Science.gov

Sample records for intersectoral allocations factors

  1. Inter-Sectoral Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This book contains papers discussing inter-sectoral educational planning in countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Intersectoral educational planning is interpreted as educational policy formation by any country which takes into consideration influences generated by that country's social and…

  2. Intersectoral action: local governments promoting health.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Riikka; Bortz, Martin; Armada, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Many local governments around the world promote health through intersectoral action, but to date there has been little systematic evidence of these experiences. To bridge this gap, the World Health Organization Centre for Health Development conducted a study in 2011-2013 on intersectoral action for health (ISA) at local government level. A total of 25 cases were included in the final review. Various approaches were used to carry out ISA by local governments in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Several common facilitating factors and challenges were identified: national and international influences, the local political context, public participation and use of support mechanisms such as coordination structures, funding mechanisms and mandates, engaging sectors through vertical and horizontal collaboration, information sharing, monitoring and evaluation, and equity considerations. The literature on certain aspects of ISA, such as monitoring and evaluation and health equity, was found to be relatively thin. Also, the articles used for the study varied as regards their depth of information and often focused on the point of view of one sector. More in-depth studies of these issues covering multiple angles and different ISA mechanisms could be useful. Local governments can offer a unique arena for implementing intersectoral activities, especially because of their proximity to the people, but more practical guidance to better facilitate local government ISA processes is still needed.

  3. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  4. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  5. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  6. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  7. 47 CFR 69.502 - Base factor allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Base factor allocation. 69.502 Section 69.502... Segregation of Common Line Element Revenue Requirement § 69.502 Base factor allocation. Projected revenues from the following shall be deducted from the base factor portion to determine the amount that...

  8. THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY: DEVELOPMENT OF TEMPORAL ALLOCATION FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the development and processing of temporal allocation factors for the 1985 National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) emissions inventory (Version 2). The NAPAP emissions inventory represents the most comprehensive emissions data base available fo...

  9. Important Factors For Resource Allocation In Applied Research And Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotte, E. U.

    1989-01-01

    Competitiveness of modern societies requires optimum allocation of capital, qualified workforce and organizational infrastructure with the connecting link determined by information technology. Human resources of the scientific and technical community can compensate limited resources of other types supported by enhanced information promotion mechanisms in applied research and development. Descriptive features of the problem dimensions are given as a frame of reference, and important factors are reviewed for possible consideration in the fields of technology policy, resource allocation methods and management practices.

  10. Early childhood service development and intersectoral collaboration in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Johns, Susan

    2010-01-01

    There is a paucity of research into the development of intersectoral collaborations designed to support early childhood development in rural communities. Drawing on findings from a qualitative study conducted in three small rural communities in Tasmania, this paper will examine community-based intersectoral collaborations involving government and non-government organisations from the health and allied health, education and community service sectors. The paper analyses the process of developing intersectoral collaborations from the perspective of early childhood health and wellbeing. The specific focus is on collaborations that build family and community capacity. Findings indicate that three groups of factors operate interdependently to influence collaborations: social capital, leadership and environmental factors. Each community has different leadership sources, structures and processes, shaped by levels of community social capital, and by environmental factors such as policy and resources. Effective models of early childhood development require strong local and external leadership. Rural communities that are able to identify and harness the skills, knowledge and resources of internal and external leaders are well positioned to take greater ownership of their own health and wellbeing. The paper provides guidelines for developing and enhancing the capacity of rural communities at different stages of collaborative readiness.

  11. The importance of intersectoral factors in promoting equity-oriented universal health coverage: a multilevel analysis of social determinants affecting neonatal infant and under-five mortality in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Huda, Tanvir M.; Tahsina, Tazeen; El Arifeen, Shams; Dibley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health is multidimensional and affected by a wide range of factors, many of which are outside the health sector. To improve population health and reduce health inequality, it is important that we take into account the complex interactions among social, environmental, behavioural, and biological factors and design our health interventions accordingly. Objectives This study examines mortality differentials in children of different age groups by key social determinants of health (SDH) including parental education and employment, mother's level of autonomy, age, asset index, living arrangements (utilities), and other geographical contextual factors (area of residence, road conditions). Design We used data from the two rounds of Bangladesh Health and Demographic Survey, a nationally representative sample survey of the population residing in Bangladesh. Multilevel logistic models were used to study the impact of SDH on child mortality. Results The study found that the mother's age, the education of both parents, the mother's autonomy to take decisions about matters linked to the health of her child, the household socio-economic conditions, the geographical region of residence, and the condition of the roads were significantly associated with higher risks of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Bangladesh. Conclusion The study findings suggest there are complex relationships among different SDH. Thus larger intersectoral actions will be needed to reduce disparities in child health and mortality and achieve meaningful progress towards equity-oriented universal health coverage. PMID:26880153

  12. The importance of intersectoral factors in promoting equity-oriented universal health coverage: a multilevel analysis of social determinants affecting neonatal infant and under-five mortality in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Huda, Tanvir M; Tahsina, Tazeen; Arifeen, Shams El; Dibley, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health is multidimensional and affected by a wide range of factors, many of which are outside the health sector. To improve population health and reduce health inequality, it is important that we take into account the complex interactions among social, environmental, behavioural, and biological factors and design our health interventions accordingly. Objectives This study examines mortality differentials in children of different age groups by key social determinants of health (SDH) including parental education and employment, mother's level of autonomy, age, asset index, living arrangements (utilities), and other geographical contextual factors (area of residence, road conditions). Design We used data from the two rounds of Bangladesh Health and Demographic Survey, a nationally representative sample survey of the population residing in Bangladesh. Multilevel logistic models were used to study the impact of SDH on child mortality. Results The study found that the mother's age, the education of both parents, the mother's autonomy to take decisions about matters linked to the health of her child, the household socio-economic conditions, the geographical region of residence, and the condition of the roads were significantly associated with higher risks of neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in Bangladesh. Conclusion The study findings suggest there are complex relationships among different SDH. Thus larger intersectoral actions will be needed to reduce disparities in child health and mortality and achieve meaningful progress towards equity-oriented universal health coverage.

  13. 47 CFR 36.3 - Freezing of jurisdictional separations category relationships and/or allocation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... category relationships for the acquiring carrier's post-transfer study area. (e) Any local exchange carrier... relationships and/or allocation factors. 36.3 Section 36.3 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 36.3 Freezing of jurisdictional separations category relationships and/or allocation factors....

  14. 47 CFR 36.3 - Freezing of jurisdictional separations category relationships and/or allocation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... category relationships for the acquiring carrier's post-transfer study area. (e) Any local exchange carrier... relationships and/or allocation factors. 36.3 Section 36.3 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 36.3 Freezing of jurisdictional separations category relationships and/or allocation factors....

  15. 25 CFR 170.202 - Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor allocate funding among tribes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor allocate... LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology (ttam) § 170.202 Does the Relative Need Distribution Factor...

  16. 47 CFR 36.3 - Freezing of jurisdictional separations category relationships and/or allocation factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... July 1, 2001, of such intent to be subject to the provisions of § 36.3(b). (c) Effective July 1, 2001... calculate new, composite factors and, if applicable, category relationships based on a weighted average of... the composite allocation factors and, if applicable, the composite category percentage...

  17. 23 CFR 636.114 - What factors should be considered in risk allocation?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What factors should be considered in risk allocation? 636.114 Section 636.114 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING General § 636.114 What factors should...

  18. Intersectoral action for health equity: a rapid systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Action on the social determinants of health is considered a necessary approach to improving health equity. Most of the social determinants of health lie outside the sphere of the health sector and thus collaboration with governmental and non-governmental sectors outside of health are required to develop policies and programs to improve health equity. Case studies of intersectoral action are available, however there is limited information about the impact of intersectoral action on the social determinants of health and health equity. Methods Search and retrieval of literature published between 2001 and 2011 was conducted in 6 databases. A staged screening of titles and abstracts, and later full-text, was conducted by two independent reviewers. Reviewers independently assessed the quality of the articles deemed relevant for inclusion. Data were extracted and synthesized in narrative format for all included studies, conducted by one reviewer and checked by another. Results 17 articles of varied methodological quality met the inclusion criteria. One systematic review investigating partnership interventions found mixed and limited impacts on health outcomes. Primary studies evaluating the impact of upstream and midstream interventions showed mixed effects. Downstream interventions were generally moderately effective in increasing the availability and use of services by marginalized communities. Conclusions The literature evaluating the impact of intersectoral action on health equity is limited. The included studies identified reveal a moderate to no effect on the social determinants of health. The evidence on the impact of intersectoral action on health equity is even more limited. The lack of evidence should not be interpreted as a lack of effect. Rigorous evaluations of intersectoral action are needed to strengthen the evidence base of this public health practice. PMID:24209299

  19. Research on multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm based on emotional cooperation factor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Baofu; Chen, Lu; Wang, Hao; Dai, Shuanglu; Zhong, Qiubo

    2014-01-01

    Multirobot task allocation is a hot issue in the field of robot research. A new emotional model is used with the self-interested robot, which gives a new way to measure self-interested robots' individual cooperative willingness in the problem of multirobot task allocation. Emotional cooperation factor is introduced into self-interested robot; it is updated based on emotional attenuation and external stimuli. Then a multirobot pursuit task allocation algorithm is proposed, which is based on emotional cooperation factor. Combined with the two-step auction algorithm recruiting team leaders and team collaborators, set up pursuit teams, and finally use certain strategies to complete the pursuit task. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, some comparing experiments have been done with the instantaneous greedy optimal auction algorithm; the results of experiments show that the total pursuit time and total team revenue can be optimized by using this algorithm.

  20. [The dynamic of the informal urban sector in Mexico: the role of intersectoral mobility].

    PubMed

    Roubaud, F

    1992-01-01

    This examination of labor mobility between the formal and informal sectors in Mexico provides a critique of existing models of intersectoral articulation, analyzes the flows between the formal and informal sectors of a group of small entrepreneurs in the informal sector, and assesses the consequences of existing mobility strategies for the economic performance of the informal sector. Works of economists interested in dual models of economies in developing countries do not deal directly with questions of intersectoral mobility, but they implicitly suggest a labor force with 2 closed compartments. But empirical studies in Latin America have demonstrated a strong rotation of workers between the 2 sectors. The functional theory proposed by H. Lopez is one of the most developed among a group that assert that movement between the modern and informal sectors is massive. The Lopez theory suggests that very young workers gain experience in small enterprises in the informal sector, become wage earners in the modern sector sometime in their 20s, and retire after 30 or 40 years to new employment in the informal sector. Very few studies on mobility between sectors have been done in Mexico. But a simulation model demonstrates that when age-related variations in total labor force participation are factored in, the life cycle model of intersectoral mobility is not valid, despite apparent support when the sectoral composition of the labor force is examined cross-sectionally and the results interpreted longitudinally. The National Survey of the Informal Economy was conducted among 2748 units employing fewer than 6 persons in Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Leon, Juarez, and Tijuana. The objective was not to study intersectoral mobility, and questions were asked only on the 2 most recent jobs rather than the entire work history. Only the "micro-entrepreneurs" themselves were interviewed, with the 33% of the work force comprising hired workers and unpaid family labor

  1. Placental phenotype and the insulin-like growth factors: resource allocation to fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Sandovici, Ionel; Constancia, Miguel; Fowden, Abigail L

    2017-03-24

    The placenta is the main determinant of fetal growth and development in utero. It supplies all the nutrients and oxygen required for fetal growth and secretes hormones that facilitate maternal allocation of nutrients to the fetus. Furthermore, the placenta responds to nutritional and metabolic signals in the mother by altering its structural and functional phenotype which can lead to changes in maternal resource allocation to the fetus. The molecular mechanisms by which the placenta senses and responds to environmental cues are poorly understood. This review discusses the role of the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in controlling placental resource allocation to fetal growth, particularly in response to adverse gestational environments. In particular, it assesses the impact of the IGFs and their signalling machinery on placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, primarily in the laboratory species, although it draws on data from human and other species where relevant. It also considers the role of the IGFs as environmental signals in linking resource availability, to fetal growth through changes in the morphological and functional phenotype of the placenta. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing adult-onset diseases in later life, understanding the role of IGFs during pregnancy in regulating placental resource allocation to fetal growth is important for identifying the mechanisms underlying the developmental programming of offspring phenotype by suboptimal intrauterine growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Health Impact Assessment as a Strategy for Intersectoral Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Ji Eun

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for intersectoral collaboration using the case of an HIA project conducted in Gwang Myeong City, Korea. Methods A typical procedure for rapid HIA was used. In the screening step, the Aegi-Neung Waterside Park Plan was chosen as the target of the HIA. In the scoping step, the specific methods and tools to assess potential health impacts were chosen. A participatory workshop was held in the assessment step. Various interest groups, including the Department of Parks and Greenspace, the Department of Culture and Sports, the Department of Environment and Cleansing, civil societies, and residents, discussed previously reviewed literature on the potential health impacts of the Aegi-Neung Waterside Park Plan. Results Potential health impacts and inequality issues were elicited from the workshop, and measures to maximize positive health impacts and minimize negative health impacts were recommended. The priorities among the recommendations were decided by voting. A report on the HIA was submitted to the Department of Parks and Greenspace for their consideration. Conclusions Although this study examined only one case, it shows the potential usefulness of HIA as a tool for enhancing intersectoral collaboration. Some strategies to formally implement HIA are discussed. PMID:22020185

  3. Critical stakeholder determinants to the implementation of intersectoral community approaches targeting childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    van der Kleij, R M J J; Crone, M R; Reis, R; Paulussen, T G W M

    2016-12-01

    Several intersectoral community approaches targeting childhood obesity (IACOs) have been launched in the Netherlands. Translation of these approaches into practice is however arduous and implementation. We therefore studied the implementation of five IACOs in the Netherlands for one-and-a-half years. IACO implementation was evaluated via an adapted version of the MIDI questionnaire, consisting of 18 theory-based constructs. A response rate of 62% was obtained. A hierarchical multivariate linear regression model was used to analyse our data; the final regression model predicted 65% of the variance in adherence. Higher levels of self-efficacy, being an implementer embedded in community B, and having more than 1 year of experience with IACO implementation were associated with higher degrees of adherence. Formal ratification of implementation by management and being prescribed a higher number of activities were related to lower degrees of adherence. We advise that, when designing implementation strategies, emphasis should be placed on the enhancement of professionals' self-efficacy, limitation of the number of activities prescribed and allocation of sufficient time to get acquainted and experienced with IACO implementation. Longitudinal studies are needed to further evaluate interaction between and change within critical determinants while progressing through the innovation process.

  4. Nurse Educator Pathway Project: a competency-based intersectoral curriculum.

    PubMed

    Young, Lynne; Frost, Linda J; Bigl, Julie; Clauson, Marion; McRae, Cora; Scarborough, Kathy S; Murphy, Sue; Jillings, Carol; Gillespie, Frank

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we begin by providing an overview of the Educator Pathway Project (EPP), an education infrastructure that was developed in response to emerging critical nursing workplace issues, and the related demand for enhanced workplace education. We then describe the EPP competency-based curriculum designed to prepare nurses as preceptors, mentors, and educators to lead learning with diverse learner groups. This competency-based curriculum was developed through a collaboration of nurse leaders across practice, academic, and union sectors and drew from a widely embraced curriculum development model (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyzyn, 2005). The goal of the curriculum was to prepare nurses through a four-level career pathway model that contextualized practice and education theory to various education-related roles and levels of experience within the practice setting. Over 1,100 nurses participated in this innovative intersectoral nursing initiative.

  5. Sharing the Wealth: Factors Influencing Resource Allocation in the Sharing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantino, Edmund; Kennelly, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    Students chose between two allocation options, one that gave the allocator more and another participant still more (the "optimal" choice) and one which gave the allocator less and the other participant still less (the "competitive" choice). In a within-subjects design, students' behavior patterns were significantly correlated across the two rounds…

  6. Addressing cancer disparities via community network mobilization and intersectoral partnerships: a social network analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Salhi, Carmel; Achille, Erline; Baril, Nashira; D'Entremont, Kerrie; Grullon, Milagro; Judge, Christine; Oppenheimer, Sarah; Reeves, Chrasandra; Savage, Clara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2012-01-01

    Community mobilization and collaboration among diverse partners are vital components of the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities in the United States. We studied the development and impact of intersectoral connections among the members of the Massachusetts Community Network for Cancer Education, Research, and Training (MassCONECT). As one of the Community Network Program sites funded by the National Cancer Institute, this infrastructure-building initiative utilized principles of Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) to unite community coalitions, researchers, policymakers, and other important stakeholders to address cancer disparities in three Massachusetts communities: Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester. We conducted a cross-sectional, sociometric network analysis four years after the network was formed. A total of 38 of 55 members participated in the study (69% response rate). Over four years of collaboration, the number of intersectoral connections reported by members (intersectoral out-degree) increased, as did the extent to which such connections were reported reciprocally (intersectoral reciprocity). We assessed relationships between these markers of intersectoral collaboration and three intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities: delivery of community activities, policy engagement, and grants/publications. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral out-degree and community activities and policy engagement (the relationship was borderline significant for grants/publications). We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral reciprocity and community activities and grants/publications (the relationship was borderline significant for policy engagement). The study suggests that intersectoral connections may be important drivers of diverse intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities. The findings

  7. The use of exposure source allocation factor in the risk assessment of drinking-water contaminants.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Kannan; Carrier, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In the risk assessment process, the reference dose, tolerable intake, or acceptable daily intake (RfD, TDI, ADI) is apportioned to specific exposure sources on the basis of a source allocation factor (AF) or relative source contribution (RSC). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published an exposure decision tree framework in 2000 to guide the determination of AF (or RSC) of drinking-water contaminants (DWC). Besides that, there has not been any systematic analysis of the basis of the use of AF in DWC risk assessments. This article therefore critically reviews and integrates current knowledge and approaches for the development of AF, while focusing on its consistent use in DWC risk assessments based on consideration of (i) risk assessment endpoint, (ii) existing guidelines, (iii) exposure estimates, (iv) usage pattern and environmental fate information, (v) physicochemical properties, (vi) bounds of AF, (vii) multiroute exposures, and (viii) target population characteristics. Accordingly, for a DWC for which drinking water is not a major source of exposure and for which there is documented evidence of widespread presence in one or more of the other media (i.e., air, food, soil, or consumer products), the use of an AF value of 0.2 is suggested. For DWC for which drinking water represents nearly the single major source of exposure, a ceiling AF value of 0.8 is suggested. For other situations, chemical- and context-specific AF values can be developed based on exposure data or models, which should in turn be bounded by the floor and ceiling AF values as originally described by the U.S. EPA (i.e., 0.2-0.8). Future studies need to focus on improvements in methods for deriving AF, by basing it on the consideration of bioavailability, target tissue dose, and extent of route-specific absorption, as well as improvement in the modeling of dose received via direct/voluntary exposure through consumer products and at workplaces.

  8. 'Mental health is everybody's business': roles for an intersectoral approach in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Skeen, Sarah; Kleintjes, Sharon; Lund, C; Petersen, Inge; Bhana, Arvin; Flisher, Alan J

    2010-01-01

    Intersectoral action is increasingly recognized as necessary to address the social determinants of mental health. This study aims to assess South Africa's progress in intersectoral collaboration for mental health, and provide recommendations for intersectoral collaboration, to generate lessons for other low- and middle-income countries. We conducted a survey of the existing mental health system in South Africa using the World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems. We also conducted 96 semi-structured interviews and 12 focus group discussions with a range of stakeholders at national, provincial and district level. Data were analysed thematically to understand the roles and responsibilities of different sectors in realizing the right to mental health. A range of key sectors were identified as having roles in mental health promotion, illness prevention and service delivery. In discussing South Africa's progress, respondents gave several suggestions about how to formulate an intersectoral response in this context, including increasing high level political commitment, and using leadership from the health sector. We outline roles and responsibilities for various sectors and lessons that can be learnt from this context. These include the importance of developing programmes alongside legislation, employing targeted awareness-raising to engage sectors, and developing a structured approach to intersectoral action.

  9. The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP): project framework.

    PubMed

    Warszawski, Lila; Frieler, Katja; Huber, Veronika; Piontek, Franziska; Serdeczny, Olivia; Schewe, Jacob

    2014-03-04

    The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project offers a framework to compare climate impact projections in different sectors and at different scales. Consistent climate and socio-economic input data provide the basis for a cross-sectoral integration of impact projections. The project is designed to enable quantitative synthesis of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. This report briefly outlines the objectives and framework of the first, fast-tracked phase of Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project, based on global impact models, and provides an overview of the participating models, input data, and scenario set-up.

  10. Intersectoral debate on social research strengthens alliances, advocacy and action for maternal survival in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Mary; Maimbolwa, Margaret; Muulu, Elson; Mulenga, Mary Mwange; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2009-03-01

    The Health Promotion Research Centre of the National University of Ireland, Galway and the University of Zambia's School of Medicine conducted operational research to understand and address the socio-cultural and gender contexts of maternal survival. Together with an analytical policy and programming review and qualitative research, the project process also involved the convening of 'Interest Group' meetings involving intersectoral stakeholders at Central (Lusaka) and Provincial (Kasama) levels. These meetings aimed to catalyse debate and stimulate advocacy on the project theme by using discussion of qualitative research as entry point. Participants came from government departments, civil society groups, the indigenous health system, academia, technical provider associations, and media, advocacy and human rights organisations. We found that engagement in Interest Groups was successful at Provincial level with lively participation from civil society, media and advocacy stakeholders and strong engagement by the health system. The process was welcomed as an opportunity to fill gaps in understanding about underlying social determinants of health and jointly explore intervention approaches. Overburdened government staff at central level faced with disease-focused interventions rather than underlying contextual determinants, and a weak culture of health sector engagement with civil society, academics and activists, contributed to less successful functioning in Lusaka. Final Dissemination and Discussion Events incorporated material from Interest Group Meetings to stimulate wider discussion and make recommendations. This project highlights the potential value of intersectoral stakeholder discussions from the inception stage of research to stimulate intersectoral exchange and alliance building, inform advocacy, and catalyse the process of research into action.

  11. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  12. Optimization model for the allocation of water resources based on the maximization of employment in the agriculture and industry sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi Davijani, M.; Banihabib, M. E.; Nadjafzadeh Anvar, A.; Hashemi, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    In many discussions, work force is mentioned as the most important factor of production. Principally, work force is a factor which can compensate for the physical and material limitations and shortcomings of other factors to a large extent which can help increase the production level. On the other hand, employment is considered as an effective factor in social issues. The goal of the present research is the allocation of water resources so as to maximize the number of jobs created in the industry and agriculture sectors. An objective that has attracted the attention of policy makers involved in water supply and distribution is the maximization of the interests of beneficiaries and consumers in case of certain policies adopted. The present model applies the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm in order to determine the optimum amount of water allocated to each water-demanding sector, area under cultivation, agricultural production, employment in the agriculture sector, industrial production and employment in the industry sector. Based on the results obtained from this research, by optimally allocating water resources in the central desert region of Iran, 1096 jobs can be created in the industry and agriculture sectors, which constitutes an improvement of about 13% relative to the previous situation (non-optimal water utilization). It is also worth mentioning that by optimizing the employment factor as a social parameter, the other areas such as the economic sector are influenced as well. For example, in this investigation, the resulting economic benefits (incomes) have improved from 73 billion Rials at baseline employment figures to 112 billion Rials in the case of optimized employment condition. Therefore, it is necessary to change the inter-sector and intra-sector water allocation models in this region, because this change not only leads to more jobs in this area, but also causes an improvement in the region's economic conditions.

  13. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates. PMID:25844042

  14. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses.

    PubMed

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates.

  15. Temporal variation of traffic on highways and the development of accurate temporal allocation factors for air pollution analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterman, Stuart; Cook, Richard; Justin, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Traffic activity encompasses the number, mix, speed and acceleration of vehicles on roadways. The temporal pattern and variation of traffic activity reflects vehicle use, congestion and safety issues, and it represents a major influence on emissions and concentrations of traffic-related air pollutants. Accurate characterization of vehicle flows is critical in analyzing and modeling urban and local-scale pollutants, especially in near-road environments and traffic corridors. This study describes methods to improve the characterization of temporal variation of traffic activity. Annual, monthly, daily and hourly temporal allocation factors (TAFs), which describe the expected temporal variation in traffic activity, were developed using four years of hourly traffic activity data recorded at 14 continuous counting stations across the Detroit, Michigan, U.S. region. Five sites also provided vehicle classification. TAF-based models provide a simple means to apportion annual average estimates of traffic volume to hourly estimates. The analysis shows the need to separate TAFs for total and commercial vehicles, and weekdays, Saturdays, Sundays and observed holidays. Using either site-specific or urban-wide TAFs, nearly all of the variation in historical traffic activity at the street scale could be explained; unexplained variation was attributed to adverse weather, traffic accidents and construction. The methods and results presented in this paper can improve air quality dispersion modeling of mobile sources, and can be used to evaluate and model temporal variation in ambient air quality monitoring data and exposure estimates.

  16. Factors affecting the United Nations' response to natural disasters: what determines the allocation of the Central Emergency Response Fund?

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tyler D; Oliveira, Thiago M; Kayden, Stephanie

    2017-01-30

    Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries. There were 4,346 disasters in total in 188 countries between 2007 and 2013. CERF provided USD 2.98 billion to 87 countries, comprising 3.3 per cent of their total humanitarian funding. CERF more frequently supplied aid to countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and to those that had suffered geophysical disasters. Appropriately, it funds vulnerable countries experiencing severe natural disasters, yet its funding may be affected by variables beyond severity and vulnerability. Further investigation is warranted, therefore.

  17. What makes intersectoral partnerships for health promotion work? A review of the international literature.

    PubMed

    Corbin, J Hope; Jones, Jacky; Barry, Margaret M

    2016-08-09

    A Health in All Policies approach requires creating and sustaining intersectoral partnerships for promoting population health. This scoping review of the international literature on partnership functioning provides a narrative synthesis of findings related to processes that support and inhibit health promotion partnership functioning. Searching a range of databases, the review includes 26 studies employing quantitative (n = 8), qualitative (n = 10) and mixed method (n = 8) designs examining partnership processes published from January 2007 to June 2015. Using the Bergen Model of Collaborative Functioning as a theoretical framework for analyzing the findings, nine core elements were identified that constitute positive partnership processes that can inform best practices: (i) develop a shared mission aligned to the partners' individual or institutional goals; (ii) include a broad range of participation from diverse partners and a balance of human and financial resources; (iii) incorporate leadership that inspires trust, confidence and inclusiveness; (iv) monitor how communication is perceived by partners and adjust accordingly; (v) balance formal and informal roles/structures depending upon mission; (vi) build trust between partners from the beginning and for the duration of the partnership; (vii) ensure balance between maintenance and production activities; (viii) consider the impact of political, economic, cultural, social and organizational contexts; and (ix) evaluate partnerships for continuous improvement. Future research is needed to examine the relationship between these processes and how they impact the longer-term outcomes of intersectoral partnerships.

  18. [Problem areas and examples of best practice in intersectoral medication treatment--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Mehrmann, Lena; Ollenschläger, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Transitions between the outpatient and inpatient sector are a critical phase in medication treatment. This article provides an overview of published problem areas and examples of best practice in the intersectoral medication treatment. Data with regard to related problem areas and examples of best practice was collected in August 2011 by a systematic literature research. The relevant literature was identified using the following databases and search engines: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google, and Google Scholar. Additionally, a hand search was done on the websites of SpringerLink and Thieme Connect. The initial search yielded a total of 4,409 records which were further selected in two screening steps and analysed according to their relevance. Of the remaining 63 records, 3 exclusively described problem areas, 11 of them examples of best practice, and 49 provided information on both problem areas and examples of best practice with regard to intersectoral medication treatment. Among other things, problem areas include varying legal regulations in inpatient and outpatient medication treatment, drug therapy interruptions after hospital discharge, or deficits in communication and continuity of care. Examples of best practice are projects, programmes, initiatives, recommendations, and points to consider with respect to medication reconciliation, pharmaceutical support, or transitions of care. Problem areas as well as examples of best practice are mainly focused on the transition from inpatient to outpatient care.

  19. Health museums or theme parks: a new approach to intersectoral collaboration.

    PubMed

    Seymour, H; Ashton, J; Edwards, P

    1986-01-01

    This paper is an outline of a proposed initiative on intersectoral collaboration in health promotion--collaboration between health, tourist, cultural and entertainment sectors to provide a powerful mass educational experience about the human mind and body. There has been a recent rise in interest in using the technology of museums, science centres, exploratories and theme parks for the promotion of health. This revival is shown to have a historical tradition in the health education museum started in this century in Europe 75 years ago at the Deutsches Hygiene Museum and then spreading to the USA. The proposed Body, Mind, City Museum planned for Liverpool acts as a future model for a new type of health Museum; a mixture of science exploratorium and a Walt Disney-style them park. It is intended that "hand-on" exhibits using interactive video, computers, games and experiences will be used to test people's own capacities or to describe biological functions or processes. This will be combined with park rides and simulations with their inherent appeal of fun, movement and surprise, for example the ride through the blood vessels and the "walk-through brain". This type of venture has a number of special features and advantages; it is truly intersectoral, it may be self-financing, and it can provide a mass audience with a powerful individual experience.

