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Sample records for interstellar hydrogen atom

  1. Hot hydrogen atoms reactions of interest in molecular evolution and interstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. S.; Hong, K.; Hong, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Hot hydrogen atoms which are photochemically generated initiate reactions among mixtures of methane, ethane, water and ammonia, to produce ethanol, organic amines, organic acids, and amino acids. Both ethanol and ethyl amine can also act as substrates for formation of amino acids. The one carbon substrate methane is sufficient as a carbon source to produce amino acids. Typical quantum yields for formation of amino acids are approximately 0.00002 to 0.00004. In one experiment, 6 protein amino acids were identified and 8 nonprotein amino acids verified utilizing gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. We propose that hot atoms, especially hydrogen, initiate reactions in the thermodynamic nonequilibrium environment of interstellar space as well as in the atmospheres of planets.

  2. Hot hydrogen atoms - Initiators of reactions of interest in interstellar chemistry and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, K.-Y.; Hong, J.-H.; Becker, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    Hot hydrogen atoms possess kinetic (or translational) energy in excess of that to be expected if the atoms were in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. In the investigation reported the hot hydrogen atoms were generated by the photolysis of donor molecules. The light sources for the photolysis were 1000-watt xenon or 500-watt mercury lamps combined with a filter system. The experiments show that hot hydrogen atoms can initiate reactions among simple molecules to produce biomolecules of significance.

  3. Interstellar hydrogen sulfide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaddeus, P.; Kutner, M. L.; Penzias, A. A.; Wilson, R. W.; Jefferts, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide has been detected in seven Galactic sources by observation of a single line corresponding to the rotational transition from the 1(sub 10) to the 1(sub 01) levels at 168.7 GHz. The observations show that hydrogen sulfide is only a moderately common interstellar molecule comparable in abundance to H2CO and CS, but somewhat less abundant than HCN and much less abundant than CO.

  4. Adsorption and recombination of hydrogen atoms on a model graphite surface. [in interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aronowitz, S.; Chang, S.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption and recombination of atomic hydrogen on a model graphite grain have been examined in a series of calculations in which a modified, iterative, extended Hueckel program was used. The hydrogen atom is found to be chemisorbed at a site with a zero-point binding energy of 0.7 eV and at an equilibrium distance of 2.25 A above the site. Despite a barrier of about 0.4 eV between adjacent sites, calculations suggest that at temperatures as low as 10 K, an H atom will tunnel through to adjacent sites in less than one nanosecond. However, a potential barrier to the recombination of two hydrogen atoms has been found which displays high sensitivity to the mutual arrangement of the two hydrogen atoms with respect to the graphite surface. Results show that at very low temperatures, recombinations can occur only by tunneling. Consistent with experiment, the region in which H2 begins to form exhibits a repulsive potential with respect to possible chemisorption of the incipient H2 entity.

  5. Components in interstellar molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, L., Jr.; Morton, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for precise spectrophotometric measurements of the profiles of selected Lyman absorption lines produced by hydrogen molecules in various rotational levels along the line of sight to 13 stars which have shown some evidence for an increase in line width with increasing rotational quantum number (J). The line profiles were measured by multiple scans with the Copernicus satellite telescope. Based on analysis of the radial velocities, derivations of the column densities, and line-profile fitting, the following conclusions are made: (1) the increase in interstellar H2 line width with increasing J results from the presence of the most shortward component, which is relatively weak at low J but becomes more important at higher J; (2) the relative column densities found for the different J levels in each component may be fitted by a theoretical model in which rotational excitation is due to absorption of UV photons followed by radiative quadrupole spontaneous transitions or collisionally induced downward transitions between different J levels; (3) the atomic hydrogen density is between 300 and 1000 per cu cm in the most shortward component for each of three stars; (4) the approaching gas which produces each shortward component must be in the form of thin sheets; and (5) the sheets are the compressed gas behind a shock front moving through the interstellar medium.

  6. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Schilke, Peter; Phillips, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2-1 line of HF in absorption toward the far-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically significant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model for the excitation of HF in Sgr B2, the observed line equivalent width of 1.0 nm implies a hydrogen fluoride abundance of approximately 3 x 10(exp -10) relative to H2. If the elemental abundance of fluorine in Sgr B2 is the same as that in the solar system, then HF accounts for approximately 2% of the total number of fluorine nuclei. We expect hydrogen fluoride to be the dominant reservoir of gas-phase fluorine in Sgr B2, because it is formed rapidly in exothermic reactions of atomic fluorine with either water or molecular hydrogen; thus, the measured HF abundance suggests a substantial depletion of fluorine onto dust grains. Similar conclusions regarding depletion have previously been reached for the case of chlorine in dense interstellar clouds. We also find evidence at a lower level of statistical significance (approximately 5 sigma) for an emission feature at the expected position of the 4(sub 32)-4(sub 23) 121.7219 micron line of water. The emission-line equivalent width of 0.5 nm for the water feature is consistent with the water abundance of 5 x 10(exp -6) relative to H2 that has been inferred previously from observations of the hot core of Sgr B2.

  7. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Schilke, Peter; Phillips, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2-1 line of HF in absorption toward the far-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically significant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model for the excitation of HF in Sgr B2, the observed line equivalent width of 1.0 nm implies a hydrogen fluoride abundance of about 3 x 10 (exp -10) relative to H, If the elemental abundance of fluorine in Sgr B2 is the same as that in the solar system, then HF accounts for about 2% of the total number of fluorine nuclei. We expect hydrogen fluoride to be the dominant reservoir of gas-phase fluorine in Sgr B2, because it is formed rapidly in exothermic reactions of atomic fluorine with either water or molecular hydrogen; thus, the measured HF abundance suggests a substantial depletion of fluorine onto dust grains. Similar conclusions regarding depletion have previously been reached for the case of chlorine in dense interstellar clouds. We also find evidence at a lower level of statistical significance (about 5 sigma) for an emission feature at the expected position of the 4(sub 32)-4(sub 23) 121.7219 micron line of water. The emission-line equivalent width of 0.5 mm for the water feature is consistent with the water abundance of 5 x 10(exp -6) relative to H, that has been inferred previously from observations of the hot core of Sgr B2.

  8. The hydrogen coverage of interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Barker, J. R.; Cohen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) rupture due to the absorption of a UV photon has been calculated. The results show that small PAHs (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense UV fields, while large PAHs (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar PAHs lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar PAHs are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in PAHs. This new feature shows that interstellar PAHs are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar PAHs. In particular, it seems that very condensed PAHs, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar PAH mixture as expected from stability arguments.

  9. The hydrogen coverage of interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, J. R.; Cohen, M.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Barker, J. R.; Barker, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The rate at which the CH bond in interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) rupture due to the absorption of a UV photon has been calculated. The results show that small PAHs (less than or equal to 25 carbon atoms) are expected to be partially dehydrogenated in regions with intense UV fields, while large PAHs (greater than or equal to 25 atoms) are expected to be completely hydrogenated in those regions. Because estimate of the carbon content of interstellar PAHs lie in the range of 20 to 25 carbon atoms, dehydrogenation is probably not very important. Because of the absence of other emission features besides the 11.3 micrometer feature in ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra, it has been suggested that interstellar PAHs are partially dehydrogenated. However, IRAS 8 to 22 micrometer spectra of most sources that show strong 7.7 and 11.2 micrometer emission features also show a plateau of emission extending from about 11.3 to 14 micrometer. Like the 11.3 micrometer feature, this new feature is attributed to the CH out of plane bending mode in PAHs. This new feature shows that interstellar PAHs are not as dehydrogenated as estimated from ground-based 8 to 13 micrometer spectra. It also constrains the molecular structure of interstellar PAHs. In particular, it seems that very condensed PAHs, such as coronene and circumcoronene, dominate the interstellar PAH mixture as expected from stability arguments.

  10. Low-temperature surface formation of NH3 and HNCO: hydrogenation of nitrogen atoms in CO-rich interstellar ice analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedoseev, G.; Ioppolo, S.; Zhao, D.; Lamberts, T.; Linnartz, H.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state astrochemical reaction pathways have the potential to link the formation of small nitrogen-bearing species, like NH3 and HNCO, and prebiotic molecules, specifically amino acids. To date, the chemical origin of such small nitrogen-containing species is still not well understood, despite the fact that ammonia is an abundant constituent of interstellar ices towards young stellar objects and quiescent molecular clouds. This is mainly because of the lack of dedicated laboratory studies. The aim of this work is to experimentally investigate the formation routes of NH3 and HNCO through non-energetic surface reactions in interstellar ice analogues under fully controlled laboratory conditions and at astrochemically relevant temperatures. This study focuses on the formation of NH3 and HNCO in CO-rich (non-polar) interstellar ices that simulate the CO freeze-out stage in dark interstellar cloud regions, well before thermal and energetic processing start to become relevant. We demonstrate and discuss the surface formation of solid HNCO through the interaction of CO molecules with NH radicals - one of the intermediates in the formation of solid NH3 upon sequential hydrogenation of N atoms. The importance of HNCO for astrobiology is discussed.

  11. Ionization of Interstellar Hydrogen Beyond the Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruntman, Mike

    2016-11-01

    Models of solar wind interaction with the surrounding interstellar medium usually disregard ionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms beyond the solar wind termination shock. If and when included, the effects of ionization in the heliospheric interface region are often obscured by complexities of the interaction. This work assesses the importance of interstellar hydrogen ionization in the heliosheath. Photoionization could be accounted for in a straightforward way. In contrast, electron impact ionization is largely unknown because of poorly understood energy transfer to electrons at the termination shock and beyond. We first estimate the effect of photoionization and then use it as a yardstick to assess the role of electron impact ionization. The physical estimates show that ionization of interstellar hydrogen may lead to significant mass loading in the inner heliosheath which would slow down plasma flowing toward the heliotail and deplete populations of nonthermal protons, with the corresponding effect on heliospheric fluxes of energetic neutral atoms.

  12. Interstellar Hydrogen Gas Entering the Heliosphere: Four Years of IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, Lukas; Wurz, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Interstellar neutral gas enters the heliosphere unimpeded by solar wind and heliopause magnetic fields. Observations of this gas have determined the relative motion of our sun and the interstellar medium as well as properties of this medium. We report here on direct observations of interstellar neutral Hydrogen by NASA's IBEX satellite over four years of operation. The observed flux at 1AU is not constant but varies due to solar variability which affects the ionization rate and the radiation pressure. Further, the direction of the H flux is offset from other species. We explain these observations in the context of low energy neutral atom sensors developed at the University of Bern in Switzerland.

  13. Molecular hydrogen in interstellar dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M.; Robinson, G. W.

    1976-01-01

    A simplified H2 formation mechanism is proposed in which small interstellar grains furnish the reaction sites. This mechanism results in a maximum value for the rate constant of about 2 by 10 to the -18th power per cu cm/sec for dark clouds at 10 K. Also, the nascent molecules are ejected in excited states, in qualitative agreement with Copernicus observations. A time-dependent treatment of the chemical evolution of a dark cloud with little or no ionizing radiation shows that the clouds require more than 10 million years to achieve chemical equilibrium. The observed residual atomic hydrogen in several dark clouds suggests that the clouds are 1 to 10 million years old. Other consequences of the temporal cloud model are in accord with astronomical observations.

  14. SOLAR RADIATION PRESSURE AND LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM FLOW PARAMETERS FROM INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER LOW ENERGY HYDROGEN MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwadron, N. A.; Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Lee, M. A.; French, J.; Saul, L.; Wurz, P.; Bzowski, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Frisch, P.; Gruntman, M.; Mueller, H. R.

    2013-10-01

    Neutral hydrogen atoms that travel into the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM) experience strong effects due to charge exchange and radiation pressure from resonant absorption and re-emission of Lyα. The radiation pressure roughly compensates for the solar gravity. As a result, interstellar hydrogen atoms move along trajectories that are quite different than those of heavier interstellar species such as helium and oxygen, which experience relatively weak radiation pressure. Charge exchange leads to the loss of primary neutrals from the LISM and the addition of new secondary neutrals from the heliosheath. IBEX observations show clear effects of radiation pressure in a large longitudinal shift in the peak of interstellar hydrogen compared with that of interstellar helium. Here, we compare results from the Lee et al. interstellar neutral model with IBEX-Lo hydrogen observations to describe the distribution of hydrogen near 1 AU and provide new estimates of the solar radiation pressure. We find over the period analyzed from 2009 to 2011 that radiation pressure divided by the gravitational force (μ) has increased slightly from μ = 0.94 ± 0.04 in 2009 to μ = 1.01 ± 0.05 in 2011. We have also derived the speed, temperature, source longitude, and latitude of the neutral H atoms and find that these parameters are roughly consistent with those of interstellar He, particularly when considering the filtration effects that act on H in the outer heliosheath. Thus, our analysis shows that over the period from 2009 to 2011, we observe signatures of neutral H consistent with the primary distribution of atoms from the LISM and a radiation pressure that increases in the early rise of solar activity.

  15. Excitation of interstellar hydrogen chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufild, David A.; Green, Sheldon

    1994-01-01

    We have computed new rate coefficients for the collisional excitation of HCl by He, in the close-coupled formalism and using an interaction potential determined recently by Willey, Choong, & DeLucia. Results have been obtained for temperatures between 10 K and 300 K. With the use of the infinite order sudden approximation, we have derived approximate expressions of general applicability which may be used to estimate how the rate constant for a transition (J to J prime) is apportioned among the various hyperfine states F prime of the final state J prime. Using these new rate coefficients, we have obtained predictions for the HCl rotational line strengths expected from a dense clump of interstellar gas, as a function of the HCl fractional abundance. Over a wide range of HCl abundances, we have found that the line luminosities are proportional to abundance(exp 2/3), a general result which can be explained using a simple analytical approximation. Our model for the excitation of HCl within a dense molecular cloud core indicates that the J = 1 goes to 0 line strengths measured by Blake, Keene, & Phillips toward the Orion Molecular Cloud (OMC-1) imply a fractional abundance n(HCl)/n(H2) approximately 2 x 10(exp -9), a value which amounts to only approximately 0.3% of the cosmic abundance of chlorine nuclei. Given a fractional abundance of 2 x 10(exp -9), the contribution of HCl emission to the total radiative cooling of a dense clump is small. For Orion, we predict a flux approximately 10(exp -19) W/sq cm for the HCl J = 3 goes to 2 line near 159.8 micrometers, suggesting that the strength of this line could be measured using the Infrared Space Observatory.

  16. HYDROGEN ATOM THERMAL PARAMETERS.

    PubMed

    JENSEN, L H; SUNDARALINGAM, M

    1964-09-11

    Isotropic hydrogen atom thermal parameters for N,N'- hexamethylenebispropionamide have been determined. They show a definite trend and vary from approximately the same as the mean thermal parameters for atoms other than hydrogen near the center of the molecule to appreciably greater for atoms near the end. The indicated trend for this compound, along with other results, provides the basis for a possible explanation of the anomolous values that have been obtained for hydrogen atom thermal parameters.

  17. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR NEUTRAL HYDROGEN SAMPLED IN SITU BY IBEX

    SciTech Connect

    Saul, Lukas; Wurz, Peter; Rodriguez, Diego; Scheer, Juergen; Moebius, Eberhard; Schwadron, Nathan; Kucharek, Harald; Leonard, Trevor; Bzowski, Maciej; Fuselier, Stephen; Crew, Geoff; McComas, Dave

    2012-02-01

    Hydrogen gas is the dominant component of the local interstellar medium. However, owing to ionization and interaction with the heliosphere, direct sampling of neutral hydrogen in the inner heliosphere is more difficult than sampling the local interstellar neutral helium, which penetrates deep into the heliosphere. In this paper, we report on the first detailed analysis of the direct sampling of neutral hydrogen from the local interstellar medium. We confirm that the arrival direction of hydrogen is offset from that of the local helium component. We further report the discovery of a variation of the penetrating hydrogen over the first two years of Interstellar Boundary Explorer observations. Observations are consistent with hydrogen experiencing an effective ratio of outward solar radiation pressure to inward gravitational force greater than unity ({mu} > 1); the temporal change observed in the local interstellar hydrogen flux can be explained with solar variability.

  18. Interstellar H_3^+: Herzberg and Hydrogenic Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Takeshi

    2000-06-01

    Gerhard Herzberg was fascinated by the physics of hydrogen throughout his life (1,2) and studied spectra of a variety of hydrogenic species including H, H^-, H_2, H2 ^+ and H_3^+. He was the first to advocate the importance of spectroscopy of H_3^+, both from astronomical and chemical points of view. I shall talk on how his idea and enthusiasm have been succeeded by the younger generation and led to the detection of the laboratory spectrum of H_3^+, as well as to the detection of H_3^+ in astronomical objects such as planetary ionospheres, molecular clouds, and the diffuse interstellar medium. 1. G. Herzberg, Trans. R. Soc. Can. 5: 3 (1967). 2. G. Herzberg, Trans. R. Soc. Can. 20: 151 (1982).

  19. Atomic hydrogen rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etters, R. D.; Flurchick, K.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket using atomic hydrogen propellant is discussed. An essential feature of the proposed engine is that the atomic hydrogen fuel is used as it is produced, thus eliminating the necessity of storage. The atomic hydrogen flows into a combustion chamber and recombines, producing high velocity molecular hydrogen which flows out an exhaust port. Standard thermodynamics, kinetic theory and wall recombination cross-sections are used to predict a thrust of approximately 1.4 N for a RF hydrogen flow rate of 4 x 10 to the 22nd/sec. Specific impulses are nominally from 1000 to 2000 sec. It is predicted that thrusts on the order of one Newton and specific impulses of up to 2200 sec are attainable with nominal RF discharge fluxes on the order of 10 to the 22nd atoms/sec; further refinements will probably not alter these predictions by more than a factor of two.

  20. Hot hydrogen in prebiological and interstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1975-01-01

    Two articles discuss the recent experimental work of Hong et al. on the production of amino acids and gas-phase organic compounds from the ultraviolet irradiation of simple gases, with hot hydrogen atoms used as the principal energy conversion agent. The reaction possibilities involving frozen ices are mentioned in both articles, as well as the significance of three-body collisions in this situation.

  1. Dust clouds in Orion and the interstellar neutral hydrogen distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bystrova, N. V.

    1989-01-01

    According to published examples of the far IR observations in the Orion and its surroundings, several well defined dust clouds of different sizes and structure are present. For comparison of these clouds with the neutral hydrogen distribution on the area of approx. 1000 sq degs, the data from Pulkovo Sky Survey in the interstellar neutral Hydrogen Radio Line as well as special observations with the RATAN-600 telescope in 21 cm line were used. From the materials of Pulkovo HI Survey, the data were taken near the line emission at ten velocities between -21.8 and +25.6 km/s LSR for the structural component of the interstellar hydrogen emission. The results given concern mainly the Orion's Great Dust Cloud and the Lambda Orionis region where the information about the situation with the dust and interstellar hydrogen is very essential for interpretation.

  2. Deflection of the Interstellar Neutral Hydrogen Flow Across the Heliospheric Interface: an Interstellar Magnetic Compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallement, R.; Eric, Q.; Jean-Loup, B.; Dimitra, K.; Risto, P.

    2005-05-01

    Analyses of SOHO-SWAN observations show that the interstellar neutral H flow direction differs by about 4 degrees from the neutral He flow direction recently derived with an unprecedented accuracy using combined data sets (Mobius et al, 2004). The most likely explanation is a distortion of the heliospheric interface under the action of an inclined interstellar magnetic field, with imprints of the distorsion on the neutral H flow due to charge-transfer reactions between H atoms and ions. The direction of the ambient interstellar magnetic field and the heliospheric shape can be derived from the observed deviation. Implications for Voyager trajectories are discussed.

  3. Vacuum ultraviolet photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons . I. Interstellar H2 and CH4 formation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alata, I.; Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Muñoz Caro, G. M.; Dartois, E.

    2014-09-01

    Context. The interstellar hydrogenated amorphous carbons (HAC or a-C:H) observed in the diffuse medium are expected to disappear in a few million years, according to the destruction time scale from laboratory measurements. The existence of a-C:H results from the equilibrium between photodesorption, radiolysis, hydrogenation and resilience of the carbonaceous network. During this processing, many species are therefore injected into the gas phase, in particular H2, but also small organic molecules, radicals or fragments. Aims: We perform experiments on interstellar a-C:H analogs to quantify the release of these species in the interstellar medium. Methods: The vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of interstellar hydrogenated amorphous carbon analogs was performed at low (10 K) to ambient temperature, coupled to mass-spectrometry detection and temperature-programed desorption. Using deuterium isotopic substitution, the species produced were unambiguously separated from background contributions. Results: The VUV photolysis of hydrogenated amorphous carbons leads to the efficient production of H2 molecules, but also to small hydrocarbons. Conclusions: These species are formed predominantly in the bulk of the a-C:H analog carbonaceous network, in addition to the surface formation. Compared with species made by the recombination of H atoms and physisorbed on surfaces, they diffuse out at higher temperatures. In addition to the efficient production rate, it provides a significant formation route in environments where the short residence time scale for H atoms inhibits H2 formation on the surface, such as PDRs. The photolytic bulk production of H2 with carbonaceous hydrogenated amorphous carbon dust grains can provide a very large portion of the contribution to the H2 molecule formation. These dust grains also release small hydrocarbons (such as CH4) into the diffuse interstellar medium, which contribute to the formation of small carbonaceous radicals after being dissociated

  4. Charge transfer reactions in multiply charged ion-atom collisions. [in interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, G.

    1975-01-01

    Charge-transfer reactions in collisions between highly charged ions and neutral atoms of hydrogen and/or helium may be rapid at thermal energies. If these reactions are rapid, they will suppress highly charged ions in H I regions and guarantee that the observed absorption features from such ions cannot originate in the interstellar gas. A discussion of such charge-transfer reactions is presented and compared with the available experimental data. The possible implications of these reactions for observations of the interstellar medium, H II regions, and planetary nebulae are outlined.

  5. Local Interstellar Hydrogen's Disappearance at 1 Au: Four Years of IBEX in the Rising Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, Lukas; Bzowski, Maciej; Fuselier, Stephen; Kubiak, Marzena; McComas, Dave; Möbius, Eberhard; Sokół, Justina; Rodríguez, Diego; Scheer, Juergen; Wurz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission has recently opened a new window on the interstellar medium (ISM) by imaging neutral atoms. One "bright" feature in the sky is the interstellar wind flowing into the solar system. Composed of remnants of stellar explosions as well as primordial gas and plasma, the ISM is by no means uniform. The interaction of the local ISM with the solar wind shapes our heliospheric environment with hydrogen being the dominant component of the very local ISM. In this paper, we report on direct sampling of the neutral hydrogen of the local ISM over four years of IBEX observations. The hydrogen wind observed at 1 AU has decreased and nearly disappeared as the solar activity has increased over the last four years; the signal at 1 AU has dropped off in 2012 by a factor of ~8 to near background levels. The longitudinal offset has also increased with time presumably due to greater radiation pressure deflecting the interstellar wind. We present longitudinal and latitudinal arrival direction measurements of the bulk flow as measured over four years beginning at near solar minimum conditions. The H distribution we observe at 1 AU is expected to be different from that outside the heliopause due to ionization, photon pressure, gravity, and filtration by interactions with heliospheric plasma populations. These observations provide an important benchmark for modeling of the global heliospheric interaction. Based on these observations we suggest a further course of scientific action to observe neutral hydrogen over a full solar cycle with IBEX.

  6. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR HYDROGEN'S DISAPPEARANCE AT 1 AU: FOUR YEARS OF IBEX IN THE RISING SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Saul, Lukas; Rodriguez, Diego; Scheer, Juergen; Wurz, Peter; Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena; Sokol, Justina; Fuselier, Stephen; McComas, Dave; Moebius, Eberhard

    2013-04-20

    NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission has recently opened a new window on the interstellar medium (ISM) by imaging neutral atoms. One ''bright'' feature in the sky is the interstellar wind flowing into the solar system. Composed of remnants of stellar explosions as well as primordial gas and plasma, the ISM is by no means uniform. The interaction of the local ISM with the solar wind shapes our heliospheric environment with hydrogen being the dominant component of the very local ISM. In this paper, we report on direct sampling of the neutral hydrogen of the local ISM over four years of IBEX observations. The hydrogen wind observed at 1 AU has decreased and nearly disappeared as the solar activity has increased over the last four years; the signal at 1 AU has dropped off in 2012 by a factor of {approx}8 to near background levels. The longitudinal offset has also increased with time presumably due to greater radiation pressure deflecting the interstellar wind. We present longitudinal and latitudinal arrival direction measurements of the bulk flow as measured over four years beginning at near solar minimum conditions. The H distribution we observe at 1 AU is expected to be different from that outside the heliopause due to ionization, photon pressure, gravity, and filtration by interactions with heliospheric plasma populations. These observations provide an important benchmark for modeling of the global heliospheric interaction. Based on these observations we suggest a further course of scientific action to observe neutral hydrogen over a full solar cycle with IBEX.

  7. The effect of new interstellar medium parameters on the heliosphere and energetic neutral atoms from the interstellar boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Heerikhuisen, J.; Zirnstein, E. J.; Funsten, H. O.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.

    2014-03-05

    Here we present new results from three-dimensional simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) using recent observations by NASA's Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) mission estimates of the velocity and temperature of the LISM. We investigate four strengths of the LISM magnetic field, from 1 to 4 μG, and adjust the LISM proton and hydrogen densities so that the distance to the termination shock (TS) in the directions of the Voyager spacecraft is just below 90 AU, and the density of hydrogen at the TS is close to 0.09 cm-3 in the nose direction. The orientation of the magnetic field is chosen to point toward the center of the ribbon of enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux seen in the IBEX data. Our simulations show that the plasma and neutral properties in the outer heliosheath vary considerably as a function of the LISM magnetic field strength. We also show that the heliotail points downwind in all cases, though its structure is strongly affected by the external magnetic field. Lastly, comparison and consistency between the simulated ENA flux and the circularity of the ribbon as measured by IBEX are most consistent with a LISM magnetic field strength aligned with the center of the ribbon and a magnitude in the range 2.5-3 μG.

  8. The effect of new interstellar medium parameters on the heliosphere and energetic neutral atoms from the interstellar boundary

    DOE PAGES

    Heerikhuisen, J.; Zirnstein, E. J.; Funsten, H. O.; ...

    2014-03-05

    Here we present new results from three-dimensional simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) using recent observations by NASA's Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) mission estimates of the velocity and temperature of the LISM. We investigate four strengths of the LISM magnetic field, from 1 to 4 μG, and adjust the LISM proton and hydrogen densities so that the distance to the termination shock (TS) in the directions of the Voyager spacecraft is just below 90 AU, and the density of hydrogen at the TS is close to 0.09 cm-3 in the nose direction. The orientationmore » of the magnetic field is chosen to point toward the center of the ribbon of enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux seen in the IBEX data. Our simulations show that the plasma and neutral properties in the outer heliosheath vary considerably as a function of the LISM magnetic field strength. We also show that the heliotail points downwind in all cases, though its structure is strongly affected by the external magnetic field. Lastly, comparison and consistency between the simulated ENA flux and the circularity of the ribbon as measured by IBEX are most consistent with a LISM magnetic field strength aligned with the center of the ribbon and a magnitude in the range 2.5-3 μG.« less

  9. The effect of new interstellar medium parameters on the heliosphere and energetic neutral atoms from the interstellar boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Heerikhuisen, J.; Zirnstein, E. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Funsten, H. O.

    2014-03-20

    We present new results from three-dimensional simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) using recent observations by NASA's Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) mission estimates of the velocity and temperature of the LISM. We investigate four strengths of the LISM magnetic field, from 1 to 4 μG, and adjust the LISM proton and hydrogen densities so that the distance to the termination shock (TS) in the directions of the Voyager spacecraft is just below 90 AU, and the density of hydrogen at the TS is close to 0.09 cm{sup –3} in the nose direction. The orientation of the magnetic field is chosen to point toward the center of the ribbon of enhanced energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux seen in the IBEX data. Our simulations show that the plasma and neutral properties in the outer heliosheath vary considerably as a function of the LISM magnetic field strength. We also show that the heliotail points downwind in all cases, though its structure is strongly affected by the external magnetic field. Comparison and consistency between the simulated ENA flux and the circularity of the ribbon as measured by IBEX are most consistent with a LISM magnetic field strength aligned with the center of the ribbon and a magnitude in the range 2.5-3 μG.

  10. A survey of local interstellar hydrogen from OAO-2 observations of Lyman alpha absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, B. D.; Jenkins, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    The Wisconsin far ultraviolet spectrometer aboard OAO-2 observed the wavelength region near 1216 A for 69 stars of spectral type B2 or earlier. From the strength of the observed interstellar L sub alpha absorption, atomic hydrogen column densities were derived over distances averaging 300 pc away from the sun. The OAO data were compared to synthetic ultraviolet spectra, originally derived from earlier higher resolution rocket observations, which were computer processed to simulate the effects of absorption by different amounts of hydrogen followed by the instrumental blending.

  11. Abundance of atomic carbon /C I/ in dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. G.; Huggins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The abundance of interstellar neutral atomic carbon is investigated by means of its ground state fine-structure line emission at 492 GHz using the 91.5 cm telescope of NASAs Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Atomic carbon is found to be very abundant in dense interstellar molecular clouds with column densities of about 10 to the 19th per sq cm. Because the observations have considerably greater column densities than current theories of carbon chemistry, it is suggested that the physical conditions of these clouds are not as simple as assumed in the models. Various situations are discussed which would lead to large C I abundances, including the possibility that the chemical lifetimes of the clouds are relatively short.

  12. Charting the Interstellar Magnetic Field causing the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Ribbon of Energetic Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Seriacopi, D. B.; Wiktorowicz, S. J.; Andersson, B.-G.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.; Slavin, J. D.; Hanson, A. J.; Fu, C.-W.

    2015-12-01

    .8}-27.6+23.5 between {B}{POL} and the bulk LSR velocity the local interstellar material indicates a geometry that is consistent with an expanding superbubble. The efficiency of grain alignment in the local interstellar medium has been assessed using stars where both polarization data and hydrogen column density data are available. Nearby stars appear to have larger polarizations than expected based on reddened sightlines, which is consistent with previous results, but uncertainties are large. Optical polarization and color excess E(B - V) data indicate the presence of nearby interstellar dust in the BICEP2 field. Color excess E(B - V) indicates an optical extinction of AV > 0.6 in the BICEP2 field, while the polarization data indicate that AV > 0.09 mag. The IBEX Ribbon ISMF extends to the boundaries of the BICEP2 region.

  13. Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

  14. Atomic hydrogen in planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stephen E.; Silverglate, Peter R.; Altschuler, Daniel R.; Giovanardi, Carlo

    1987-01-01

    The authors searched for neutral atomic hydrogen associated with 22 planetary nebulae and three evolved stars in the 21 cm line at the Arecibo Observatory. Objects whose radial velocities permitted discrimination from Galactic H I were chosen for observation. Hydrogen was detected in absorption from IC 4997. From the measurements new low limits are derived to the mass of atomic hydrogen associated with the undetected nebulae. Radio continuum observations were also made of several of the nebulae at 12.6 cm. The authors reexamine previous measurements of H I in planetary nebulae, and present the data on a consistent footing. The question of planetary nebula distances is considered at length. Finally, implications of the H I measurements for nebular evolution are discussed and it is suggested that atomic hydrogen seen in absorption was expelled from the progenitor star during the final 1000 yr prior to the onset of ionization.

  15. The neutral atomic phases of the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfire, M. G.; Hollenbach, D.; Mckee, C. F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the thermal equilibrium gas temperature of the diffuse interstellar medium. Our method incorporates a new photoelectric heating rate from small grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that accounts for a size distribution of particles extending from 100 to 3 A radius. We also include a detailed treatment of the ionization rates and heating due to the soft X-ray background and due to cosmic rays. Phase diagrams (thermal pressure P versus hydrogen density n) are presented for gas that is illuminated by local interstellar far-ultraviolet (FUV) and X-ray radiation fields. A stable two-phase medium is produced with thermal pressure in the range P/k approximately = to 10(exp 3-4) K/cc. We demonstrate that photoelectric heating from PAHs dominates in the warm neutral phase (WNM) and cold neutral phase (CNM). If the C II (158 micrometers cooling per hydrogen nucleus in the solar neighborhood represents an average value for the Galaxy, we predict L(sub CII) approximately = to 7 x 10(exp 7) solar luminosities from the CNM in the Galaxy, comparable to that observed by the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). We discuss the dependence of the results on absorbing column density, gas phase abundances, dust abundances and metallicity, FUV field, and the X-ray radiation field. These results will be useful in modeling the multiphase structure of high-velocity clouds in the halo, the interstellar matter (ISM) at other galactocentric radii, and the ISM in external galaxies and galactic nuclei.

  16. The structure and evolution of hydrogenated amorphous carbon grains and mantles in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.; Duley, W. W.; Williams, D. A.

