manager. The guide contains 10 competency goals: (1) nature of U.S. business; (2) environment of business; (3) types of business ownership; (4) management…

  14. Sign Interpretation in Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    A special set of skills is essential for interpreting for mainstreamed deaf preschool students. Eleven issues in clarifying the job of the preschool interpreter are discussed, such as whether hearing children should learn to sign and how to encourage communication among hearing and deaf children. (JDD)

  15. Higher Education Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Bencie; Porcari li Destri, Giulia

    This paper discusses issues related to the training and provision of interpreters for deaf students at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. Background information provided notes the increasing numbers of deaf and partially hearing students, the existence of funding to pay for interpreters, and trends in the availability of…

  16. Prosody and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erekson, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosody is a means for "reading with expression" and is one aspect of oral reading competence. This theoretical inquiry asserts that prosody is central to interpreting text, and draws distinctions between "syntactic" prosody (for phrasing) and "emphatic" prosody (for interpretation). While reading with expression appears as a criterion in major…

  17. Lean business model and implementation of a geriatric fracture center.

    PubMed

    Kates, Stephen L

    2014-05-01

    Geriatric hip fracture is a common event associated with high costs of care and often with suboptimal outcomes for the patients. Ideally, a new care model to manage geriatric hip fractures would address both quality and safety of patient care as well as the need for reduced costs of care. The geriatric fracture center model of care is one such model reported to improve both outcomes and quality of care. It is a lean business model applied to medicine. This article describes basic lean business concepts applied to geriatric fracture care and information needed to successfully implement a geriatric fracture center. It is written to assist physicians and surgeons in their efforts to implement an improved care model for their patients. PMID:24721360

  18. Theory Interpretations in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan; Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to provide a mechanism for theory interpretations in a prototype verification system (PVS) so that it is possible to demonstrate the consistency of a theory by exhibiting an interpretation that validates the axioms. The mechanization makes it possible to show that one collection of theories is correctly interpreted by another collection of theories under a user-specified interpretation for the uninterpreted types and constants. A theory instance is generated and imported, while the axiom instances are generated as proof obligations to ensure that the interpretation is valid. Interpretations can be used to show that an implementation is a correct refinement of a specification, that an axiomatically defined specification is consistent, or that a axiomatically defined specification captures its intended models. In addition, the theory parameter mechanism has been extended with a notion of theory as parameter so that a theory instance can be given as an actual parameter to an imported theory. Theory interpretations can thus be used to refine an abstract specification or to demonstrate the consistency of an axiomatic theory. In this report we describe the mechanism in detail. This extension is a part of PVS version 3.0, which will be publicly released in mid-2001.

  19. The risk factors for suboptimal CD4 recovery in HIV infected population: an observational and retrospective study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengdi; Sun, Meiyan; Sun, Jianjun; Guan, Liqian; Wang, Jiangrong; Lu, Hongzhou

    2015-10-01

    Although the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has promoted the reconstitution of CD4+ T-cell count in the HIV infected population, not all patients can achieve the normalization of their immunologic functions. We analysed the variables associated with immunologic recovery, which is commonly regarded as the increase of CD4 to 350 cell/μL after a year of ART. We collected data from 3,485 patients attending a university-based HIV clinic from June 2005 to July 2014 in Shanghai, China. Logistic regression test was performed to analyse the risk factors for suboptimal CD4+ recovery following yearlong ART. The CD4+ T-cell of 723 participants (41.5% of the 1744 subjects) showed more than 350 cell/μL after one year of ART. Compared with baseline CD4 > 350 cell/μL, patients with baseline CD4 ≤ 200 cell/μL or 200 < CD4 ≤ 350 cell/μL were 42.6, 4.5 times more likely to be incomplete CD4 recovery, respectively. The risk of suboptimal immunologic recovery among patients with regimen including AZT or d4T were 2.1, 2.4 times higher compared with TDF, respectively. In our study, between optimal CD4 recovery group and suboptimal recovery group, there were no significant differences in age, gender, marital status, transmission routes, WHO stage, and CD4 recovery rates. As for the dynamic CD4 change, we found the CD4 recovery rates were 49.9% and 61.8% in the second and third year of ART, respectively. Patients who had a low level of CD4+ T-cell count (< 200 cell/μL) during the initiation of ART exhibited more difficulties recovering to a normal level. Furthermore, the regimen, including AZT or d4T, was not beneficial to CD4 recovery. So, more efforts should be made to guarantee the early diagnosis and timely treatment for HIV/AIDS patients, and simultaneously optimize antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26559026

  20. Using Symbols in International Business Presentations: How Well Are They Understood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert E.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to measure how well business and professional people from various cultures interpret symbols commonly used in international business presentations. Questionnaires contained 15 black and white symbols, selected from the clip art collection of Harvard Graphics business graphics software. Respondents from the United…

  1. Interpretation of Biosphere Reserves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriman, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) to monitor the 193 biogeographical provinces of the Earth and the creation of biosphere reserves. Highlights the need for interpreters to become familiar or involved with MAB program activities. (LZ)

  2. Interpreting Weather Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a brief introduction of our atmosphere, a guide to reading and interpreting weather maps, and a set of activities to facilitate teachers in helping to enhance student understanding of the Earth's atmosphere. (ZWH)

  3. BIOMONITORING: INTERPRETATION AND USES

    EPA Science Inventory

    With advanced technologies, it is now possible to measure very low levels of many chemicals in biological fluids. However, the appropriate use and interpretation of biomarkers will depend upon many factors associated with the exposure, adsorption, deposition, metabolism, and eli...

  4. Interpreting the X(5568)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, T. J.; Swanson, E. S.

    2016-09-01

    A variety of options for interpreting the DØ state, X (5568), are examined. We find that threshold, cusp, molecular, and tetraquark models are all unfavoured. Several experimental tests for unravelling the nature of the signal are suggested.

  5. Interpretation of Bernoulli's Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Schwaneberg, Rolf

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Bernoulli's equation with regards to: horizontal flow of incompressible fluids, change of height of incompressible fluids, gases, liquids and gases, and viscous fluids. Provides an interpretation, properties, terminology, and applications of Bernoulli's equation. (MVL)

  6. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. PMID:25828074

  7. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals.

  8. Business Value Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, Artem; Duarte, Vasco

    Agile teams want to deliver maximum business value. That’s easy if the on-site Ccstomer assigns business value to each story. But how does the customer do that? How can you estimate business value? This workshop is run as a game, where teams have to make tough business decisions for their ”organizations”. Teams have to decide which orders to take and what to deliver first in order to earn more. The session gives the participants basic business value estimation techniques, but the main point is to make people live through the business situation and to help them feel the consequences of various choices.

  9. Nonadaptive methods for polyhedral approximation of the Edgeworth—Pareto hull using suboptimal coverings on the direction sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotov, A. V.; Maiskaya, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    For multicriteria convex optimization problems, new nonadaptive methods are proposed for polyhedral approximation of the multidimensional Edgeworth-Pareto hull (EPH), which is a maximal set having the same Pareto frontier as the set of feasible criteria vectors. The methods are based on evaluating the support function of the EPH for a collection of directions generated by a suboptimal covering on the unit sphere. Such directions are constructed in advance by applying an asymptotically effective adaptive method for the polyhedral approximation of convex compact bodies, namely, by the estimate refinement method. Due to the a priori definition of the directions, the proposed EPH approximation procedure can easily be implemented with parallel computations. Moreover, the use of nonadaptive methods considerably simplifies the organization of EPH approximation on the Internet. Experiments with an applied problem (from 3 to 5 criteria) showed that the methods are fairly similar in characteristics to adaptive methods. Therefore, they can be used in parallel computations and on the Internet.

  10. Deleterious effect of suboptimal diet on rest-activity cycle in Anastrepha ludens manifests itself with age

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Joanna C.; Kaub, Kevin; Zou, Sige; Liedo, Pablo; Altamirano-Robles, Leopoldo; Ingram, Donald; Carey, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Activity patterns and sleep-wake cycles are among the physiological processes that change most prominently as animals age, and are often good indicators of healthspan. In this study, we used the video-based high-resolution Behavioral Monitoring System (BMS) to monitor the daily activity cycle of tephritid fruit flies Anastrepha ludens over their lifetime. Surprisingly, there was no dramatic change in activity profile with respect to age if flies were consistently fed with a nutritionally balanced diet. However, if flies were fed with sugar-only diet, their activity profile decreased in amplitude at old age, suggesting that suboptimal diet affected activity patterns, and its detrimental effect may not manifest itself until the animal ages. Moreover, by simulating different modes of behavior monitoring with a range of resolution and comparing the resulting conclusions, we confirmed the superior performance of video-based monitoring using high-resolution BMS in accurately representing activity patterns in an insect model. PMID:23639915

  11. Hyperplastic obesity and liver steatosis as long-term consequences of suboptimal in vitro culture of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Antonia; Decara, Juan M; Fernández-González, Raúl; López-Cardona, Angela P; Pavón, Francisco J; Orio, Laura; Alen, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Adán, Alfonso; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we identify and describe an obese phenotype in mice as a long-term consequence of a suboptimal in vitro culture that resulted from the addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) into the culture medium. Mice produced with FCS displayed a high mortality rate (approximately 55% versus 15% in control mice within 20 mo) and increased sensitivity to the development of obesity in adulthood when fed either a standard or a high-fat diet. These mice developed hyperplastic obesity that was characterized by a significant expansion of the fat pads (approximately 25% and 32% higher body weight in male and female mice over controls, respectively) with unchanged adipocyte size. We observed a sexual dimorphism in the development of obesity in the mice produced with FCS. Whereas the female mice displayed hypertension, hyperleptinemia, and fatty liver, the male mice only displayed glucose intolerance. The mRNA expression of metabolically relevant genes in the adipose tissue was also affected. The males produced with FCS expressed higher mRNA levels of the genes that activate fatty acid oxidation (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha [Ppara, PPARalpha] and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 [Acox1, ACOX1]) and thermogenesis (uncoupling protein 1 [Ucp1, UCP1]), which may counteract the metabolic phenotype. Conversely, the females produced with FCS generally expressed lower levels of these metabolic genes. In the females, the obese phenotype was associated with inhibition of the lipogenic pathway (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma [Pparg, PPARgamma] and fatty acid synthase [Fasn, FAS]), indicating a saturation of the storage capacity of the adipose tissue. Overall, our data indicate that the exposure to suboptimal in vitro culture conditions can lead to the sexually dimorphic development of obesity in adulthood.

  12. Business-to-business: Buying Recycled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millberg, Laura

    1994-01-01

    A survey of Minnesota businesses about their efforts to buy recycled content products. Results discuss reactive versus proactive policies, the corporate advantage of environmental protection, how efforts are hampered by confusion, suppliers as key informants, and businesses' need for information. (MDH)

  13. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  14. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 1 of 6. This composite image symbolizes how Advanced General Aviation Transports Experiment (AGATE) technology will contribute to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) early in the 21st century. Image from AGATE 'business' video animation.

  15. The Link: Business, Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1984

    1984-01-01

    An excerpt from "Corporate and Campus Cooperation: An Action Agenda" (a report from the Business-Higher Education Forum) explains some methods for strengthening the link between the business and education communities. (Author/MLW)

  16. Negotiating Diversity: Fostering Collaborative Interpretations of Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shujie; Cockburn-Wootten, Cheryl; Munshi, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    The intercultural divides in values, perceptions, and interpretations of concepts have been studied extensively by international business and intercultural communication scholars. Consequentially, much effort in university classrooms is spent on focusing on the differences between groups and on finding ways to "manage" cultural…

  17. English for Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Vijay K.; Bremner, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of Business English has undergone some major shifts in the last few years because of a number of developments, such as advances in genre theory and the coming together of English for Business Purposes and Business Communication, inspired by the realization that there is a gap to be bridged between the academy and the globalized…

  18. Discovering the Business Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Daved; Meisiek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, numerous business schools have begun experimenting with studio-based inquiry, often drawing inspiration from professional studios used within art and design schools and from business and governmental studios used for problem-solving and innovation. Business school studios vary considerably in form, ranging from temporary…

  19. Doing business with NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Because many U.S. businesses and companies want to do business with NASA, the Agency sends out procurement specialists to trade shows and conferences and organizes seminars to educate the business public on how to get on procurement lists to become product and service providers to the federal government.

  20. Articulating Business Education Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Beryl C.

    1998-01-01

    Responses from 75 of 108 business educators indicated that most students took business courses to develop both job and personal-use skills; more than 50% were college bound. A substantial overlap between skills taught in secondary and postsecondary business shows a strong possibility for curriculum articulation. (SK)

  1. Business and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchie, Lisa

    By virtue of the different natures of the two institutions, the relationship between business and the media is simultaneously adversarial and symbiotic: the media see themselves as society's watchdog while business sees itself as society's driving economic force. Meanwhile, business relies on the media for information, and the media rely on…

  2. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  3. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  4. The Business Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha; Meggison, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The business education curriculum encompasses the educational experiences of business students at all levels. Business education curricula include a variety of programs, courses, units, course objectives, student competencies, assessments, and extracurricular activities that have evolved over the years. Curricula are driven by numerous internal…

  5. First Business Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC. Office of Business Development.

    This guide offers first-time business persons information as well as administrative and operational techniques for one-person business enterprises that have low initial start-up costs and low operational and overhead costs. These one-person businesses can be home based or have site locations outside the home. Included in this guide is a list of…

  6. Partnering with Business Coalitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlowski, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Many career and technical education (CTE) programs rely heavily on support from the business community to serve their students. However, there is very little information available on building solid business-education partnerships. Most people in the business world will say that they care about education, but how can educators find the people…

  7. Optimal control of a harmonic oscillator: Economic interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janová, Jitka; Hampel, David

    2013-10-01

    Optimal control is a popular technique for modelling and solving the dynamic decision problems in economics. A standard interpretation of the criteria function and Lagrange multipliers in the profit maximization problem is well known. On a particular example, we aim to a deeper understanding of the possible economic interpretations of further mathematical and solution features of the optimal control problem: we focus on the solution of the optimal control problem for harmonic oscillator serving as a model for Phillips business cycle. We discuss the economic interpretations of arising mathematical objects with respect to well known reasoning for these in other problems.

  8. Hospitals as interpretation systems.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J B; McDaniel, R R; Anderson, R A

    1991-01-01

    In this study of 162 hospitals, it was found that the chief executive officer's (CEO's) interpretation of strategic issues is related to the existing hospital strategy and the hospital's information processing structure. Strategy was related to interpretation in terms of the extent to which a given strategic issue was perceived as controllable or uncontrollable. Structure was related to the extent to which an issue was defined as positive or negative, was labeled as controllable or uncontrollable, and was perceived as leading to a gain or a loss. Together, strategy and structure accounted for a significant part of the variance in CEO interpretations of strategic events. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1991677

  9. Explaining the Interpretive Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmeier, Jens

    1996-01-01

    Examines two prominent positions in the epistemological foundations of psychology--Piaget's causal explanatory claims and Vygotsky's interpretive understanding; contends that they need to be placed in their wider philosophical contexts. Argues that the danger of causally explaining cultural practices through which human beings construct and…

  10. Psychosemantics and Simultaneous Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Ny, Jean-Francois

    A comprehension model of simultaneous interpretation activity raises three types of problems: structure of semantic information stored in long-term memory, modalities of input processing and specific restrictions due to situation. A useful concept of semantic mnesic structures includes: (1) a componential-predicative lexicon; (2) a propositional…

  11. Interpreting the Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  12. Listening and Message Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  13. Interpretation and containment.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, L

    2000-02-01

    The author explores two aspects of the analyst's effort to imagine the inner world of his patient and the way that they are manifest in the clinical moment. The first of these is the analyst's recognition and interpretation of his patient's elaborated fantasies. This current of the analyst's imagination is most often evoked by the patient's communication of whole-object transferences, which occurs largely in his verbal associations. The second is the analyst's reception and transformation of his patient's primitive emotional experience, a process that Bion has called containment. This second imaginative current is most often evoked by the patient's communication of part-object transferences, which occurs largely in affect and action. Interpretation and containment both go on at once in clinical work, although one or the other is usually dominant. Attention to the interplay of interpretation and containment in the clinical moment enables us to identify the articulation of whole- and part-object transferences and to integrate ego-psychological and Kleinian frames of reference in clinical work. In addition, the concept of mutual containment opens Kleinian theory to the possibility of a two-person psychology in which the roles of analyst and patient are more symmetrical than they are usually conceived to be within this frame of reference. The author presents two clinical examples to demonstrate the interplay of interpretation and containment. In the first, these processes operate smoothly. In the second, the process of containment is strained but ultimately successful.

  14. Interpretation of Image Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    1988-01-01

    Describes experiments and studies which investigated perception and image interpretation on different cognitive levels. Subjects were asked to name, describe, index, and assess image contents; write legends; create images; complete stories; illustrate stories; and produce informative materials. Results confirmed the theory of a dual stage…

  15. Interpreting Contradictory Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Cynthia

    Preschool children, elementary school students, and adults participated in a study that examined various processes used to interpret contradictory communications. A screening test determined that all subjects were capable of discriminating between contradictory and congruent communications. Subjects were presented with contradictory verbal-facial…

  16. Interpreting & Biomechanics. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-Northeast, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Cumulative trauma disorder (CTD) refers to a collection of disorders associated with nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and the neurovascular (nerves and related blood vessels) system. CTD symptoms may involve the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists, or hands. Interpreters with CTD may experience a variety of symptoms including: pain, joint…

  17. Canadian Business Schools: Going out of Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobni, Dawn; Dobni, Brooke

    1996-01-01

    Using Porter's five-forces model (potential entrants, suppliers, buyers, rivalry, substitutes) to analyze competition in Canadian university business schools, the authors conclude that schools are becoming increasingly vulnerable to competitive pressures and that strategic reorientation is necessary. (SK)

  18. Sub-optimal phenotypes of double-knockout mutants of Escherichia coli depend on the order of gene deletions.

    PubMed

    Gawand, Pratish; Said Abukar, Fatumina; Venayak, Naveen; Partow, Siavash; Motter, Adilson E; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic networks are characterized by multiple redundant reactions that do not have a clear biological function. The redundancies in the metabolic networks are implicated in adaptation to random mutations and survival under different environmental conditions. Reactions that are not active under wild-type growth conditions, but get transiently activated after a mutation event such as gene deletion are known as latent reactions. Characterization of multiple-gene knockout mutants can identify the physiological roles of latent reactions. In this study, we characterized double-gene deletion mutants of E. coli with the aim of investigating the sub-optimal physiology of the mutants and the possible roles of latent reactions. Specifically, we investigated the effects of the deletion of the glyoxylate-shunt gene aceA (encoding a latent reaction enzyme, isocitrate lyase) on the growth characteristics of the mutant E. coli Δpgi. The deletion of aceA reduced the growth rate of E. coli Δpgi, indicating that the activation of the glyoxylate shunt plays an important role in adaptation of the mutant E. coli Δpgi when no other latent reactions are concurrently inactivated. We also investigated the effect of the order of the gene deletions on the growth rates and substrate uptake rates of the double-gene deletion mutants. The results indicate that the order in which genes are deleted determines the phenotype of the mutants during the sub-optimal growth phase. To elucidate the mechanism behind the difference between the observed phenotypes, we carried out transcriptomic analysis and constraint-based modeling of the mutants. Transcriptomic analysis showed differential expression of the gene aceK (encoding the protein isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase) involved in controlling the isocitrate flux through the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt. Higher acetate production in the E. coli ΔaceA1 Δpgi2 mutant was consistent with the increased aceK expression, which limits the TCA cycle

  19. Root-Zone Warming Differently Benefits Mature and Newly Unfolded Leaves of Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings under Sub-Optimal Temperature Stress

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yanxiu; Gao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Sub-optimal temperature extensively suppresses crop growth during cool-season greenhouse production. Root-zone (RZ) warming is considered an economical option to alleviate crop growth reduction. In this study we cultivated cucumber seedlings in nutrient solution under different air-RZ temperature treatments to investigate the effects of RZ warming on seedling growth- and photosynthesis-related parameters in leaves. The air-RZ temperature treatments included sub-optimal RZ temperature 13°C and sub-optimal air temperature 20/12°C (day/night) (S13), RZ warming at 19°C and sub-optimal air temperature (S19), and RZ warming at 19°C and optimal air temperature 26/18°C (day/night) (O19). In addition, for each air-RZ temperature treatment, half of the seedlings were also treated with 2% (m/m) polyethylene glycol (PEG) dissolved in nutrient solution to distinguish the effect of root-sourced water supply from RZ temperature. At the whole-plant level, S19 significantly increased the relative growth rate (RGR) by approximately 18% compared with S13, although the increase was less than in O19 (50%) due to delayed leaf emergence. S19 alleviated both diffusive and metabolic limitation of photosynthesis in mature leaves compared with S13, resulting in a photosynthetic rate similar to that in O19 leaves. In newly unfolded leaves, S19 significantly promoted leaf area expansion and alleviated stomatal limitation of photosynthesis compared with S13. PEG addition had a limited influence on RGR and leaf photosynthesis, but significantly suppressed new leaf expansion. Thus, our results indicate that under sub-optimal temperature conditions, RZ warming promotes cucumber seedling growth by differently benefiting mature and newly unfolded leaves. In addition, RZ warming enhanced root-sourced water supply, mainly promoting new leaf expansion, rather than photosynthesis. PMID:27152599

  20. Root-Zone Warming Differently Benefits Mature and Newly Unfolded Leaves of Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings under Sub-Optimal Temperature Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhuo; Zhang, Weihua; Miao, Yanxiu; Gao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Sub-optimal temperature extensively suppresses crop growth during cool-season greenhouse production. Root-zone (RZ) warming is considered an economical option to alleviate crop growth reduction. In this study we cultivated cucumber seedlings in nutrient solution under different air-RZ temperature treatments to investigate the effects of RZ warming on seedling growth- and photosynthesis-related parameters in leaves. The air-RZ temperature treatments included sub-optimal RZ temperature 13°C and sub-optimal air temperature 20/12°C (day/night) (S13), RZ warming at 19°C and sub-optimal air temperature (S19), and RZ warming at 19°C and optimal air temperature 26/18°C (day/night) (O19). In addition, for each air-RZ temperature treatment, half of the seedlings were also treated with 2% (m/m) polyethylene glycol (PEG) dissolved in nutrient solution to distinguish the effect of root-sourced water supply from RZ temperature. At the whole-plant level, S19 significantly increased the relative growth rate (RGR) by approximately 18% compared with S13, although the increase was less than in O19 (50%) due to delayed leaf emergence. S19 alleviated both diffusive and metabolic limitation of photosynthesis in mature leaves compared with S13, resulting in a photosynthetic rate similar to that in O19 leaves. In newly unfolded leaves, S19 significantly promoted leaf area expansion and alleviated stomatal limitation of photosynthesis compared with S13. PEG addition had a limited influence on RGR and leaf photosynthesis, but significantly suppressed new leaf expansion. Thus, our results indicate that under sub-optimal temperature conditions, RZ warming promotes cucumber seedling growth by differently benefiting mature and newly unfolded leaves. In addition, RZ warming enhanced root-sourced water supply, mainly promoting new leaf expansion, rather than photosynthesis.