  20. Child protection network and the intersector implementation of the circle of security as alternatives to medication☆

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Ana Laura Martins M.M.; de Souza, Paulo Haddad; de Oliveira, Mônica Martins; Paraguay, Nestor Luiz Bruzzi B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical history of a child with aggressive behavior and recurring death-theme speech, and report the experience of the team of authors, who proposed an alternative to medication through the establishment of a protection network and the inter-sector implementation of the circle of security concept. Case description: A 5-year-old child has a violent and aggressive behavior at the daycare. The child was diagnosed by the healthcare center with depressive disorder and behavioral disorder, and was medicated with sertraline and risperidone. Side effects were observed, and the medications were discontinued. Despite several actions, such as talks, teamwork, psychological and psychiatric follow-up, the child's behavior remained unchanged. Remarks: A unique therapeutic project was developed by Universidade Estadual de Campinas' Medical School students in order to establish a connection between the entities responsible for the child's care (daycare center, healthcare center, and family). Thus, the team was able to develop a basic care protection network. The implementation of the inter-sector circle of security, as well as the communication and cooperation among the teams, produced very favorable results in this case. This initiative was shown to be a feasible and effective alternative to the use of medication for this child. PMID:25479857

  1. A Multiple-Case Study of Intersectoral Collaboration in Comprehensive School Health Promotion Using the Diagnosis of Sustainable Collaboration (DISC) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucher, K. K.; Candel, M. J. J. M.; Boot, N. M. W. M.; van Raak, A. J. A.; de Vries, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Intersectoral collaboration is often a prerequisite for effective interventions in public health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the facilitating and hindering conditions regarding intersectoral collaboration between health authorities, public health services (PHSs), public services stakeholders (PPSs) and the education sector in…

  2. Applicability and Limitations of Reliability Allocation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability allocation process may be described as the process of assigning reliability requirements to individual components within a system to attain the specified system reliability. For large systems, the allocation process is often performed at different stages of system design. The allocation process often begins at the conceptual stage. As the system design develops, more information about components and the operating environment becomes available, different allocation methods can be considered. Reliability allocation methods are usually divided into two categories: weighting factors and optimal reliability allocation. When properly applied, these methods can produce reasonable approximations. Reliability allocation techniques have limitations and implied assumptions that need to be understood by system engineers. Applying reliability allocation techniques without understanding their limitations and assumptions can produce unrealistic results. This report addresses weighting factors, optimal reliability allocation techniques, and identifies the applicability and limitations of each reliability allocation technique.

  3. Water reclamation and intersectoral water transfer between agriculture and cities--a FAO economic wastewater study.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Ingo; Salgot, Miquel; Koo-Oshima, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    Cost-benefit studies on replacing conventional agricultural water resources with reclaimed water in favour of cities are still rare. Some results of a study under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) are presented. By means of an illustrative example at Lobregat River basin in Spain, it could be proved that reclaimed water reuse and intersectoral water transfer can result in economic and environmental benefits at the watershed level. The agricultural community faces cost savings in water pumping and fertilising, increases in yields and incomes; the municipality benefits from additional water resources released by farmers. Farmers should be encouraged to participate by implementing adequate economic incentives. Charging farmers with the full cost of water reclamation may discourage farmers from joining water exchange projects. Particularly in regions with water scarcity, investments in reclaimed water reuse and water exchange arrangements usually pay back and are profitable in the long term.

  4. Assessing Inter-Sectoral Climate Change Risks: The Role of ISIMIP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Arnell, Nigel W.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Raes, Frank; Rapley, Chris; Smith, Mark Stafford; Cramer, Wolfgang; Frieler, Katja; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Schewe, Jacob; van Vuuren, Detlef; Warszawski, Lila

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) are to provide a framework for the intercomparison of global and regional-scale risk models within and across multiple sectors and to enable coordinated multi-sectoral assessments of different risks and their aggregated effects. The overarching goal is to use the knowledge gained to support adaptation and mitigation decisions that require regional or global perspectives within the context of facilitating transformations to enable sustainable development, despite inevitable climate shifts and disruptions. ISIMIP uses community-agreed sets of scenarios with standardized climate variables and socioeconomic projections as inputs for projecting future risks and associated uncertainties, within and across sectors. The results are consistent multi-model assessments of sectoral risks and opportunities that enable studies that integrate across sectors, providing support for implementation of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  5. Assessing inter-sectoral climate change risks: the role of ISIMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Arnell, Nigel W.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Raes, Frank; Rapley, Chris; Stafford Smith, Mark; Cramer, Wolfgang; Frieler, Katja; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Schewe, Jacob; van Vuuren, Detlef; Warszawski, Lila

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) are to provide a framework for the intercomparison of global and regional-scale risk models within and across multiple sectors and to enable coordinated multi-sectoral assessments of different risks and their aggregated effects. The overarching goal is to use the knowledge gained to support adaptation and mitigation decisions that require regional or global perspectives within the context of facilitating transformations to enable sustainable development, despite inevitable climate shifts and disruptions. ISIMIP uses community-agreed sets of scenarios with standardized climate variables and socio-economic projections as inputs for projecting future risks and associated uncertainties, within and across sectors. The results are consistent multi-model assessments of sectoral risks and opportunities that enable studies that integrate across sectors, providing support for implementation of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  6. [Tele-cooperation for innovative care using the example of the University Hospital Aachen. Telematics in intensive care medicine, emergency medicine, and telemedical intersectoral rehabilitation planning in geriatric trauma].

    PubMed

    Marx, Gernot; Beckers, Rainer; Brokmann, Jörg Christian; Deisz, Robert; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2015-10-01

    The demographic challenge of the ageing society is associated with increasing comorbidity. On the other hand, there will be an ageing workforce in medicine, resulting in an imbalance between the demand and supply of medical care in the near future. In rural areas in particular, this imbalance is already present today. Based on three best practice projects carried out by our telemedical center in Aachen, including emergency medicine, intensive care medicine, and the rehabilitation planning of geriatric trauma care, some experience and the potential of the intersectoral provision of care, supported by telemedicine, are demonstrated. Telemedicine is the provision of medical services over a geographical distance by using tele-communication and data transfer. It has been proven to ensure a constant quality of health care. Telemedical support enables shared expertise independent of time and space, and allows efficient allocation of resources. A review of international experience supports this notion.

  7. Effect of a Multi-Dimensional and Inter-Sectoral Intervention on the Adherence of Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Anne; Wolf, Carolin; Mayr, Andreas; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes; Friedland, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background In psychiatry, hospital stays and transitions to the ambulatory sector are susceptible to major changes in drug therapy that lead to complex medication regimens and common non-adherence among psychiatric patients. A multi-dimensional and inter-sectoral intervention is hypothesized to improve the adherence of psychiatric patients to their pharmacotherapy. Methods 269 patients from a German university hospital were included in a prospective, open, clinical trial with consecutive control and intervention groups. Control patients (09/2012-03/2013) received usual care, whereas intervention patients (05/2013-12/2013) underwent a program to enhance adherence during their stay and up to three months after discharge. The program consisted of therapy simplification and individualized patient education (multi-dimensional component) during the stay and at discharge, as well as subsequent phone calls after discharge (inter-sectoral component). Adherence was measured by the “Medication Adherence Report Scale” (MARS) and the “Drug Attitude Inventory” (DAI). Results The improvement in the MARS score between admission and three months after discharge was 1.33 points (95% CI: 0.73–1.93) higher in the intervention group compared to controls. In addition, the DAI score improved 1.93 points (95% CI: 1.15–2.72) more for intervention patients. Conclusion These two findings indicate significantly higher medication adherence following the investigated multi-dimensional and inter-sectoral program. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00006358 PMID:26437449

  8. Inter-sectoral comparison of model uncertainty of climate change impacts in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, Ann; Vetter, Tobias; Piontek, Franzisca; Gosling, Simon N.; Kamali, Bahareh; Reinhardt, Julia; Dinkneh, Aklilu; Yang, Hong; Alemayehu, Tadesse

    2016-04-01

    We present the model results and their uncertainties of an inter-sectoral impact model inter-comparison initiative (ISI-MIP) for climate change impacts in Africa. The study includes results on hydrological, crop and health aspects. The impact models used ensemble inputs consisting of 20 time series of daily rainfall and temperature data obtained from 5 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) and 4 Representative concentration pathway (RCP). In this study, we analysed model uncertainty for the Regional Hydrological Models, Global Hydrological Models, Malaria models and Crop models. For the regional hydrological models, we used 2 African test cases: the Blue Nile in Eastern Africa and the Niger in Western Africa. For both basins, the main sources of uncertainty are originating from the GCM and RCPs, while the uncertainty of the regional hydrological models is relatively low. The hydrological model uncertainty becomes more important when predicting changes on low flows compared to mean or high flows. For the other sectors, the impact models have the largest share of uncertainty compared to GCM and RCP, especially for Malaria and crop modelling. The overall conclusion of the ISI-MIP is that it is strongly advised to use ensemble modeling approach for climate change impact studies throughout the whole modelling chain.

  9. Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project

    PubMed Central

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Romulo G.; Daguro, Leonida I.; Paman, Meydalyn D.; Madrinan, Frederick P.; Rances, Polizena A.; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). Aims The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. Methods The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies

  10. ISI-MIP: The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, V.; Dahlemann, S.; Frieler, K.; Piontek, F.; Schewe, J.; Serdeczny, O.; Warszawski, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP) aims to synthesize the state-of-the-art knowledge of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming. The project's experimental design is formulated to distinguish the uncertainty introduced by the impact models themselves, from the inherent uncertainty in the climate projections and the variety of plausible socio-economic futures. The unique cross-sectoral scope of the project provides the opportunity to study cascading effects of impacts in interacting sectors and to identify regional 'hot spots' where multiple sectors experience extreme impacts. Another emphasis lies on the development of novel metrics to describe societal impacts of a warmer climate. We briefly outline the methodological framework, and then present selected results of the first, fast-tracked phase of ISI-MIP. The fast track brought together 35 global impact models internationally, spanning five sectors across human society and the natural world (agriculture, water, natural ecosystems, health and coastal infrastructure), and using the latest generation of global climate simulations (RCP projections from the CMIP5 archive) and socioeconomic drivers provided within the SSP process. We also introduce the second phase of the project, which will enlarge the scope of ISI-MIP by encompassing further impact sectors (e.g., forestry, fisheries, permafrost) and regional modeling approaches. The focus for the next round of simulations will be the validation and improvement of models based on historical observations and the analysis of variability and extreme events. Last but not least, we discuss the longer-term objective of ISI-MIP to initiate a coordinated, ongoing impact assessment process, driven by the entire impact community and in parallel with well-established climate model intercomparisons (CMIP).

  11. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Congress appropriates less than $1.5 billion of HOME funds, $335,000 is substituted for $500,000. (4) The... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a... factors. The first and sixth factors are weighted 0.1; the other four factors are weighted 0.2....

  12. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    7 1 . Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) ........................................................7 2. Dynamic Channel ...19 7. CSMA/CD-Based Multiple Network Lines .....................................20 8. Hybrid Channel Allocation in Wireless Networks...28 1 . Channel Allocation

  13. Transcriptional control of monolignol biosynthesis in Pinus taeda: factors affecting monolignol ratios and carbon allocation in phenylpropanoid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    Transcriptional profiling of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Pinus taeda cell suspension cultures was carried out using quantitative real time PCR analyses of all known genes involved in the biosynthesis of the two monolignols, p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohols (lignin/lignan precursors). When the cells were transferred to a medium containing 8% sucrose and 20 mm potassium iodide, the monolignol/phenylpropanoid pathway was induced, and transcript levels for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase were coordinately up-regulated. Provision of increasing levels of exogenously supplied Phe to saturating levels (40 mm) to the induction medium resulted in further up-regulation of their transcript levels in the P. taeda cell cultures; this in turn was accompanied by considerable increases in both p-coumaryl and coniferyl alcohol formation and excretion. By contrast, transcript levels for both cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase were only slightly up-regulated. These data, when considered together with metabolic profiling results and genetic manipulation of various plant species, reveal that carbon allocation to the pathway and its differential distribution into the two monolignols is controlled by Phe supply and differential modulation of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase activities, respectively. The coordinated up-regulation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase in the presence of increasing concentrations of Phe also indicates that these steps are not truly rate-limiting, because they are modulated according to metabolic demand. Finally, the transcript profile of a putative acid/ester O-methyltransferase, proposed as an alternative catalyst for O-methylation leading

  14. [Effect of environmental factors and fishing effort allocation on catch of the Spotted Eagle Ray Aetobatus narinari (Rajiformes: Myliobatidae) in Southern Gulf of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Elizabeth; Pérez, Juan Carlos; Méndez, Iván

    2013-09-01

    Aetobatus narinari represents a fisheries target in Southern Gulf of Mexico, and it is currently considered a Near Threatened species by the IUCN red list. The information available of this batoid fish includes some biological and fishery aspects; nevertheless, little is known about the factors influencing on fishing operations and catches. In order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors and the fishing effort allocation by vessels on the target fishery of A. narinari in this area, a daily basis sampling was carried out on four small-scale vessels, from January to July 2009 (the entire fishing season), in two fishing localities (Campeche and Seybaplaya). A total of 896 rays were recorded from 280 fishing trips. A General Linear Model was used to predict the factors effect on the probability that fishing operations occurred, and on the probability for captures of at least one or three or five rays per vessel-trip. The probability that fishing operations occurred off Campeche was predicted by the lunar cycle, with the highest probability in the new moon period (66%) and a probability smaller than 35% for the other periods. The probability that fishing operations occurred off Seybaplaya was predicted by wind velocity, with higher probabilities at low wind velocity than at high wind velocity, and a 50% probability of fishing operations at 12-15 km/h. Catch rates off Seybaplaya were predicted by the vessel's factor (the effect of fishing effort allocation), the North wind season and sea surface temperature. The probability for captures of at least one and three rays per vessel-trip was predicted by the vessel's factor and the North wind season. One vessel had higher catch probability (83% for at least one ray and 43% for at least three rays) than the others (69 and 70% for at least one ray and 26% for at least three rays), and during the North wind season the catch probability was higher (96% for at least one ray and 72% for at least three rays) than out of

  15. Short-term ethanol exposure causes imbalanced neurotrophic factor allocation in the basal forebrain cholinergic system: a novel insight into understanding the initial processes of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takanori; Kusaka, Takashi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Ohta, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Shingo; Warita, Katsuhiko; Jamal, Mostofa; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Ueki, Masaaki; Liu, Jun-Qian; Yakura, Tomiko; Tamai, Motoki; Sumitani, Kazunori; Hosomi, Naohisa; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol ingestion affects both motor and cognitive functions. One brain system that is influenced by ethanol is the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic projection system, which projects to diverse neocortical and limbic areas. The BF is associated with memory and cognitive function. Our primary interest is the examination of how regions that receive BF cholinergic projections are influenced by short-term ethanol exposure through alterations in the mRNA levels of neurotrophic factors [nerve growth factor/TrkA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB, and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)/GDNF family receptor α1]. Male BALB/C mice were fed a liquid diet containing 5 % (v/v) ethanol. Pair-fed control mice were maintained on an identical liquid diet, except that the ethanol was isocalorically substituted with sucrose. Mice exhibiting signs of ethanol intoxication (stages 1-2) were used for real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Among the BF cholinergic projection regions, decreased levels of GDNF mRNA and increased levels of TrkB mRNA were observed in the basal nucleus, and increased levels of TrkB mRNA were observed in the cerebral cortex. There were no significant alterations in the levels of expression of relevant neurotrophic factors in the septal nucleus and hippocampus. Given that neurotrophic factors function in retrograde/anterograde or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms and that BF cholinergic projection regions are neuroanatomically connected, these findings suggested that an imbalanced allocation of neurotrophic factor ligands and receptors is an initial phenomenon in alcohol addiction. The exact mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in the BF cholinergic system are unknown. However, our results provide a novel notion for the understanding of the initial processes in alcohol addiction.

  16. Construction of the food and nutrition security policy in Brazil: strategies and challenges in the promotion of intersectorality at the federal government level.

    PubMed

    Burlandy, Luciene

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes institutional strategies of the Brazilian federal government that aim at promoting intersectorality in the field of Food and Nutrition Security (FNS), based on bibliographic review and document analysis. It is assumed that, although formal institutionality in this government level is not enough to promote intersectorality, it is important in process induction. It follows that the combination of different institutional mechanisms favors intersectorality, such as: the existence and location of councils integrated by government sectors and civil society in the presidency; political support by the presidency and inclusion of the issue as being strategic in the governmental agenda; assembly of institutional spaces that articulate the highest government spheres and that integrate technical levels; programs that integrate food production, commercialization, and consumption. Challenges concern interrelation with economic policy and the construction of budget agreed among sectors, integrated to policy management and monitoring.

  17. Disease Management Project Breast Cancer in Hesse - 5-Year Survival Data: Successful Model of Intersectoral Communication for Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Jackisch, C; Funk, A; König, K; Lubbe, D; Misselwitz, B; Wagner, U

    2014-03-01

    Introduction: The Disease Management Project Breast Cancer (DMP Breast Cancer) was first launched in Hesse in 2004. The project is supported by the health insurance companies in Hesse and the Professional Association of Gynaecologists in Hesse. The aim is to offer structured treatment programmes to all women diagnosed with breast cancer in Hesse by creating intersectoral cooperations between coordinating clinics, associated hospitals and gynaecologists in private practice who registered in the DMP programme. Method: Between 1 January 2005 and 30 June 2011, 13 973 women were enrolled in the DMP programme. Results: After data cleansing, survival rates were calculated for a total of 11 214 women. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 86.3 %; survival rates according to tumour stage on presentation were 92.2 % (pT1) and 82.3 % (pT2), respectively. The impact of steroid hormone receptor status on survival (87.8 % for receptor-positive cancers vs. 78.9 % for receptor-negative cancers) and of age at first diagnosis on survival (≤ 35 years = 91 %) were calculated. Conclusion: The project showed that intersectoral cooperation led to significant improvements in the quality of treatment over time, as measured by quality indicators and outcomes after treatment.

  18. [Constructivist evaluation, under an integrating and intersectoral approach, of actions of the Disque Idoso Project in Sobral (CE, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cibelly Aliny Siqueira Lima; Teófilo, Tiago José Silveira

    2010-09-01

    The population aging in Brazil and in the world is a reason for an epidemic inquietude. So, the violence against senior people has been considered a problem of public health. This study takes as context the health need of seniors that suffer of violence, aiming to evaluate in a constructive way the Disque Idoso Project in Sobral (Ceará, Brazil). We used Furtado's Constructivist Method of Evaluation, which provides practices of participative evaluation. Trying to reach such perspective, we are guided by paths of the integrative approach (inter, multi and transdisciplinary) and intersectoral. We accomplished the focal groups with representatives of the sections of health, social assistance, justice and senior, the benefited by the project as well as others that contribute to its development. When interacting with the professionals that act in the project headquarters we understood that there is a fear in publishing their work, because there is not structure to enlarge the attendance. The group believes that the efficiency of its actions is limited due to the lack of transport and other professionals. For the professionals of the support social networks, the project should look for intersectoral performance, once it intends to reach a complete attendance. For the seniors, the project is quite valid and needs to be consolidated in the district.

  19. Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Public Attitudes Toward a Presumed Consent System for Organ Donation Without and With a Priority Allocation Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Tumin, Makmor; Tafran, Khaled; Mutalib, Muzalwana Abdul Talib @ Abdul; Satar, NurulHuda Mohd; Said, Saad Mohd; Adnan, Wan Ahmad Hafiz Wan Md; Lu, Yong Sook

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on the public's attitude towards a presumed consent system (PCS) of organ donation was estimated in 2 scenarios: without and with a priority allocation scheme (PAS). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 775 respondents. Using multiple logistic regressions, respondents’ objections to donating organs in both scenarios were estimated. In total, 63.9% of respondents would object to donating under a PCS, whereas 54.6% would object under a PCS with a PAS. Respondents with pretertiary education were more likely to object than were respondents with tertiary education, in both the first (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.615) and second (AOR = 1.728) scenarios. Young respondents were less likely to object than were middle-aged respondents, in both the first (AOR = 0.648) and second (AOR = 0.572) scenarios. Respondents with mid-ranged personal monthly income were more likely to object than were respondents with low income, in both the first (AOR = 1.994) and second (AOR = 1.519) scenarios. It does not seem that Malaysia is ready to implement a PCS. The educational level, age, and income of the broader public should be considered if a PCS, without or with a PAS, is planned for implementation in Malaysia. PMID:26496282

  20. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  1. Resource Allocation: Ration, Fashion, or Innovashun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourens, Roy

    1986-01-01

    Resource allocation is a key factor in promoting or retarding innovation. In a restrictive economic climate, it is easy to use resource allocation for decremental rationing and to stifle innovative thinking. The technique can also be used to ensure that the institution's human resources are encouraged to identify opportunities for innovation. (MSE)

  2. [An inter-sector participatory strategy in Cuba using an ecosystem approach to prevent dengue transmission at the local level].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Cristina; Torres, Yisel; Cruz, Ana Margarita de la; Alvarez, Angel M; Piquero, María Eugenia; Valero, Aida; Fuentes, Omar

    2009-01-01

    Cuba is located among a group of countries with high dengue incidence. Following several epidemics in the last 10 years, the country designed, implemented, and evaluated a participatory strategy based on the Ecohealth approach. The aim was to promote inter-sector ecosystem management to decrease Aedes aegypti infestation and prevent dengue transmission in the municipality of Cotorro, in Havana city. The study adopted a participatory research methodology. The strategy ensured active participation by the community, diverse sectors, and government in the production of healthy ecosystems. Timely and integrated measures for prevention and control were developed, thereby decreasing the risk of vector proliferation and local dengue transmission. The approach allowed holistic problem analysis, priority setting, and administration of solutions. The strategy has been sustained two years after concluding the process.

  3. Realist evaluation of intersectoral oral health promotion interventions for schoolchildren living in rural Andean communities: a research protocol

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Lise R; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Background Intersectoral collaboration, known to promote more sustainable change within communities, will be examined in an oral health promotion program (OHPP). In Peru, an OHPP was implemented by the Ministry of Health, to reduce the incidence of caries in schoolchildren. In rural Andean communities, however, these initiatives achieved limited success. The objectives of this project are: (1) to understand the context and the underlying mechanisms associated with Peruvian OHPP's current effects among school children living in rural Andean communities and (2) to validate a theory explaining how and under which circumstances OHP intersectoral interventions on schoolchildren living in rural Andean communities produce their effects. Methods and analysis Through a realist evaluation, the context, underlying mechanisms and programme outcomes will be identified. This process will involve five different steps. In the first and second steps, a logic model and an initial theory are developed. In the third step, data collection will permit measurement of the OHHP's outcomes with quantitative data, and exploration of the elements of context and the mechanisms with qualitative data. In the fourth and fifth steps, iterative data analysis and a validation process will allow the identification of Context-Mechanism-Outcome configuration, and validate or refine the initial theory. Ethics and dissemination This research project has received approval from the Comité d’éthique de la recherche en santé chez l'humain du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke. The initial theory and research results will be published in relevant journals in public health and oral health. They will also be presented at realist evaluation and health promotion international conferences. PMID:28237962

  4. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... assigns weights to various performance factors reflecting program compliance, safety priorities,...

  5. 49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... assigns weights to various performance factors reflecting program compliance, safety priorities,...

  6. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  7. Channel Allocation Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Robert S.

    The Frequency Allocation Subcommittee of the Coordinating Committee for Cable Communication Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, was formed to produce a background report on the general problems of frequency allocation and assignments in cable television. The present paper, based on the subcommittee's interim report,…

  8. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  9. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies.

  10. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  11. Approaches to Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Paul; Simon, Lou Anna Kimsey

    1976-01-01

    Various budgeting patterns and strategies are currently in use, each with its own particular strengths and weaknesses. Neither cost-benefit analysis nor cost-effectiveness analysis offers any better solution to the allocation problem than do the unsupported contentions of departments or the historical unit costs. An operable model that performs…

  12. Modeling Sugar Allocations in Plants using Radioisotope Tracer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Mingru

    2013-10-01

    The allocations of carbon and nitrogen are major factors in determining growth priorities in plants. The mechanisms that regulate resource allocation in plants are poorly understood. We use radiotracer techniques to identify and quantify dynamical feedback responses of plants to changes in environmental conditions. A major goal of this research is to investigate shifts in sugar allocations as part of the plant's response to changes in environmental conditions. These observations are used to develop mechanistic models that simulate the feedback for adjustments to resource allocations based on the environment-plant interface. By writing a software module in C + + based on the models, we are able to conduct a computer simulation of plant's intake of carbon dioxide and sugar allocation inside plant body. By comparing and matching the simulation results and experimental data through adjusting model parameters, we are able to gain knowledge of the mechanisms that regulate resource allocation in plants.

  13. Constrained control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the allocation of several flight controls to the generation of specified body-axis moments. The number of controls is greater than the number of moments being controlled, and the ranges of the controls are constrained to certain limits. The controls are assumed to be individually linear in their effect throughout their ranges of motion, and independent of one another in their effects. The geometries of the subset of the constrained controls and of its image in moment space are examined. A direct method of allocating these several controls is presented, that guarantees the maximum possible moment is generated within the constraints of the controls. The results are illustrated by an example problem involving three controls and two moments.

  14. The Allocation of Federal Expenditures Among States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Maw Lin

    1967-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with the allocation offederal expenditures by states and examines the implications of theseexpenditures on the state by state distribution of incomes. Theallocation of federal expenditures is functionally oriented toward theobjectives for which various government programs are set up. Thegeographical distribution of federal expenditures, therefore, washistorically considered to be a problem incidental to governmentactivity. Because of this, relatively little attention was given tothe question of why some states receive more federal allocation thanothers. In addition, the implications of this pattern of allocationamong the several states have not been intensively investigated.

  15. A Web-Based Computer-Tailored Alcohol Prevention Program for Adolescents: Cost-Effectiveness and Intersectoral Costs and Benefits

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Preventing excessive alcohol use among adolescents is important not only to foster individual and public health, but also to reduce alcohol-related costs inside and outside the health care sector. Computer tailoring can be both effective and cost-effective for working with many lifestyle behaviors, yet the available information on the cost-effectiveness of computer tailoring for reducing alcohol use by adolescents is limited as is information on the costs and benefits pertaining to sectors outside the health care sector, also known as intersectoral costs and benefits (ICBs). Objective The aim was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a Web-based computer-tailored intervention for reducing alcohol use and binge drinking by adolescents from a health care perspective (excluding ICBs) and from a societal perspective (including ICBs). Methods Data used were from the Alcoholic Alert study, a cluster randomized controlled trial with randomization at the level of schools into two conditions. Participants either played a game with tailored feedback on alcohol awareness after the baseline assessment (intervention condition) or received care as usual (CAU), meaning that they had the opportunity to play the game subsequent to the final measurement (waiting list control condition). Data were recorded at baseline (T0=January/February 2014) and after 4 months (T1=May/June 2014) and were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), both from a health care perspective and a societal perspective. Stochastic uncertainty in the data was dealt with by using nonparametric bootstraps (5000 simulated replications). Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted based on excluding cost outliers. Subgroup cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted based on several background variables, including gender, age, educational level, religion, and ethnicity. Results From both the health care perspective and the societal perspective for both outcome measures, the

  16. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  17. In Focus: Are the Social Partners in Central and Eastern Europe Ready To Follow the French Example of Developing a Joint Inter-Sectoral Mechanism for the Accreditation of Qualifications? Briefing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deij, Arjen

    2002-01-01

    The French employers federation (MEDEF) has taken the initiative to develop a joint inter-sectoral mechanism for accreditation of occupational competences. The approach analyzes occupations at a more abstract level than the tasks performed within a specific job to facilitate comparison of different occupations from different sectors and allow…

  18. The choice between allocation principles: amplifying when equality dominates.

    PubMed

    Eek, Daniel; Selart, Marcus

    2009-04-01

    One hundred and ninety participants (95 undergraduates and 95 employees) responded to a factorial survey in which a number of case-based organizational allocation tasks were described. Participants were asked to imagine themselves as employees in fictitious organizations and chose among three allocations of employee-development schemes invested by the manager in different work groups. The allocations regarded how such investments should be allocated between two parties. Participants chose twice, once picking the fairest and once the best allocation. One between-subjects factor varied whether the parties represented social (i.e., choosing among allocations between two different work groups) or temporal comparisons (i.e., choosing among allocations between the present and the following year). Another between-subjects factor varied whether participants' in-group was represented by the parties or not. One allocation maximized the outcome to one party, another maximized the joint outcome received by both parties, and a third provided both parties with equal but lower outcomes. It was predicted that equality, although always deficient to both parties, would be the preferred allocation when parties represented social comparisons and when choices were based on fairness. When parties represented temporal comparisons, and when choices were based on preference, maximizing the joint outcome was hypothesized to be the preferred allocation. Results supported these hypotheses. Against what was predicted, whether the in-group was represented by the parties or not did not moderate the results, indicating that participants' allocation preferences were not affected by self-interest. The main message is that people make sensible distinctions between what they prefer and what they regard as fair. The results were the same for participating students who imagined themselves as being employees and participants who were true employees, suggesting that no serious threats to external

  19. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  20. Variability in Parameter Estimates and Model Fit across Repeated Allocations of Items to Parcels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterba, Sonya K.; MacCallum, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Different random or purposive allocations of items to parcels within a single sample are thought not to alter structural parameter estimates as long as items are unidimensional and congeneric. If, additionally, numbers of items per parcel and parcels per factor are held fixed across allocations, different allocations of items to parcels within a…

  1. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  2. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  3. The Use of Population Projections to Allocate Public Funds,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    reviews recent efforts on the part of several federal agencies to apply demographic forecasting to federal assistance. These efforts reflect a growing...state-local relations. If projected population is to become a factor for the allocation of public funds, then certain questions should be answered before...allocate federal assistance funds. Indeed, considering the generally dismal record of demographic forecasting, one might wonder why anyone would even

  4. Resource allocation using risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T. F.; Eisenhawer, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    Allocating limited resources among competing priorities is an important problem in management. In this paper we describe an approach to resource allocation using risk as a metric. We call this approach the Logic-Evolved Decision (LED) approach because we use logic-models to generate an exhaustive set of competing options and to describe the often highly complex model used for evaluating the risk reduction achieved by different resource allocations among these options. The risk evaluation then proceeds using probabilistic or linguistic input data.