    1990-12-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbons (HACs) have been proposed as the major constituent of interstellar dust. The HAC model can account successfully for observed properties of interstellar dust, and has great predictive power. A review is presented of relevant laboratory data on amorphous carbon, known to exist in three major phases: graphitic, diamondlike, and polymeric. These data indicate the probable nature of HAC in the interstellar medium. The properties of the HAC dust model, the deposition of HAC in the interstellar medium, and its evolution as interstellar conditions change are summarized. The properties of laboratory HAC in its various forms account successfully for observed interstellar extinction and for variations in extinction, for infrared emission features, and for extended red emission seen in reflection nebulae. A full evolutionary sequence that links the various HAC modifications found in different interstellar environments is proposed. It is concluded that the interstellar dust is an active component of the interstellar medium, responsive to its environment.

  17. Hydrogenation reactions in interstellar CO ice analogues. A combined experimental/theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, G. W.; Cuppen, H. M.; Ioppolo, S.; Romanzin, C.; Bisschop, S. E.; Andersson, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2009-10-01

    Context: Hydrogenation reactions of CO in inter- and circumstellar ices are regarded as an important starting point in the formation of more complex species. Previous laboratory measurements by two groups of the hydrogenation of CO ices provided controversial results about the formation rate of methanol. Aims: Our aim is to resolve this controversy by an independent investigation of the reaction scheme for a range of H-atom fluxes and different ice temperatures and thicknesses. To fully understand the laboratory data, the results are interpreted theoretically by means of continuous-time, random-walk Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Reaction rates are determined by using a state-of-the-art ultra high vacuum experimental setup to bombard an interstellar CO ice analog with H atoms at room temperature. The reaction of CO + H into H2CO and subsequently CH3OH is monitored by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer in a reflection absorption mode. In addition, after each completed measurement, a temperature programmed desorption experiment is performed to identify the produced species according to their mass spectra and to determine their abundance. Different H-atom fluxes, morphologies, and ice thicknesses are tested. The experimental results are interpreted using Monte Carlo simulations. This technique takes into account the layered structure of CO ice. Results: The formation of both formaldehyde and methanol via CO hydrogenation is confirmed at low temperature (T = 12{-}20 K). We confirm that the discrepancy between the two Japanese studies is caused mainly by a difference in the applied hydrogen atom flux, as proposed by Hidaka and coworkers. The production rate of formaldehyde is found to decrease and the penetration column to increase with temperature. Temperature-dependent reaction barriers and diffusion rates are inferred using a Monte Carlo physical chemical model. The model is extended to interstellar conditions to compare with observational H2CO/CH3OH data.

  18. Discovery of molecular hydrogen fluorescence in the diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Christopher; Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1990-01-01

    The first detection of molecular hydrogen fluorescence in the diffuse interstellar medium is reported. Using the Berkeley UVX Shuttle Spectrometer, H2 Lyman band fluorescence has been observed in four directions, each with high significance. Molecular hydrogen fluorescence is detected in all directions that have previously been found to contain significant CO emission. A simple equilibrium model has been developed that includes attenuation of the incident UV radiation field by H2 line and dust continuum absorption. Evidence is found that the gas in the CO emission portions of the clouds may be clumpy, with a filling factor less than 0.2 and an average density greater than 30/cu cm in most cases.

  19. GPGPU Approach: Simulation of the Interaction of Heavy Interstellar Atoms with the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeStefano, A.

    2014-12-01

    Running simulations is an involved process taking many hours of computational time to complete. With the advent of cluster computing and parallel processing, problems may be solved in much less time compared to those run in serial. Specifically, NVIDIA released the parallel computing platform CUDA in 2007 giving researchers and programmers access to the GPU to solve generalized problems, and not those of just images.In current research, code has previously been developed to study the interaction of the heliosphere and heavy atoms from the local interstellar medium.Ionized species of hydrogen, helium and other heavy atoms are deflected by the heliosphere where as the neutral species are relatively unimpeded. Charge exchange of these neutral particles may occur between ionized species originating from the solar wind or other populations of pickup ions (PUI) modifying the shape and properties of the heliosphere, compared to one without neutrals. The details of the charge exchange interaction are element dependent and need to be investigated one by one. Current research has studied the interaction of local interstellar hydrogen with the heliosphere quite extensively with theory, simulations and modeling.Since hydrogen is the most abundant element care must be taken when coupling MHD equations with the charge exchange interactions. Simulation code has been developed to account for this dynamic problem and they have shown that the shape of the heliosphere is affected by this. Interstellar atoms heavier than hydrogen interacting with the heliosphere has been looked at as well, but not nearly with as much detail or sophisticated models as hydrogen. The heavy atom data collected by IBEX has in this sense been under-utilized by models.Previously, the simulation was computed with the use of MPI (Message Passing Interface) for parallelization. This approach provided a decrease in computational time. However, CUDA enables the programmer to take advantage of the computer

  20. Transport properties of atomic hydrogen.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, A. C.; Smith, F. J.

    1971-01-01

    Determination of a new set of values for the coefficients of viscosity and thermal conductivity of atomic hydrogen in the range from 1 to 100,000 K. The estimated error is about 5%. Quantal theory was used for low temperatures and classical theory for high temperatures. There is excellent agreement between the two theories as low as 20 K.-

  1. Molecular hydrogen formation by excited atom radiative association

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latter, William B.; Black, John H.

    1991-01-01

    The results from a semiclassical calculation of the thermal rate coefficient for the radiative association process H(n = 2) + H(n = 1) - H2 + hv are presented (n is the principal quantum number of the separated hydrogen atoms). The relative importance of this reaction in various environments is briefly discussed. Models of the early universe around the epoch of recombination and protostellar winds have been calculated which include the excited atom process. Not surprisingly, it is shown that the excited atom process will not be important in the general interstellar medium, except possibly in environments where the amount of Ly-alpha photon trapping is large. Examples may be the material surrounding quasars, active galactic nuclei, and bright H II regions. The most likely application of this process might be within rapidly evolving systems where a large transient n = 2 population of neutral hydrogen could result in a burst of molecular hydrogen formation.

  2. The formation of molecules in interstellar clouds from singly and multiply ionized atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The suggestion is considered that multiply ionized atoms produced by K- and L-shell X-ray ionization and cosmic-ray ionization can undergo ion-molecule reactions and also initiate molecule production. The role of X-rays in molecule production in general is discussed, and the contribution to molecule production of the C(+) radiative association with hydrogen is examined. Such gas-phase reactions of singly and multiply ionized atoms are used to calculate molecular abundances of carbon-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-bearing species. The column densities of the molecules are evaluated on the basis of a modified version of previously developed isobaric cloud models. It is found that reactions of multiply ionized carbon with H2 can contribute a significant fraction of the observed CH in diffuse interstellar clouds in the presence of diffuse X-ray structures or discrete X-ray sources and that substantial amounts of CH(+) can be produced under certain conditions.

  3. Energy storage possibilities of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etters, R. D.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Palmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of storing large amounts of energy in a free radical system such as atomic hydrogen is analyzed. Attention is focused on theoretical calculations of the ground state properties of spin-aligned atomic triplet hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium. The solid-liquid phase transition in atomic hydrogen is also examined.

  4. NASA atomic hydrogen standards program: An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhardt, V. S.; Kaufmann, D. C.; Adams, W. A.; Deluca, J. J.; Soucy, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Comparisons are made between the NP series and the NX series of hydrogen masers. A field operable hydrogen maser (NR series) is also described. Atomic hydrogen primary frequency standards are in development stages. Standards are being developed for a hydrogen beam frequency standard and for a concertina hydrogen maser.

  5. The Atomic to Molecular Transition in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    Study of H2 in UV and IR continues to surprise us with complexity of excitation state, OPR, and role in astrochemistry. Atomic H in molecular clouds is a very powerful tool suggesting that they are not "young" but that it takes millions of years to convert primarily atomic hydrogen clouds to 99.9% molecular form. Laboratory data suggests that H2 formation is efficient over broader range of temperatures than thought to be the case a few years ago, but range is still limited. Issues of complex grain morphology and surface structure make this a very difficult field in which to obtain definitively meaningful results. Ongoing and future observations of CI and CII will improve our understanding of the structure of clouds, their total mass, and how they have evolved and will continue to do so.

  6. Atomic hydrogen storage method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compounds maintained at liquid helium temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules.

  7. Hydrogen atom in phase space

    SciTech Connect

    Chetouani, L.; Hammann, T.F.

    1987-03-01

    The Hamiltonian of the three-dimensional hydrogen atom is reduced, in parabolic coordinates, to the Hamiltonians of two bidimensional harmonic oscillators, by doing several space-time transformations,separating the movement along the three parabolic directions (xi,eta,phi), and introducing two auxiliary angular variables psi and psi', 0less than or equal topsi, psi'less than or equal to2..pi... The Green's function is developed into partial Green's functions, and expressed in terms of two Green's functions that describe the movements along both the xi and eta axes. Introducing auxiliary Hamiltonians allows one to calculate the Green's function in the configurational space, via the phase-space evolution function of the two-dimensional harmonic oscillator. The auxiliary variables psi and psi' are eliminated by projection. The thus-obtained Green's function, save for a multiplicating factor, coincides with that calculated following the path-integral formalism.

  8. Ionisation of atomic hydrogen by positron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spicher, Gottfried; Olsson, Bjorn; Raith, Wilhelm; Sinapius, Guenther; Sperber, Wolfgang

    1990-01-01

    With the crossed beam apparatus the relative impact-ionization cross section of atomic hydrogen by positron impact was measured. A layout of the scattering region is given. The first measurements on the ionization of atomic hydrogen by positron impact are also given.

  9. KAULAKYS: Inelastic collisions between hydrogen atoms and Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    KAULAKYS calculates cross sections and rate coefficients for inelastic collisions between Rydberg atoms and hydrogen atoms according to the free electron model of Kaulakys (1986, 1991). It is written in IDL and requires the code MSWAVEF (ascl:1701.006) to calculate momentum-space wavefunctions. KAULAKYS can be easily adapted to collisions with perturbers other than hydrogen atoms by providing the appropriate scattering amplitudes.

  10. Detection of the 610 micron /492 GHz/ line of interstellar atomic carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, T. G.; Huggins, P. J.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Miller, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-state transition of neutral atomic carbon, 3P1-3P0, has been detected in the interstellar medium at the frequency of 492.162 GHz determined in the laboratory by Saykally and Evenson (1980). The observations were made from the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory using an InSb heterodyne bolometer receiver. The line was detected as strong emission from eight molecular clouds and apparently provides a widely useful probe of the interstellar medium.

  11. Absorption Reveals and Hydrogen Addition Explains New Interstellar Aldehydes: Propenal and Propanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Remijan, A.; Mollendal, H.

    2004-01-01

    New interstellar molecules propenal (CH2CHCHO) and propanal (CH3CH2CHO) have been detected largely in absorption toward the star-forming region Sagittarius B2(N) by means of rotational transitions observed with the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT) operating in the range of 18 GHz (lambda approximately 1.7 cm) to 26 GHz (lambda approximately 1.2 cm). The GBT was also used to observe the previously reported interstellar aldehyde propynal (HC2CHO) in Sagittarius B2(N) which is known for large molecules believed to form on interstellar grains. The presence of these three interstellar aldehydes toward Sagittarius B2(N) strongly suggests that simple hydrogen addition on interstellar grains accounts for successively larger molecular species: from propynal to propenal and from propenal to propanal. Energy sources within Sagittarius B2(N) likely permit the hydrogen addition reactions on grain surfaces to proceed. This work demonstrates that successive hydrogen addition is probably an important chemistry route in the formation of a number of complex interstellar molecules. We also searched for but did not detect the three-carbon sugar glyceraldehyde (CH2OHCHOHCHO).

  12. Benchmarking Attosecond Physics with Atomic Hydrogen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-25

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12 Mar 12 – 11 Mar 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The research team obtained uniquely reliable reference data on atomic interactions with intense few-cycle laser pulses...AND SUBTITLE Benchmarking attosecond physics with atomic hydrogen 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA2386-12-1-4025 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  13. COMPETING MECHANISMS OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FORMATION IN CONDITIONS RELEVANT TO THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G.; Baouche, S.; Chehrouri, M.; Chaabouni, H.; Mokrane, H.

    2010-12-20

    The most efficient mechanism of the formation of molecular hydrogen in the current universe is by association of hydrogen atoms on the surface of interstellar dust grains. The details of the processes of its formation and release from the grain are of great importance in the physical and chemical evolution of the space environments where it takes place. The main puzzle is still the fate of the 4.5 eV released in H{sub 2} formation and whether it goes into internal energy (rovibrational excitation), translational kinetic energy, or heating of the grain. The modality of the release of this energy affects the dynamics of the ISM and its evolution toward star formation. We present results of the detection of the rovibrational states of the just-formed H{sub 2} as it leaves the surface of a silicate. We find that rovibrationally excited molecules are ejected into the gas phase immediately after formation over a much wider range of grain temperatures than anticipated. Our results can be explained by the presence of two mechanisms of molecule formation that operate in partially overlapping ranges of grain temperature. A preliminary analysis of the relative importance of these two mechanisms is given. These unexpected findings, which will be complemented with experiments on the influence of factors such as silicate morphology, should be of great interest to the astrophysics and astrochemistry communities.

  14. Photometric Observations of Interstellar Hydrogen by HDAC: In-flight Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Horst Uwe; Skorov, Yuri; Reulke, Ralf; Glaßmeier, Karl-Heinz; Reshetnyk, Volodymyr

    2014-05-01

    HDAC is part of the ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (UVIS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The instrument scans the Lyman-α emission lines of hydrogen and deuterium atoms. In the photometer mode only the CEM detector is used to register the signals within a 3 degree field of view (FOV). HDAC has been switched on in photometer mode most of the time producing a unique continuous data set for more than a decade. An analysis of the Lyman-α background data serves two purposes: determination of the parameters of the interstellar/interplanetary hydrogen and determination of the properties of the solar wind. The exhaustive pre-flight laboratory calibrations included evaluation of the absolute sensitivity of the instrument; evaluation of the instrument spectral sensitivity; evaluation of the off-axis response. During the mission these characteristics may change over time due to continuous time degradation of electronics and/or abrupt events. We have systematically analyzed photometric observations of the star SPICA in order to perform in-flight calibrations. All three aspects listed above were explored. We find that the instrument is still in good condition. The current sensitivity of 12 count/s/Rayleigh is sufficient to provide good signal to noise data. Off-axis responsivity is non-uniform and visibly differs from pre-flight determinations. At the same time the shape of the spatial sensitivity response is constant and can be used for all observations. Because of the rather wide FOV and spectral sensitivity of HDAC stellar contributions are always in the data. This leads to considerable disturbances in the measured signal during observations. In order to clean the data, we use the TD1 Catalog of Stellar Ultraviolet Fluxes. That allows us to estimate flux values around 120 nm for many bright UV stars. The developed software detects secondary local peaks and cleans the measurements visibly. HDAC is part of the Cassini UVIS instrument and is operated independently but

  15. AN ESTIMATE OF THE NEARBY INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD USING NEUTRAL ATOMS

    SciTech Connect

    Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2011-09-01

    The strength and orientation of the magnetic field in the nearby interstellar medium have remained elusive, despite continual improvements in observations and models. Data from NASA's Voyager mission and the Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) experiment on board Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) have placed observational constraints on the magnetic field, and the more recent Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) data appear to also bear an imprint of the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF). In this paper, we combine computational models of the heliosphere with data from Voyager, SOHO/SWAN, and IBEX to estimate both the strength and direction of the nearby ISMF. On the basis of our simulations, we find that a field strength of 2-3 {mu}G pointing from ecliptic coordinates (220-224, 39-44), combined with an interstellar hydrogen density of {approx}0.15 cm{sup -3}, produces results most consistent with observations.

  16. Atomic hydrogen storage method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compound is maintained at liquid helium temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules.

  17. One- and two-dimensional hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassoun, G. Q.

    1981-02-01

    Certain one- and two-dimensional reductions of the three-dimensional Schrödinger equation of the hydrogen atom are considered. These reductions are carried out from the point of view of the two common sets of space coordinates: Cartesian and spherical. The resulting systems have features that relate more readily to the old quantum theory models of Bohr and Sommerfeld than the general three-dimensional hydrogen atom. Furthermore, the considerations yield interesting insights into the quantum mechanics of the hydrogen atom and may serve as helpful intermediary preparation, in an introductory presentation of the subject, for the unreduced three-dimensional case.

  18. Effects of hydrogen atom spin exchange collisions on atomic hydrogen maser oscillation frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crampton, S. B.

    1979-01-01

    Frequency shifts due to collisions between hydrogen atoms in an atomic hydrogen maser frequency standard are studied. Investigations of frequency shifts proportional to the spin exchange frequency shift cross section and those proportional to the duration of exchange collisions are discussed. The feasibility of operating a hydrogen frequency standard at liquid helium temperatures is examined.

  19. Atomic hydrogen as a launch vehicle propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of several atomic hydrogen launch vehicles was conducted. A discussion of the facilities and the technologies that would be needed for these vehicles is also presented. The Gross Liftoff Weights (GLOW) for two systems were estimated; their specific impulses (I sub sp) were 750 and 1500 lb (sub f)/s/lb(sub m). The atomic hydrogen launch vehicles were also compared to the currently planned Advanced Launch System design concepts. Very significant GLOW reductions of 52 to 58 percent are possible over the Advanced Launch System designs. Applying atomic hydrogen propellants to upper stages was also considered. Very high I(sub sp) (greater than 750 1b(sub f)/s/lb(sub m) is needed to enable a mass savings over advanced oxygen/hydrogen propulsion. Associated with the potential benefits of high I(sub sp) atomic hydrogen are several challenging problems. Very high magnetic fields are required to maintain the atomic hydrogen in a solid kilogauss (3 Tesla). Also the storage temperature of the propellant is 4 K. This very low temperature will require a large refrigeration facility for the launch vehicle. The design considerations for a very high recombination rate for the propellant are also discussed. A recombination rate of 210 cm/s is predicted for atomic hydrogen. This high recombination rate can produce very high acceleration for the launch vehicle. Unique insulation or segmentation to inhibit the propellant may be needed to reduce its recombination rate.

  20. The Hydrogen Atom: The Rutherford Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilton, Homer Benjamin

    1996-06-01

    Early this century Ernest Rutherford established the nuclear model of the hydrogen atom, presently taught as representing the best visual model after modification by Niels Bohr and Arnold Sommerfeld. It replaced the so-called "plum pudding" model of J. J. Thomson which held sway previously. While the Rutherford model represented a large step forward in our understanding of the hydrogen atom, questions remained, and still do.

  1. Energy storage possibilities of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etters, R. D.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Palmer, R.

    1976-01-01

    Several recent experiments designed to produce and store macroscopic quantities of atomic hydrogen are discussed. The bulk, ground state properties of atomic hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium systems are calculated assuming that all pair interactions occur via the atomic triplet potential. The conditions required to obtain this system, including inhibition of recombination through the energetically favorable singlet interaction, are discussed. The internal energy, pressure, and compressibility are calculated applying the Monte Carlo technique with a quantum mechanical variational wavefunction. The system studied consisted of 32 atoms in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Results show that atomic triplet hydrogen and deuterium remain gaseous at 0 K; i.e., the internal energy is positive at all molar volumes considered.

  2. Solid Hydrogen Formed for Atomic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2000-01-01

    Several experiments on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium were recently conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The solid hydrogen experiments are the first step toward seeing these particles and determining their shape and size. The particles will ultimately store atoms of boron, carbon, or hydrogen, forming an atomic propellant. Atomic propellants will allow rocket vehicles to carry payloads many times heavier than possible with existing rockets or allow them to be much smaller and lighter. Solid hydrogen particles are preferred for storing atoms. Hydrogen is generally an excellent fuel with a low molecular weight. Very low temperature hydrogen particles (T < 4 K) can prevent the atoms from recombining, making it possible for their lifetime to be controlled. Also, particles that are less than 1 mm in diameter are preferred because they can flow easily into a pipe when suspended in liquid helium. The particles and atoms must remain at this low temperature until the fuel is introduced into the engine combustion (or recombination) chamber. Experiments were, therefore, planned to look at the particles and observe their formation and any changes while in liquid helium.

  3. Detection of interstellar hydrogen sulfide in cold, dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minh, Y. C.; Irvine, W. M.; Ziurys, L. M.

    1989-01-01

    Interstellar H2S has been detected toward the cold, dark clouds L134N and TMC 1. Total column densities at the SO peak of L134N and the NH3 peak of TMC 1 are found to be about 2.6 X 10 to the 13th/sq cm and 7.0 X 10 to the 12th/sq cm, respectively. The results suggest that grain surface reactions may play a major role in the synthesis of H2S in cold, dark clouds.

  4. Atomic hydrogen as a launch vehicle propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Palaszewski, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of several atomic hydrogen launch vehicles was conducted. A discussion of the facilities and the technologies that would be needed for these vehicles is also presented. The Gross Liftoff Weights (GLOW) for two systems were estimated; their specific impulses (I{sub sp}) were 750 and 1500 lb{sub f}/s/lb{sub m}. The atomic hydrogen launch vehicles were also compared to the currently planned Advanced Launch System design concepts. Very significant GLOW reductions of 52 to 58 percent are possible over the Advanced Launch System designs. Applying atomic hydrogen propellants to upper stages was also considered. Very high I{sub sp} (greater than 750 lb{sub f}/s/lb{sub m}) is needed to enable a mass savings over advanced oxygen/hydrogen propulsion. Associated with the potential benefits of high I(sub sp) atomic hydrogen are several challenging problems. Very high magnetic fields are required to maintain the atomic hydrogen in a solid hydrogen matrix. The magnetic field strength was estimated to be 30 kilogauss (3 Tesla). Also the storage temperature of the propellant is 4 K. This very low temperature will require a large refrigeration facility for the launch vehicle. The design considerations for a very high recombination rate for the propellant are also discussed. A recombination rate of 210 cm/s is predicted for atomic hydrogen. This high recombination rate can produce very high acceleration for the launch vehicle. Unique insulation or segmentation to inhibit the propellant may be needed to reduce its recombination rate.

  5. Atomic hydrogen as a launch vehicle propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of several atomic hydrogen launch vehicles was conducted. A discussion of the facilities and the technologies that would be needed for these vehicles is also presented. The Gross Liftoff Weights (GLOW) for two systems were estimated; their specific impulses (I sub sp) were 750 and 1500 lb(sub f)/s/lb(sub m). The atomic hydrogen launch vehicles were also compared to the currently planned Advanced Launch System design concepts. Very significant GLOW reductions of 52 to 58 percent are possible over the Advanced Launch System designs. Applying atomic hydrogen propellants to upper stages was also considered. Very high I(sub sp) (greater than 750 lb(sub f)/s/lb(sub m)) is needed to enable a mass savings over advanced oxygen/hydrogen propulsion. Associated with the potential benefits of high I(sub sp) atomic hydrogen are several challenging problems. Very high magnetic fields are required to maintain the atomic hydrogen in a solid hydrogen matrix. The magnetic field strength was estimated to be 30 kilogauss (3 Tesla). Also the storage temperature of the propellant is 4 K. This very low temperature will require a large refrigeration facility for the launch vehicle. The design considerations for a very high recombination rate for the propellant are also discussed. A recombination rate of 210 cm/s is predicted for atomic hydrogen. This high recombination rate can produce very high acceleration for the launch vehicle. Unique insulation or segmentation to inhibit the propellant may be needed to reduce its recombination rate.

  6. Laboratory Experiments on the Reactions of PAH Cations with Molecules and Atoms of Interstellar Interest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LePage, V.; Lee, H. S.; Bierbaum, V. M.; Snow, T. P.

    1996-01-01

    The C10H8(+) cation and its dehydrogenated derivatives, C10H7(+) and C10H6(+), have been studied using a selected ion flow tube (SIFT). Reactions with molecules and atoms of interstellar interest show that C10H8(+) reacts with N md O to give neutral products HCN and CO, respectively. C10H6(+) and C10H6(+) are moderately reactive and reactions proceed through association with molecules. The implications of these results for the depletion of C10H(n)(+) in the interstellar medium are briefly discussed.

  7. The distribution of neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium. 1: The data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fruscione, Antonella; Hawkins, Isabel; Jelinsky, Patrick; Wiercigroch, Alexandria

    1994-01-01

    We compile, from the existing literature, the largest sample to date (842 data points) of hydrogen column density measurements, N(H I), of the gas in the interstellar medium. We include only results obtained from absorption measurements toward individual stars (594 in our sample) in an effort to construct a three-dimensional picture of the interstellar gas. We derive hydrogen column densities toward a fraction of the stars in the sample from published column density measurements of metal ions. A three-dimensional physical model derived from this data set will be presented in a companion paper. The observed stars span distances from a few parsecs to a few thousand parsecs, and more than half of the sample serves to describe the local interstellar medium within a few hundred parsecs of the Sun. Hydrogen column densities range from 10(exp 17) to 10(exp 22)/sq cm. We describe here the various observational methods used to estimate the hydrogen column densities and present the table with the stellar and hydrogen column density data. The provided table is intended as a global reference work, not to introduce new results.

  8. Chiral glycine formation on cold interstellar grains by quantum tunneling hydrogen-deuterium substitution reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Kouchi, Akira

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental evidence that chiral glycine (NH2CHDCOOH) is formed by the surface reaction of normal glycine (NH2CH2COOH) solid with deuterium (D) atom at 12 K under the simulative conditions of interstellar molecular clouds. Chiral glycine formation is most likely initiated by the tunneling abstraction reaction of H atom by D atom followed by the addition of D atom to the glycine radical (NH2CHCOOH). Given that chiral glycine can form in such a primordial low-temperature environment, it might source molecular chirality as molecular clouds evolve into planetary systems.

  9. Detection of interstellar pick-up hydrogen in the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Geiss, J.; Balsiger, H.; Fisk, L. A.; Galvin, A. B.; Ipavich, F. M.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Von Steiger, R.; Wilken, B.

    1993-01-01

    Interstellar hydrogen ionized primarily by the solar wind has been detected by the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft at a distance of 4.8 AUs from the sun. This 'pick-up' hydrogen is identified by its distinct velocity distribution function, which drops abruptly at twice the local solar wind speed. From the measured fluxes of pick-up protons and singly charged helium, the number densities of neutral hydrogen and helium in the distant regions of the solar system are estimated to be 0.077 +/- 0.015 and 0.013 +/- 0.003 per cu cm, respectively.

  10. Detection of interstellar pick-up hydrogen in the solar system.

    PubMed

    Gloeckler, G; Galvin, A B; Ipavich, F M; Geiss, J; Balsiger, H; von Steiger, R; Fisk, L A; Ogilvie, K W; Wilken, B

    1993-07-02

    Interstellar hydrogen ionized primarily by the solar wind has been detected by the SWICS instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft at a distance of 4.8 astronomical units from the sun. This "pick-up" hydrogen is identified by its distinct velocity distribution function, which drops abruptly at twice the local solar wind speed. From the measured fluxes of pick-up protons and singly charged helium, the number densities of neutral hydrogen and helium in the distant regions of the solar system are estimated to be 0.077 +/- 0.015 and 0.013 +/- 0.003 per cubic centimeter, respectively.

  11. The heating of interstellar clouds by vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecher, T. P.; Williams, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The possibility that vibrationally excited H2 may be collisionally de-excited, so providing a heating mechanism for interstellar clouds which operates by coupling the stellar radiation to the gas, is discussed. The majority of excitations in the Lyman and Werner bands of H2 return the molecules to the ground electronic state in a vibrationally excited level, the most favored level being 7. The heating rate obtained in this way is compared with other mechanisms which have been postulated, and the results of calculations of temperature as a function of depth into clouds of different densities are presented. It appears that this mechanism is a significant one, which should be taken into account in detailed models of dense clouds.

  12. The Direction of the Neutral Hydrogen Velocity in the Inner Heliosphere as a Possible Interstellar Magnetic Field Compass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Zank, Gary P.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the physical reasons that lead to the deflection of the interstellar neutral hydrogen flow from the direction of propagation of neutral helium in the inner heliosheath. On the basis of numerical simulations, the possibilities are investigated for deriving the orientation of the interstellar magnetic field as a function of the deflection angle.

  13. Spectroscopic detection of molecular hydrogen frozen in interstellar ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Geballe, Thomas R.

    1993-01-01

    A weak infrared absorption feature near 4141 wavenumbers (2.415 micrometers) in the spectrum of WL5, an infrared source in the rho Ophiuchus cloud complex, has been detected. It is attributed to molecular hydrogen created by irradiation and frozen in situ into water-rich ices. A second, broader absorption at 4125 wavenumbers centimeters (2.424 micrometers) is probably due to methanol in the ices. The column densities of frozen molecular hydrogen and methanol are inferred to be about 2.5 x 10(exp 18) and 3.0 x 10(exp 19), respectively. There is about three times more frozen molecular hydrogen than frozen carbon monoxide along this line of sight.

  14. Diffuse interstellar bands versus known atomic and molecular species in the interstellar medium of M82 toward SN 2014J

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, Daniel E.; York, Donald G.; Ritchey, Adam M.; Dahlstrom, Julie A.

    2014-09-10

    We discuss the absorption due to various constituents of the interstellar medium (ISM) of M82 seen in moderately high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra of SN 2014J. Complex absorption from M82 is seen, at velocities 45 ≲ v {sub LSR} ≲ 260 km s{sup –1}, for Na I, K I, Ca I, Ca II, CH, CH{sup +}, and CN; many of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are also detected. Comparisons of the column densities of the atomic and molecular species and the equivalent widths of the DIBs reveal both similarities and differences in relative abundances, compared to trends seen in the ISM of our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. Of the 10 relatively strong DIBs considered here, 6 (including λ5780.5) have strengths within ±20% of the mean values seen in the local Galactic ISM, for comparable N(K I); 2 are weaker by 20%-45% and 2 (including λ5797.1) are stronger by 25%-40%. Weaker than 'expected' DIBs (relative to N(K I), N(Na I), and E(B – V)) in some Galactic sight lines and toward several other extragalactic supernovae appear to be associated with strong CN absorption and/or significant molecular fractions. While the N(CH)/N(K I) and N(CN)/N(CH) ratios seen toward SN 2014J are similar to those found in the local Galactic ISM, the combination of high N(CH{sup +})/N(CH) and high W(5797.1)/W(5780.5) ratios has not been seen elsewhere. The centroids of many of the M82 DIBs are shifted relative to the envelope of the K I profile—likely due to component-to-component variations in W(DIB)/N(K I) that may reflect the molecular content of the individual components. We compare estimates for the host galaxy reddening E(B – V) and visual extinction A {sub V} derived from the various interstellar species with the values estimated from optical and near-IR photometry of SN 2014J.

  15. Radiation of partially ionized atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soon, W. H.; Kunc, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A nonlinear collisional-radiative model for determination of production of electrons, positive and negative ions, excited atoms, and spectral and continuum line intensities in stationary partially ionized atomic hydrogen is presented. Transport of radiation is included by coupling the rate equations for production of the electrons, ions, and excited atoms with the radiation escape factors, which are not constant but depend on plasma conditions. It is found that the contribution of the negative ion emission to the total continuum emission can be important. Comparison of the calculated total continuum emission coefficient, including the negative ion emission, is in good agreement with experimental results.

  16. Energetic hydrogen atoms in wave driven discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Felizardo, E.; Tatarova, E.; Henriques, J.; Dias, F. M.; Ferreira, C. M.; Gordiets, B.

    2011-07-25

    Doppler broadened H{sub {gamma}} emission was detected in high frequency (350 and 500 MHz) hydrogen surface wave sustained discharges, revealing the presence of fast excited H atoms with kinetic energies in the range 4-9 eV. Spatially resolved measurements of the Doppler-broadened emission indicate that these fast atoms are predominantly formed near the wall, which suggests that their generation may result from acceleration of H{sup +} ions in the radial dc space charge field followed by recombination at the wall and the return of the neutral atom to the gas phase.

  17. Compact microwave cavity for hydrogen atomic clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Dejun; Zhang, Yan; Fu, Yigen; Zhang, Yanjun

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented that introduces the compact microwave cavity used in the hydrogen atomic clock. Special emphasis is placed on derivation of theoretical calculating equations of main parameters of the microwave cavity. A brief description is given of several methods for discriminating the oscillating modes. Experimental data and respective calculated values are also presented.

  18. Photoionization of atomic hydrogen in electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlov, Timofey V; Danilov, Viatcheslav V

    2010-01-01

    Laser assisted ionization of high energy hydrogen beams in magnetic fields opens wide application possibilities in accelerator physics and other fields. The key theoretical problem of the method is the calculation of the ionization probability of a hydrogen atom affected by laser and static electric fields in the particle rest frame. A method of solving this problem with the temporal Schr dinger equation including a continuum spectrum is presented in this paper in accurate form for the first time. This method allows finding the temporal evolution of the wave function of the hydrogen atom as a function of laser and static electric fields. Solving the problem of photoionization reveals quantum effects that cannot be described by the cross sectional approach. The effects play a key role in the problems of photoionization of H0 beams with the large angular or energy spread.