  1. Root-Zone Warming Differently Benefits Mature and Newly Unfolded Leaves of Cucumis sativus L. Seedlings under Sub-Optimal Temperature Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhuo; Zhang, Weihua; Miao, Yanxiu; Gao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Sub-optimal temperature extensively suppresses crop growth during cool-season greenhouse production. Root-zone (RZ) warming is considered an economical option to alleviate crop growth reduction. In this study we cultivated cucumber seedlings in nutrient solution under different air-RZ temperature treatments to investigate the effects of RZ warming on seedling growth- and photosynthesis-related parameters in leaves. The air-RZ temperature treatments included sub-optimal RZ temperature 13°C and sub-optimal air temperature 20/12°C (day/night) (S13), RZ warming at 19°C and sub-optimal air temperature (S19), and RZ warming at 19°C and optimal air temperature 26/18°C (day/night) (O19). In addition, for each air-RZ temperature treatment, half of the seedlings were also treated with 2% (m/m) polyethylene glycol (PEG) dissolved in nutrient solution to distinguish the effect of root-sourced water supply from RZ temperature. At the whole-plant level, S19 significantly increased the relative growth rate (RGR) by approximately 18% compared with S13, although the increase was less than in O19 (50%) due to delayed leaf emergence. S19 alleviated both diffusive and metabolic limitation of photosynthesis in mature leaves compared with S13, resulting in a photosynthetic rate similar to that in O19 leaves. In newly unfolded leaves, S19 significantly promoted leaf area expansion and alleviated stomatal limitation of photosynthesis compared with S13. PEG addition had a limited influence on RGR and leaf photosynthesis, but significantly suppressed new leaf expansion. Thus, our results indicate that under sub-optimal temperature conditions, RZ warming promotes cucumber seedling growth by differently benefiting mature and newly unfolded leaves. In addition, RZ warming enhanced root-sourced water supply, mainly promoting new leaf expansion, rather than photosynthesis. PMID:27152599

  2. Adaptive dynamics of dormancy duration variability: evolutionary trade-off and priority effect lead to suboptimal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gourbière, Sébastien; Menu, Fréderic

    2009-07-01

    Many plants, insects, and crustaceans show within-population variability in dormancy length. The question of whether such variability corresponds to a genetic polymorphism of pure strategies or a mixed bet-hedging strategy, and how the level of phenotypic variability can evolve remain unknown for most species. Using an eco-genetic model rooted in a 25-year ecological field study of a Chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas, we show that its diapause-duration variability is more likely to have evolved by the spread of a bet-hedging strategy than by the establishment of a genetic polymorphism. Investigating further the adaptive dynamics of diapause-duration variability, we find two unanticipated patterns of general interest. First, there is a trade-off between the ability of bet-hedging strategies to persist on an ecological time scale and their ability to invade. The optimal strategy (in terms of persistence) cannot invade, whereas suboptimal bet-hedgers are good invaders. Second, we describe an original evolutionary dynamics where each bet-hedging strategy (defined by its rate of prolonged diapause) resists invasion by all others, so that the first type of bet-hedger to appear persists on an evolutionary time scale. Such "evolutionary priority effect" could drive the evolution of maladapted levels of diapause-duration variability.

  3. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children <5 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study analysed complementary feeding practices in four anglophone West African countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The study covered 12 623 children aged 6-23 months from four anglophone West African countries (Ghana: 822 children: Liberia: 1458 children, Nigeria: 8786 children and Sierra Leone: 1557 children). Four complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors, using multiple regression analysis. Multivariate analyses found that lack of post-natal contacts with health workers, maternal illiteracy and geographical region were common determinants of delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households.

  4. Extra-intestinal calcium handling contributes to normal serum calcium levels when intestinal calcium absorption is suboptimal.

    PubMed

    Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Moermans, Karen; Schoonjans, Luc; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2015-12-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, is a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis, especially through stimulation of intestinal calcium transport. Lack of intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling does however not result in hypocalcemia, because the increased 1,25(OH)2D levels stimulate calcium handling in extra-intestinal tissues. Systemic VDR deficiency, on the other hand, results in hypocalcemia because calcium handling is impaired not only in the intestine, but also in kidney and bone. It remains however unclear whether low intestinal VDR activity, as observed during aging, is sufficient for intestinal calcium transport and for mineral and bone homeostasis. To this end, we generated mice that expressed the Vdr exclusively in the gut, but at reduced levels. We found that ~15% of intestinal VDR expression greatly prevented the Vdr null phenotype in young-adult mice, including the severe hypocalcemia. Serum calcium levels were, however, in the low-normal range, which may be due to the suboptimal intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium loss, insufficient increase in bone resorption and normal calcium incorporation in the bone matrix. In conclusion, our results indicate that low intestinal VDR levels improve intestinal calcium absorption compared to Vdr null mice, but also show that 1,25(OH)2D-mediated fine-tuning of renal calcium reabsorption and bone mineralization and resorption is required to maintain fully normal serum calcium levels.

  5. Suboptimal inhibition of protease activity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Effects on virion morphogenesis and RNA maturation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Michael D.; Fu, William; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Ptak, Roger G.; Pathak, Vinay K.; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2008-09-15

    Protease activity within nascently released human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) particles is responsible for the cleavage of the viral polyproteins Gag and Gag-Pol into their constituent parts, which results in the subsequent condensation of the mature conical core surrounding the viral genomic RNA. Concomitant with viral maturation is a conformational change in the packaged viral RNA from a loosely associated dimer into a more thermodynamically stable form. In this study we used suboptimal concentrations of two protease inhibitors, lopinavir and atazanavir, to study their effects on Gag polyprotein processing and on the properties of the RNA in treated virions. Analysis of the treated virions demonstrated that even with high levels of inhibition of viral infectivity (IC{sub 90}), most of the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins were processed, although slight but significant increases in processing intermediates of Gag were detected. Drug treatments also caused a significant increase in the proportion of viruses displaying either immature or aberrant mature morphologies. The aberrant mature particles were characterized by an electron-dense region at the viral periphery and an electron-lucent core structure in the viral center, possibly indicating exclusion of the genomic RNA from these viral cores. Intriguingly, drug treatments caused only a slight decrease in overall thermodynamic stability of the viral RNA dimer, suggesting that the dimeric viral RNA was able to mature in the absence of correct core condensation.

  6. [Effects of sodium naphthalene acetate on growth and physiological characteristics of tomato seedlings under suboptimal temperature and light condition].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yun-na; Li, Yan-su; He, Chao-xing; Yu, Xian-chang

    2015-10-01

    Taking tomato 'Zhongza 105' as test material, the influences of sodium naphthalene acetate (SNA) on growth and physiological characteristics of tomato seedlings under suboptimal temperature and light condition were investigated. The results showed that the dry mass, vigorous seedling index, root activity, total nitrogen content, net photosynthesis rate (Pn) of tomato seedlings were significantly decreased by suboptimum temperature and light treatment. In addition, the catalase activity and zeatin riboside (ZR) concentration were also reduced. However, the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase activity and the content of abscisic acid (ABA) were increased. Compared with treatment of the same volume distilled water on tomato seedlings under suboptimum temperature and light condition, the dry mass of whole plant and vigorous seedling index of tomato seedlings were significantly increased by 16.4% and 22.9%, as the total N contents in roots and leaves and Pn were also increased by 8.5%, 28.5%and 37.0%, respectively, with the treatment of root application of 10 mg . L-1 SNA. Besides protective enzyme activity and the root activity were improved, the indole acetic acid (IAA) and ZR concentration of tomato were raised, and ABA concentration was reduced. The results indicated that root application of certain concentration of SNA could promote the growth of tomato seedlings by increasing the tomato root activity, protective enzymes activity, Pn and regulating endogenous hormone concentration under suboptimum temperature and light condition. PMID:26995913

  7. Age-associated differences in global and segmental control during dual-task walking under sub-optimal sensory conditions.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Nandini; Hewston, Patricia; Yoshikawa, Mika

    2015-04-01

    The ability to safely perform cognitive-motor dual-tasks is critical for independence of older adults. We compared age-associated differences in global and segmental control during dual-task walking in sub-optimal sensory conditions. Thirteen young (YA) and 13 healthy older (OA) adults walked a straight pathway with cognitive dual-task of walking-while-talking (WT) or no-WT under four sensory conditions. On randomly selected trials, visual and vestibular inputs were manipulated using blurring goggles (BV) and Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS), respectively. Gait speed decreased more in YA than OA during WT. Gait speed increased with GVS with normal vision but not BV. Step length considerably decreased with WT. Trunk roll significantly decreased only in OA with GVS in WT. Head roll significantly decreased with GVS regardless of age. Results indicate GVS-induced adaptations were dependent on available visual information. YA reduced their gait speed more than OA to achieve a similar pace to safely perform WT. GVS resulted in both age-groups to reduce head movement. However, with the addition of WT during GVS, OA also stiffened their trunk. Therefore, with increased attentional demands healthy OA employed different compensatory strategies than YA to maintain postural control.

  8. Semantic interpretation of nominalizations

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, R.D.; Gomez, F.

    1996-12-31

    A computational approach to the semantic interpretation of nominalizations is described. Interpretation of normalizations involves three tasks: deciding whether the normalization is being used in a verbal or non-verbal sense; disambiguating the normalized verb when a verbal sense is used; and determining the fillers of the thematic roles of the verbal concept or predicate of the nominalization. A verbal sense can be recognized by the presence of modifiers that represent the arguments of the verbal concept. It is these same modifiers which provide the semantic clues to disambiguate the normalized verb. In the absence of explicit modifiers, heuristics are used to discriminate between verbal and non-verbal senses. A correspondence between verbs and their nominalizations is exploited so that only a small amount of additional knowledge is needed to handle the nominal form. These methods are tested in the domain of encyclopedic texts and the results are shown.

  9. Evaluation of Psychotherapeutic Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    POGGE, DAVID L.; DOUGHER, MICHAEL J.

    1992-01-01

    If much psychotherapy literature goes unread and unused by therapists, one reason may be the apparent irrelevance of theory-derived hypotheses to actual practice. Methods that uncover tacit knowledge that practicing therapists already possess can provide the empirical basis for more relevant theories and the testing of more meaningful hypotheses. This study demonstrates application of the phenomenological method to the question of evaluating psychotherapy. To discover how experienced psychotherapists evaluate interpretations made in actual psychotherapy sessions, therapists were asked to evaluate such interpretations from videotapes; analysis of responses yielded a set of 10 dimensions of evaluation. Such methods offer both practical utility and a source of theoretical growth anchored in the real world of the practicing therapist. PMID:22700101

  10. Taxonomy of interpretation trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Patrick J.; Jain, Anil K.

    1992-02-01

    This paper explores alternative models of the interpretation tree (IT), whose search is one of the dominant paradigms for object recognition. Recurrence relations for the unpruned size of eight different types of search tree are introduced. Since exhaustive search of the IT in most recognition systems is impractical, pruning of various types is employed. It is therefore useful to see how much of the IT will be explored in a typical recognition problem. Probabilistic models of the search process have been proposed in the literature and used as a basis for theoretical bounds on search tree size, but experiments on a large number of images suggest that for 3-D object recognition from range data, the error probabilities (assumed to be constant) display significant variation. Hence, the theoretical bounds on the interpretation tree's size can serve only as rough estimates of the computational burden incurred during object recognition.

  11. Interpreting coagulation assays.

    PubMed

    Green, David

    2010-09-01

    The interpretation of coagulation assays requires knowledge of the principal clotting pathways. The activated partial thromboplastin time is sensitive to all hemostatic factors except FVII, whereas the prothrombin time reflects levels of prothrombin and FV, FVII, and FX. Using the two tests in concert is helpful in identifying hemophilia, the coagulopathy of liver disease, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. In addition, the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time are used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with heparin and warfarin, respectively. Measurement of D-dimer is informative in patients suspected of having thrombotic disorders and determining the risk of thrombosis recurrence. Mixing tests distinguish clotting factor deficiencies from circulating anticoagulants such as heparin, the lupus anticoagulant, and antibodies directed against specific clotting factors. The modified Bethesda assay detects and provides an indication of the strength of FVIII inhibitors. However, interpreting the results of coagulation assays is not always straightforward, and expert consultation is occasionally required to resolve difficult clinical situations. PMID:20855988

  12. Interpretation and creationism.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, J L

    1994-08-01

    This paper is an attempt to raise questions about certain underlying and implicit assumptions in some hermeneutic and narrative approaches to psychoanalysis. Starting from the view that Freud saw interpretation in the clinical setting as an attempt to unveil the analysand's psychic reality, it is argued that he envisaged that psychoanalysis aims to interpret what is real in the analysand's inner world--an empirical line of thought underpinned by the idea of analytic neutrality and an emphasis on the analysand's capacity to judge reality. By contrast, the tendency within the hermeneutic-narrative tradition is to demote psychic reality in favour of an emphasis on the analyst's capacity to interpret in order to help his analysand construct meaning. This approach may be said to put the analyst's words in the place of those of the Creator; in other words, it amounts to a 'verbal creationism', which the author argues is rooted in the idealistic philosophy of Hegel, Vico and Descartes and, further back, can be traced to the Book of Genesis--a conclusion causing the author to express some reservations. PMID:7989142

  13. Interpreting uncertainty terms.

    PubMed

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Uncertainty terms (e.g., some, possible, good, etc.) are words that do not have a fixed referent and hence are relatively ambiguous. A model is proposed that specifies how, from the hearer's perspective, recognition of facework as a potential motive for the use of an uncertainty term results in a calibration of the intended meaning of that term. Four experiments are reported that examine the impact of face threat, and the variables that affect it (e.g., power), on the manner in which a variety of uncertainty terms (probability terms, quantifiers, frequency terms, etc.) are interpreted. Overall, the results demonstrate that increased face threat in a situation will result in a more negative interpretation of an utterance containing an uncertainty term. That the interpretation of so many different types of uncertainty terms is affected in the same way suggests the operation of a fundamental principle of language use, one with important implications for the communication of risk, subjective experience, and so on.

  14. Why business models matter.

    PubMed

    Magretta, Joan

    2002-05-01

    "Business model" was one of the great buzz-words of the Internet boom. A company didn't need a strategy, a special competence, or even any customers--all it needed was a Web-based business model that promised wild profits in some distant, ill-defined future. Many people--investors, entrepreneurs, and executives alike--fell for the fantasy and got burned. And as the inevitable counterreaction played out, the concept of the business model fell out of fashion nearly as quickly as the .com appendage itself. That's a shame. As Joan Magretta explains, a good business model remains essential to every successful organization, whether it's a new venture or an established player. To help managers apply the concept successfully, she defines what a business model is and how it complements a smart competitive strategy. Business models are, at heart, stories that explain how enterprises work. Like a good story, a robust business model contains precisely delineated characters, plausible motivations, and a plot that turns on an insight about value. It answers certain questions: Who is the customer? How do we make money? What underlying economic logic explains how we can deliver value to customers at an appropriate cost? Every viable organization is built on a sound business model, but a business model isn't a strategy, even though many people use the terms interchangeably. Business models describe, as a system, how the pieces of a business fit together. But they don't factor in one critical dimension of performance: competition. That's the job of strategy. Illustrated with examples from companies like American Express, EuroDisney, WalMart, and Dell Computer, this article clarifies the concepts of business models and strategy, which are fundamental to every company's performance.

  15. Conducting business under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

    SciTech Connect

    Ittig, J.

    1982-07-01

    The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act inhibits many businesses conducting international transactions. Although the Senate has proposed revisions to the FCPA to alleviate some of the handicaps of U.S. citizens doing business abroad, the House of Representatives has yet to approve a bill. This study identifies the critical interpretive problems, and suggests protective measures a company can take to avoid problems until the FCPA is amended.

  16. Interpreting digoxin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Canaday, B R

    1992-11-01

    In all cases, clinical assessment of the patient is the most critical factor in determining dose and interpreting concentrations. When done accurately, laboratory assessment of drug concentrations represents only one source of information. Serum concentrations must be taken into account along with all other relevant clinical data before one can arrive at appropriate management decisions. They must not be considered in isolation and out of context. If the laboratory report is at variance with your clinical judgment, "it will often be the better part of wisdom to question (or reject) the report." PMID:1442543

  17. Interpretation of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of extragalatic radio jets is modeled. The basic hypothesis of these models is that extragalatic jets are outflows of matter which can be described within the framework of fluid dynamics and that the outflows are essentially continuous. The discussion is limited to the interpretation of large-scale (i.e., kiloparsec-scale) jets. The central problem is to infer the physical parameters of the jets from observed distributions of total and polarized intensity and angle of polarization as a function of frequency. 60 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Interpretation of Conventional Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    The conventional mass is not a precise physical quantity but useful virtual one in mass metrology. Because the precise level of conventional mass is related to the OIML class, it is necessary to check if the assignment of weight class is under control. The documents of OIML (International Organization of Legal Metrology) D 28 and R 111 describe the limitation of the quantity in real application. In this presentation, we are trying to interpret and review the concept of conventional mass, for example, by estimating buoyancy deviation and maximum permissible error, in weight calibrations in Korea. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  19. Interpreting Transistor Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospieszalski, M. W.

    2010-10-01

    The simple noise models of field effect and bipolar transistors reviewed in this article are quite useful in engineering practice, as illustrated by measured and modeled results. The exact and approximate expressions for the noise parameters of FETs and bipolar transistors reveal certain common noise properties and some general noise properties of both devices. The usefulness of these expressions in interpreting the dependence of measured noise parameters on frequency, bias, and temperature and, consequently, in checking of consistency of measured data has been demonstrated.

  20. Effects of TCMC on Transformation of Good Health Status to Suboptimal Health Status: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jieyu; Sun, Xiaomin; Xiang, Lei; Zhou, Lin; Li, Fei; Lin, Changsong; Jiang, Pingping; Wu, Shengwei; Xiao, Ya; Cheng, Jingru; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of traditional Chinese medicine constitution (TCMC) on transformation of good health status to suboptimal health status (SHS), we conducted a nested case-control study among college students in China. During the 18-month mean follow-up time, 543 cases of SHS (42.7%) occurred in 1273 healthy students. There was a significant (P = 0.000) and marked reduction in SHMS V1.0 total score in the case group at the 18-month follow-up (69.32 ± 5.45) compared with baseline (78.60 ± 4.70), but there was no significant change in the control group. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed that respondents reporting Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency were, respectively, 2.247 and 2.198 times more likely to develop SHS, while tendency to Yin-deficiency and tendency to Damp-heat were, respectively, 1.642 and 1.506 times more likely to develop SHS. However, the Balanced Constitution was a significant protective factor (OR 0.649; P < 0.05). Altogether, these findings demonstrate that Yin-deficiency, Qi-deficiency, tendency to Yin-deficiency, and tendency to Damp-heat appeared to induce a change in health status to SHS, while the Balanced Constitution seemed to restrain this change. We conclude that regulating the unbalanced TCMC (such as Yin-deficiency and Qi-deficiency) may prevent a healthy status developing into SHS or lead to the regression of SHS. PMID:26346320

  1. Characterization of Fibromyalgia Symptoms in Patients 55 to 95 Years Old: a Longitudinal Study Showing Symptom Persistence with Suboptimal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sandra A.; Simpson, Rachel G.; Lubahn, Cheri; Hu, Chengcheng; Belden, Christine M.; Davis, Kathryn J.; Nicholson, Lisa R.; Long, Kathy E.; Osredkar, Tracy; Lorton, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fibromyalgia (FM) has been understudied in the elderly population, a group with particular vulnerabilities to pain, reduced mobility, and sleep disruption. AIMS To characterize FM symptoms and treatments in a cohort of older subjects examined over time to determine the extent to which current, community-based treatment for older FM patients is in accord with published guidelines, and effective in reducing symptoms. METHODS A longitudinal, observational study of 51 subjects with FM (range 55 to 95 years) and 81 control subjects (58 to 95 years) performed at Banner Sun Health Research Institute in Sun City, AZ. Serial history and examination data were obtained over a 6-year period. FM data included medical history, medications, physical examination, tender point examination, neuropsychological testing, sleep and pain ratings, the Physical Function Subscale of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and other standardized scales to evaluate depression and other psychiatric symptoms, and cognitive and functional impairment. RESULTS Pain and stiffness that interfered with physical activity, sleep, and mood were reported by 80% or more of subjects. Over time, pain involved an increasing number of body areas. Over half of subjects were treated with NSAIDs, one-quarter with opioids, and one-quarter with estrogen. Few were treated with dual-acting antidepressants or pregabalin. DISCUSSION In this cohort of elders with suboptimally treated FM, substantial persistence of symptoms was seen over time. In general, recommended treatments were either not used or not tolerated. CONCLUSIONS Age-appropriate treatments as well as education of primary care providers are needed to improve treatment of FM in the older population. PMID:24859821

  2. Root cortical aerenchyma enhances the growth of maize on soils with suboptimal availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

    PubMed

    Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2011-07-01

    Root cortical aerenchyma (RCA) is induced by hypoxia, drought, and several nutrient deficiencies. Previous research showed that RCA formation reduces the respiration and nutrient content of root tissue. We used SimRoot, a functional-structural model, to provide quantitative support for the hypothesis that RCA formation is a useful adaptation to suboptimal availability of phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium by reducing the metabolic costs of soil exploration in maize (Zea mays). RCA increased the growth of simulated 40-d-old maize plants up to 55%, 54%, or 72% on low nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium soil, respectively, and reduced critical fertility levels by 13%, 12%, or 7%, respectively. The greater utility of RCA on low-potassium soils is associated with the fact that root growth in potassium-deficient plants was more carbon limited than in phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants. In contrast to potassium-deficient plants, phosphorus- and nitrogen-deficient plants allocate more carbon to the root system as the deficiency develops. The utility of RCA also depended on other root phenes and environmental factors. On low-phosphorus soils (7.5 μM), the utility of RCA was 2.9 times greater in plants with increased lateral branching density than in plants with normal branching. On low-nitrate soils, the utility of RCA formation was 56% greater in coarser soils with high nitrate leaching. Large genetic variation in RCA formation and the utility of RCA for a range of stresses position RCA as an interesting crop-breeding target for enhanced soil resource acquisition.