  5. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  6. Allocating funds for HIV/AIDS: a descriptive study of KwaDukuza, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    Objective Through a descriptive study, we determined the factors that influence the decision-making process for allocating funds to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes, and the extent to which formal decision tools are used in the municipality of KwaDukuza, South Africa. Methods We conducted 35 key informant interviews in KwaDukuza. The interview questions addressed specific resource allocation issues while allowing respondents to speak openly about the complexities of the HIV/AIDS resource allocation process. Results Donors have a large influence on the decision-making process for HIV/AIDS resource allocation. However, advocacy groups, governmental bodies and local communities also play an important role. Political power, culture and ethics are among a set of intangible factors that have a strong influence on HIV/AIDS resource allocation. Formal methods, including needs assessment, best practice approaches, epidemiologic modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis are sometimes used to support the HIV/AIDS resource allocation process. Historical spending patterns are an important consideration in future HIV/AIDS allocation strategies. Conclusions Several factors and groups influence resource allocation in KwaDukuza. Although formal economic and epidemiologic information is sometimes used, in most cases other factors are more important for resource allocation decision-making. These other factors should be considered in any attempts to improve the resource allocation processes. PMID:20551138

  7. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  8. Systematic Task Allocation Evaluation in Distributed Software Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, Jürgen; Lamersdorf, Ansgar

    Systematic task allocation to different development sites in global software development projects can open business and engineering perspectives and help to reduce risks and problems inherent in distributed development. Relying only on a single evaluation criterion such as development cost when distributing tasks to development sites has shown to be very risky and often does not lead to successful solutions in the long run. Task allocation in global software projects is challenging due to a multitude of impact factors and constraints. Systematic allocation decisions require the ability to evaluate and compare task allocation alternatives and to effectively establish customized task allocation practices in an organization. In this article, we present a customizable process for task allocation evaluation that is based on results from a systematic interview study with practitioners. In this process, the relevant criteria for evaluating task allocation alternatives are derived by applying principles from goal-oriented measurement. In addition, the customization of the process is demonstrated, related work and limitations are sketched, and an outlook on future work is given.

  9. [Intersectoral, convergent and sustainable actions: the challenges of the "Bolsa Família" program in Manguinhos shantytown in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Rosana; Coelho, Angela Virginia; Nogueira, Milena Ferreira; Bocca, Cláudia

    2011-11-01

    Some studies have revealed the impact of the family welfare allowance based on the fulfillment of certain conditions on improving living conditions and access to health and education services in different countries. However, gaps persist relating to the evaluation of the benefits of such programs among the groups that have greater difficulty in gaining access to public services or advances in the quality of education and school performance. Moreover, there is limited evidence of adequacy of the program to the respective contexts of implementation, levels of adhesion and local cooperation and strategies adopted for integration with other social policy programs. The scope of this article is to discuss the findings of the study of the implementation of the "Bolsa Familia" in the Manguinhos shantytown area in Rio de Janeiro conducted in 2007 and 2008 based on semi-structured interviews with program officials and local stakeholders. In conclusion, the study shows that the sustainability of "Bolsa Familia" actions to reduce poverty and promote health equity calls for strengthening the vertical and horizontal communication channels between government levels, public managers and civil associations, recognition of the complexity of the local social demands and an intersectoral agenda.

  10. Antenna allocation in MIMO radar with widely separated antennas for multi-target detection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xudong

    2014-10-27

    In this paper, we explore a new resource called multi-target diversity to optimize the performance of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar with widely separated antennas for detecting multiple targets. In particular, we allocate antennas of the MIMO radar to probe different targets simultaneously in a flexible manner based on the performance metric of relative entropy. Two antenna allocation schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, each antenna is allocated to illuminate a proper target over the entire illumination time, so that the detection performance of each target is guaranteed. The problem is formulated as a minimum makespan scheduling problem in the combinatorial optimization framework. Antenna allocation is implemented through a branch-and-bound algorithm and an enhanced factor 2 algorithm. In the second scheme, called antenna-time allocation, each antenna is allocated to illuminate different targets with different illumination time. Both antenna allocation and time allocation are optimized based on illumination probabilities. Over a large range of transmitted power, target fluctuations and target numbers, both of the proposed antenna allocation schemes outperform the scheme without antenna allocation. Moreover, the antenna-time allocation scheme achieves a more robust detection performance than branch-and-bound algorithm and the enhanced factor 2 algorithm when the target number changes.

  11. Comparison of space allocation in recently completed critical care units.

    PubMed

    Durham, Joyce H

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, winners of the Society of Critical Care Medicine's critical care unit design award have demonstrated an increase in overall square footage, but this trend has been inconsistent. The following analysis compares the space allocation of 15 recently completed critical care units to document trends in overall space allocation and compare the allocation of space between small, medium, and large units. This study indicates that the number of beds, net-to-gross factor, and net square feet per bed of the 15 units examined increased as the departmental gross square feet per bed increased. Within the net or usable square footage allocation, all categories of space increased progressively as the overall space increased, with the exception of direct patient care space and patient care support space categories. Overall, averages are provided to be used as preliminary benchmarks for organizations evaluating their existing critical care units or planning replacement units.

  12. Managing Institutional Research Advancement: Implications from a University Faculty Time Allocation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Derrick M.; Slade, Catherine P.

    2016-01-01

    While much is known about faculty time allocation, we know very little about how traditional managerial factors influence faculty time allocation behaviors. We know even less about the possible downsides associated with relying on these traditional managerial factors. Using survey data from the National Science Foundation/Department of Energy…

  13. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions.

  14. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  15. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  16. Prevention, control, and elimination of neglected diseases in the Americas: Pathways to integrated, inter-programmatic, inter-sectoral action for health and development

    PubMed Central

    Holveck, John C; Ehrenberg, John P; Ault, Steven K; Rojas, Rocio; Vasquez, Javier; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa; Ippolito-Shepherd, Josefa; Genovese, Miguel A; Periago, Mirta Roses

    2007-01-01

    Background In the Latin America and Caribbean region over 210 million people live below the poverty line. These impoverished and marginalized populations are heavily burdened with neglected communicable diseases. These diseases continue to enact a toll, not only on families and communities, but on the economically constrained countries themselves. Discussion As national public health priorities, neglected communicable diseases typically maintain a low profile and are often left out when public health agendas are formulated. While many of the neglected diseases do not directly cause high rates of mortality, they contribute to an enormous rate of morbidity and a drastic reduction in income for the most poverty-stricken families and communities. The persistence of this "vicious cycle" between poverty and poor health demonstrates the importance of linking the activities of the health sector with those of other sectors such as education, housing, water and sanitation, labor, public works, transportation, agriculture, industry, and economic development. Summary The purpose of this paper is three fold. First, it focuses on a need for integrated "pro-poor" approaches and policies to be developed in order to more adequately address the multi-faceted nature of neglected diseases. This represents a move away from traditional disease-centered approaches to a holistic approach that looks at the overarching causes and mechanisms that influence the health and well being of communities. The second objective of the paper outlines the need for a specific strategy for addressing these diseases and offers several programmatic entry points in the context of broad public health measures involving multiple sectors. Finally, the paper presents several current Pan American Health Organization and other institutional initiatives that already document the importance of integrated, inter-programmatic, and inter-sectoral approaches. They provide the framework for a renewed effort toward the

  17. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  18. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  19. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  20. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  1. shiftNMFk 1.1: Robust Nonnegative matrix factorization with kmeans clustering and signal shift, for allocation of unknown physical sources, toy version for open sourcing with publications

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Boian S.; Lliev, Filip L.; Stanev, Valentin G.; Vesselinov, Velimir V.

    2016-07-19

    This code is a toy (short) version of CODE-2016-83. From a general perspective, the code represents an unsupervised adaptive machine learning algorithm that allows efficient and high performance de-mixing and feature extraction of a multitude of non-negative signals mixed and recorded by a network of uncorrelated sensor arrays. The code identifies the number of the mixed original signals and their locations. Further, the code also allows deciphering of signals that have been delayed in regards to the mixing process in each sensor. This code is high customizable and it can be efficiently used for a fast macro-analyses of data. The code is applicable to a plethora of distinct problems: chemical decomposition, pressure transient decomposition, unknown sources/signal allocation, EM signal decomposition. An additional procedure for allocation of the unknown sources is incorporated in the code.

  2. Global trends and challenges in deceased donor kidney allocation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Diana A; Watson, Christopher J; Bradley, J Andrew; Johnson, Rachel J; Forsythe, John L; Oniscu, Gabriel C

    2017-03-17

    Worldwide, the number of patients able to benefit from kidney transplantation is greatly restricted by the severe shortage of deceased donor organs. Allocation of this scarce resource is increasingly challenging and complex. Striking an acceptable balance between efficient use of (utility) and fair access to (equity) the limited supply of donated kidneys raises controversial but important debates at ethical, medical, and social levels. There is no international consensus on the recipient and donor factors that should be considered in the kidney allocation process. There is a general trend toward a reduction in the influence of human leukocyte antigen mismatch and an increase in the importance of other factors shown to affect posttransplant outcomes, such as cold ischemia, duration of dialysis, donor and recipient age, and comorbidity. Increased consideration of equity has led to improved access to transplantation for disadvantaged patient groups. There has been an overall improvement in the transparency and accountability of allocation policies. Novel and contentious approaches in kidney allocation include the use of survival prediction scores as a criterion for accessing the waiting list and at the point of organ offering with matching of predicted graft and recipient survival. This review compares the diverse international approaches to deceased donor kidney allocation and their evolution over the last decade.

  3. Partitioning of resources: the evolutionary genetics of sexual conflict over resource acquisition and allocation.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, F; Connallon, T

    2017-04-01

    Fitness depends on both the resources that individuals acquire and the allocation of those resources to traits that influence survival and reproduction. Optimal resource allocation differs between females and males as a consequence of their fundamentally different reproductive strategies. However, because most traits have a common genetic basis between the sexes, conflicting selection between the sexes over resource allocation can constrain the evolution of optimal allocation within each sex, and generate trade-offs for fitness between them (i.e. 'sexual antagonism' or 'intralocus sexual conflict'). The theory of resource acquisition and allocation provides an influential framework for linking genetic variation in acquisition and allocation to empirical evidence of trade-offs between distinct life-history traits. However, these models have not considered the emergence of trade-offs within the context of sexual dimorphism, where they are expected to be particularly common. Here, we extend acquisition-allocation theory and develop a quantitative genetic framework for predicting genetically based trade-offs between life-history traits within sexes and between female and male fitness. Our models demonstrate that empirically measurable evidence of sexually antagonistic fitness variation should depend upon three interacting factors that may vary between populations: (1) the genetic variances and between-sex covariances for resource acquisition and allocation traits, (2) condition-dependent expression of resource allocation traits and (3) sex differences in selection on the allocation of resource to different fitness components.

  4. Resource Allocation in Private Research Universities. Studies in Higher Education Dissertation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodas, Daniel

    This book explores the resource allocation process in contemporary private research universities through detailed case studies. It discusses historical approaches to university resource allocation and the mission, culture, priorities, and economic factors involved. Cases are based on interviews with administrators. The chapters are: (1)…

  5. Societal Duty and Resource Allocation for Persons with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Gerben; Batavia, Andrew I.

    1989-01-01

    The article considers eight values and factors that enter into decisions regarding resource allocation for persons with brain injury including the quality of life, moral culpability of the brain-injured person, the social contribution of the person, allocation of family and societal responsibilities, justice, the nature of health care, and…

  6. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY... conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, for schools and hospitals, shall be allocated... percent of all amounts allocated in any grant program cycle. No State will be allocated more than...

  7. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the single or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department...

  8. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must provide that the single or appropriate Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  9. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  10. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  11. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  12. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As used in this section, the terms “initial allocation plan” refers to the PHA's first submission of...

  13. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  14. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Anant D.; Santini, Danilo J.; Marik, Sheri K.

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  15. Algorithms for optimal redundancy allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenkieboom, J.; Youngblood, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heuristic and exact methods for solving the redundancy allocation problem are compared to an approach based on genetic algorithms. The various methods are applied to the bridge problem, which has been used as a benchmark in earlier work on optimization methods. Comparisons are presented in terms of the best configuration found by each method, and the computation effort which was necessary in order to find it.

  16. Determinants of states' allocations of the master settlement agreement payments.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Frank A; Carlisle, Emily Streyer; Rattliff, John R; Trogdon, Justin

    2005-08-01

    To determine which factors influence states' allocation decisions for the tobacco Master Settlement Agreement and the four individual settlements' annual payments, including the decision to securitize, we analyzed the effects of voter characteristics, political parties, interest groups, prior spending on public tobacco control programs, and state fiscal health on per capita settlement funds allocated to tobacco-control, health, and other programs. Tobacco-producing states and those with high proportions of conservative Democrats or elderly, black, Hispanic, or wealthy people tended to spend less on tobacco control. Education and medical lobbies had strong positive influences on per capita allocations for tobacco-control and health-related programs. State fiscal crises affected amounts spent by states from settlement funds as well as the probability of securitizing future cash flows from the settlements.

  17. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  18. Frequency allocations for a new satellite service - Digital audio broadcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, Edward E.

    1992-03-01

    The allocation in the range 500-3000 MHz for digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is described in terms of key issues such as the transmission-system architectures. Attention is given to the optimal amount of spectrum for allocation and the technological considerations relevant to downlink bands for satellite and terrestrial transmissions. Proposals for DAB allocations are compared, and reference is made to factors impinging on the provision of ground/satellite feeder links. The allocation proposals describe the implementation of 50-60-MHz bandwidths for broadcasting in the ranges near 800 MHz, below 1525 MHz, near 2350 MHz, and near 2600 MHz. Three specific proposals are examined in terms of characteristics such as service areas, coverage/beam, channels/satellite beam, and FCC license status. Several existing problems are identified including existing services crowded with systems, the need for new bands in the 1000-3000-MHz range, and variations in the nature and intensity of implementations of existing allocations that vary from country to country.

  19. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  20. Distinguishing the biomass allocation variance resulting from ontogenetic drift or acclimation to soil texture.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiangbo; Tang, Lisong; Wang, Zhongyuan; Xu, Guiqing; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    In resource-poor environments, adjustment in plant biomass allocation implies a complex interplay between environmental signals and plant development rather than a delay in plant development alone. To understand how environmental factors influence biomass allocation or the developing phenotype, it is necessary to distinguish the biomass allocations resulting from environmental gradients or ontogenetic drift. Here, we compared the development trajectories of cotton plants (Gossypium herbaceum L.), which were grown in two contrasting soil textures during a 60-d period. Those results distinguished the biomass allocation pattern resulting from ontogenetic drift and the response to soil texture. The soil texture significantly changed the biomass allocation to leaves and roots, but not to stems. Soil texture also significantly changed the development trajectories of leaf and root traits, but did not change the scaling relationship between basal stem diameter and plant height. Results of nested ANOVAs of consecutive plant-size categories in both soil textures showed that soil gradients explained an average of 63.64-70.49% of the variation of biomass allocation to leaves and roots. Ontogenetic drift explained 77.47% of the variation in biomass allocation to stems. The results suggested that the environmental factors governed the biomass allocation to roots and leaves, and ontogenetic drift governed the biomass allocation to stems. The results demonstrated that biomass allocation to metabolically active organs (e.g., roots and leaves) was mainly governed by environmental factors, and that biomass allocation to metabolically non-active organs (e.g., stems) was mainly governed by ontogenetic drift. We concluded that differentiating the causes of development trajectories of plant traits was important to the understanding of plant response to environmental gradients.

  1. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of allocation orders. There are three types of allocation orders available for communicating allocation...

  2. Adaptation of carbon allocation under light and nutrient reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Frederik; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    The allocation of recently assimilated carbon (C) by plants depends on developmental stage and on environmental factors, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Whereas shifts in the allocation of photosynthates induced by reduced water availability, enhanced temperature and CO2 concentration were recently investigated in various studies, less is known about the response to light and nutrient reduction. We induced different allocation patterns in the Mediterranean shrub Halimium halimifolium L. by a reduction of light (Low L treatment) and nutrient availability (Low N treatment) and analysed allocation parameters as well as morphological and physiological traits for 15 months. Finally, we conducted a 13CO2 pulse-labelling and followed the fate of recently assimilated carbon to eight different classes of plant tissues and respiration for 13 days. The results revealed a high intraspecific variability in C distribution to tissues and in respiration. Allocation changes even varied within leaf and stem tissue classes (e.g. more C in main stems, less in lateral stems). These results show that the common separation of plant tissues in only three classes, i.e. root, shoot and leaf tissues, can result in missing information about allocation changes. The nutrient reduction enhanced the transport of recently assimilated C from leaves to roots in terms of quantity (c. 200%) and velocity compared to control plants. Interestingly, a 57% light reduction enhanced photosynthetic capacity and caused no change in final biomass after 15 months. Therefore, our results support the recently discussed sink regulation of photosynthesis. Finally, our results indicate that growing heterotrophic tissues strongly reduce the C loss from storage and structural C pools and therefore enhance the fraction of recent assimilates used for respiration. We propose that this interruption of the C reflux from storage and structural C pools could be a control mechanism for C

  3. Allocation of speech in conversation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carsta; Baum, William M

    2017-03-01

    In a replication and extension of Conger and Killeen's (1974) widely cited demonstration of matching in conversations, we evaluated nine participants' allocation of speech and gaze to two conversational partners. German speakers participated in two 90-min sessions in which confederates uttered approval on independent variable-interval schedules. In one of the sessions, confederates uttered approval contingent upon and contiguous with eye contact whereas in the other session approval was uttered independent of the participant's gaze. Several measures of participants' verbal behavior were taken, including relative duration and rate of speech and gaze. These were compared to confederates' relative rate of approval and relative duration and rate of talk. The generalized matching equation was fitted to the various relations between participants' behavior and confederates' behavior. Conger and Killeen's results were not replicated; participants' response allocation did not show a systematic relation to the confederates' relative rate of approval. The strongest relations were to overall talk, rather than approval. In both conditions, the participant talked more to the confederate who talked less-inverse or antimatching. Participants' gaze showed the same inverse relation to the confederates' talk. Requiring gaze to be directed toward a confederate for delivery of approval made no difference in the results. The absence of a difference combined with prior research suggests that matching or antimatching in conversations is more likely due to induction than to reinforcement.

  4. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  5. Modelling C allocation in response to nutrient availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Benjamin; Prentice, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon (C) allocation in ecosystems is a key variable of the global terrestrial C cycle. While photosynthesis governs the amount of C that enters ecosystems, its subsequent allocation to compartments with different life times determines its over-all residence time and variations in allocation patterns drive changes in ecosystem C balance and its response to environmental change. A better understanding of the controls on allocation is thus key to improving global vegetation models that commonly rely on using fixed partitioning factors. Observational data suggests variations of ecosystem structure and functioning along large-scale gradients of resource availability. Below-ground C allocation, inferred as gross primary production minus above-ground biomass production increases along gradients of decreasing nutrient availability. This is not only due to more root growth, but also due to enhanced production of exudates and stimulation of root symbionts and has been interpreted to reflect optimal plant allocation decisions under a varying soil fertility status. Here, we propose a model that accounts for trade-offs between (i) growth in above-ground and (ii) below-ground plant compartments, (iii) exudation to the rhizosphere and root symbionts and (iv) temporary storage in non-structural pools. By postulating the maximization of long-term growth under a given (seasonal regime) of soil nitrogen (N) availability, we attempt to reproduce observed large-scale gradients. The model is formulated based on a C cost for different N uptake decisions, where the cost is a function of N availability, root mass, and soil temperature (for biological N fixation). On a daily time scale, ecosystem N uptake may be realized by C exudation to the rhizosphere and/or symbiotic fixation of atmospheric N2. On an annual time scale, allocation to roots versus leaves is adjusted to soil inorganic N availability and modeled to yield maximum total growth. Exudation versus temporary storage of C is

  6. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  7. Popularity-aware rate allocation in multiview video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiandrotti, Attilio; Chakareski, Jacob; Frossard, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    We propose a framework for popularity-driven rate allocation in H.264/MVC-based multi-view video communications when the overall rate and the rate necessary for decoding each view are constrained in the delivery architecture. We formulate a rate allocation optimization problem that takes into account the popularity of each view among the client population and the rate-distortion characteristics of the multi-view sequence so that the performance of the system is maximized in terms of popularity-weighted average quality. We consider the cases where the global bit budget or the decoding rate of each view is constrained. We devise a simple ratevideo- quality model that accounts for the characteristics of interview prediction schemes typical of multi-view video. The video quality model is used for solving the rate allocation problem with the help of an interior point optimization method. We then show through experiments that the proposed rate allocation scheme clearly outperforms baseline solutions in terms of popularity-weighted video quality. In particular, we demonstrate that the joint knowledge of the rate-distortion characteristics of the video content, its coding dependencies, and the popularity factor of each view is key in achieving good coding performance in multi-view video systems.

  8. 75 FR 18016 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting...: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round of the... page, investor letters and organizational charts) in electronic form (see Section IV.D. of this...

  9. Experimental tests of sex allocation theory with two species of simultaneously hermaphroditic acorn barnacles.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Jeffrey Matthew; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2012-05-01

    Sex allocation theory for simultaneous hermaphrodites predicts increases in relative allocation to male-specific function as competition for fertilizations increases. Theoretical models developed specifically for competing acorn barnacles predict that the proportional allocation to male function increases toward an asymptote of 50% as the number of competitors for fertilizations increases. Experimental manipulations were used to investigate how mate competition affected both relative and absolute allocation to the sex functions for two species of acorn barnacle: Semibalanus balanoides and Balanus glandula. The ratio of male to female allocation did not increase with the number of competitors for either species. However, both species showed increased allocation to male function (estimated as total mass of sex-specific tissues) with increased crowding. Allocation to female function seemed to be limited by other factors and did not vary with mating group size as predicted. Allocation to male and female function were both positively related to body size, but a trade-off between male and female function, a key assumption of prior models, was not observed.

  10. Methodology to Support Dynamic Function Allocation Policies Between Humans and Flight Deck Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric N.

    2012-01-01

    Function allocation assigns work functions to all agents in a team, both human and automation. Efforts to guide function allocation systematically have been studied in many fields such as engineering, human factors, team and organization design, management science, cognitive systems engineering. Each field focuses on certain aspects of function allocation, but not all; thus, an independent discussion of each does not address all necessary aspects of function allocation. Four distinctive perspectives have emerged from this comprehensive review of literature on those fields: the technology-centered, human-centered, team-oriented, and work-oriented perspectives. Each perspective focuses on different aspects of function allocation: capabilities and characteristics of agents (automation or human), structure and strategy of a team, and work structure and environment. This report offers eight issues with function allocation that can be used to assess the extent to which each of issues exist on a given function allocation. A modeling framework using formal models and simulation was developed to model work as described by the environment, agents, their inherent dynamics, and relationships among them. Finally, to validate the framework and metrics, a case study modeled four different function allocations between a pilot and flight deck automation during the arrival and approach phases of flight.

  11. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  12. Inferential Aspects of Adaptive Allocation Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donald A.

    In clinical trials, adaptive allocation means that the therapies assigned to the next patient or patients depend on the results obtained thus far in the trial. Although many adaptive allocation procedures have been proposed for clinical trials, few have actually used adaptive assignment, largely because classical frequentist measures of inference…

  13. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  14. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  15. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  16. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  17. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  18. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  19. Projected 1999-2000 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    Information contained in this summary was derived from data submitted by Wisconsin technical colleges on their 1999-2000 projected cost allocation schedules. Cost allocation information is used to calculate the distribution of state aids to each college, and prepare financial and enrollment reports including state statistical summaries and reports…

  20. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  1. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  2. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  3. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  4. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  5. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  6. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503 Credit allocation. (a) Based on annual credit activity report information,...

  7. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  8. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  9. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  10. Projected 1998-99 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Edward

    Designed for use in calculating the distribution of state aid to colleges in the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) and in preparing financial and enrollment reports, this document provides a summary of projected cost allocations for the WTCS for 1998-99, derived from data submitted by the colleges on cost allocation schedules. Following a…

  11. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25 Splitnose S. of 40°10′ N. lat... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is further subdivided among the... nonwhiting fishery. (B) Pacific Ocean Perch (POP). Allocate 17 percent or 30 mt, whichever is greater, of...

  12. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  13. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  14. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  15. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  16. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  17. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  18. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  19. 50 CFR 660.320 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Indian fishery, is divided into limited entry and open access fisheries. Separate allocations for the limited entry and open access fisheries will be established biennially or annually for certain species and... excluding set asides for recreational or tribal Indian fisheries) minus the allocation to the open...

  20. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research.

  1. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  2. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  3. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  4. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  5. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  6. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  7. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL... program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...

  8. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  9. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals.

  10. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  11. Description and Critique of Quantitative Methods for the Allocation of Exploratory Development Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paper analyzes ten methods for planning the allocation of resources among projects within the exploratory development category of the Defense...research, development, test and evaluation program. Each method is described in terms of a general framework of planning methods and of the factors that...influence the allocation of development resources. A comparative analysis is made of the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods . The more

  12. Skewed paternity and sex allocation in hermaphroditic plants and animals.

    PubMed Central

    Greeff, J. M.; Nason, J. D.; Compton, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    Models predict a reduced allocation to sperm when females preferentially use one of two males' sperm and the males do not know who is favoured. An analogous discounting occurs in plants when their paternity success is skewed by random, non-heritable factors such as location in the population and pollinator behaviour. We present a model that shows that skewed paternity can affect the sex allocation of hermaphrodites, that is it leads to a female-biased investment. The model highlights the close links between local mate competition and sperm competition. We use paternity data from Ficus in order to illustrate that skews in paternity success can lead to a high degree of sibling gamete competition in an apparently open breeding system. Since skews in paternity are ubiquitous in hermaphroditic plants and animals these findings should apply broadly. PMID:11600078

  13. Spatial Allocation and Specification of Cardiomyocytes during Zebrafish Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Hajime; Chiba, Ayano; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Takano, Haruko; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Omori, Toyonori

    2017-01-01

    Incomplete development and severe malformation of the heart result in miscarriage of embryos because of its malfunction as a pump for circulation. During cardiogenesis, development of the heart is precisely coordinated by the genetically-primed program that is revealed by the sequential expression of transcription factors. It is important to investigate how spatial allocation of the heart containing cardiomyocytes and other mesoderm-derived cells is determined. In addition, the molecular mechanism underlying cardiomyocyte differentiation still remains elusive. The location of ectoderm-, mesoderm-, and endoderm-derived organs is determined by their initial allocation and subsequent mutual cell-cell interactions or paracrine-based regulation. In the present work, we provide an overview of cardiac development controlled by the germ layers and discuss the points that should be uncovered in future for understanding cardiogenesis. PMID:28382067

  14. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  15. Addressing the social determinants of health through health system strengthening and inter-sectoral convergence: the case of the Indian National Rural Health Mission

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Amit Mohan; Chakraborty, Gautam; Yadav, Sajjan Singh; Bhatia, Salima

    2013-01-01

    Background At the turn of the 21st century, India was plagued by significant rural–urban, inter-state and inter-district inequities in health. For example, in 2004, the infant mortality rate (IMR) was 24 points higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. To address these inequities, to strengthen the rural health system (a major determinant of health in itself) and to facilitate action on other determinants of health, India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in April 2005. Methods Under the NRHM, Rs. 666 billion (US$12.1 billion) was invested in rural areas from April 2005 to March 2012. There was also a substantially higher allocation for 18 high-focus states and 264 high-focus districts, identified on the basis of poor health and demographic indicators. Other determinants of health, especially nutrition and decentralized action, were addressed through mechanisms like State/District Health Missions, Village Health, Sanitation and Nutrition Committees, and Village Health and Nutrition Days. Results Consequently, in bigger high-focus states, rural IMR fell by 15.6 points between 2004 and 2011, as compared to 9 points in urban areas. Similarly, the maternal mortality rate in high-focus states declined by 17.9% between 2004–2006 and 2007–2009 compared to 14.6% in other states. Conclusion The article, on the basis of the above approaches employed under NRHM, proposes the NRHM model to ‘reduce health inequities and initiate action on SDH’. PMID:23458089

  16. CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162694.html CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection Funds are earmarked for states, territories, local ... million has been earmarked to protect Americans against Zika virus infection, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  17. Spatial Allocator for air quality modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Spatial Allocator is a set of tools that helps users manipulate and generate data files related to emissions and air quality modeling without requiring the use of a commercial Geographic Information System.

  18. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  19. Allocation of Scarce Resources: Some Problems

    PubMed Central

    Secundy, Marian G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current philosophical perspectives and societal trends in relation to allocation of scarce resources. An analysis and comparative assessment of various positions of current philosophers, theologians, and bioethicists is provided. Currently proposed cost containment measures at the federal level require that black health professionals particularly pay attention to these proposals specifically as related to allocation of resources. The ways in which cost containment and/ or modification of resource allocation will affect health care delivery, specifically for the black community, must be carefully examined. This article may suggest some approaches for individual and group response to the continuing dialogue and to the allocation process itself. The equitable distribution of health care, particularly scarce new technologies, will be one of the greatest problems facing society in the next 20 years. PMID:7265284

  20. Optimal dynamic bandwidth allocation for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Li, Qian; Guo, Dong-Chao

    2013-03-01

    Traffic capacity of one network strongly depends on the link’s bandwidth allocation strategy. In previous bandwidth allocation mechanisms, once one link’s bandwidth is allocated, it will be fixed throughout the overall traffic transmission process. However, the traffic load of every link changes from time to time. In this paper, with finite total bandwidth resource of the network, we propose to dynamically allocate the total bandwidth resource in which each link’s bandwidth is proportional to the queue length of the output buffer of the link per time step. With plenty of data packets in the network, the traffic handling ability of all links of the network achieves full utilization. The theoretical analysis and the extensive simulation results on complex networks are consistent. This work is valuable for network service providers to improve network performance or to do reasonable network design efficiently.

  1. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration... to any coastal state for the purpose of administering that state's management program, if the...

  2. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  3. Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R H; Taylor, W B

    1981-06-19

    Four options for allocating a long-term, severe shortfall of petroleum imports are analyzed: oil price and allocation controls, coupon gasoline rationing, variable gasoline tax and rebate, and no oil price controls with partial rebates. Each of these options is evaluated in terms of four criteria: microeconomic effects, macroeconomic effects, equity, and practical problems. The implications of this analysis for energy contingency planning are discussed.