  19. Atomic line emission analyzer for hydrogen isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for isotopic analysis of hydrogen comprises a low pressure chamber into which a sample of hydrogen is introduced and then exposed to an electrical discharge to excite the electrons of the hydrogen atoms to higher energy states and thereby cause the emission of light on the return to lower energy states, a Fresnel prism made at least in part of a material anomalously dispersive to the wavelengths of interest for dispersing the emitted light, and a photodiode array for receiving the dispersed light. The light emitted by the sample is filtered to pass only the desired wavelengths, such as one of the lines of the Balmer series for hydrogen, the wavelengths of which differ slightly from one isotope to another. The output of the photodiode array is processed to determine the relative amounts of each isotope present in the sample. Additionally, the sample itself may be recovered using a metal hydride.

  20. The abundance of deuterium relative to hydrogen in interstellar space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, D. G.; Rogerson, J. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Copernicus satellite observations of the deuterium and hydrogen Lyman lines in the lines of sight to mu COl, gamma-2 Vel, alpha Cru AB, and alpha Vir AB are reported. Together with previously published data for beta Cen A, the results yield a value N(D)/N(H) of approximately 0.000018 (m.e.) or a total deuterium mass portion of approximately 0.000025. Values for all stars with their error bars are contained within a band ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 times the quoted mean ratio. These limits are probably representative of the region within 200 pc of the sun. The results for these stars are essentially independent of assumptions about the Doppler parameter describing the formation of the lines, although this value can be derived from the observations. The results are consistent with a maximum temperature of 6000 K for the lines of sight studied.

  1. Hydrogenation of interstellar molecules: a survey for methylenimine (CH2NH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, J. E.; Irvine, W. M.; DeVries, C. H.; Ohishi, M.

    1997-01-01

    Methylenimine (CH2NH) has been convincingly detected for the first time outside the Galactic center as part of a study of the hydrogenation of interstellar molecules. We have observed transitions from energy levels up to about 100 K above the ground state in the giant molecular clouds W51, Orion KL and G34.3 + 0.15. In addition, CH2NH was found at the " radical-ion peak" on the quiescent ridge of material in the Orion molecular cloud. The abundance ratio CH2NH/HCN at the radical-ion peak agrees with the predictions of recent gas-phase chemical models. This ratio is an order of magnitude higher in the warmer cloud cores, suggesting additional production pathways for CH2NH, probably on interstellar grains.

  2. Changes in interstellar atomic abundances from the galactic plane to the halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    A few, specially selected interstellar absorption lines were measured in the high resolution, far ultraviolet spectra of 200 O and B type stars observed by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). For lines of sight extending beyond about 500 pc from the galactic plane, the abundance of singly ionized iron atoms increases relative to singly ionized sulfur. However, the relative abundances of singly ionized sulfur, silicon and aluminum do not seem to change appreciably. An explanation for the apparent increase of iron is the partial sputtering of material off the surfaces of dust grains by interstellar shocks. Another possibility might be that the ejecta from type I supernovae enrich the low density medium in the halo with iron.

  3. Solar wind heating beyond 1 AU. [interplanetary atomic hydrogen gas effect on protons and electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzer, T. E.; Leer, E.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of an interplanetary atomic hydrogen gas on solar wind proton, electron and alpha-particle temperatures beyond 1 AU is considered. It is shown that the proton temperature (and probably also the alpha-particle temperature) reaches a minimum between 2 AU and 4 AU, depending on values chosen for solar wind and interstellar gas parameters. Heating of the electron gas depends primarily on the thermal coupling of the protons and electrons. For strong coupling, the electron temperature reaches a minimum between 4 AU and 8 AU, but for weak coupling (Coulomb collisions only), the electron temperature continues to decrease throughout the inner solar system. A spacecraft travelling to Jupiter should be able to observe the heating effect of the solar wind-interplanetary hydrogen interaction, and from such observations it may be possible of infer some properties of the interstellar neutral gas.

  4. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    This paper illustrates experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes, their molecular structure transitions, and their agglomeration times were estimated. article sizes of 1.8 to 4.6 mm (0.07 to 0. 18 in.) were measured. The particle agglomeration times were 0.5 to 11 min, depending on the loading of particles in the dewar. These experiments are the first step toward visually characterizing these particles, and allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  5. Gauge-invariant hydrogen-atom Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Weimin; Wang Fan; Chen Xiangsong; Lue Xiaofu

    2010-07-15

    For quantum mechanics of a charged particle in a classical external electromagnetic field, there is an apparent puzzle that the matrix element of the canonical momentum and Hamiltonian operators is gauge dependent. A resolution to this puzzle was recently provided by us [X.-S. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 232002 (2008)]. Based on the separation of the electromagnetic potential into pure-gauge and gauge-invariant parts, we have proposed a new set of momentum and Hamiltonian operators which satisfy both the requirement of gauge invariance and the relevant commutation relations. In this paper we report a check for the case of the hydrogen-atom problem: Starting from the Hamiltonian of the coupled electron, proton, and electromagnetic field, under the infinite proton mass approximation, we derive the gauge-invariant hydrogen-atom Hamiltonian and verify explicitly that this Hamiltonian is different from the Dirac Hamiltonian, which is the time translation generator of the system. The gauge-invariant Hamiltonian is the energy operator, whose eigenvalue is the energy of the hydrogen atom. It is generally time dependent. In this case, one can solve the energy eigenvalue equation at any specific instant of time. It is shown that the energy eigenvalues are gauge independent, and by suitably choosing the phase factor of the time-dependent eigenfunction, one can ensure that the time-dependent eigenfunction satisfies the Dirac equation.

  6. Interstellar Antifreeze: Ethylene Glycol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Lovas, F. J.; Jewell, P. R.; Coudert, L. H.

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2,OH) has been detected in emission toward the Galactic center source Sagittarius B2(N-LMH) by means of several millimeter-wave rotational torsional transitions of its lowest energy conformer. The types and kinds of molecules found to date in interstellar clouds suggest a chemistry that favors aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols-e.g., formaldehyde (H2CO)/methanol (CH3OH), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO)/ethanol (CH3CH2OH). Similarly, ethylene glycol is the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde (CH2OHCHO), which has also been detected toward Sgr B2(N-LMH). While there is no consensus as to how any such large complex molecules are formed in the interstellar clouds, atomic hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide (CO) could form formaldehyde on grain surfaces, but such surface chemistry beyond that point is uncertain. However, laboratory experiments have shown that the gas-phase reaction of atomic hydrogen (H) and solid-phase CO at 10-20 K can produce formaldehyde and methanol and that alcohols and other complex molecules can be synthesized from cometary ice analogs when subject to ionizing radiation at 15 K. Thus, the presence of aldehyde/ reduced alcohol pairs in interstellar clouds implies that such molecules are a product of a low-temperature chemistry on grain surfaces or in grain ice mantles. This work suggests that aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols provide unique observational constraints on the formation of complex interstellar molecules.

  7. Solid Hydrogen Particles Analyzed for Atomic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    Solid hydrogen particles have been selected as a means of storing atomic propellants in future launch vehicles (refs. 1 to 2). In preparation for this, hydrogen particle formation in liquid helium was tested experimentally. These experiments were conducted to visually characterize the particles and to observe their formation and molecular transformations (aging) while in liquid helium. The particle sizes, molecular transformations, and agglomeration times were estimated from video image analyses. The experiments were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF, ref. 3). The facility has a vacuum tank, into which the experimental setup was placed. The vacuum tank prevented heat leaks and subsequent boiloff of the liquid helium, and the supporting systems maintained the temperature and pressure of the liquid helium bath where the solid particles were created. As the operation of the apparatus was developed, the hydrogen particles were easily visualized. The figures (ref. 1) show images from the experimental runs. The first image shows the initial particle freezing, and the second image shows the particles after the small particles have agglomerated. The particles finally all clump, but stick together loosely. The solid particles tended to agglomerate within a maximum of 11 min, and the agglomerate was very weak. Because the hydrogen particles are buoyant in the helium, the agglomerate tends to compact itself into a flat pancake on the surface of the helium. This pancake agglomerate is easily broken apart by reducing the pressure above the liquid. The weak agglomerate implies that the particles can be used as a gelling agent for the liquid helium, as well as a storage medium for atomic boron, carbon, or hydrogen. The smallest particle sizes that resulted from the initial freezing experiments were about 1.8 mm. About 50 percent of the particles formed were between 1.8 to 4.6 mm in diameter. These very

  8. Energetic neutral atom and interstellar flow observations with IBEX: Implications for the global heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, N. A.; McComas, D. J.; Christian, E. R.; Desai, M. I.; Funsten, H. O.; Fuselier, S. A.; Moebius, E.; Reno, M.; Scherrer, J.; Zirnstein, E.

    2016-03-01

    Since launch in Oct. 2008, IBEX, with its two energetic neutral atom (ENA) cameras, has provided humankind with the first-ever global images of the complex boundary separating the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium (LISM). IBEX's energy-resolved all-sky maps, collected every six months, are yielding remarkable new insights into the heliospheres structure as it is shaped by the combined forces of the local interstellar flow, the local interstellar magnetic field (LISMF), and the evolving solar wind. IBEX has also acquired the first images of ENAs backscattered from the surface of the moon as well as global images of the magnetospheric response to solar wind disturbances. IBEX thus addresses all three Heliophysics science objectives set forth in the 2014 Science Plan for NASAs Science Mission Directorate (SMD) as well as the goals in the recent Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey (NRC 2012). In addition, with the information it provides on the properties of the LISM and the LISMF, IBEX represents a unique bridge between heliophysics and astrophysics, and fills in critical knowledge for understanding the habitability of exoplanetary systems and the future habitability of Earth and the solar system. Because of the few-year time lag due to solar wind and ENA transport, IBEX observed the solar wind/ LISM interaction characteristic of declining phase/solar minimum conditions. In the continuing mission, IBEX captures the response of the interstellar boundaries to the changing structure of the solar wind in its transition toward the "mini" solar maximum and possibly the decline into the next solar minimum. The continuing IBEX mission affords never-to-be-repeated opportunities to coordinate global imaging of the heliospheric boundary with in-situ measurements by the Voyagers as they pass beyond the heliopause and start to directly sample the LISM.

  9. Fourteen Years of Atomic Hydrogen from SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, L. A.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    We present results for atomic hydrogen in the mesopause region (80-100 km) derived from measurements made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the TIMED satellite. SABER has been measuring the vertical distribution of infrared radiation emitted by various atmospheric gases for nearly 14 years, providing important information about chemical species, including atomic oxygen, atomic hydrogen, ozone and hydroxyl; temperature; and the radiation budget in the upper atmosphere. The methodology for the derivation of daytime and nighttime concentrations and volume mixing ratios will be presented. Zonal mean and global average daytime and nighttime concentrations of H, which demonstrate excellent agreement between 87 and 95 km, have been calculated and the results are compared with observations from the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) satellite made nearly 30 years ago. Variability over the course of the SABER mission will be shown, including the apparent inverse dependence on the solar cycle, which stems from the temperature dependence of various reaction rate coefficients for H photochemistry. Results for H near solar max will be compared for Solar Cycles 23 and 24.

  10. The interaction of hydrogen with the {010} surfaces of Mg and Fe olivine as models for interstellar dust grains: a density functional theory study

    PubMed Central

    Downing, C. A.; Ahmady, B.; Catlow, C. R. A.; de Leeuw, N. H.

    2013-01-01

    There is no consensus as yet to account for the significant presence of water on the terrestrial planets, but suggested sources include direct hydrogen adsorption from the parent molecular cloud after the planets’ formation, and delivery of hydrous material via comets or asteroids external to the zone of the terrestrial planets. Alternatively, a more recent idea is that water may have directly adsorbed onto the interstellar dust grains involved in planetary formation. In this work, we use electronic structure calculations based on the density functional theory to investigate and compare the bulk and {010} surface structures of the magnesium and iron end-members of the silicate mineral olivine, namely forsterite and fayalite, respectively. We also report our results on the adsorption of atomic hydrogen at the mineral surfaces, where our calculations show that there is no activation barrier to the adsorption of atomic hydrogen at these surfaces. Furthermore, different surface sites activate the atom to form either adsorbed hydride or proton species in the form of hydroxy groups on the same surface, which indicates that these mineral surfaces may have acted as catalytic sites in the immobilization and reaction of hydrogen atoms to form dihydrogen gas or water molecules. PMID:23734054

  11. Mapping atomic and diffuse interstellar band absorption across the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Mandy; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Sarre, Peter J.; Beckman, John E.

    2015-12-01

    Diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) trace warm neutral and weakly ionized diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). Here we present a dedicated, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic survey of two of the strongest DIBs, at 5780 and 5797 Å, in optical spectra of 666 early-type stars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, along with measurements of the atomic Na I D and Ca II K lines. The resulting maps show for the first time the distribution of DIB carriers across large swathes of galaxies, as well as the foreground Milky Way ISM. We confirm the association of the 5797 Å DIB with neutral gas, and the 5780 Å DIB with more translucent gas, generally tracing the star-forming regions within the Magellanic Clouds. Likewise, the Na I D line traces the denser ISM whereas the Ca II K line traces the more diffuse, warmer gas. The Ca II K line has an additional component at ˜200-220 km s-1 seen towards both Magellanic Clouds; this may be associated with a pan-Magellanic halo. Both the atomic lines and DIBs show sub-pc-scale structure in the Galactic foreground absorption; the 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs show very little correlation on these small scales, as do the Ca II K and Na I D lines. This suggests that good correlations between the 5780 and 5797 Å DIBs, or between Ca II K and Na I D, arise from the superposition of multiple interstellar structures. Similarity in behaviour between DIBs and Na I in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Milky Way suggests the abundance of DIB carriers scales in proportion to metallicity.

  12. Non-thermal hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial upper thermosphere.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianqi; Waldrop, Lara

    2016-12-06

    Model predictions of the distribution and dynamical transport of hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere have long-standing discrepancies with ultraviolet remote sensing measurements, indicating likely deficiencies in conventional theories regarding this crucial atmospheric constituent. Here we report the existence of non-thermal hydrogen atoms that are much hotter than the ambient oxygen atoms in the upper thermosphere. Analysis of satellite measurements indicates that the upper thermospheric hydrogen temperature, more precisely the mean kinetic energy of the atomic hydrogen population, increases significantly with declining solar activity, contrary to contemporary understanding of thermospheric behaviour. The existence of hot hydrogen atoms in the upper thermosphere, which is the key to reconciling model predictions and observations, is likely a consequence of low atomic oxygen density leading to incomplete collisional thermalization of the hydrogen population following its kinetic energization through interactions with hot atomic or ionized constituents in the ionosphere, plasmasphere or magnetosphere.

  13. Non-thermal hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial upper thermosphere

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jianqi; Waldrop, Lara

    2016-01-01

    Model predictions of the distribution and dynamical transport of hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere have long-standing discrepancies with ultraviolet remote sensing measurements, indicating likely deficiencies in conventional theories regarding this crucial atmospheric constituent. Here we report the existence of non-thermal hydrogen atoms that are much hotter than the ambient oxygen atoms in the upper thermosphere. Analysis of satellite measurements indicates that the upper thermospheric hydrogen temperature, more precisely the mean kinetic energy of the atomic hydrogen population, increases significantly with declining solar activity, contrary to contemporary understanding of thermospheric behaviour. The existence of hot hydrogen atoms in the upper thermosphere, which is the key to reconciling model predictions and observations, is likely a consequence of low atomic oxygen density leading to incomplete collisional thermalization of the hydrogen population following its kinetic energization through interactions with hot atomic or ionized constituents in the ionosphere, plasmasphere or magnetosphere. PMID:27922018

  14. Non-thermal hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial upper thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianqi; Waldrop, Lara

    2016-12-01

    Model predictions of the distribution and dynamical transport of hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere have long-standing discrepancies with ultraviolet remote sensing measurements, indicating likely deficiencies in conventional theories regarding this crucial atmospheric constituent. Here we report the existence of non-thermal hydrogen atoms that are much hotter than the ambient oxygen atoms in the upper thermosphere. Analysis of satellite measurements indicates that the upper thermospheric hydrogen temperature, more precisely the mean kinetic energy of the atomic hydrogen population, increases significantly with declining solar activity, contrary to contemporary understanding of thermospheric behaviour. The existence of hot hydrogen atoms in the upper thermosphere, which is the key to reconciling model predictions and observations, is likely a consequence of low atomic oxygen density leading to incomplete collisional thermalization of the hydrogen population following its kinetic energization through interactions with hot atomic or ionized constituents in the ionosphere, plasmasphere or magnetosphere.

  15. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Acacia, P.; Campeanu, R.I.; Horbatsch, M.

    1993-05-01

    We will present integrated cross sections for ionization of atomic hydrogen by positrons. These have been calculated in a distorted-wave approximation using energy-dependent effective charges in the final channel as well as static and polarization potentials in the initial channel. We present two models for calculating the energy-dependent effective charges both of which produce results in good agreement with the recent experimental measurements of Spicher et al. This is in contrast to previous distorted-wave calculations which used fixed effective charges as well as classical trajectory calculations. Both of these latter methods produced results which were substantially below ours and the experimental data.

  16. Atomic Hydrogen in a Galactic Center Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S.; Lockman, F. J.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of ~14 km s-1, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at ~200 km s-1 in a Galactic wind.

  17. Electron impact ionization rates for interstellar neutral H and He atoms near interplanetary shocks: Ulysses observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, W. C.; Phillips, J. L.; Gosling, J. T.; Isenberg, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    During average solar wind flow conditions at 1 AU, ionization rates of interstellar neutrals that penetrate into the inner heliosphere are dominated by charge exchange with solar wind protons for H atoms, and by photoionization for He atoms. During occurrences of strong, coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven interplanetary shock waves near 1 AU, electron impact ionization can make substantial, if not dominating, contributions to interstellar neutral ionization rates in the regions downstream of the shocks. However, electron impact ionization is expected to be relatively less important with increasing heliocentric distance because of the decrease in electron temperature. Ulysses encountered many CME-driven shocks during its journey to and beyond Jupiter, and in addition, encountered a number of strong corotating interaction region (CIR) shocks. These shocks generally occur only beyond approximately 2 AU. Many of the CIR shocks were very strong rivalling the Earth's bow shock in electron heating. We have compared electron impact ionization rates calculated from electron velocity distributions measured downstream from CIR shocks using the Ulysses SWOOPS experiment to charge-exchange rates calculated from measured proton number fluxes and the photoionization rate estimated from an assumed solar photon spectrum typical of solar maximum conditions. We find that, although normally the ratio of electron-impact ionization rates to charge-exchange (for H) and to photoionization (for He) rates amounts to only about one and a few tens of percent, respectively, downstream of some of the stronger CIR shocks they amount to more than 10% and greater than 100%, respectively.

  18. Isotope effects of hydrogen and atom tunnelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchachenko, A. L.; Pliss, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    The abnormally high mass-dependent isotope effects in liquid-phase hydrogen (deuterium) atom transfer reactions, which are customarily regarded as quantum effects, are actually the products of two classical effects, namely, kinetic and thermodynamic ones. The former is determined by the rate constants for atom transfer and the latter is caused by nonbonded (or noncovalent) isotope effects in the solvation of protiated and deuterated reacting molecules. This product can mimic the large isotope effects that are usually attributed to tunnelling. In enzymatic reactions, tunnelling is of particular interest; its existence characterizes an enzyme as a rigid molecular machine in which the residence time of reactants on the reaction coordinate exceeds the waiting time for the tunnelling event. The magnitude of isotope effect becomes a characteristic parameter of the internal dynamics of the enzyme catalytic site. The bibliography includes 61 references.

  19. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes using Atomic Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, Bishun N.; Cassell, Alan M.; Nguyen, Cattien V.; Meyyappan, M.; Han, Jie; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the irradiation of multi walled and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with atomic hydrogen. After irradiating the SWNT sample, a band at 2940/cm (3.4 microns) that is characteristic of the C-H stretching mode is observed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Additional confirmation of SWNT functionalization is tested by irradiating with atomic deuterium. A weak band in the region 1940/cm (5.2 micron) to 2450/cm (4.1 micron) corresponding to C-D stretching mode is also observed in the FTIR spectrum. This technique provides a clean gas phase process for the functionalization of SWNTs, which could lead to further chemical manipulation and/or the tuning of the electronic properties of SWNTs for nanodevice applications.

  20. Hydrogen atom addition to the surface of graphene nanoflakes: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) provide a 2-dimensional (2D) reaction surface in 3-dimensional (3D) interstellar space and have been utilized as a model of graphene surfaces. In the present study, the reaction of PAHs with atomic hydrogen was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) to systematically elucidate the binding nature of atomic hydrogen to graphene nanoflakes. PAHs with n = 4-37 were chosen, where n indicates the number of benzene rings. Activation energies of hydrogen addition to the graphene surface were calculated to be 5.2-7.0 kcal/mol at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, which is almost constant for all PAHs. The binding energies of hydrogen atom were slightly dependent on the size (n): 14.8-28.5 kcal/mol. The absorption spectra showed that a long tail is generated at the low-energy region after hydrogen addition to the graphene surface. The electronic states of hydrogenated graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  1. Atomic hydrogen storage. [cryotrapping and magnetic field strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollam, J. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compound is maintained at liquid temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules.

  2. Atomic hydrogen propellants: Historical perspectives and future possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1993-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, a very high density free-radical propellant, is anticipated to generate a specific impulse of 600-1500 lb-f sec/lb-mass performance; this may facilitate the development of unique launch vehicles. A development status evaluation is presently given for atomic hydrogen investigations. It is noted that breakthroughs are required in the production, storage, and transfer of atomic hydrogen, before this fuel can become a viable rocket propellant.

  3. Hydrogen atom in a laser-plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falaye, Babatunde J.; Sun, Guo-Hua; Liman, Muhammed S.; Oyewumi, K. J.; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2016-11-01

    We scrutinize the behaviour of the eigenvalues of a hydrogen atom in a quantum plasma as it interacts with an electric field directed along θ  =  π and is exposed to linearly polarized intense laser field radiation. We refer to the interaction of the plasma with the laser light as laser-plasma. Using the Kramers-Henneberger (KH) unitary transformation, which is the semiclassical counterpart of the Block-Nordsieck transformation in the quantized field formalism, the squared vector potential that appears in the equation of motion is eliminated and the resultant equation is expressed in the KH frame. Within this frame, the resulting potential and the corresponding wavefunction have been expanded in Fourier series, and using Ehlotzky’s approximation we obtain a laser-dressed potential to simulate an intense laser field. By fitting the exponential-cosine-screened Coulomb potential into the laser-dressed potential, and then expanding it in Taylor series up to O≤ft({{r}4},α 09\\right) , we obtain the eigensolution (eigenvalues and wavefunction) of the hydrogen atom in laser-plasma encircled by an electric field, within the framework of perturbation theory formalism. Our numerical results show that for a weak external electric field and a very large Debye screening parameter length, the system is strongly repulsive, in contrast with the case for a strong external electric field and a small Debye screening parameter length, when the system is very attractive. This work has potential applications in the areas of atomic and molecular processes in external fields, including interactions with strong fields and short pulses.

  4. Activation of extended red emission photoluminescence in carbon solids by exposure to atomic hydrogen and UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furton, Douglas G.; Witt, Adolf N.

    1993-01-01

    We report on new laboratory results which relate directly to the observation of strongly enhanced extended red emission (ERE) by interstellar dust in H2 photodissociation zones. The ERE has been attributed to photoluminescence by hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC). We are demonstrating that exposure to thermally dissociated atomic hydrogen will restore the photoluminescence efficiency of previously annealed HAC. Also, pure amorphous carbon (AC), not previously photoluminescent, can be induced to photoluminesce by exposure to atomic hydrogen. This conversion of AC into HAC is greatly enhanced by the presence of UV irradiation. The presence of dense, warm atomic hydrogen and a strong UV radiation field are characteristic environmental properties of H2 dissociation zones. Our results lend strong support to the HAC photoluminescence explanation for ERE.

  5. SEPARATION OF THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON FROM GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Schwadron, N. A.; Kucharek, H.; Moebius, E. E-mail: harald.kucharek@unh.edu

    2011-04-10

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) observes a remarkable feature, the IBEX ribbon, which has energetic neutral atom (ENA) flux over a narrow region {approx}20{sup 0} wide, a factor of 2-3 higher than the more globally distributed ENA flux. Here, we separate ENA emissions in the ribbon from the distributed flux by applying a transparency mask over the ribbon and regions of high emissions, and then solve for the distributed flux using an interpolation scheme. Our analysis shows that the energy spectrum and spatial distribution of the ribbon are distinct from the surrounding globally distributed flux. The ribbon energy spectrum shows a knee between {approx}1 and 4 keV, and the angular distribution is approximately independent of energy. In contrast, the distributed flux does not show a clear knee and more closely conforms to a power law over much of the sky. Consistent with previous analyses, the slope of the power law steepens from the nose to tail, suggesting a weaker termination shock toward the tail as compared to the nose. The knee in the energy spectrum of the ribbon suggests that its source plasma population is generated via a distinct physical process. Both the slope in the energy distribution of the distributed flux and the knee in the energy distribution of the ribbon are ordered by latitude. The heliotail may be identified in maps of globally distributed flux as a broad region of low flux centered {approx}44{sup 0}W of the interstellar downwind direction, suggesting heliotail deflection by the interstellar magnetic field.

  6. Energetic neutral atoms measured by the interstellar boundary explorer (IBEX): evidence for multiple heliosheath populations

    DOE PAGES

    Desai, M. I.; Allegrini, F. A.; Bzowski, M.; ...

    2013-12-13

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) provide powerful diagnostics about the origin of the progenitor ion populations and the physical mechanisms responsible for their production. In this paper, we extend the work of Desai et al. and Fuselier et al. and combine and compare ENA spectra from the first 3 yr of observations by the IBEX-Hi and -Lo ENA imagers along the lines-of-sight (LOSs) from the inner heliosphere through to the locations of Voyager 1 and 2 with results from an updated physics-based model of the three-dimensional heliosphere and its constituent ion populations. Our resultsmore » show that (1) IBEX ENA fluxes and spectra above ~0.7 keV measured along the LOSs of the Voyagers are consistent with several models in which the parent pickup ion (PUI) populations originate in the inner heliosheath, and (2) a significant fraction of lower energy ENAs between ~0.1-0.5 keV may originate from interstellar neutral gas charge-exchanging with a non-thermalized (hot) population of PUIs in the outer heliosheath beyond the heliopause. Here we discuss the implications of ENAs observed by IBEX originating from distinct parent populations as well as from two distinct locations in the heliospheric interface. In conclusion, these results indicate that ENA spectral measurements at various energies can be used to remotely probe distinct physical processes operating in vastly different regions of the distant heliosphere.« less

  7. Energetic neutral atoms measured by the interstellar boundary explorer (IBEX): evidence for multiple heliosheath populations

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, M. I.; Allegrini, F. A.; Bzowski, M.; Dayeh, M. A.; Funsten, H.; Fuselier, S. A.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Kubiak, M. A.; McComas, D. J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Schwadron, N. A.; Sokół, J. M.; Zank, G. P.; Zirnstein, E. J.

    2013-12-13

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) provide powerful diagnostics about the origin of the progenitor ion populations and the physical mechanisms responsible for their production. In this paper, we extend the work of Desai et al. and Fuselier et al. and combine and compare ENA spectra from the first 3 yr of observations by the IBEX-Hi and -Lo ENA imagers along the lines-of-sight (LOSs) from the inner heliosphere through to the locations of Voyager 1 and 2 with results from an updated physics-based model of the three-dimensional heliosphere and its constituent ion populations. Our results show that (1) IBEX ENA fluxes and spectra above ~0.7 keV measured along the LOSs of the Voyagers are consistent with several models in which the parent pickup ion (PUI) populations originate in the inner heliosheath, and (2) a significant fraction of lower energy ENAs between ~0.1-0.5 keV may originate from interstellar neutral gas charge-exchanging with a non-thermalized (hot) population of PUIs in the outer heliosheath beyond the heliopause. Here we discuss the implications of ENAs observed by IBEX originating from distinct parent populations as well as from two distinct locations in the heliospheric interface. In conclusion, these results indicate that ENA spectral measurements at various energies can be used to remotely probe distinct physical processes operating in vastly different regions of the distant heliosphere.

  8. Reactions of Azine Anions with Nitrogen and Oxygen Atoms: Implications for Titan's Upper Atmosphere and Interstellar Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Cole, Callie A; Demarais, Nicholas J; Snow, Theodore P; Bierbaum, Veronica M

    2015-08-26

    Azines are important in many extraterrestrial environments, from the atmosphere of Titan to the interstellar medium. They have been implicated as possible carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands in astronomy, indicating their persistence in interstellar space. Most importantly, they constitute the basic building blocks of DNA and RNA, so their chemical reactivity in these environments has significant astrobiological implications. In addition, N and O atoms are widely observed in the ISM and in the ionospheres of planets and moons. However, the chemical reactions of molecular anions with abundant interstellar and atmospheric atomic species are largely unexplored. In this paper, gas-phase reactions of deprotonated anions of benzene, pyridine, pyridazine, pyrimidine, pyrazine, and s-triazine with N and O atoms are studied both experimentally and computationally. In all cases, the major reaction channel is associative electron detachment; these reactions are particularly important since they control the balance between negative ions and free electron densities. The reactions of the azine anions with N atoms exhibit larger rate constants than reactions of corresponding chain anions. The reactions of azine anions with O atoms are even more rapid, with complex product patterns for different reactants. The mechanisms are studied theoretically by employing density functional theory; spin conversion is found to be important in determining some product distributions. The rich gas-phase chemistry observed in this work provides a better understanding of ion-atom reactions and their contributions to ionospheric chemistry as well as the chemical processing that occurs in the boundary layers between diffuse and dense interstellar clouds.

  9. Determining interstellar hydrogen and deuterium column densities by means of the Lyman channel of the SPECTRUM UV Rowland spectrograph: a pre-launch feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franchini, Mariagrazia; Morossi, Carlo; Vladilo, G.

    1996-10-01

    approximately 0.1 dex accuracy in the `observed' column densities, were derived by varying the input interstellar hydrogen column density. As a result, we show that the Lyman channel of the SPECTRUM UV Rowland spectrograph is up to the task of deriving accurate H and D column densities of low and medium column density interstellar clouds while it fails for N(HI) >= 10(superscript 21) atoms cm(superscript -2).

  10. Reaction of anthracene with atomic ions of interstellar interest. A FALP measurement at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canosa, A.; Laubé, S.; Rebrion, C.; Pasquerault, D.; Gomet, J. C.; Rowe, B. R.

    1995-11-01

    We present the results obtained on studying the reaction of anthracene with some atomic ions of interstellar interest (He + and C +) and with Ar +. Rate coefficients have been measured at room temperature (293 K) in afterglow experiments using flowing afterglow Langmuir probe-mass spectrometer apparatus. Reactions proceed with rate coefficients of respectively 5.2 × 10 -9, 3 × 10 -9, 1 × 10 -9 cm 3 s -1 for He +, C + and Ar +. The results were obtained with an uncertainty of about 30% and were found to be close to the Langevin rate. The nature of the products has also been investigated. More particularly, the evidence for carbon accretion and for the production of doubly charged species is discussed.

  11. THERMAL REACTIONS OF OXYGEN ATOMS WITH ALKENES AT LOW TEMPERATURES ON INTERSTELLAR DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Michael D.; Price, Stephen D. E-mail: s.d.price@ucl.ac.uk

    2011-11-10

    Laboratory experiments show that the thermal heterogeneous reactions of oxygen atoms may contribute to the synthesis of epoxides in interstellar clouds. The data set also indicates that the contribution of these pathways to epoxide formation, in comparison to non-thermal routes, is likely to be strongly temperature dependent. Our results indicate that an increased abundance of epoxides, relative to the corresponding aldehydes, could be an observational signature of a significant contribution to molecular oxidation via thermal O atom reactions with alkenes. Specifically surface science experiments show that both C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O are readily formed from reactions of ethene and propene molecules with thermalized oxygen atoms at temperatures in the range of 12-90 K. It is clear from our experiments that these reactions, on a graphite surface, proceed with significantly reduced reaction barriers compared with those operating in the gas phase. For both the C{sub 2}H{sub 4} + O and the C{sub 3}H{sub 6} + O reactions, the surface reaction barriers we determine are reduced by approximately an order of magnitude compared with the barriers in the gas phase. The modeling of our experimental results, which determines these reaction barriers, also extracts desorption energies and rate coefficients for the title reactions. Our results clearly show that the major product from the O + C{sub 2}H{sub 4} reaction is ethylene oxide, an epoxide.