  3. TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase whose expression is induced in response to suboptimal growth conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Szawlowska, Urszula; Grabowska, Agnieszka; Zdunek-Zastocka, Edyta; Bielawski, Wieslaw

    2012-03-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A cDNA encoding a novel plant prolyl aminopeptidase, TsPAP1, was obtained from triticale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cloned TsPAP1 cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The deduced TsPAP1 protein revealed characteristics of the monomeric bacterial PAPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TsPAP1 mRNA level increased under drought, salinity and in the presence of metal ions. -- Abstract: A triticale cDNA encoding a prolyl aminopeptidase (PAP) was obtained by RT-PCR and has been designated as TsPAP1. The cloned cDNA is 1387 bp long and encodes a protein of 390 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 43.9 kDa. The deduced TsPAP1 protein exhibits a considerable sequence identity with the biochemically characterized bacterial and fungal PAP proteins of small molecular masses ({approx}35 kDa). Moreover, the presence of conserved regions that are characteristic for bacterial monomeric PAP enzymes (the GGSWG motif, the localization of the catalytic triad residues and the segment involved in substrate binding) has also been noted. Primary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis revealed that TsPAP1 encodes a novel plant PAP protein that is distinct from the multimeric proteins that have thus far been characterized in plants and whose counterparts have been recognized only in bacteria and fungi. A significant increase in the TsPAP1 transcript level in the shoots of triticale plants was observed under drought and saline conditions as well as in the presence of cadmium and aluminium ions in the nutrient medium. This paper is the first report describing changes in the transcript levels of any plant PAP in response to suboptimal growth conditions.

  4. Transient and permanent effects of suboptimal incubation temperatures on growth, metabolic rate, immune function and adrenocortical responses in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Wada, Haruka; Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Allen, Natalie; Schmidt, Kimberly L; Soma, Kiran K; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2015-09-01

    In birds, incubation temperature can vary by several degrees Celsius among nests of a given species. Parents may alter incubation temperature to cope with environmental conditions and/or to manipulate embryonic development, and such changes in incubation behavior could have long-lasting effects on offspring phenotype. To investigate short- and long-term effects of suboptimal incubation temperatures on survival and physiological functions in zebra finches, eggs were incubated at 36.2, 37.4 or 38.4 °C for the entire incubation period. The post-hatch environment was identical among the treatment groups. We found that hatching success was lowest in the 38.4 °C group, while post-hatch survival was lowest in the 36.2 °C group. Incubation temperature had sex-specific effects on offspring phenotype: incubation temperatures affected body mass (Mb) but not physiological parameters of males and conversely, the physiological parameters but not Mb of females. Specifically, males from the 38.4 °C group weighed significantly less than males from the 36.2 °C group from the nestling period to adulthood, whereas females from different incubation temperature groups did not differ in Mb. In contrast, females incubated at 36.2 °C had transient but significantly elevated basal metabolic rate and adrenocortical responses during the nestling and fledgling periods, whereas no treatment effect was observed in males. Innate immunity was not affected by incubation temperature in either sex. These results suggest that a 1 °C deviation from what is considered an optimal incubation temperature can lower offspring performance and offspring survival.

  5. Combination Chemotherapy with Suboptimal Doses of Benznidazole and Pentoxifylline Sustains Partial Reversion of Experimental Chagas' Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Resende Pereira, Isabela; de Souza Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre; Cruz Moreira, Otacilio; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Britto, Constança; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2016-07-01

    Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) progresses with parasite persistence, fibrosis, and electrical alterations associated with an unbalanced immune response such as high plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO). Presently, the available treatments only mitigate the symptoms of CCC. To improve CCC prognosis, we interfered with the parasite load and unbalanced immune response using the trypanocidal drug benznidazole (Bz) and the immunoregulator pentoxifylline (PTX). C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and with signs of CCC were treated for 30 days with a suboptimal dose of Bz (25 mg/kg of body weight), PTX (20 mg/kg), or their combination (Bz plus PTX) and analyzed for electrocardiographic, histopathological, and immunological changes. Bz (76%) and Bz-plus-PTX (79%) therapies decreased parasite loads. Although the three therapies reduced myocarditis and fibrosis and ameliorated electrical alterations, only Bz plus PTX restored normal heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) intervals. Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice presented complementary effects of Bz and PTX, which reduced TNF expression (37%) in heart tissue and restored normal TNF receptor 1 expression on CD8(+) T cells, respectively. Bz (85%) and PTX (70%) therapies reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2) in heart tissue, but only Bz (58%) reduced NO levels in serum. These effects were more pronounced after Bz-plus-PTX therapy. Moreover, 30 to 50 days after treatment cessation, reductions of the prolonged QTc and QRS intervals were sustained in Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice. Our findings support the importance of interfering with the etiological agent and immunological abnormalities to improve CCC prognosis, opening an opportunity for a better quality of life for Chagas' disease (CD) patients. PMID:27161638

  6. Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma zone Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Tefera; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified random sampling methods. Food insecurity was measured using scales validated in developing countries. Dietary practices were measured using dietary diversity score, food variety score and frequency of consuming animal source food. Multivariable regression models were used to compare dietary behaviors by food security status after controlling for socio-demographic and economic covariates. Food insecure adolescents had low dietary diversity score (P<0.001), low mean food variety score (P<0.001) and low frequency of consuming animal source foods (P<0.001). After adjusting for other variables in a multivariable logistic regression model, adolescent food insecurity (P<0.001) and rural residence (P<0.001) were negatively associated with the likelihood of having a diversified diet (P<0.001) and frequency of consuming animal source foods, while a high household income tertile was positively associated. Similarly, multivariable linear regression model showed that adolescent food insecurity was negatively associated with food variety score, while residence in semi-urban areas (P<0.001), in urban areas (P<0.001) and high household income tertile (P = 0.013) were positively associated. Girls were less likely to have diversified diet (P = 0.001) compared with boys. Our findings suggest that food insecurity has negative consequence on optimal dietary intake of adolescents. Food security interventions should look into ways of targeting adolescents to mitigate these dietary consequences and

  7. Exposure to Suboptimal Temperatures during Metamorphosis Reveals a Critical Developmental Window in the Solitary Bee, Megachile rotundata.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Meghan M; Cook, Keeley M; Rinehart, Joseph P; Yocum, George D; Kemp, William P; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2015-01-01

    Metamorphosis is an important developmental stage for holometabolous insects, during which adult morphology and physiology are established. Proper development relies on optimal body temperatures, and natural ambient temperature (Ta) fluctuations, especially in spring or in northern latitudes, could result in interruptions to development. It is unclear how low-Ta exposure may affect insects that are actively developing. To understand how suboptimal Ta may affect metamorphosing insects, we used the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), a solitary, cavity-nesting bee that spends its juvenile and pupal stages within a brood cell. We characterized suites of physiological traits, rather than just using a singular parameter to determine effects of sublethal Ta stress. Metamorphosing M. rotundata were exposed to either constant or fluctuating low-Ta stress and compared to control bees allowed to develop normally. All bees survived and emerged as adults, but the constant low-Ta-stressed bees were affected most severely. Male constant low-Ta-stressed bees had decreased flight performance (lower metabolic rate, shorter flight bouts, decreased wing length), suggesting that the stress altered muscular or neurological development. Constant low-Ta-stressed bees also had altered activity levels, providing more support for the hypothesis that low-Ta stress causes long-term neurological defects. Exposure to fluctuating low Ta also delayed development time for both sexes; males had decreased adult life span, and both sexes had shortened wings. Together, these results provide evidence for a critical developmental window during metamorphosis and suggest that there may be severe implications for bees in the wild that are exposed to low-Ta stressors. PMID:26658248

  8. CD4 responses in the setting or suboptimal virological responses to antiretroviral therapy: features, outcomes, and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Collazos, Julio; Asensi, Víctor; Cartón, José Antonio

    2009-07-01

    The factors associated with discordant viroimmunological responses following antiretroviral therapy are unclear. We studied 1380 patients who initiated a protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral regimen and who fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Of them, 255 (18.5%) had CD4 increases > or =100 cells/microl after 1 year of therapy despite detectable viral load (immunological responders); they were compared with 669 patients (48.5%) who had CD4 increases <100 cells/microl regardless of their final viral load (immunological nonresponders). Immunological responders had higher rates of sexual acquisition of HIV (p = 0.03), lower rates of clinical progression (p = 0.02), higher probabilities of being naive to antiretroviral therapy (p = 0.006) or to PI if antiretroviral experienced (p = 0.03), higher rates of receiving only nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in addition to the PI (p = 0.04), and lower baseline CD4 counts (p = 0.007) and higher viral loads (p = 0.009), as compared with nonresponders. Multivariate analysis revealed that sexual transmission of HIV (homosexual p = 0.004, heterosexual p = 0.03), no prior PI experience (p = 0.005), absence of clinical progression (p = 0.02), and lower baseline CD4 counts (p = 0.03) were independently associated with immunological response. However, these factors differed according to the patients' prior antiretroviral status, as higher baseline viral load was also associated with immunological response in antiretroviral-experienced patients (p = 0.02), whereas baseline CD4 count (p = 0.007) was the only predictive parameter in antiretroviral-naive patients. We conclude that immunological responses despite suboptimal viral suppression are common. Prior PI experience, HIV transmission category, baseline CD4 counts, and clinical progression were independently predictive of this condition, although the associated factors were different depending on the patient's prior antiretroviral history.

  9. Combination Chemotherapy with Suboptimal Doses of Benznidazole and Pentoxifylline Sustains Partial Reversion of Experimental Chagas' Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vilar-Pereira, Glaucia; Resende Pereira, Isabela; de Souza Ruivo, Leonardo Alexandre; Cruz Moreira, Otacilio; da Silva, Andrea Alice; Britto, Constança

    2016-01-01

    Chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) progresses with parasite persistence, fibrosis, and electrical alterations associated with an unbalanced immune response such as high plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO). Presently, the available treatments only mitigate the symptoms of CCC. To improve CCC prognosis, we interfered with the parasite load and unbalanced immune response using the trypanocidal drug benznidazole (Bz) and the immunoregulator pentoxifylline (PTX). C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and with signs of CCC were treated for 30 days with a suboptimal dose of Bz (25 mg/kg of body weight), PTX (20 mg/kg), or their combination (Bz plus PTX) and analyzed for electrocardiographic, histopathological, and immunological changes. Bz (76%) and Bz-plus-PTX (79%) therapies decreased parasite loads. Although the three therapies reduced myocarditis and fibrosis and ameliorated electrical alterations, only Bz plus PTX restored normal heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) intervals. Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice presented complementary effects of Bz and PTX, which reduced TNF expression (37%) in heart tissue and restored normal TNF receptor 1 expression on CD8+ T cells, respectively. Bz (85%) and PTX (70%) therapies reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2) in heart tissue, but only Bz (58%) reduced NO levels in serum. These effects were more pronounced after Bz-plus-PTX therapy. Moreover, 30 to 50 days after treatment cessation, reductions of the prolonged QTc and QRS intervals were sustained in Bz-plus-PTX-treated mice. Our findings support the importance of interfering with the etiological agent and immunological abnormalities to improve CCC prognosis, opening an opportunity for a better quality of life for Chagas' disease (CD) patients. PMID:27161638

  10. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  11. Physical interpretation of antigravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; James, Albin

    2016-02-01

    Geodesic incompleteness is a problem in both general relativity and string theory. The Weyl-invariant Standard Model coupled to general relativity (SM +GR ), and a similar treatment of string theory, are improved theories that are geodesically complete. A notable prediction of this approach is that there must be antigravity regions of spacetime connected to gravity regions through gravitational singularities such as those that occur in black holes and cosmological bang/crunch. Antigravity regions introduce apparent problems of ghosts that raise several questions of physical interpretation. It was shown that unitarity is not violated, but there may be an instability associated with negative kinetic energies in the antigravity regions. In this paper we show that the apparent problems can be resolved with the interpretation of the theory from the perspective of observers strictly in the gravity region. Such observers cannot experience the negative kinetic energy in antigravity directly, but can only detect in and out signals that interact with the antigravity region. This is no different from a spacetime black box for which the information about its interior is encoded in scattering amplitudes for in/out states at its exterior. Through examples we show that negative kinetic energy in antigravity presents no problems of principles but is an interesting topic for physical investigations of fundamental significance.

  12. Speechwriting: The Business Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Martha Stout

    Several factors have contributed to the increased demand for corporate speechwriters, including the consumer and environmental movements, the economy, foreign competition, and a negative public attitude toward business. Corporate speeches serve a variety of purposes: promoting a corporation within a business community, providing information on…

  13. Teaching Business Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trivelli, Remo J.

    The University of Rhode Island's business Italian course is an advanced language course whose focus is the Italian business world and its reflection of values, customs, and traditions. The course begins with presentations on salient features of contemporary Italian, such as syntactical simplification and nominalization, and how the social,…

  14. Is Small Business Doomed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Education Forum, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a sampling of viewpoints from businessmen, economists, futurists, and government experts on the future of small business presented at hearings before the Subcommittee on Antitrust, Consumers, and Employment, Committee on Small Business, House of Representatives. Problems of taxes, the economy, and government regulations are discussed from…

  15. Business and Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…

  16. Agriculture Business and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seperich, George; And Others

    This curriculum guide is intended for vocational agriculture teachers who deliver agricultural business and management programs at the secondary or postsecondary level. It is based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for management and supervisory positions in agricultural business. The competency/skill and task list…

  17. Business Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide contains instructional materials to aid business education teachers in teaching business skills in Alaska secondary schools. The materials include five units covering the following topics: human relations as a separate unit and as integrated into other daily activities such as planning and organizing work activities and grooming,…

  18. Mind Your Own Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Judith M.; Kirkwood, Hal P., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Like any well-run company deciding on what products and services to offer, a good library should pay attention to customer demand when it is building its business reference collection. What kind of information do business patrons want? Most are looking for company and industry details: a corporate address or name of an officer, financial data for…

  19. Risk Is Their Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1996-01-01

    The Northwest Pennsylvania Regional Planning and Development Commission, a local development district based in Venango County, focuses on nourishing small business development and entrepreneurship in business incubators owned by local governments. One of the region's resources is the nation's first "teaching factory," which provides job training…

  20. Teaching Business Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKillop, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    Business is integral to the functioning of the national economy, politics, education and everyday living. It is without question that business education is a vital part of the high school experience, and should be seen as required courses rather than electives. Preparing high school students for real life beyond high school happens in the business…

  1. The Business Letter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nederland Independent School District, TX.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 9-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Business. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: This guide, designed for direct student use, indicates the parts of a business letter, a placement guide, and steps for typing letters. Worksheets and illustrations indicate forms of block and indented styles; open, closed, and mixed punctuation; the…

  2. IBM Small Business Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Business Machines Corp., Armonk, NY.

    A telephone survey conducted March 15-22, 1991, examined how small businesses are currently performing. Interviewees were 400 small business owners randomly selected from a Dun and Bradstreet list of companies with 50 or fewer employees. Major findings were as follows: (1) owners were survivors, highly confident in their own abilities, and…

  3. Building Tomorrow's Business Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Modern automobile maintenance, like most skilled-trades jobs, is more than simple nuts and bolts. Today, skilled-trades jobs might mean hydraulics, computerized monitoring equipment, electronic blueprints, even lasers. As chief executive officer of Grainger, a business-to-business maintenance, repair, and operating supplies company that…

  4. Updating Business Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Report from the Curriculum Service Center, 1975

    1975-01-01

    To gather information on how the business education curriculum in secondary schools is being affected by changing trends, questionnaires were sent to State and local business education supervisors. Some aspects of instructional innovations are discussed based on the responses gained from the national survey, particularly the responses of 78 local…

  5. Taylor Business Institute, Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jerry

    The Office of the State Comptroller in New York audited the records and procedures used in administering the Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) at Taylor Business Institute (Taylor) for the academic years 1995-96 through 1997-98. Taylor, located in Manhattan, offers both degree programs and diploma programs in Accounting, Business Management,…

  6. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  7. Business Communication in BELF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kankaanranta, Anne; Louhiala-Salminen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    The authors' business communication perspective is not in fact that of ESL but rather English as a foreign language (EFL) or, even more so, English as a lingua franca (ELF). To be more specific, they would like to add one more acronym to the list: They teach BELF, by which they refer to ELF for business communication purposes. The authors work as…

  8. None of Your Business?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Jana

    1989-01-01

    Local business owners in college towns say they can't compete when an institution sells computers, pizza, or books. With unrelated-business income tax legislation a threat, institutions are addressing these concerns by cooperating with retailers. (Author/MSE)

  9. Selective Lessons from Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, the author has participated in many gatherings where business leaders have been invited to provide educational leaders with advice regarding the way they should lead their schools. Some of these events proved satisfying, but others proved disastrous. In this article, the author argues that it is a mistake to invite business leaders…

  10. Exploratory Business Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Univ., Fayetteville. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide is designed for Arkansas ninth-grade students to explore business careers through the use of competency-based instructional materials. Exploratory business teachers are asked to incorporate the twenty-three units of study into a sequence best suited to their teaching style. Units include such topics as "Social Security,""What…

  11. Veterans in Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC. National Small Business Training Network.

    These materials provide information on conducting small business training seminars for veterans. First, a discussion is presented of the development of the guide based on 1983 field testing of the seminar and evaluations conducted by Small Business Administration (SBA) officials, the seminar contracts, and trainers. The next sections deal with the…

  12. Personal Achievement Reading: Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinton, Janet R.

    Exercises are provided in this set of four workbooks designed to aid students in business programs in building vocabulary and reading skills. Each workbook borrows from business terminology to provide explanations and exercises for a sequential series of instructional objectives. One workbook concentrates on developing the ability to determine…

  13. The Small Business Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicke, Thomas S.

    1996-01-01

    Recognizes and discusses the special place that small business occupies, not only in American history, but also in American thought and culture. Examines the various conflicts between big and small business. Notes that the division of territory, products, and services between the two is largely defined by economies of scale. (MJP)

  14. [Density-dependent regulation in populations of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) in optimal and suboptimal habitats of south-west Siberia].

    PubMed

    Novikov, E A; Panov, V V; Moshkin, M P

    2012-01-01

    In a population of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) that live in optimal habitats (mountain taiga of North-Eastern Altai) in the years of peak density we have observed total suppression of sexual maturation of young animals which is known to be the main mechanism of density regulation. Increase of voles' local density is accompanied by the increase of glucocorticoids in blood of mature and immature individuals of both sexes that argues for the important role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in density dependent regulation. Another population of red-backed voles from south-west Siberia that live in suboptimal habitats (Novosibirsk city vicinity), had significantly lower density. Here, the dynamics of demographic traits and endocrine status of the individuals did not correlate with interannual fluctuations of abundance and density. Even though, the possibility that in suboptimal conditions local density occasionally reaches the values sufficient for the induction of self-regulation cannot be excluded.

  15. Inhibition of denitrification activity but not of mRNA induction in Paracoccus denitrificans by nitrite at a suboptimal pH.

    PubMed

    Baumann, B; van der Meer, J R; Snozzi, M; Zehnder, A J

    1997-10-01

    The influence of pH on the denitrification activity of a continuous culture of Paracoccus denitrificans was studied in relation to the presence of nitrite. After a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions at the suboptimal pH of 6.8, P. denitrificans was not able to build up a functional denitrification pathway. Nitrite accumulated in the medium as the predominant denitrification product. Although the nitrite reductase gene was induced properly, the enzyme could not be detected at sufficient amounts in the culture. These observations was somehow inhibited, or once synthesized nitrite reductase was inactivated, possibly by the high concentrations of nitrous acid (HNO2). Interestingly, when a P. denitrificans culture which was grown to steady-state under anaerobic conditions was then exposed to suboptimal pHs, cells exhibited a reduced overall denitrification activity, but neither nitrite nor any other denitrification intermediate accumulated. PMID:9403103

  16. Generic interpreters and microprocessor verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are covered in viewgraph form: (1) generic interpreters; (2) Viper microprocessors; (3) microprocessor verification; (4) determining correctness; (5) hierarchical decomposition; (6) interpreter theory; (7) AVM-1; (8) phase-level specification; and future work.

  17. Asynchronous interpretation of parallel microprograms

    SciTech Connect

    Bandman, O.L.

    1984-03-01

    In this article, the authors demonstrate how to pass from a given synchronous interpretation of a parallel microprogram to an equivalent asynchronous interpretation, and investigate the cost associated with the rejection of external synchronization in parallel microprogram structures.