  4. Frequency allocations accommodate new commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiglitz, Martin R.; Blanchard, Christine

    1992-07-01

    An overview is presented of the 1992 World Administrative Radio Frequency Conference whose principal responsibility is to review and update the International Radio Regulations, including the International Table of Frequency Allocations and the procedures for utilizing the allocations. Consideration is given to the earth exploration-satellite service, the space research space operation, general-satellite service, and wind profiler radar. Attention is given to shortwave or HF broadcasting, mobile and mobile-satellite services and future public land mobile telecommunications systems.

  5. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-07

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison.

  6. Allocation of Transaction Cost to Market Participants Using an Analytical Method in Deregulated Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyasankari, S.; Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar, J.; Charles Raja, S.; Venkatesh, P.

    2014-04-01

    Transmission cost allocation is one of the major challenges in transmission open access faced by the electric power sector. The purpose of this work is to provide an analytical method for allocating transmission transaction cost in deregulated market. This research work provides a usage based transaction cost allocation method based on line-flow impact factor (LIF) which relates the power flow in each line with respect to transacted power for the given transaction. This method provides the impact of line flows without running iterative power flow solution and is well suited for real time applications. The proposed method is compared with the Newton-Raphson (NR) method of cost allocation on sample six bus and practical Indian utility 69 bus systems by considering multilateral transaction.

  7. Does Inability to Allocate Attention Contribute to Balance Constraints during Gait in Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Chou, Li-Shan; Mayr, Ulrich; van Donkelaar, Paul; Woollacott, Marjorie H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent research has explored dual-task deficits during locomotion in older adults, yet the mechanisms underlying these deficits are poorly understood. In the current study, we examined one possible factor contributing to these deficits, the inability to flexibly allocate attention between two tasks. Methods Twelve healthy young adults and 12 healthy elderly adults performed obstacle avoidance while walking and an auditory Stroop task either alone or simultaneously. Results Using an attentional allocation index (AAI) to compare performance of healthy young and older adults and to measure the flexibility of allocation of attention, results showed a tendency in older adults toward a decreased ability to flexibly allocate their attention between the two tasks, with small AAI values. The decreased ability to allocate attention in older adults was found to be more prominent in the auditory Stroop task performance than in the obstacle avoidance task. Conclusion This study suggests that an important factor contributing to decreased dual-task performance in older adults when simultaneously performing a postural and secondary cognitive task is a reduced ability to flexibly allocate attention between the two tasks, with the general ability to switch attention flexibly being predictive of the ability to adhere to a prioritized focus. PMID:19126850

  8. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding § 982.101 Allocation of funding. (a) Allocation of funding. HUD allocates available...

  9. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding § 982.101 Allocation of funding. (a) Allocation of funding. HUD allocates available...

  10. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available...

  11. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  12. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  13. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  14. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  15. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  16. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  17. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  18. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  19. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  20. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  1. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  2. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  3. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  4. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  5. The Use of Different Rules to Allocate Reward and Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.

    Much research has been conducted about how and when individuals allocate rewards, yet little research exists concerning the allocation of punishment. The process of allocating negative outcomes may be different from the decision making process for positive outcomes. To examine the decision making process for allocating rewards and punishment,…

  6. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  7. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting... (see Section IV.D. of this NOAA for more details). Applications must meet all eligibility and other requirements and deadlines, as applicable, set forth in this NOAA. Allocation applicants that are not...

  8. Healthcare resource allocation decisions affecting uninsured services

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Krista Lyn; Taylor, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the example of community access programs (CAPs), the purpose of this paper is to describe resource allocation and policy decisions related to providing health services for the uninsured in the USA and the organizational values affecting these decisions. Design/methodology/approach The study used comparative case study methodology at two geographically diverse sites. Researchers collected data from program documents, meeting observations, and interviews with program stakeholders. Findings Five resource allocation or policy decisions relevant to providing healthcare services were described at each site across three categories: designing the health plan, reacting to funding changes, and revising policies. Organizational values of access to care and stewardship most frequently affected resource allocation and policy decisions, while economic and political pressures affect the relative prioritization of values. Research limitations/implications Small sample size, the potential for social desirability or recall bias, and the exclusion of provider, member or community perspectives beyond those represented among participating board members. Practical implications Program directors or researchers can use this study to assess the extent to which resource allocation and policy decisions align with organizational values and mission statements. Social implications The description of how healthcare decisions are actually made can be matched with literature that describes how healthcare resource decisions ought to be made, in order to provide a normative grounding for future decisions. Originality/value This study addresses a gap in literature regarding how CAPs actually make resource allocation decisions that affect access to healthcare services. PMID:27934550

  9. Non-Linear Control Allocation Using Piecewise Linear Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    A novel method is presented for the solution of the non- linear control allocation problem. Historically, control allocation has been performed by... linear control allocation problem to be cast as a piecewise linear program. The piecewise linear program is ultimately cast as a mixed-integer linear...piecewise linear control allocation method is shown to be markedly improved when compared to the performance of a more traditional control allocation approach that assumes linearity.

  10. New accounting rules: asset allocation and portfolio management.

    PubMed

    Andrew, B K

    1997-01-01

    New accounting rules went into effect at the end of 1995 that are now starting to affect how medical practices must report income from equity and fixed income investments. This article explores the new accounting rules and considers the other factors that help practices determine investment strategies, including desired investment return, comfort with level of risk, appropriate time horizons, liquidity needs and legal restrictions. The author also presents an example that examines the different considerations that may affect an asset allocation decision, including endowments and operating reserve funds.

  11. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  12. Resource allocation for efficient environmental management.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael A; Thompson, Colin J; Hauser, Cindy; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Moir, Melinda L; Tiensin, Thanawat; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-10-01

    Environmental managers must decide how to invest available resources. Researchers have previously determined how to allocate conservation resources among regions, design nature reserves, allocate funding to species conservation programs, design biodiversity surveys and monitoring programs, manage species and invest in greenhouse gas mitigation schemes. However, these issues have not been addressed with a unified theory. Furthermore, uncertainty is prevalent in environmental management, and needs to be considered to manage risks. We present a theory for optimal environmental management, synthesizing previous approaches to the topic and incorporating uncertainty. We show that the theory solves a diverse range of important problems of resource allocation, including distributing conservation resources among the world's biodiversity hotspots; surveillance to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Thailand; and choosing survey methods for the insect order Hemiptera. Environmental management decisions are similar to decisions about financial investments, with trade-offs between risk and reward.

  13. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  14. Competing Principles for Allocating Health Care Resources.

    PubMed

    Carter, Drew; Gordon, Jason; Watt, Amber M

    2016-10-01

    We clarify options for conceptualizing equity, or what we refer to as justice, in resource allocation. We do this by systematically differentiating, expounding, and then illustrating eight different substantive principles of justice. In doing this, we compare different meanings that can be attributed to "need" and "the capacity to benefit" (CTB). Our comparison is sharpened by two analytical tools. First, quantification helps to clarify the divergent consequences of allocations commended by competing principles. Second, a diagrammatic approach developed by economists Culyer and Wagstaff offers a visual and conceptual aid. Of the eight principles we illustrate, only two treat as relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended: (1) allocate resources so as to most closely equalize final health states and (2) allocate resources so as to equally restore health states to population norms. These allocative principles ought to be preferred to the alternatives if one deems relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended. Finally, we examine some possibilities for conceptualizing benefits as relative to how badly off someone is, extending Parfit's thought on Prioritarianism (a prioritizing of the worst off). Questions arise as to how much intervention effects accruing to the worse off count for more and how this changes with improving health. We explicate some recent efforts to answer these questions, including in Dutch and British government circles. These efforts can be viewed as efforts to operationalize need as an allocative principle. Each effort seeks to maximize in the aggregate quanta of effect that are differentially valued in favor of the worst off. In this respect, each effort constitutes one type of Prioritarianism, which Parfit failed to differentiate from other types.

  15. Allocation Rules for Sequential Clinical Trials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    AD-AIN 354 STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF STATISTICS F/V 12/1 ALLOCATION RULES FOR SEQUENTIAL CLINICAL TRIALS .(U) JUL 82 D SIEGMUND N00V11577-C-V306...UNCLASSIFIED TR 18 NL ALLOCATION RULES FOR SEQUENTIAL CLINICAL TRIALS BY D. SIEGMUND TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 18 JULY 1982 PREPARED UNDER CONTRACT N00014-77-C...at all. Rere me. discuss (I) and (11) or mes"s 9f a Monte Carlo experiment. The advantages of randomization in clinical trials has been discussed at

  16. Aboveground Tree Growth Varies with Belowground Carbon Allocation in a Tropical Rainforest Environment

    PubMed Central

    Raich, James W.; Clark, Deborah A.; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Wood, Tana E.

    2014-01-01

    Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15–20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the tree plantations, which had fully developed, closed canopies, allocated more carbon belowground - to their root systems - than did mature forest. This increase in belowground carbon allocation correlated significantly with aboveground tree growth but not with canopy production (i.e., leaf fall or fine litter production). In contrast, there were no correlations between canopy production and either tree growth or belowground carbon allocation. Enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can enhance plant nutrient uptake, providing nutrients beyond those required for the production of short-lived tissues such as leaves and fine roots, and thus enabling biomass accumulation. Our analyses support this deduction at our site, showing that enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can be an important mechanism promoting biomass accumulation during forest growth in the moist tropics. Identifying factors that control when, where and for how long this occurs would help us to improve models of forest growth and nutrient cycling, and to ascertain the role that young forests play in mitigating increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. PMID:24945351

  17. Aboveground tree growth varies with belowground carbon allocation in a tropical rainforest environment.

    PubMed

    Raich, James W; Clark, Deborah A; Schwendenmann, Luitgard; Wood, Tana E

    2014-01-01

    Young secondary forests and plantations in the moist tropics often have rapid rates of biomass accumulation and thus sequester large amounts of carbon. Here, we compare results from mature forest and nearby 15-20 year old tree plantations in lowland Costa Rica to evaluate differences in allocation of carbon to aboveground production and root systems. We found that the tree plantations, which had fully developed, closed canopies, allocated more carbon belowground - to their root systems - than did mature forest. This increase in belowground carbon allocation correlated significantly with aboveground tree growth but not with canopy production (i.e., leaf fall or fine litter production). In contrast, there were no correlations between canopy production and either tree growth or belowground carbon allocation. Enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can enhance plant nutrient uptake, providing nutrients beyond those required for the production of short-lived tissues such as leaves and fine roots, and thus enabling biomass accumulation. Our analyses support this deduction at our site, showing that enhanced allocation of carbon to root systems can be an important mechanism promoting biomass accumulation during forest growth in the moist tropics. Identifying factors that control when, where and for how long this occurs would help us to improve models of forest growth and nutrient cycling, and to ascertain the role that young forests play in mitigating increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  18. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As...; (iii) Representative advocacy groups for each of these family types: disabled families, elderly families, and families with children, where such advocacy groups exist; (iv) Representatives of...

  19. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... time elderly families and non-elderly persons with disabilities currently have to wait for a dwelling... persons with disabilities; (iii) If a project is being designated for elderly families, describe the steps... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1)...

  20. Status Characteristics, Reward Allocation, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Toby L.; Cook, Karen S.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between a group's power and prestige or status hierarchy and group members' patterns of reward allocation was investigated. The addition of evidence concerning actual task performance results in the alignment of reward and status rankings and encourages the use of distribution rules stressing equity as opposed to equality.…

  1. Resource Allocation Patterns and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…

  2. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency syndrome reported to and confirmed by the Director of the Centers for Disease Control, and on population data provided by the U.S. Census. The number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome used... statistical areas with more than 500,000 population. Each qualifying city's allocation reflects its...

  3. Resource Allocation in High Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.

    This study investigated the resource allocation process--how school administrators obtain the proper resources to operate their schools, distribute the available resources among the various school programs appropriately, and manage resources for effective educational results--in four high schools during the 1984-85 school year. Information was…

  4. Ground data systems resource allocation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berner, Carol A.; Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ground Data Systems Resource Allocation Process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides medium- and long-range planning for the use of Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center resources in support of NASA's deep space missions and Earth-based science. Resources consist of radio antenna complexes and associated data processing and control computer networks. A semi-automated system was developed that allows operations personnel to interactively generate, edit, and revise allocation plans spanning periods of up to ten years (as opposed to only two or three weeks under the manual system) based on the relative merit of mission events. It also enhances scientific data return. A software system known as the Resource Allocation and Planning Helper (RALPH) merges the conventional methods of operations research, rule-based knowledge engineering, and advanced data base structures. RALPH employs a generic, highly modular architecture capable of solving a wide variety of scheduling and resource sequencing problems. The rule-based RALPH system has saved significant labor in resource allocation. Its successful use affirms the importance of establishing and applying event priorities based on scientific merit, and the benefit of continuity in planning provided by knowledge-based engineering. The RALPH system exhibits a strong potential for minimizing development cycles of resource and payload planning systems throughout NASA and the private sector.

  5. The Allocation of Resources in a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a linear programming model which generates explicit quantitative information about (1) the optimal allocation of resources inside the public university (2) the "shadow price" attached to each input used in the academic process; and (3) the optimal mixture of academic outputs produced by the university. (KM)

  6. Rumination and Impaired Resource Allocation in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Levens, Sara M.; Muhtadie, Luma; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is characterized by a range of cognitive deficits that theorists posit are due to the resource capturing properties of rumination. The present study was designed to examine the relation between rumination and resource allocation in depression. Twenty-five depressed and 25 nondepressed participants completed a modified dual-task version of the recency-probes task, which assesses the controlled allocation of cognitive resources by comparing performance across low- and high-interference conditions. In low-interference conditions, participants performed either the recency-probes task or a tracking task, which required participants to track specific stimuli across trials (i.e., no dual-task interference). In the high-interference condition, participants performed both the recency-probes task and the tracking task, which required the controlled allocation of resources to resolve dual-task interference. Depressed participants performed significantly worse than did their nondepressed counterparts in only the high-interference condition; performance of the 2 groups was comparable in the low-interference conditions. Furthermore, the degree to which depressed participants were impaired in the high-interference condition was correlated .74 with rumination. These findings suggest that an association between rumination and impairments in resource allocation underlies the cognitive difficulties experienced by depressed individuals. PMID:19899845

  7. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation....

  8. 45 CFR 1355.57 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES GENERAL § 1355.57 Cost allocation....

  9. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  10. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency syndrome reported to and confirmed by the Director of the Centers for Disease Control, and on population data provided by the U.S. Census. The number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome used... statistical areas with more than 500,000 population. Each qualifying city's allocation reflects its...

  11. 24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Control, and on population data provided by the U.S. Census. The number of cases of acquired... the formula is distributed to qualifying cities and eligible States, as described in § 574.100, based...-five percent is allocated among qualifying cities, but not States, where the per capita incidence...

  12. 50 CFR 660.322 - Sablefish allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OY for the area north of 36° N. lat. This allocation represents the total amount available to the... described in § 660.372(c). (e) Ratios between tiers for sablefish-endorsed limited entry permits. The... of the three tiers associated with the sablefish endorsement such that the ratio of limits...

  13. How to Allocate Personnel Costs of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Carol

    In July 1974, at the American Library Association Convention, a symposium on reference measurement was held. The basic premise was that work sampling and random time sampling with self-observation were the best methods of allocating personnel costs of reference services at the Library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. First, reasons…

  14. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  15. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  16. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  17. 45 CFR 400.13 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Grants to States for Refugee Resettlement Award of Grants to States § 400.13 Cost allocation. (a) A State must...

  18. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries §...

  19. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sector allocation. 648.87 Section 648.87 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries §...

  20. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gear, open access, and recreational fisheries) will be established biennially or annually using the..., separate allocations for the limited entry and open access fisheries may be established using the... trawl and nontrawl (limited entry fixed gear, open access, and recreational) fisheries. IFQ species...

  1. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  2. Plant allocation of carbon to defense as a function of herbivory, light and nutrient availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ju, Shu; Liu, Rongsong; Bryant, John P.; Gourley, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    We use modeling to determine the optimal relative plant carbon allocations between foliage, fine roots, anti-herbivore defense, and reproduction to maximize reproductive output. The model treats these plant components and the herbivore compartment as variables. Herbivory is assumed to be purely folivory. Key external factors include nutrient availability, degree of shading, and intensity of herbivory. Three alternative functional responses are used for herbivory, two of which are variations on donor-dependent herbivore (models 1a and 1b) and one of which is a Lotka–Volterra type of interaction (model 2). All three were modified to include the negative effect of chemical defenses on the herbivore. Analysis showed that, for all three models, two stable equilibria could occur, which differs from most common functional responses when no plant defense component is included. Optimal strategies of carbon allocation were defined as the maximum biomass of reproductive propagules produced per unit time, and found to vary with changes in external factors. Increased intensity of herbivory always led to an increase in the fractional allocation of carbon to defense. Decreases in available limiting nutrient generally led to increasing importance of defense. Decreases in available light had little effect on defense but led to increased allocation to foliage. Decreases in limiting nutrient and available light led to decreases in allocation to reproduction in models 1a and 1b but not model 2. Increases in allocation to plant defense were usually accompanied by shifts in carbon allocation away from fine roots, possibly because higher plant defense reduced the loss of nutrients to herbivory.

  3. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  4. Rate allocation for spotlight SAR phase history data compression.

    PubMed

    Owens, J W; Marcellin, M W

    1999-01-01

    Complex phase history data in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems require extensive processing before useful images can be obtained. In spotlight mode SAR systems, useful images can be obtained by applying aperture weighting and inverse Fourier transform operations to SAR phase history data. In this paper, we are concerned with the compression of the complex phase history data obtained by a spotlight SAR system. We exploit knowledge of the aperture weighting function along with Fourier transform processing to attach a "gain" factor to each complex phase history data sample. This gain factor is then used to efficiently allocate bits to the phase history data during quantization. Performance evaluations are presented for this compression system relative to other existing SAR phase history data compression systems.

  5. Target allocation yields for massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys with fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Will; Smedley, Scott; Gillingham, Peter; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Jouvel, Stephanie; Nord, Brian

    2014-08-05

    We present Simulated Annealing fiber-to-target allocation simulations for the proposed DESI and 4MOST massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys, and for both Poisson and realistically clustered mock target samples. We simulate both Echidna and theta-phi actuator designs, including the restrictions caused by the physical actuator characteristics during repositioning. For DESI, with theta-phi actuators, used in 5 passes over the sky for a mock ELG/LRG/QSO sample, with matched fiber and target densities, a total target allocation yield of 89.3% was achieved, but only 83.7% for the high-priority Ly-alpha QSOs. If Echidna actuators are used with the same pitch and number of passes, the yield increases by 5.7% and 16% respectively. Echidna also allows a factor-of-two increase in the number of close Ly-alpha QSO pairs that can be observed. Echidna spine tilt causes a variable loss of throughput, with average loss being the same as the loss at the rms tilt. With a natural tilt minimization scheme, we find an rms tilt always close to 0.58 x maximum. There is an additional but much smaller defocus loss, equivalent to an average defocus of 30microns. These tilt losses offset the gains in yield for Echidna, but because the survey strategy is driven by the higher priority targets, a clear survey speed advantage remains. For 4MOST, high and low latitude sample mock catalogs were supplied by the 4MOST team, and allocations were carried out with the proposed Echidna-based positioner geometry. At high latitudes, the resulting target completeness was 85.3% for LR targets and 78.9% for HR targets. At low latitude, the target completeness was 93.9% for LR targets and 71.2% for HR targets.

  6. 29 CFR 4044.10 - Manner of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSETS IN SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Allocation of Assets Allocation of Assets to Benefit Categories § 4044.10... categories. In no event shall a benefit assigned to a priority category be valued at less than zero....

  7. Improved ant colony optimization for optimal crop and irrigation water allocation by incorporating domain knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An improved ant colony optimization (ACO) formulation for the allocation of crops and water to different irrigation areas is developed. The formulation enables dynamic adjustment of decision variable options and makes use of visibility factors (VFs, the domain knowledge that can be used to identify ...

  8. Exploring Time Allocation for Academic Activities by University Students in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernex, Alain; Lima, Laurent; de Vries, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study how students allocate time to different university and extra-university activities and to identify factors that might explain variability both between and within fields of study. At the heart of this exercise is the question of the time students dedicate to academic activities in competition with a whole…

  9. National Contexts Influencing Principals' Time Use and Allocation: Economic Development, Societal Culture, and Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…

  10. 20 CFR 631.32 - Allocation of funds by the Governor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for an appropriate weight for each of the formula factors set forth in paragraph (b)(2) of this... formula to be used in issuing substate allocations required under paragraph (a) of this section to substate grantees. (2) The formula prescribed pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall...

  11. 20 CFR 631.32 - Allocation of funds by the Governor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for an appropriate weight for each of the formula factors set forth in paragraph (b)(2) of this... formula to be used in issuing substate allocations required under paragraph (a) of this section to substate grantees. (2) The formula prescribed pursuant to paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall...

  12. An approach toward function allocation between humans and machines in space station activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vontiesenhausen, G.

    1982-01-01

    Basic guidelines and data to assist in the allocation of functions between humans and automated systems in a manned permanent space station are provided. Human capabilities and limitations are described. Criteria and guidelines for various levels of automation and human participation are described. A collection of human factors data is included.

  13. 25 CFR 170.200 - How does BIA allocate IRR Program funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Funding Tribal Transportation Allocation Methodology... Transportation Allocation Methodology (TTAM) that BIA uses to allocate IRR Program funds. After...

  14. 77 FR 54482 - Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-126770-06] RIN 1545-BG07 Allocation of Costs Under the Simplified Methods AGENCY... contains proposed regulations on allocating costs to certain property produced by the taxpayer or acquired... of property that are required to capitalize certain costs to the property and that allocate...

  15. Reward Allocation and Academic versus Social Orientation toward School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

    1978-01-01

    Correlates 138 elementary school children's views about the purposes of school to their styles of reward allocation: academically motivated students allocated rewards equally to two hypothetical performers who had unequally helped a teacher perform a manual chore, while socially motivated children allocated rewards in an equity (performance-based)…

  16. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation. 32.22... interperiod tax allocation. (a) Companies shall apply interperiod tax allocation (tax normalization) to all book/tax temporary differences which would be considered material for published financial...

  17. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation. 32.22... interperiod tax allocation. (a) Companies shall apply interperiod tax allocation (tax normalization) to all book/tax temporary differences which would be considered material for published financial...

  18. 47 CFR 32.22 - Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comprehensive interperiod tax allocation. 32.22... interperiod tax allocation. (a) Companies shall apply interperiod tax allocation (tax normalization) to all book/tax temporary differences which would be considered material for published financial...

  19. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  20. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  1. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...

  2. 14 CFR 93.321 - Transfer and termination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and termination of allocations. 93... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Special Flight Rules in the... allocations no earlier than two years from the effective date of this rule. (2) Allocations that are held...

  3. 10 CFR 490.703 - Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. 490.703 Section 490.703 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Biodiesel Fuel Use Credit § 490.703 Biodiesel fuel use credit allocation. (a) DOE shall allocate to a fleet...

  4. 17 CFR 256.01-11 - Methods of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same manner. Each work order should identify the methods of allocation to associate companies... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methods of allocation. 256.01... HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 General Instructions § 256.01-11 Methods of allocation. Indirect costs...

  5. 50 CFR 648.70 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.70 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  6. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  7. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  8. 50 CFR 648.74 - Annual individual allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.74 Annual individual allocations. (a... surfclams and ocean quahogs for the next fishing year for each allocation holder owning an allocation... in the year in which the transfer is made, to any person or entity eligible to own a...

  9. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-5 - Effect of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of allocation. 2584.8477(e)-5 Section 2584.8477(e)-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2584.8477(e)-5 Effect of allocation....

  10. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-5 - Effect of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of allocation. 2584.8477(e)-5 Section 2584.8477(e)-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY § 2584.8477(e)-5 Effect of allocation....

  11. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  12. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  13. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  14. Recurrent Grants for 2000-01: Final Allocations. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This document shows the final allocations of recurrent funding to institutions of higher education in England for the academic year 2000-2001. This report updates allocations because of additional student numbers, increased allocations for specific programs, student transfers, and an overall increase in funding. The total grants awarded for…

  15. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.104 Section 2.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of...

  16. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.104 Section 2.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of...

  17. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.104 Section 2.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of...

  18. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.104 Section 2.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of...

  19. 47 CFR 2.104 - International Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.104 Section 2.104 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of...

  20. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  1. 49 CFR 93.1 - Issuance of aircraft allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Issuance of aircraft allocations. 93.1 Section 93.1 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AIRCRAFT ALLOCATION § 93.1 Issuance of aircraft allocations. From time to time, the Director, Office of Emergency Transportation, issues...

  2. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  3. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  4. 30 CFR 206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.459 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  5. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  6. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  7. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  8. 30 CFR 1206.459 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.459 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Coal § 1206.459 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  9. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 1206.260 Section... RESOURCES REVENUE PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 1206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b)...

  11. 30 CFR 206.260 - Allocation of washed coal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation of washed coal. 206.260 Section 206... MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Coal § 206.260 Allocation of washed coal. (a) When coal is subjected to washing, the washed coal must be allocated to the leases from which it was extracted. (b) When the...

  12. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental research. Of the amount allocated by the Director for research, not less than 60 percent shall...

  13. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds. (a) Fundamental research. Of the amount allocated by the Director for research, not less than 60 percent shall...

  14. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO...

  15. Dynamic advance reservation with delayed allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Vokkarane, Vinod; Somani, Arun

    2014-12-02

    A method of scheduling data transmissions from a source to a destination, includes the steps of: providing a communication system having a number of channels and a number of paths, each of the channels having a plurality of designated time slots; receiving two or more data transmission requests; provisioning the transmission of the data; receiving data corresponding to at least one of the two or more data transmission requests; waiting until an earliest requested start time T.sub.s; allocating at the current time each of the two or more data transmission requests; transmitting the data; and repeating the steps of waiting, allocating, and transmitting until each of the two or more data transmission requests that have been provisioned for a transmission of data is satisfied. A system to perform the method of scheduling data transmissions is also described.

  16. Browsing affects intra-ring carbon allocation in species with contrasting wood anatomy.

    PubMed

    Palacio, S; Paterson, E; Sim, A; Hester, A J; Millard, P

    2011-02-01

    Current knowledge on tree carbon (C) allocation to wood is particularly scarce in plants subjected to disturbance factors, such as browsing, which affects forest regeneration worldwide and has an impact on the C balance of trees. Furthermore, quantifying the degree to which tree rings are formed from freshly assimilated vs. stored carbohydrates is highly relevant for our understanding of tree C allocation. We used (13)C labelling to quantify seasonal allocation of stored C to wood formation in two species with contrasting wood anatomy: Betula pubescens Ehrh. (diffuse-porous) and Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl. (ring-porous). Clipping treatments (66% shoot removal, and unclipped) were applied to analyse the effect of browsing on C allocation into tree rings, plus the effects on tree growth, architecture, ring width and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs). The relative contribution of stored C to wood formation was greater in the ring-porous (55-70%) than in the diffuse-porous species (35-60%), although each species followed different seasonal trends. Clipping did not cause a significant depletion of C stores in either species. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the proportion of stored C allocated to earlywood growth was observed in clipped birches, and this could be explained through changes in tree architecture after clipping. The size of C pools across tree species seems to be important in determining the variability of seasonal C allocation patterns to wood and their sensibility to disturbances such as browsing. Our results indicate that the observed changes in C allocation to earlywood in birch were not related to variations in the amount or concentration of NSC stores, but to changes in the seasonal availability of recently assimilated C caused by modifications in tree architecture after browsing.

  17. Nutrient mediation of behavioral plasticity and resource allocation in a xylem-feeding leafhopper.

    PubMed

    Brodbeck, Brent V; Andersen, Peter C; Mizell, Russell F

    2011-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be critical for nutrient-limited organisms that allocate ingested nutrients to the competing demands of reproduction and survivorship. Leafhoppers that feed on xylem fluid allow assessment of plasticity in response to the constant selective pressure of nutritional inadequacy. We examined feeding behavior (host selection and consumption rates) and nutrient allocation (fecundity, change in body mass and composition) of the xylem fluid-feeding leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera:Cicadellidae) on ten genotypes of related Prunus germplasm when adults first seasonally appear, and later during population peaks, to examine the effects of genotypes and season on plasticity of life history and behavioral traits. Behavior and resource allocation to life history traits were both mediated by xylem nutrients, although nutrients impacting behavior differed from those mediating life history. Host selection and consumption varied with genotype between June and July, yet behavior consistently reflected concentrations of dietary glutamine. Resource allocations also increased linearly with nutrient concentrations, but were best correlated to ingested essential amino acids rather than glutamine. Body mass and composition were highly correlated to dietary essential amino acids in June; 6 weeks later, fecundity was instead proportional to essential amino acids. The discrepancy in nutrients which impact behavior versus those mediating life history may explain the weak preference-performance linkage documented for many insects. The demarcation in allocating resources to biomass in June to fecundity in July suggests increased allocation to reproduction during periods of nutrient stress as predicted by the theory of optimal resource allocation; other contributing biotic and abiotic factors are also discussed.