  12. Atomic hydrogen maser investigations of hydrogen atom interactions from 4 k to 12 k. Annual summary report 1 Mar 83-29 Feb 84

    SciTech Connect

    Crampton, S.B.

    1983-11-20

    Techniques and data developed during previous studies of the ground state hyperfine resonance of hydrogen atoms intermittently adsorbed on molecular hydrogen surfaces are applied to the development of a Very Low Temperature Atomic Hydrogen Maser incorporating a state-selected hydrogen atom beam with thermal speeds near 5 K. Studies are made of adsorption of hydrogen atoms on molecular hydrogen and atomic neon solid surfaces at 4 K to 12 K.

  13. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer High Energy (IBEX-Hi) Neutral Atom Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funsten, H. O.; Allegrini, F.; Bochsler, P.; Dunn, G.; Ellis, S.; Everett, D.; Fagan, M. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Granoff, M.; Gruntman, M.; Guthrie, A. A.; Hanley, J.; Harper, R. W.; Heirtzler, D.; Janzen, P.; Kihara, K. H.; King, B.; Kucharek, H.; Manzo, M. P.; Maple, M.; Mashburn, K.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Nolin, J.; Piazza, D.; Pope, S.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Rodriguez, B.; Roelof, E. C.; Saul, L.; Turco, S.; Valek, P.; Weidner, S.; Wurz, P.; Zaffke, S.

    2009-08-01

    The IBEX-Hi Neutral Atom Imager of the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission is designed to measure energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) originating from the interaction region between the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium (LISM). These ENAs are plasma ions that have been heated in the interaction region and neutralized by charge exchange with the cold neutral atoms of the LISM that freely flow through the interaction region. IBEX-Hi is a single pixel ENA imager that covers the ENA spectral range from 0.38 to 6 keV and shares significant energy overlap and overall design philosophy with the IBEX-Lo sensor. Because of the anticipated low flux of these ENAs at 1 AU, the sensor has a large geometric factor and incorporates numerous techniques to minimize noise and backgrounds. The IBEX-Hi sensor has a field-of-view (FOV) of 6.5°×6.5° FWHM, and a 6.5°×360° swath of the sky is imaged over each spacecraft spin. IBEX-Hi utilizes an ultrathin carbon foil to ionize ENAs in order to measure their energy by subsequent electrostatic analysis. A multiple coincidence detection scheme using channel electron multiplier (CEM) detectors enables reliable detection of ENAs in the presence of substantial noise. During normal operation, the sensor steps through six energy steps every 12 spacecraft spins. Over a single IBEX orbit of about 8 days, a single 6.5°×360° swath of the sky is viewed, and re-pointing of the spin axis toward the Sun near perigee of each IBEX orbit moves the ecliptic longitude by about 8° every orbit such that a full sky map is acquired every six months. These global maps, covering the spectral range of IBEX-Hi and coupled to the IBEX-Lo maps at lower and overlapping energies, will answer fundamental questions about the structure and dynamics of the interaction region between the heliosphere and the LISM.

  14. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon

    2014-09-01

    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  15. Effects of hydrogen atoms on surface conductivity of diamond film

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fengbin Cui, Yan; Qu, Min; Di, Jiejian

    2015-04-15

    To investigate the effects of surface chemisorbed hydrogen atoms and hydrogen atoms in the subsurface region of diamond on surface conductivity, models of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on diamond with (100) orientation and various concentrations of hydrogen atoms in the subsurface layer of the diamond were built. By using the first-principles method based on density functional theory, the equilibrium geometries and densities of states of the models were studied. The results showed that the surface chemisorbed hydrogen alone could not induce high surface conductivity. In addition, isolated hydrogen atoms in the subsurface layer of the diamond prefer to exist at the bond centre site of the C-C bond. However, such a structure would induce deep localized states, which could not improve the surface conductivity. When the hydrogen concentration increases, the C-H-C-H structure and C-3H{sub bc}-C structure in the subsurface region are more stable than other configurations. The former is not beneficial to the increase of the surface conductivity. However, the latter would induce strong surface states near the Fermi level, which would give rise to high surface conductivity. Thus, a high concentration of subsurface hydrogen atoms in diamond would make significant contributions to surface conductivity.

  16. Surface characterization of silica glass substrates treated by atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Masuno, Atsunobu; Ishibashi, Keiji; Tawarayama, Hiromasa; Zhang, Yingjiu; Utsuno, Futoshi; Koya, Kazuo; Fujinoki, Akira; Kawazoe, Hiroshi

    2013-12-15

    Silica glass substrates with very flat surfaces were exposed to atomic hydrogen at different temperatures and durations. An atomic force microscope was used to measure root-mean-square (RMS) roughness and two-dimensional power spectral density (PSD). In the treatment with atomic hydrogen up to 900 °C, there was no significant change in the surface. By the treatment at 1000 °C, the changes in the RMS roughness and the PSD curves were observed. It was suggested that these changes were caused by etching due to reactions of atomic hydrogen with surface silica. By analysis based on the k-correlation model, it was found that the spatial frequency of the asperities became higher with an increase of the treatment time. Furthermore, the data showed that atomic hydrogen can flatten silica glass surfaces by controlling heat-treatment conditions. - Highlights: • Silica glass surface was treated by atomic hydrogen at various temperatures. • Surface roughness was measured by an atomic force microscope. • Roughness data were analyzed by two-dimensional power spectral density. • Atomic hydrogen can flatten silica glass surfaces.

  17. Molecular Hydrogen in Diffuse Interstellar Clouds of Arbitrary Three-Dimensional Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaans, Marco; Neufeld, David A.

    1997-01-01

    We have constructed three-dimensional models for the equilibrium abundance of molecular hydrogen in diffuse interstellar clouds of arbitrary geometry that are illuminated by ultraviolet radiation. The position-dependent photodissociation rate of H2 in such clouds was computed with a 26 ray approximation to model the attenuation of the incident ultraviolet radiation field by dust and by H2 line absorption. We have applied our modeling technique to the isolated diffuse cloud G236+39, assuming that the cloud has a constant density and that the thickness of the cloud along the line of sight is at every point proportional to the 100 micron continuum intensity measured by IRAS. We find that our model can successfully account for observed variations in the ratio of 100 micron continuum intensity to H I column density, with larger values of that ratio occurring along lines of sight in which the molecular hydrogen fraction is expected to be the largest. Using a standard chi square analysis to assess the goodness of fit of our models, we find (at the 60 a level) that a three-dimensional model is more successful in matching the observational data than a one-dimensional model in which the geometrical extent of the cloud along the line of sight is assumed to be much smaller than its extent in the plane of the sky. If D is the distance to G236 + 39, and given standard assumptions about the rate of grain-catalyzed H2 formation, we find that the cloud has an extent along the line of sight that is 0.9 +/- 0.1 times its mean extent projected onto the plane of the sky and a gas density of 53 +/- 8 (100 pc/D) H nuclei/cc and is illuminated by a radiation field of 1.1 +/- 0.2 (100 pc/D) times the mean interstellar radiation field. The derived 100 micron emissivity per nucleon is 1.13 +/- 0.06 x 10(exp -20) MJy/sr sq cm.

  18. Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of interstellar PAHs: Spectral characteristics and H2 formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, H.; Candian, A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have modelled the abundance distribution and IR emission of the first 3 members of the coronene family in the north-west photodissociation region of the well-studied reflection nebulae NGC 7023. Aims: Our aim was 3-fold: i) analyze the distribution of abundances; (ii) examine the spectral footprints from the hydrogenation state of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); and (iii) assess the role of PAHs in the formation of H2 in photodissociation regions. Methods: To model the physical conditions inside the cloud, we used the Meudon PDR Code, and we gave this as input to our kinetic model. We used specific molecular properties for each PAH, based on the latest data available at the present time. We considered the loss of an H atom or an H2 molecule as multiphoton processes, and we worked under the premise that PAHs with extra H atoms can form H2 through an Eley-Rideal abstraction mechanism. Results: In terms of abundances, we can distinguish clear differences with PAH size. The smallest PAH, coronene (C24H12), is found to be easily destroyed down to the complete loss of all of its H atoms. The largest species circumcircumcoronene (C96H24), is found in its normal hydrogenated state. The intermediate size molecule, circumcoronene (C54H18), shows an intermediate behaviour with respect to the other two, where partial dehydrogenation is observed inside the cloud. Regarding spectral variations, we find that the emission spectra in NGC 7023 are dominated by the variation in the ionization of the dominant hydrogenation state of each species at each point inside the cloud. It is difficult to "catch" the effect of dehydrogenation in the emitted PAH spectra since, for any conditions, only PAHs within a narrow size range will be susceptible to dehydrogenation, being quickly stripped off of all H atoms (and may isomerize to cages or fullerenes). The 3 μm region is the most sensitive one towards the hydrogenation level of PAHs. Conclusions: Based on our results, we

  19. Reactions of substituted benzene anions with N and O atoms: Chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere and the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhe-Chen; Bierbaum, Veronica M.

    2016-06-01

    The likely existence of aromatic anions in many important extraterrestrial environments, from the atmosphere of Titan to the interstellar medium (ISM), is attracting increasing attention. Nitrogen and oxygen atoms are also widely observed in the ISM and in the ionospheres of planets and moons. In the current work, we extend previous studies to explore the reactivity of prototypical aromatic anions (deprotonated toluene, aniline, and phenol) with N and O atoms both experimentally and computationally. The benzyl and anilinide anions both exhibit slow associative electron detachment (AED) processes with N atom, and moderate reactivity with O atom in which AED dominates but ionic products are also formed. The reactivity of phenoxide is dramatically different; there is no measurable reaction with N atom, and the moderate reactivity with O atom produces almost exclusively ionic products. The reaction mechanisms are studied theoretically by employing density functional theory calculations, and spin conversion is found to be critical for understanding some product distributions. This work provides insight into the rich gas-phase chemistry of aromatic ion-atom reactions and their relevance to ionospheric and interstellar chemistry.

  20. Use of Hilbert Curves in Parallelized CUDA code: Interaction of Interstellar Atoms with the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefano, Anthony; Heerikhuisen, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Fully 3D particle simulations can be a computationally and memory expensive task, especially when high resolution grid cells are required. The problem becomes further complicated when parallelization is needed. In this work we focus on computational methods to solve these difficulties. Hilbert curves are used to map the 3D particle space to the 1D contiguous memory space. This method of organization allows for minimized cache misses on the GPU as well as a sorted structure that is equivalent to an octal tree data structure. This type of sorted structure is attractive for uses in adaptive mesh implementations due to the logarithm search time. Implementations using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library and NVIDIA's parallel computing platform CUDA will be compared, as MPI is commonly used on server nodes with many CPU's. We will also compare static grid structures with those of adaptive mesh structures. The physical test bed will be simulating heavy interstellar atoms interacting with a background plasma, the heliosphere, simulated from fully consistent coupled MHD/kinetic particle code. It is known that charge exchange is an important factor in space plasmas, specifically it modifies the structure of the heliosphere itself. We would like to thank the Alabama Supercomputer Authority for the use of their computational resources.

  1. Topics in atomic hydrogen standard research and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.

    1971-01-01

    Hydrogen maser based frequency and time standards have been in continuous use at NASA tracking stations since February 1970, while laboratory work at Goddard has continued in the further development and improvement of hydrogen masers. Concurrently, experimental work has been in progress with a new frequency standard based upon the hydrogen atom using the molecular beam magnetic resonance method. Much of the hydrogen maser technology is directly applicable to the new hydrogen beam standard, and calculations based upon realistic data indicate that the accuracy potential of the hydrogen atomic beam exceeds that of either the cesium beam tube or the hydrogen maser, possibly by several orders of magnitude. In addition, with successful development, the hydrogen beam standard will have several other performance advantages over other devices, particularly exceptional stability and long continuous operating life. Experimental work with a new laboratory hydrogen beam device has recently resulted in the first resonance transition curves, measurements of relative state populations, beam intensities, etc. The most important aspects of both the hydrogen maser and the hydrogen beam work are covered.

  2. Stability of the interstellar hydrogen inflow longitude from 20 years of SOHO/SWAN observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroumpa, D.; Quémerais, E.; Katushkina, O.; Lallement, R.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Schmidt, W.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: A recent debate on the decade-long stability of the interstellar He flow vector, and in particular the flow longitude, has prompted us to check for any variability in the interstellar H flow vector as observed by the SWAN instrument on board SOHO. Methods: We used a simple model-independent method to determine the interstellar H flow longitude, based on the parallax effects induced on the Lyman-α intensity measured by SWAN following the satellite motion around the Sun. Results: Our results show that the interstellar H flow vector longitude does not vary significantly from an average value of 252.9°± 1.4° throughout the 20-year span of the SWAN dataset, further strengthening the arguments for the stability of the interstellar gas flow.

  3. Solid Hydrogen Particles and Flow Rates Analyzed for Atomic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments were conducted at Glenn's Small Multipurpose Research Facility (SMIRF, ref. 5). The experimental setup was placed in the facility's vacuum tank to prevent heat leaks and subsequent boiloff of the liquid helium. Supporting systems maintained the temperature and pressure of the liquid helium bath where the solid particles were created. Solid hydrogen particle formation was tested from February 23 to April 2, 2001. Millimeter-sized solid-hydrogen particles were formed in a Dewar of liquid helium as a prelude to creating atomic fuels and propellants for aerospace vehicles. Atomic fuels or propellants are created when atomic boron, carbon, or hydrogen is stored in solid hydrogen particles. The current testing characterized the solid hydrogen particles without the atomic species, as a first step to creating a feed system for the atomic fuels and propellants. This testing did not create atomic species, but only sought to understand the solid hydrogen particle formation and behavior in the liquid helium. In these tests, video images of the solid particle formation were recorded, and the total mass flow rate of the hydrogen was measured. The mass of hydrogen that went into the gaseous phase was also recorded using a commercially available residual gas analyzer. The temperatures, pressures, and flow rates of the liquids and gases in the test apparatus were recorded as well. Testing conducted in 1999 recorded particles as small as 2 to 5 mm in diameter. The current testing extended the testing conditions to a very cold Dewar ullage gas of about 20 to 90 K above the 4 K liquid helium. With the very cold Dewar gas, the hydrogen freezing process took on new dimensions, in some cases creating particles so small that they seemed to be microscopic, appearing as infinitesimally small scintillations on the videotaped images.

  4. Characterization of an atomic hydrogen source for charge exchange experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leutenegger, M. A.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Betancourt-Martinez, G. L.; Brown, G. V.; Hell, N.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Magee, E. W.; Porter, F. S.

    2016-11-01

    We characterized the dissociation fraction of a thermal dissociation atomic hydrogen source by injecting the mixed atomic and molecular output of the source into an electron beam ion trap containing highly charged ions and recording the x-ray spectrum generated by charge exchange using a high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer. We exploit the fact that the charge exchange state-selective capture cross sections are very different for atomic and molecular hydrogen incident on the same ions, enabling a clear spectroscopic diagnostic of the neutral species.

  5. Precision Spectroscopy of Atomic Hydrogen and the Proton Size Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udem, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Precise determination of transition frequencies of simple atomic systems are required for a number of fundamental applications such as tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED), the determination of fundamental constants and nuclear charge radii. The sharpest transition in atomic hydrogen occurs between the metastable 2S state and the 1S ground state. Its transition frequency has now been measured with almost 15 digits accuracy using an optical frequency comb and a cesium atomic clock as a reference. A recent measurement of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen is in significant contradiction to the hydrogen data if QED calculations are assumed to be correct. We hope to contribute to the resolution of this so called `proton size puzzle' by providing additional experimental input from the hydrogen side.

  6. Investigation of low temperature atomic hydrogen spin-exchange collisions using a cryogenic hydrogen maser

    SciTech Connect

    Walsworth, R.L.; Mattison, E.M.; Vessot, R.F.C.; Silvera, I.F.

    1993-05-01

    We have used a cryogenic hydrogen maser to study ground state atomic hydrogen spin-exchange collisions at temperatures near 0.5 K. Recent quantum-mechanical treatments of low energy atomic collisions predict that hyperfine-induced spin-exchange frequency shifts will become large at low temperatures, and will affect the performance of new atomic frequency standards such as the cryogenic hydrogen maser and the cesium fountain. We have measured the effects of low temperature spin-exchange collisions on maser line-broadening and frequency, and in particular the hyperfine-induced frequency shift.

  7. FUSE Survey of Interstellar Molecular Hydrogen Toward 45 High-Latitude AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmon, K.; Shull, J. M.; Danforth, C.; Tumlinson, J.

    2006-06-01

    We report results from a Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen (H2) along 45 sightlines to background AGN at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 20°). The high-latitude sightlines are effective at probing diffuse gas in the low Galactic halo, including large-scale gaseous structures. FUSE spectra of 87% (39 of 45) of the observed AGN show detectable Galactic H2 absorption from the Lyman and Werner bands between 920 and 1126 Å, with detected column densities ranging from N(H2)=1014.17-19.82 cm-2. Our survey is sensitive to N(H2)>1013.8-14.6 cm-2, depending on the S/N (2--11 per pixel) and spectral resolution (R=15,000-20,000). The broad range of column densities indicates large fluctuations in the spatial structure of high-latitude H2 clouds, particularly at b > 54°. In the northern hemisphere, we identify many regions of low N(H2) (≤ 1015 cm-2) between (l=60°-180° and b>54°). These ``H2 holes" may be related to the ``Northern Chimney" (region of low Na I absorption, Lallement et al. 2003) and the ``Lockman Hole" (region of low NHI, Lockman et al. 1986). A comparison of these high-latitude results with those from our FUSE survey of ˜130 OB-star sightlines in the Galactic disk suggests that that halo and disk clouds have different physical properties. The mean rotational temperature, < T01halo > = 125 ± 15 K, is higher than that found in the Galactic disk, < T01disk >= 86 ± 20 K. Because this H2 temperature is elevated compared to gas in the Milky Way disk (Savage et al. 1977; Shull et al. 2004) or in the LMC/SMC (Tumlinson et al. 2002), it may imply enhanced heating or reduced cooling rates in Galactic halo diffuse H2 clouds. The transition to appreciable molecular fractions, fH2 > 0.01, in our halo sample occurs at a lower total hydrogen column density (log NHhalo = 20.35) than in the Galactic disk (log NHdisk = 20.7), possibly indicating reduced H2 photodissociation rates offsetting a lower formation rate on

  8. A FUSE Survey of Interstellar Molecular Hydrogen toward High-Latitude AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillmon, Kristen; Shull, J. Michael; Tumlinson, Jason; Danforth, Charles

    2006-01-01

    We report results from a Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) survey of interstellar molecular hydrogen (H2) along 45 sight lines to AGNs at high Galactic latitudes (b>20deg). Most (39 out of 45) of the sight lines show detectable Galactic H2 absorption from Lyman and Werner bands between 1000 and 1126 Å, with column densities ranging from NH2=1014.17 to 1019.82 cm-2. In the northern Galactic hemisphere, we identify many regions of low NH2 (<=1015 cm-2) between l=60deg and 180° and at b>54deg. These ``H2 holes'' provide valuable, uncontaminated sight lines for extragalactic UV spectroscopy, and a few may be related to the ``Northern Chimney'' (low Na I absorption) and the ``Lockman Hole'' (low NHI). A comparison of high-latitude H2 with 139 OB star sight lines surveyed in the Galactic disk suggests that high-latitude and disk H2 clouds may have different rates of heating, cooling, and UV excitation. For rotational states J=0 and 1, the mean excitation temperature at high latitude, =124+/-8 K, is somewhat higher than that in the Galactic disk, =86+/-20 K. For J>=2, the mean =498+/-28 K, and the column-density ratios, N(3)/N(1), N(4)/N(0), and N(4)/N(2), indicate a comparable degree of UV excitation in the disk and low halo for sight lines with NH2>=1018 cm-2. The distribution of molecular fractions at high latitude shows a transition at lower total hydrogen column density (logNhlH~20.38+/-0.13) than in the Galactic disk (logNdiskH~20.7). If the UV radiation fields are similar in disk and low halo, this suggests an enhanced H2 (dust-catalyzed) formation rate in higher density, compressed clouds, which could be detectable as high-latitude, sheetlike infrared cirrus.

  9. Fast metastable hydrogen atoms from H2 molecules: twin atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimèche, A.; Houdoux, D.; Rahmat, G.; Dulieu, O.; Schneider, I. F.; Medina, A.; Jalbert, G.; Zappa, F.; de Carvalho, C. R.; Nascimento, R. F.; de Castro Faria, N. V.; Robert, J.

    2015-01-01

    It is a difficult task to obtain "twin atoms", i.e. pairs of massive particles such that one can perform experiments in the same fashion that is routinely done with "twin photons". One possible route to obtain such pairs is by dissociating homonuclear diatomic molecules. We address this possibility by investigating the production of metastable H(2s) atoms coming from the dissociation of cold H2 molecules produced in a Campargue nozzle beam crossing an electron beam from a high intensity pulsed electron gun. Dissociation by electron impact was chosen to avoid limitations of target molecular excited states due to selection rules. Detectors placed several centimeters away from the collision center, and aligned with respect to possible common molecular dissociation channel, analyze the neutral fragments as a function of their time-of-flight (TOF) through Lyman-α detection. Evidence for the first time observed coincidence of pairs of H(2s) atoms obtained this way is presented.

  10. Atomic Diffusion in Solid Molecular Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Belonoshko, Anatoly B.; Ramzan, Muhammad; Mao, Ho-kwang; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    We performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the C2c and Cmca-12 phases of hydrogen at pressures from 210 to 350 GPa. These phases were predicted to be stable at 0 K and pressures above 200 GPa. However, systematic studies of temperature impact on properties of these phases have not been performed so far. Filling this gap, we observed that on temperature increase diffusion sets in the Cmca-12 phase, being absent in C2c. We explored the mechanism of diffusion and computed melting curve of hydrogen at extreme pressures. The results suggest that the recent experiments claiming conductive hydrogen at the pressure around 260 GPa and ambient temperature might be explained by the diffusion. The diffusion might also be the reason for the difference in Raman spectra obtained in recent experiments. PMID:23902995

  11. Diffusion mobility of the hydrogen atom with allowance for the anharmonic attenuation of migrating atom state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashlev, Y. A.

    2017-04-01

    Evolution of vibration relaxation of hydrogen atoms in metals with the close-packed lattice at high and medium temperatures is investigated based on non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics, in that number on using the retarded two-time Green function method. In accordance with main kinetic equation - the generalized Fokker- Plank- Kolmogorov equation, anharmonism of hydrogen atoms vibration in potential wells does not make any contribution to collision effects. It influences the relaxation processes at the expense of interference of fourth order anharmonism with single-phonon scattering on impurity hydrogen atoms. Therefore, the total relaxation time of vibration energy of system metal-hydrogen is written as a product of two factors: relaxation time of system in harmonic approximation and dimensionless anharmonic attenuation of quantum hydrogen state.

  12. Interstellar Grain Surface Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Chemistry on grain surfaces plays an Important role in the formation of interstellar Ices, It can also influence the composition of the gas phase through outgassing near luminous, newly formed stars. This paper reviews the chemical processes taking place on Interstellar grain surfaces with the emphasis on those transforming CO into other hydrocarbons. At low, molecular cloud temperatures (approximately equal to 10K), physisorption processes dominate interstellar grain surface chemistry and GO is largely hydrogenated through reactions with atomic H and oxidized through reactions with atomic O. The former will lead to the formation of H2CO and CH3OH ices, while the latter results in CO2 ice. The observational evidence for these ices in molecular clouds will be discussed. Very close to protostars, the gas and grain temperatures are much higher (approximately equal to 500K) and chemisorption processes, including catalytic surface reactions, becomes important. This will be illustrated based upon our studies of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of CH4 from CO on metallic surfaces. Likely, this process has played an important role in the early solar nebula. Observational consequences will be pointed out.

  13. Cold atomic hydrogen in the inner galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. M.; Garwood, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The VLA is used to measure 21 cm absorption in directions with the absolute value of b less than 1 deg., the absolute value of 1 less than 25 deg. to probe the cool atomic gas in the inner galaxy. Abundant H I absorption is detected; typical lines are deep and narrow, sometimes blending in velocity with adjacent features. Unlike 21 cm emission not all allowed velocities are covered: large portions of the l-v diagram are optically thin. Although not similar to H I emission, the absorption shows a striking correspondence with CO emission in the inner galaxy: essentially every strong feature detected in one survey is seen in the other. The provisional conclusion is that in the inner galaxy most cool atomic gas is associated with molecular cloud complexes. There are few or no cold atomic clouds devoid of molecules in the inner galaxy, although these are common in the outer galaxy.

  14. Thermochemical nonequilibrium in atomic hydrogen at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. K.

    1972-01-01

    A numerical study of the nonequilibrium flow of atomic hydrogen in a cascade arc was performed to obtain insight into the physics of the hydrogen cascade arc. A rigorous mathematical model of the flow problem was formulated, incorporating the important nonequilibrium transport phenomena and atomic processes which occur in atomic hydrogen. Realistic boundary conditions, including consideration of the wall electrostatic sheath phenomenon, were included in the model. The governing equations of the asymptotic region of the cascade arc were obtained by writing conservation of mass and energy equations for the electron subgas, an energy conservation equation for heavy particles and an equation of state. Finite-difference operators for variable grid spacing were applied to the governing equations and the resulting system of strongly coupled, stiff equations were solved numerically by the Newton-Raphson method.

  15. Differential cross sections for muonic atom scattering from hydrogenic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczak, Andrzej

    2006-10-15

    The differential cross sections for low-energy muonic hydrogen atom scattering from hydrogenic molecules are directly expressed by the corresponding amplitudes for muonic atom scattering from hydrogen-isotope nuclei. The energy and angular dependence of these three-body amplitudes is thus taken naturally into account in scattering from molecules, without involving any pseudopotentials. Effects of the internal motion of nuclei inside the target molecules are included for every initial rotational-vibrational state. These effects are very significant as the considered three-body amplitudes often vary strongly within the energy interval < or approx. 0.1 eV. The differential cross sections, calculated using the presented method, have been successfully used for planning and interpreting many experiments in low-energy muon physics. Studies of {mu}{sup -} nuclear capture in p{mu} and the measurement of the Lamb shift in p{mu} atoms created in H{sub 2} gaseous targets are recent examples.

  16. Measurements of atomic splittings in atomic hydrogen and the proton charge radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessels, E. A.

    2016-09-01

    The proton charge radius can be determined from precise measurements of atomic hydrogen spectroscopy. A review of the relevant measurements will be given, including an update on our measurement of the n=2 Lamb shift. The values obtained from hydrogen will be compared to those obtained from muonic hydrogen and from electron-proton elastic scattering measurements. This work is funded by NSERC, CRC and CFI.

  17. Multiple scattering and charged-particle - hydrogen-atom collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, V.; Thomas, B. K.

    1979-01-01

    Glauber-approximation scattering amplitudes for charged-particle - hydrogen-atom elastic and inelastic collisions are derived directly in terms of the known particle-electron and particle-proton Coulomb scattering amplitudes and the known hydrogen-atom form factors. It is shown that the particle-hydrogen amplitude contains no single-scattering term. The double-scattering term is obtained as a two-dimensional integral in momentum space. It is demonstrated how the result can be used as the starting point for an alternative and relatively simple derivation, in closed form, of the Glauber particle-hydrogen scattering amplitude for transitions from the ground state to an arbitrary (nlm) state.

  18. Boussard Interstellar Ramjet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Boussard Interstellar Ramjet engine concept uses interstellar hydrogen scooped up from its environment as the spacecraft passes by to provide propellant mass. The hydrogen is then ionized and then collected by an electromagentic field. In this image, an onboard laser is uded to heat the plasma, and the laser or electron beam is used to trigger fusion pulses thereby creating propulsion.

  19. Inactivation of bacteriophage, DNA, and ribonuclease by thermal hydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Jung, H; Kürzinger, K

    1968-12-01

    T1 phage, BU-T1 phage, infectious DNA extracted from phage phiX 174, and chromatographically purified ribonuclease were exposed to thermal hydrogen atoms, and the loss of plaque-forming ability, infectivity, or enzymatic activity was determined after various exposure times. Atomic hydrogen was generated by two different methods: (1) by a high-frequency discharge in hydrogen gas and (2) by irradiating a foil of polyethyleneter-ephthalate with 2-MeV protons. With increasing exposure time the surviving fraction of all objects tested approaches a constant level. After subtracting this constant "indestructible" fraction in either system, all objects were inactivated according to exponential curves. Furthermore, no BU sensitization was found to occur in BU-T1 phage exposed to atomic hydrogen, whereas gamma irradiation of samples from the same batches revealed a BU effect of a factor of 2.2. These experiments demonstrate hydrogen atoms to be efficient in causing biological damage. Consequently the terminology of "direct" and "indirect" radiation effect may have to be redefined.

  20. Atomic hydrogen distribution. [in Titan atmospheric model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabarie, N.

    1974-01-01

    Several possible H2 vertical distributions in Titan's atmosphere are considered with the constraint of 5 km-A a total quantity. Approximative calculations show that hydrogen distribution is quite sensitive to two other parameters of Titan's atmosphere: the temperature and the presence of other constituents. The escape fluxes of H and H2 are also estimated as well as the consequent distributions trapped in the Saturnian system.

  1. Hydrogen Atoms Cause Long-Range Electronic Effects on Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffieux, P.; Gröning, O.; Schwaller, P.; Schlapbach, L.; Gröning, P.

    2000-05-01

    We report on long-range electronic effects caused by hydrogen-carbon interaction at the graphite surface. Two types of defects could be distinguished with a combined mode of scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy: chemisorption of hydrogen on the basal plane of graphite and atomic vacancy formation. Both types show a \\(3×3\\)R30° superlattice in the local density of states but have a different topographic structure. The range of modifications in the electronic structure, of fundamental importance for electronic devices based on carbon nanostructures, has been found to be of the order of 20-25 lattice constants.

  2. The Connection Between Star Formation and the Interstellar Media in Simulations of Evolving Galaxies with a Focus on Molecular Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Charlotte R.

    Star formation as part of galaxy evolution is a highly non-linear process, involving interactions between gas heating and cooling, galactic dynamics, smooth and clumpy accretion, and stellar feedback. Modeling it even on parsecs scales requires the use of hydrodynamic simulations and the modeling of complex physical processes. One area that has been neglected in most previous simulations is the cold, molecular phase of the interstellar medium from which stars form. I addressed that lack in this thesis through the implementation of molecular hydrogen (H2) physics in the galaxy formation code, GASOLINE. In this implementation, the non-equilibrium H2 abundances are calculated based on the local formation and destruction rates of H2, including the effects of shielding. Both self-shielding and shielding from dust are included and protect against the cosmic background radiation and local Lyman-Werner radiation. With the implementation of H2, I was able to implement additional low temperature H2 cooling and H2-based star formation. Using this code, I researched the effects of this cold gas phase and supernova feedback on star formation in galaxy formation simulations. I first analyzed the effect of supernova feedback on star formation and morphology in galaxies of different masses and resolution, simulated without H2. From this sample, I determined the appropriate spatial and mass resolutions for star formation and feedback to converge. Notably, the 1010 M⊙ galaxy simulation was on the cusp of forming a disk, making its morphology highly sensitivity to resolution. Following the implementation of H2 , I tested the code by calculating the transition from atomic to molecular gas on similar isolated galaxy simulations. I then researched the effect of including H2-physics on star formation in a cosmological dwarf galaxy simulation. The combination of extra cooling from H2 and shielding resulted in the formation of a cold, molecular gas phase within a clumpier interstellar

  3. Recombination of hydrogen atoms on fine-grain graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenik, Aleksander; Vesel, Alenka; Kreter, Arkadi; Mozetič, Miran

    2011-04-01

    The probability of recombination of hydrogen atoms on surfaces of fine-grain graphite EK98 was investigated as a function of surface roughness. The source of hydrogen atoms used in this experiment was weakly ionised plasma created with an inductively coupled radiofrequency generator at pressures from 30 Pa to 175 Pa in hydrogen. Hydrogen atom density was measured by means of fibre optic catalytic probes. The recombination coefficient of the graphite samples was determined by observing their impact on the spatial distribution of the atom density in a closed side-arm of the reactor. Smith's diffusion model was used to calculate the values of the recombination coefficient. The measured recombination coefficient was found to increase much faster than the measured effective surface. This discrepancy is explained by the fact that on a surface which is not perfectly flat, there is a finite probability for multiple collisions. Impinging atoms collide more than once with the surface before they are reflected into the surface, which results in a larger probability of recombination.

  4. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, H. Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-04-08

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ∼3000 K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure.

  5. Photoionization of atoms and molecules. [of hydrogen, helium, and xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.

    1976-01-01

    A literature review on the present state of knowledge in photoionization is presented. Various experimental techniques that have been developed to study photoionization, such as fluorescence and photoelectron spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, are examined. Various atoms and molecules were chosen to illustrate these techniques, specifically helium and xenon atoms and hydrogen molecules. Specialized photoionization such as in positive and negative ions, excited states, and free radicals is also treated. Absorption cross sections and ionization potentials are also discussed.