  18. Learning Activities for International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The National Standards for Business Education include nine areas relating to international business: awareness, communication, environmental factors, ethics, finance, management, marketing, import/export, and organizational structure of international business. (SK)

  19. Prevalence and predictors of sub-optimal medication adherence among patients with severe mental illnesses in a tertiary psychiatric facility in Maiduguri, North-eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdu Wakawa; Yahya, Shuaibu; Pindar, Sadique Kwajafa; Wakil, Musa Abba; Garkuwa, Adamu; Sale, Shehu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sub-optimal adherence constitutes a significant impediment to the management of severe mental illnesses (SMIs) as it negatively impacts on the course of the illness and the treatment outcome. In this study, the levels of adherence, prevalence and the predictors of sub-optimal adherence were assessed in a sub-Saharan African setting. Methods Three hundred and seventy (370) respondents with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or severe depression were randomly enrolled and interviewed at the out-patient department of the Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Maiduguri in northeastern Nigeria. An anonymous sociodemographic questionnaire and a clinical proforma designed by the authors, Oslo social support scale and the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) were used for data collection. Results The prevalence of sub-optimal adherence was 55.7%. The independent predictors of sub-optimal adherence were; seeking for traditional/ spiritual treatment (Odds Ratio (O.R.) = 6.523, 95% C.I. = 3.773 - 11.279, P = < 0.001), male gender (O.R. = 3.307, 95% C.I. = 1.907 - 5.737, P = < 0.001), low levels of insight (O.R. = 1.753, 95 C.I. = 1.220 - 2.519, P = 0.002), and low social support levels (O.R. = 1.528, 95% C.I. = 1.097 - 2.129, P = 0.012). Conclusion Based on the outcome of the study, we recommend the development of psycho-educational programmes on adherence and the active involvement of the relations and significant others in the management of patients with SMIs in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26405475

  20. Identifying abnormalities in symbiotic development between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii leading to sub-optimal and ineffective nodule phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Melino, V. J.; Drew, E. A.; Ballard, R. A.; Reeve, W. G.; Thomson, G.; White, R. G.; O'Hara, G. W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Legumes overcome nitrogen limitations by entering into a mutualistic symbiosis with N2-fixing bacteria (rhizobia). Fully compatible associations (effective) between Trifolium spp. and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii result from successful recognition of symbiotic partners in the rhizosphere, root hair infection and the formation of nodules where N2-fixing bacteroids reside. Poorly compatible associations can result in root nodule formation with minimal (sub-optimal) or no (ineffective) N2-fixation. Despite the abundance and persistence of strains in agricultural soils which are poorly compatible with the commercially grown clover species, little is known of how and why they fail symbiotically. The aims of this research were to determine the morphological aberrations occurring in sub-optimal and ineffective clover nodules and to determine whether reduced bacteroid numbers or reduced N2-fixing activity is the main cause for the Sub-optimal phenotype. Methods Symbiotic effectiveness of four Trifolium hosts with each of four R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strains was assessed by analysis of plant yields and nitrogen content; nodule yields, abundance, morphology and internal structure; and bacteroid cytology, quantity and activity. Key Results Effective nodules (Nodule Function 83–100 %) contained four developmental zones and N2-fixing bacteroids. In contrast, Sub-optimal nodules of the same age (Nodule Function 24–57 %) carried prematurely senescing bacteroids and a small bacteroid pool resulting in reduced shoot N. Ineffective-differentiated nodules carried bacteroids aborted at stage 2 or 3 in differentiation. In contrast, bacteroids were not observed in Ineffective-vegetative nodules despite the presence of bacteria within infection threads. Conclusions Three major responses to N2-fixation incompatibility between Trifolium spp. and R. l. trifolii strains were found: failed bacterial endocytosis from infection threads into plant cortical

  1. Improve MWD data interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Santley, D.J.; Ardrey, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    This article reports that measurement-while-drilling (MWD) technology is being used today in a broad range of real-time drilling applications. In its infancy, MWD was limited to providing directional survey and steering information. Today, the addition of formation sensors (resistivity, gamma) and drilling efficiency sensors (WOB, torque) has made MWD a much more useful drilling decision tool. In the process, the desirability of combining downhole MWD data with powerful analytical software and interpretive techniques has been recognized by both operators and service companies. However, the usual form in which MWD and wellsite analytical capabilities are combined leaves much to be desired. The most common approach is to incorporate MWD with large-scale computerized mud logging (CML) systems. Essentially, MWD decoding and display equipment is added to existing full-blown CML surface units.

  2. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Gregory F.

    2009-05-01

    This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

  3. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

  4. Influence of mycotoxin producing fungi (Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium) on gluten proteins during suboptimal storage of wheat after harvest and competitive interactions between field and storage fungi.

    PubMed

    Prange, Alexander; Modrow, Hartwig; Hormes, Josef; Krämer, Johannes; Köhler, Peter

    2005-08-24

    Cereals contaminated by Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Fusarium spp. and their mycotoxins, for example, ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), are not only a risk to human and animal health but can also show poor technological properties and baking quality. The influence of these genera on the sulfur speciation of low molecular weight (LMW) subunits of glutenin was characterized by investigating suboptimally stored wheat samples in situ by X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and baking tests. Field fungi of the genus Fusarium have hardly any influence on both the sulfur speciation of wheat gluten proteins and the baking properties, whereas storage fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium have a direct influence. An increased amount of sulfur in sulfonic acid state was found, which is not available for thiol/disulfide exchange reactions in the gluten network, and thus leads to a considerably reduced baking volume. From changes of the composition of the mould flora during suboptimal storage of wheat and from the mycotoxin contents, it can be concluded that microbial competitive interactions play an important role in the development of the mould flora and the mycotoxin concentrations during (suboptimal) storage of wheat.

  5. Unfinished Business in Bereavement

    PubMed Central

    Klingspon, Kara L.; Holland, Jason M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Lichtenthal, Wendy G.

    2016-01-01

    Unfinished business (incomplete, unexpressed or unresolved relationship issues with the deceased) is frequently discussed as a risk factor for chronic and severe grief reactions. However, few empirical studies have examined this construct. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the presence and severity of unfinished business as well as common themes of unfinished business reported in open-ended qualitative narratives among a sample of 224 bereaved individuals. In bivariate analyses, self-reported presence of unfinished business and the severity of distress due to unfinished business were both found to be associated with poorer bereavement outcomes. However, after controlling for potential confounds, distress related to unresolved issues with the deceased emerged as a more robust correlate of these outcomes. Qualitative responses were categorized, and the type of reported unfinished business was not significantly related to the degree of unfinished business distress or other bereavement outcomes. These findings provide preliminary justification for bereavement interventions that aim to ameliorate distress related to unresolved relational issues with the deceased. PMID:26057117

  6. Unfinished Business in Bereavement.

    PubMed

    Klingspon, Kara L; Holland, Jason M; Neimeyer, Robert A; Lichtenthal, Wendy G

    2015-01-01

    Unfinished business (incomplete, unexpressed or unresolved relationship issues with the deceased) is frequently discussed as a risk factor for chronic and severe grief reactions. However, few empirical studies have examined this construct. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the presence and severity of unfinished business as well as common themes of unfinished business reported in open-ended qualitative narratives among a sample of 224 bereaved individuals. In bivariate analyses, self-reported presence of unfinished business and the severity of distress due to unfinished business were both found to be associated with poorer bereavement outcomes. However, after controlling for potential confounds, distress related to unresolved issues with the deceased emerged as a more robust correlate of these outcomes. Qualitative responses were categorized, and the type of reported unfinished business was not significantly related to the degree of unfinished business distress or other bereavement outcomes. These findings provide preliminary justification for bereavement interventions that aim to ameliorate distress related to unresolved relational issues with the deceased.

  7. Business Use of Satellite Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Burton I.; Cooper, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews business communications development and discusses business applications of satellite communications, system technology, and prospects for future developments in digital transmission systems. (JN)

  8. A Comment on Harriet Malinowitz's "Business, Pleasure, and the Personal Essay"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Karen

    2004-01-01

    A comparison between composition and literature is presented in Harriet Malinowitz's "Business, Pleasure, and the Personal Essay". The importance of praising and analyzing various interpretations of a text to English studies is emphasized.

  9. Maraviroc Intensification of cART in Patients with Suboptimal Immunological Recovery: A 48-Week, Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Lelyveld, Steven F. L.; Otto, Sigrid A.; Richter, Clemens; Soetekouw, Robin; Prins, Jan M.; Brinkman, Kees; Mulder, Jan Willem; Kroon, Frank; Middel, Ananja; Symons, Jori; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Nijhuis, Monique; Borghans, José A. M.; Tesselaar, Kiki; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The immunomodulatory effects of the CCR5-antagonist maraviroc might be beneficial in patients with a suboptimal immunological response, but results of different cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) intensification studies are conflicting. Therefore, we performed a 48-week placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of maraviroc intensification on CD4+ T-cell counts and immune activation in these patients. Design Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Methods Major inclusion criteria were 1. CD4+ T-cell count <350 cells/μL while at least two years on cART or CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/μL while at least one year on cART, and 2. viral suppression for at least the previous 6 months. HIV-infected patients were randomized to add maraviroc (41 patients) or placebo (44 patients) to their cART regimen for 48 weeks. Changes in CD4+ T-cell counts (primary endpoint) and other immunological parameters were modeled using linear mixed effects models. Results No significant differences for the modelled increase in CD4+ T-cell count (placebo 15.3 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.0, 29.5] versus maraviroc arm 22.9 CD4+ T cells/μL (95% CI [7.4, 38.5] p = 0.51) or alterations in the expression of markers for T-cell activation, proliferation and microbial translocation were found between the arms. However, maraviroc intensification did increase the percentage of CCR5 expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, and the plasma levels of the CCR5 ligand MIP-1β. In contrast, the percentage of ex-vivo apoptotic CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells decreased in the maraviroc arm. Conclusions Maraviroc intensification of cART did not increase CD4+ T-cell restoration or decrease immune activation as compared to placebo. However, ex-vivo T-cell apoptosis was decreased in the maraviroc arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00875368 PMID:26208341

  10. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49–1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes”) were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be

  11. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-03-19

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)-an intermediate state between health and illness--refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although- SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work-life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15-60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency ("rarely, sometimes, or always"). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically "rare" were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49-1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance ("sometimes") were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62-1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be accurate behavioral

  12. Initial Accuracy of HIV Rapid Test Kits Stored in Suboptimal Conditions and Validity of Delayed Reading of Oral Fluid Tests

    PubMed Central

    Choko, Augustine T.; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; MacPherson, Peter; Cocker, Derek; Khundi, McEwen; Thindwa, Deus; Sambakunsi, Rodrick S.; Kumwenda, Moses K.; Chiumya, Kondwani; Malema, Owen; Makombe, Simon D.; Webb, Emily L.; Corbett, Elizabeth L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of storing commonly used rapid diagnostic tests above manufacturer-recommended temperature (at 37°C), and the accuracy of delayed reading of oral fluid kits with relevance to HIV self-testing programmes. Design A quality assurance study of OraQuick (OraSure), Determine HIV 1/2™ (Alere) and Uni-Gold™ (Recombigen®). Methods Consecutive adults (≥18y) attending Ndirande Health Centre in urban Blantyre, Malawi in January to April 2012 underwent HIV testing with two of each of the three rapid diagnostic test kits stored for 28 days at either 18°C (optimally-stored) or at 37°C (pre-incubated). Used OraQuick test kits were stored in a laboratory for delayed day 1 and subsequent monthly re-reading was undertaken for one year. Results Of 378 individuals who underwent parallel testing, 5 (1.3%) were dropped from the final analysis due to discordant or missing reference standard results (optimally-stored Determine and Uni-Gold). Compared to the diagnostic reference standard, OraQuick had a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% CI: 93.6–99.6). There were 7 false negative results among all test kits stored at 37°C and three false negatives among optimally stored kits. Excellent agreement between pre-incubated tests and optimally-stored tests with Kappa values of 1.00 for Determine and Uni-Gold; and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95; 1.00) for OraQuick were observed. There was high visual stability on re-reading of OraQuick, with only 1/375 pre-incubated and 1/371 optimally-stored OraQuick kits changing from the initial result over 12 months. Conclusion Erroneous results observed during HIV testing in low income settings are likely to be due to factors other than suboptimal storage conditions. Re-reading returned OraQuick kits may offer a convenient and accurate quality assurance approach, including in HIV self-testing programmes. PMID:27336161

  13. Transportation Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle.

  14. Acclimation dynamics and sub-optimality in carbon allocation for C3 and C4 plants subject to growth under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, V.; Kumar, P.

    2012-12-01

    Soybean-Maize agro ecosystem covers about 9% of the mainland US and its acclimation response due to climate change has the potential to significantly impact local and regional ecohydrology and climate. C3 and C4 species exhibit different acclimation strategies to elevated CO2 in terms of their carbon assimilation. While C3 species have a direct enhancement in carbon assimilation, C4 species have a mild indirect carbon assimilation enhancement effect due to decreased water stress. However, the fate of the assimilated carbon in terms of its allocation to different plant parts remains unknown to a large extent. This has the potential to alter above and below ground respiration water uptake patterns and crop productivity. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of carbon allocation, translocation and partitioning in C3 and C4 plants under ambient and elevated CO2 conditions using a multi-layer land surface model MLCan (Drewry et al. 2010) and flux and biomass data from Ameriflux and SoyFACE research facilities (Morgan et al. 2004). Furthermore, we compare the observed carbon allocation patterns with an optimal carbon allocation model that maximizes end of season seed yield. Our results show that, only C3 species exhibits acclimation response in carbon allocation under elevated CO2. While the structural, bio-chemical and eco-physiological acclimation effect of elevated CO2 in C3 plants have been documented in earlier studies (Drewry et al. 2010), our study provides a direct evidence of carbon allocation acclimation in C3 plants. Under acclimation C3 plants allocate more carbon to vegetative parts (leaf, stem and root) compared to reproductive part (seed) thus changing their allometric relationships. This explains the apparent lower than expected yields in C3 plants observed in FACE experiments (Morgan et al 2004). Comparison of our results with an optimal carbon allocation model reveals that under ambient CO2 concentrations, C3 and C4 plants allocate sub-optimally

  15. Optimized combination therapies with adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and lamivudine, telbivudine, or entecavir may be effective for chronic hepatitis B patients with a suboptimal response to ADV monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangyong; Jie, Yusheng; You, Xu; Shi, Hong; Zhang, Min; Wu, Yuankai; Lin, Guoli; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Zhiliang; Chong, Yutian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify high risk factors in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients for suboptimal response to adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) monotherapy, and to assess the efficacy of optimized therapy combining ADV with lamivudine (LAM), telbivudine (LdT), or entecavir (ETV) in patients with a suboptimal response to ADV alone. Methods: Suboptimal response to ADV monotherapy was defined as having a decline in serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level of more than 1 log compared to baseline, but with viremia still detectable (HBV DNA ≥ 100 IU/mL), after 48 weeks of therapy. All patients who received ADV monotherapy in our clinic were analyzed retrospectively. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied for risk factor analysis. Patients who showed suboptimal response completed at least 12 months of optimized combination therapy consisting of ADV plus LAM, ADV plus LdT, ADV plus ETV, or continuous ADV monotherapy. The primary outcome measurement was complete viral suppression, indicated by a reduction of HBV DNA to undetectable levels (CVS, with HBV DNA < 100 IU/mL). Secondary outcome measures were HBeAg seroconversion for HBeAg-positive patients, HBsAg loss, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization and virological breakthrough rates. Results: Of 521 patients who received ADV monotherapy, 170 showed a suboptimal response. These were grouped for continued therapy as follows: 34 in group A (continuous ADV monotherapy), 55 in group B (ADV plus LAM), 38 in group C (ADV plus LdT), and 43 in group D (ADV plus ETV). Using a logistic model, five conditions were identified as high risk factors for suboptimal response: presence of the tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) HBV DNA polymerase mutation; being HBeAg positive; having a high baseline level of HBV DNA; having a primary virological non-response to ADV; and [initial virological response] to ADV. After 48 weeks of ADV monotherapy, there were no withdrawn patients who had experienced side

  16. Business Mathematics for Business Education Departments in Pennsylvania's Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfet, James A.

    This document is meant to be used as a teaching aid to help business teachers in Pennsylvania high schools prepare pupils to assume positions in business offices. Methods are suggested by which business mathematics may be presented to develop the greatest level of pupil achievement. The chapters outline business mathematics in the high school…

  17. Rethinking How Business Purpose Is Taught in Catholic Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lyman; Naughton, Michael; Bojan, William

    2013-01-01

    Business education at a Catholic university should engage students and faculty across the university in critically examining the purpose of business in society. Following the best practices of leading business schools, the Catholic business curriculum has mostly focused on the shareholder and stakeholder approaches--with the shareholder approach…

  18. Audiometry screening and interpretation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jennifer Junnila; Cleveland, Leanne M; Davis, Jenny L; Seales, Jennifer S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of hearing loss varies with age, affecting at least 25 percent of patients older than 50 years and more than 50 percent of those older than 80 years. Adolescents and young adults represent groups in which the prevalence of hearing loss is increasing and may therefore benefit from screening. If offered, screening can be performed periodically by asking the patient or family if there are perceived hearing problems, or by using clinical office tests such as whispered voice, finger rub, or audiometry. Audiometry in the family medicine clinic setting is a relatively simple procedure that can be interpreted by a trained health care professional. Pure-tone testing presents tones across the speech spectrum (500 to 4,000 Hz) to determine if the patient's hearing levels fall within normal limits. A quiet testing environment, calibrated audiometric equipment, and appropriately trained personnel are required for in-office testing. Pure-tone audiometry may help physicians appropriately refer patients to an audiologist or otolaryngologist. Unilateral or asymmetrical hearing loss can be symptomatic of a central nervous system lesion and requires additional evaluation. PMID:23317024

  19. Summary and interpretive synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This chapter summarizes the major advances made through our integrated geological studies of the Lisburne Group in northern Alaska. The depositional history of the Lisburne Group is discussed in a framework of depositional sequence stratigraphy. Although individual parasequences (small-scale carbonate cycles) of the Wahoo Limestone cannot be correlated with certainty, parasequence sets can be interpreted as different systems tracts within the large-scale depositional sequences, providing insights on the paleoenvironments, paleogeography and platform geometry. Conodont biostratigraphy precisely established the position of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary within an important reference section, where established foraminiferal biostratigraphy is inconsistent with respect to conodont-based time-rock boundaries. However, existing Carboniferous conodont zonations are not readily applicable because most zonal indicators are absent, so a local zonation scheme was developed. Diagenetic studies of the Lisburne Group recognized nineteen subaerial exposure surfaces and developed a cement stratigraphy that includes: early cements associated with subaerial exposure surfaces in the Lisburne Group; cements associated with the sub-Permian unconformity; and later burial cements. Subaerial exposure surfaces in the Alapah Limestone are easily explained, being associated with peritidal environments at the boundaries of Sequence A. The Lisburne exposed in ANWR is generally tightly cemented and supermature, but could still be a good reservoir target in the adjacent subsurface of ANWR given the appropriate diagenetic, deformational and thermal history. Our ongoing research on the Lisburne Group will hopefully provide additional insights in future publications.

  20. Navigating the Interface between Design Education and Fashion Business Start-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Colleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to address the interface between design education and business start-up in the designer fashion industry (DFI) and provide a new framework for reflecting on ways to improve design education and graduates' business start-up preparedness. Design/methodology/approach: This interpretive study employed…

  1. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 6 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The General Aviation Propulsion Program (GAP). AGATE and GAP are providing industry partners with technologies leading to a Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) in the early 21st century. These investments support the national general aviation 'roadmap' goal to 'enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times highway speeds to virtually all of the nation's suburban, rural and remote communities.' Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  2. The business of demographics.

    PubMed

    Russell, C

    1984-06-01

    The emergence of "demographics" in the past 15 years is a vital tool for American business research and planning. Tracing demographic trends became important for businesses when traditional consumer markets splintered with the enormous changes since the 1960s in US population growth, age structure, geographic distribution, income, education, living arrangements, and life-styles. The mass of reliable, small-area demographic data needed for market estimates and projections became available with the electronic census--public release of Census Bureau census and survey data on computer tape, beginning with the 1970 census. Census Bureau tapes as well as printed reports and microfiche are now widely accessible at low cost through summary tape processing centers designated by the bureau and its 12 regional offices and State Data Center Program. Data accessibility, plummeting computer costs, and businessess' unfamiliarity with demographics spawned the private data industry. By 1984, 70 private companies were offering demographic services to business clients--customized information repackaged from public data or drawn from proprietary data bases created from such data. Critics protest the for-profit use of public data by companies able to afford expensive mainframe computer technology. Business people defend their rights to public data as taxpaying ceitzens, but they must ensure that the data are indeed used for the public good. They must also question the quality of demographic data generated by private companies. Business' demographic expertise will improve when business schools offer training in demography, as few now do, though 40 of 88 graduate-level demographic programs now include business-oriented courses. Lower cost, easier access to business demographics is growing as more census data become available on microcomputer diskettes and through on-line linkages with large data bases--from private data companies and the Census Bureau itself. A directory of private and

  3. Medicine as a business.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Merrill

    2004-09-01

    There is a growing debate over whether medicine should function like a business, guided, as businesses are, by concerns such as profits and customer satisfaction. Of course, for-profit businesses already permeate medicine, and those businesses are not confused about their priorities: providing high quality goods and services people want, at affordable prices. These companies know that they must do well in order to continue doing good. Critics of the business model argue that the profit motive makes health care too expensive and that only by nationalizing the health care system can doctors provide high quality care at an affordable cost to society. However, a survey of journals and newspaper articles about the Canadian health care system, often cited as an anti-business model for U.S. reform, reveals that quality has suffered significantly under that system. Patients wait in long lines for health care, and sometimes cannot get help at all. This paper argues that incentives in the U.S. health care system are complicated, and that health care needs to work more like a business--not less. Doctors don't know whom they are serving--patients, insurers, employers or the government--because it is usually someone other than the patient who it paying the bill. The way to get the incentives structured properly is to allow patients to control more of their health care dollars--perhaps through a system of Medical Savings Accounts. Following the business model is the only way to ensure that medicine provides high quality services at affordable prices--just like every other sector of the economy.

  4. Caution: business opportunity ahead.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1986-01-01

    Increasing competition in the market for health care services has led many providers to contemplate activities that would not have received consideration a decade ago. Entrepreneurial in nature, these endeavors require a form of business analysis with which many health care administrators are unfamiliar. Evaluation of health care business opportunities should include consideration of market perspective, relative difficulty of implementation and execution, likely response of competition, and unique aspects of the entrepreneurial personality when found in traditional health care organizations.

  5. Bringing science to business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemetti, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Bringing science to business seems rather straight forward. Technology is constantly moving forward and new inventions are being brought into the market place. Science parks and technology parks have sprung out all around the globe competing against each other and trying to keep their own doors open by bringing in new business, thereby creating much needed income to keep their operations moving forward. However, only a small handful ofthese centers around the world can truly be considered successful. It is the relationship between the scientists, start-up business, local universities, local government, and invited bigger business that allows the parks to succeed. The individual scientist wishing to enter into business or just hoping to get his invention into the pool of potential ideas; which might end up in the hands of an entrepreneur or an established company, is not always that simple. Universal success principles must be embraced to ensure success. One must believe in oneself and to strive for excellence. One must be able to see the other persons viewpoint and adapt and change his behavior in order to succeed. One must learn to create trust as well as learn to trust. Furthermore, one must learn to focus on the why of the process and not on the how. A market must be identified and benefits of local area must be sold to potential investor or business partners. A local success has in part to do with local cooperation.