  18. Patient preferences, knowledge and beliefs about kidney allocation: qualitative findings from the UK-wide ATTOM programme

    PubMed Central

    Cinnirella, Marco; Bayfield, Janet; Wu, Diana; Draper, Heather; Johnson, Rachel J; Tomson, Charles R V; Forsythe, John L R; Metcalfe, Wendy; Fogarty, Damian; Roderick, Paul; Ravanan, Rommel; Oniscu, Gabriel C; Watson, Christopher J E; Bradley, J Andrew; Bradley, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore how patients who are wait-listed for or who have received a kidney transplant understand the current UK kidney allocation system, and their views on ways to allocate kidneys in the future. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews and thematic analysis based on a pragmatic approach. Participants 10 deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients, 10 live-donor kidney transplant recipients, 12 participants currently wait-listed for a kidney transplant and 4 participants whose kidney transplant failed. Setting Semistructured telephone interviews conducted with participants in their own homes across the UK. Results Three main themes were identified: uncertainty of knowledge of the allocation scheme; evaluation of the system and participant suggestions for future allocation schemes. Most participants identified human leucocyte anitgen matching as a factor in determining kidney allocation, but were often uncertain of the accuracy of their knowledge. In the absence of information that would allow a full assessment, the majority of participants consider that the current system is effective. A minority of participants were concerned about the perceived lack of transparency of the general decision-making processes within the scheme. Most participants felt that people who are younger and those better matched to the donor kidney should be prioritised for kidney allocation, but in contrast to the current scheme, less priority was considered appropriate for longer waiting patients. Some non-medical themes were also discussed, such as whether parents of dependent children should be prioritised for allocation, and whether patients with substance abuse problems be deprioritised. Conclusions Our participants held differing views about the most important factors for kidney allocation, some of which were in contrast to the current scheme. Patient participation in reviewing future allocation policies will provide insight as to what is considered

  19. Interference Avoidance and Resource Allocation for OFDMA Downlink of Femtocells with Distributed Power Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyunduk; Han, Jechan; Lee, Jaiyong

    OFDMA femtocells in the macrocellular network of which frequency reuse factor is 1 cause serious interference to macrocell users, while the femtocells improve the performance of indoor users. In this letter, a novel downlink resource allocation algorithm for OFDMA femtocell networks is proposed to reduce interference between the macrocells and the femtocells. This algorithm allocates femtocell subchannels to avoid interference to macrocell users in the femtocell coverage, and minimizes the total transmission power of the femtocell to reduce the negative effect on the performance of the macrocell. Simulation results are provided to present the performance of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Rethinking reinforcement: allocation, induction, and contingency.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior-behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between "operant" activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are "selected" only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the "selecting."

  1. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Conservation Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Dynamic Resource Allocation in Conservation Planning Daniel Golovin Caltech Pasadena, CA, USA Andreas Krause ETH Zürich Zurich, Switzerland Beth...to adaptive policies ( Golovin and Krause 2010). We omit details due to space limita- tions. 1335 using the independent cascade model of Goldenberg... Golovin and Krause [2010]. However, their approach is not known to provide competitiveness guarantees such as those of Theo- rem 2, where the set of

  2. Cost Allocation and Overpricing of Spare Parts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    5 defense contractors are presently treating spare parts as cost objectives and using a type of spare parts accounting system as described in the...survey instrument. The other 7 contractor respondents who do not treat spare parts as cost objectives were not favor- able to this accounting treatment...company accounting systems or lised to resolve specific contract or formula pricing cost allocation issues, contribute signi- ficantly to overpricing

  3. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  4. Contingent attentional capture or delayed allocation of attention?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.; McLean, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, external stimuli will elicit an involuntary shift of spatial attention, referred to as attentional capture. According to the contingent involuntary orienting account (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), capture is conditioned by top-down factors that set attention to respond involuntarily to stimulus properties relevant to one's behavioral goals. Evidence for this comes from spatial cuing studies showing that a spatial cuing effect is observed only when cues have goal-relevant properties. Here, we examine alternative, decision-level explanations of the spatial cuing effect that attribute evidence of capture to postpresentation delays in the voluntary allocation of attention, rather than to on-line involuntary shifts in direct response to the cue. In three spatial cuing experiments, delayed-allocation accounts were tested by examining whether items at the cued location were preferentially processed. The experiments provide evidence that costs and benefits in spatial cuing experiments do reflect the on-line capture of attention. The implications of these results for models of attentional control are discussed.

  5. Cognitive-Aware Modality Allocation in Intelligent Multimodal Information Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yujia; Theune, Mariët; Nijholt, Anton

    Intelligent multimodal presentation (IMMP) systems are able to generate multimodal presentations adaptively, based on the run-time requirements of user-computer interaction. Modality allocation in IMMP system needs to adapt the modality choice to changes in various relevant factors, such as the type of information to be conveyed, the presentation goal, the characteristics of the available modalities, the user profile, the condition of the environment, and the type of user task. In this study, we emphasize that modality allocation in IMMP systems should also take into account the cognitive impacts of modality on human information processing. We first describe several modality-related cognitive and neuropsychological findings. Then a user study is presented to demonstrate the effects of modality on performance, cognitive load and stress, using a high-load and time-critical user task. Finally, we show a possible way to integrate relevant cognitive theories into a computational model that can systematically predict the suitability of a modality choice for a given presentation task.

  6. Flexible task allocation and the organization of work in ants

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Elva J. H.; Feinerman, Ofer; Franks, Nigel R.

    2009-01-01

    Flexibility in task performance is essential for a robust system of division of labour. We investigated what factors determine which social insect workers respond to colony-level changes in task demand. We used radio-frequency identification technology to compare the roles of corpulence, age, spatial location and previous activity (intra-nest/extra-nest) in determining whether worker ants (Temnothorax albipennis) respond to an increase in demand for foraging or brood care. The less corpulent ants took on the extra foraging, irrespective of their age, previous activity or location in the nest, supporting a physiological threshold model. We found no relationship between ants that tended the extra brood and corpulence, age, spatial location or previous activity, but ants that transported the extra brood to the main brood pile were less corpulent and had high previous intra-nest activity. This supports spatial task-encounter and physiological threshold models for brood transport. Our data suggest a flexible task-allocation system allowing the colony to respond rapidly to changing needs, using a simple task-encounter system for generalized tasks, combined with physiologically based response thresholds for more specialized tasks. This could provide a social insect colony with a robust division of labour, flexibly allocating the workforce in response to current needs. PMID:19776072

  7. Optimal Rate Allocation in Cluster-Tree WSNs

    PubMed Central

    Morell, Antoni; Vicario, Jose Lopez; Vilajosana, Xavier; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution to the problem of guaranteed time slot allocation in cluster-tree WSNs. Our design uses the so-called Network Utility Maximization (NUM) approach as far as we aim to provide a fair distribution of the available resources. From the point of view of implementation, we extend here the authors’ proposed Coupled-Decompositions Method (CDM) in order to compute the NUM problem inside the cluster tree topology and we prove the optimality of this new extended version of the method. As a result, we obtain a distributed solution that reduces the total amount of signalling information in the network up to a factor of 500 with respect to the classical techniques, that is, primal and dual decomposition. This is possible because the CDM finds the optimal solution with a small number of iterations. Furthermore, when we compare our solution to the standard-proposed First Come First Serve (FCFS) policy, we realize that FCFS becomes pretty unfair as the traffic load in the network increases and thus, a fair allocation of resources can be considered whenever the price to pay in terms of signalling and computational complexity is controlled. PMID:22163812

  8. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.; Rossetti, A.; Brambilla, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina) retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  9. Optimal allocation of trend following strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.; Serror, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    We consider a portfolio allocation problem for trend following (TF) strategies on multiple correlated assets. Under simplifying assumptions of a Gaussian market and linear TF strategies, we derive analytical formulas for the mean and variance of the portfolio return. We construct then the optimal portfolio that maximizes risk-adjusted return by accounting for inter-asset correlations. The dynamic allocation problem for n assets is shown to be equivalent to the classical static allocation problem for n2 virtual assets that include lead-lag corrections in positions of TF strategies. The respective roles of asset auto-correlations and inter-asset correlations are investigated in depth for the two-asset case and a sector model. In contrast to the principle of diversification suggesting to treat uncorrelated assets, we show that inter-asset correlations allow one to estimate apparent trends more reliably and to adjust the TF positions more efficiently. If properly accounted for, inter-asset correlations are not deteriorative but beneficial for portfolio management that can open new profit opportunities for trend followers. These concepts are illustrated using daily returns of three highly correlated futures markets: the E-mini S&P 500, Euro Stoxx 50 index, and the US 10-year T-note futures.

  10. Resource allocation equity in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Georgina Mayela Núñez; Martínez, Ana María Salinas; Ríos, Enrique Villarreal; Elizondo, Ma Eugenia Garza

    2004-12-01

    Currently, the population health needs are unlimited, but allocation of financial resources is not in accordance with these needs, probably due to the lack of specific information. In this work, we propose a new approach to allocate resources with equity as a tool for decision-making in planning. The grade of equity in resource allocation in decentralized management medical areas (DMMAs (AMGD, for its initials in Spanish)) was determined; these are limited geographical areas of a social security institution in three states of the northeastern region of Mexico. The areas with more health needs in the global index were DMMA no. 12 in Tamaulipas with a Z-score (ZS) of -5; area no. 3 in Coahuila with -4; and area no. 9 in Nuevo Leon, no. 16 and no. 17 in Tamaulipas with -2. Equity was measured according to the degree of concordance between the health needs index and the per capita health expenditure of each area: (r = 0.19, P > 0.05). Low concordance was found between these variables in the studied medical areas.

  11. Irrational time allocation in decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. PMID:26763695

  12. Optimal sample size allocation for Welch's test in one-way heteroscedastic ANOVA.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Gwowen; Jan, Show-Li

    2015-06-01

    The determination of an adequate sample size is a vital aspect in the planning stage of research studies. A prudent strategy should incorporate all of the critical factors and cost considerations into sample size calculations. This study concerns the allocation schemes of group sizes for Welch's test in a one-way heteroscedastic ANOVA. Optimal allocation approaches are presented for minimizing the total cost while maintaining adequate power and for maximizing power performance for a fixed cost. The commonly recommended ratio of sample sizes is proportional to the ratio of the population standard deviations or the ratio of the population standard deviations divided by the square root of the ratio of the unit sampling costs. Detailed numerical investigations have shown that these usual allocation methods generally do not give the optimal solution. The suggested procedures are illustrated using an example of the cost-efficiency evaluation in multidisciplinary pain centers.

  13. Sexual systems and dwarf males in barnacles: integrating life history and sex allocation theories.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Yusa, Yoichi; Sawada, Kota; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2013-03-07

    Barnacles, which are sedentary marine crustaceans, have diverse sexual systems that include simultaneous hermaphroditism, androdioecy (coexistence of hermaphrodites and males) and dioecy (females and males). In dioecious and androdioecious species, the males are very small and are thus called dwarf males. These sexual systems are defined by two factors: sex allocation of non-dwarf individuals and the presence or absence of dwarf males. We constructed an ESS model treating sex allocation and life history simultaneously to explain sexual systems in barnacles. We analyzed the evolutionarily stable size-dependent resource allocation strategy to male reproductive function, female reproductive function and growth in non-dwarf barnacles, and the ESS proportion of dwarf males, under conditions of varying mortality and food availability. Sex allocation in non-dwarf individuals (hermaphrodites or females) is affected by mate availability and the proportion of dwarf males. When hermaphrodites appear, all hermaphrodites become protandric simultaneous hermaphrodites. Furthermore, high mortality and poor resource availability favor dwarf males because of their early maturation and weakened sperm competition. In conclusion, we showed that combining sex allocation and life history theories is a useful way to understand various sexual systems in barnacles and perhaps in other organisms as well.

  14. Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control.

    PubMed

    Poorter, Hendrik; Niklas, Karl J; Reich, Peter B; Oleksyn, Jacek; Poot, Pieter; Mommer, Liesje

    2012-01-01

    We quantified the biomass allocation patterns to leaves, stems and roots in vegetative plants, and how this is influenced by the growth environment, plant size, evolutionary history and competition. Dose-response curves of allocation were constructed by means of a meta-analysis from a wide array of experimental data. They show that the fraction of whole-plant mass represented by leaves (LMF) increases most strongly with nutrients and decreases most strongly with light. Correction for size-induced allocation patterns diminishes the LMF-response to light, but makes the effect of temperature on LMF more apparent. There is a clear phylogenetic effect on allocation, as eudicots invest relatively more than monocots in leaves, as do gymnosperms compared with woody angiosperms. Plants grown at high densities show a clear increase in the stem fraction. However, in most comparisons across species groups or environmental factors, the variation in LMF is smaller than the variation in one of the other components of the growth analysis equation: the leaf area : leaf mass ratio (SLA). In competitive situations, the stem mass fraction increases to a smaller extent than the specific stem length (stem length : stem mass). Thus, we conclude that plants generally are less able to adjust allocation than to alter organ morphology.

  15. A Two-Phase Model of Resource Allocation in Visual Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chaoxiong; Hu, Zhonghua; Li, Hong; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Taosheng

    2017-03-02

    Two broad theories of visual working memory (VWM) storage have emerged from current research, a discrete slot-based theory and a continuous resource theory. However, neither the discrete slot-based theory or continuous resource theory clearly stipulates how the mental commodity for VWM (discrete slot or continuous resource) is allocated. Allocation may be based on the number of items via stimulus-driven factors, or it may be based on task demands via voluntary control. Previous studies have obtained conflicting results regarding the automaticity versus controllability of such allocation. In the current study, we propose a two-phase allocation model, in which the mental commodity could be allocated only by stimulus-driven factors in the early consolidation phase. However, when there is sufficient time to complete the early phase, allocation can enter the late consolidation phase, where it can be flexibly and voluntarily controlled according to task demands. In an orientation recall task, we instructed participants to store either fewer items at high-precision or more items at low-precision. In 3 experiments, we systematically manipulated memory set size and exposure duration. We did not find an effect of task demands when the set size was high and exposure duration was short. However, when we either decreased the set size or increased the exposure duration, we found a trade-off between the number and precision of VWM representations. These results can be explained by a two-phase model, which can also account for previous conflicting findings in the literature. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. 75 FR 62023 - Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission Owning and Operating Public Utilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... processes and cost allocation and would require cost allocation methods for intraregional and interregional... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 35 Transmission Planning and Cost Allocation by Transmission... and cost allocation requirements established in Order No. 890 to ensure that...

  17. The Stimulus Movement Effect: Allocation of Attention or Artifact?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1993-01-01

    In previous reports, including one by the author, learning has been shown to benefit by having discriminanda move rather than remain stationary. This stimulus movement effect might be attributed to several theoretical mechanisms, including attention, topological memory, and exposure duration. The series of experiments reported in this article was designed to Contrast these potential explanatory factors. Ten rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were tested on a variety of computerized tasks in which the stimuli remained stationary, flashed, or moved at systematically varied speeds. Performance was significantly best when the sample stimulus moved quickly and was poorest when the stimulus remained stationary. Further analysis of these data and other previously published data revealed that the distribution of the stimulus movement effect across trials supported an attention allocation interpretation.

  18. Scheduling Patients' Appointments: Allocation of Healthcare Service Using Simulation Optimization.

    PubMed

    Chenl, Ping-Shun; Robielos, Rex Aurelius C; Palaña, Philline Kate Vera C; Valencia, Pierre Lorenzo L; Chen, Gary Yu-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    In the service industry, scheduling medical procedures causes difficulties for both patients and management. Factors such as fluctuations in customer demand and service time affect the appointment scheduling systems' performance in terms of, for example, patients' waiting time, idle time of resources, and total cost/profits. This research implements four appointment scheduling policies, i.e., constant arrival, mixed patient arrival, three-section pattern arrival, and irregular arrival, in an ultrasound department of a hospital in Taiwan. By simulating the four implemented policies' optimization procedures, optimal or near-optimal solutions can be obtained for patients per arrival, patients' inter-arrival time, and the number of the time slots for arrived patients. Furthermore, three objective functions are tested, and the results are discussed. The managerial implications and discussions are summarized to demonstrate how outcomes can be useful for hospital managers seeking to allocate their healthcare service capacities.

  19. Intersectoral planning for city health development.

    PubMed

    Green, Geoff

    2012-04-01

    The article reviews the evolution and process of city health development planning (CHDP) in municipalities participating in the European Network of Healthy Cities organized by the European Region of the World Health Organization. The concept of CHDP combines elements from three theoretical domains: (a) health development, (b) city governance, and (c) urban planning. The setting was the 77 cities which participated in Phase IV (2003-2008) of the network. Evidence was gathered principally from a general evaluation questionnaire sent to all network cities. CHDPs are strategic documents giving direction to municipalities and partner agencies. Analysis revealed a trend away from "classic" CHDPs with a primary focus on health development towards ensuring a health dimension to other sector plans, and into the overarching strategies of city governments. Linked to the Phase IV priority themes of Healthy aging and healthy urban planning, cities further developed the concept and application of human-centered sustainability. More work is required to utilize cost-benefit analysis and health impact assessment to unmask the synergies between health and economic prosperity.

  20. Prey risk allocation in a grazing ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gude, Justin A; Garrott, Robert A; Borkowski, John J; King, Fred

    2006-02-01

    Understanding the behaviorally mediated indirect effects of predators in ecosystems requires knowledge of predator-prey behavioral interactions. In predator-ungulate-plant systems, empirical research quantifying how predators affect ungulate group sizes and distribution, in the context of other influential variables, is particularly needed. The risk allocation hypothesis proposes that prey behavioral responses to predation risk depend on background frequencies of exposure to risk, and it can be used to make predictions about predator-ungulate-plant interactions. We determined non-predation variables that affect elk (Cervus elaphus) group sizes and distribution on a winter range in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) using logistic and log-linear regression on surveys of 513 1-km2 areas conducted over two years. Employing model selection techniques, we evaluated risk allocation and other a priori hypotheses of elk group size and distributional responses to wolf (Canis lupus) predation risk while accounting for influential non-wolf-predation variables. We found little evidence that wolves affect elk group sizes, which were strongly influenced by habitat type and hunting by humans. Following predictions from the risk allocation hypothesis, wolves likely created a more dynamic elk distribution in areas that they frequently hunted, as elk tended to move following wolf encounters in those areas. This response should dilute elk foraging pressure on plant communities in areas where they are frequently hunted by wolves. We predict that this should decrease the spatial heterogeneity of elk impacts on grasslands in areas that wolves frequently hunt. We also predict that this should decrease browsing pressure on heavily browsed woody plant stands in certain areas, which is supported by recent research in the GYE.

  1. Fault and the allocation of spare organs.

    PubMed Central

    Smart, B

    1994-01-01

    This paper argues that rectificatory justice should supplement distributive justice in allocating priority of access to scarce medical resources. Where a patient is at fault for the scarcity of healthy organs a principle of restitution requires that she should give priority to the faultless. Such restitution is non-punitive, and is akin to reparation in civil law, not criminal law. However, it is doubtful whether such a principle can be fairly applied within the present culture of governmental complicity in cigarette advertising. PMID:8035435

  2. Combat Resource Allocation Planning in Naval Engagements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    Valcartier; August 2007. Management of tactical combat resources, as a part of military naval Command & Con- trol (C2) process , provides a real world multi...systèmes d’agents et multi-agents est présentée et les problèmes de planifi - cation en temps réel et de l’allocation des ressources sont abordés...data to be processed under time-critical conditions pose significant challenges for future shipboard Command & Control Systems (CCSs). Among other

  3. Optimal load allocation of multiple fuel boilers.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Alex C; Du, Yan Yi

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimally allocating a set of multiple industrial boilers that each simultaneously consumes multiple fuel types. Unlike recent similar approaches in the utility industry that use soft computing techniques, this approach is based on a second-order gradient search method that is easy to implement without any specialized optimization software. The algorithm converges rapidly and the application yields significant savings benefits, up to 3% of the overall operating cost of industrial boiler systems in the examples given and potentially higher in other cases, depending on the plant circumstances. Given today's energy prices, this can yield significant savings benefits to manufacturers that raise steam for plant operations.

  4. Allocation of Rehabilitation Services for Older Adults in the Ontario Home Care System

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Joshua J.; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapy and occupational therapy services can play a critical role in maintaining or improving the physical functioning, quality of life, and overall independence of older home care clients. Despite their importance, however, there is limited understanding of the factors that influence how rehabilitation services are allocated to older home care clients. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a preliminary understanding of the factors that influence decisions to allocate rehabilitation therapy services to older clients in the Ontario home care system, as perceived by three stakeholder groups. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 key informants from three stakeholder groups: case managers, service providers, and health system policymakers. Results: Drivers of the allocation of occupational therapy and physiotherapy for older adults included functional needs and postoperative care. Participants identified challenges in providing home care rehabilitation to older adults, including impaired cognition and limited capacity in the home care system. Conclusions: Considering the changing demands for home care services, knowledge of current practices across the home care system can inform efforts to optimize rehabilitation services for the growing number of older adults. Further research is needed to advance the understanding of, and optimize rehabilitation service allocation to, older frail clients with multiple morbidities. Developing novel decision-support mechanisms and standardized clinical care pathways for older client populations may be beneficial. PMID:27904234

  5. Allocation of Rehabilitation Services for Older Adults in the Ontario Home Care System.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Joshua J; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Stolee, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physiotherapy and occupational therapy services can play a critical role in maintaining or improving the physical functioning, quality of life, and overall independence of older home care clients. Despite their importance, however, there is limited understanding of the factors that influence how rehabilitation services are allocated to older home care clients. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a preliminary understanding of the factors that influence decisions to allocate rehabilitation therapy services to older clients in the Ontario home care system, as perceived by three stakeholder groups. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 key informants from three stakeholder groups: case managers, service providers, and health system policymakers. Results: Drivers of the allocation of occupational therapy and physiotherapy for older adults included functional needs and postoperative care. Participants identified challenges in providing home care rehabilitation to older adults, including impaired cognition and limited capacity in the home care system. Conclusions: Considering the changing demands for home care services, knowledge of current practices across the home care system can inform efforts to optimize rehabilitation services for the growing number of older adults. Further research is needed to advance the understanding of, and optimize rehabilitation service allocation to, older frail clients with multiple morbidities. Developing novel decision-support mechanisms and standardized clinical care pathways for older client populations may be beneficial.

  6. Conflict over condition-dependent sex allocation can lead to mixed sex-determination systems.

    PubMed

    Kuijper, Bram; Pen, Ido

    2014-11-01

    Theory suggests that genetic conflicts drive turnovers between sex-determining mechanisms, yet these studies only apply to cases where sex allocation is independent of environment or condition. Here, we model parent-offspring conflict in the presence of condition-dependent sex allocation, where the environment has sex-specific fitness consequences. Additionally, one sex is assumed to be more costly to produce than the other, which leads offspring to favor a sex ratio less biased toward the cheaper sex in comparison to the sex ratio favored by mothers. The scope for parent-offspring conflict depends on the relative frequency of both environments: when one environment is less common than the other, parent-offspring conflict can be reduced or even entirely absent, despite a biased population sex ratio. The model shows that conflict-driven invasions of condition-independent sex factors (e.g., sex chromosomes) result either in the loss of condition-dependent sex allocation, or, interestingly, lead to stable mixtures of condition-dependent and condition-independent sex factors. The latter outcome corresponds to empirical observations in which sex chromosomes are present in organisms with environment-dependent sex determination. Finally, conflict can also favor errors in environmental perception, potentially resulting in the loss of condition-dependent sex allocation without genetic changes to sex-determining loci.

  7. Pancreas lineage allocation and specification are regulated by sphingosine-1-phosphate signalling

    PubMed Central

    Serafimidis, Ioannis; Rodriguez-Aznar, Eva; Lesche, Mathias; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Takuwa, Yoh; Dahl, Andreas; Pan, Duojia; Gavalas, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    During development, progenitor expansion, lineage allocation, and implementation of differentiation programs need to be tightly coordinated so that different cell types are generated in the correct numbers for appropriate tissue size and function. Pancreatic dysfunction results in some of the most debilitating and fatal diseases, including pancreatic cancer and diabetes. Several transcription factors regulating pancreas lineage specification have been identified, and Notch signalling has been implicated in lineage allocation, but it remains unclear how these processes are coordinated. Using a combination of genetic approaches, organotypic cultures of embryonic pancreata, and genomics, we found that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1p), signalling through the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) S1pr2, plays a key role in pancreas development linking lineage allocation and specification. S1pr2 signalling promotes progenitor survival as well as acinar and endocrine specification. S1pr2-mediated stabilisation of the yes-associated protein (YAP) is essential for endocrine specification, thus linking a regulator of progenitor growth with specification. YAP stabilisation and endocrine cell specification rely on Gαi subunits, revealing an unexpected specificity of selected GPCR intracellular signalling components. Finally, we found that S1pr2 signalling posttranscriptionally attenuates Notch signalling levels, thus regulating lineage allocation. Both S1pr2-mediated YAP stabilisation and Notch attenuation are necessary for the specification of the endocrine lineage. These findings identify S1p signalling as a novel key pathway coordinating cell survival, lineage allocation, and specification and linking these processes by regulating YAP levels and Notch signalling. Understanding lineage allocation and specification in the pancreas will shed light in the origins of pancreatic diseases and may suggest novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:28248965

  8. Nutrient Stress During Ontogeny Alters Patterns of Resource Allocation in two Species of Horned Beetles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Daniel B; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-10-01

    The elaboration of exaggerated, sexually selected weapons and ornaments often comes at a cost to other traits. For instance, by sustaining the growth of an exaggerated weapon during development, shared and limited resources such as morphogens, growth factors, and nutrients may become depleted and limit the size to which other structures can grow. Such interactions are characteristic of resource allocation trade-offs, which can constrain the production of phenotypic variation and bias evolutionary trajectories. Across many species of Onthophagus beetles, males produce extravagant horns that are used as weapons in male-male competition over mates. Previous studies have reported resource allocation trade-offs between horns and both proximally and distally developing structures. However, more recent studies have largely failed to recover these patterns, leading to the hypothesis that trade-offs may manifest only in certain species, populations, or environmental conditions. Here, we investigate (i) patterns of resource allocation into horns, eyes, and genitalia in Onthophagus gazella and O. taurus, and assess (ii) how these patterns of resource allocation are influenced by nutrient stress during larval development. We find that nutrient stress alters patterns of resource allocation within and among traits, but recover a trade-off only in the species that invests most heavily into horn production (O. taurus), and in individuals of that species that invested a disproportionately large or small amount of resources into horn growth. These results suggest that resource allocation trade-offs may not be as prevalent as previously described, and that their presence and magnitude may instead be highly context dependent.

  9. Review of the Uruguayan Kidney Allocation System: the solution to a complex problem, preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Bengochea, M; Alvarez, I; Toledo, R; Carretto, E; Forteza, D

    2010-01-01

    The National Kidney Transplant Program with cadaveric donors is based on centralized and unique waitlist, serum bank, and allocation criteria, approved by Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante (INDT) in agreement with clinical teams. The median donor rates over last 3 years is 20 per million population and the median number of waitlist candidates is 450. The increased number of waiting list patients and the rapid aging of our populations demanded strategies for donor acceptance, candidate assignment, and analysis of more efficient and equitable allocation models. The objectives of the new national allocation system were to improve posttransplant patient and graft survivals, allow equal access to transplantation, and reduce waitlist times. The objective of this study was to analyze variables in our current allocation system and to create a mathematical/simulation model to evaluate a new allocation system. We compared candidates and transplanted patients for gender, age, ABO blood group, human leukocyte agents (HLA), percentage of reactive antibodies (PRA), and waiting list and dialysis times. Only 2 factors showed differences: highly sensitized and patients >65 years old (Bernoulli test). An agreement between INDT and Engineering Faculty yielded a major field of study. During 2008 the data analysis and model building began. The waiting list data of the last decade of donors and transplants were processed to develop a virtual model. We used inputs of candidates and donors, with outputs and structure of the simulation system to evaluate the proposed changes. Currently, the INDT and the Mathematics and Statistics Institute are working to develop a simulation model, that is able to analyze our new national allocation system.

  10. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihua; Zhang, Yaping; Liu, Lan; Xing, Zhiwei

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the "external cost of surface congestion" is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm.

  11. Synthesis of waste interception and allocation networks

    SciTech Connect

    El-Halwagi, M.M.; Hamad, A.A.; Garrison, G.W.

    1996-11-01

    This article introduces the novel concept of synthesizing waste-interception networks (WINs) and incorporates it within a mass-integration framework for the global allocation of pollutants. The essence of this notion is to provide selective interception and rerouting of undesirable species at the heart of the process instead of dealing with the pollutants in the terminal waste streams. It also provides a unified framework for simultaneously tackling gaseous and liquid pollution. Several tools are developed to track the pollutant throughout the process and determine the optimal interception policies. The problem is formulated as an optimization program that seeks to determine the optimum locations for interception the pollutants, extent of separation, and separating agents to carry out the interception tasks. Furthermore, the WINs can be used within a mass-integration scheme for the global allocation of species throughout the plant. These new concepts and associated mathematical formulation are demonstrated using a case study on the removal of a chlorinated hydrocarbon. This approach has benefits over conventional recycle/reuse (such as MEN synthesis).

  12. Congestion Pricing for Aircraft Pushback Slot Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    In order to optimize aircraft pushback management during rush hour, aircraft pushback slot allocation based on congestion pricing is explored while considering monetary compensation based on the quality of the surface operations. First, the concept of the “external cost of surface congestion” is proposed, and a quantitative study on the external cost is performed. Then, an aircraft pushback slot allocation model for minimizing the total surface cost is established. An improved discrete differential evolution algorithm is also designed. Finally, a simulation is performed on Xinzheng International Airport using the proposed model. By comparing the pushback slot control strategy based on congestion pricing with other strategies, the advantages of the proposed model and algorithm are highlighted. In addition to reducing delays and optimizing the delay distribution, the model and algorithm are better suited for use for actual aircraft pushback management during rush hour. Further, it is also observed they do not result in significant increases in the surface cost. These results confirm the effectiveness and suitability of the proposed model and algorithm. PMID:28114429

  13. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  14. Environmental flow allocation and statistics calculator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konrad, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Flow Allocation and Statistics Calculator (EFASC) is a computer program that calculates hydrologic statistics based on a time series of daily streamflow values. EFASC will calculate statistics for daily streamflow in an input file or will generate synthetic daily flow series from an input file based on rules for allocating and protecting streamflow and then calculate statistics for the synthetic time series. The program reads dates and daily streamflow values from input files. The program writes statistics out to a series of worksheets and text files. Multiple sites can be processed in series as one run. EFASC is written in MicrosoftRegistered Visual BasicCopyright for Applications and implemented as a macro in MicrosoftOffice Excel 2007Registered. EFASC is intended as a research tool for users familiar with computer programming. The code for EFASC is provided so that it can be modified for specific applications. All users should review how output statistics are calculated and recognize that the algorithms may not comply with conventions used to calculate streamflow statistics published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  15. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    PubMed

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings.