  6. Probing the heliosphere with energetic hydrogen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, K. C.; Shih, K. L.; Jokipii, J. R.; Grzedzielski, S.

    1992-01-01

    The idea of using energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), produced by charge exchange between energetic ions and ambient neutral atoms, as a diagnostic tool to investigate planetary magnetospheres from a distance has been extended to the investigation of the heliosphere. The paper explores what one can reasonably expect of the heliospheric ENA (HSENA) and what criteria would be imposed on HSENA instruments by concentrating on 10-10 exp 3 keV protons in quiet-time interplanetary space, solar-flare events, corotating interaction regions, and populations have distinctive signatures and that the detection of these particles can reveal energy spatial and propagation of ions in 3D interplanetary space, including the solar-wind termination shock. Such breadth of information could not be gained by in situ means.

  7. Hydrogen-related contrast in atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, René; Schwarz, Alexander; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2009-07-01

    We study the effect of hydrogen adsorption on gadolinium islands epitaxially grown on W(110) utilizing atomic force microscopy operated in the non-contact regime. In constant force images, gadolinium islands exhibit two height levels, corresponding to hydrogen covered and clean gadolinium areas, respectively. The experimentally measured height differences are strongly bias dependent, showing that the contrast pattern is dominated by electrostatic tip-sample forces. We interpret our experimental findings in terms of a local reduction of the work function and the presence of localized charges on hydrogen covered areas. Both effects lead to a variation of the contact potential difference between tip and surface areas, which are clean or hydrogen covered gadolinium. After clarifying the electrostatic contrast formation, we can unambiguously identify regions of clean gadolinium on the islands. These results are important for further magnetic exchange force microscopy based studies, because hydrogen also alters the magnetic properties locally.

  8. Heteroatom-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbons, a-C:H:X. "Volatile" silicon, sulphur and nitrogen depletion, blue photoluminescence, diffuse interstellar bands and ferro-magnetic carbon grain connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. P.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Hydrogenated amorphous carbons, a-C:H, can incorporate a variety of heteroatoms, which can lead to interesting effects. Aims: We investigate the doping of interstellar a-C:H grains with, principally, Si, O, N and S atoms within the astrophysical context. Methods: A search of the literature on doped a-C:H reveals a number of interesting phenomena of relevance to astrophysics. Results: X dopants in a-C:H:X materials can affect the sp3/sp2 ratio (X = Si, O and N), lead to blue photoluminescence (undoped or X = N), induce ferromagnetic-like behaviour (X = N and S) or simply be incorporated (depleted) into the structure (X = Si, O, N and S). Si and N atoms could also incorporate into fullerenes, possibly forming colour-centres that could mimic diffuse interstellar bands. Conclusions: Doped a-C:H grains could explain several dust-related conundrums, such as: "volatile" Si in photo-dissociation regions, S and N depletion in molecular clouds, blue luminescence, some diffuse interstellar bands and ferromagnetism in carbonaceous grains.

  9. Imaging detection of spin-polarized hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broderick, Bernadette M.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Smolin, Andrey G.; Vasyutinskii, Oleg S.; Suits, Arthur G.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that a two-color high-n Rydberg excitation of hydrogen atoms using a circularly polarized tagging laser may be combined with pulsed-field ionization to allow for direct velocity map imaging of the H atom spin polarization. In this proof-of-principle study we only detect the incoherent spin polarization for a single velocity component in the 213 nm dissociation of HBr, but anticipate that by combining this strategy with slice imaging, the full velocity dependent H atom spin polarization may be obtained in a single experimental geometry.

  10. Interstellar Hydrogen Fluxes Measured by IBEX-Lo in 2009: Numerical Modeling and Comparison with the Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katushkina, O. A.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Alexashov, D. B.; Schwadron, N. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we perform numerical modeling of the interstellar hydrogen fluxes measured by IBEX-Lo during orbit 23 (spring 2009) using a state-of-the-art kinetic model of the interstellar neutral hydrogen distribution in the heliosphere. This model takes into account the temporal and heliolatitudinal variations of the solar parameters as well as the non-Maxwellian kinetic properties of the hydrogen distribution due to charge exchange in the heliospheric interface. We found that there is a qualitative difference between the IBEX-Lo data and the modeling results obtained with the three-dimensional, time-dependent model. Namely, the model predicts a larger count rate in energy bin 2 (20-41 eV) than in energy bin 1 (11-21 eV), while the data shows the opposite case. We perform study of the model parameter effects on the IBEX-Lo fluxes and the ratio of fluxes in two energy channels. We show that the most important parameter, which has a major influence on the ratio of the fluxes in the two energy bins, is the solar radiation pressure. The parameter fitting procedure shows that the best agreement between the model result and the data occurs when the ratio of the solar radiation pressure to the solar gravitation, μ0, is {1.26}-0.076+0.06, and the total ionization rate of hydrogen at 1 AU is {β }E,0={3.7}-0.35+0.39× {10}-7 s-1. We have found that the value of μ0 is much larger than μ0 = 0.89, which is the value derived from the integrated solar Lyα flux data for the period of time studied. We discuss possible reasons for the differences.

  11. Variational Perturbation Treatment of the Confined Hydrogen Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, H. E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Schrodinger equation for the ground state of a hydrogen atom confined at the centre of an impenetrable cavity is treated using variational perturbation theory. Energies calculated from variational perturbation theory are comparable in accuracy to the results from a direct numerical solution. The goal of this exercise is to introduce the…

  12. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  13. Quantum-Classical Connection for Hydrogen Atom-Like Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syam, Debapriyo; Roy, Arup

    2011-01-01

    The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory specifies the rules of quantization for circular and elliptical orbits for a one-electron hydrogen atom-like system. This article illustrates how a formula connecting the principal quantum number "n" and the length of the major axis of an elliptical orbit may be arrived at starting from the quantum…

  14. Hydrogen atom spectrum and the lamb shift in noncommutative QED.

    PubMed

    Chaichian, M; Sheikh-Jabbari, M M; Tureanu, A

    2001-03-26

    We have calculated the energy levels of the hydrogen atom as well as the Lamb shift within the noncommutative quantum electrodynamics theory. The results show deviations from the usual QED both on the classical and the quantum levels. On both levels, the deviations depend on the parameter of space/space noncommutativity.

  15. Atomic hydrogen maser investigations of hydrogen atom interactions from 4 to 12 K. Final report, 1 March 1980-28 February 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Crampton, S.B.

    1986-03-24

    Techniques developed during previous studies of the ground-state hyperfine resonance of hydrogen atoms intermittently adsorbed on molecular hydrogen surfaces were used to develop a cryogenic atomic-hydrogen maser using a 5 K state-selected H-atom beam and solid-neon storage surfaces near 10 K temperature. The physical parameters affecting the use of such a device for frequency metrology and precision measurements of atomic parameters were determined.

  16. Microwave plasma generation of hydrogen atoms for rocket propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, R.; Filpus, J.; Morin, T.; Snellenberger, R.; Asmussen, J.; Hawley, M.; Kerber, R.

    1981-01-01

    A flow microwave plasma reaction system is used to study the conversion of hydrogen to hydrogen atoms as a function of pressure, power density, cavity tuning, cavity mode, and time in the plasma zone. Hydrogen atom concentration is measured down-stream from the plasma by NOCl titration. Extensive modeling of the plasma and recombination zones is performed with the plasma zone treated as a backmix reaction system and the recombination zone treated as a plug flow. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the recombination process are examined in detail to provide an understanding of the conversion of recombination energy to gas kinetic energy. It is found that cavity tuning, discharge stability, and optimum power coupling are critically dependent on the system pressure, but nearly independent of the flow rate.

  17. Production of Excited Atomic Hydrogen from Methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, J. R.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.; Furst, J. E.; Gay, T. J.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Landers, A. L.; McLaughlin, K. W.

    2009-05-01

    We have measured the production of Lyα and Hα fluorescence from atomic H for the photodissociation of CH4 by linearly-polarized photons with energies between 20 and 65 eV. Comparison between our Lyα relative cross section and that previously reported [1] show different peak height ratios. This also occurs in the Hα cross section when compared to previous data [2]. We do not observe as significant a drop in either cross section above 35 eV. Our measurements were taken with pressures two orders of magnitude lower than those used in ref. [1]. We present comparisons between data sets and a discussion of possible systematic effects. [1] H. Fukuzawa et al., J. Phys. B. 38, 565 (2005). [2] M. Kato et al., J. Phys. B. 35, 4383 (2002). Support provided by the NSF (Grant PHY-0653379), DOE (LBNL/ALS) and ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  18. Atomic hydrogen maser active oscillator cavity and bulb design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.; Washburn, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The performance characteristics and reliability of the active oscillator atomic hydrogen maser depend upon oscillation parameters which characterize the interaction region of the maser, the resonant cavity and atom storage bulb assembly. With particular attention to use of the cavity frequency switching servo (1) to reduce cavity pulling, it is important to maintain high oscillation level, high atomic beam flux utilization efficiency, small spin exchange parameter and high cavity quality factor. It is also desirable to have a small and rigid cavity and bulb structure and to minimize the cavity temperature sensitivity. Curves for a novel hydrogen maser cavity configuration which is partially loaded with a quartz dielectric cylinder and show the relationships between cavity length, cavity diameter, bulb size, dielectric thickness, cavity quality factor, filling factor and cavity frequency temperature coefficient are presented. The results are discussed in terms of improvement in maser performance resulting from particular design choices.

  19. Antiproton-hydrogen atom rearrangement-annihilation cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.L. Jr.

    1986-08-22

    For antiproton energies of several eV or less, annihilation in matter occurs through atomic rearrangement processes in which the antiproton becomes bound to a nucleus prior to annihilation. Existing calculations of the antiproton-hydrogen atom rearrangement cross section are semiclassical and employ the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. They also employ various arguments in regard to the behavior of the system when the Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down at small antiproton-proton separations. These arguments indicate that rearrangement is essentially irreversible. In the present study, a detailed investigation was made of the antiproton-hydrogen atom system when the Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down. The results of this study indicate that the previous arguments were approximately correct, but that there is a significant probability for rearrangement reversing prior to annihilation. This probability is estimated to be about 20%. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Atomic cobalt on nitrogen-doped graphene for hydrogen generation

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Huilong; Dong, Juncai; Arellano-Jiménez, M. Josefina; Ye, Gonglan; Dong Kim, Nam; Samuel, Errol L.G.; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Zhuan; Qin, Fan; Bao, Jiming; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Chen, Dongliang; Tour, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of water to hydrogen through electrocatalysis holds great promise for clean energy, but its large-scale application relies on the development of inexpensive and efficient catalysts to replace precious platinum catalysts. Here we report an electrocatalyst for hydrogen generation based on very small amounts of cobalt dispersed as individual atoms on nitrogen-doped graphene. This catalyst is robust and highly active in aqueous media with very low overpotentials (30 mV). A variety of analytical techniques and electrochemical measurements suggest that the catalytically active sites are associated with the metal centres coordinated to nitrogen. This unusual atomic constitution of supported metals is suggestive of a new approach to preparing extremely efficient single-atom catalysts. PMID:26487368

  1. Correlation of hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies for aryl radicals with their vertical electron affinities and the vertical ionization energies of the hydrogen-atom donors.

    PubMed

    Jing, Linhong; Nash, John J; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2008-12-31

    The factors that control the reactivities of aryl radicals toward hydrogen-atom donors were studied by using a dual-cell Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies for two substrates, cyclohexane and isopropyl alcohol, were measured for 23 structurally different, positively charged aryl radicals, which included dehydrobenzenes, dehydronaphthalenes, dehydropyridines, and dehydro(iso)quinolines. A logarithmic correlation was found between the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the (calculated) vertical electron affinities (EA) of the aryl radicals. Transition state energies calculated for the reaction of three of the aryl radicals with isopropyl alcohol were found to correlate linearly with their (calculated) EAs. No correlation was found between the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the (calculated) enthalpy changes for the reactions. Measurement of the reaction efficiencies for the reactions of 15 different hydrogen-atom donors with two selected aryl radicals revealed a logarithmic correlation between the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the vertical ionization energies (IE) of the hydrogen-atom donors, but not the lowest homolytic X-H (X = heavy atom) bond dissociation energies of the hydrogen-atom donors. Examination of the hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions of 29 different aryl radicals and 18 different hydrogen-atom donors showed that the reaction efficiency increases (logarithmically) as the difference between the IE of the hydrogen-atom donor and the EA of the aryl radical decreases. This dependence is likely to result from the increasing polarization, and concomitant stabilization, of the transition state. Thus, the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiency for an aryl radical can be "tuned" by structural changes that influence either the vertical EA of the aryl radical or the vertical IE of the hydrogen atom donor.

  2. Correlation of Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction Reaction Efficiencies for Aryl Radicals with their Vertical Electron Affinities and the Vertical Ionization Energies of the Hydrogen Atom Donors

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Linhong; Nash, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The factors that control the reactivities of aryl radicals toward hydrogen-atom donors were studied by using a dual-cell Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT – ICR). Hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies for two substrates, cyclohexane and isopropanol, were measured for twenty-three structurally different, positively-charged aryl radicals, which included dehydrobenzenes, dehydronaphthalenes, dehydropyridines, and dehydro(iso)quinolines. A logarithmic correlation was found between the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the (calculated) vertical electron affinities (EA) of the aryl radicals. Transition state energies calculated for three of the aryl radicals with isopropanol were found to correlate linearly with their (calculated) EAs. No correlation was found between the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the (calculated) enthalpy changes for the reactions. Measurement of the reaction efficiencies for the reactions of several different hydrogen-atom donors with a few selected aryl radicals revealed a logarithmic correlation between the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiencies and the vertical ionization energies (IE) of the hydrogen-atom donors, but not the lowest homolytic X – H (X = heavy atom) bond dissociation energies of the hydrogen-atom donors. Examination of the hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions of twenty-nine different aryl radicals and eighteen different hydrogen-atom donors showed that the reaction efficiency increases (logarithmically) as the difference between the IE of the hydrogen-atom donor and the EA of the aryl radical decreases. This dependence is likely to result from the increasing polarization, and concomitant stabilization, of the transition state as the energy difference between the neutral and ionic reactants decreases. Thus, the hydrogen-atom abstraction reaction efficiency for an aryl radical can be “tuned” by structural changes that influence either

  3. Reactivity and Catalytic Activity of Hydrogen Atom Chemisorbed Silver Clusters.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Dar; Pal, Sourav

    2015-06-18

    Metal clusters of silver have attracted recent interest of researchers as a result of their potential in different catalytic applications and low cost. However, due to the completely filled d orbital and very high first ionization potential of the silver atom, the silver-based catalysts interact very weakly with the reacting molecules. In the current work, density functional theory calculations were carried out to investigate the effect of hydrogen atom chemisorption on the reactivity and catalytic properties of inert silver clusters. Our results affirm that the hydrogen atom chemisorption leads to enhancement in the binding energy of the adsorbed O2 molecule on the inert silver clusters. The increase in the binding energy is also characterized by the decrease in the Ag-O and increase in the O-O bond lengths in the case of the AgnH silver clusters. Pertinent to the increase in the O-O bond length, a significant red shift in the O-O stretching frequency is also noted in the case of the AgnH silver clusters. Moreover, the hydrogen atom chemisorbed silver clusters show low reaction barriers and high heat of formation of the final products for the environmentally important CO oxidation reaction as compared to the parent catalytically inactive clusters. The obtained results were compared with those of the corresponding gold and hydrogen atom chemisorbed gold clusters obtained at the same level of theory. It is expected the current computational study will provide key insights for future advances in the design of efficient nanosilver-based catalysts through the adsorption of a small atom or a ligand.

  4. Classical-field model of the hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkovskiy, Sergey A.

    2017-02-01

    It is shown that all of the basic properties of the hydrogen atom can be consistently described in terms of classical electrodynamics if instead of considering the electron to be a particle, we consider an electrically charged classical wave field—an "electron wave"—which is held by the electrostatic field of the proton. It is shown that quantum mechanics must be considered not as a theory of particles but as a classical field theory in the spirit of classical electrodynamics. In this case, we are not faced with difficulties in interpreting the results of the theory. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, all of the well-known regularities of the spontaneous emission of the hydrogen atom are obtained, which is usually derived in the framework of quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that there are no discrete states and discrete energy levels of the atom: the energy of the atom and its states change continuously. An explanation of the conventional corpuscular-statistical interpretation of atomic phenomena is given. It is shown that this explanation is only a misinterpretation of continuous deterministic processes. In the framework of classical electrodynamics, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is obtained, which accounts for the inverse action of self-electromagnetic radiation of the electron wave and completely describes the spontaneous emissions of an atom.

  5. Observations of interstellar chlorine and phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jura, M.; York, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Copernicus observations of interstellar Cl I, Cl II, and P II UV lines toward 10 stars are reported. Column densities are estimated for each species, and upper limits are computed for HCl column densities. Derivation of the gas-phase abundances of chlorine and phosphorus indicates that the averages of both the chlorine and the phosphorus logarithmic abundances relative to hydrogen are between 5.0 and 5.1. It is suggested that interstellar chlorine may be depleted by about a factor of 3 relative to the solar abundance and that interstellar phosphorus is depleted by a factor of 2 to 3. The results are shown to support the prediction that chlorine is ionized in regions containing primarily atomic oxygen and is neutral in regions where there is a significant amount of molecular hydrogen. The photoionization rate of neutral chlorine toward 15 Mon is estimated, and it is concluded that most chlorine is contained within the gas phase.

  6. CN radical hydrogenation from solid H2 reactions, an alternative way of HCN formation in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borget, Fabien; Müller, Sandra; Grote, Dirk; Theulé, Patrice; Vinogradoff, Vassilissa; Chiavassa, Thierry; Sander, Wolfram

    2017-01-01

    Context. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is the most abundant molecule of the interstellar medium (ISM) in gas phase and it has been assumed to exist in solid state or as coating on grains. Aims: Our goal is to show that solid H2 can act as a hydrogenation agent, reacting with CN radicals to form HCN. Methods: In a H2 matrix, we studied the hydrogenation of the CN radical generated from the vacuum ultraviolet photolysis (VUV-photolysis) of C2N2 at 3.8 K. We modified the wavelengths and the host gas in order to be sure that CN radicals can abstract H from H2 molecules. Results: HCN monomers, dimers, and oligomers have been characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). H2CN as well as CN radicals have also been clearly observed during the photolysis performed at 3.8 K. Conclusions: H2 is a hydrogenation reagent towards CN radicals producing HCN. This type of reaction should be taken into account for the reactivity at low temperature in contaminated H2 ice macro-particles (CHIMPs), H2 flakes or in the first sublayers of grains where solid H2 has accumulated.

  7. Molecular to atomic phase transition in hydrogen under high pressure.

    PubMed

    McMinis, Jeremy; Clay, Raymond C; Lee, Donghwa; Morales, Miguel A

    2015-03-13

    The metallization of high-pressure hydrogen, together with the associated molecular to atomic transition, is one of the most important problems in the field of high-pressure physics. It is also currently a matter of intense debate due to the existence of conflicting experimental reports on the observation of metallic hydrogen on a diamond-anvil cell. Theoretical calculations have typically relied on a mean-field description of electronic correlation through density functional theory, a theory with well-known limitations in the description of metal-insulator transitions. In fact, the predictions of the pressure-driven dissociation of molecules in high-pressure hydrogen by density functional theory is strongly affected by the chosen exchange-correlation functional. In this Letter, we use quantum Monte Carlo calculations to study the molecular to atomic transition in hydrogen. We obtain a transition pressure of 447(3) GPa, in excellent agreement with the best experimental estimate of the transition 450 GPa based on an extrapolation to zero band gap from experimental measurements. Additionally, we find that C2/c is stable almost up to the molecular to atomic transition, in contrast to previous density functional theory (DFT) and DFT+quantum Monte Carlo studies which predict large stability regimes for intermediary molecular phases.

  8. Evolution of energetic neutral atom spectra as measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer during its first seven years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, Maher A.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; McComas, David; Schwadron, Nathan; Desai, Mihir; Zirnstein, Eric J.

    2016-07-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission continues to provide remote Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) measurements produced by charge exchange between energetic protons and interstellar neutrals at the edge of our heliosphere. Using the first seven years of IBEX-Hi ENA measurements (January 2009 through December 2015), we examine the evolution of the spectral slopes in four different energy bands, namely, ˜0.7-1.1 keV, ˜1.1-1.7 keV, ˜1.7-2.7 keV, and ˜2.7-4.3 keV, across different regions of the sky. Results show that spectral slopes at each energy band are characterized with unique distribution properties (e.g., width, shape, and mode), which vary in time at different rates and in both directions (distribution modes increase or decrease). We attempt to explain these results in context of ENA source regions, solar wind temporal variations, and changes in the heliosheath thickness and its plasma properties. These results provide insights into ENA production mechanisms, properties of their plasma progenitors, and how they relate to changes in the solar wind.

  9. Laser stripping of hydrogen atoms by direct ionization

    DOE PAGES

    Brunetti, E.; Becker, W.; Bryant, H. C.; ...

    2015-05-08

    Direct ionization of hydrogen atoms by laser irradiation is investigated as a potential new scheme to generate proton beams without stripping foils. The time-dependent Schrödinger equation describing the atom-radiation interaction is numerically solved obtaining accurate ionization cross-sections for a broad range of laser wavelengths, durations and energies. Parameters are identified where the Doppler frequency up-shift of radiation colliding with relativistic particles can lead to efficient ionization over large volumes and broad bandwidths using currently available lasers.

  10. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes, their agglomerates, and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. Particle sizes of 1.9 to 8 mm (0.075 to 0.315 in.) were measured. The particle agglomerate sizes and areas were measured, and the total mass of solid hydrogen was computed. A total mass of from 0.22 to 7.9 grams of hydrogen was frozen. Compaction and expansion of the agglomerate implied that the particles remain independent particles, and can be separated and controlled. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  11. Hydrogenated fullerenes dimer, peanut and capsule: An atomic comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EL-Barbary, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogenated fullerenes are detected in the Universe in space but their identification is still unsolved task. Therefore, this paper provides useful information about hydrogenated fullerenes (dimer, peanut and capsule) using DFT method at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The stability, geometric structures, hydrogen adsorption energies and NMR chemical shifts are calculated. The results show that the energy of most stable isomer of C118 dimer is lower than the energies sum of C60 and C58 cages by 1.77 eV and the energy per carbon atom of C144 capsule is more stable than C60 cage by 126.98 meV. Also, endohedral Ti-doped C118 dimer and C128 peanut are found to be most stable structures than exohedral Ti-doped C118 dimer and C128 peanut by 2.19 eV/Ti and 3.52 eV/Ti, respectively. The hydrogenation process is found to be enhanced (especially at the caps) for endohedral Ti-doped C118 dimer and C128 peanut through electronic surface modifications. The most active hydrogenation sites are selected and it is found that the most stable hydrogenation sites are Houts1 and Houts3 for fullerenes and endohedral Ti-doped fullerenes, respectively.

  12. A discrete variable representation for electron-hydrogen atom scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gaucher, Lionel Francis

    1994-08-01

    A discrete variable representation (DVR) suitable for treating the quantum scattering of a low energy electron from a hydrogen atom is presented. The benefits of DVR techniques (e.g. the removal of the requirement of calculating multidimensional potential energy matrix elements and the availability of iterative sparse matrix diagonalization/inversion algorithms) have for many years been applied successfully to studies of quantum molecular scattering. Unfortunately, the presence of a Coulomb singularity at the electrically unshielded center of a hydrogen atom requires high radial grid point densities in this region of the scattering coordinate, while the presence of finite kinetic energy in the asymptotic scattering electron also requires a sufficiently large radial grid point density at moderate distances from the nucleus. The constraints imposed by these two length scales have made application of current DVR methods to this scattering event difficult.

  13. Semirelativistic model for ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attaourti, Y.; Taj, S.; Manaut, B.

    2005-06-01

    We present a semirelativistic model for the description of the ionization process of atomic hydrogen by electron impact in the first Born approximation by using the Darwin wave function to describe the bound state of atomic hydrogen and the Sommerfeld-Maue wave function to describe the ejected electron. This model, accurate to first order in Z/c in the relativistic correction, shows that, even at low kinetic energies of the incident electron, spin effects are small but not negligible. These effects become noticeable with increasing incident electron energies. All analytical calculations are exact and our semirelativistic results are compared with the results obtained in the nonrelativistic Coulomb Born approximation both for the coplanar asymmetric and the binary coplanar geometries.

  14. Semirelativistic model for ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Attaourti, Y.; Taj, S.; Manaut, B.

    2005-06-15

    We present a semirelativistic model for the description of the ionization process of atomic hydrogen by electron impact in the first Born approximation by using the Darwin wave function to describe the bound state of atomic hydrogen and the Sommerfeld-Maue wave function to describe the ejected electron. This model, accurate to first order in Z/c in the relativistic correction, shows that, even at low kinetic energies of the incident electron, spin effects are small but not negligible. These effects become noticeable with increasing incident electron energies. All analytical calculations are exact and our semirelativistic results are compared with the results obtained in the nonrelativistic Coulomb Born approximation both for the coplanar asymmetric and the binary coplanar geometries.

  15. Effects of wall coatings and temperature on hydrogen atom surface recombination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, E. L.; Baker, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The efficiency of various surface coatings and materials toward inhibiting hydrogen atom surface recombination was investigated over a temperature range of 77 to 298 K. A flow discharge, mass spectrometer technique was used to make the experimental measurements. Hydrogen atoms were monitored directly, and these measurements were expressed as ratios of mass spectrometer peak heights for atomic and molecular hydrogen. Several of the surface coatings studied were efficient at reducing hydrogen atom surface recombination at room temperature. However, as the temperature was lowered, this efficiency was drastically reduced. Calibration of the mass spectrometer for atomic and molecular hydrogen indicated that mass spectrometer discrimination against hydrogen atoms was severe. Mass spectrometer sensitivity for hydrogen atoms was only about one-sixth of that for molecular hydrogen.

  16. Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom: Leading logarithmic corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    1995-04-01

    The leading logarithmic correction to the difference of the Lamb shifts of the 1s{sub 1/2} and 2s{sub 1/2} levels is found. The difference {Delta}E{sub L}(1s{sub 1/2}) {minus} 8{Delta}E{sub L}(2s{sub 1/2}) for the hydrogen atom is found to be {minus}187.236(11) MHz. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Dynamical localization: Hydrogen atoms in magnetic and microwave fields

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuto, F.; Casati, G.; Shepelyansky, D.L.

    1997-03-01

    We show that dynamical localization for excited hydrogen atoms in magnetic and microwave fields takes place at quite low microwave frequency ({omega}n{sup 3}{lt}1). Estimates of the localization length are given for different parameter regimes, showing that the quantum delocalization border drops significantly as compared to the case of zero magnetic field. This opens up broad possibilities for laboratory investigations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Recombination efficiency of molecular hydrogen on interstellar grains and its effect on pro duction of H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharyya, K.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2005-12-01

    We study the efficiency of molecular hydrogen recombination on grain surfaces using both the rate equation (which tracks the average number of species) and the master equation (which tracks the expectation values of the species). We have incorporated Langmuir-Hinselwood rejection term in obtaining the efficiency. We use this result to compute H2 production rates as a function of the grain temperature and accretion rate of atomic hydrogen. Our general conclusion is that the H2 formation efficiency is very much dependent on the grain temperature and the accretion rate of the atomic hydrogen on grains. We provide tables of H2 production rates which could be readily used for future calculation of production of more complex molecules in the gas phase.

  19. Distribution of the Atomic Component in the Local Interstellar Medium. the Warm Neutral Intercloud Medium (wnm).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppel, W. G. L.; Marronetti, P.; Benagalia, P.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN : Se do'-- ' ti--'s `3' pCrfii ":-::' in:- a JI- nea de 2J rrn dci HI para Cs r%ud. r i com -." ..nte bia 'a del medjo intere=-telar. l metodo ce baa n ci :..: i3:'-i oaussiano de las contr'ibucioncc- de di-ha corno': ..:c'n+. a en los oerfiles. Los r'inc oaic :. r..' : t":. o r.-"r:st. n resLtfnidci.--' en las Fipuras 1 2 u.''e dan J `:- re ' ec:t.i' e"'.:.-. jl'-.'.. -. tribucic-es de la densidad dE? columr N)H `/ .ta \\` .`i(:) ,fj,:,'t.' radial V en funri6n de I. a osic:i6n 1., : Two atlas of orofiles of .1-cf; ha'.' ' been tr,'E-:"::i for computino the HI--emission d'. e to Lhe j (He i :-:: ` H -).- bina 1974 and Colomb,, Po"ppel and Hei le . .4'..) . ih& m: thod is based on a #` anpr'o>'imation Cf the rontr-ibutior:s of the WNM to the profiles. The main are summ-. 'i:.ed here in the form of two maps .howin the di :'.tributions of and of the radial velocit respectivel as a ..r,t.ion of and b (Fios. I and 2). Key : INTERSTELLAR-CLOUDS - INTERSTELLAR-GENERAL - GALAXY- STRUCTURE

  20. On the Formation of Interstellar Water Ice: Constraints from a Search for Hydrogen Peroxide Ice in Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. G.; Charnely, S. B.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Wright, C. M.; Maldoni, M. M.; Robinson, G.

    2011-01-01

    Recent surface chemistry experiments have shown that the hydrogenation of molecular oxygen on interstellar dust grains is a plausible formation mechanism, via hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), for the production of water (H2O) ice mantles in the dense interstellar medium. Theoretical chemistry models also predict the formation of a significant abundance of H2O2 ice in grain mantles by this route. At their upper limits, the predicted and experimental abundances are sufficiently high that H2O2 should be detectable in molecular cloud ice spectra. To investigate this further, laboratory spectra have been obtained for H2O2/H2O ice films between 2.5 and 200 micron, from 10 to 180 K, containing 3%, 30%, and 97% H2O2 ice. Integrated absorbances for all the absorption features in low-temperature H2O2 ice have been derived from these spectra. For identifying H2O2 ice, the key results are the presence of unique features near 3.5, 7.0, and 11.3 micron. Comparing the laboratory spectra with the spectra of a group of 24 protostars and field stars, all of which have strong H2O ice absorption bands, no absorption features are found that can definitely be identified with H2O2 ice. In the absence of definite H2O2 features, the H2O2 abundance is constrained by its possible contribution to the weak absorption feature near 3.47 micron found on the long-wavelength wing of the 3 micron H2O ice band. This gives an average upper limit for H2O2, as a percentage of H2O, of 9% +/- 4%. This is a strong constraint on parameters for surface chemistry experiments and dense cloud chemistry models.

  1. Ground-state structures of atomic metallic hydrogen.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Jeffrey M; Ceperley, David M

    2011-04-22

    Ab initio random structure searching using density functional theory is used to determine the ground-state structures of atomic metallic hydrogen from 500 GPa to 5 TPa. Including proton zero-point motion within the harmonic approximation, we estimate that molecular hydrogen dissociates into a monatomic body-centered tetragonal structure near 500 GPa (r(s)=1.23) that remains stable to 1 TPa (r(s)=1.11). At higher pressures, hydrogen stabilizes in an …ABCABC… planar structure that is similar to the ground state of lithium, but with a different stacking sequence. With increasing pressure, this structure compresses to the face-centered cubic lattice near 3.5 TPa (r(s)=0.92).

  2. Alkane desaturation by concerted double hydrogen atom transfer to benzyne.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dawen; Willoughby, Patrick H; Woods, Brian P; Baire, Beeraiah; Hoye, Thomas R

    2013-09-26

    The removal of two vicinal hydrogen atoms from an alkane to produce an alkene is a challenge for synthetic chemists. In nature, desaturases and acetylenases are adept at achieving this essential oxidative functionalization reaction, for example during the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, gibberellins and carotenoids. Alkane-to-alkene conversion almost always involves one or more chemical intermediates in a multistep reaction pathway; these may be either isolable species (such as alcohols or alkyl halides) or reactive intermediates (such as carbocations, alkyl radicals, or σ-alkyl-metal species). Here we report a desaturation reaction of simple, unactivated alkanes that is mechanistically unique. We show that benzynes are capable of the concerted removal of two vicinal hydrogen atoms from a hydrocarbon. The discovery of this exothermic, net redox process was enabled by the simple thermal generation of reactive benzyne intermediates through the hexadehydro-Diels-Alder cycloisomerization reaction of triyne substrates. We are not aware of any single-step, bimolecular reaction in which two hydrogen atoms are simultaneously transferred from a saturated alkane. Computational studies indicate a preferred geometry with eclipsed vicinal C-H bonds in the alkane donor.