  6. United States History in the Secondary Schools. Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Point Pleasant Beach Board of Education, NJ.

    This is one unit of the series described in SO 000 378. One of the most important developments in the recent interpretations of American economic history has been the emphasis placed on business. The specific objectives of this unit are enumerated: 1) to realize that all resources are limited and the utilization of these resources is determined by…

  7. Catholic Business Schools and the Crisis of the Academic Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoevel, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    According to many analysts, after the dot-com, housing and financial bubbles, the next bubble to burst may be that of higher education and especially business education schools. Given this possible scenario, there are two ways one might interpret the current crisis in education, accompanied by two proposals for addressing the problems. According…

  8. Components of Simultaneous Interpreting: Comparing Interpreting with Shadowing and Paraphrasing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffels, Ingrid K.; de Groot, Annette M. B.

    2004-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a complex task where the interpreter is routinely involved in comprehending, translating and producing language at the same time. This study assessed two components that are likely to be major sources of complexity in SI: The simultaneity of comprehension and production, and transformation of the input. Furthermore,…

  9. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    PubMed

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  10. [Impacts of suboptimal temperature and low light intensity on the activities and gene expression of photosynthetic enzymes in cucumber seedling leaves].

    PubMed

    Bi, Huan-Gai; Wang, Mei-Ling; Jiang, Zhen-Sheng; Dong, Xu-Bing; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2011-11-01

    Taking the cucumber cultivar 'Jinyou 3' as test material, this paper studied the variations of the mRNA expression and activities of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA), and transketolase (TK) in cucumber seedling leaves under suboptimal temperature and low light intensity (ST+LL). In the treatment of ST+LL, the leaf area and the dry mass per plant decreased remarkably, compared with the control. On the early days of ST+LL treatment, the gene expression of Rubisco rbcL and rbcS, FBPase, GAPDH, FBA, and TK declined markedly, the activities of the enzymes except TK obviously weakened, and the photosynthetic rate (P(n)) decreased rapidly. 3 days later, the gene expression of Rubisco rbcL and rbcS and the initial activity of Rubisco showed a continuous decrease but the decrement was obviously lesser, the total activity of Rubisco and the activities and gene expression of FBPase, GAPDH, FBA, and TK had an increasing trend, and the P(n) ascended simultaneously. When the treating time exceeded 6 days, the gene expression and the activities of Rubisco and FBPase tended to be constant, while those of the other enzymes as well as the P(n) presented a decreasing trend. These results suggested that the decline of the gene expression and activities of the photosynthetic enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature and low light intensity was the important reason which led to the decrease of P(n). The adaptation of photosynthetic apparatus in cucumber seedlings to suboptimal temperature and low light intensity was related to the activation mechanisms of photosynthetic enzymes.

  11. Factors associated with suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Viet Nam: a cross-sectional study using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is necessary for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). There have been relatively few systematic analyses of factors that promote or inhibit adherence to antiretroviral therapy among PLHIV in Asia. This study assessed ART adherence and examined factors associated with suboptimal adherence in northern Viet Nam. Methods Data from 615 PLHIV on ART in two urban and three rural outpatient clinics were collected by medical record extraction and from patient interviews using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI). Results The prevalence of suboptimal adherence was estimated to be 24.9% via a visual analogue scale (VAS) of past-month dose-missing and 29.1% using a modified Adult AIDS Clinical Trial Group scale for on-time dose-taking in the past 4 days. Factors significantly associated with the more conservative VAS score were: depression (p < 0.001), side-effect experiences (p < 0.001), heavy alcohol use (p = 0.001), chance health locus of control (p = 0.003), low perceived quality of information from care providers (p = 0.04) and low social connectedness (p = 0.03). Illicit drug use alone was not significantly associated with suboptimal adherence, but interacted with heavy alcohol use to reduce adherence (p < 0.001). Conclusions This is the largest survey of ART adherence yet reported from Asia and the first in a developing country to use the ACASI method in this context. The evidence strongly indicates that ART services in Viet Nam should include screening and treatment for depression, linkage with alcohol and/or drug dependence treatment, and counselling to address the belief that chance or luck determines health outcomes. PMID:23537416

  12. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section...

  13. Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

  14. Remote sensing and image interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T. M.; Kiefer, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    A textbook prepared primarily for use in introductory courses in remote sensing is presented. Topics covered include concepts and foundations of remote sensing; elements of photographic systems; introduction to airphoto interpretation; airphoto interpretation for terrain evaluation; photogrammetry; radiometric characteristics of aerial photographs; aerial thermography; multispectral scanning and spectral pattern recognition; microwave sensing; and remote sensing from space.

  15. Educators' Interpretations of Ambiguous Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, MaryAnn

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory case study examined how general and special education teachers in one school district interpreted three frequently used accommodations. Although a majority of both groups agreed on interpretations of extended time, there was little agreement, considerable variation, and some contradiction in their understanding of the changes…

  16. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  17. Social Work through An Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Nicholas G.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews problems related to working with non-English-speaking clients. Suggests characteristics and qualifications of a good interpreter. Recommends social workers establish a good working relationship with interpreters to effectively help clients and avoid confusion and misunderstanding resulting from cultural differences. Makes recommendations…

  18. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 2 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). Few objects convey wealth and power like a private airplane, but one day you won't have to be rich or famous to fly one. NASA is working with industry and other government agencies to develop the technology and vision for business and personal travel of the future. It's a future in which travelers fly to their destinations in small, safe, affordable and easy-to-use jets out of 'smart airports.' Future small aircraft may cost about as much as a luxury automobile. They will use 25% less fuel than today's airplanes with fuel efficiencies rivaling automobiles, but at four times highway speeds. The goal is to put 'wings on America' and enable doorstep-to-destination travel at four times the speed of highways, making it possible to go where you want, when you want - faster than ever. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  19. Remote interpretation of chest roentgenograms.

    PubMed

    Andrus, W S; Hunter, C H; Bird, K T

    1975-04-01

    A series of 98 chest films was interpreted by two physicians on the basis of monitor display of the transmitted television signal representing the roentgenographic image. The transmission path was 14 miles long, and included one active repeater station. Receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn to compare interpretations rendered on television view of the image with classic, direct view interpretations of the same films. Performance in these two viewing modes was found to be quite similar. When films containing only hazy densities lacking internal structure or sharp margins, were removed from the sample, interpretation of the remaining films was essentially identical via the two modes. Since hazy densities are visible on retrospective examination, interpretation of roentgenograms at a distance via television appears to be a feasible route for delivery of radiologic services.

  20. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 4 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). The AGATE program is complimented by a NASA Lewis-led program to develop safe, smooth, quiet and affordable propulsion systems for future four-to-six-seat general aviation airplanes. The General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program is developing diesel prop and jet engines to be flight demonstrated at the year 2000 EAA AirVenture Air Show & Convention in Oshkosh, Wisc. Commericially produced engines based on these demonstrator engines and their manufacturing technologies will soon follow. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  1. Discovery, screening and evaluation of a plasma biomarker panel for subjects with psychological suboptimal health state using (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics profiles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-Sheng; Xia, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Lei; Xiang, Huan; Du, Guan-Hua; Zhang, Xiang; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the state of psychological suboptimal health keep increasing, only scales and questionnaires were used to diagnose in clinic under current conditions, and symptoms of high reliability and accuracy are destitute. Therefore, the noninvasive and precise laboratory diagnostic methods are needed. This study aimed to develop an objective method through screen potential biomarkers or a biomarker panel to facilitate the diagnosis in clinic using plasma metabolomics. Profiles were based on H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) metabolomics techniques combing with multivariate statistical analysis. Furthermore, methods of correlation analysis with Metaboanalyst 3.0 for selecting a biomarker panel, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) drug intervention for validating the close relations between the biomarker panel and the state and the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves) analysis for evaluation of clinical diagnosis ability were carried out. 9 endogenous metabolites containing trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), glutamine, N-acetyl-glycoproteins, citrate, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine and glucose were identified and considered as potential biomarkers. Then a biomarker panel consisting of phenylalanine, glutamine, tyrosine, citrate, N-acetyl-glycoproteins and TMAO was selected, which exhibited the highest area under the curve (AUC = 0.971). This study provided critical insight into the pathological mechanism of psychological suboptimal health and would supply a novel and valuable diagnostic method. PMID:27650680

  2. Discovery, screening and evaluation of a plasma biomarker panel for subjects with psychological suboptimal health state using (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics profiles.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-Sheng; Xia, Xiao-Tao; Wu, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Lei; Xiang, Huan; Du, Guan-Hua; Zhang, Xiang; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2016-09-21

    Individuals in the state of psychological suboptimal health keep increasing, only scales and questionnaires were used to diagnose in clinic under current conditions, and symptoms of high reliability and accuracy are destitute. Therefore, the noninvasive and precise laboratory diagnostic methods are needed. This study aimed to develop an objective method through screen potential biomarkers or a biomarker panel to facilitate the diagnosis in clinic using plasma metabolomics. Profiles were based on H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) metabolomics techniques combing with multivariate statistical analysis. Furthermore, methods of correlation analysis with Metaboanalyst 3.0 for selecting a biomarker panel, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) drug intervention for validating the close relations between the biomarker panel and the state and the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves) analysis for evaluation of clinical diagnosis ability were carried out. 9 endogenous metabolites containing trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), glutamine, N-acetyl-glycoproteins, citrate, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine and glucose were identified and considered as potential biomarkers. Then a biomarker panel consisting of phenylalanine, glutamine, tyrosine, citrate, N-acetyl-glycoproteins and TMAO was selected, which exhibited the highest area under the curve (AUC = 0.971). This study provided critical insight into the pathological mechanism of psychological suboptimal health and would supply a novel and valuable diagnostic method.

  3. Discovery, screening and evaluation of a plasma biomarker panel for subjects with psychological suboptimal health state using 1H-NMR-based metabolomics profiles

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jun-sheng; Xia, Xiao-tao; Wu, Yan-fei; Zhao, Lei; Xiang, Huan; Du, Guan-hua; Zhang, Xiang; Qin, Xue-mei

    2016-01-01

    Individuals in the state of psychological suboptimal health keep increasing, only scales and questionnaires were used to diagnose in clinic under current conditions, and symptoms of high reliability and accuracy are destitute. Therefore, the noninvasive and precise laboratory diagnostic methods are needed. This study aimed to develop an objective method through screen potential biomarkers or a biomarker panel to facilitate the diagnosis in clinic using plasma metabolomics. Profiles were based on H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) metabolomics techniques combing with multivariate statistical analysis. Furthermore, methods of correlation analysis with Metaboanalyst 3.0 for selecting a biomarker panel, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) drug intervention for validating the close relations between the biomarker panel and the state and the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC curves) analysis for evaluation of clinical diagnosis ability were carried out. 9 endogenous metabolites containing trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), glutamine, N-acetyl-glycoproteins, citrate, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, valine and glucose were identified and considered as potential biomarkers. Then a biomarker panel consisting of phenylalanine, glutamine, tyrosine, citrate, N-acetyl-glycoproteins and TMAO was selected, which exhibited the highest area under the curve (AUC = 0.971). This study provided critical insight into the pathological mechanism of psychological suboptimal health and would supply a novel and valuable diagnostic method. PMID:27650680

  4. Functional csdA is needed for effective adaptation and initiation of growth of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 at suboptimal temperature.

    PubMed

    Söderholm, Henna; Derman, Yağmur; Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2015-09-01

    The activity of RNA helicase csdA (cbo2802) after temperature downshift was compared to its activity at optimal growth temperature, and the effect of sense and antisense oriented insertional inactivation of cbo2802 on the growth of ATCC 3502 at suboptimal temperature was evaluated. The relative cbo2802 transcript level was significantly induced for 30min to 5h after cold shock. In contrast, a significant decrease in the relative transcript level of cbo2802 was observed within the same time frame at 37°C. Inactivation of cbo2802 led to an extensive delay in initiation of exponential growth at 20°C but not at 37°C. In addition, the mean minimum growth temperatures of the mutant strains were higher than those of the wild-type strain. During a 24-hour incubation at 37°C, all strains were motile, whereas at 20°C the mutant strains showed severely impaired motility compared to the wild-type strain. This study shows that a functional csdA is needed for effective adaptation and initiation of growth and motility of Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 at suboptimal temperature.

  5. Quantitative Effect of Suboptimal Codon Usage on Translational Efficiency of mRNA Encoding HIV-1 gag in Intact T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ngumbela, Kholiswa C.; Ryan, Kieran P.; Sivamurthy, Rohini; Brockman, Mark A.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Kavanagh, Daniel G.

    2008-01-01

    Background The sequences of wild-isolate strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) are characterized by low GC content and suboptimal codon usage. Codon optimization of DNA vectors can enhance protein expression both by enhancing translational efficiency, and by altering RNA stability and export. Although gag codon optimization is widely used in DNA vectors and experimental vaccines, the actual effect of altered codon usage on gag translational efficiency has not been quantified. Methodology and Principal Findings To quantify translational efficiency of gag mRNA in live T cells, we transfected Jurkat cells with increasing doses of capped, polyadenylated synthetic mRNA corresponding to wildtype or codon-optimized gag sequences, measured Gag production by quantitative ELISA and flow cytometry, and estimated the translational efficiency of each transcript as pg of Gag antigen produced per µg of input mRNA. We found that codon optimization yielded a small increase in gag translational efficiency (approximately 1.6 fold). In contrast when cells were transfected with DNA vectors requiring nuclear transcription and processing of gag mRNA, codon optimization resulted in a very large enhancement of Gag production. Conclusions We conclude that suboptimal codon usage by HIV-1 results in only a slight loss of gag translational efficiency per se, with the vast majority of enhancement in protein expression from DNA vectors due to altered processing and export of nuclear RNA. PMID:18523584

  6. Business Applications of WAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Steenderen, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explains the development of WAP (wireless application protocol), how it works, and what the major advantages and disadvantages are, especially when applied to the use of information. Topics include standardization; mobile communications; the effect of WAP on business tools, electronic commerce, and information services; consumers; corporate users;…

  7. Mental health: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Dragon, Natalie

    2010-06-01

    Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.

  8. Oral Communication in Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnion, John E.; Thomas, Edward G.

    Helping young executives develop oral communication skills is an important task of business schools. A course that requires informal, timed, extemporaneous talks as well as extended formal presentations allows students the opportunity to be evaluated by their peers and by faculty members as they grow in their ability to communicate. Formal…

  9. Hispanic Business Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coca-Cola USA, Atlanta, GA.

    This is a corporate policy statement of the Hispanic business agenda of Coca Cola USA, and the results of a community survey conducted to inform that agenda. The statement outlines several areas of company policy as they relate to Hispanic Americans. These areas include regional marketing, promotion, and community relations strategies, a…

  10. Finding Workable Business Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatto, Gloria M.

    1985-01-01

    The spirit of cooperation between business and higher education helps to strengthen America's private sector. Cooperative programs with Deere and Company and Rome Industries, with the fast food industry (Chick-fil-A), and with a development firm (Garden Lakes Company) are described. (MLW)

  11. Doing Business with China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Industry and Trade Administration.

    This publication provides background and practical information for those interested in doing business with China. The United States officially recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979. Chinese leaders view international trade as an important factor in transforming China into a modern industrial state as well as an…

  12. Business Development Corporation, Inc.

    SciTech Connect

    Jasek, S.

    1995-12-31

    Business Development Corporation, Inc., is a company specializing in opportunity seeking and business development activities in the {open_quotes}new{close_quotes} post communist Central and Eastern Europe, with particular emphasis on the Republics of Poland and Slovakia. The company currently focuses its expertise on strategic investing and business development between Central Europe and the United States of America. In Poland and Slovakia, the company specializes in developing large scale energy and environmental {open_quotes}infrastructure{close_quotes} development projects on the federal, state, and local level. In addition, the company assists large state owned industries in the transformation and privatization process. Business Development Corporation has assisted and continues to assist in projects of national importance. The staff of experts advise numerous large Polish and Slovak companies, most owned or in the process of privatization, on matters of restructuring, finance, capital structure, strategic parternships or investors, mergers, acquisitions and joint ventures with U.S. based firms. The company also assists and advises on a variety of environmental and energy matters in the public and private sector.

  13. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under an Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Symbiotics, Inc. developed a software system that permits users to upgrade products from standalone applications so they can communicate in a distributed computing environment. Under a subsequent NASA SBIR grant, Symbiotics added additional tools to the SOCIAL product to enable NASA to coordinate conventional systems for planning Shuttle launch support operations. Using SOCIAL, data may be shared among applications in a computer network even when the applications are written in different programming languages. The product was introduced to the commercial market in 1993 and is used to monitor and control equipment for operation support and to integrate financial networks. The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry. InQuisiX is a reuse library providing high performance classification, cataloging, searching, browsing, retrieval and synthesis capabilities. These form the foundation for software reuse, producing higher quality software at lower cost and in less time. Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. developed the technology under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects funded by NASA and the Army and is marketing InQuisiX in conjunction with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry.

  14. Getting down to Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    This article describes The Villages High School (VHS), a charter school where students are taught with real-world skills. At Villages High, a unique creation of local development company The Villages Of Lake-Sumter Inc., the curriculum is serious business. Under its charter agreement with the Sumter County school district, the school must provide…

  15. Today's Business Simulation Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    New technologies are transforming the business simulation industry. The technologies come from research in computational fields of science, and they endow simulations with new capabilities and qualities. These capabilities and qualities include computerized behavioral simulations, online feedback and coaching, advanced interfaces, learning on…

  16. Business Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide for teaching business mathematics in the Connecticut Vocational-Technical School System is based on the latest thinking of instructors in the field, suggestions from mathematics authorities, and current instructional approaches in education. The curriculum guide consists of six sections: (1) career relationships and…

  17. Business Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This revised curriculum gives information on the skills and knowledge students should acquire through a business education program. The competencies listed reflect the skills that employers see as necessary for success in clerical and accounting occupations. The handbook is organized in seven sections that cover the following: (1) the concept of…

  18. The Business of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy; Gelfman, Arnold; Knapp, Jolene

    2008-01-01

    This article describes several community colleges that are taking a more business-like approach, trimming costs, improving efficiencies, and pursuing next-generation innovation--all while keeping the focus squarely where it should be: on learning. At Florida Keys Community College (FKCC), John Keho says his college is taking some strong--though…

  19. Minding the Academy's Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, David J.

    2006-01-01

    As a teacher of educational leadership, the author of this article has observed that an alarming number of his doctoral students tend to view colleges and universities as little more than failed businesses. Students have witnessed a rising tide of corporate executives appointed to top academic posts, suggesting that boards of trustees see higher…

  20. HRD & Business Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on human resource development (HRD) and business outcomes moderated by Barbara L. Swanson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Incorporating Continuous Learning into a Cultural Change Process" (Carol Ann Zulauf, Joseph A. Ilacqua), focuses on best practices at…

  1. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  2. Open for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Bennett

    2007-01-01

    People know about the Sakai Project (open source course management system); they may even know about Kuali (open source financials). So, what is the next wave in open source software? This article discusses business intelligence (BI) systems. Though open source BI may still be only a rumor in most campus IT departments, some brave early adopters…

  3. Internet Business Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Mary J.

    1993-01-01

    Review of major information providers on the Internet that offer business resources focuses on U.S. government, United Nations, and European Community information and suggests sources for keeping current with new information offerings. Electronic bulletin boards, LC MARVEL, university Gophers, and TECnet are described; and access and subscription…

  4. A Business Plan Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Charles, Ed.

    This document identifies the information that should be included in a business plan, and in what order, to make it an effective management tool and an effective tool to communicate a proposed or existing company's strengths and potential to potential financiers. Following an introduction, the document explains the following sections of a business…

  5. Business, Economics, Management Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Edward Zip

    This annotated bibliography includes reference sources pertaining to business, economics, and management that are located in the libraries of the Portland and Gorham campuses of the University of Southern Maine. Specific reference sources are listed under the categories of: (1) indexes and abstracts; (2) dictionaries and encyclopedias, including…

  6. The paperless business office.

    PubMed

    McCormack, J

    1997-06-01

    Many providers are launching a variety of initiatives with the intent of eliminating paper in the business offices, thus streamlining operations and cutting costs. While there are some encouraging signs of progress, plenty of roadblocks still exist that will make such a transition difficult. Key technologies involved include EDI, the Internet, document imaging, COLD technology and automated dialers.

  7. Dancing Partners: Schools & Businesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Business and education partnerships can be cornerstones of major school improvement efforts and meaningful corporate philanthropy. They also can be frustrating and wasteful if not planned and managed carefully. Partnerships, with their objectives, agreements, memorandums of understanding and budgets, may look like well-planned and carefully…

  8. The Business of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article is a response to John Silber's article, "Marketing Higher Education: The Survival Value of Integrity." Silber speaks to the very heart of the academy about its integrity and ethics, and does so in timeless fashion through the decades to the current era. In his introduction, he characterizes the "business of education" as inevitable…

  9. Using and interpreting diagnostic tests.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Shawn L B; Dohoo, Ian R

    2006-03-01

    Diagnostic tests are invaluable to the practice of veterinary medicine. Using them correctly and interpreting the results appropriately depend on having a good understanding of the basic principles outlined in this article. Topics covered include sensitivity and specificity, agreement among tests, using multiple tests, and other issues related to the use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. The most important principle is recognition that the interpretation of test results varies across populations and requires an estimate of the prevalence of the infection (or disease) in the population being studied.

  10. a Contextualist Interpretation of Mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie

    2014-03-01

    The nature of mathematics has been the subject of heated debate among mathematicians and philosophers throughout the ages. The realist and anti-realist positions have had longstanding debate over this problem, but some of the most important recent development has focused on the interpretations; each of the above positions has its own interpretation of the nature of mathematics. I argue in this paper a contextualist interpretation of mathematics, it elucidates the essential features of mathematical context. That is, being integral and having concrete structure, mathematical context is a recontextualizational process with determinate boundary.