  16. Allocation of time in three academic specialties.

    PubMed

    Sanders, A B; Spaite, D W; Smith, R; Criss, E

    1988-01-01

    A survey was done to: 1) characterize the allocation and distribution of time by tenure track emergency physicians, and 2) compare the time distribution of emergency physicians to two other academic disciplines. All emergency medicine residency programs were surveyed by telephone to determine if faculty were eligible for tenure and if tenure was available, how many hours per week were spent on clinical duties, research, and administrative tasks. Similar information was compiled from cardiology and orthopedic surgery faculty at the same universities. Data from the survey revealed that a tenure track assistant professor spends 23 hours (46%) working clinical shifts in the emergency department; 11 hours (20%) doing research and 18 hours (34%) in administrative tasks. In contrast, cardiologists spend significantly more time in clinical duties (32 hours) and research (18 hours). However, cardiologists spend significantly less time in administrative duties (10 hours). Data for orthopedic surgeons show a similar pattern. Distributions within each academic discipline were also analyzed and a significant difference in research time was found between four tenure track emergency medicine programs and the other eighteen. Data from this survey may help academic emergency physicians evaluate how they are allocating their time in comparison to other busy clinical specialties.

  17. Reference allocations and use of a disparity measure to inform the design of allocation funding formulas in public health programs.

    PubMed

    Buehler, James W; Bernet, Patrick M; Ogden, Lydia L

    2012-01-01

    Funding formulas are commonly used by federal agencies to allocate program funds to states. As one approach to evaluating differences in allocations resulting from alternative formula calculations, we propose the use of a measure derived from the Gini index to summarize differences in allocations relative to 2 referent allocations: one based on equal per-capita funding across states and another based on equal funding per person living in poverty, which we define as the "proportionality of allocation" (PA). These referents reflect underlying values that often shape formula-based allocations for public health programs. The size of state populations serves as a general proxy for the amount of funding needed to support programs across states. While the size of state populations living in poverty is correlated with overall population size, allocations based on states' shares of the national population living in poverty reflect variations in funding need shaped by the association between poverty and multiple adverse health outcomes. The PA measure is a summary of the degree of dispersion in state-specific allocations relative to the referent allocations and provides a quick assessment of the impact of selecting alternative funding formula designs. We illustrate the PA values by adjusting a sample allocation, using various measures of the salary costs and in-state wealth, which might modulate states' needs for federal funding.

  18. Market power in auction and efficiency in emission permits allocation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min Xing; Yang, Dong Xiao; Chen, Zi Yue; Nie, Pu Yan

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes how to achieve the cost-effectiveness by initial allocation of CO2 emission permits when a single dominant firm in production market has market power in auction, and compare two prevalent allocation patterns, mixed allocation and single auction. We show how the firm with market power may manipulate the auction price, thereby this leads to fail to achieve cost-effective solution by auction unless the total permits for allocation equal to the effective emissions cap. Provided that the market power firm receives strictly positive free permits, the effective emissions cap of mixed allocation is larger than that of single auction. The production market share of dominant firm is increasing with the free permits it holds. Finally, we examine the compliance costs and welfare of mixed allocation and single auction, the result show that the former is preferred to the later when policy makers consider economic welfare without welfare cost due to CO2 emissions.

  19. Metacognitive and control strategies in study-time allocation.

    PubMed

    Son, L K; Metcalfe, J

    2000-01-01

    This article investigates how people's metacognitive judgments influence subsequent study-time-allocation strategies. The authors present a comprehensive literature review indicating that people allocate more study time to judged-difficult than to judged-easy items--consistent with extant models of study-time allocation. However, typically, the materials were short, and participants had ample time for study. In contrast, in Experiment 1, when participants had insufficient time to study, they allocated more time to the judged-easy items than to the judged-difficult items, especially when expecting a test. In Experiment 2, when the materials were shorter, people allocated more study time to the judged-difficult materials. In Experiment 3, under high time pressure, people preferred studying judged-easy sonnets; under moderate time pressure, they showed no preference. These results provide new evidence against extant theories of study-time allocation.

  20. Target allocation yields for massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys with fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Will; Smedley, Scott; Gillingham, Peter; Forero-Romero, Jaime E.; Jouvel, Stephanie; Nord, Brian

    2014-08-01

    We present Simulated Annealing fiber-to-target allocation simulations for the proposed DESI and 4MOST massively multiplexed spectroscopic surveys. We simulate various survey strategies, for both Poisson and realistically clustered mock target samples. We simulate both Echidna and theta-phi actuator designs, including the restrictions caused by the physical actuator characteristics during repositioning. For DESI, with theta-phi actuators, used in 5 passes over the sky for a mock ELG/LRG/QSO sample, with matched fiber and target densities, a total target allocation yield of 89.3% was achieved, but only 83.7% for the high-priority Ly-alpha QSOs. If Echidna actuators are used with the same pitch and number of passes, the yield increases to 94.4% and 97.2% respectively, representing fractional gains of 5.7% and 16% respectively. Echidna also allows a factor-of-two increase in the number of close Ly-alpha QSO pairs that can be observed. Echidna spine tilt causes a variable loss of throughput, with average loss being the same as the loss at the rms tilt. The simulated annealing allows spine tilt minimization to be included in the optimization, at some small cost to the yield. With a natural minimization scheme, we find an rms tilt always close to 0.58 x maximum. There is an additional but much smaller defocus loss, equivalent to an average defocus of 30 μm. These tilt losses offset the gains in yield for Echidna, but because the survey strategy is driven by the higher priority targets, a clear survey speed advantage remains. For 4MOST, high and low latitude sample mock catalogs were supplied by the 4MOST team, and allocations were carried out with the proposed Echidna-based positioner geometry. At high latitudes, the resulting target completeness was 85.3% for LR targets and 78.9% for HR targets. At low latitude, the target completeness was 93.9% for LR targets and 71.2% for HR targets.

  1. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  2. Development of target allocation methods for LAMOST focal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hailong; Zhang, Haotong; Zhang, Yanxia; Lei, Yajuan; Dong, Yiqiao

    2014-01-01

    We first introduce the primary target allocation requirements and restrictions for the parallel control multiple fiber system, which is used in the LAMOST spectroscopic survey. The fiber positioner anti-collision model is imported. Then several target allocation methods and features are discussed in detail, including a network flow algorithm, high priority for fiber unit holding less target number, target allocation algorithm for groups, target allocation method for add-ons and target reallocation. Their virtues and weaknesses are analyzed for various kinds of scientific research situations. Furthermore an optimization concept using the Simulate Anneal Arithmetic (SAA) is developed to improve the fiber utilizing efficiency.

  3. The Neural Mechanism Exploration of Adaptive Motor Control: Dynamical Economic Cell Allocation in the Primary Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Guo, Yangyang; Fan, Jing; Ma, Chaolin; Ma, Xuan; Chen, Xi; He, Jiping

    2016-06-14

    Adaptive flexibility is of significance for the smooth and efficient movements in goal attainment. However, the underlying work mechanism of the cerebral cortex in adaptive motor control still remains unclear. How does the cerebral cortex organize and coordinate the activity of a large population of cells in the implementation of various motor strategies? To explore this issue, single-unit activities from the M1 region and kinematic data were recorded simultaneously in monkeys performing 3D reach-to-grasp tasks with different perturbations. Varying motor control strategies were employed and achieved in different perturbed tasks, via the dynamic allocation of cells to modulate specific movement parameters. An economic principle was proposed for the first time to describe a basic rule for cell allocation in the primary motor cortex. This principle, defined as the Dynamic Economic Cell Allocation Mechanism (DECAM), guarantees benefit maximization in cell allocation under limited neuronal resources, and avoids committing resources to uneconomic investments for unreliable factors with no or little revenue. That is to say, the cells recruited are always preferentially allocated to those factors with reliable return; otherwise, the cells are dispatched to respond to other factors about task. The findings of this study might partially reveal the working mechanisms underlying the role of the cerebral cortex in adaptive motor control, wherein is also of significance for the design of future intelligent brain-machine interfaces and rehabilitation device.

  4. Function allocation for humans and automation in the context of team dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Joe; John O'Hara; Jacques Hugo; Johanna Oxstrand

    2015-07-01

    Within Human Factors Engineering, a decision-making process called function allocation (FA) is used during the design life cycle of complex systems to distribute the system functions, often identified through a functional requirements analysis, to all human and automated machine agents (or teammates) involved in controlling the system. Most FA methods make allocation decisions primarily by comparing the capabilities of humans and automation, but then also by considering secondary factors such as cost, regulations, and the health and safety of workers. The primary analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of humans and machines, however, is almost always considered in terms of individual human or machine capabilities. Yet, FA is fundamentally about teamwork in that the goal of the FA decision-making process is to determine what are the optimal allocations of functions among agents. Given this framing of FA, and the increasing use of and sophistication of automation, there are two related social psychological issues that current FA methods need to address more thoroughly. First, many principles for effective human teamwork are not considered as central decision points or in the iterative hypothesis and testing phase in most FA methods, when it is clear that social factors have numerous positive and negative effects on individual and team capabilities. Second, social psychological factors affecting team performance and can be difficult to translate to automated agents, and most FA methods currently do not account for this effect. The implications for these issues are discussed.

  5. Pediatric heart allocation and transplantation in Eurotransplant.

    PubMed

    Smits, Jacqueline M; Thul, Josef; De Pauw, Michel; Delmo Walter, Eva; Strelniece, Agita; Green, Dave; de Vries, Erwin; Rahmel, Axel; Bauer, Juergen; Laufer, Guenther; Hetzer, Roland; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Meiser, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric heart allocation in Eurotransplant (ET) has evolved over the past decades to better serve patients and improve utilization. Pediatric heart transplants (HT) account for 6% of the annual transplant volume in ET. Death rates on the pediatric heart transplant waiting list have decreased over the years, from 25% in 1997 to 18% in 2011. Within the first year after listing, 32% of all infants (<12 months), 20% of all children aged 1-10 years, and 15% of all children aged 11-15 years died without having received a heart transplant. Survival after transplantation improved over the years, and in almost a decade, the 1-year survival went from 83% to 89%, and the 3-year rates increased from 81% to 85%. Improved medical management of heart failure patients and the availability of mechanical support for children have significantly improved the prospects for children on the heart transplant waiting list.

  6. Communication-aware processor allocation for supercomputers.

    SciTech Connect

    Demaine, Erik; Meijer, Henk; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Fekete, Sandor; Bender, Michael A.; Bunde, David P.; Phillips, Cynthia Ann

    2004-07-01

    We give processor-allocation algorithms for grid architectures, where the objective is to select processors from a set of available processors to minimize the average number of communication hops. The associated clustering problem is as follows: Given n points in R{sup d}, find a size-k subset with minimum average pairwise L{sub 1} distance.We present a natural approximation algorithm and show that it is a 7/4-approximation for 2D grids. In d dimensions, the approximation guarantee is 2 - 1/2d, which is tight. We also give a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) for constant dimension d and report on experimental results.

  7. Vaccines: from valuation to resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E; Madhavan, Guruprasad

    2015-06-08

    This review focuses on selected challenges and opportunities concerning broader valuation of vaccines and immunization. The challenges involve conceptualizing and measuring the value of vaccines, while the opportunities relate to the strategic and systematic use of that information in health policy decisions that range from the adoption of particular vaccines in national immunization plans to the allocation of resources to vaccine research, development, and delivery. Clarifying the demonstrable individual, family, and community-level benefits of vaccines will allow the public health community to make better-informed and more meaningful comparisons of the costs of vaccines in relation to their full benefits. Taking advantage of this opportunity will require enhanced data collection and the development of strategic planning tools for transparently assessing trade-offs among the myriad attributes of different vaccines in various social and economic contexts.

  8. Phytoplankton strategies for photosynthetic energy allocation.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Kimberly H; Jones, Bethan M

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton physiology is dynamic and highly responsive to the environment. Phytoplankton acclimate to changing environmental conditions by a complex reallocation of carbon and energy through metabolic pathways to optimize growth. Considering the tremendous diversity of phytoplankton, it is not surprising that different phytoplankton taxa use different strategies to partition carbon and energy resources. It has therefore been satisfying to discover that general principles of energetic stoichiometry appear to govern these complex processes and can be broadly applied to interpret phytoplankton distributions, productivity, and food web dynamics. The expectation of future changes in aquatic environments brought on by climate change warrants gathering knowledge about underlying patterns of photosynthetic energy allocation and their impacts on community structure and ecosystem productivity.

  9. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  10. Frequency Allocation: The First Forty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Brian

    In 1960 ICSU set up an Inter-Union Commission (IUCAF) on the Allocation of Frequencies for Space Research and Radio Astronomy, to keep key parts of the radio spectrum clear for passive, scientific use. IUCAF represents URSI, IAU and COSPAR at World Radio Conferences (WRCs) convened by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in Geneva; the WRCs establish the international law which governs users of the radio spectrum. This review recounts many serious threats posed to passive scientific research by commercial and military operations, particularly those involving radio emissions from aircraft and spacecraft. The continual conflict between commercial greed and scientific curiosity has often put the future of radio astronomy, space research, and earth exploration in jeopardy. The conflict increases as we move into the Information Age.

  11. Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, Agnes M.; Lagakos, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male–female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:17539183

  12. Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, A M; Lagakos, S W

    1992-01-01

    Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male-female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:1295494

  13. The allocation of aquifer resources in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robins, N. S.

    1987-02-01

    The traditional role of aquifers for groundwater supply may not be appropriate in some areas of Scotland where high rainfall, low evapotranspiration, and abundant upland catchments and storage areas yield more than adequate surface water supplies. Some groundwater will always be required to satisfy specific needs but much aquifer potential will remain untapped. It is suggested that some of this potential could usefully be allocated to the disposal of wastes including oiled beach material, or the storage of heat or fluids, any of which could contaminate the aquifer. Care will be required to ensure that surface waters and other amenities are not put at risk. Resolution of conflicts between water supply and waste disposal usage of an aquifer requires guidelines; suggestions are made for their formulation and the need for legislative and planning controls is outlined.

  14. Perceptions and Attitudes of Health Professionals in Kenya on National Health Care Resource Allocation Mechanisms: A Structural Equation Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Chern, Jin-Yuan; Chiu, Chiung-Hsuan Megan; Wang, Bill; Huang, Kuo-Cherh; Muga, Miriam Adoyo

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care resource allocation is key towards attaining equity in the health system. However, health professionals’ perceived impact and attitude towards health care resource allocation in Sub-Saharan Africa is unknown; furthermore, they occupy a position which makes them notice the impact of different policies in their health system. This study explored perceptions and attitudes of health professionals in Kenya on health care resource allocation mechanism. Method We conducted a survey of a representative sample of 341 health professionals in Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital from February to April 2012, consisting of over 3000 employees. We assessed health professionals’ perceived impact and attitudes on health care resource allocation mechanism in Kenya. We used structural equation modeling and applied a Confirmatory Factor Analysis using Robust Maximum Likelihood estimation procedure to test the hypothesized model. Results We found that the allocation mechanism was negatively associated with their perceived positive impact (-1.04, p < .001), health professionals’ satisfaction (-0.24, p < .01), and professionals’ attitudes (-1.55, p < .001) while it was positively associated with perceived negative impact (1.14, p < .001). Perceived positive impact of the allocation mechanism was negatively associated with their overall satisfaction (-0.08) and attitude (-0.98) at p < .001, respectively. Furthermore, overall satisfaction was negatively associated with attitude (-1.10, p <.001). On the other hand, perceived negative impact of the allocation was positively associated with overall satisfaction (0.29, p <.001) but was not associated with attitude. Conclusion The result suggests that health care resource allocation mechanism has a negative effect towards perceptions, attitudes and overall satisfaction of health professionals who are at the frontline in health care. These findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers as the Kenyan

  15. Dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcus, Kelvin; Cannata, Jess

    2013-05-01

    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Wireless Emulation Lab" to support research in wireless mobile networks. In our current experimentation environment, our researchers need the capability to run clusters of heterogeneous nodes to model emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain a different operating system, application set, and physical hardware. To complicate matters, most experiments require the researcher to have root privileges. Our previous solution of using a single shared cluster of statically deployed virtual machines did not sufficiently separate each user's experiment due to undesirable network crosstalk, thus only one experiment could be run at a time. In addition, the cluster did not make efficient use of our servers and physical networks. To address these concerns, we created the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering management system (DAVC). This system leverages existing open-source software to create private clusters of nodes that are either virtual or physical machines. These clusters can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The system uses the Grid Engine job scheduler to efficiently allocate virtual machines to idle systems and networks. The system deploys stateless nodes via network booting. The system uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex, private networks eliminating the need to map each virtual machine to a specific switch port. The system monitors the health of the clusters and the underlying physical servers and it maintains cluster usage statistics for historical trends. Users can start private clusters of heterogeneous nodes with root privileges for the duration of the experiment. Users also control when to shutdown their clusters.

  16. A unified framework of unsupervised subjective optimized bit allocation for multiple video object coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Han, Junwei; Ngan, King Ngi

    2005-10-01

    MPEG-4 treats a scene as a composition of several objects or so-called video object planes (VOPs) that are separately encoded and decoded. Such a flexible video coding framework makes it possible to code different video object with different distortion scale. It is necessary to analyze the priority of the video objects according to its semantic importance, intrinsic properties and psycho-visual characteristics such that the bit budget can be distributed properly to video objects to improve the perceptual quality of the compressed video. This paper aims to provide an automatic video object priority definition method based on object-level visual attention model and further propose an optimization framework for video object bit allocation. One significant contribution of this work is that the human visual system characteristics are incorporated into the video coding optimization process. Another advantage is that the priority of the video object can be obtained automatically instead of fixing weighting factors before encoding or relying on the user interactivity. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, we compare it with traditional verification model bit allocation and the optimal multiple video object bit allocation algorithms. Comparing with traditional bit allocation algorithms, the objective quality of the object with higher priority is significantly improved under this framework. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this unsupervised subjective quality lifting framework.

  17. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  18. Game analysis and benefit allocation in international projects among owner, supervisor and contractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hao; Wang, Yong; Guo, Sini; Xu, Xiaofeng; Che, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    International projects are different from general domestic ones. In order to analyse the differences, a tripartite game model is built up to describe the relationship among owner, supervisor and general contractor, and some measures are given for the owner to more effectively complete the project. In addition, a project schedule selection model is formulated and a new benefit allocation method is proposed by introducing a new modified Shapley value with weighted factor.

  19. Assessing Grant Allocation Methods for Federal Homeland Security Urban Area Assistance Funding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    model, such as directly funding public safety and assessing relative need, could be applied in the United States as a pilot study. Similar to the...security grant program, HSGP, grant allocation factors, risk-based grants, relative risk rankings 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 87 16. PRICE CODE 17...funding public safety and assessing relative need, could be applied in the United States as a pilot study. Similar to the Department of Justice’s direct

  20. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  1. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  2. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  3. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  4. 21 CFR 70.45 - Allocation of color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation of color additives. 70.45 Section 70.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.45 Allocation of color additives. Whenever, in the consideration of...

  5. 29 CFR 2584.8477(e)-5 - Effect of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of allocation. 2584.8477(e)-5 Section 2584.8477(e)-5 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' RETIREMENT SYSTEM ACT OF 1986 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR THE ALLOCATION OF...

  6. 24 CFR 576.3 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Allocation of funding. 576.3 Section 576.3 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... funding. (a) Territories. HUD will set aside for allocation to the territories up to 0.2 percent, but...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations... from the unit's combustion of lignite, multiplied by 3.0; (B) Any portion of the unit's control period... boiler and has equipment used to produce electricity and useful thermal energy for industrial,...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4142 - Hg allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4142 Hg allowance allocations... from the unit's combustion of lignite, multiplied by 3.0; (B) Any portion of the unit's control period... boiler and has equipment used to produce electricity and useful thermal energy for industrial,...

  9. 47 CFR 73.182 - Engineering standards of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineering standards of allocation. 73.182 Section 73.182 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.182 Engineering standards of allocation....

  10. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... by Random Selection Pole Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs... providing unusable space on a pole so that such apportionment equals two-thirds of the costs of...

  11. Environmental control of carbon allocation matters for modelling forest growth.

    PubMed

    Guillemot, Joannès; Francois, Christophe; Hmimina, Gabriel; Dufrêne, Eric; Martin-StPaul, Nicolas K; Soudani, Kamel; Marie, Guillaume; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Delpierre, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the importance of modulations of within-tree carbon (C) allocation by water and low-temperature stress for the prediction of annual forest growth with a process-based model. A new C allocation scheme was implemented in the CASTANEA model that accounts for lagged and direct environmental controls of C allocation. Different approaches (static vs dynamic) to modelling C allocation were then compared in a model-data fusion procedure, using satellite-derived leaf production estimates and biometric measurements at c. 10(4) sites. The modelling of the environmental control of C allocation significantly improved the ability of CASTANEA to predict the spatial and year-to-year variability of aboveground forest growth along regional gradients. A significant effect of the previous year's water stress on the C allocation to leaves and wood was reported. Our results also are consistent with a prominent role of the environmental modulation of sink demand in the wood growth of the studied species. Data available at large scales can inform forest models about the processes driving annual and seasonal C allocation. Our results call for a greater consideration of C allocation drivers, especially sink-demand fluctuations, for the simulations of current and future forest productivity with process-based models.

  12. Higher Education Cooperation Act: Fiscal Year 1998 Grant Allocations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Higher Education, Springfield.

    This report describes fiscal year 1998 grant allocations made under the Illinois Higher Education Cooperation Act (HECA) to support programs and projects involving cooperation among higher education institutions. A total of $16.59 million was allocated. Projects recommended for grant funds include 3 new and 12 continuing interinstitutional…

  13. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) A foreign country has failed to comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable... INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer... establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  14. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) A foreign country has failed to comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable... INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer... establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  15. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) A foreign country has failed to comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable... INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer... establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  16. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) A foreign country has failed to comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable... INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer... establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  17. 12 CFR 211.43 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) A foreign country has failed to comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable... INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International Lending Supervision § 211.43 Allocated transfer... establish an allocated transfer risk reserve (ATRR) for specified international assets when required by...

  18. GENERATING SOPHISTICATED SPATIAL SURROGATES USING THE MIMS SPATIAL ALLOCATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) Spatial Allocator is open-source software for generating spatial surrogates for emissions modeling, changing the map projection of Shapefiles, and performing other types of spatial allocation that does not require the use of a comm...

  19. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  20. 12 CFR 615.5208 - Allotment of allocated investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allotment of allocated investments. 615.5208... allocated investments. (a) The following conditions apply to agreements that a Farm Credit Bank or... investments held by those associations with which there is no agreement (nonagreeing associations), and...

  1. 7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Nondiscretionary SAE Funds. For each fiscal year, FNS shall allocate the following: (1) To each... programs. (b) Discretionary SAE Funds. For each fiscal year, FNS shall provide the following additional...) of this section bears to the amount allocated to all States under that paragraph. (c) SAE Funds...

  2. 7 CFR 235.4 - Allocation of funds to States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (a) Nondiscretionary SAE Funds. For each fiscal year, FNS shall allocate the following: (1) To each... programs. (b) Discretionary SAE Funds. For each fiscal year, FNS shall provide the following additional...) of this section bears to the amount allocated to all States under that paragraph. (c) SAE Funds...

  3. 42 CFR 121.8 - Allocation of organs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of organs. 121.8 Section 121.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ORGAN PROCUREMENT AND TRANSPLANTATION NETWORK § 121.8 Allocation of organs. (a) Policy development. The Board...

  4. Funding Allocation and Staff Management. A Portuguese Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Amado, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established…

  5. 12 CFR 1026.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of payments. 1026.53 Section 1026.53 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules Applicable to Credit Card Accounts and Open-End Credit Offered to College Students § 1026.53 Allocation...

  6. 11 CFR 9034.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Allocation of travel expenditures. 9034.7...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.7 Allocation of travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating to the campaign of a...

  7. 11 CFR 9034.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of travel expenditures. 9034.7...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.7 Allocation of travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating to the campaign of a...

  8. 11 CFR 9034.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of travel expenditures. 9034.7...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.7 Allocation of travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating to the campaign of a...

  9. 11 CFR 9034.7 - Allocation of travel expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of travel expenditures. 9034.7...: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND ENTITLEMENTS § 9034.7 Allocation of travel expenditures. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of 11 CFR 106.3, expenditures for travel relating to the campaign of a...

  10. Scarcity, Conflict, and Equity in Allocating Public Recreation Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelby, Bo; Danley, Mark

    The conflict between the interests of commercial outfitters and private boaters in the use of whitewater rivers is examined. A discussion is presented on the literature on scarcity, allocation, and conflict among groups. These concepts are applied to the allocation of public resources on whitewater rivers. The conflicting interest groups are…

  11. 20 CFR 632.252 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of funds. 632.252 Section 632.252 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.252 Allocation of...

  12. 7 CFR 1435.310 - Sharing processors' allocations with producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... proportionate share data. (e) Any producer or processor may request arbitration of a dispute regarding the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sharing processors' allocations with producers. 1435... Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.310 Sharing processors' allocations with producers....

  13. What Does it Really Cost? Allocating Indirect Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Herbert; Davenport, Elisabeth

    1997-01-01

    Better managerial control in terms of decision making and understanding the costs of a system/service result from allocating indirect costs. Allocation requires a three-step process: selecting cost objectives, pooling related overhead costs, and selecting costs bases to connect the objectives to the pooled costs. Argues that activity-based costing…

  14. 24 CFR 574.110 - Overview of formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Overview of formula allocations. 574.110 Section 574.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Entitlements § 574.110 Overview of formula allocations. The formula grants are awarded upon submission...

  15. 24 CFR 574.110 - Overview of formula allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overview of formula allocations. 574.110 Section 574.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Entitlements § 574.110 Overview of formula allocations. The formula grants are awarded upon submission...

  16. Subcounty Allocation oF ESEA Title I Funds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Thomas C.; Kutner, Stephen I.

    Congress has chosen to allocate by formula the compensatory education funds in Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I down to only the county level. From the county to the local school district the state may choose any option or allocator deemed consistent with the overall objective of concentrating the funds in districts with a large number…

  17. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... qualifying targeted assistance county may allocate its targeted assistance funds differently from the formula... chooses; however, a State may not assign a greater weight to welfare data than it has assigned to population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the...

  18. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... targeted assistance county may allocate its targeted assistance funds differently from the formula... chooses; however, a State may not assign a greater weight to welfare data than it has assigned to population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the...

  19. 40 CFR 96.142 - CAIR NOX allowance allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.142 CAIR NOX allowance allocations. (a)(1) The baseline heat input... the 3 highest amounts of the unit's adjusted control period heat input for 2000 through 2004, with the adjusted control period heat input for each year calculated as follows: (A) If the unit is...

  20. 14 CFR 93.215 - Initial allocation of slots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial allocation of slots. 93.215 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES Allocation of Commuter and Air... 16, 1985 is divided among different operators, by day of the week, or otherwise, as evidenced...

  1. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... allocation submitted during the month of May. The request must include the grower's sugar production...

  2. 7 CFR 1435.307 - Transfer of allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.307 Transfer of allocation. (a) If a sugarcane processing facility is sold or transferred... allocation submitted during the month of May. The request must include the grower's sugar production...

  3. 12 CFR 226.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of payments. 226.53 Section 226.53 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Credit Offered to College Students § 226.53 Allocation of payments. (a) General rule. Except as...

  4. 12 CFR 226.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of payments. 226.53 Section 226.53 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Credit Offered to College Students § 226.53 Allocation of payments. (a) General rule. Except as...

  5. 12 CFR 226.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of payments. 226.53 Section 226.53 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Offered to College Students § 226.53 Allocation of payments. (a) General rule. Except as provided...

  6. 12 CFR 226.53 - Allocation of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of payments. 226.53 Section 226.53 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Offered to College Students § 226.53 Allocation of payments. (a) General rule. Except as provided...

  7. 7 CFR 6.25 - Allocation of licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of licenses. 6.25 Section 6.25 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing § 6.25 Allocation of licenses. (a) Historical licenses for the 1997 quota year (Appendix 1). (1)...

  8. On the Allocation of Resources for Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haelermans, Carla; De Witte, Kristof; Blank, Jos L. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal allocation of resources--in terms of school management, teachers, supporting employees and materials--in secondary schools. We use a flexible budget constrained output distance function model to estimate both technical and allocative efficiency scores for 448 Dutch secondary schools between 2002 and 2007. The results…

  9. 26 CFR 1.652(b)-3 - Allocation of deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... directly attributable to one class of income (except dividends excluded under section 116) are allocated... attributable to a particular class of income exceed that income, the excess is applied against other classes of... attributable to a specific class of income may be allocated to any item of income (including capital...

  10. 26 CFR 1.460-5 - Cost allocation rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-back method under § 1.460-6 and to determine alternative minimum taxable income under § 1.460-4(f). (2... allocation method will be permitted only on a cut-off basis (i.e., for contracts entered into on or after the... rules. (a) Overview. This section prescribes methods of allocating costs to long-term...

  11. 47 CFR 1.1417 - Allocation of Unusable Space Costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. 1.1417... Attachment Complaint Procedures § 1.1417 Allocation of Unusable Space Costs. (a) With respect to the formula referenced in § 1.1409(e)(2), a utility shall apportion the cost of providing unusable space on a pole...

  12. 20 CFR 633.106 - Eligibility for allocable funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility for allocable funds. 633.106 Section 633.106 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Introductory Provisions § 633.106 Eligibility for allocable...