  3. Zero-Temperature Structures of Atomic Metallic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jeffrey; Ceperley, David

    2011-03-01

    Since the first prediction of an atomic metallic phase of hydrogen by Wigner and Huntington over 75 years ago, there have been many theoretical efforts aimed at determining the crystal structures of the zero-temperature phases. We present results from ab initio random structure searching with density functional theory performed to determine the ground state structures from 500 GPa to 5 TPa. We estimate that molecular hydrogen dissociates into a monatomic body-centered tetragonal structure near 500 GPa (rs = 1.225), which then remains stable to 2.5 TPa (rs = 0.969). At higher pressures, hydrogen stabilizes in an . . . ABCABC . . . planar structure that is remarkably similar to the ground state of lithium, which compresses to the face-centered cubic lattice beyond 5 TPa (rs < 0.86). Our results provide a complete ab initio description of the atomic metallic crystal structures of hydrogen, resolving one of the most fundamental and long outstanding issues concerning the structures of the elements.

  4. The atomic hydrogen cloud in the saturnian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, W.-L.; Johnson, R. E.; Ip, W.-H.

    2013-09-01

    The importance of Titan's H torus shaped by solar radiation pressure and of hydrogen atoms flowing out of Saturn's atmosphere in forming the broad hydrogen cloud in Saturn's magnetosphere is still debated. Since the Saturnian system also contains a water product torus which originates from the Enceladus plumes, the icy ring particles, and the inner icy satellites, as well as Titan's H2 torus, we have carried out a global investigation of the atomic hydrogen cloud taking into account all sources. We show that the velocity and angle distributions of the hot H ejected from Saturn's atmosphere following electron-impact dissociation of H2 are modified by collisions with the ambient atmospheric H2 and H. This in turn affects the morphology of the escaping hydrogen from Saturn, as does the morphology of the ionospheric electron distribution. Although an exact agreement with the Cassini observations is not obtained, our simulations show that H directly escaping from Titan is the dominant contributor in the outer magnetosphere. Of the total number of H observed by Cassini from 1 to 5RS, ∼5.7×1034, our simulations suggest ∼20% is from dissociation in the Enceladus torus, ∼5-10% is from dissociation of H2 in the atmosphere of the main rings, and ∼50% is from Titan's H torus, implying that ∼20% comes from Saturn atmosphere.

  5. Atomic oxygen, atomic hydrogen, and chemical heating rates derived from SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.

    The SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite measures the infrared OH airglow at 2.0 um in the terrestrial mesosphere. These measurements are inverted to provide the volume emissions rates of the OH(9-7 + 8-6) bands. These high-lying bands are formed directly upon the reaction of atomic hydrogen and ozone and thus the measured volume emission rate is a direct measure of the rate of reaction. The SABER OH emission rates and the measured SABER ozone are used to derive the concentration of atomic hydrogen in the mesopause region. The emission rate is also a direct measure of the rate of energy deposition due to the reaction of atomic hydrogen and ozone. Rates of chemical heating are then readily derived upon provision of atmospheric temperature and density from SABER. Under the assumption of photochemical steady state in the production and loss of ozone, the emission rates can also be used to derive atomic oxygen. The abundances of H and O enable the computation of rates of chemical heating due to numerous exothermic reactions. A key to these derivations lies in the knowledge of the rate of quenching/reaction of vibrationally excited OH with atomic oxygen. We present the SABER airglow models, data inversion approach, and results for O, H, and chemical heating.

  6. The interstellar depletion mystery, or where have all those atoms gone. [cosmic abundance as grain model evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    The observed depletion of intermediate-weight elements O, C, and N from the interstellar medium is shown to be significantly greater than can be accounted for by accretion on interstellar dust. A number of possible explanations are presented, ranging from the existence in interstellar space of many 'snowballs' intermediate in size between dust grains and comets to the existence of many far more complicated interstellar molecules than have been detected.

  7. THE DYNAMICS OF HYDROGEN ATOM ABSTRACTION FROM POLYATOMIC MOLECULES.

    SciTech Connect

    LIU,X.; SUITS,A.G.

    2002-11-21

    The hydrogen atom abstraction reaction is an important fundamental process that is extensively involved in atmospheric and combustion chemistry. The practical significance of this type of reaction with polyatomic hydrocarbons is manifest, which has led to many kinetics studies. The detailed understanding of these reactions requires corresponding dynamics studies. However, in comparison to the A + HX {radical} AH + X reactions, the study of the dynamics of A + HR {yields} AH + R reactions is much more difficult, both experimentally and theoretically (here and in the following, A stands for an atom, X stands for a halogen atom, and R stands for a polyatomic hydrocarbon radical). The complication stems from the structured R, in contrast to the structureless X. First of all, there are many internal degrees of freedom in R that can participate in the reaction. In addition, there are different carbon sites from which an H atom can be abstracted, and the dynamics are correspondingly different; there are also multiple identical carbon sites in HR and in the picture of a local reaction, there exist competitions between neighboring H atoms, and so on. Despite this complexity, there have been continuing efforts to obtain insight into the dynamics of these reactions. In this chapter, some examples are presented, including the reactions of ground state H, Cl, and O atoms, with particular focus on our recent work using imaging to obtain the differential cross sections for these reactions.

  8. Detecting extra dimensions by Hydrogen-like atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan-Ping, Zhou; Peng, Zhou; Hao-Xue, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the idea in spectroscopy of detecting extra dimensions by regarding the nucleus as a homogeneous sphere. In our results, it turns out that the gravitational potential inside the nucleus is much stronger than the potential induced by a particle in the same regime in ref. [16], and thus a more significant correction of the ground state energy of hydrogen-like atoms is obtained, which can be used to determine the existence of ADD's extra dimensions. In order to get a larger order of magnitude for the correction, it is better to apply our theory to high-Z atoms or muonic atoms, where the volume of the nucleus can't be ignored and the relativistic effect is important. Our work is based on the Dirac equation in aweak gravity field, and the result is more precise.

  9. Reactions of butadiyne. 1: The reaction with hydrogen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwanebeck, W.; Warnatz, J.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen (H) atoms with butadiene (C4H2) was studied at room temperature in a pressure range between w mbar and 10 mbar. The primary step was an addition of H to C4H2 which is in its high pressure range at p 1 mbar. Under these conditions the following addition of a second H atom lies in the transition region between low and high pressure range. Vibrationally excited C4H4 can be deactivated to form buten-(1)-yne-(3)(C4H4) or decomposes into two C2H2 molecules. The rate constant at room temperature for primary step is given. The second order rate constant for the consumption of buten-(1)-yne-(3) is an H atom excess at room temperature is given.

  10. Observations of molecular and atomic gas in photodissociation regions. [interstellar chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, D. T.; Howe, J. E.

    1989-01-01

    Dense gas at the ionized/neutral boundaries of molecular clouds illuminated by far-UV photons plays an important role in the appearance of the neutral interstellar medium. It also is a laboratory for the study of UV-photochemistry and of a number of heating and cooling phenomena not seen elsewhere. Fine structure lines of neutral and low ionization potential species dominate the cooling in the outer part of the photodissociation regions. Observations of these lines show that the regions are dense and highly clumped. Observations of H2 and CO show that heating by UV photons plays a significant role in the excitation of molecular lines near the H II/neutral boundary. Warm CO is more abundant in these regions than predicted by the standard theoretical models. Optical reflection nebulas provide an ideal laboratory for the study of photodissocciation region phenomena.

  11. The Simplicity of Perfect Atoms: Degeneracies in Supersymmetric Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    Supersymmetric QED hydrogen-like bound states are remarkably similar to non-supersymmetric hydrogen, including an accidental degeneracy of the fine structure and which is broken by the Lamb shift. This article classifies the states, calculates the leading order spectrum, and illustrates the results in several limits. The relation to other non-relativistic bound states is explored. Supersymmetric bound states provide a laboratory for studying dynamics in supersymmetric theories. Bound states like hydrogen provide a framework for understanding the qualitative dynamics of QCD mesons, a supersymmetric version of QED can provide a qualitative picture for the symmetries and states of superQCD mesons. Furthermore, recent interest in dark matter as a composite state, leads to asking how supersymmetry acts upon these composite states [4-7]. This article calculates the leading order corrections to a hydrogen-like atoms in an exactly supersymmetric version of QED. Much of the degeneracy is broken by the fine structure and a seminal calculation was performed in [1] for positronium, see [2] for an N = 2 version of positronium. Supersymmetric hydrogen is a similar except for the absence of annihilation diagrams, see [3] for an independent calculation. In the heavy proton mass limit, the supersymmetric interactions of the theory become irrelevant operators, suppressed by powers of the proton mass like the magnetic moment operator in QED and the fine structure is identical to the non-supersymmetric theory. This article finds that fine structure spectrum of supersymmetric spectrum of hydrogen has an accidental degeneracy which is exactly analogous to the accidental degeneracy of the l = 0 and l = 1 levels of the n = 2; j = 1/2 state of hydrogen. The supersymmetric version of the Lamb shift lifts the residual degeneracy and this article computes the logarithmically enhanced breaking.

  12. The alpha Centauri Line of Sight: D/H Ratio, Physical Properties of Local Interstellar Gas, and Measurement of Heated Hydrogen (The 'Hydrogen Wall') Near the Heliopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze high-resolution spectra of the nearby (1.34 pc) stars alpha Cen A (G2 V) and alpha Cen B (K1 V), which were obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The observations consist of echelle spectra of the Mg II 2800 A and Fe II 2599 A resonance lines and the Lyman-alpha lines of hydrogen and deuterium. The interstellar gas has a velocity (v = - 18.0 +/- 0.2 km/s) consistent with the local flow vector proposed for this line of sight by Lailement & Berlin (1992). The temperature and nonthermal velocity inferred from the Fe II, Mg II, and D I line profiles are T = 5400 +/- 500 K and xi = 1.20 +/- 0.25 km/s, respectively. However, single-component fits to the H I Lyman-alpha lines yield a Doppler parameter (b(sub HI) = 11.80 km/s) that implies a significantly warmer temperature of 8350 K, and the velocity of the H I absorption (v = - 15.8 +/- 0.2 km/s) is redshifted by about 2.2 km/s with respect to the Fe II, Mg II, and D I lines. The one-component model of the interstellar gas suggests natural logarithm N base HI = 18.03 +/- 0.01 and D/H = (5.7 +/- 0.2) x 10(exp -6) . These parameters lead to a good fit to the observed spectra, but this model does not explain the higher temperature and redshift of H I relative to the other interstellar lines. The most sensible way to resolve the discrepancy between H(I) and the other lines is to add a second absorption component to the H(I) lines. This second component is hotter (T approx. equals 30,000 K), is redshifted relative to the primary component by 2-4 km/s, and has a column density too low to be detected in the Fe(II), Mg(II), and D(I) lines. We propose that the gas responsible for this component is located near the heliopause, consisting of the heated H I gas from the interstellar medium that is compressed by the solar wind. This so-called 'hydrogen wall' is predicted by recent multifluid gasdynamical models of the interstellar gas and solar wind interaction. Our data

  13. The alpha Centauri Line of Sight: D/H Ratio, Physical Properties of Local Interstellar Gas, and Measurement of Heated Hydrogen (The 'Hydrogen Wall') Near the Heliopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-05-01

    We analyze high-resolution spectra of the nearby (1.34 pc) stars alpha Cen A (G2 V) and alpha Cen B (K1 V), which were obtained with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The observations consist of echelle spectra of the Mg II 2800 A and Fe II 2599 A resonance lines and the Lyman-alpha lines of hydrogen and deuterium. The interstellar gas has a velocity (v = - 18.0 +/- 0.2 km/s) consistent with the local flow vector proposed for this line of sight by Lailement & Berlin (1992). The temperature and nonthermal velocity inferred from the Fe II, Mg II, and D I line profiles are T = 5400 +/- 500 K and xi = 1.20 +/- 0.25 km/s, respectively. However, single-component fits to the H I Lyman-alpha lines yield a Doppler parameter (bHI = 11.80 km/s) that implies a significantly warmer temperature of 8350 K, and the velocity of the H I absorption (v = - 15.8 +/- 0.2 km/s) is redshifted by about 2.2 km/s with respect to the Fe II, Mg II, and D I lines. The one-component model of the interstellar gas suggests natural logarithm N base HI = 18.03 +/- 0.01 and D/H = (5.7 +/- 0.2) x 10-6 . These parameters lead to a good fit to the observed spectra, but this model does not explain the higher temperature and redshift of H I relative to the other interstellar lines. The most sensible way to resolve the discrepancy between H(I) and the other lines is to add a second absorption component to the H(I) lines. This second component is hotter (T approx. equals 30,000 K), is redshifted relative to the primary component by 2-4 km/s, and has a column density too low to be detected in the Fe(II), Mg(II), and D(I) lines. We propose that the gas responsible for this component is located near the heliopause, consisting of the heated H I gas from the interstellar medium that is compressed by the solar wind. This so-called 'hydrogen wall' is predicted by recent multifluid gasdynamical models of the interstellar gas and solar wind interaction. Our data provide the

  14. Hydrogen-hydrogen interaction in planar biphenyl: a theoretical study based on the interacting quantum atoms and Hirshfeld atomic energy partitioning methods.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Kiamars; Van Alsenoy, Christian

    2014-10-05

    The nature of H-H interaction between ortho-hydrogen atoms in planar biphenyl is investigated by two different atomic energy partitioning methods, namely fractional occupation iterative Hirshfeld (FOHI) and interacting quantum atoms (IQA), and compared with the traditional virial-based approach of quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). In agreement with Bader's hypothesis of H-H bonding, partitioning the atomic energy into intra-atomic and interatomic terms reveals that there is a net attractive interaction between the ortho-hydrogens in the planar biphenyl. This falsifies the classical view of steric repulsion between the hydrogens. In addition, in contrast to the traditional QTAIM energy analysis, both FOHI and IQA show that the total atomic energy of the ortho-hydrogens remains almost constant when they participate in the H-H interaction. Although, the interatomic part of atomic energy of the hydrogens plays a stabilizing role during the formation of the H-H bond, it is almost compensated by the destabilizing effects of the intra-atomic parts and consequently, the total energy of the hydrogens remains constant. The trends in the changes of intra-atomic and interatomic energy terms of ortho-hydrogens during H-H bond formation are very similar to those observed for the H2 molecule.

  15. Tungsten deposition by hydrogen-atom reaction with tungsten hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.

    1991-01-01

    Using gaseous hydrogen atoms with WF[sub 6], tungsten atoms can be produced in a gas-phase reaction. The atoms then deposit in a near-room temperature process, which results in the formation of tungsten films. The W atoms (10[sup 10]-10[sup 11]/cm[sup 3]) were measured in situ by atomic absorption spectroscopy during the CVD process. Deposited W films were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, and X-ray diffraction. The surface morphology of the deposited films and filled holes was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The deposited films were highly adherent to different substrates, such as Si, SiO[sub 2], Ti/Si, TiN/Si and Teflon. The reaction mechanism and kinetics were studied. The experimental results indicated that this method has three advantages compared to conventional CVD or PECVD: (1) film growth occurs at low temperatures; (2) deposition takes place in a plasma-free environment; and (3) a low level of impurities results in high-quality adherent films.

  16. Some properties of Stark states of hydrogenic atoms and ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, J. D.

    2007-10-01

    The motivation for this work is the problem of providing accurate values of the atomic transition matrix elements for the Stark components of Rydberg Rydberg transitions in atomic hydrogen and hydrogenic ions, for use in spectral line broadening calculations applicable to cool, low-density plasmas, such as those found in H II regions. Since conventional methods of calculating these transition matrix elements cannot be used for the high principal quantum numbers now easily attained in radio astronomical spectra, we attempt to show that the recurrence relation (ladder operator) method recently employed by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1889 97) and Hey (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641 64) can be taken over into the parabolic coordinate system used to describe the Stark states of the atomic (ionic) radiators. The present method is therefore suggested as potentially useful for extending the work of Griem (1967 Astrophys. J. 148 547 58, 2005 Astrophys. J. 620 L133 4), Watson (2006), Stambulchik et al (2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 016401(9 pp) on Stark broadening in transitions between states of high principal quantum number, to physical conditions where the binary, impact approximation is no longer strictly applicable to both electron and ion perturbers. Another possible field of application is the study of Stark mixing transitions in 'ultracold' Rydberg atoms perturbed by long-range interactions with slow atoms and ions. Preparatory to the derivation of recurrence relations for states of different principal quantum number, a number of properties and recurrence relations are also found for states of identical principal quantum number, including the analogue in parabolic coordinates to the relations of Pasternack (1937 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 23 91 4, 250) in spherical polar coordinates.

  17. Site Change of Hydrogen in Niobium on Alloying with Oversized Ta Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Eiichi; Yoshii, Motoyasu; Okada, Yoshinori; Matsuba, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Kazuya; Koike, Shigetoshi; Sugawara, Takamasa; Shishido, Toetsu; Ogiwara, Kiyoshi

    2009-06-01

    In order to clarify a difference in hydrogen interaction with oversized solute atoms and with undersized solute atoms in bcc metals in the low solute concentration region, the site occupancy of hydrogen in Nb alloyed with 5 at. % of oversized Ta atoms has been studied at room temperature for hydrogen concentrations of 0.018 and 0.025 at the hydrogen-to-metal-atom ratio (CH=[H]/[M]) by the channelling method utilizing a nuclear reaction 1H(11B,α)αα with a 11B beam of an energy of 2.03 MeV. Clearly different from the result on hydrogen in Nb alloyed with undersized Mo atoms, in both specimens H atoms are distributed over tetrahedral (T) sites and the displaced-T sites (d-T sites) which are displaced from T sites by about 0.25 Å towards their nearest neighbour octahedral (O) sites. The T site is more favourable for hydrogen occupancy, but the number of available T sites is limited, and excess H atoms occupy the d-T sites. Therefore, in contrast to a strong attractive interaction between hydrogen and undersized Mo atoms (trapping), there exists no such a strong attractive interaction between hydrogen and oversized Ta atoms. It is considered that the trapping of hydrogen by undersized solute atoms is effective to the large enhancement of the terminal solubility of hydrogen (TSH) on alloying with undersized solute atoms, at least, in the low solute concentration region.

  18. H2 Molecular Clusters with Embedded Molecules and Atoms as the Source of the Diffuse Interstellar Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, L. S.; Clark, F. O.; Lynch, D. K.

    2013-05-01

    We suggest that the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) arise from absorption lines of electronic transitions in molecular clusters primarily composed of a single molecule, atom, or ion ("seed"), embedded in a single-layer shell of H2 molecules. Less abundant variants of the cluster, including two seed molecules and/or a two-layer shell of H2 molecules, may also occur. The lines are broadened, blended, and wavelength-shifted by interactions between the seed and surrounding H2 shell. We refer to these clusters as contaminated H2 clusters (CHCs). We show that CHC spectroscopy matches the diversity of observed DIB spectral profiles and provides good fits to several DIB profiles based on a rotational temperature of 10 K. CHCs arise from ~centimeter-sized, dirty H2 ice balls, called contaminated H2 ice macro-particles (CHIMPs), formed in cold, dense, giant molecular clouds (GMCs), and later released into the interstellar medium (ISM) upon GMC disruption. Attractive interactions, arising from Van der Waals and ion-induced dipole potentials, between the seeds and H2 molecules enable CHIMPs to attain centimeter-sized dimensions. When an ultraviolet (UV) photon is absorbed in the outer layer of a CHIMP, it heats the icy matrix and expels CHCs into the ISM. While CHCs are quickly destroyed by absorbing UV photons, they are replenished by the slowly eroding CHIMPs. Since CHCs require UV photons for their release, they are most abundant at, but not limited to, the edges of UV-opaque molecular clouds, consistent with the observed, preferred location of DIBs. An inherent property of CHCs, which can be characterized as nanometer size, spinning, dipolar dust grains, is that they emit in the radio-frequency region. We also show that the CHCs offer a natural explanation for the anomalous microwave emission feature in the ~10-100 GHz spectral region.

  19. Effects due to adsorbed atoms upon angular and energy distributions of surface produced negative hydrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, M.; Bacal, M.; Kasuya, T.; Kato, S.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure to Cs added hydrogen discharge makes surface of plasma grid of a negative hydrogen ion source covered with Cs and hydrogen. A Monte-Carlo particle simulation code ACAT was run to evaluate the effects due to adsorbed Cs and H atoms upon the angular and energy distributions of H atoms leaving the surface. Accumulation of H atoms on the surface reduces particle reflection coefficients and the mean energy of backscattered H atoms. Angular distributions of H atoms reflected from the hydrogen covered surface tend to be under-cosine at lower energies. Desorption of adsorbed H atoms is more efficient for hydrogen positive ions than for Cs positive ions at lower incident energy. At higher energy more than 100 eV, Cs ions desorb adsorbed H atoms more efficiently than hydrogen ions.

  20. Trapped Hydrogen Spectroscopy: Fundamental Constants and Atomic Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmann, Lorenz

    2002-05-01

    Ultra high resolution spectroscopy was an essential ingredient in the realisation and observation of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic hydrogen(D.G. Fried, T. Killian, L. Willmann, D. Landhuis, S. Moss, D. Kleppner, and T. Greytak, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81), 3807 (1998). That experiment is a good starting point to explore the possibilities for future spectroscopy of trapped ultracold hydrogen. Of particular interest are two aspects. Firstly, the exploitation of the intrinsically small linewidth of the 1S-2S transition of only 1.3 Hz as an optical frequency standard. Secondly, the precision determination of the 2S-nS energy splittings in hydrogen, which can be used to determine the Rydberg constant, the Lamb shift or the proton charge radius. We will combine these two aspects in the experiment. The absolut value of the hydrogen 1S-2S transition frequency(M. Niering, R. Holzwarth, J. Reichert, P. Pokasov, Th. Udem, M. Weitz, T. W. Hänsch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, M. Abgrall, P. Laurent, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84), 5496 (2000) serves as an optical frequency standard for the measurements of the 2S-nS transition frequencies. The frequencies will be linked by a frequency comb generated by a mode locked laser. Currently, a femto second laser is being set up in collaboration with the group of F. Kärtner at MIT. The source of trapped atoms in the metastable 2S state is laser excitation of the 1S-2S transition, thus the 2S-nS spectroscopy can be done at the same time and in the same trapping field to reduce systematic effects.

  1. The confined hydrogen atom: a linear variational approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, N.; Rojas, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the size effect on the confinement of a hydrogen atom in a spherical box of impenetrable walls. We compute the energy of the ground and a few excited states as a function of the box radius R c . To obtain the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions we utilize the linear variational method via a basis set of free-particle-in-a-box wave functions. For small values of R c convergence is attained with a small number of basis set functions, whereas for R c ≥ 5.0 au, it is necessary to use over 100 terms in the expansion.

  2. Angular distribution of electrons elastically scattered from hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shyn, T. W.; Cho, S. Y.

    1989-08-01

    Absolute elastic differential cross sections of atomic hydrogen have been measured by a modulated crossed-beam method. The energy and angular range covered were from 5 to 30 eV and from 12/degree/ to 156/degree/, respectively. The present results agree with the previous measurements within the experimental uncertainty below 15 eV, but it is found that the present results show stronger backward scattering (/gt/120/degree/) than the previous measurement and theoretical results by more than a factor of 2 above 20 eV.

  3. ON THE FORMATION OF INTERSTELLAR WATER ICE: CONSTRAINTS FROM A SEARCH FOR HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ICE IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R. G.; Wright, C. M.; Robinson, G.; Charnley, S. B.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Maldoni, M. M. E-mail: c.wright@adfa.edu.au E-mail: Steven.B.Charnley@nasa.gov

    2011-12-20

    Recent surface chemistry experiments have shown that the hydrogenation of molecular oxygen on interstellar dust grains is a plausible formation mechanism, via hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), for the production of water (H{sub 2}O) ice mantles in the dense interstellar medium. Theoretical chemistry models also predict the formation of a significant abundance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice in grain mantles by this route. At their upper limits, the predicted and experimental abundances are sufficiently high that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} should be detectable in molecular cloud ice spectra. To investigate this further, laboratory spectra have been obtained for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O ice films between 2.5 and 200 {mu}m, from 10 to 180 K, containing 3%, 30%, and 97% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice. Integrated absorbances for all the absorption features in low-temperature H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice have been derived from these spectra. For identifying H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice, the key results are the presence of unique features near 3.5, 7.0, and 11.3 {mu}m. Comparing the laboratory spectra with the spectra of a group of 24 protostars and field stars, all of which have strong H{sub 2}O ice absorption bands, no absorption features are found that can definitely be identified with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} ice. In the absence of definite H{sub 2}O{sub 2} features, the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} abundance is constrained by its possible contribution to the weak absorption feature near 3.47 {mu}m found on the long-wavelength wing of the 3 {mu}m H{sub 2}O ice band. This gives an average upper limit for H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, as a percentage of H{sub 2}O, of 9% {+-} 4%. This is a strong constraint on parameters for surface chemistry experiments and dense cloud chemistry models.

  4. The ratio of carbon monoxide to molecular hydrogen in interstellar dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    LTE (C-13)O column densities are compared with the corresponding values of beam-convolved visual extinction at more than 100 locations within 38 different interstellar dark clouds. A roughly linear correlation is found to exist between these two quantities for visual extinctions in the range from about 1.5 to 5 mag. It is argued that this correlation can be extended up to about 10 mag and that the standard gas-to-extinction ratio can be expected to remain valid in the sources studied. The correlation of LTE (C-13)O column density with visual extinction is used to obtain an equation for the H2 column density associated with a given (C-13)O column density. It is shown that if the clouds studied are assumed to be chemically homogeneous, the equation obtained implies that at least 12% of all gas-phase carbon is in the form of CO. Comparison of the observational data with various theories proposed for molecule formation in dark clouds indicates that Langer's (1977) ion-molecule scheme accounts well for the observations when the fractionation channel of Watson et al. (1976) is included.

  5. HST STIS Observations of Interstellar Chlorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Valerie Rose; Dirks, Cody; Meyer, David M.; Cartledge, Stefan I. B.

    2017-01-01

    Among the dominant ions of abundant elements in the diffuse interstellar medium, only chlorine (Cl II) has a rapid exothermic reaction with molecular hydrogen (H2) that should lead to the dominance of its atomic form (Cl I) in clouds where most of the hydrogen is in H2. We present the results of an archival study of the interstellar Cl I λ1347.24 absorption observed at high spectral resolution toward 41 stars with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Our key goals in this survey are to explore the relationship between interstellar N(Cl I) and N(H2) with a larger sample and a larger N(H2) range (16.44 < log N(H2) < 20.87) than the Copernicus interstellar survey of Moomey et al. (2012). We additionally contrast it with the high-z QSO damped Lyman-alpha system (DLA) findings of Balashev et al. (2015). We find that for log N(H2) > 19.0, the HST STIS sample is consistent with the Copernicus data and high-z DLA samples in indicating a linear trend of increasing N(Cl I) with increasing N(H2). Furthermore, all of the interstellar sightlines with log f(H2) > -0.5 have log N(Cl I) > 13.5, and those with log f(H2) < -1.5 have log N(Cl I) < 13.5, where f(H2)=2N(H2)/[2N(H2)+N(H I)] is the fractional amount of H2 in H. Consequently, observations of interstellar Cl I can potentially trace the H2 fraction of the “CO-dark” gas marking the transition between diffuse atomic and dense CO molecular clouds.

  6. Atomic hydrogen in the spiral galaxy NGC 3631

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapen, J. H.

    1997-04-01

    New high-resolution, high-sensitivity Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope Hi synthesis observations of the spiral galaxy NGC 3631 are presented. In the total atomic hydrogen map, the spiral arms are well distinguished from the interarm regions, while the sensitivity allows detection of Hi in all but a few isolated regions of the areas between the spiral arms. Most of the atomic hydrogen is located within the optical disc, but the Hi extends to some 1.5R_opt. The Hi follows the spiral arms, and streaming motions of up to ~15 km s^-1 (projected) can be identified from the velocity field. Assuming a constant inclination angle of 17 deg, a rotation curve is derived which is declining slightly in the outer parts of the disc. An analysis of a residual velocity field, obtained after the subtraction of an axisymmetric model based on the rotation curve, confirms the existence of streaming motions near the spiral arms in an otherwise undisturbed disc.

  7. Hot hydrogen atom reactions moderated by H2 and He.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, S; Scattergood, T; Flores, J; Chang, S

    1986-01-01

    Photolysis experiments were performed on the H2-CD4-NH3 and the He-CD4-NH3 systems. The photolysis (1849 angstoms) involved only NH3. Mixtures of H2:CD4:NH3 included all combinations of the ratios (200,400,800):(10,20,40):4. Two He:CD4:NH3 mixtures were examined where the ratios equalled the combinations 100:(10,20):4. Abstraction of a D from CD4 by the photolytically produced hot hydrogen from ammonia was monitored by mass spectrometric determination of HD. Both experiment and semiempirical hot-atom theory show that H2 is a very poor thermalizer of hot hydrogens with excess kinetic energy of about 2 eV. Applications of the hard-sphere collision model to the H2-CD4-NH3 system results in predicted ratios of net HD production to NH3 decomposition that were two orders of magnitude smaller than the experimental ratios. On the other hand, helium is found to be a very efficient thermalizer; here, the classical model yields reasonable agreement with experiments. Application of a semiempirical hot-atom program gave quantitative agreement with experiment for either system.

  8. Atomic hydrogen for low temperature atomic hydrogen masers and in-vacuum dissociators for VLG-11 series masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, R. F. C.

    1984-01-01

    The operation of a cryogenically-cooled hydrogen maser using an RF plasma dissociator operating at liquid nitrogen temperature (77K) in confunction with a state selector magnet whose dimensions are suitable for slow atoms is studied. The focusing characteristics for a hexapole state selector magnet with maximum fields at the pole tips, provide a maximum acceptance angle for atoms at the most probable velocity in the beam. By thermally isolating the RF circuitry from the dissociator glassware, only dielectric losses in the glass and the energy coupled to the plasma will result in the boil-off of liquid nitrogen. It is estimated that this is about one watt and thus a loss rate of approximately .022 liters pr hour is anticipated.

  9. H_2 Emission as a Large-Scale Tracer of Molecular Hydrogen in Interstellar Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, M. L.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1994-12-01

    We have detected extremely extended (>1.5deg , or 12 pc) near-infrared H_2 line emission from the Orion A giant molecular cloud. We have used a new instrument, the University of Texas Near-Infrared Fabry-Perot spectrometer, which is optimized for the detection of low surface brightness line emission from 1.4 microns to 2.4 microns (Luhman et al. 1995, PASP, in press). Our Orion observations show that we can directly trace H_2 along the outlying surfaces of interstellar molecular clouds, well away from the star-forming cores. The diffuse, extended H_2 emission provides a unique new view of molecular clouds to complement conventional large-scale tracers such as CO and is an excellent probe of cloud energetics. In Orion, we have mapped the emission in the 1.601 microns v=6--4 Q(1), 2.121 microns v=1--0 S(1), and 2.247 microns v=2--1 S(1) lines of H_2. The surface brightness of the extended H_2 line emission is 10(-6) to 10(-5) ergs s(-1) cm(-2) sr(-1) . Based on the distribution and relative strengths of the H_2 emission lines, we conclude that H_2 excited by ultraviolet radiation dominates the global H_2 line emission from the Orion molecular cloud, even though this cloud has a powerful shock-excited H_2 source in its core. We are comparing our H_2 data and observations of the 63 microns [O I] and 158 microns [C II] emission to the predictions of theoretical models of photodissociation or photon dominated regions to examine the physical conditions throughout the Orion A cloud. This work was supported by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation through a fellowship to D.T.J. and by a NASA Graduate Traineeship grant NGT-50998 held by M.L.L.

  10. The ground state properties of spin-aligned atomic hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etters, R. D.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Palmer, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    The internal energy, pressure, and compressibility of ground-state, spin-aligned atomic hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium are calculated assuming that all pair interactions occur via the atomic triplet (spin-aligned) potential. The conditions required to obtain atomic hydrogen and its isotopes in bulk are discussed; such a development would be of value in propulsion systems because of the light mass and energetic recombination of atomic hydrogen. Results show that atomic triplet hydrogen and deuterium remain gaseous at 0 K, and that tritium forms a liquid with a binding energy of approximately -0.75 K per atom at a molar volume of 130 cu cm per mole. The pair distribution function for these systems is calculated, and the predicted superfluid behavior of atomic triplet hydrogen and tritium is briefly discussed.