  11. Business as a Vocation: Catholic Social Teaching and Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkson, Peter K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Building on "Vocation of the Business Leader," the recently released document from the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, along with input from Catholic business and educational leaders from around the world, this essay examines five pillars on which a Catholic business school should build its mission: foundations; the purpose of…

  12. Business and Technology Concepts--Business Computations. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield. Dept. of Adult, Vocational and Technical Education.

    This Illinois State Board of Education teacher's guide on business computations is for students enrolled in the 9th or 10th grade. The course provides a foundation in arithmetic skills and their applications to common business problems for the senior high school vocational business courses. The curriculum guide includes teacher and student…

  13. Business Office Clerical/Business Office Services. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Jan

    This curriculum guide for business office clerical/business office services provides instructional materials for Texas business course instructors. The following sections are included: (1) introduction; (2) keyboarding--skills, proofreading, and word processing; (3) filing--alphabetic, numeric, and electronic; (4) operating office…

  14. Incorporating Business Communication in an Integrative Business Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luse, Donna W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Integrative Business Seminar in the College of Business Administration at Northeast Louisiana University in which the principal courses in business communication, management, marketing, and finance as well as a segment in problem solving, are taught as one 15-credit hour block in which subject areas are treated as an integrated…

  15. The Great Divide between Business School Research and Business Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostaler, Isabelle; Tomberlin, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    In their 2005 "Harvard Business Review" article, Bennis and O'Toole described business schools as being "on the wrong track" as a result of their focus on so-called scientific research. Some commentators argue that business schools have slowly lost their relevance since the end of the 1950s when they undertook a major overhaul in response to the…

  16. The Teaching of Business Ethics: An Imperative at Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Frederick G.

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the findings of an investigation of MBAs and their views on the teaching of business ethics. The author found that tomorrow's business leaders believe that there are ethical standards that should be followed in business but that current ethical standards do not meet society's needs adequately. Moreover, although most respondents…

  17. Introducing a New Business Course: "Global Business and Sustainability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, R. Scott; Harry, Sean P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose--To outline the themes, topics and material used in a new course, Global business and sustainability, for business educators interested in integrating this emerging paradigm into their courses. Design/methodology/approach--The structure, design and reference materials for the Global business and sustainability course are reviewed. Specific…

  18. The English of Business Is the Business of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versluis, Edward B.

    Three arguments lead to the conclusion that the English of business is the business of English. First, reluctance to fully appreciate the English of Business stems in part from a serious misunderstanding about the development of written language in the Western tradition. While studying folktales and the origins of myths has made an awareness of…

  19. Our Business World, Business Education: 7711.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAskill, Ava

    This Quinmester pamphlet presents an overview of the business world and the American free enterprise system, delving into the concept of profit, satisfaction of wants and needs through production and distribution of goods and services, and primary forms of business organization, the effects of business activity on economic growth, and the use of…

  20. Education Business Plan 2008-11: Ministry Business Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Ministry of Education has identified one core business that is an ongoing key responsibility. It is called "Core Business One: Lead and Support the Education System So That All Students Are Successful at Learning." The core business includes three goals with specific outcomes that describe the end results the Ministry wants to achieve in…

  1. Do Business Schools Value the Competencies that Businesses Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Steven Eric; Karns, Lanny A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors used survey research to determine the congruence among the competencies that businesses identify as being indicative of successful managers, the competencies that business schools identify as being indicative of successful graduates, and the competencies that are emphasized in business school curricula. The results show that although…

  2. Taking Care of Business: Equipping Students to Become Business Journalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannis, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Informed, critical business journalism is vital to a well-functioning society. But students are typically reluctant to study business journalism, often finding the topic intimidating. This article outlines how the author has taught a business journalism course in New Zealand and the United States. The course uses a variety of methods to help the…

  3. Encountering Science in the World: New Partnerships for Science Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Davis, A.; Paglierani, R.

    2014-12-01

    In 2000, while visiting Arches National Park in Utah, I had my first encounter with my science in the context of interpretation. During a ranger walk, a student intern at the park explained the concept of the radiation budget (for the desert surface, in her case) to the group of visitors. As a NASA scientist on the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) science team, a team whose entire focus is on understanding Earth's energy budget, that visit made quite an impression on me: here was my science connected to the immediate and personal experience of that desert environment in a way that even my then 4-year-old daughter could take something from. Some years later, when I was invited to speak to a group of interpreters through the NASA/National Park Service "Earth to Sky" project, I jumped at the chance. Since then, I have had several opportunities to interact with interpreters, through additional "Earth to Sky" workshops as well as during a meeting of the National Association for Interpretation in my hometown. While I was invited to speak to these groups as a subject matter expert, I always learned at least as much as they did from the interaction. The standard practice for Earth to Sky is to pair presenters with an interpreter coach to help fine-tune the presentation for the audience - a valuable practice for presentations to any audience, if one can find an appropriate coach. The mere idea that interpretation is a profession, with research and guidelines and best practices, was completely eye opening to me at one of my first Earth to Sky events. So how to leverage interpretation for science communication? Rather than expecting busy scientists to learn everything about interpretation, a more effective approach is likely the one taken in the Earth to Sky workshop series, where scientists and interpreters work together for an intensive period to share information and approaches, and the interpreters are then able to take appropriate science elements to

  4. What's a business for?

    PubMed

    Handy, Charles

    2002-12-01

    In the wake of the recent corporate scandals, it's time to reconsider the assumptions underlying American-style stock-market capitalism. That heady doctrine--in which the market is king, success is measured in terms of shareholder value, and profits are an end in themselves--enraptured America for a generation, spread to Britain during the 1980s, and recently began to gain acceptance in Continental Europe. But now, many wonder if the American model is corrupt. The American scandals are not just a matter of dubious personal ethics or of rogue companies fudging the odd billion. And the cure for the problems will not come solely from tougher regulations. We must also ask more fundamental questions: Whom and what is a business for? And are traditional ownership and governance structures suited to the knowledge economy? According to corporate law, a company's financiers are its owners, and employees are treated as property and recorded as costs. But while that may have been true in the early days of industry, it does not reflect today's reality. Now a company's assets are increasingly found in the employees who contribute their time and talents rather than in the stockholders who temporarily contribute their money. The language and measures of business must be reversed. In a knowledge economy, a good business is a community with a purpose, not a piece of property. If, like many European companies, a business considers itself a wealth-creating community consisting of members who have certain rights, those members will be more likely to treat one another as valued partners and take responsibility for telling the truth. Such a community can also help repair the image of business by insisting that its purpose is not just to make a profit but to make a profit in order to do something better.

  5. What's a business for?

    PubMed

    Handy, Charles

    2002-12-01

    In the wake of the recent corporate scandals, it's time to reconsider the assumptions underlying American-style stock-market capitalism. That heady doctrine--in which the market is king, success is measured in terms of shareholder value, and profits are an end in themselves--enraptured America for a generation, spread to Britain during the 1980s, and recently began to gain acceptance in Continental Europe. But now, many wonder if the American model is corrupt. The American scandals are not just a matter of dubious personal ethics or of rogue companies fudging the odd billion. And the cure for the problems will not come solely from tougher regulations. We must also ask more fundamental questions: Whom and what is a business for? And are traditional ownership and governance structures suited to the knowledge economy? According to corporate law, a company's financiers are its owners, and employees are treated as property and recorded as costs. But while that may have been true in the early days of industry, it does not reflect today's reality. Now a company's assets are increasingly found in the employees who contribute their time and talents rather than in the stockholders who temporarily contribute their money. The language and measures of business must be reversed. In a knowledge economy, a good business is a community with a purpose, not a piece of property. If, like many European companies, a business considers itself a wealth-creating community consisting of members who have certain rights, those members will be more likely to treat one another as valued partners and take responsibility for telling the truth. Such a community can also help repair the image of business by insisting that its purpose is not just to make a profit but to make a profit in order to do something better. PMID:12510537

  6. Business School Internships: Legal Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Cathy Owens; Kent, Russell

    1999-01-01

    Explores legal issues involved in business student internships for employers (compensation, workers' compensation, unemployment insurance, termination, equal-opportunities legislation, general liability) and for business schools (equal opportunities-legislation, general liability). (SK)

  7. Small Business's Big Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Leslie

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the training needs of small businesses in light of their high failure rate (50 percent). Includes characteristics of successful small businesses, potential training needs, training methods, and topics for seminars. (JOW)

  8. The Legitimacy of Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapels, Roberta H.; Arnold, Vanessa D.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the background of business communication as a profession and as an academic discipline. Describes Kenneth Boulding's model for establishing the legitimacy of a profession, and uses this model to advance the legitimacy of the profession of business communication. (SR)

  9. Run It Like a Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Worner, Wayne M.

    1981-01-01

    The business practices of corporations are compared to those of public schools. Big business practices that could be adapted to schools include better utilization of facilities; differentiation of staff; bidding for, and consolidation of purchases; and public relations programs. (MLF)

  10. Car Troubles: An Interpretive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Leslie

    1995-01-01

    The growing amount of U.S. surface area being paved increases interpretive opportunities for teaching about the environmental impacts of automobiles. Provides methods and suggestions for educating high school students. Provides several computer graphics. (LZ)

  11. Interpreting Results from Multiscore Batteries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Describes the role of information on score reliabilities, significance of score differences, intercorrelations of scores, and differential validity of score patterns on the interpretation of results from multiscore batteries. (Author)

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION CENTER (EPIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) in the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) of the Office of Research and Development provides remote sensing technical support including aerial photograph acquisition and interpretation to the EPA Program Offices, ORD Laboratorie...

  13. P value interpretations and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ronna, Brenden; Ott, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Application and interpretation of statistical evaluation of relationships is a necessary element in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on P value to demonstrate relationships. The traditional level of significance, P<0.05, can be negatively impacted by small sample size, bias, and random error, and has evolved to include interpretation of statistical trends, correction factors for multiple analyses, and acceptance of statistical significance for P>0.05 for complex relationships such as effect modification. PMID:27747028

  14. Future Trends in Business Travel Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Keith J.

    2002-01-01

    This research surveys twenty large companies and their travellers to identify and evaluate the effects of pressures on the business travel market in the future. The influence of the following areas on the decision making process are addressed: (1) Corporate travel policies and increasing professionalism in corporate purchasing; (2) The development of global strategic airline alliances; (3) The emergence of low cost airlines on short haul markets; and (4) The development of internet based booking tools and travel agency IT. The survey shows differences in views between travel managers, and travellers with regard to corporate travel policies. While travel managers see policy rules, travellers interpret these as guidelines, indicating travel managers will need to take further actions to exercise true control of travel budgets. The data shows that companies are more likely to prescribe a class of airline ticket, than the choice of airline itself. Corporate hierarchical bias in travel policies is still common both for short and particularly long haul flying. Other findings show that while travel managers believe that their companies are likely to sign global deals with strategic airline groups within a five year period in a bid to consolidating spending, they also believe that nearly a third of short haul flying will be taken with low cost carriers, indicating further penetration in this business travel market by these carriers. The paper also provides other predictions about the business travel market, based on the survey findings.

  15. Interpreter services in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Alagappan, Kumar; Rella, Joseph; Bentley, Suzanne; Soto-Greene, Marie; Martin, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    Emergency physicians are routinely confronted with problems associated with language barriers. It is important for emergency health care providers and the health system to strive for cultural competency when communicating with members of an increasingly diverse society. Possible solutions that can be implemented include appropriate staffing, use of new technology, and efforts to develop new kinds of ties to the community served. Linguistically specific solutions include professional interpretation, telephone interpretation, the use of multilingual staff members, the use of ad hoc interpreters, and, more recently, the use of mobile computer technology at the bedside. Each of these methods carries a specific set of advantages and disadvantages. Although professionally trained medical interpreters offer improved communication, improved patient satisfaction, and overall cost savings, they are often underutilized due to their perceived inefficiency and the inconclusive results of their effect on patient care outcomes. Ultimately, the best solution for each emergency department will vary depending on the population served and available resources. Access to the multiple interpretation options outlined above and solid support and commitment from hospital institutions are necessary to provide proper and culturally competent care for patients. Appropriate communications inclusive of interpreter services are essential for culturally and linguistically competent provider/health systems and overall improved patient care and satisfaction. PMID:18571358

  16. The Business of Governing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gann, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    In September 2015, the Secretary of State for Education asked for more business involvement in schools, and in particular for business leaders' help to improve failing schools. This article questions the twenty-year campaign by all governments to engage business expertise and values in the governance of schools.

  17. Business and International Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Business and International Education Program of the International Education Programs Service (IEPS). This program provides funds to institutions of higher education that enter into an agreement with a trade association, a business, or both for the purpose of improving business curriculum and as a means of…

  18. Simulation in JFL: Business Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses a simulation wherein learners of Japanese as a Foreign Language (JFL) in a business writing course at an American university are assigned tasks to write a series of business letters based on situations that are likely to occur in actual business settings. After an overview of the theoretical background, this article…

  19. Are E-Businesses Trustworthy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsey, John D.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a quantitative approach to evaluate the trustworthiness of e-businesses as measured by the E-business Trustworthy Index, EBTI, developed as part of this research. The problem is that despite the importance of e-business trustworthiness and the findings from many studies, there are few if any objective measures that evaluate the…

  20. Business Books: Best of 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cords, Sarah Statz

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, as business increasingly became the news, business publishing showed a growing awareness of the big picture, putting out fewer personality-driven titles. In this list, one will see that business histories embrace recent technological innovation as much as longevity. The best management/HR books look at the big picture through pushing…

  1. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  2. Real Language Meets Real Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Muirhead; Schechter, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Real Business Language Challenge was a collaborative pilot project between Coca-Cola Enterprises (CCE) and Routes into Languages East for Year 9 and 10 pupils. It was based on CCE's award-winning Real Business Challenge, part of its highly acclaimed education programme. The Real Business Language Challenge transformed the project into a…

  3. The Business Approach to Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Teresa; Green, Adrian

    This self-study book concentrates on enabling trainers to talk and think in a business-related way, use business concepts and terminology, and translate training and development ideas into a business setting. Each part contains activities to enable users to study their training and development function and organization and consider how to use the…

  4. Measuring Entrepreneurship in Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazeldine, Mary; Miles, Morgan

    2007-01-01

    The recent positions of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) and the European Foundation for Management Developments (EQUIS) on the value of entrepreneurship suggest a more entrepreneurial perspective in a business school's culture and strategic processes for obtaining and sustaining a business school's reputation. The…

  5. Library Study Guide for Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steidinger, Jana Reeg; Trzebiatowski, Elaine

    This library study guide was designed for business marketing students at the University of Wisconsin, Stout. The guide, and its accompanying exercises, were developed as an alternative to providing library instruction to approximately 150 business marketing students each semester. The guide introduces students to basic business reference sources…

  6. Library Guides to Business Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jamie L., Comp.

    This collection of library guides is designed to introduce undergraduate students at Chicago State University to basic business reference sources. Annotated bibliographies cover the subject areas of business management, marketing, and finance. Guides in the collection include: (1) Researching the Company (Chicago and Illinois business and national…

  7. Business Web: Discovering Corporate Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakshminarayanan, Sambhavi; Rain, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Business education requires students to have knowledge about corporations and the relationships between them. Sometimes students, in particular non-traditional ones, may not have either this knowledge or the skills required to obtain it. The Business Web guides students in acquiring information about businesses and understanding their…

  8. Organization Development in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, D. D.; Zawacki, Robert A.

    1977-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the domestic membership of the American Association of Collegiate Schools of Business, which indicated that organization development (OD) is becoming a regular part of the curriculum in college level business schools. Ten tables indicating various aspects of OD growth in business school curricula are included. (TA)

  9. Handbook for Business Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This publication is designed as a reference book for business teachers and school administrators who are concerned with present and future problems of administering and supervising business education at the secondary level. Chapter I details the roles and responsibilities of the business education department chair who is administrator, supervisor,…

  10. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  11. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2016-07-12

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  12. Intercultural Aspects of Multinational Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Patricia; Zumbar, Angela

    One of the major challenges facing most departments of business administration is international business, a field that warrants expansion because of the world economy and because it is of increasing importance to most countries. One of the goals of any international business curriculum must be to establish awareness and understanding of the…

  13. AGATE animation - business theme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Business jet 3 of 6. Advanced General Aviation Technology Experiment (AGATE). NASA has selected a team of industry partners to help develop a 'highway in the sky' system, a key element of the government-industry effort to revitalize general aviation in the United States. The team will complete hardware and software development of a totally new concept for presenting critical flight path guidance information to the pilot. The cockpit display system will include a computer-drawn highway that the pilot follows to a pre-programmed destination. The highway will be drawn on a highly intuitive, low-cost flat panel display -- the primary flight display of the future -- that will displace decades-old 'steam gauge' instrumentation. Image from AGATE 'business jet' video animation.

  14. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of QASE RT is to enable system analysts and software engineers to evaluate performance and reliability implications of design alternatives. The program resulted from two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. After receiving a description of the system architecture and workload from the user, QASE RT translates the system description into simulation models and executes them. Simulation provides detailed performance evaluation. The results of the evaluations are service and response times, offered load and device utilizations and functional availability.

  15. Small Business Innovations (MISER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightwave Electronics Corporation, Mountain View, CA, developed the Series 120 and 122 non-planner diode pumped ring lasers based on a low noise ring laser with voltage tuning that they delivered to Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The voltage tuning feature allows "phase-locking" the lasers, making them "electronic," similar to radio and microwave electronic oscillators. The Series 120 and 122 can be applied to fiber sensing, coherent communications and laser radar.

  16. Small Business Innovations (Photodetector)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Epitaxx, Inc. of Princeton, NJ, developed the Epitaxx Near Infrared Room Temperature Indium-Gallium-Arsenide (InGaAs) Photodetector based on their Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract work to develop a linear detector array for satellite imaging applications using InGaAs alloys that didn't need to be cooled to (difficult and expensive) cryogenic temperatures. The photodetectors can be used for remote sensing, fiber optic and laser position-sensing applications.

  17. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract resulted in a series of commercially available lasers, which have application in fiber optic communications, difference frequency generation, fiber optic sensing and general laboratory use. Developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Phase Doppler Particles Analyzer is a non-disruptive, highly accurate laser-based method of determining particle size, number density, trajectory, turbulence and other information about particles passing through a measurement probe volume. The system consists of an optical transmitter and receiver, signal processor and computer with data acquisition and analysis software. A variety of systems are offered for applications including spray characterization for paint, and agricultural and other sprays. The Microsizer, a related product, is used in medical equipment manufacturing and analysis of contained flows. High frequency components and subsystems produced by Millitech Corporation are marketed for both research and commercial use. These systems, which operate in the upper portion of the millimeter wave, resulted from a number of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. By developing very high performance mixers and multipliers, the company has advanced the state of the art in sensitive receiver technology. Components are used in receivers and transceivers for monitoring chlorine monoxides, ozone, in plasma characterization and in material properties characterization.

  18. Writing a successful business plan.

    PubMed

    Haag, A B

    1997-01-01

    1. In creating and building a business, the entrepreneur assumes all the responsibilities for its development and management, as well as the risks and risks and rewards. Many businesses do not survive because business owners fail to develop an effective plan. 2. The business plan focuses on major areas of concern and their contribution to the success of a new business. The finished product communicates the product/service to others and provides the basis for the financial proposal. 3. Planning helps identify customers, market area, pricing strategy, and competitive conditions. It aids in decision making and is an essential guide for operating a business successfully and measuring progress. 4. The business plan not only serves as a mechanism for obtaining any needed financial resources, but also indicates the future direction of the company.

  19. 13 CFR 102.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business information. 102.7 Section 102.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Disclosure of Information § 102.7 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to...

  20. Minority Ownership of Small Businesses: Instructional Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is intended to provide supplementary instruction on basic business techniques for adult minority students in business education. Relevant information on how to start a business is provided by means of actual business situations and problems encountered in 30 recent minority business ventures. Focusing on business procedures and…

  1. 13 CFR 102.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business information. 102.7 Section 102.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Disclosure of Information § 102.7 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to...

  2. 13 CFR 102.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business information. 102.7 Section 102.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Disclosure of Information § 102.7 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to...

  3. 13 CFR 102.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business information. 102.7 Section 102.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Disclosure of Information § 102.7 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to...

  4. 13 CFR 102.7 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business information. 102.7 Section 102.7 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY Disclosure of Information § 102.7 Business information. (a) In general. Business information provided to...

  5. Using Business Cards to Teach Document Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ronald J.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that business cards, as a key means of initiating business contacts, are worth studying in business writing courses. Shows instructors how to incorporate a unit on business card design into their business communications courses. Suggests the criteria by which business cards can be evaluated. (HB)

  6. Cerebral lateralization in simultaneous interpretation.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, F; Gran, L; Basso, G; Bava, A

    1990-07-01

    Cerebral asymmetries for L1 (Italian), L2 (English), and L3 (French, German, Spanish, or Russian) were studied, by using a verbal-manual interference paradigm, in a group of Italian right-handed polyglot female students at the Scuola Superiore di Lingue Moderne per Interpreti e Traduttori (SSLM-School for Interpreters and Translators) of the University of Trieste and in a control group of right-handed monolingual female students at the Medical School of the University of Trieste. In an automatic speech production task no significant cerebral lateralization was found for the mother tongue (L1) either in the interpreting students or in the control group; the interpreting students were not significantly lateralized for the third language (L3), while weak left hemispheric lateralization was shown for L2. A significantly higher degree of verbal-manual interference was found for L1 than for L2 and L3. A significantly higher disruption rate occurred in the meaning-based mode of simultaneous interpretation (from L2 into L1 and vice versa) than in the word-for-word mode (from L2 into L1 and vice versa). No significant overall or hemispheric differences were found during simultaneous interpretation from L1 into L2 or from L2 into L1. PMID:2207622

  7. Framing and Text Interpretation Across Languages and Cultures: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Joyce

    2000-01-01

    Explores the reading traditions and practices that influence the interpretation of two text types, academic and general text, by postgraduate students from Thailand and India studying in the areas of business, humanities, engineering/science, and health sciences. Data were collected from case studies conducted at an Australian university.…

  8. A critical assessment of hidden markov model sub-optimal sampling strategies applied to the generation of peptide 3D models.