  13. Discretionary Task Interleaving: Heuristics for Time Allocation in Cognitive Foraging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Stephen J.; Duggan, Geoffrey B.; Neth, Hansjorg

    2007-01-01

    When participants allocated time across 2 tasks (in which they generated as many words as possible from a fixed set of letters), they made frequent switches. This allowed them to allocate more time to the more productive task (i.e., the set of letters from which more words could be generated) even though times between the last word and the switch…

  14. 7 CFR 3430.311 - Allocation of research funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... available to make grants for applied research. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of research funds. 3430.311 Section 3430... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.311 Allocation of research funds....

  15. The UK Pancreas Allocation Scheme for Whole Organ and Islet Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hudson, A; Bradbury, L; Johnson, R; Fuggle, S V; Shaw, J A M; Casey, J J; Friend, P J; Watson, C J E

    2015-09-01

    In order to develop a national allocation scheme for donor pancreases, factors affecting waiting time and transplant outcomes in the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK) were analyzed and compared. Blood group, sensitization, dialysis requirement, and whether the patient was waiting for a kidney and pancreas or pancreas alone affected waiting time in both countries; ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) also affected waiting time in the US. Ninety-day pancreas survival was similar in the UK and US, and was poorer for patients receiving a pancreas alone, with older donors, higher BMI and longer duration of ischemia in both countries. Factors affecting outcome, together with published data on factors affecting islet transplantation, informed the development of a points based allocation scheme for deceased donor pancreases in the UK providing equitable access for both whole organ and islet recipients through a single waiting list. Analysis of the allocation scheme 3 years after its introduction in December 2010 showed that the results were broadly as simulated, with a significant reduction in the number of long waiting patients and an increase in the number of islet transplants. There remains a surplus of highly sensitized patients in the waiting list, which the scheme should address in time.

  16. Adaptive Control Allocation in the Presence of Actuator Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yu; Crespo, Luis G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel adaptive control allocation framework is proposed. In the adaptive control allocation structure, cooperative actuators are grouped and treated as an equivalent control effector. A state feedback adaptive control signal is designed for the equivalent effector and allocated to the member actuators adaptively. Two adaptive control allocation algorithms are proposed, which guarantee closed-loop stability and asymptotic state tracking in the presence of uncertain loss of effectiveness and constant-magnitude actuator failures. The proposed algorithms can be shown to reduce the controller complexity with proper grouping of the actuators. The proposed adaptive control allocation schemes are applied to two linearized aircraft models, and the simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  17. Robust Inversion and Data Compression in Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodel, A. Scottedward

    2000-01-01

    We present an off-line computational method for control allocation design. The control allocation function delta = F(z)tau = delta (sub 0) (z) mapping commanded body-frame torques to actuator commands is implicitly specified by trim condition delta (sub 0) (z) and by a robust pseudo-inverse problem double vertical line I - G(z) F(z) double vertical line less than epsilon (z) where G(z) is a system Jacobian evaluated at operating point z, z circumflex is an estimate of z, and epsilon (z) less than 1 is a specified error tolerance. The allocation function F(z) = sigma (sub i) psi (z) F (sub i) is computed using a heuristic technique for selecting wavelet basis functions psi and a constrained least-squares criterion for selecting the allocation matrices F (sub i). The method is applied to entry trajectory control allocation for a reusable launch vehicle (X-33).

  18. A Framework for Optimal Control Allocation with Structural Load Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.; Jutte, Christine V.; Burken, John J.; Trinh, Khanh V.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Conventional aircraft generally employ mixing algorithms or lookup tables to determine control surface deflections needed to achieve moments commanded by the flight control system. Control allocation is the problem of converting desired moments into control effector commands. Next generation aircraft may have many multipurpose, redundant control surfaces, adding considerable complexity to the control allocation problem. These issues can be addressed with optimal control allocation. Most optimal control allocation algorithms have control surface position and rate constraints. However, these constraints are insufficient to ensure that the aircraft's structural load limits will not be exceeded by commanded surface deflections. In this paper, a framework is proposed to enable a flight control system with optimal control allocation to incorporate real-time structural load feedback and structural load constraints. A proof of concept simulation that demonstrates the framework in a simulation of a generic transport aircraft is presented.

  19. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Jamie; Toon, Troy; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology that was developed to allocate reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program's subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. Allocating is an iterative process; as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases this provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. Trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper will discuss the value of modifying reliability and maintainability allocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  20. Dynamic task allocation for a man-machine symbiotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, L. E.; Pin, F. G.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a methodological approach to the dynamic allocation of tasks in a man-machine symbiotic system in the context of dexterous manipulation and teleoperation. This report addresses a symbiotic system containing two symbiotic partners which work toward controlling a single manipulator arm for the execution of a series of sequential manipulation tasks. It is proposed that an automated task allocator use knowledge about the constraints/criteria of the problem, the available resources, the tasks to be performed, and the environment to dynamically allocate task recommendations for the man and the machine. The presentation of the methodology includes discussions concerning the interaction of the knowledge areas, the flow of control, the necessary communication links, and the replanning of the task allocation. Examples of task allocation are presented to illustrate the results of this methodolgy.

  1. In the interests of time: improving HIV allocative efficiency modelling via optimal time-varying allocations

    PubMed Central

    Shattock, Andrew J; Kerr, Cliff C; Stuart, Robyn M; Masaki, Emiko; Fraser, Nicole; Benedikt, Clemens; Gorgens, Marelize; Wilson, David P; Gray, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction International investment in the response to HIV and AIDS has plateaued and its future level is uncertain. With many countries committed to ending the epidemic, it is essential to allocate available resources efficiently over different response periods to maximize impact. The objective of this study is to propose a technique to determine the optimal allocation of funds over time across a set of HIV programmes to achieve desirable health outcomes. Methods We developed a technique to determine the optimal time-varying allocation of funds (1) when the future annual HIV budget is pre-defined and (2) when the total budget over a period is pre-defined, but the year-on-year budget is to be optimally determined. We use this methodology with Optima, an HIV transmission model that uses non-linear relationships between programme spending and associated programmatic outcomes to quantify the expected epidemiological impact of spending. We apply these methods to data collected from Zambia to determine the optimal distribution of resources to fund the right programmes, for the right people, at the right time. Results and discussion Considering realistic implementation and ethical constraints, we estimate that the optimal time-varying redistribution of the 2014 Zambian HIV budget between 2015 and 2025 will lead to a 7.6% (7.3% to 7.8%) decrease in cumulative new HIV infections compared with a baseline scenario where programme allocations remain at 2014 levels. This compares to a 5.1% (4.6% to 5.6%) reduction in new infections using an optimal allocation with constant programme spending that recommends unrealistic programmatic changes. Contrasting priorities for programme funding arise when assessing outcomes for a five-year funding period over 5-, 10- and 20-year time horizons. Conclusions Countries increasingly face the need to do more with the resources available. The methodology presented here can aid decision-makers in planning as to when to expand or contract

  2. Optimal Resource Allocation in Electrical Network Defense

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Y; Edmunds, T; Papageorgiou, D; Alvarez, R

    2004-01-15

    Infrastructure networks supplying electricity, natural gas, water, and other commodities are at risk of disruption due to well-engineered and coordinated terrorist attacks. Countermeasures such as hardening targets, acquisition of spare critical components, and surveillance can be undertaken to detect and deter these attacks. Allocation of available countermeasures resources to sites or activities in a manner that maximizes their effectiveness is a challenging problem. This allocation must take into account the adversary's response after the countermeasure assets are in place and consequence mitigation measures the infrastructure operation can undertake after the attack. The adversary may simply switch strategies to avoid countermeasures when executing the attack. Stockpiling spares of critical energy infrastructure components has been identified as a key element of a grid infrastructure defense strategy in a recent National Academy of Sciences report [1]. Consider a scenario where an attacker attempts to interrupt the service of an electrical network by disabling some of its facilities while a defender wants to prevent or minimize the effectiveness of any attack. The interaction between the attacker and the defender can be described in three stages: (1) The defender deploys countermeasures, (2) The attacker disrupts the network, and (3) The defender responds to the attack by rerouting power to maintain service while trying to repair damage. In the first stage, the defender considers all possible attack scenarios and deploys countermeasures to defend against the worst scenarios. Countermeasures can include hardening targets, acquiring spare critical components, and installing surveillance devices. In the second stage, the attacker, with full knowledge of the deployed countermeasures, attempts to disable some nodes or links in the network to inflict the greatest loss on the defender. In the third stage, the defender re-dispatches power and restores disabled nodes or

  3. Optimal allocation of conservation effort among subpopulations of a threatened species: how important is patch quality?

    PubMed

    Chauvenet, Aliénor L M; Baxter, Peter W J; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Possingham, Hugh P

    2010-04-01

    Money is often a limiting factor in conservation, and attempting to conserve endangered species can be costly. Consequently, a framework for optimizing fiscally constrained conservation decisions for a single species is needed. In this paper we find the optimal budget allocation among isolated subpopulations of a threatened species to minimize local extinction probability. We solve the problem using stochastic dynamic programming, derive a useful and simple alternative guideline for allocating funds, and test its performance using forward simulation. The model considers subpopulations that persist in habitat patches of differing quality, which in our model is reflected in different relationships between money invested and extinction risk. We discover that, in most cases, subpopulations that are less efficient to manage should receive more money than those that are more efficient to manage, due to higher investment needed to reduce extinction risk. Our simple investment guideline performs almost as well as the exact optimal strategy. We illustrate our approach with a case study of the management of the Sumatran tiger, Panthera tigris sumatrae, in Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP), Indonesia. We find that different budgets should be allocated to the separate tiger subpopulations in KSNP. The subpopulation that is not at risk of extinction does not require any management investment. Based on the combination of risks of extinction and habitat quality, the optimal allocation for these particular tiger subpopulations is an unusual case: subpopulations that occur in higher-quality habitat (more efficient to manage) should receive more funds than the remaining subpopulation that is in lower-quality habitat. Because the yearly budget allocated to the KSNP for tiger conservation is small, to guarantee the persistence of all the subpopulations that are currently under threat we need to prioritize those that are easier to save. When allocating resources among subpopulations

  4. Accelerating Dust Storm Simulation by Balancing Task Allocation in Parallel Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Z.; Yang, C.; XIA, J.; Huang, Q.; YU, M.

    2013-12-01

    Dust storm has serious negative impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The continuing global climate change has increased the frequency and intensity of dust storm in the past decades. To better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storm, a series of dust storm models have been developed, such as Dust Regional Atmospheric Model (DREAM), the NMM meteorological module (NMM-dust) and Chinese Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment for Dust (CUACE/Dust). The developments and applications of these models have contributed significantly to both scientific research and our daily life. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. Normally, a simulation for a single dust storm event may take several days or hours to run. It seriously impacts the timeliness of prediction and potential applications. To speed up the process, high performance computing is widely adopted. By partitioning a large study area into small subdomains according to their geographic location and executing them on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion, the computing performance can be significantly improved. Since spatiotemporal correlations exist in the geophysical process of dust storm simulation, each subdomain allocated to a node need to communicate with other geographically adjacent subdomains to exchange data. Inappropriate allocations may introduce imbalance task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, task allocation method is the key factor, which may impact the feasibility of the paralleling. The allocation algorithm needs to carefully leverage the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire system. This presentation introduces two algorithms for such allocation and compares them with evenly distributed allocation method. Specifically, 1) In order to get optimized solutions, a

  5. Biased allocation of faces to social categories.

    PubMed

    Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2011-06-01

    Three studies show that social categorization is biased at the level of category allocation. In all studies, participants categorized faces. In Studies 1 and 2, participants overallocated faces with criminal features--a stereotypical negative trait--to the stigmatized Moroccan category, especially if they were prejudiced. On the contrary, the stereotype-irrelevant negative trait stupid did not lead to overallocation to the Moroccan category. In Study 3, using the stigmatized category homosexual, the previously used negative trait criminal--irrelevant to the homosexual stereotype--did not lead to overallocation, but the stereotype-relevant positive trait femininity did. These results demonstrate that normative fit is higher for faces with stereotype-relevant features regardless of valence. Moreover, individual differences in implicit prejudice predicted the extent to which stereotype-relevant traits elicited overallocation: Whereas more negatively prejudiced people showed greater overallocation of faces associated with negative stereotype-relevant traits, they showed less overallocation of faces associated with positive stereotype-relevant traits. These results support our normative fit hypothesis: In general, normative fit is better for faces with stereotypical features. Moreover, normative fit is enhanced for prejudiced individuals when these features are evaluatively congruent. Social categorization thus may be biased in itself.

  6. Algorithm Optimally Allocates Actuation of a Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motaghedi, Shi

    2007-01-01

    A report presents an algorithm that solves the following problem: Allocate the force and/or torque to be exerted by each thruster and reaction-wheel assembly on a spacecraft for best performance, defined as minimizing the error between (1) the total force and torque commanded by the spacecraft control system and (2) the total of forces and torques actually exerted by all the thrusters and reaction wheels. The algorithm incorporates the matrix vector relationship between (1) the total applied force and torque and (2) the individual actuator force and torque values. It takes account of such constraints as lower and upper limits on the force or torque that can be applied by a given actuator. The algorithm divides the aforementioned problem into two optimization problems that it solves sequentially. These problems are of a type, known in the art as semi-definite programming problems, that involve linear matrix inequalities. The algorithm incorporates, as sub-algorithms, prior algorithms that solve such optimization problems very efficiently. The algorithm affords the additional advantage that the solution requires the minimum rate of consumption of fuel for the given best performance.

  7. Resource Allocation Planning Helper (RALPH): Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Ralph; Reilly, Norman B.; Springer, Joe B.

    1990-01-01

    The current task of Resource Allocation Process includes the planning and apportionment of JPL's Ground Data System composed of the Deep Space Network and Mission Control and Computing Center facilities. The addition of the data driven, rule based planning system, RALPH, has expanded the planning horizon from 8 weeks to 10 years and has resulted in large labor savings. Use of the system has also resulted in important improvements in science return through enhanced resource utilization. In addition, RALPH has been instrumental in supporting rapid turn around for an increased volume of special what if studies. The status of RALPH is briefly reviewed and important lessons learned from the creation of an highly functional design team are focused on through an evolutionary design and implementation period in which an AI shell was selected, prototyped, and ultimately abandoned, and through the fundamental changes to the very process that spawned the tool kit. Principal topics include proper integration of software tools within the planning environment, transition from prototype to delivered to delivered software, changes in the planning methodology as a result of evolving software capabilities and creation of the ability to develop and process generic requirements to allow planning flexibility.

  8. Network channel allocation and revenue maximization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamalainen, Timo; Joutsensalo, Jyrki

    2002-09-01

    This paper introduces a model that can be used to share link capacity among customers under different kind of traffic conditions. This model is suitable for different kind of networks like the 4G networks (fast wireless access to wired network) to support connections of given duration that requires a certain quality of service. We study different types of network traffic mixed in a same communication link. A single link is considered as a bottleneck and the goal is to find customer traffic profiles that maximizes the revenue of the link. Presented allocation system accepts every calls and there is not absolute blocking, but the offered data rate/user depends on the network load. Data arrival rate depends on the current link utilization, user's payment (selected CoS class) and delay. The arrival rate is (i) increasing with respect to the offered data rate, (ii) decreasing with respect to the price, (iii) decreasing with respect to the network load, and (iv) decreasing with respect to the delay. As an example, explicit formula obeying these conditions is given and analyzed.

  9. Microwave Driven Actuators Power Allocation and Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, Timothy; Song, Kyo D.

    2000-01-01

    Design, fabrication and test of a power allocation and distribution (PAD) network for microwave driven actuators is presented in this paper. Development of a circuit that would collect power from a rectenna array amplify and distribute the power to actuators was designed and fabricated for space application in an actuator array driven by a microwave. A P-SPICE model was constructed initially for data reduction purposes, and was followed by a working real-world model. A voltage up - converter (VUC) is used to amplify the voltage from the individual rectenna. The testing yielded a 26:1 voltage amplification ratio with input voltage at 9 volts and a measured output voltage 230VDC. Future work includes the miniaturization of the circuitry, the use of microwave remote control, and voltage amplification technology for each voltage source. The objective of this work is to develop a model system that will collect DC voltage from an array of rectenna and propagate the voltage to an array of actuators.

  10. Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

    1991-01-01

    A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

  11. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  12. The communications spectrum: Frequency allocations and auctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Wilbur

    1997-01-01

    Demands on the communications spectrum have increased sharply because of the growth in radio communication services, the large bandwidths now required, and the rapid increases in world population. The problem will be exacerbated by the requirements of high definition television and the enormous amounts of information that will be transmitted by radio. The electromagnetic spectrum is a finite natural resource of great value used for emergency communications and military operations as well as for commercial purposes. Both government and the marketplace have proper roles in the allocation of its resources. There are no viable alternatives to international organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union or to agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission for the regulation of radio communication and the assignment of spectrum to essential public services. Although government auctions of spectrum are justifiable where there is no way to distinguish among commercial entities seeking to use the same bands for similar services, the practice is inherently inequitable and discourages development of new uses for the spectrum by removing investment protection. Recommended alternatives to auctions are: (1) lotteries, which keep assets and proceeds in the economy; and (2) ongoing charges for current as well as new users of the spectrum.

  13. Latent Dirichlet allocation models for image classification.

    PubMed

    Rasiwasia, Nikhil; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2013-11-01

    Two new extensions of latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), denoted topic-supervised LDA (ts-LDA) and class-specific-simplex LDA (css-LDA), are proposed for image classification. An analysis of the supervised LDA models currently used for this task shows that the impact of class information on the topics discovered by these models is very weak in general. This implies that the discovered topics are driven by general image regularities, rather than the semantic regularities of interest for classification. To address this, ts-LDA models are introduced which replace the automated topic discovery of LDA with specified topics, identical to the classes of interest for classification. While this results in improvements in classification accuracy over existing LDA models, it compromises the ability of LDA to discover unanticipated structure of interest. This limitation is addressed by the introduction of css-LDA, an LDA model with class supervision at the level of image features. In css-LDA topics are discovered per class, i.e., a single set of topics shared across classes is replaced by multiple class-specific topic sets. The css-LDA model is shown to combine the labeling strength of topic-supervision with the flexibility of topic-discovery. Its effectiveness is demonstrated through an extensive experimental evaluation, involving multiple benchmark datasets, where it is shown to outperform existing LDA-based image classification approaches.

  14. Cost Factors of Educational Programs in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Educational Finance.

    During 1973 the Florida Legislature enacted a new State school finance law that established allocation standards designed to accomodate the varying educational needs among individual pupils. The assigned cost factors increased the allocations for educational programs for pupils having special and high cost educational needs. This study provides…

  15. Intergroup Discrimination in Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations: Impact of Stimulus Valence, Relative Group Status, and Relative Group Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Sabine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as factors and with pull scores on Tajfel matrices…

  16. Tracing the allocation of recently assimilated C into key metabolites in Norway spruce (Picea abies) shortly after bud break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways, especially during tree growth after bud break. Here we investigated C partitioning of freshly assimilated C in Norway spruce by in-situ 13C short-term pulse labeling 15 days after bud break. We quantified 13C incorporation into tree compartments (needles, branches, stem) and into water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). In addition, we determined 13C allocation into key metabolites of amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes by compound-specific 13C analysis via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The 13C allocation within the trees reflected the needles as major C sink accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C. After 6 h 13C was distributed over a broad spectrum of plant metabolites but not homogenously. Highest allocation was observed into structurally relevant compound classes of hemicellulose-derived sugars and proteinogenic amino acids (0.6% and 10% of needle 13C, respectively). However, needle growth also caused high C allocation into pathways not involved in formation of structural compounds like pathways in secondary metabolism, C-1 metabolism or amino acid synthesis from photorespiratory acitivity. C allocation into such pathways could be identified due to the high enrichment of key metabolites within the amino acids. In addition, high 13C allocation was found into the n-alkyl lipid biosynthesis (0.2 % of needle 13C) with 1) higher allocation into intracellular than cuticular fatty acids, presumably for thylakoide membrane formation and 2) decreasing 13C allocation along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways (precursor fatty acids (C16 & C18) > elongated long chain fatty acids > decarbonylated n

  17. Probabilistic resource allocation system with self-adaptive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yufik, Yan M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A probabilistic resource allocation system is disclosed containing a low capacity computational module (Short Term Memory or STM) and a self-organizing associative network (Long Term Memory or LTM) where nodes represent elementary resources, terminal end nodes represent goals, and weighted links represent the order of resource association in different allocation episodes. Goals and their priorities are indicated by the user, and allocation decisions are made in the STM, while candidate associations of resources are supplied by the LTM based on the association strength (reliability). Weights are automatically assigned to the network links based on the frequency and relative success of exercising those links in the previous allocation decisions. Accumulation of allocation history in the form of an associative network in the LTM reduces computational demands on subsequent allocations. For this purpose, the network automatically partitions itself into strongly associated high reliability packets, allowing fast approximate computation and display of allocation solutions satisfying the overall reliability and other user-imposed constraints. System performance improves in time due to modification of network parameters and partitioning criteria based on the performance feedback.

  18. Probabilistic resource allocation system with self-adaptive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yufik, Yan M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A probabilistic resource allocation system is disclosed containing a low capacity computational module (Short Term Memory or STM) and a self-organizing associative network (Long Term Memory or LTM) where nodes represent elementary resources, terminal end nodes represent goals, and directed links represent the order of resource association in different allocation episodes. Goals and their priorities are indicated by the user, and allocation decisions are made in the STM, while candidate associations of resources are supplied by the LTM based on the association strength (reliability). Reliability values are automatically assigned to the network links based on the frequency and relative success of exercising those links in the previous allocation decisions. Accumulation of allocation history in the form of an associative network in the LTM reduces computational demands on subsequent allocations. For this purpose, the network automatically partitions itself into strongly associated high reliability packets, allowing fast approximate computation and display of allocation solutions satisfying the overall reliability and other user-imposed constraints. System performance improves in time due to modification of network parameters and partitioning criteria based on the performance feedback.

  19. Patch Network for Power Allocation and Distribution in Smart Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golembiewski, Walter T.

    2000-01-01

    The power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuitry is capable of allocating and distributing a single or multiple sources of power over multi-elements of a power user grid system. The purpose of this invention is to allocate and distribute power that is collected by individual patch rectennas to a region of specific power-user devices, such as actuators. The patch rectenna converts microwave power into DC power. Then this DC power is used to drive actuator devices. However, the power from patch rectennas is not sufficient to drive actuators unless all the collected power is effectively used to drive another group by allocation and distribution. The power allocation and distribution (PAD) circuitry solves the shortfall of power for devices in a large array. The PAD concept is based on the networked power control in which power collected over the whole array of rectennas is allocated to a sub domain where a group of devices is required to be activated for operation. Then the allocated power is distributed to individual element of power-devices in the sub domain according to a selected run-mode.

  20. Community-aware task allocation for social networked multiagent systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanyuan; Jiang, Yichuan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel community-aware task allocation model for social networked multiagent systems (SN-MASs), where the agent' cooperation domain is constrained in community and each agent can negotiate only with its intracommunity member agents. Under such community-aware scenarios, we prove that it remains NP-hard to maximize system overall profit. To solve this problem effectively, we present a heuristic algorithm that is composed of three phases: 1) task selection: select the desirable task to be allocated preferentially; 2) allocation to community: allocate the selected task to communities based on a significant task-first heuristics; and 3) allocation to agent: negotiate resources for the selected task based on a nonoverlap agent-first and breadth-first resource negotiation mechanism. Through the theoretical analyses and experiments, the advantages of our presented heuristic algorithm and community-aware task allocation model are validated. 1) Our presented heuristic algorithm performs very closely to the benchmark exponential brute-force optimal algorithm and the network flow-based greedy algorithm in terms of system overall profit in small-scale applications. Moreover, in the large-scale applications, the presented heuristic algorithm achieves approximately the same overall system profit, but significantly reduces the computational load compared with the greedy algorithm. 2) Our presented community-aware task allocation model reduces the system communication cost compared with the previous global-aware task allocation model and improves the system overall profit greatly compared with the previous local neighbor-aware task allocation model.

  1. Reflection on Balanced Allocation of Fundamental Education Teachers in Poverty-Stricken Areas of Ethnic Minorities: Example of a Survey in the Tibetan Autonomous County of Tianzhu in Gansu Province

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Balanced allocation of fundamental education teachers is one of the most important ways to achieve the highest quality of compulsory education. It also guarantees an accelerated achievement of a balanced development of fundamental education. In poverty-stricken areas of ethnic minorities, unbalanced teacher allocation is a major factor that…

  2. Allocation trade-off under climate warming in experimental amphibian populations

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xu; Jin, Changnan; Camargo, Arley

    2015-01-01

    Climate change could either directly or indirectly cause population declines via altered temperature, rainfall regimes, food availability or phenological responses. However few studies have focused on allocation trade-offs between growth and reproduction under marginal resources, such as food scarce that may be caused by climate warming. Such critical changes may have an unpredicted impact on amphibian life-history parameters and even population dynamics. Here, we report an allocation strategy of adult anuran individuals involving a reproductive stage under experimental warming. Using outdoor mesocosm experiments we simulated a warming scenario likely to occur at the end of this century. We examined the effects of temperature (ambient vs. pre-/post-hibernation warming) and food availability (normal vs. low) on reproduction and growth parameters of pond frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus). We found that temperature was the major factor influencing reproductive time of female pond frogs, which showed a significant advancing under post-hibernation warming treatment. While feeding rate was the major factor influencing reproductive status of females, clutch size, and variation of body size for females, showed significant positive correlations between feeding rate and reproductive status, clutch size, or variation of body size. Our results suggested that reproduction and body size of amphibians might be modulated by climate warming or food availability variation. We believe this study provides some new evidence on allocation strategies suggesting that amphibians could adjust their reproductive output to cope with climate warming. PMID:26500832

  3. Allocation trade-off under climate warming in experimental amphibian populations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu; Jin, Changnan; Camargo, Arley; Li, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Climate change could either directly or indirectly cause population declines via altered temperature, rainfall regimes, food availability or phenological responses. However few studies have focused on allocation trade-offs between growth and reproduction under marginal resources, such as food scarce that may be caused by climate warming. Such critical changes may have an unpredicted impact on amphibian life-history parameters and even population dynamics. Here, we report an allocation strategy of adult anuran individuals involving a reproductive stage under experimental warming. Using outdoor mesocosm experiments we simulated a warming scenario likely to occur at the end of this century. We examined the effects of temperature (ambient vs. pre-/post-hibernation warming) and food availability (normal vs. low) on reproduction and growth parameters of pond frogs (Pelophylax nigromaculatus). We found that temperature was the major factor influencing reproductive time of female pond frogs, which showed a significant advancing under post-hibernation warming treatment. While feeding rate was the major factor influencing reproductive status of females, clutch size, and variation of body size for females, showed significant positive correlations between feeding rate and reproductive status, clutch size, or variation of body size. Our results suggested that reproduction and body size of amphibians might be modulated by climate warming or food availability variation. We believe this study provides some new evidence on allocation strategies suggesting that amphibians could adjust their reproductive output to cope with climate warming.

  4. The coordination of allocation: Logistics of kidney organ allocation to highly sensitized patients.

    PubMed

    Lunz, John; Hinsdale, Lisa; King, Casey; Pastush, Robin; Buenvenida, Magnolia; Harmon, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Since implementation, the new UNOS OPTN kidney allocation system (KAS) has drastically expanded the pool of available kidneys to candidates that may have previously waited extended periods for an organ offer. This is particularly true for highly sensitized patients. The changes to the KAS have had ramifications throughout the transplant process, including for organ procurement organizations (OPO) and local transplant hospital call centers. Here, we will examine the impact of the new KAS on the organ donation process and highlight the necessary interactions between the OPO and transplant centers to best match donor kidneys and highly sensitized recipients.

  5. Accurate Energy Transaction Allocation using Path Integration and Interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhide, Mandar Mohan

    This thesis investigates many of the popular cost allocation methods which are based on actual usage of the transmission network. The Energy Transaction Allocation (ETA) method originally proposed by A.Fradi, S.Brigonne and B.Wollenberg which gives unique advantage of accurately allocating the transmission network usage is discussed subsequently. Modified calculation of ETA based on simple interpolation technique is then proposed. The proposed methodology not only increase the accuracy of calculation but also decreases number of calculations to less than half of the number of calculations required in original ETAs.

  6. Valuing certainty in a consensus-based water allocation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Saket; McKee, Mac

    2007-02-01

    We present an interdisciplinary approach to attach economic value to model certainty. The central theme of this paper concerns valuing certainty in water resource management, specifically resource allocation. A conceptual framework is developed to study (1) a hypothetical scenario of three water users attempting to mutually agree on allocation of some fixed amount of water amongst themselves and (2) California water policy negotiations along the lines of Adams et al. (1996). We attempt to answer how uncertainty in a policy variable affects the "allocation solution" in such consensus-based decision-making processes. This study finally evolves into economic valuation of uncertainty reduction and willingness to pay for the same.

  7. Optimal resource allocation in random networks with transportation bandwidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, C. H.; Wong, K. Y. Michael

    2009-03-01

    We apply statistical physics to study the task of resource allocation in random sparse networks with limited bandwidths for the transportation of resources along the links. Recursive relations from the Bethe approximation are converted into useful algorithms. Bottlenecks emerge when the bandwidths are small, causing an increase in the fraction of idle links. For a given total bandwidth per node, the efficiency of allocation increases with the network connectivity. In the high connectivity limit, we find a phase transition at a critical bandwidth, above which clusters of balanced nodes appear, characterized by a profile of homogenized resource allocation similar to the Maxwell construction.

  8. Distributed processor allocation for launching applications in a massively connected processors complex

    DOEpatents

    Pedretti, Kevin

    2008-11-18

    A compute processor allocator architecture for allocating compute processors to run applications in a multiple processor computing apparatus is distributed among a subset of processors within the computing apparatus. Each processor of the subset includes a compute processor allocator. The compute processor allocators can share a common database of information pertinent to compute processor allocation. A communication path permits retrieval of information from the database independently of the compute processor allocators.