  11. Reaction of benzene with atomic carbon: pathways to fulvenallene and the fulvenallenyl radical in extraterrestrial atmospheres and the interstellar medium.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel

    2014-06-05

    The reaction of benzene with ground-state atomic carbon, C((3)P), has been investigated using the G3X-K composite quantum chemical method. A suite of novel energetically favorable pathways that lead to previously unconsidered products are identified. Reaction is initiated by barrierless C atom cycloaddition to benzene on the triplet surface, producing a vibrationally excited [C7H6]* adduct that can dissociate to the cycloheptatrienyl radical (+ H) via a relatively loose transition state 4.4 kcal mol(-1) below the reactant energies. This study also identifies that this reaction adduct can isomerize to generate five-membered ring intermediates that can further dissociate to the global C7H5 minima, the fulvenallenyl radical (+ H), or to c-C5H4 and acetylene, with limiting barriers around 20 and 10 kcal mol(-1) below the reactants, respectively. If intersystem crossing to the singlet surface occurs, isomerization pathways that are lower-yet in energy are available leading to the C7H6 minima fulvenallene, with all barriers over 40 kcal mol(-1) below the reactants. From here further barrierless fragmentation to fulvenallenyl + H can proceed at ca. 25 kcal mol(-1) below the reactants. In the reducing atmospheres of planets like Jupiter and satellites like Titan, where benzene and C((3)P) are both expected, it is proposed that fulvenallene and the fulvenallenyl radical would be the dominant products of the C6H6 + C((3)P) reaction. Fulvenallenyl may also be a significant reaction product under collision-free conditions representative of the interstellar medium, although further work is required here to confirm the identity of the C7H5 radical product.

  12. Molecular dynamics simulation of effect of hydrogen atoms on crack propagation behavior of α-Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, H. Y.; Zhang, L.; Xiao, M. X.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of the hydrogen concentration and hydrogen distribution on the mechanical properties of α-Fe with a pre-existing unilateral crack under tensile loading is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The results reveal that the models present good ductility when the front region of crack tip has high local hydrogen concentration. The peak stress of α-Fe decreases with increasing hydrogen concentration. The studies also indicate that for the samples with hydrogen atoms, the crack propagation behavior is independent of the model size and boundaries. In addition, the crack propagation behavior is significantly influenced by the distribution of hydrogen atoms.

  13. Generation of atomic H in a hydrogen matrix by tritium decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    Webeler's (1976) experimental results for the generation of atomic hydrogen in a hydrogen matrix by tritium decay are reexamined with a variant of Rosen's (1976) mathematical treatment. The analysis retains Rosen's equations for the number densities of trapped and mobile hydrogen atoms, but replaces his enthalpy equation with an equation for the directly measured temperature. Theoretical expressions are derived for the dependence of storage time, recombination time, and maximum density of trapped hydrogen atoms as a function of temperature for a given tritium concentration. A comparison of predictions for the maximum trapped atomic hydrogen number density as a function of storage time reveals that Rosen's estimate for the maximum number density of hydrogen atoms for the zero magnetic field case is a little more optimistic than the estimate obtained in the paper.

  14. Effects of atomic hydrogen and deuterium exposure on high polarization GaAs photocathodes

    SciTech Connect

    M. Baylac; P. Adderley; J. Brittian; J. Clark; T. Day; J. Grames; J. Hansknecht; M. Poelker; M. Stutzman; A. T. Wu; A. S. Terekhov

    2005-12-01

    Strained-layer GaAs and strained-superlattice GaAs photocathodes are used at Jefferson Laboratory to create high average current beams of highly spin-polarized electrons. High electron yield, or quantum efficiency (QE), is obtained only when the photocathode surface is atomically clean. For years, exposure to atomic hydrogen or deuterium has been the photocathode cleaning technique employed at Jefferson Laboratory. This work demonstrates that atomic hydrogen cleaning is not necessary when precautions are taken to ensure that clean photocathode material from the vendor is not inadvertently dirtied while samples are prepared for installation inside photoemission guns. Moreover, this work demonstrates that QE and beam polarization can be significantly reduced when clean high-polarization photocathode material is exposed to atomic hydrogen from an rf dissociator-style atomic hydrogen source. Surface analysis provides some insight into the mechanisms that degrade QE and polarization due to atomic hydrogen cleaning.

  15. Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Raith, W.; Sperber, W.; Jacobsen, F.; Lynn, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 {plus_minus} 0.18) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} for {approx} 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections.

  16. Entropy and complexity analysis of hydrogenic Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Rosa, S.; Toranzo, I. V.; Dehesa, J. S.; Sanchez-Moreno, P.

    2013-05-15

    The internal disorder of hydrogenic Rydberg atoms as contained in their position and momentum probability densities is examined by means of the following information-theoretic spreading quantities: the radial and logarithmic expectation values, the Shannon entropy, and the Fisher information. As well, the complexity measures of Cramer-Rao, Fisher-Shannon, and Lopez Ruiz-Mancini-Calvet types are investigated in both reciprocal spaces. The leading term of these quantities is rigorously calculated by use of the asymptotic properties of the concomitant entropic functionals of the Laguerre and Gegenbauer orthogonal polynomials which control the wavefunctions of the Rydberg states in both position and momentum spaces. The associated generalized Heisenberg-like, logarithmic and entropic uncertainty relations are also given. Finally, application to linear (l= 0), circular (l=n- 1), and quasicircular (l=n- 2) states is explicitly done.

  17. Phase Space Structures Explain Hydrogen Atom Roaming in Formaldehyde Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Mauguière, Frédéric A L; Collins, Peter; Kramer, Zeb C; Carpenter, Barry K; Ezra, Gregory S; Farantos, Stavros C; Wiggins, Stephen

    2015-10-15

    We re-examine the prototypical roaming reaction--hydrogen atom roaming in formaldehyde decomposition--from a phase space perspective. Specifically, we address the question "why do trajectories roam, rather than dissociate through the radical channel?" We describe and compute the phase space structures that define and control all possible reactive events for this reaction, as well as provide a dynamically exact description of the roaming region in phase space. Using these phase space constructs, we show that in the roaming region, there is an unstable periodic orbit whose stable and unstable manifolds define a conduit that both encompasses all roaming trajectories exiting the formaldehyde well and shepherds them toward the H2···CO well.

  18. Laser-assisted positron-impact ionization of atomic hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Pan, Juan; Li, Shu-Min; Berakdar, Jamal

    2007-03-15

    We study the ionization of atomic hydrogen by a fast positron in the presence of an external linearly polarized laser field. We concentrate on the limit of a small momentum transfer and describe the fast positron's continuum states by Volkov wave functions. The ejected electron is described by a Coulomb-Volkov wave function. We are limited to small laser intensities such that the dressed state of the target is treatable within the time-dependent perturbation theory, even though the laser intensity is still quite high by laboratory standards. Numerical results for the triply differential cross sections and their dependencies on laser-field parameters are discussed and compared with the results of laser-assisted ionization by electron impact.

  19. Positron scattering from hydrogen atom embedded in dense quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Arka; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ghoshal, Arijit; Ratnavelu, K.

    2013-08-15

    Scattering of positrons from the ground state of hydrogen atoms embedded in dense quantum plasma has been investigated by applying a formulation of the three-body collision problem in the form of coupled multi-channel two-body Lippmann-Schwinger equations. The interactions among the charged particles in dense quantum plasma have been represented by exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. Variationally determined hydrogenic wave function has been employed to calculate the partial-wave scattering amplitude. Plasma screening effects on various possible mode of fragmentation of the system e{sup +}+H(1s) during the collision, such as 1s→1s and 2s→2s elastic collisions, 1s→2s excitation, positronium formation, elastic proton-positronium collisions, have been reported in the energy range 13.6-350 eV. Furthermore, a comparison has been made on the plasma screening effect of a dense quantum plasma with that of a weakly coupled plasma for which the plasma screening effect has been represented by the Debye model. Our results for the unscreened case are in fair agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.

  20. Transient absorption spectra of the laser-dressed hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Mitsuko; Chu, Shih-I.

    2013-10-01

    We present a theoretical study of transient absorption spectra of laser-dressed hydrogen atoms, based on numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The timing of absorption is controlled by the delay between an extreme ultra violet (XUV) pulse and an infrared (IR) laser field. The XUV pulse is isolated and several hundred attoseconds in duration, which acts as a pump to drive the ground-state electron to excited p states. The subsequent interaction with the IR field produces dressed states, which manifest as sidebands between the 1s-np absorption spectra separated by one IR-photon energy. We demonstrate that the population of dressed states is maximized when the timing of the XUV pulse coincides with the zero crossing of the IR field, and that their energies can be manipulated in a subcycle time scale by adding a chirp to the IR field. An alternative perspective to the problem is to think of the XUV pulse as a probe to detect the dynamical ac Stark shifts. Our results indicate that the accidental degeneracy of the hydrogen excited states is removed while they are dressed by the IR field, leading to large ac Stark shifts. Furthermore, we observe the Autler-Townes doublets for the n=2 and 3 levels using the 656 nm dressing field, but their separation does not agree with the prediction by the conventional three-level model that neglects the dynamical ac Stark shifts.

  1. Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers and Interstellar Boundary Explorer energetic neutral atom imaging of the 5 April 2010 substorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.; Buzulukova, N.; Connors, M. G.; Dayeh, M. A.; Goldstein, J.; Funsten, H. O.; Fuselier, S.; Schwadron, N. A.; Valek, P.

    2012-03-01

    This study is the first to combine energetic neutral atom (ENA) observations from Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) and Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Here we examine the arrival of an interplanetary shock and the subsequent geomagnetically effective substorm on 5 April 2010, which was associated with the Galaxy 15 communications satellite anomaly. IBEX shows sharply enhanced ENA emissions immediately upon compression of the dayside magnetosphere at 08:26:17+/-9 s UT. The compression drove a markedly different spectral shape for the dayside emissions, with a strong enhancement at energies >1 keV, which persisted for hours after the shock arrival, consistent with the higher solar wind speed, density, and dynamic pressure (˜10 nPa) after the shock. TWINS ENA observations indicate a slower response of the ring current and precipitation of ring current ions as low-altitude emissions ˜15 min later, with the >50 keV ion precipitation leading the <10 keV precipitation by ˜20 min. These observations suggest internal magnetospheric processes are occurring after compression of the magnetosphere and before the ring current ions end up in the loss cone and precipitate into the ionosphere. We also compare MHD simulation results with both the TWINS and IBEX ENA observations; while the overall fluxes and distributions of emissions were generally similar, there were significant quantitative differences. Such differences emphasize the complexity of the magnetospheric system and importance of the global perspective for macroscopic magnetospheric studies. Finally, Appendix A documents important details of the TWINS data processing, including improved binning procedures, smoothing of images to a given level of statistical accuracy, and differential background subtraction.

  2. Hydrogen isotopic substitution of solid methylamine through atomic surface reactions at low temperatures: A potential contribution to the D/H ratio of methylamine in molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Chigai, Takeshi; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Kouchi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally studied hydrogen (H)-deuterium (D) substitution reactions of solid methylamine (CH3NH2) under astrophysically relevant conditions. We also calculated the potential energy surface for the H-D substitution reactions of methylamine isotopologues using quantum chemical methods. Despite the relatively large energy barrier of more than 18 kJ mol-1, CH3NH2 reacted with D atoms to yield deuterated methylamines at 10 K, suggesting that the H-D substitution reaction proceeds through quantum tunneling. Deuterated methylamines reacted with H atoms as well. On the basis of present results, we propose that methylamine has potential for D enrichment through atomic surface reactions on interstellar grains at very low temperatures in molecular clouds. D enrichment would occur in particular in the methyl group of methylamine.

  3. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. II. Sticking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H.; Burghardt, Irene; Martinazzo, Rocco

    2015-09-01

    Following our recent system-bath modeling of the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface [Bonfanti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 124703 (2015)], we present the results of converged quantum scattering calculations on the activated sticking dynamics. The focus of this study is the collinear scattering on a surface at zero temperature, which is treated with high-dimensional wavepacket propagations with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. At low collision energies, barrier-crossing dominates the sticking and any projectile that overcomes the barrier gets trapped in the chemisorption well. However, at high collision energies, energy transfer to the surface is a limiting factor, and fast H atoms hardly dissipate their excess energy and stick on the surface. As a consequence, the sticking coefficient is maximum (˜0.65) at an energy which is about one and half larger than the barrier height. Comparison of the results with classical and quasi-classical calculations shows that quantum fluctuations of the lattice play a primary role in the dynamics. A simple impulsive model describing the collision of a classical projectile with a quantum surface is developed which reproduces the quantum results remarkably well for all but the lowest energies, thereby capturing the essential physics of the activated sticking dynamics investigated.

  4. Anharmonic effects in atomic hydrogen: Superconductivity and lattice dynamical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinaga, Miguel; Errea, Ion; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco; Bergara, Aitor

    2016-05-01

    We present first-principles calculations of metallic atomic hydrogen in the 400-600 GPa pressure range in a tetragonal structure with space group I 41/a m d , which is predicted to be its first atomic phase. Our calculations show a band structure close to the free-electron-like limit due to the high electronic kinetic energy induced by pressure. Bands are properly described even in the independent electron approximation fully neglecting the electron-electron interaction. Linear-response harmonic calculations show a dynamically stable phonon spectrum with marked Kohn anomalies. Even if the electron-electron interaction has a minor role in the electronic bands, the inclusion of electronic exchange and correlation in the density response is essential to obtain a dynamically stable structure. Anharmonic effects, which are calculated within the stochastic self-consistent harmonic approximation, harden high-energy optical modes and soften transverse acoustic modes up to a 20% in energy. Despite a large impact of anharmonicity has been predicted in several high-pressure hydrides, here the superconducting critical temperature is barely affected by anharmonicity, as it is lowered from its harmonic 318 K value only to 300 K at 500 GPa. We attribute the small impact of anharmonicity on superconductivity to the absence of softened optical modes and the fairly uniform distribution of the electron-phonon coupling among the vibrational modes.

  5. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. II. Sticking

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H.; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-09-28

    Following our recent system-bath modeling of the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface [Bonfanti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 124703 (2015)], we present the results of converged quantum scattering calculations on the activated sticking dynamics. The focus of this study is the collinear scattering on a surface at zero temperature, which is treated with high-dimensional wavepacket propagations with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. At low collision energies, barrier-crossing dominates the sticking and any projectile that overcomes the barrier gets trapped in the chemisorption well. However, at high collision energies, energy transfer to the surface is a limiting factor, and fast H atoms hardly dissipate their excess energy and stick on the surface. As a consequence, the sticking coefficient is maximum (∼0.65) at an energy which is about one and half larger than the barrier height. Comparison of the results with classical and quasi-classical calculations shows that quantum fluctuations of the lattice play a primary role in the dynamics. A simple impulsive model describing the collision of a classical projectile with a quantum surface is developed which reproduces the quantum results remarkably well for all but the lowest energies, thereby capturing the essential physics of the activated sticking dynamics investigated.

  6. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. II. Sticking.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene; Martinazzo, Rocco

    2015-09-28

    Following our recent system-bath modeling of the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface [Bonfanti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 124703 (2015)], we present the results of converged quantum scattering calculations on the activated sticking dynamics. The focus of this study is the collinear scattering on a surface at zero temperature, which is treated with high-dimensional wavepacket propagations with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. At low collision energies, barrier-crossing dominates the sticking and any projectile that overcomes the barrier gets trapped in the chemisorption well. However, at high collision energies, energy transfer to the surface is a limiting factor, and fast H atoms hardly dissipate their excess energy and stick on the surface. As a consequence, the sticking coefficient is maximum (∼0.65) at an energy which is about one and half larger than the barrier height. Comparison of the results with classical and quasi-classical calculations shows that quantum fluctuations of the lattice play a primary role in the dynamics. A simple impulsive model describing the collision of a classical projectile with a quantum surface is developed which reproduces the quantum results remarkably well for all but the lowest energies, thereby capturing the essential physics of the activated sticking dynamics investigated.

  7. How Ewen and Purcell discovered the 21-cm interstellar hydrogen line.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, K. D.

    1999-02-01

    The story of how Harold Irving Ewen and Edward Mills Purcell detected the first spectral line ever observed in radio astronomy, in 1951, has been told for general audiences by Robert Buderi (1996). The present article has a different purpose. The technical roots of Ewen and Purcell's achievement reveal much about the way science often depends upon "borrowed" technologies, which were not developed with the needs of science in mind. The design and construction of the equipment is described in detail. As Ewen's photographs, records, and recollections show, he and Purcell had access to an unusual combination of scientific knowledge, engineering know-how, critical hardware, and technical assistance at Harvard, in 1950 and 1951. This combination gave them a competitive edge over similar research groups in Holland and Australia, who were also striving to detect the hydrogen line, and who succeeded only weeks after the Harvard researchers did. The story also shows that Ewen and Purcell did their groundbreaking scientific work in the "small-science" style that prevailed before World War II, while receiving substantial indirect help from one of the first big-science projects at Harvard.

  8. Schrodinger Equation Solutions that Lead to the Solution for the Hydrogen Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Paul F.; McGill, K.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two exercises that would provide beginning quantum theory students with an introduction to more advanced quantum mechanical treatments, especially the hydrogen atom are given. The exercises are stepwise in difficulty, leading naturally to the full hydrogen atom development and greatly extend the pedagogy of most multidimensional Cartesian systems…

  9. High brightness neutral hydrogen in M31: A new probe of interstellar pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert; Walterbos, Rene

    1990-01-01

    An observational parameter of our own Galaxy, the peak brightness temperature of neutral hydrogen in emission, was determined almost twenty years ago (Burton 1970). This quantity, although possessing a degree of local variations, has a remarkably consistent peak value of 125 K towards spiral arm segments with a few isolated peaks extending to 135 K, once sufficient spatial and velocity resolution are used (less than or equal to 70 pc, less than or equal to 5 km/s) to resolve the emission peaks. The higher spatial and velocity resolution of more recent surveys has not led to the detection of higher brightnesses. For many years this remarkable observational result has received little attention, primarily because similar data for other galaxies, which would allow a meaningful comparison and analysis, did not exist. Recently this situation has changed. A Westerbork survey of M33 (Deul and Van der Hulst 1987, and private comm.) with 40 pc x 8 km/s resolution has revealed consistent peak values of only 95 plus or minus 5 K (although there is still some question of whether the velocity resolution was sufficient in this case), while a Very Large Array (VLA) survey of M31 (Braun 1989a) with 35 pc x 5 km/s resolution has shown consistent peak values but at a temperature of 155 to 165 K. It has become clear that although peak HI brightness seems to be a well-defined quantity within individual galaxies (with a degree of local variation) there are very significant differences in this quantity amongst different galaxies. Researchers embarked on an observational program directed at a sample of 11 nearby galaxies: NGC 55, 247, 7793, 3031, 2366, 2403, 4236, 4826, 4736, 4244, and 5457. They hope to determine the gas properties and phases as a function of both galaxy type and position within the galaxies utilizing high resolution HI observations and optical narrow band imagery and spectroscopy which are now underway.

  10. Tracing Interstellar Magnetic Field Using Velocity Gradient Technique: Application to Atomic Hydrogen Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Ka Ho; Lazarian, A.

    2017-03-01

    The advancement of our understanding of MHD turbulence opens ways to develop new techniques to probe magnetic fields. In MHD turbulence, the velocity gradients are expected to be perpendicular to magnetic fields and this fact was used by González-Casanova & Lazarian to introduce a new technique to trace magnetic fields using velocity centroid gradients (VCGs). The latter can be obtained from spectroscopic observations. We apply the technique to GALFA-H i survey data and then compare the directions of magnetic fields obtained with our technique to the direction of magnetic fields obtained using PLANCK polarization. We find an excellent correspondence between the two ways of magnetic field tracing, which is obvious via the visual comparison and through the measuring of the statistics of magnetic field fluctuations obtained with the polarization data and our technique. This suggests that the VCGs have a potential for measuring of the foreground magnetic field fluctuations, and thus provide a new way of separating foreground and CMB polarization signals.

  11. Exchange of carbon-bound hydrogen atoms ortho to the hydroxyl group in tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Martin, R B; Morlino, V J

    1965-10-22

    The carbon-bound hydrogen atoms of tyrosine that exchange with solvent protons in strongly acid solutions at about 100 degrees C are not the methylene hydrogen atoms but a pair on the aromatic ring. Of the two pairs of protons on the aromatic ring, observed in the proton magnetic resonance spectra, the pair at higher field undergoes exchange in 2.4N DCI at 100 degrees C. Other hydrogen atoms, attached either to aliphatic or aromatic carbon atoms, exhibit no noticeable exchange under the same conditions. From a chemicalshift analysis the exchanging protons are assigned as those ortho to the hydroxyl group on the aromatic ring.

  12. Positron impact excitations of hydrogen atom embedded in dense quantum plasmas: Formation of Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, Pramit; Ghoshal, Arijit

    2014-11-15

    Formation of Rydberg atoms due to 1 s → nlm excitations of hydrogen by positron impact, for arbitrary n, l, m, in dense quantum plasma has been investigated using a distorted wave theory which includes screened dipole polarization potential. The interactions among the charged particles in the plasma have been represented by exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. Making use of a simple variationally determined hydrogen wave function, it has been possible to obtain the distorted wave scattering amplitude in a closed analytical form. A detailed study has been made to explore the structure of differential and total cross sections in the energy range 20–300 eV of incident positron. For the unscreened case, our results agree nicely with some of the most accurate results available in the literature. To the best of our knowledge, such a study on the differential and total cross sections for 1 s → nlm inelastic positron-hydrogen collisions in dense quantum plasma is the first reported in the literature.

  13. Atomic orbitals of the nonrelativistic hydrogen atom in a four-dimensional Riemann space through the path integral formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, H.; Maranon, J.; Vucetich, H.

    1983-01-15

    The Kustaanheimo--Stiefel transformation together with the well-known expansion of the kernel of an isotropic harmonic oscillator is used to generate the atomic orbitals of the nonrelativistic hydrogen atom in a four-dimensional Riemann space through the path integral formalism. Group theoretical implications of the present problem are briefly discussed.

  14. Perturbation hydrogen-atom spectrum in deformed space with minimal length

    SciTech Connect

    Stetsko, M. M.; Tkachuk, V. M.

    2006-07-15

    We studied energy spectrum for the hydrogen atom with deformed Heisenberg algebra leading to the minimal length. We developed the correct perturbation theory free of divergences. It gives a possibility to calculate analytically in the three-dimensional case the corrections to s levels of the hydrogen atom caused by the minimal length. Comparing our results with the experimental data from precision hydrogen spectroscopy an upper bound for the minimal length is obtained.

  15. New horizons in chemical propulsion. [processes using free radicals, atomic hydrogen, excited species, etc

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, W.

    1973-01-01

    After a review of the work of the late-Fifties on free radicals for propulsion, it is concluded that atomic hydrogen would provide a potentially large increase in specific impulse. Work conducted to find an approach for isolating atomic hydrogen is considered. Other possibilities for obtaining propellants of greatly increased capability might be connected with the technology for the generation of activated states of gases, metallic hydrogen, fuels obtained from other planets, and laser transfer of energy.

  16. Peripherally hydrogenated neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as carriers of the 3 micron interstellar infrared emission complex: results from single-photon infrared emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wagner, D R; Kim, H S; Saykally, R J

    2000-12-20

    Infrared emission spectra of five gas-phase UV laser-excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing aliphatic hydrogens are compared with the main 3.3 microns and associated interstellar unidentified infrared emission bands (UIRs). We show that neutral PAHs can account for the majority of the 3 microns emission complex while making little contribution to the other UIR bands; peripherally hydrogenated PAHs produce a better match to astrophysical data than do those containing methyl side groups; 3.4 microns plateau emission is shown to be a general spectral feature of vibrationally excited PAHs containing aliphatic hydrogens, especially those containing methyl groups; and finally, hot-band and overtone emissions arising from aromatic C-H vibrations are not observed in laboratory emission spectra, and therefore, in contrast to current assignments, are not expected to be observed in the UIRs.

  17. Peripherally hydrogenated neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as carriers of the 3 micron interstellar infrared emission complex: results from single-photon infrared emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, D. R.; Kim, H. S.; Saykally, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Infrared emission spectra of five gas-phase UV laser-excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing aliphatic hydrogens are compared with the main 3.3 microns and associated interstellar unidentified infrared emission bands (UIRs). We show that neutral PAHs can account for the majority of the 3 microns emission complex while making little contribution to the other UIR bands; peripherally hydrogenated PAHs produce a better match to astrophysical data than do those containing methyl side groups; 3.4 microns plateau emission is shown to be a general spectral feature of vibrationally excited PAHs containing aliphatic hydrogens, especially those containing methyl groups; and finally, hot-band and overtone emissions arising from aromatic C-H vibrations are not observed in laboratory emission spectra, and therefore, in contrast to current assignments, are not expected to be observed in the UIRs.

  18. Kinetic modeling of primary and secondary oxygen atom fluxes at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balyukin, Igor; Katushkina, Olga; Alexashov, Dmitry; Izmodenov, Vladislav

    2016-07-01

    The first quantitative measurements of the interstellar heavy (oxygen and neon) neutral atoms obtained on the IBEX spacecraft were presented in Park et al. (ApJS, 2015). Qualitative analysis of these data shows that the secondary component of the interstellar oxygen atoms was also measured along with the primary interstellar atoms. This component is formed near the heliopause due to process of charge exchange of interstellar oxygen ions with hydrogen atoms and its existence in the heliosphere was previously predicted theoretically (Izmodenov et al, 1997, 1999, 2001). Quantitative analysis of fluxes of interstellar heavy neutral atoms is only possible with the help of a model which takes into account both filtration of the primary and origin of the secondary interstellar oxygen in the region of interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium as well as a detailed simulation of the motion of interstellar atoms inside the heliosphere. This simulation must take into account the temporal and heliolatitudinal dependences of ionization, the process of charge exchange with the protons of the solar wind and the effect of the solar gravitational attraction. This paper presents the results of modeling interstellar oxygen and neon atoms in the heliospheric shock layer and inside the heliosphere based on a new three-dimensional kinetic-MHD model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (Izmodenov and Alexashov, ApJS, 2015) and the comparison of this results with the data obtained on the IBEX spacecraft.

  19. Metal-Free Hydrogen Atom Transfer from Water: Expeditious Hydrogenation of N-Heterocycles Mediated by Diboronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun-Tao; Sun, Xiao-Tao; Zhang, Ling; Luo, Kai; Wu, Lei

    2016-11-21

    A hydrogenation of N-heterocycles mediated by diboronic acid with water as the hydrogen atom source is reported. A variety of N-heterocycles can be hydrogenated with medium to excellent yields within 10 min. Complete deuterium incorporation from stoichiometric D2 O onto substrates further exemplifies the H/D atom sources. Mechanism studies reveal that the reduction proceeds with initial 1,2-addition, in which diboronic acid synergistically activates substrates and water via a six-membered ring transition state.

  20. The EAGLE simulations: atomic hydrogen associated with galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Robert A.; Bahé, Yannick M.; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Rahmati, Alireza; Schaye, Joop; McCarthy, Ian G.; Marasco, Antonino; Bower, Richard G.; Schaller, Matthieu; Theuns, Tom; van der Hulst, Thijs

    2017-02-01

    We examine the properties of atomic hydrogen (H I) associated with galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) simulations of galaxy formation. EAGLE's feedback parameters were calibrated to reproduce the stellar mass function and galaxy sizes at z = 0.1, and we assess whether this calibration also yields realistic H I properties. We estimate the self-shielding density with a fitting function calibrated using radiation transport simulations, and correct for molecular hydrogen with empirical or theoretical relations. The `standard-resolution' simulations systematically underestimate H I column densities, leading to an H I deficiency in low-mass (M⋆ < 1010 M⊙) galaxies and poor reproduction of the observed H I mass function. These shortcomings are largely absent from EAGLE simulations featuring a factor of 8 (2) better mass (spatial) resolution, within which the H I mass of galaxies evolves more mildly from z = 1 to 0 than in the standard-resolution simulations. The largest volume simulation reproduces the observed clustering of H I systems, and its dependence on H I richness. At fixed M⋆, galaxies acquire more H I in simulations with stronger feedback, as they become associated with more massive haloes and higher infall rates. They acquire less H I in simulations with a greater star formation efficiency, since the star formation and feedback necessary to balance the infall rate is produced by smaller gas reservoirs. The simulations indicate that the H I of present-day galaxies was acquired primarily by the smooth accretion of ionized, intergalactic gas at z ≃ 1, which later self-shields, and that only a small fraction is contributed by the reincorporation of gas previously heated strongly by feedback. H I reservoirs are highly dynamic: over 40 per cent of H I associated with z = 0.1 galaxies is converted to stars or ejected by z = 0.

  1. Emission of fast non-Maxwellian hydrogen atoms in low-density laboratory plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Christian; Marchuk, Oleksandr; Pospieszczyk, Albrecht; Dickheuer, Sven

    2017-03-01

    The source of strong and broad emission of the Balmer-α line in mixed plasmas of hydrogen (or deuterium) and noble gases in front of metallic surfaces is a subject of controversial discussion of many plasma types. In this work the excitation source of the Balmer lines is investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy in the plasma device PSI-2. Neutral fast non-Maxwellian hydrogen atoms are produced by acceleration of hydrogen ions towards an electrode immersed into the plasma. By variation of the electrode potential the energy of ions and in turn of reflected fast atoms can be varied in the range of 40-300 eV. The fast atoms in front of the electrode are observed simultaneously by an Echelle spectrometer (0.001 nm/channel) and by an imaging spectrometer (0.01 nm/channel) up to few cm in the plasma. Intense excitation channels of the Balmer lines are observed when hydrogen is mixed with argon or with krypton. Especially in Ar-H and Ar-D mixed plasmas the emission of fast hydrogen atoms is very strong. Intermixing hydrogen with other noble gases (He, Ne or Xe) one observes the same effect however the emission is one order of magnitude less compared to Kr-H or Kr-D plasmas. It is shown, that the key process, impacting this emission, is the binary collision between the fast neutral hydrogen atom and the noble gas atom. Two possible sources of excitation are discussed in details: one is the excitation of hydrogen atoms by argon atoms in the ground state and the second one is the process of the so-called excitation transfer between the metastable states of noble gases and hydrogen. In the latter case the atomic data for excitation of Balmer lines are still not available in literature. Further experimental investigations are required to conclude on the source process of fast atom emission.

  2. Atomic mechanism and prediction of hydrogen embrittlement in iron.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Curtin, W A

    2013-02-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement in metals has posed a serious obstacle to designing strong and reliable structural materials for many decades, and predictive physical mechanisms still do not exist. Here, a new H embrittlement mechanism operating at the atomic scale in α-iron is demonstrated. Direct molecular dynamics simulations reveal a ductile-to-brittle transition caused by the suppression of dislocation emission at the crack tip due to aggregation of H, which then permits brittle-cleavage failure followed by slow crack growth. The atomistic embrittlement mechanism is then connected to material states and loading conditions through a kinetic model for H delivery to the crack-tip region. Parameter-free predictions of embrittlement thresholds in Fe-based steels over a range of H concentrations, mechanical loading rates and H diffusion rates are found to be in excellent agreement with experiments. This work provides a mechanistic, predictive framework for interpreting experiments, designing structural components and guiding the design of embrittlement-resistant materials.

  3. Slow Collisions of Si3+ with Atomic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, D. C.; Gu, J.-P.; Saha, B. C.; Liebermann, H. P.; Funke, P.; Buenker, R. J.

    2010-03-01

    Low energy electron capture from hydrogen atom by multi-charged ions continues to be of interest and applications include both magnetically confined fusion and astrophysical plasmas. The charge exchange process reported here, Si^3+ + H -> Si^2+ + H^+ is an important destruction mechanism of Si^3+ in photo-ionized gas. The soft X-ray emission from comets has been explained by charge transfer of solar wind ions, among them Si^3+, with neutrals in the cometary gas vapor. The state selective cross sections are evaluated using the full quantum [1] and semi-classical molecular orbital close coupling (MOCC) [2] methods. Adiabatic potentials and wave functions for a number of low-lying singlet and triplet states of and symmetry are calculated wing the MRD-CI package [3]. Details will be presented at the conference. [4pt] [1] L. B. Zhao, D. C. Joseph, B. C. Saha, H. P. Liebermann, P. Funke and R. J. Buenker, Phys. Rev A, 79, 034701 (1009).[0pt] [2] M. Kimura and N. F. Lane, At. Mol. Opt. Phys 26, 79 (1990).[0pt] [3] R. J. Buenker, ``Current Aspects of Quantum Chemistry 1981, Vol 21, edited by R. Carbo (Elsevier, Amsterdam) p 17.

  4. Calculation of muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to atomic oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Dupays, Arnaud; Lepetit, Bruno; Beswick, J. Alberto; Rizzo, Carlo; Bakalov, Dimitar

    2003-06-01

    The muon-transfer probabilities between muonic hydrogen and an oxygen atom are calculated in a constrained geometry one-dimensional model for collision energies between 10{sup -6} and 10{sup 3} eV. For relative translational energies below 10{sup -1} eV, for which the de Broglie wavelength (>1 Aa) is much larger than the characteristic distance of the potential interaction ({approx}0.1 Aa), the problem corresponds to an ultracold collision. The close-coupling time-independent quantum equations are written in terms of hyperspherical coordinates and a diabatic-by-sectors basis set. The muon-transfer probabilities are qualitatively interpreted in terms of a model involving two Landau-Zener crossings together with the threshold energy dependence. Based on this analysis, a simple procedure to estimate the energy dependence of the muon-transfer rate in three dimensions is proposed. These estimated rates are discussed in the light of previous model calculations and available experimental data for this process. It is concluded that the high transfer rates at epithermal energies inferred from experiments are unlikely to be correct.