    PubMed

    Lamiable, A; Thevenet, P; Tufféry, P

    2016-08-01

    Hidden Markov Model derived structural alphabets are a probabilistic framework in which the complete conformational space of a peptidic chain is described in terms of probability distributions that can be sampled to identify conformations of largest probabilities. Here, we assess how three strategies to sample sub-optimal conformations-Viterbi k-best, forward backtrack and a taboo sampling approach-can lead to the efficient generation of peptide conformations. We show that the diversity of sampling is essential to compensate biases introduced in the estimates of the probabilities, and we find that only the forward backtrack and a taboo sampling strategies can efficiently generate native or near-native models. Finally, we also find such approaches are as efficient as former protocols, while being one order of magnitude faster, opening the door to the large scale de novo modeling of peptides and mini-proteins. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27317417

  9. Risk assessment of the use of sub-optimal levels of weak-acid preservatives in the control of mould growth on bakery products.

    PubMed

    Marín, S; Guynot, M E; Neira, P; Bernadó, M; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2002-12-15

    The hurdle technology approach was used to prevent fungal growth of common contaminants of bakery products including isolates belonging to the genera Eurotium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Several levels (0.003%, 0.03% and 0.3%) of calcium propionate, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate were assayed on a model agar system in a full-factorial experimental design in which the other factors assayed were pH (4.5, 6 and 7.5) and a(w) (0.80, 085, 0.90 and 0.95). Potassium sorbate was found to be the more suitable preservative to be used in combination with the common levels of pH and a(w) in Spanish bakery products. Sub-optimal concentrations (0.003% and sometimes 0.03%) led to an enhancement of fungal growth. None of the preservatives had a significant inhibitory effect at neutral pH.

  10. Amisulpride Switching in Schizophrenic Patients Who Showed Suboptimal Effect and/or Tolerability to Current Antipsychotics in a Naturalistic Setting: An Explorative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yongmin; Wang, Sheng-Min; Kwak, Kyung-Phil; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Kim, Jung-Jin; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite numerous atypical antipsychotics (AAP) available, many patients with schizophrenia still experience lack of efficacy and persistent side-effects. Switching from one AAP to another with a different side-effect profile has become a common clinical strategy. We aimed to investigate effect of switching to amisulpride in patients who showed suboptimal effect and/or tolerability to current antipsychotics treatment. Methods This was a 6-week, prospective, multicenter, open-label, flexible-dose study in patients with schizophrenia. Switching to amisulpride was achieved using cross-titration within 7 days (day 1: 300 mg on day 1 then flexibly dosed 400–800 mg/day). The primary end-point measure was proportion of patients achieving improvement in clinical benefit at week 6 based on Clinical Global Impressions-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB). Secondary endpoints included change in scores in CGI-CB, CGI-Severity (CGI-S), Subjective Satisfaction Scores (SSS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and Simpson and Angus Rating Scale. Results Among 37 patients switched to amisulpride, 76% completed study and 56.8% had clinical benefit measure by CGI-CB. CGI-CB and CGI-S scores showed significant improvement at week 6 compared to baseline (mean changes of CGI-CB and CGI-S scores: −1.7+1.0, p<0.0001 and −0.6±0.0, p=0.001, respectively). SSS scores also improved significantly (mean change: 2.1±2.6, p<0.0001). Mean weight of patients significantly lowered compared to baseline (mean change: −1.2±2.0, p<0.0001). Conclusion Patients with schizophrenia who showed suboptimal efficacy or tolerability with their current antipsychotics and thereby switched to amisulpride resulted in clinical benefit in terms of both improved efficacy and tolerability. The small sample size limits generalizability of the study results. PMID:27776390

  11. Pathogen-Induced Proapoptotic Phenotype and High CD95 (Fas) Expression Accompany a Suboptimal CD8+ T-Cell Response: Reversal by Adenoviral Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, José Ronnie; Bruña–Romero, Oscar; Araújo, Adriano F.; Dominguez, Mariana R.; Ersching, Jonatan; de Alencar, Bruna C. G.; Machado, Alexandre V.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.; Bortoluci, Karina R.; Amarante-Mendes, Gustavo P.; Lopes, Marcela F.; Rodrigues, Mauricio M.

    2012-01-01

    MHC class Ia-restricted CD8+ T cells are important mediators of the adaptive immune response against infections caused by intracellular microorganisms. Whereas antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells can clear infection caused by intracellular pathogens, in some circumstances, the immune response is suboptimal and the microorganisms survive, causing host death or chronic infection. Here, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms that could explain why CD8+ T cell-mediated immunity during infection with the human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is not optimal. For that purpose, we compared the CD8+ T-cell mediated immune responses in mice infected with T. cruzi or vaccinated with a recombinant adenovirus expressing an immunodominant parasite antigen. Several functional and phenotypic characteristics of specific CD8+ T cells overlapped. Among few exceptions was an accelerated expansion of the immune response in adenoviral vaccinated mice when compared to infected ones. Also, there was an upregulated expression of the apoptotic-signaling receptor CD95 on the surface of specific T cells from infected mice, which was not observed in the case of adenoviral-vaccinated mice. Most importantly, adenoviral vaccine provided at the time of infection significantly reduced the upregulation of CD95 expression and the proapoptotic phenotype of pathogen-specific CD8+ cells expanded during infection. In parallel, infected adenovirus-vaccinated mice had a stronger CD8 T-cell mediated immune response and survived an otherwise lethal infection. We concluded that a suboptimal CD8+ T-cell response is associated with an upregulation of CD95 expression and a proapoptotic phenotype. Both can be blocked by adenoviral vaccination. PMID:22615561

  12. Consultations between Immigrant Patients, Their Interpreters, and Their General Practitioners: Are They Real Meetings or Just Encounters? A Qualitative Study in Primary Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Jan; Saleh-Stattin, Nouha

    2013-01-01

    Objective. In Sweden, about 19% of residents have a foreign background. Previous studies reported immigrant patients experience communication difficulties despite the presence of interpreters during consultations. The objective of this study was to gain insights into the participants' perceptions and reflections of the triangular meeting by means of in-depth interviews with immigrant patients, interpreters, and general practitioners (GPs). Method. A total of 29 participants—10 patients, 9 interpreters, and 10 GPs—participated in face-to-face interviews. Content analysis was used to process the interview material. Results. Six themes were generated and arranged under two subject areas: the interpretation process (the means of interpreting and means of informing) and the meeting itself (individual tailored approaches, consultation time, the patient's feelings, and the role of family members). Conclusion. This paper highlights feelings including frustration and insecurity when interpretation and relationships are suboptimal. Strategies for immigrant patients, interpreters, and GPs for getting a successful consultation may be needed. To transform the triangular meeting from an encounter to a real meeting, our results indicate a need for professional interpreters, for GPs to use a patient-tailored approach, and sufficient consultation time. Practice Implications. Use of professional interpreters is recommended, as is developing cultural competence. PMID:23476769

  13. Narrative pedagogy and art interpretation.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Bonnie; Hayden-Miles, Marie

    2011-04-01

    Contemporary practices in nursing education call for changes that will assist students in understanding a complex, rapidly changing world. Narrative pedagogy is an approach that offers teachers a way to actively engage students in the process of teaching and learning. The narrative approach provides ways to think critically, make connections, and ask questions to gain understanding through dialogue. The hermeneutic circle of understanding offers a way to interpret stories and discover meaning. Narratives exist in art forms that can be interpreted to evoke discussions and thinking that relate to nursing practice. Art interpretation is a way to gain access to others and acquire a deeper appreciation for multiple perspectives in the teaching-learning process.

  14. Interpretative reports and critical values.

    PubMed

    Piva, Elisa; Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    In the clinical laboratory to allow an effective testing process, post-analytical activity can have two goals in trying to improve patient safety: result interpretation and communication of critical values. Both are important issues, and their success requires a cooperative effort. Misinterpretation of laboratory test results or ineffectiveness in their notification can lead to diagnostic errors or errors in identifying patient critical conditions. With the awareness that the incorrect interpretation of tests and the breakdown in the communication of critical values are preventable errors, laboratorians should make every effort to prevent the types of errors that potentially harm patients. In order to improve the reliability of laboratories, we attempt to explain how interpretative reporting and automated notification of critical values can be used to reduce errors. Clinical laboratories can therefore work to improve clinical effectiveness, without forgetting that everything should be designed to provide the best outcomes for patients.

  15. Interpretational Confounding or Confounded Interpretations of Causal Indicators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bainter, Sierra A.; Bollen, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    In measurement theory, causal indicators are controversial and little understood. Methodological disagreement concerning causal indicators has centered on the question of whether causal indicators are inherently sensitive to interpretational confounding, which occurs when the empirical meaning of a latent construct departs from the meaning…

  16. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  17. Automatic interpretation of Schlumberger soundings

    SciTech Connect

    Ushijima, K.

    1980-09-01

    The automatic interpretation of apparent resistivity curves from horizontally layered earth models is carried out by the curve-fitting method in three steps: (1) the observed VES data are interpolated at equidistant points of electrode separations on the logarithmic scale by using the cubic spline function, (2) the layer parameters which are resistivities and depths are predicted from the sampled apparent resistivity values by SALS system program and (3) the theoretical VES curves from the models are calculated by Ghosh's linear filter method using the Zhody's computer program. Two soundings taken over Takenoyu geothermal area were chosen to test the procedures of the automatic interpretation.

  18. CT Colonography: Pitfalls in Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Kim, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis As with any radiologic imaging test, there are a number of potential interpretive pitfalls at CT colonography (CTC) that need to be recognized and handled appropriately. Perhaps the single most important step in learning to avoid most of these diagnostic traps is simply to be aware of their existence. With a little experience, most of these potential pitfalls will be easily recognized. This review will systematically cover the key pitfalls confronting the radiologist at CTC interpretation, primarily dividing them into those related to technique and those related to underlying anatomy. Tips and pointers for how to effectively handle these potential pitfalls are included. PMID:23182508

  19. Business owners' optimism and business performance after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Bronson, James W; Faircloth, James B; Valentine, Sean R

    2006-12-01

    Previous work indicates that individuals' optimism is related to superior performance in adverse situations. This study examined correlations after flooding for measures of business recovery but found only weak support (very small common variance) for business owners' optimism scores and sales recovery. Using traditional measures of recovery, in this study was little empirical evidence that optimism would be of value in identifying businesses at risk after a natural disaster.

  20. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  1. Interpreter Training Program: Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massoud, LindaLee

    This report describes in detail the deaf interpreter training program offered at Mott Community College (Flint, Michigan). The program features field-based learning experiences, internships, team teaching, a field practicum, the goal of having students meet certification standards, and proficiency examinations. The program has special…

  2. Probability Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Roger G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper draws attention to the frequency meaning of the probability concept and its implications for quantum mechanics. It emphasizes that the very meaning of probability implies the ensemble interpretation of both pure and mixed states. As a result some of the "paradoxical" aspects of quantum mechanics lose their counterintuitive character.…

  3. Eleven Interpretations of Personal Suffering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Daniel P.

    This document defines suffering as the affective aspect of the pain experience while the cognitive aspect of the pain experience is the sensation of pain. It considers personal suffering, which mean's one's own suffering, and not the suffering of other people. It notes that a particular interpretation of suffering may be formulated in any number…

  4. Design Document. EKG Interpretation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This teaching plan is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in acquainting students with the basic skills needed to perform electrocardiographic (ECG or EKG) interpretations. The first part of the teaching plan contains a statement of purpose; audience recommendations; a flow chart detailing…

  5. EKG Interpretation Program. Trainers Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sandra M.

    This trainer's manual is designed to assist nursing instructors assigned to advanced medical surgical nursing courses in teaching students how to make basic interpretations of their patients' electrocardiographic (EKG) strips. Included in the manual are pre- and posttests and instructional units dealing with the following topics: EKG indicators,…

  6. Miscommunication in Interpreted Classroom Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kristen

    1991-01-01

    Presents a consumer's viewpoint of problems inherent in the use of interpretation to get deaf class members into the stream of vocally expressed communication, focusing on the kinds of misunderstandings that can arise when one language is expressed in the three dimensions of space and the other has only the dimensions of speech. (38 references)…

  7. Transcendental mediatation: a psychological interpretation.

    PubMed

    Avila, D; Nummela, R

    1977-07-01

    The authors suggest that Transcendental Meditation offers a great deal of promise for use in helping relationships. They also suggest that the technique might receive wider acceptance if it could be explained in other than a purely philosophical or mystical way. For that reason, in their article they offer a psychological interpretation of the TM process.

  8. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  9. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  10. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data.

  11. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with…

  12. Art Lessons: Learning To Interpret.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, B. Stephen, II

    1999-01-01

    When required to interpret works of art, students arrive at a broad-based, well-grounded understanding of the nature, value, and meaning of art in their lives. Teachers should offer art works, like those of Amalia Mesa-Bains, Joseph Stella, and Beverly Buchanan, whose narratives are complex and challenging, but not conceptually dense or…

  13. Smartberries: Interpreting Erdrich's Love Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treuer, David

    2005-01-01

    The structure of "Love Medicines" interpreted by Hertha D. Sweet Wong who claims that the book's "multiple narrators confound conventional Western expectations of an autonomous protagonist, a dominant narrative voice, and a consistently chronological narrative". "Love Medicine" is a brilliant use of the Western literary tactics that create the…

  14. Interpretation of the Weyl tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Stefan; Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert

    2013-09-01

    According to folklore in general relativity, the Weyl tensor can be decomposed into parts corresponding to Newton-like, incoming and outgoing wavelike field components. It is shown here that this one-to-one correspondence does not hold for space-time geometries with cylindrical isometries. This is done by investigating some well-known exact solutions of Einstein’s field equations with whole-cylindrical symmetry, for which the physical interpretation is very clear, but for which the standard Weyl interpretation would give contradictory results. For planar or spherical geometries, however, the standard interpretation works for both static and dynamical space-times. It is argued that one reason for the failure in the cylindrical case is that for waves spreading in two spatial dimensions there is no local criterion to distinguish incoming and outgoing waves already at the linear level. It turns out that Thorne’s local energy notion, subject to certain qualifications, provides an efficient diagnostic tool to extract the proper physical interpretation of the space-time geometry in the case of cylindrical configurations.

  15. Focus: Oral Interpretation and Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullican, James S., Ed.

    1976-01-01

    The 12 articles in this issue of "Indiana English Journal" are concerned with drama and oral interpretation in the classroom. Titles of articles are: "Up in the Tree, Down in the Cave, and Back to Reading: Creative Dramatics"; "Pantomime: The Stepping Stone to Drama"; "The Living Literature of Readers' Theatre"; "Do-It-Yourself Drama"; "Drama for…

  16. IT1: An Interpretive Tutor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, T. R.

    A computer-assisted instruction system, called IT1 (Interpretive Tutor), is described which is intended to assist a student's efforts to learn the content of textual material and to evaluate his efforts toward that goal. The text is represented internally in the form of semantic networks with auxiliary structures which relate network nodes to…

  17. Studies in Interpretation. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Esther M., Ed.; Floyd, Virginia Hastings, Ed.

    The purpose of this second book of 21 self-contained essays is the same as that of the first volume published in 1972: to bring together the scholarly theory and current research regarding oral interpretation. One third of the essays are centered on literature itself: prose fiction, poetry, and the drama. These essays discuss topics such as point…

  18. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  19. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  20. Small Business Innovations (Cryostat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    General Pneumatics Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ, developed an anti- clogging cryostat that liquifies gases by expansion for high pressure through a nozzle to produce cryorefrigeration based on their Kennedy Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) work to develop a Joule-Thomson (JT) expansion valve that is less susceptible to clogging by particles or condensed contaminants in the flow than a non-contaminating compressor in a closed cycle Linde-Hampson cryocooler used to generate cryogenic cooling for infrared sensors, super conductors, supercooled electronics and cryosurgery.

  1. Internet and the nuclear business

    SciTech Connect

    Roxey, T.

    1994-12-31

    Today`s business environment is very different than what it was just a few short years ago. People from all different segments of our companies are being asked to think about how they work in different and sometimes unsettling ways. Not that these new thoughts are unsettling by themselves but rather our new, more competitive business practices are challenging our old comfortable jobs. This report discusses the need to use the Internet for information exchange in todays business environment.

  2. Business is Beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Terabeam has developed a Fiberless Optical(TM) Network that transmits broadband data from office buildings to the nation's wide-area networks (WANs), without digging up the streets. A key component of Terabeam's Fiberless Network is Large Aperture Holographic Optic technology, developed by Ralcon Development Lab, of Paradise, Utah. Ralcon developed the Holographic Optical Element (HOE) technology with assistance from a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Terabeam further developed the HOE technology and incorporated it into its Fiberless Optical Network-sending an immeasurable amount of information soaring overhead. Terabeam developed its Fiberless Optical Network using a proprietary HOE to transmit data. The unit is mounted near an office window and has the ability to beam safe, low-power, invisible data through the air at gigabits-per-second speeds to anywhere in the service area. Gigabits-per-second speeds are thousands of times faster than the speeds of current broadband transmissions. This allows businesses to connect to local-area networks (LANs) as well as WANs, in a quick and affordable manner.

  3. Developing "Green" Business Plans: Using Entrepreneurship to Teach Science to Business Administration Majors and Business to Biology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letovsky, Robert; Banschbach, Valerie S.

    2011-01-01

    Biology majors team with business administration majors to develop proposals for "green" enterprise for a business plan competition. The course begins with a series of student presentations so that science students learn about the fundamentals of business, and business students learn about environmental biology. Then mixed biology-business student…

  4. Learning with Business: FE Staff Secondments to Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria

    1998-01-01

    This report provides results of a study of placements in business and industry by 70 further education (FE) colleges and views of managers in Training and Enterprise Councils (TECs) and Education Business Partnerships (EBPs) across England and Wales. Chapter 1 reports that colleges made 848 placements; the most common purposes were upskilling and…

  5. Improving Business-IT Alignment through Business Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chingmei

    2010-01-01

    The business and Information Technology (IT) alignment issue has become one of the Top-10 IT management issues since 1980. IT has continually strived to achieve alignment with business goals and objectives. These IT efforts include ERP implementation to benefit from the best practices; data center consolidation and server virtualization to keep…

  6. Consulting by Business College Academics: Lessons for Business Communication Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Anish

    2009-01-01

    Business communication (BC) is a crucial aspect of management consulting. BC scholars have widely studied the relationship between BC and management consulting, including consulting by BC academics. A limited review of the studies of management consulting, including consulting done by business college academics, hereafter referred to simply as…

  7. Using Student Managed Businesses to Integrate the Business Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massad, Victor J.; Tucker, Joanne M.

    2009-01-01

    To teach business today requires that we go beyond classroom learning and encourage real world, cross-functional experiences and applied management decision-making. This paper describes an innovative approach that requires students to apply their function-specific knowledge of business, integrated with other functional areas, to an authentic…

  8. Selecting a Business Major within the College of Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, David W.; McGaughey, Ronald E.; Downey, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a survey in examining the important influences that shape a student's selection of a major in the College of Business (COB). In particular, it compared these influences, by major, to assess which items were most (and least) important to the students majoring in accounting, general business, finance, management, marketing, and…

  9. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  10. Small Business Marketing: A Workbook for Small Businesses in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Chris

    This workbook was prepared for those interested in starting their own business, as well as business owners with many years experience who have never developed an organized promotional program. Introductory sections explain how to use the workbook and stress the need for promotion. The next sections outline the steps and ask users to respond to…

  11. Internship Handbook for International Business and Business-French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holy Family Coll., Philadelphia, PA.

    This internship handbook for international business and business French at Holy Family College presents a rationale for internship programs, outlines program objectives and requirements, and identifies goals and objectives for student outcomes. Part I describes an internship program as a structured learning situation wherein a student applies…

  12. Business Unusual: Transforming Business School Curricula through Community Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, Kristine; Ceranic, Tara; Liu, Judith

    2014-01-01

    As part of a Community Service-Learning Faculty Scholars Program, University of San Diego business faculty members created community engagement projects that connected students with the local community, exposed them to the realities of a global business world and showed the inherent value of community engagement. By utilizing service-learning and…

  13. Enhancing International Business Education through Restructuring Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Subhash C.

    2009-01-01

    Many scholars have found fault with the way business schools conduct their business (Pfeffer & Fong, 2002; Mintzberg, 2004; Bennis & O'Toole, 2005; Andrews & Tyson, 2006). This article argues that B-schools should overhaul their curriculum and encourage faculty to undertake research which is useful for practitioners. Suggestions are made for…

  14. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is closely related to Newton's third law. Since the actual microscopic causes of recoil differ from one problem to another, some students (and teachers) may not be satisfied with understanding recoil through the principles of conservation of linear momentum and Newton's third law. For these students, the origin of the recoil motion should be presented in more depth.

  15. Clinical Interpretation of Genomic Variations.

    PubMed

    Sayitoğlu, Müge

    2016-09-01

    Novel high-throughput sequencing technologies generate large-scale genomic data and are used extensively for disease mapping of monogenic and/or complex disorders, personalized treatment, and pharmacogenomics. Next-generation sequencing is rapidly becoming routine tool for diagnosis and molecular monitoring of patients to evaluate therapeutic efficiency. The next-generation sequencing platforms generate huge amounts of genetic variation data and it remains a challenge to interpret the variations that are identified. Such data interpretation needs close collaboration among bioinformaticians, clinicians, and geneticists. There are several problems that must be addressed, such as the generation of new algorithms for mapping and annotation, harmonization of the terminology, correct use of nomenclature, reference genomes for different populations, rare disease variant databases, and clinical reports. PMID:27507302

  16. Paleomicrobiology Data: Authentification and Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Drancourt, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The authenticity of some of the very first works in the field of paleopathology has been questioned, and standards have been progressively established for the experiments and the interpretation of data. Whereas most problems initially arose from the contamination of ancient specimens with modern human DNA, the situation is different in the field of paleomicrobiology, in which the risk for contamination is well-known and adequately managed by any laboratory team with expertise in the routine diagnosis of modern-day infections. Indeed, the exploration of ancient microbiota and pathogens is best done by such laboratory teams, with research directed toward the discovery and implementation of new techniques and the interpretation of data. PMID:27337456

  17. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  18. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  19. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented.

  20. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented. PMID:25416371

  1. Interpreting geological structure using kriging

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, N.