  9. Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, L

    1980-10-01

    Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

  10. Immune response from a resource allocation perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rauw, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    The immune system is a life history trait that can be expected to trade off against other life history traits. Whether or not a trait is considered to be a life history trait has consequences for the expectation on how it responds to natural selection and evolution; in addition, it may have consequences for the outcome of artificial selection when it is included in the breeding objective. The immune system involved in pathogen resistance comprises multiple mechanisms that define a host's defensive capacity. Immune resistance involves employing mechanisms that either prevent pathogens from invading or eliminate the pathogens when they do invade. On the other hand, tolerance involves limiting the damage that is caused by the infection. Both tolerance and resistance traits require (re)allocation of resources and carry physiological costs. Examples of trade-offs between immune function and growth, reproduction and stress response are provided in this review, in addition to consequences of selection for increased production on immune function and vice versa. Reaction norms are used to deal with questions of immune resistance vs. tolerance to pathogens that relate host health to infection intensity. In essence, selection for immune tolerance in livestock is a particular case of selection for animal robustness. Since breeding goals that include robustness traits are required in the implementation of more sustainable agricultural production systems, it is of interest to investigate whether immune tolerance is a robustness trait that is positively correlated with overall animal robustness. Considerably more research is needed to estimate the shapes of the cost functions of different immune strategies, and investigate trade-offs and cross-over benefits of selection for disease resistance and/or disease tolerance in livestock production. PMID:23413205

  11. A dynamic programming approach to water allocation for seasonally dry area, based on stochastic soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z.; Porporato, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    seasonally dry areas, which are widely distributed in the world, are usually facing an intensive disparity between the lack of natural resource and the great demand of social development. In dry seasons of such areas, the distribution/allocation of water resource is an extremely critical and sensitive issue, and conflicts often occur due to lack of appropriate water allocation scheme. Among the many uses of water, the need of agricultural irrigation water is highly elastic, but this factor has not yet been made full use to free up water from agriculture use. The primary goal of this work is to design an optimal distribution scheme of water resource for dry seasons to maximize benefits from precious water resources, considering the high elasticity of agriculture water demand due to the dynamic of soil moisture affected by the uncertainty of precipitation and other factors like canopy interception. A dynamic programming model will be used to figure out an appropriate allocation of water resources among agricultural irrigation and other purposes like drinking water, industry, and hydropower, etc. In this dynamic programming model, we analytically quantify the dynamic of soil moisture in the agricultural fields by describing the interception with marked Poisson process and describing the rainfall depth with exponential distribution. Then, we figure out a water-saving irrigation scheme, which regulates the timetable and volumes of water in irrigation, in order to minimize irrigation water requirement under the premise of necessary crop yield (as a constraint condition). And then, in turn, we provide a scheme of water resource distribution/allocation among agriculture and other purposes, taking aim at maximizing benefits from precious water resources, or in other words, make best use of limited water resource.

  12. Trade-offs between reproductive allocation and storage in species of Oenothera L. (Onagraceae) native to Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilela, Alejandra; Cariaga, Rodrigo; González-Paleo, Luciana; Ravetta, Damián

    2008-01-01

    A trade-off between reproduction and survival arises because current reproduction diminishes levels of a limiting resource such that less can be placed in storage organs for the survival of an organism during the unfavorable season. Oenothera is a particularly suited genus for studying those kind of trade-offs because it contains species with different life-history strategies (annual, biennial and perennial). Since allocation to leaves is a major factor associated with changes in life-history, here we tested the hypothesis that Oenothera leaf attributes would affect plant reproductive effort and therefore, root reserves. We selected two groups of taxa differing in their leaf area ratio (low- and high-LAR) and we compared their pattern of resource allocation to growth, reproduction and storage. Path analysis confirmed our hypothesis that LAR is the most important variable in explaining variation in allocation to reproduction or storage. The group with high allocation to leaves assigned resources preferentially to storage while the other group allocated more resources to reproduction, as predicted. A trade-off between reproduction and storage was only confirmed for the high-LAR group. The low-LAR group showed the life-history tactic of annual plants, while the high-LAR group exhibited a strategy generally associated with perenniality.

  13. Optimal Allocation of Restoration Practices Using Indexes for Stream Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methodologies that allocate the placement of agricultural and urban green infrastructure management practices with the intent to achieve both economic and environmental objectives typically use objectives related to individual intermediary environmental outputs, yet guidance is n...

  14. A Distributed Cooperative Power Allocation Method for Campus Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, He; Sun, Yannan; Carroll, Thomas E.; Somani, Abhishek

    2015-09-01

    We propose a coordination algorithm for cooperative power allocation among a collection of commercial buildings within a campus. We introduced thermal and power models of a typical commercial building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system, and utilize model predictive control to characterize their power flexibility. The power allocation problem is formulated as a cooperative game using the Nash Bargaining Solution (NBS) concept, in which buildings collectively maximize the product of their utilities subject to their local flexibility constraints and a total power limit set by the campus coordinator. To solve the optimal allocation problem, a distributed protocol is designed using dual decomposition of the Nash bargaining problem. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed allocation method

  15. 43 CFR 4610.4-3 - Allocation of funds appropriated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT Procedures... the Pierce Act, when appropriated by the Congress, will be allocated to the budgets of the...

  16. 43 CFR 4610.4-3 - Allocation of funds appropriated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT Procedures... the Pierce Act, when appropriated by the Congress, will be allocated to the budgets of the...

  17. 43 CFR 4610.4-3 - Allocation of funds appropriated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT Procedures... the Pierce Act, when appropriated by the Congress, will be allocated to the budgets of the...

  18. 43 CFR 4610.4-3 - Allocation of funds appropriated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT Procedures... the Pierce Act, when appropriated by the Congress, will be allocated to the budgets of the...

  19. Dynamic computing resource allocation in online flood monitoring and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchar, S.; Podhoranyi, M.; Vavrik, R.; Portero, A.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents tools and methodologies for dynamic allocation of high performance computing resources during operation of the Floreon+ online flood monitoring and prediction system. The resource allocation is done throughout the execution of supported simulations to meet the required service quality levels for system operation. It also ensures flexible reactions to changing weather and flood situations, as it is not economically feasible to operate online flood monitoring systems in the full performance mode during non-flood seasons. Different service quality levels are therefore described for different flooding scenarios, and the runtime manager controls them by allocating only minimal resources currently expected to meet the deadlines. Finally, an experiment covering all presented aspects of computing resource allocation in rainfall-runoff and Monte Carlo uncertainty simulation is performed for the area of the Moravian-Silesian region in the Czech Republic.

  20. Report on Transmission Cost Allocation for RTOs and Others (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, L.

    2011-06-01

    Presented at the MARC 2011 Annual Conference, 6 June 2011, Rapid City, South Dakota. This presentation provides an overview of the latest research findings and policy developments pertaining to cost allocation and new variable generation resources on the power grid.

  1. Allocating SMART Reliability and Maintainability Goals to NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Amanda; Monaghan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper will describe the methodology used to allocate Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) goals to Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) subsystems currently being designed or upgraded.

  2. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, T.; Toon, J.; Conner, A.; Adams, T.; Miranda, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) programs subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  3. 12 CFR 347.303 - Allocated transfer risk reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.303 Allocated transfer risk reserve. (a... comply with any International Monetary Fund or other suitable adjustment program; or (B) Whether...

  4. 50 CFR 600.325 - National Standard 4-Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (ii) Promotion of conservation. Numerous methods of allocating fishing privileges are considered... mix, price, or economic or social benefit of the product. To the extent that rebuilding plans or...

  5. Health Resources Priority and Allocations System (HRPAS). Interim final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-07-17

    This interim final rule establishes standards and procedures by which the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) may require that certain contracts or orders that promote the national defense be given priority over other contracts or orders. This rule also sets new standards and procedures by which HHS may allocate materials, services, and facilities to promote the national defense. This rule will implement HHS's administration of priorities and allocations actions, and establish the Health Resources Priorities and Allocation System (HRPAS). The HRPAS will cover health resources pursuant to the authority under Section 101(c) of the Defense Production Act as delegated to HHS by Executive Order 13603. Priorities authorities (and other authorities delegated to the Secretary in E.O. 13603, but not covered by this regulation) may be re-delegated by the Secretary. The Secretary retains the authority for allocations.

  6. 45 CFR 400.319 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... its population of refugees who arrived in the U.S. during the most recent 5-year period. A State may... population data in its allocation formula. (b) A State must assure that not less than 95 percent of the...

  7. 45 CFR 1080.3 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOMELESS GRANT PROGRAM § 1080.3 Allocation of funds. From the amounts made available under the Emergency Community Services Homeless Grant Program, the Secretary shall make grants to States that...

  8. 45 CFR 1080.3 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HOMELESS GRANT PROGRAM § 1080.3 Allocation of funds. From the amounts made available under the Emergency Community Services Homeless Grant Program, the Secretary shall make grants to States that...

  9. 7 CFR 1774.4 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Provisions § 1774.4 Allocation of funds. The Secretary may use not more than four percent of the total amount of funds made available for a fiscal year for water and waste disposal activities for SEARCH grants....

  10. Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's announced the availability of the final report, Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) (Version 2). This update furthered land change modeling by providing nationwide housing development scenarios up to 2100. This newest version includes updated population and land use data sets and addresses limitations identified in ICLUS v1 in both the migration and spatial allocation models. The companion user guide (Final Report) describes the development of ICLUS v2 and the updates that were made to the original data sets and the demographic and spatial allocation models. The GIS tool enables users to run SERGoM with the population projections developed for the ICLUS project and allows users to modify the spatial allocation housing density across the landscape.

  11. Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the draft report, Updates to the Demographic and Spatial Allocation Models to Produce Integrated Climate and Land Use Scenarios (ICLUS) for a 30-day public comment period. The ICLUS version 2 (v2) modeling tool furthered land change modeling by providing nationwide housing development scenarios up to 2100. ICLUS V2 includes updated population and land use data sets and addressing limitations identified in ICLUS v1 in both the migration and spatial allocation models. The companion user guide describes the development of ICLUS v2 and the updates that were made to the original data sets and the demographic and spatial allocation models. [2017 UPDATE] Get the latest version of ICLUS and stay up-to-date by signing up to the ICLUS mailing list. The GIS tool enables users to run SERGoM with the population projections developed for the ICLUS project and allows users to modify the spatial allocation housing density across the landscape.

  12. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  13. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  14. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  15. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  16. 7 CFR 1775.67 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTS Solid Waste Management Grants § 1775.67 Allocation of funds. The maximum amount for a single applicant for a Solid Waste Management project will be 25...

  17. Evolving Reliability and Maintainability Allocations for NASA Ground Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Gisela; Toon, Troy; Toon, Jamie; Conner, Angelo C.; Adams, Timothy C.; Miranda, David J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and value of modifying allocations to reliability and maintainability requirements for the NASA Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program’s subsystems. As systems progressed through their design life cycle and hardware data became available, it became necessary to reexamine the previously derived allocations. This iterative process provided an opportunity for the reliability engineering team to reevaluate allocations as systems moved beyond their conceptual and preliminary design phases. These new allocations are based on updated designs and maintainability characteristics of the components. It was found that trade-offs in reliability and maintainability were essential to ensuring the integrity of the reliability and maintainability analysis. This paper discusses the results of reliability and maintainability reallocations made for the GSDO subsystems as the program nears the end of its design phase.

  18. Do plants modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution?

    PubMed

    Nie, Ming; Yang, Qiang; Jiang, Li-Fen; Fang, Chang-Ming; Chen, Jia-Kuan; Li, Bo

    2010-12-23

    Biomass allocation is an important plant trait that responds plastically to environmental heterogeneities. However, the effects on this trait of pollutants owing to human activities remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the response of biomass allocation of Phragmites australis to petroleum pollution by a ¹³CO₂ pulse-labelling technique. Our data show that plant biomass significantly decreased under petroleum pollution, but the root-shoot ratio for both plant biomass and ¹³C increased with increasing petroleum concentration, suggesting that plants could increase biomass allocation to roots in petroleum-polluted soil. Furthermore, assimilated ¹³C was found to be significantly higher in soil, microbial biomass and soil respiration after soils were polluted by petroleum. These results suggested that the carbon released from roots is rapidly turned over by soil microbes under petroleum pollution. This study found that plants can modulate biomass allocation in response to petroleum pollution.

  19. [A model for resource allocation in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Raña K, Javier; Ferrer O, Juan-Carlos; Bedregal G, Paula

    2007-01-01

    Resource allocation in primary health care is a worldwide issue. In Chile, the state allocates resources to city halls using a mechanism called "per capita". However, each city hall distributes these resources according to the historical expenses of each health center. None of these methods considers the epidemiological and demographic differences in demand. This article proposes a model that allocates resources to health centers in an equitable, efficient and transparent fashion. The model incorporates two types of activities; those that are programmable, whose demand is generated by medical teams and those associated to morbidity, generated by patients. In the first case the health promotion, prevention and control activities are programmed according to the goals proposed by health authorities. In the second case, the utilization rates are calculated for different sociodemographic groups. This model was applied in one of the most populated communities of Metropolitan Santiago and proved to increase efficiency and transparency in resource allocation.

  20. Allocations by the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyward, Ann O.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference is presented with viewgraphs. Allocations of radio frequency spectrum are addressed. Mobile satellite service, broadcast satellite service, and uplink power control beacons are also addressed.

  1. Dynamic task-allocation for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Tim

    This dissertation addresses improvements to a consensus based task allocation algorithms for improving the Quality of Service in multi-task and multi-agent environments. Research in the past has led to many centralized task allocation algorithms where a central computation unit is calculating the global optimum task allocation solution. The centralized algorithms are plagued by creating a single point of failure and the bandwidth needed for creating consistent and accurate situational awareness off all agents. This work will extend upon a widely researched decentralized task assignment algorithm based on the consensus principle. Although many extensions have led to improvements of the original algorithm, there is still much opportunity for improvement in providing sufficient and reliable task assignments in real-world dynamic conditions and changing environments. This research addresses practical changes made to the consensus based task allocation algorithms for improving the Quality of Service in multi-task and multi-agent environments.

  2. 34 CFR 675.42 - Allocation and reallocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Work-Colleges Program § 675.42 Allocation and... Federal funds for the Work-Colleges program as a percent of the total of such approved requests for...

  3. Promotion of cooperation induced by heterogeneity of both investment and payoff allocation in spatial public goods game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ruguo; Zhang, Yingqing; Luo, Ming; Zhang, Hongjuan

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity has attracted mounting attention across multiple disciplines and is confirmed to be a greater promoter of cooperation. It is often the case that the heterogeneity always exists in investment and payoff allocation concurrently instead of separately. In addition, the factors that affect heterogeneous investment and payoff allocation are various. Inspired by this, this paper extends the previous models by incorporating heterogeneous investment and payoff allocation into the typical PGG model to further investigate the incentive mechanisms of cooperative behavior. In order to better understand the model, three different feedback mechanisms, namely the wealth-preference mechanism, the social-self-preference mechanism, and the mixed-preference mechanism, are addressed. The former two mechanisms correspond to the case of single factor and the latter corresponds to the case of double factors. The numerical simulations indicate that feedback mechanism by bridging the connections between the investment and the payoff allocation can reduce the free-rider problem. Furthermore, it is found that the cooperative frequency and average payoff perform better in the case of the mixed-preference mechanism where players will not only take previous payoff feedback as well as current investment but also their social status into their game decision-making process. In addition, full cooperation and profitability over all players can be promoted by means of increasing r or reducing α. At last, compared with another two classic networks, the extent of cooperation is promoted under the structures of the BA scale free networks.

  4. High intraspecific ability to adjust both carbon uptake and allocation under light and nutrient reduction in Halimium halimifolium L.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Frederik; Beyschlag, Wolfram; Werner, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The allocation of recently assimilated carbon (C) by plants depends on developmental stage and on environmental factors, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of C uptake and allocation and their adjustments during plant growth. We induced different allocation strategies in the Mediterranean shrub Halimium halimifolium L. by a reduction of light (Low L treatment) and nutrient availability (Low N treatment) and analyzed allocation parameters as well as morphological and physiological traits for 15 months. Further, we conducted a (13)CO2 pulse-labeling and followed the way of recently assimilated carbon to eight different tissue classes and respiration for 13 days. The plant responses were remarkably distinct in our study, with mainly morphological/physiological adaptions in case of light reduction and adjustment of C allocation in case of nutrient reduction. The transport of recently assimilated C to the root system was enhanced in amount (c. 200%) and velocity under nutrient limited conditions compared to control plants. Despite the 57% light reduction the total biomass production was not affected in the Low L treatment. The plants probably compensated light reduction by an improvement of their ability to fix C. Thus, our results support the concept that photosynthesis is, at least in a medium term perspective, influenced by the C demand of the plant and not exclusively by environmental factors. Finally, our results indicate that growing heterotrophic tissues strongly reduce the C reflux from storage and structural C pools and therefore enhance the fraction of recent assimilates allocated to respiration. We propose that this interruption of the C reflux from storage and structural C pools could be a regulation mechanism for C translocation in plants.

  5. High intraspecific ability to adjust both carbon uptake and allocation under light and nutrient reduction in Halimium halimifolium L.

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Frederik; Beyschlag, Wolfram; Werner, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The allocation of recently assimilated carbon (C) by plants depends on developmental stage and on environmental factors, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of C uptake and allocation and their adjustments during plant growth. We induced different allocation strategies in the Mediterranean shrub Halimium halimifolium L. by a reduction of light (Low L treatment) and nutrient availability (Low N treatment) and analyzed allocation parameters as well as morphological and physiological traits for 15 months. Further, we conducted a 13CO2 pulse-labeling and followed the way of recently assimilated carbon to eight different tissue classes and respiration for 13 days. The plant responses were remarkably distinct in our study, with mainly morphological/physiological adaptions in case of light reduction and adjustment of C allocation in case of nutrient reduction. The transport of recently assimilated C to the root system was enhanced in amount (c. 200%) and velocity under nutrient limited conditions compared to control plants. Despite the 57% light reduction the total biomass production was not affected in the Low L treatment. The plants probably compensated light reduction by an improvement of their ability to fix C. Thus, our results support the concept that photosynthesis is, at least in a medium term perspective, influenced by the C demand of the plant and not exclusively by environmental factors. Finally, our results indicate that growing heterotrophic tissues strongly reduce the C reflux from storage and structural C pools and therefore enhance the fraction of recent assimilates allocated to respiration. We propose that this interruption of the C reflux from storage and structural C pools could be a regulation mechanism for C translocation in plants. PMID:26300906

  6. Optimal allocation of file servers in a local network environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodside, C. M.; Tripathi, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Files associated with workstations in a local area network are to be allocated among two or more file servers. Assuming statistically identical workstations and file servers and a performance model which is a closed multiclass separable queueing network, an optimal allocation is found. It is shown that all the files of each workstation should be placed on one file server, with the workstations divided as equally as possible among the file servers.

  7. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Georgia 1,844,000 Hawaii 120,000 Idaho 1,618,000 Illinois 10,717,000 Indiana 5,156,000 Iowa...

  8. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Georgia 1,844,000 Hawaii 120,000 Idaho 1,618,000 Illinois 10,717,000 Indiana 5,156,000 Iowa...

  9. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Georgia 1,844,000 Hawaii 120,000 Idaho 1,618,000 Illinois 10,717,000 Indiana 5,156,000 Iowa...

  10. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Georgia 1,844,000 Hawaii 120,000 Idaho 1,618,000 Illinois 10,717,000 Indiana 5,156,000 Iowa...

  11. 10 CFR 440.10 - Allocation of funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Allocation of funds. 440.10 Section 440.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.10 Allocation... Georgia 1,844,000 Hawaii 120,000 Idaho 1,618,000 Illinois 10,717,000 Indiana 5,156,000 Iowa...

  12. Constant Power Allocation Methods for SC-FDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pao, Wei-Cheng; Chen, Yung-Fang; Chang, Dah-Chung

    A simple suboptimal power allocation method is proposed for SC-FDMA systems. It is known that the performance of constant power-based allocation methods is close to that of optimal solutions. In this letter, by utilizing the waterfilling condition inequality derived for SC-FDMA systems, a threshold is set to select subcarriers for loading constant power to these selected subcarriers. It offers competitive performance as confirmed by the simulation results.

  13. Water Development, Allocation, and Institutions: A Role for Integrated Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, F. A.

    2008-12-01

    Many parts of the world suffer from inadequate water infrastructure, inefficient water allocation, and weak water institutions. Each of these three challenges compounds the burdens imposed by inadequacies associated with the other two. Weak water infrastructure makes it hard to allocate water efficiently and undermines tracking of water rights and use, which blocks effective functioning of water institutions. Inefficient water allocation makes it harder to secure resources to develop new water infrastructure. Poorly developed water institutions undermine the security of water rights, which damages incentives to develop water infrastructure or use water efficiently. This paper reports on the development of a prototype basin scale economic optimization, in which existing water supplies are allocated more efficiently in the short run to provide resources for more efficient long-run water infrastructure development. Preliminary results provide the basis for designing water administrative proposals, building effective water infrastructure, increasing farm income, and meeting transboundary delivery commitments. The application is to the Kabul River Basin in Afghanistan, where food security has been compromised by a history of drought, war, damaged irrigation infrastructure, lack of reservoir storage, inefficient water allocation, and weak water institutions. Results illustrate increases in economic efficiency achievable when development programs simultaneously address interdependencies in water allocation, development, and institutions.

  14. A review of alternative approaches to healthcare resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Petrou, S; Wolstenholme, J

    2000-07-01

    The resources available for healthcare are limited compared with demand, if not need, and all healthcare systems, regardless of their financing and organisation, employ mechanisms to ration or prioritise finite healthcare resources. This paper reviews alternative approaches that can be used to allocate healthcare resources. It discusses the problems encountered when allocating healthcare resources according to free market principles. It then proceeds to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of alternative resource allocation approaches that can be applied to public health systems. These include: (i) approaches based on the concept of meeting the needs of the population to maximising its capacity to benefit from interventions; (ii) economic approaches that identify the most efficient allocation of resources with the view of maximising health benefits or other measures of social welfare; (iii) approaches that seek to ration healthcare by age; and (iv) approaches that resolve resource allocation disputes through debate and bargaining. At present, there appears to be no consensus about the relative importance of the potentially conflicting principles that can be used to guide resource allocation decisions. It is concluded that whatever shape tomorrow's health service takes, the requirement to make equitable and efficient use of finite healthcare resources will remain.

  15. Winter wheat optimizes allocation in response to carbon limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianbei; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Trumbore, Susan; Hartmann, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    • Plant photosynthesis is not carbon-saturated at current atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) thus carbon allocation priority is of critical importance in determining plant response to environmental changes, including increasing [CO2]. • We quantified the percentage of daytime net assimilation (A) allocated to whole-plant nighttime respiration (R) and structural growth (SG), nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) and secondary metabolites (SMs) during winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) vegetative growth (over 4 weeks) at glacial, ambient, and elevated [CO2] (170, 390 and 680 ppm). • We found that R/A remained relatively constant (11-14%) across [CO2] treatments, whereas plants allocated less C to growth and more C to export at low [CO2] than elevated [CO2]; low [CO2] grown plants tended to invest overall less C into NSC and SMs than to SG due to reduced NSC availability; while leaf SMs/NSC was greater at 170 ppm than at 680 ppm [CO2] this was the opposite for root SMs/NSC; biomass, especially NSC, were preferentially allocated to leaves instead of stems and roots, likely to relieve C limitation induced by low [CO2]. • We conclude that C limitation may force plants to reduce C allocation to long-term survival in order to secure short-term survival. Furthermore, they optimized allocation of the available resource by concentrating biomass and storage to those tissues responsible for assimilation.

  16. An Integrated Tool for Functional Requirements Analysis, Function Allocation and Task Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques

    2015-03-02

    The software application is called “HFE-Trace”. This is an integrated method and tool for the management of Human Factors Engineering analyses and related data. Its primary purpose is to support the coherent and consistent application of the nuclear industry’s best practices for human factors engineering work. The software is a custom Microsoft® Access® application. The application is used (in conjunction with other tools such as spreadsheets, checklists and normal documents where necessary) to collect data on the design of a new nuclear power plant from subject matter experts and other sources. This information is then used to identify potential system and functional breakdowns of the intended power plant design. This information is expanded by developing extensive descriptions of all functions, as well as system performance parameters, operating limits and constraints, and operational conditions. Once these have been verified, the human factors elements are added to each function, including intended operator role, function allocation considerations, prohibited actions, primary task categories, and primary work station. In addition, the application includes a computational method to assess a number of factors such as system and process complexity, workload, environmental conditions, procedures, regulations, etc.) that may shape operator performance. This is a unique methodology based upon principles described in NUREG/CR-3331 (“A methodology for allocating nuclear power plant control functions to human or automatic control”) and it results in a semi-quantified allocation of functions to three or more levels of automation for a conceptual automation system. The aggregate of all this information is then linked to the Task Analysis section of the application where the existing information on all operator functions is transformed into task information and ultimately into design requirements for Human-System Interfaces and Control Rooms. This final step includes

  17. Biogeographical patterns of forest biomass allocation vary by climate, soil and forest characteristics in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Song, Tongqing; Wang, Kelin; Wang, Genxuan; Liao, Jianxiong; Xu, Guanghua; Zeng, Fuping

    2015-04-01

    To explore whether the large-scale patterns of biomass allocation vary by climate, soil, and forest characteristics in terrestrial ecosystems, on the basis of the national forest inventory data (2004-2008) and our previous field measurements (2011-2012), we investigated the variation of four biomass allocation fractions (BAFs), and their relationship with environmental factors (e.g. climate and soil chemistry) and forest characteristics (e.g. stand age and stand density) across 11 of China’s forest types. Our results revealed that BAFs have significant latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal trends. Stepwise multiple regression models that involve the climate, soil and forest stand properties account for a part of the biogeographical variation in BAFs, and the stand age, stand density and mean growing season temperature mainly explain these variations. Reduced major axis regression models showed that BAFs differ in their sensitivity (slope of their response to environmental gradients) to climate, soil and forest characteristics among different forest types. The results of the current study do not support the isometric allocation hypothesis, which suggests that component biomass scales equivalently as total biomass across different plant species along environmental gradients.

  18. Climate warming shifts carbon allocation from stemwood to roots in calcium-depleted spruce forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapenis, Andrei Gennady; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Heim, Alexander; Zheng, Chengyang; Shortle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Increased greening of northern forests, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been presented as evidence that a warmer climate has increased both net primary productivity (NPP) and the carbon sink in boreal forests. However, higher production and greener canopies may accompany changes in carbon allocation that favor foliage or fine roots over less decomposable woody biomass. Furthermore, tree core data throughout mid- and northern latitudes have revealed a divergence problem (DP), a weakening in tree ring responses to warming over the past half century that is receiving increasing attention, but remains poorly understood. Often, the same sites exhibit trend inconsistency phenomenon (TIP), namely positive, or no trends in growing season NDVI where negative trends in tree ring indexes are observed. Here we studied growth of two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in western Russia that exhibited both the DP and TIP but were subject to soil acidification and calcium depletion of differing timing and severity. Our results link the decline in radial growth starting in 1980 to a shift in carbon allocation from wood to roots driven by a combination of two factors: (a) soil acidification that depleted calcium and impaired root function and (b) earlier onset of the growing season that further taxed the root system. The latter change in phenology appears to act as a trigger at both sites to push trees into nutrient limitation as the demand for Ca increased with the longer growing season, thereby causing the shift in carbon allocation.

  19. Biogeographical patterns of biomass allocation in leaves, stems, and roots in China's forests.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Wang, Kelin; Xu, Xianli; Song, Tongqing; Xu, Yanfang; Zeng, Fuping

    2015-11-03

    To test whether there are general patterns in biomass partitioning in relation to environmental variation when stand biomass is considered, we investigated biomass allocation in leaves, stems, and roots in China's forests using both the national forest inventory data (2004-2008) and our field measurements (2011-2012). Distribution patterns of leaf, stem, and root biomass showed significantly different trends according to latitude, longitude, and altitude, and were positively and significantly correlated with stand age and mean annual precipitation. Trade-offs among leaves, stems, and roots varied with forest type and origin and were mainly explained by stand biomass. Based on the constraints of stand biomass, biomass allocation was also influenced by forest type, origin, stand age, stand density, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and maximum temperature in the growing season. Therefore, after stand biomass was accounted for, the residual variation in biomass allocation could be partially explained by stand characteristics and environmental factors, which may aid in quantifying carbon cycling in forest ecosystems and assessing the impacts of climate change on forest carbon dynamics in China.

  20. Climate warming shifts carbon allocation from stemwood to roots in calcium-depleted spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenis, Andrei; Lawrence, Gregory; Buyantuev, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Increased greening of northern forests, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been presented as evidence that a warmer climate has increased both net primary productivity (NPP) and the carbon sink in boreal forests. However, higher production and greener canopies may accompany changes in carbon allocation that favor foliage or fine roots over less decomposable woody biomass. Furthermore, tree core data throughout mid- and northern latitudes have revealed a divergence problem (DP), a weakening in tree ring responses to warming over the past half century that is receiving increasing attention, but remains poorly understood. Often, the same sites exhibit trend inconsistency phenomenon (TIP), namely positive, or no trends in growing season NDVI where negative trends in tree ring indexes are observed. Here we studied growth of two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in western Russia that exhibited both the DP and TIP but were subject to soil acidification and calcium depletion of differing timing and severity. Our results link the decline in radial growth starting in 1980 to a shift in carbon allocation from wood to roots driven by a combination of two factors: (a) soil acidification that depleted calcium and impaired root function and (b) earlier onset of the growing season that further taxed the root system. The latter change in phenology appears to act as a trigger at both sites to push trees into nutrient limitation as the demand for Ca increased with the longer growing season, thereby causing the shift in carbon allocation.