    1985-07-01

    We applied kriging (geostatistics) to interpret the structure of basement rock in Yucca Flat, NTS from borehole data. The estimation error for 118 data is 81 m comparable with those based on both gravity and borehole data. Using digitized topographic data, we tested the kriging results and found that the model validation process (Thomas option) on data gave a fair representation of the overall uncertainty of the kriged values. 5 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. University Interpreting: Linguistic Issues for Consideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Jemina

    2002-01-01

    A study investigated 10 Auslan/English interpreters' use of translation style when interpreting for a university lecture. Results found the interpreters predominantly used a free or literal interpretation approach, but switched between translation styles at particular points of a text, leading to the suggestion of the concept of translational…

  3. What Does It Mean to Teach "Interpretively"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Jennifer; Holtzman, Richard; van Hulst, Merlijn; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    The "interpretive turn" has gained traction as a research approach in recent decades in the empirical social sciences. While the contributions of interpretive research and interpretive research methods are clear, we wonder: Does an interpretive perspective lend itself to--or even demand--a particular style of teaching? This question was…

  4. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United...

  5. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United...

  7. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United...

  8. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the United...

  9. Two Factors Related to Effective Voice Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, T. Alan

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two interpreters for the deaf were measured on accuracy and quality of voice interpreting of the same story in two different sign language types: Pidgin Signed English and American Sign Language. Results indicated that previous experience interpreting was significantly related to the effectiveness of voice interpreting both languages.…

  10. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  11. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Omnes, R. )

    1992-04-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

  12. Negotiated Syllabus in EAP Business English Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Erlinda R.

    Negotiation of syllabus design and content in college-level business English is discussed, looking at three types: negotiation between teachers of business English, between teachers and students of business English, and between business English and content-area business teachers. Examples of practice from the Chinese University of Hong Kong are…

  13. 13 CFR 108.100 - Business form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Business form. 108.100 Section 108.100 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.100 Business form. A...

  14. 13 CFR 108.100 - Business form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Business form. 108.100 Section 108.100 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.100 Business form. A...

  15. 13 CFR 108.100 - Business form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Business form. 108.100 Section 108.100 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.100 Business form. A...

  16. 13 CFR 108.100 - Business form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Business form. 108.100 Section 108.100 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.100 Business form. A...

  17. 13 CFR 108.100 - Business form.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Business form. 108.100 Section 108.100 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.100 Business form. A...

  18. 76 FR 21033 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... on November 17, 2010 (75 FR 70296). The workers supply computer software development and maintenance... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business... workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global...

  19. 75 FR 20388 - International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business Unit, Integrated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology..., applicable to workers of International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services Business..., New York, location of International Business Machines Corporation, Global Technology Services...

  20. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program Commercialization Benchmark for the 11 participating agencies for public...

  1. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs... period for the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR... submitting comments. Mail/Hand Delivery/Courier: Edsel Brown, Jr., Assistant Director, Office of...

  2. The Business of Testing.

    PubMed

    Jolosky, Theo; Watson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was a brilliant man: erudite, thoughtful, confident, deliberate, and curious. He was an integrative thinker. It is widely known how these characteristics manifested themselves in his landmark work in the areas of personality theory, personality development, and personality assessment. What is likely less well known is that he displayed these same characteristics in and to the world of business; in particular, his relationships with those who published and distributed his assessment measures. This article traces those relationships. Various components are explored, ranging from product development to product marketing, from the protection of intellectual property to the development and execution of contracts, from deciding how and when to revise a test to ensuring that his legacy continues long into the future. Although the primary dynamic of these relationships was commercial, the reasons for their success were personal. Common goals, clarity of communication, persistence, respect, and trust allowed these relationships to develop, prosper, evolve, and endure. PMID:26473457

  3. The Business of Testing.

    PubMed

    Jolosky, Theo; Watson, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Theodore Millon was a brilliant man: erudite, thoughtful, confident, deliberate, and curious. He was an integrative thinker. It is widely known how these characteristics manifested themselves in his landmark work in the areas of personality theory, personality development, and personality assessment. What is likely less well known is that he displayed these same characteristics in and to the world of business; in particular, his relationships with those who published and distributed his assessment measures. This article traces those relationships. Various components are explored, ranging from product development to product marketing, from the protection of intellectual property to the development and execution of contracts, from deciding how and when to revise a test to ensuring that his legacy continues long into the future. Although the primary dynamic of these relationships was commercial, the reasons for their success were personal. Common goals, clarity of communication, persistence, respect, and trust allowed these relationships to develop, prosper, evolve, and endure.

  4. Beyond the business plan.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J; Thompson, D; Flanagan, H; Tonks, P

    1994-01-01

    Acknowledges that business planning in the NHS frequently disappoints. Reasons for this are found in the tendency for managers to view the production of a plan as an end rather than a means. A further difficulty resides in the perception managers have of their world. Argues that marketing is the most appropriate paradigm for understanding and structuring this world at present. However, an adaptive cognitive style is necessary to allow constant reframing within the dominant paradigm or even reframing of the paradigm itself. In adopting these approaches, the probability of achieving competitive advantage is heightened. If they are ignored, however, it is likely that training and development techniques, however sophisticated, will have little lasting impact.

  5. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Kennedy Space Center, EIC Laboratories invented a Raman Spectrograph with fiber optic sampling for space applications such as sensing hazardous fuel vapors and making on-board rapid analyses of chemicals and minerals. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based measurement technique that provides through a unique vibrational spectrum a molecular 'fingerprint,' and can function in aqueous environments. EIC combined optical fiber technology with Raman methods to develop sensors that can be operated at a distance from the spectrographic analysis instruments and the laser excitation source. EIC refined and commercialized the technology to create the Fiber Optic Raman Spectrograph and the RamanProbe. Commercial applications range from process control to monitoring hazardous materials.

  6. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  7. International Business Program Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College to evaluate the need for a proposed International Business program. General information was obtained from a literature search, various governmental and public interest agencies involved in international business, and other southeast Michigan community colleges. In addition, a survey was…

  8. Revised Accounting for Business Combinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arlette C.; Key, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has recently issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 141 (Revised 2007) Business Combinations. The object of this Statement is to improve the relevance, representational faithfulness, and comparability of reported information about a business combination and its effects. This Statement…

  9. E-Learning in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    e-Learning is replacing face-to-face classroom instruction in a growing number of businesses, but what is the prospect for the continued proliferation of e-learning in business? On one hand, the quality of instruction, the cost-effectiveness of new technology, a supportive e-learning educational culture, an expansion of the Internet, an increase…

  10. Entrepreneurship: Starting a New Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Arnold C.

    This paper analyzes the reasons behind the success and failure of various entrepreneurs and their small businesses. Presented first is an overview of the increasing role of entrepreneurship as a way of earning a living in the United States today and the different challenges and outcomes new small business generally encounter. In the first three…

  11. Competencies of Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Jeffrey; Ritchie, Leah

    2006-01-01

    The idea that one's competencies are as important as one's qualifications has gained acceptance in both business and academia. Business organizations have developed sophisticated management systems around employee competence. There are education assessment tools that help ascertain students' competencies. In this study, the authors investigated…

  12. Business Classroom and Laboratory Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Carl E.; Campbell, Melvin E.

    1983-01-01

    This catalog, intended to enable business educators to furnish classrooms and laboratories for business and office education, lists appropriate equipment, office furniture, and specialty items. Each category identifies vendors' names and addresses and describes their product lines and price ranges. (SK)

  13. Principles of School Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig, Ed.

    This textbook of 24 chapters provides administrators and students with information on the role, activities, and responsibilities of the school business administrator. The independently authored chapters are titled as follows: (1) "Introduction to School Business Management" (F. Mike Miles); (2) "Legal Context of the Public School District" (Paul…

  14. Business School Partnerships for Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Rob; Slanickova, Daniela; Warwick, Philip

    2013-01-01

    International partnerships are an essential tool to enable business schools to internationalize their activities. They can lead to improved research, better more internationally relevant teaching, provide staff with an international perspective, and help prepare students for careers in global business. Using case studies of four of Durham…

  15. An Introduction to Business German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambacher, Robert

    At Millersville University (Pennsylvania), business German is taught in the German section in a two-semester introduction at the sophomore level, a junior-level advanced course, and a senior-level translation course. These four courses are augmented by introductions to business and economics, both taught in English outside the German section.…

  16. Intensive Business Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooperative Educational Services, Norwalk, CT.

    A project involving educators and business leaders in southwestern Connecticut was undertaken to develop an intensive, competency-based business course to provide high school students with the skills to fill entry-level administrative support positions. The project was designed to: (1) recruit and motivate students with high potential for success…

  17. The Business of Academic Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potacco, Donna R.; De Young, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Academia has traditionally avoided adopting the fast-paced, profit-oriented operational style that accompanies corporate culture. However, a business model can be successfully adapted to the unique needs of an academic institution, discipline, faculty, and students through the selective adoption of business principles. A classic marketing mix…

  18. Building a New Business Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Monarch High School in Boulder, Colorado, is one of 25 schools piloting the High School of Business program, an accelerated business administration program developed by Columbus, Ohio-based MBA"Research" and Curriculum Center. This article describes the program which uses a heavily project-based pedagogy to teach a curriculum modeled after college…

  19. Effective use of business intelligence.

    PubMed

    Glaser, John; Stone, John

    2008-02-01

    Business intelligence--technology to manage and leverage an organization's data--can enhance healthcare organizations' financial and operational performance and quality of patient care. Effective BI management requires five preliminary steps: Establish business needs and value. Obtain buy-in from managers. Create an end-to-end vision. Establish BI governance. Implement specific roles for managing data quality.

  20. Emerging Business Schools in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmielecka, Ewa; Osterczuk, Anna M.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in postsecondary business education in Poland are examined, drawing on results of recent surveys. Topics addressed include the design and evaluation of programs at different levels, influences of Western programs and pedagogy, demand for business education, and implications for further development of the system. (MSE)

  1. Introduce XBRL to Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkern, Sheree M.; Morgan, Mark I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper informs business instructors and educators about XBRL (Extensible Business Reporting Language) so that they can introduce it to their students and expand their students' understanding of how it relates to the accounting profession. Even though the financial community has entered a new age with this standardized reporting language, many…

  2. Teaching Social Media in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHaney, Roger; Warkentin, Merrill; Sachs, David; Pope, Michael Brian; Ormond, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    The ways people connect, interact, share, and communicate have changed due to recent developments in information technology. These developments, categorized as social media, have captured the attention of business executives, technologists, and education professionals alike, and have altered many business models. Additionally, the concept of…

  3. Small Business. Lesson Plan Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicke, Thomas S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that requires students to use their research and analytical skills in studying the social and economic importance of small business. Activities include interviewing local business owners and producing a written summary, developing a survey showing and explaining area land use, and researching opposition to Wal-Mart stores.…

  4. Health Promotion in Small Business

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Kira; Stinson, Kaylan; Scott, Kenneth; Tenney, Liliana; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the evidence regarding the adoption and efficacy of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs) in small businesses. Methods Peer-reviewed research articles were identified from a database search. Included articles were published before July 2013, described a study that used an experimental or quasiexperimental design and either assessed adoption of WHPPs or conducted interventions in businesses with fewer than 500 employees. A review team scored the study’s rigor using the WHO-adapted GRADEprofiler “quality of evidence” criteria. Results Of the 84 retrieved articles, 19 met study inclusion criteria. Of these, only two met criteria for high rigor. Conclusions Fewer small businesses adopt WHPPs compared with large businesses. Two high-rigor studies found that employees were healthier postintervention. Higher quality research is needed to better understand why small businesses rarely adopt wellness programs and to demonstrate the value of such programs. PMID:24905421

  5. The interventional radiology business plan.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Michael V; Meek, Mary E; Kaufman, John A

    2012-09-01

    Strategic planning and business planning are processes commonly employed by organizations that exist in competitive environments. Although it is difficult to prove a causal relationship between formal strategic/business planning and positive organizational performance, there is broad agreement that formal strategic and business plans are components of successful organizations. The various elements of strategic plans and business plans are not common in the vernacular of practicing physicians. As health care becomes more competitive, familiarity with these tools may grow in importance. Herein we provide an overview of formal strategic and business planning, and offer a roadmap for an interventional radiology-specific plan that may be useful for organizations confronting competitive and financial threats.

  6. Wellness strategies for smaller businesses.

    PubMed

    Neely, Marc

    2012-01-01

    While innovative smaller companies are implementing employee wellness programs, many smaller firms may point to a lack of resources, such as staffing and financial resources, to establish and sustain a wellness program. The uncertain economy and rising health care costs have caused many smaller businesses to focus on core business strategies to keep the doors open and the business going. However, innovative companies realize that building a culture of health is a long-term business strategy directly related to improving the bottom line. This article highlights one company's approach to wellness and the results of the company's programs. It also outlines the components of a successful wellness program and suggests practical implementation steps for smaller businesses.

  7. Human papillomavirus type 16 E2 and E6 are RNA-binding proteins and inhibit in vitro splicing of pre-mRNAs with suboptimal splice sites

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghi, Sohrab; Jia Rong; Zheng Zhiming

    2009-03-30

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) genome expresses six regulatory proteins (E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7) which regulate viral DNA replication, gene expression, and cell function. We expressed HPV16 E2, E4, E6, and E7 from bacteria as GST fusion proteins and examined their possible functions in RNA splicing. Both HPV16 E2, a viral transactivator protein, and E6, a viral oncoprotein, inhibited splicing of pre-mRNAs containing an intron with suboptimal splice sites, whereas HPV5 E2 did not. The N-terminal half and the hinge region of HPV16 E2 as well as the N-terminal and central portions of HPV16 E6 are responsible for the suppression. HPV16 E2 interacts with pre-mRNAs through its C-terminal DNA-binding domain. HPV16 E6 binds pre-mRNAs via nuclear localization signal (NLS3) in its C-terminal half. Low-risk HPV6 E6, a cytoplasmic protein, does not bind RNA. Notably, both HPV16 E2 and E6 selectively bind to the intron region of pre-mRNAs and interact with a subset of cellular SR proteins. Together, these findings suggest that HPV16 E2 and E6 are RNA binding proteins and might play roles in posttranscriptional regulation during virus infection.

  8. The value of embedded measures in detecting suboptimal effort in children: an investigation into the WISC-IV Digit Span and CMS Verbal Memory subtests.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Hertza, Jeremy; Segraves, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a measure of test-taking effort that has traditionally been utilized with adults but more recently has demonstrated utility with children. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether commonly used neuropsychological measures can be used as embedded measures in detecting effort during testing. Participants (N = 75) who completed neuropsychological evaluations including the TOMM, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Digit Span, Children's Memory Scale (CMS) Verbal Memory, and other neuropsychological measures were divided into two groups: Optimal Effort and Suboptimal Effort, based on their TOMM Trial 2 scores. Digit Span findings suggest a useful standard score of ≤ 70 resulted in optimal cutoff scores, yielding specificity of 94% and sensitivity of 44%. The CMS Verbal Memory Recall > Recognition scores did not appear as valuable indicating a discrepancy of 20+ points were required for specificity to attain optimal scores of 90% and sensitivity of 11%. This study illustrates the WISC-IV may have good utility in determining optimal effort; however, the CMS may not be as functional.

  9. On the role of plant mitochondrial metabolism and its impact on photosynthesis in both optimal and sub-optimal growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Wagner L; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2014-02-01

    Given that the pathways of photosynthesis and respiration catalyze partially opposing processes, it follows that their relative activities must be carefully regulated within plant cells. Recent evidence has shown that the components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain are essential for the proper maintenance of intracellular redox gradients, to allow considerable rates of photorespiration and in turn efficient photosynthesis. Thus considerable advances have been made in understanding the interaction between respiration and photosynthesis during the last decades and the potential mechanisms linking mitochondrial function and photosynthetic efficiency will be reviewed. Despite the fact that manipulation of various steps of mitochondrial metabolism has been demonstrated to alter photosynthesis under optimal growth conditions, it is likely that these changes will, by and large, not be maintained under sub-optimal situations. Therefore producing plants to meet this aim remains a critical challenge. It is clear, however, that although there have been a range of studies analysing changes in respiratory and photosynthetic rates in response to light, temperature and CO2, our knowledge of the environmental impact on these processes and its linkage still remains fragmented. We will also discuss the metabolic changes associated to plant respiration and photosynthesis as important components of the survival strategy as they considerably extend the period that a plant can withstand to a stress situation.

  10. [Effect of long-term suboptimal temperature and short-term low temperature under low light density on cucumber growth and its photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Ai, Xizhen; Ma, Xingzhuang; Yu, Liming; Xing, Yuxian

    2004-11-01

    The study on the effects of long-term suboptimal temperature (T1) and short-term low temperature (T2) under low light density on cucumber seedling's growth and its photosynthesis showed that the growth speed, photosynthetic rate (Pn), carboxylation efficiency (CE), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and actual quantum yield of P(S II) electron transport (phi(PS II)) all declined remarkably, and the photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fnu/Fm) also decreased to some extent. The decreasing extents of Pn, CE and AQY of T1 were less than those of T2, while the recovery rate of T1 was slower than that of T2. The Fnu/Fm and phi(PS II) of T1 declined to less extent and resiled quickly, while those of T2 decreased to larger extent and recovered slowly. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoid of T1 increased remarkably after being treated, while those of T2 decreased evidently. The Chl a/b of both T1 and T2 declined remarkably. With recovery time going, the pigment of T1 declined under most conditions, while that of T2 increased gradually. Three days later, the pigment content of T1 and T2 were both higher than control. The Chl a/b had no significant change during the recovery period, and was still obviously lower than control.

  11. The combined influence of sub-optimal temperature and salinity on the in vitro viability of Perkinsus marinus, a protistan parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Peyre, M.K.; Casas, S.M.; Gayle, W.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2010-01-01

    Perkinsus marinus is a major cause of mortality in eastern oysters along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts. It is also well documented that temperature and salinity are the primary environmental factors affecting P. marinus viability and proliferation. However, little is known about the effects of combined sub-optimal temperatures and salinities on P. marinus viability. This in vitro study examined those effects by acclimating P. marinus at three salinities (7, 15, 25. ppt) to 10 ??C to represent the lowest temperatures generally reached in the Gulf of Mexico, and to 2 ??C to represent the lowest temperatures reached along the mid-Atlantic coasts and by measuring changes in cell viability and density on days 1, 30, 60 and 90 following acclimation. Cell viability and density were also measured in 7. ppt cultures acclimated to each temperature and then transferred to 3.5. ppt. The largest decreases in cell viability occurred only with combined low temperature and salinity, indicating that there is clearly a synergistic effect. The largest decreases in cell viability occurred only with both low temperature and salinity after 30. days (3.5. ppt, 2 ??C: 0% viability), 60. days (3.5. ppt, 10 ??C: 0% viability) and 90. days (7. ppt, 2 ??C: 0.6 ?? 0.7%; 7. ppt, 10 ??C: 0.2 ?? 0.2%). ?? 2010 .

  12. Association of suboptimal health status with psychosocial stress, plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of glucocorticoid receptor α/β in lymphocyte.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu-Xiang; Dong, Jing; Liu, You-Qin; Zhang, Jie; Song, Man-Shu; He, Yan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS) has become a new public health challenge in China. This study investigated whether high SHS is associated with psychosocial stress, changes in cortisol level and/or glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoform expression. Three-hundred eighty-six workers employed in three companies in Beijing were recruited. The SHS score was derived from data collection in the SHS questionnaire (SHSQ-25). The short standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) was used to assess job-related psychosocial stress. The mean value of the five scales of COPSOQ and distribution of plasma cortisol and mRNA expression of GRα/GRβ between the high level of SHS group and the low level of SHS group were compared using a general linear model procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of psychosocial stress on SHS. We identified three factors that were predictive of SHS, including "demands at work", "interpersonal relations and leadership" and "insecurity at work". Significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol and GRβ/GRα mRNA ratio were observed among the high SHS group. High level of SHS is associated with decreased mRNA expression of GRα. This study confirmed the association between chronic psychosocial stress and SHS, indicating that improving the psychosocial work environment may reduce SHS and then prevent chronic diseases effectively.

  13. Management of the Business Classroom. National Business Education Association Yearbook, No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Betty J., Ed.

    This document contains 15 papers devoted to the theme of management of business education. "Management of Business Education: A Perspective" (Betty J. Brown) discusses business education as education about business and education for business. The following papers explore the theme of managing the curriculum: "The Basic Business and Economic…

  14. Minding the Business of Business: Tools and Models to Design and Measure Wealth Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardez, Mariano L.

    2009-01-01

    What is the business of business? How can planners and investors anticipate the true chances of failure and success of a business idea? This article describes a rationale for developing successful new business on the basis of a simple, sensible idea: the business of any business is to make its clients successful enough to continue purchasing and…

  15. Upgrading Business Literacy and Information Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Interviews two practitioners in the field of business communication to better understand developments in business literacy and information skills. Concludes with a brief discussion of the opportunities for business communication experts in enhancing literacy in the workplace. (SG)

  16. Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... businesses. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 08/00/10 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes Agency... Manufacturing Assistance Act of 2004 (Reauthorization Act) to regulate Small Business Lending Companies (SBLCs... Part XVI Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] SMALL...

  17. Integrated Business Process Adaptation towards Friction-Free Business-to-Business Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shan, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    One key issue in process-aware E-commerce collaboration is the orchestration of business processes of multiple business partners throughout a supply chain network in an automated and seamless way. Since each partner has its own internal processes with different control flow structures and message interfaces, the real challenge lies in verifying…

  18. Feed analyses and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs for use in ration formulation. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance and analytical variability of the assays, and whether an analysis is suitable to be applied to a particular feedstuff. Commercial analyses presently available for carbohydrates, protein, and fats have improved nutritionally pertinent description of feed fractions. Factors affecting interpretation of feed analyses and the nutritional relevance and application of currently available analyses are discussed.

  19. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  20. Toxicology in business decision making.

    PubMed

    Deisler, P F

    1982-12-01

    More than ever before, toxicology and its sister health sciences and technologies are needed as members of the business team to ensure sound business decision making for both new and existing businesses. Yet the marriage of toxicology and business is an uneasy one since toxicology is both the bringer of bad news and a major resource for the solution of problems. Both business and toxicology have much to learn about each other to make the marriage work and to make full use of toxicology's scientific advice in reaching sound decisions on the safe production, distribution, and handling of a company's products. Toxicology also has a central and difficult role in helping business navigate the turbulent waters of regulation or of potential or actual litigation. From his own experience in organizing a corporate health, safety, and environmental department, the author describes the concepts that must be understood and the marshaling of resources needed to ensure that toxicology can play its full role in business decision making.