  5. Charge exchange and ionization in hydrogen atom-fully stripped ion collisions in Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Wang, J. G.; He, B.; Qiu, Y. B.; Janev, R. K.

    2007-05-15

    The processes of charge exchange and ionization in collisions of ground state hydrogen atom with fully stripped ions in a weakly coupled plasma are studied by the classical trajectory Monte Carlo method in the collision energy range 10-900 keV/amu. The interparticle interactions are described by the Debye-Hueckel model with inclusion of dynamical effects associated with the projectile velocity. The microcanonical distribution of initial state electronic coordinates and momenta has been determined by inclusion of plasma screening effects. The cross section dependencies on plasma parameters and ion charge and velocity are investigated. It is shown that plasma effects on charge exchange and ionization cross sections are significant and particularly pronounced at low collision velocities. The results of systematic cross section calculations for different values of Debye screening length (in the range 1-50a{sub 0}) and ion charges (in the range 1-14) are presented.

  6. Atomic velocity distributions out of hydrogen-maser dissociators. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jaduszliwer, B.; Chan, Y.C.

    1990-02-15

    Velocity distributions are determined for atoms effusing out of radio frequency discharge hydrogen dissociators, of the type used in hydrogen masers. This work was motivated by long-term reliability issues related to the possible use of masers as freqency standards for satellites. A primary issue is the maser's hydrogen budget, because many of the common failure modes of a maser involve either the hydrogen source or sink. Because the focusing properties of the state-selecting magnets are velocity dependent, the overall hydrogen budget will depend not only on the dissociation efficiency but also on the velocity distribution of the hydrogen atoms leaving the dissociation. Many times, that distribution has been tacitly assumed to be Maxwellian at wall temperature, but pressure in the dissociator increases. Operating the dissociator to yield a matched to that distribution may significantly improve the efficiency hydrogen use by the maser.

  7. Interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in two closely related areas: observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at and the notion of abundant, gas phase, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anywhere in the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the dust composition of the diffuse and dense ISM is reasonably well constrained and the spectroscopic case for interstellar PAHs, shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is very strong.

  8. Characterization of intramolecular hydrogen bonds by atomic charges and charge fluxes.

    PubMed

    Baranović, Goran; Biliškov, Nikola; Vojta, Danijela

    2012-08-16

    The electronic charge redistribution and the infrared intensities of the two types of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, O-H···O and O-H···π, of o-hydroxy- and o-ethynylphenol, respectively, together with a set of related intermolecular hydrogen bond complexes are described in terms of atomic charges and charge fluxes derived from atomic polar tensors calculated at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The polarizable continuum model shows that both the atomic charges and charge fluxes are strongly dependent on solvent. It is shown that their values for the OH bond in an intramolecular hydrogen bond are not much different from those for the "free" OH bond, but the changes are toward the values found for an intermolecular hydrogen bond. The intermolecular hydrogen bond is characterized not only by the decreased atomic charge but also by the enlarged charge flux term of the same sign producing thus an enormous increase in IR intensity. The overall behavior of the charges and fluxes of the hydrogen atom in OH and ≡CH bonds agree well with the observed spectroscopic characteristics of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. The main reason for the differences between the two types of the hydrogen bond lies in the molecular structure because favorable linear proton donor-acceptor arrangement is not possible to achieve within a small molecule. The calculated intensities (in vacuo and in polarizable continuum) are only in qualitative agreement with the measured data.

  9. A new way to measure the composition of the interstellar gas surrounding the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruntman, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    The composition of neutral gas in the Local Interstellar Medium can be studied by direct, in situ measuring of interstellar neutral atoms penetrating into interplanetary space. A novel experimental approach for in situ atom detection, which has never been used earlier in space, is proposed. The technique is based on the conversion of neutral atoms to negative ions at a specially prepared sensitive surface. Negative ions are subsequently analyzed and detected in an essentially noise-free, multicoincidence mode. It is shown that interstellar hydrogen, deuterium, and oxygen atoms can be measured by the proposed technique. The experiment can be performed from a high-apogee Earth-orbiting satellite or from a deep space probe.

  10. Quantitative laser atom probe analyses of hydrogenation-disproportionated Nd-Fe-B powders.

    PubMed

    Sepehri-Amin, H; Ohkubo, T; Nishiuchi, T; Hirosawa, S; Hono, K

    2011-05-01

    We report a successful atom probe tomography of hydrides in hydrogenation-disproportionated Nd-Fe-B powder using a green femtosecond laser. The atom probe specimens were prepared from one particle of powder using the focused ion beam lift-out method. The atom probe tomography taken from an α-Fe/NdH(2) structure suggested that B and Ga (trace added element) were partitioned in the NdH(2) phase. The hydrogen concentration of 64 at% determined from the atom probe analysis was in excellent agreement with the stoichiometry of the NdH(2) phase.

  11. Elemental nitrogen partitioning in dense interstellar clouds

    PubMed Central

    Daranlot, Julien; Hincelin, Ugo; Bergeat, Astrid; Costes, Michel; Loison, Jean-Christophe; Wakelam, Valentine; Hickson, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Many chemical models of dense interstellar clouds predict that the majority of gas-phase elemental nitrogen should be present as N2, with an abundance approximately five orders of magnitude less than that of hydrogen. As a homonuclear diatomic molecule, N2 is difficult to detect spectroscopically through infrared or millimeter-wavelength transitions. Therefore, its abundance is often inferred indirectly through its reaction product N2H+. Two main formation mechanisms, each involving two radical-radical reactions, are the source of N2 in such environments. Here we report measurements of the low temperature rate constants for one of these processes, the N + CN reaction, down to 56 K. The measured rate constants for this reaction, and those recently determined for two other reactions implicated in N2 formation, are tested using a gas-grain model employing a critically evaluated chemical network. We show that the amount of interstellar nitrogen present as N2 depends on the competition between its gas-phase formation and the depletion of atomic nitrogen onto grains. As the reactions controlling N2 formation are inefficient, we argue that N2 does not represent the main reservoir species for interstellar nitrogen. Instead, elevated abundances of more labile forms of nitrogen such as NH3 should be present on interstellar ices, promoting the eventual formation of nitrogen-bearing organic molecules. PMID:22689957

  12. Atomic Hydrogen in the Mesopause Region Derived From the SABER Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Torres, F. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Russell, J. M.; Marsh, D.; Smith, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument simultaneously measures temperature, density, ozone, and emission from the high-lying states of the hydroxyl (OH) radical. Near the mesopause the excited OH states are produced directly from the reaction of atomic hydrogen and ozone. Measurements of emission from these states can be used to derive the density of atomic hydrogen in the airglow layer of this region. SABER is now providing measurements of atomic hydrogen continuously, night and day. In this paper we review the derivation of the atomic hydrogen from SABER measurements and compare results with photochemical model calculations. The uncertainty of the H abundance due to the non-LTE rate coefficients used in the analysis of the OH airglow is also assessed.

  13. Ab Initio Vibrational Levels For HO2 and Vibrational Splittings for Hydrogen Atom Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, V. J.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Hamilton, I. P.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We calculate vibrational levels and wave functions for HO2 using the recently reported ab initio potential energy surface of Walch and Duchovic. There is intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer when the hydrogen atom tunnels through a T-shaped saddle point separating two equivalent equilibrium geometries, and correspondingly, the energy levels are split. We focus on vibrational levels and wave functions with significant splitting. The first three vibrational levels with splitting greater than 2/cm are (15 0), (0 7 1) and (0 8 0) where V(sub 2) is the O-O-H bend quantum number. We discuss the dynamics of hydrogen atom transfer; in particular, the O-O distances at which hydrogen atom transfer is most probable for these vibrational levels. The material of the proposed presentation was reviewed and the technical content will not reveal any information not already in the public domain and will not give any foreign industry or government a competitive advantage.

  14. Direct observation of hydrogen atom dynamics and interactions by ultrahigh resolution neutron protein crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Julian C-H; Hanson, B Leif; Fisher, S Zoë; Langan, Paul; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y

    2012-09-18

    The 1.1 Å, ultrahigh resolution neutron structure of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchanged crambin is reported. Two hundred ninety-nine out of 315, or 94.9%, of the hydrogen atom positions in the protein have been experimentally derived and resolved through nuclear density maps. A number of unconventional interactions are clearly defined, including a potential O─H…π interaction between a water molecule and the aromatic ring of residue Y44, as well as a number of potential C─H…O hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonding networks that are ambiguous in the 0.85 Å ultrahigh resolution X-ray structure can be resolved by accurate orientation of water molecules. Furthermore, the high resolution of the reported structure has allowed for the anisotropic description of 36 deuterium atoms in the protein. The visibility of hydrogen and deuterium atoms in the nuclear density maps is discussed in relation to the resolution of the neutron data.

  15. Evidence of wave-particle duality for single fast hydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H T; Fischer, D; Berenyi, Z; Cocke, C L; Gudmundsson, M; Haag, N; Johansson, H A B; Källberg, A; Levin, S B; Reinhed, P; Sassenberg, U; Schuch, R; Simonsson, A; Støchkel, K; Cederquist, H

    2008-08-22

    We report the direct observation of interference effects in a Young's double-slit experiment where the interfering waves are two spatially separated components of the de Broglie wave of single 1.3 MeV hydrogen atoms formed close to either target nucleus in H++H2 electron-transfer collisions. Quantum interference strongly influences the results even though the hydrogen atoms have a de Broglie wavelength, lambda_{dB}, as small as 25 fm.

  16. Corrections to the ns levels of the hydrogen atom in deformed space with minimal length

    SciTech Connect

    Stetsko, M. M.

    2006-12-15

    We investigated the hydrogen atom problem with deformed Heisenberg algebra leading to the existence of a minimal length. Using modified perturbation theory developed in our previous work [Stetsko and Tkachuk, Phys. Rev. A 74, 012101 (2006)] we calculated the corrections to the arbitrary s levels for the hydrogen atom. We obtained a simple relation for the estimation of the minimal length. We also compared the estimation of minimal length obtained here with the results obtained in previous investigations.

  17. Thermal stability of hydrogen and sulfur atoms in a-SiSx:H films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takashi; Nitta, Shoji; Wang, S. L.; Taylor, P. C.

    1996-11-01

    The thermal stability of hydrogen and sulfur atoms in a-SiSx:H films is studied using gas effusion spectra and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. Two evolution peaks of hydrogen are found above 400 °C in gas effusion spectra of a-SiSx:H films. Sulfur atoms are evolved only above 550 °C. The stability of sulfur and the relationship of dangling bonds to sulfur effusion are discussed.

  18. Erwin Schrödinger, Wave Mechanics, and the Hydrogen Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lange, Owen L.

    1996-06-01

    A brief account is given of some of the main events in Erwin Schrödinger's life, the circumstances leading to his discovery of wave mechanics in 1925-1926, and the application of this mechanics to a model of the hydrogen atom. Two methods of solving this model are outlined, namely, Sommerfeld's polynomial method and Schrödinger's shift operator method. The relation to Pauli's analysis of the quantum-mechanical hydrogen atom is also discussed.

  19. Bubble growth from clustered hydrogen and helium atoms in tungsten under a fusion environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yu-Wei; Kong, Xiang-Shan; Wu, Xuebang; Liu, C. S.; Chen, J. L.; Luo, G.-N.

    2017-01-01

    Bubbles seriously degrade the mechanical properties of tungsten and thus threaten the safety of nuclear fusion devices, however, the underlying atomic mechanism of bubble growth from clustered hydrogen and helium atoms is still mysterious. In this work, first-principles calculations are therefore carried out to assess the stability of tungsten atoms around both hydrogen and helium clusters. We find that the closest vacancy-formation energies of interstitial hydrogen and helium clusters are substantially decreased. The first-nearest and second-nearest vacancy-formation energies close to vacancy-hydrogen clusters decrease in a step-like way to  ˜0, while those close to vacancy-helium clusters are reduced almost linearly to  ˜-5.46 eV when atom number reaches 10. The vacancy-formation energies closest to helium clusters are more significantly reduced than those nearest to hydrogen clusters, whatever the clusters are embedded at interstitial sites or vacancies. The reduction of vacancy-formation energies results in instability and thus emission of tungsten atoms close to interstitial helium and vacancy-helium clusters, which illustrates the experimental results, that the tungsten atoms can be emitted from the vicinity of vacancy-helium clusters. In addition, the emission of unstable tungsten atoms close to hydrogen clusters may become possible once they are disturbed by the environment. The emission of tungsten atoms facilitates the growth and evolution of hydrogen and helium clusters and ultimately the bubble formation. The results also explain the bubble formation even if no displacement damage is produced in tungsten exposed to low-energy hydrogen and helium plasma.

  20. Fluorescence (TALIF) measurement of atomic hydrogen concentration in a coplanar surface dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrkvičková, M.; Ráheľ, J.; Dvořák, P.; Trunec, D.; Morávek, T.

    2016-10-01

    Spatially and temporally resolved measurements of atomic hydrogen concentration above the dielectric of coplanar barrier discharge are presented for atmospheric pressure in 2.2% H2/Ar. The measurements were carried out in the afterglow phase by means of two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF). The difficulties of employing the TALIF technique in close proximity to the dielectric surface wall were successfully addressed by taking measurements on a suitable convexly curved dielectric barrier, and by proper mathematical treatment of parasitic signals from laser-surface interactions. It was found that the maximum atomic hydrogen concentration is situated closest to the dielectric wall from which it gradually decays. The maximum absolute concentration was more than 1022 m-3. In the afterglow phase, the concentration of atomic hydrogen above the dielectric surface stays constant for a considerable time (10 μs-1 ms), with longer times for areas situated farther from the dielectric surface. The existence of such a temporal plateau was explained by the presented 1D model: the recombination losses of atomic hydrogen farther from the dielectric surface are compensated by the diffusion of atomic hydrogen from regions close to the dielectric surface. The fact that a temporal plateau exists even closest to the dielectric surface suggests that the dielectric surface acts as a source of atomic hydrogen in the afterglow phase.

  1. Atomic-Scale Mechanism for Hydrogenation of o-Cresol on Pt Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaping; Liu, Zhimin; Xue, Wenhua; Crossley, Steven; Jentoft, Friederike; Wang, Sanwu

    Biofuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass have received significant attention lately due to increasing environmental concerns. With first-principles density-functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamic simulations, we investigated the atomic-scale mechanism of o-cresol hydrogenation on the Pt(111) surface. The formation of 2-methyl-cyclohexanone (the intermediate product) was found to involve two steps. The first step is the dehydrogenation, that is, the H atom in the hydroxyl group moves to the Pt surface. The second step is the hydrogenation, that is, the H atoms on Pt react with the carbon atoms in the aromatic ring. The first step involves a smaller barrier, suggesting that dehydrogenation occurs first, followed by hydrogenation of the ring. In particular, tautomerization is found to occur via a two-step process over the catalyst. On the other hand, 2-methyl-cyclohexanol (the final product) is produced through two paths. One is direct hydrogenation of the aromatic ring. Another pathway includes partial hydrogenation of the ring, dehydrogenation of -OH group, finally hydrogenation of remaining C atoms and the O atom. Our theoretical results agree well with the experimental observations. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). This research used the supercomputer resources of NERSC, XSEDE, TACC.

  2. Hydrogen maser wall shift experiments and determination of the unperturbed hyperfine frequency of the ground state of the hydrogen atom

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.M.; Hua, Y.L.; Chen, C.B.; Gao, J.H.; Shen, W.

    1980-12-01

    Experiments on hydrogen maser wall shift are described in detail. Values of K(40 C) -293 + or - 17 mHz.cm and a(40 C) (-17 + or 2) x 10 to the -3rd per deg C were obtained. The unperturbed hyperfine frequency of the ground state of the hydrogen atom was obtained by comparing five hydrogen masers to Loran C signals for one month. The average value with respect to TAI is 1,420,405,751.768 + or - 0.002 Hz.

  3. Hot hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the upper atmospheres of Venus and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, Andrew F.; Kim, Jhoon; Cravens, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Optical observations of hot atoms in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars are briefly reviewed. A summary of hot hydrogen and oxygen production and loss processes is given. Results of some recent model calculations as well as a number of new results of the hot hydrogen and oxygen populations are presented and their implication in terms of solar wind interaction processes is discussed.

  4. Hydrogen sulphide in cardiovascular system: A cascade from interaction between sulphur atoms and signalling molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Jie; Cai, Wen-Jie; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2016-05-15

    As a gasotransmitter, hydrogen sulphide exerts its extensive physiological and pathophysiological effects in mammals. The interaction between sulphur atoms and signalling molecules forms a cascade that modulates cellular functions and homeostasis. In this review, we focus on the signalling mechanism underlying the effect of hydrogen sulphide in the cardiovascular system and metabolism as well as the biological relevance to human diseases.

  5. Understanding hydrogen atom transfer: from bond strengths to Marcus theory.

    PubMed

    Mayer, James M

    2011-01-18

    Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), a key step in many chemical, environmental, and biological processes, is one of the fundamental chemical reactions: A-H + B → A + H-B. Traditional HAT involves p-block radicals such as tert-BuO(•) abstracting H(•) from organic molecules. More recently, the recognition that transition metal species undergo HAT has led to a broader perspective, with HAT viewed as a type of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET). When transition metal complexes oxidize substrates by removing H(•) (e(-) + H(+)), typically the electron transfers to the metal and the proton to a ligand. Examples with iron-imidazolinate, vanadium-oxo, and many other complexes are discussed. Although these complexes may not "look like" main group radicals, they have the same pattern of reactivity. For instance, their HAT rate constants parallel the A-H bond strengths within a series of similar reactions. Like main group radicals, they abstract H(•) much faster from O-H bonds than from C-H bonds of the same strength, showing that driving force is not the only determinant of reactivity. This Account describes our development of a conceptual framework for HAT with a Marcus theory approach. In the simplest model, the cross relation uses the self-exchange rate constants (k(AH/A) for AH + A) and the equilibrium constant to predict the rate constant for AH + B: k(AH/B) = (k(AH/A)k(BH/B)K(eq)f)(1/2). For a variety of transition metal oxidants, k(AH/B) is predicted within one or two orders of magnitude with only a few exceptions. For 36 organic reactions of oxyl radicals, k(AH/B) is predicted with an average deviation of a factor of 3.8, and within a factor of 5 for all but six of the reactions. These reactions involve both O-H or C-H bonds, occur in either water or organic solvents, and occur over a range of 10(28) in K(eq) and 10(13) in k(AH/B). The treatment of organic reactions includes the well-established kinetic solvent effect on HAT reactions. This is one of a number

  6. The simplicity of perfect atoms: Degeneracies in supersymmetric hydrogen

    DOE PAGES

    Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.

    2011-06-07

    In this study, supersymmetric QED hydrogen-like bound states are remarkably similar to nonsupersymmetric hydrogen, including an accidental degeneracy of the fine structure and is broken by the Lamb shift. This article classifies the states, calculates the leading order spectrum, and illustrates the results in several limits. The relation to other nonrelativistic bound states is explored.

  7. The simplicity of perfect atoms: Degeneracies in supersymmetric hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Rube, Tomas; Wacker, Jay G.

    2011-06-15

    Supersymmetric QED hydrogen-like bound states are remarkably similar to nonsupersymmetric hydrogen, including an accidental degeneracy of the fine structure and is broken by the Lamb shift. This article classifies the states, calculates the leading order spectrum, and illustrates the results in several limits. The relation to other nonrelativistic bound states is explored.

  8. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.

    PubMed

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-05-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors.

  9. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M.; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A–H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A–H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A–H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors. PMID:27386545

  10. A spectroscopic study of hydrogen atom and molecule collision. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kielkopf, John F.

    2002-07-01

    The fundamental processes which occur in low-energy collisions of excited states of the hydrogen atom with other neutral atoms, protons, and electrons in dense plasmas were investigated in this project. Theoretical and experimental results for the Lyman and Balmer series are described here, including references to recent publications resulting from this project.

  11. The hydrogen-atom environment of the ether oxygen atom in crystal structures of some representative muscarinic agonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, J.; Scherrenberg, R. L.; Kooijman, H.; Kanters, J. A.

    1990-06-01

    The hypothesis that the ether oxygen atom in muscarinic agonists acts as a hydrogen-bond acceptor is supported by evidence from crystallographic data. The same evidence suggests that in such interactions N +CH⋯O bonds donated by the ligand to the receptor may be involved.

  12. Platinum single-atom and cluster catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Niancai; Stambula, Samantha; Wang, Da; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Liu, Jian; Riese, Adam; Xiao, Biwei; Li, Ruying; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Liu, Li-Min; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Sun, Xueliang

    2016-11-01

    Platinum-based catalysts have been considered the most effective electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction in water splitting. However, platinum utilization in these electrocatalysts is extremely low, as the active sites are only located on the surface of the catalyst particles. Downsizing catalyst nanoparticles to single atoms is highly desirable to maximize their efficiency by utilizing nearly all platinum atoms. Here we report on a practical synthesis method to produce isolated single platinum atoms and clusters using the atomic layer deposition technique. The single platinum atom catalysts are investigated for the hydrogen evolution reaction, where they exhibit significantly enhanced catalytic activity (up to 37 times) and high stability in comparison with the state-of-the-art commercial platinum/carbon catalysts. The X-ray absorption fine structure and density functional theory analyses indicate that the partially unoccupied density of states of the platinum atoms' 5d orbitals on the nitrogen-doped graphene are responsible for the excellent performance.

  13. Identification of titanium-hydrogen complexes with up to four hydrogen atoms in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffler, L.; Kolkovsky, Vl. Weber, J.

    2015-02-28

    Using high-resolution Laplace deep level transient spectroscopy studies, several TiH-related complexes (E40′, E170, E170′, and E260) were observed in wet-chemically etched and H-plasma treated n-type Si. We assign E40′ and E170 to two different configurations of Ti with one H atom. Both of them are shown to behave as single donor states with an activation enthalpy of E{sub C} − 0.07 eV (E40′) and E{sub C} − 0.34 eV (E170) in the upper half of Si. E170′ with an activation energy of E{sub C} − 0.37 eV is correlated with the donor state of the Ti{sub i}H{sub 2} defect, whereas E260 is attributed to the donor state of Ti{sub i}H{sub 3}. Besides the TiH defects, the presence of electrically inactive TiH{sub 4} is reported. No titanium-hydrogen-related levels were observed in p-type Si.

  14. Atomic-Sized Pores Enhanced Electrocatalysis of TaS2 Nanosheets for Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Tan, Yongwen; Liu, Pan; Guo, Chenguang; Luo, Min; Han, Jiuhui; Lin, Tianquan; Huang, Fuqiang; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-10-01

    A plasma oxidation method is developed to fabricate atomic-scale pores in the basal planes of electrochemically inert TaS2 nanosheets to functionalize the 2D crystals with high electrocatalysis for hydrogen evolution reaction. Quantitative measurements of under-coordinated atoms at edges of the pores by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy reveal the intrinsic correlation between the defective atomic sites and electrocatalytic activities of 2D TaS2 .

  15. Asymptotic expansions of the electron momentum densities of the atoms from hydrogen through lawrencium

    SciTech Connect

    Thakkar, A.J.; Wonfor, A.L.; Pedersen, W.A.

    1987-07-15

    The first three coefficients in each of the small p Maclaurin and large p asymptotic expansions of the spherically averaged electron momentum densities of the ground states of the 103 neutral atoms from hydrogen through lawrencium, 73 atomic cations and 41 atomic anions are calculated from nonrelativistic self-consistent-field wave functions. These coefficients should be useful in the analysis of experimental Compton profiles. An analysis of the periodic behavior of these coefficients is given.

  16. Broadening and shift of Fe I lines perturbed by atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, M.T.; Marmolino, C.; Roberti, R.; Severino, G.

    1987-01-01

    The broadening and shift parameters for a number of Fe I lines perturbed by atomic hydrogen are computed using the interatomic potential due to Hindmarsh et al (1967, 1970). It is also shown that the rms radius and the effective radius of the radiating atom, which determine the force constants in the interatomic potential, can be simply related to each other depending on the orbital quantum number of the atomic level.

  17. Ion irradiation of carbonaceous interstellar analogues. Effects of cosmic rays on the 3.4 μm interstellar absorption band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, M.; Féraud, G.; Chabot, M.; Carpentier, Y.; Pino, T.; Brunetto, R.; Duprat, J.; Engrand, C.; Bréchignac, P.; D'Hendecourt, L.; Dartois, E.

    2011-05-01

    Context. A 3.4 μm absorption band (around 2900 cm-1), assigned to aliphatic C-H stretching modes of hydrogenated amorphous carbons (a-C:H), is widely observed in the diffuse interstellar medium, but disappears or is modified in dense clouds. This spectral difference between different phases of the interstellar medium reflects the processing of dust in different environments. Cosmic ray bombardment is one of the interstellar processes that make carbonaceous dust evolve. Aims: We investigate the effects of cosmic rays on the interstellar 3.4 μm absorption band carriers. Methods: Samples of carbonaceous interstellar analogues (a-C:H and soot) were irradiated at room temperature by swift ions with energy in the MeV range (from 0.2 to 160 MeV). The dehydrogenation and chemical bonding modifications that occurred during irradiation were studied with IR spectroscopy. Results: For all samples and all ions/energies used, we observed a decrease of the aliphatic C-H absorption bands intensity with the ion fluence. This evolution agrees with a model that describes the hydrogen loss as caused by the molecular recombination of two free H atoms created by the breaking of C-H bonds by the impinging ions. The corresponding destruction cross section and asymptotic hydrogen content are obtained for each experiment and their behaviour over a large range of ion stopping powers are inferred. Using elemental abundances and energy distributions of galactic cosmic rays, we investigated the implications of these results in different astrophysical environments. The results are compared to the processing by UV photons and H atoms in different regions of the interstellar medium. Conclusions: The destruction of aliphatic C-H bonds by cosmic rays occurs in characteristic times of a few 108 years, and it appears that even at longer time scales, cosmic rays alone cannot explain the observed disappearance of this spectral signature in dense regions. In diffuse interstellar medium, the formation

  18. 2s Hyperfine splitting in light hydrogen-like atoms: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S. G. Kolachevsky, N. N.; Ivanov, V. G.; Fischer, M.; Fendel, P.; Haensch, T. W.

    2006-03-15

    Since the combination D{sub 21} = 8f{sub HFS}(2s)-f{sub HFS}(1s) of hyperfine intervals in hydrogen and light two-body hydrogen-like atomic systems weakly depends on the nuclear structure, comparison between theory and experiment can be sensitive to high order QED corrections. New theoretical and experimental results are presented. Calculations have been performed for the hydrogen and deuterium atoms and for the helium-3 ion. Experiments on the 2s hyperfine splitting (responsible for the dominant contribution to the error in D{sub 21}) have been conducted for hydrogen and deuterium. The theory and experiment are in good agreement, and their accuracy is comparable to that attained in verifying the QED theory of the hyperfine splitting in leptonic atoms (muonium and positronium)

  19. Insights into hydrogen atom adsorption on and the electrochemical properties of nitrogen-substituted carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z H; Hatori, H; Wang, S B; Lu, G Q

    2005-09-08

    The nitrogen substitution in carbon materials is investigated theoretically using the density functional theory method. Our calculations show that nitrogen substitution decreases the hydrogen adsorption energy if hydrogen atoms are adsorbed on both nitrogen atoms and the neighboring carbon atoms. On the contrary, the hydrogen adsorption energy can be increased if hydrogen atoms are adsorbed only on the neighboring carbon atoms. The reason can be explained by the electronic structures analysis of N-substituted graphene sheets. Nitrogen substitution reduces the pi electron conjugation and increases the HOMO energy of a graphene sheet, and the nitrogen atom is not stable due to its 3-valent character. This raises an interesting research topic on the optimization of the N-substitution degree, and is important to many applications such as hydrogen storage and the tokamaks device. The electronic structure studies also explain well why nitrogen substitution increases the capacitance but decreases the electron conductivity of carbon electrodes as was experimentally observed in our experiments on the supercapacitor.

  20. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with native oxides on InP(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, E. J.; Houzay, F.; Moison, J. M.

    1992-05-01

    The (100) surface of InP covered with its native oxides has been exposed to increasing doses of atomic hydrogen and studied by surface-sensitive techniques. Carbon and oxygen coverages which cannot be desorbed by thermal cleaning can be completely removed at 300°C under atomic hydrogen. At this temperature, exposures to atomic hydrogen between 104 and 105 L of H2 remove the weakly bonded oxygen and carbon atoms. Exposures above 106 L lead to a surface-decomposition of InP evidenced by the decrease of the P2p/In4d intensity ration and the appearance of metallic indium. At room temperature, exposures to atomic hydrogen between 104 and 105 L desorb CO molecules and modify the nature of the native oxides. At higher exposures and up to 107 L of H2, the remaining oxide passivates the surface against the action of atomic hydrogen. These new results are discussed in relation with the cleaning action of hydrides on III-V compound surfaces.

  1. Modeling of hydrogen atom diffusion and response behavior of hydrogen sensors in Pd–Y alloy nanofilm

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yi; Li, Yanli; Huang, Pengcheng; Song, Han; Zhang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    To detect hydrogen gas leakage rapidly, many types of hydrogen sensors containing palladium alloy film have been proposed and fabricated to date. However, the mechanisms and factors that determine the response rate of such hydrogen sensor have not been established theoretically. The manners in which response time is forecasted and sensitive film is designed are key issues in developing hydrogen sensors with nanometer film. In this paper, a unilateral diffusion model of hydrogen atoms in Pd alloy based on Fick’s second law is proposed to describe the Pd–H reaction process. Model simulation shows that the hydrogen sensor response time with Pd alloy film is dominated by two factors (film thickness and hydrogen diffusion coefficient). Finally, a series of response rate experiments with varying thicknesses of Pd–Y (yttrium) alloy film are implemented to verify model validity. Our proposed model can help researchers in the precise optimization of film thickness to realize a simultaneously speedy and sensitive hydrogen sensor. This study also aids in evaluating the influence of manufacturing errors on performances and comparing the performances of sensors with different thicknesses. PMID:27845408

  2. Modeling of hydrogen atom diffusion and response behavior of hydrogen sensors in Pd-Y alloy nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Li, Yanli; Huang, Pengcheng; Song, Han; Zhang, Gang

    2016-11-15

    To detect hydrogen gas leakage rapidly, many types of hydrogen sensors containing palladium alloy film have been proposed and fabricated to date. However, the mechanisms and factors that determine the response rate of such hydrogen sensor have not been established theoretically. The manners in which response time is forecasted and sensitive film is designed are key issues in developing hydrogen sensors with nanometer film. In this paper, a unilateral diffusion model of hydrogen atoms in Pd alloy based on Fick's second law is proposed to describe the Pd-H reaction process. Model simulation shows that the hydrogen sensor response time with Pd alloy film is dominated by two factors (film thickness and hydrogen diffusion coefficient). Finally, a series of response rate experiments with varying thicknesses of Pd-Y (yttrium) alloy film are implemented to verify model validity. Our proposed model can help researchers in the precise optimization of film thickness to realize a simultaneously speedy and sensitive hydrogen sensor. This study also aids in evaluating the influence of manufacturing errors on performances and comparing the performances of sensors with different thicknesses.

  3. Modeling of hydrogen atom diffusion and response behavior of hydrogen sensors in Pd–Y alloy nanofilm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Yanli; Huang, Pengcheng; Song, Han; Zhang, Gang

    2016-11-01

    To detect hydrogen gas leakage rapidly, many types of hydrogen sensors containing palladium alloy film have been proposed and fabricated to date. However, the mechanisms and factors that determine the response rate of such hydrogen sensor have not been established theoretically. The manners in which response time is forecasted and sensitive film is designed are key issues in developing hydrogen sensors with nanometer film. In this paper, a unilateral diffusion model of hydrogen atoms in Pd alloy based on Fick’s second law is proposed to describe the Pd–H reaction process. Model simulation shows that the hydrogen sensor response time with Pd alloy film is dominated by two factors (film thickness and hydrogen diffusion coefficient). Finally, a series of response rate experiments with varying thicknesses of Pd–Y (yttrium) alloy film are implemented to verify model validity. Our proposed model can help researchers in the precise optimization of film thickness to realize a simultaneously speedy and sensitive hydrogen sensor. This study also aids in evaluating the influence of manufacturing errors on performances and comparing the performances of sensors with different thicknesses.

  4. Atomically isolated nickel species anchored on graphitized carbon for efficient hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lili; Liu, Peng Fei; Yan, Xuecheng; Gu, Lin; Yang, Zhen Zhong; Yang, Hua Gui; Qiu, Shilun; Yao, Xiangdong

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogen production through electrochemical process is at the heart of key renewable energy technologies including water splitting and hydrogen fuel cells. Despite tremendous efforts, exploring cheap, efficient and durable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution still remains as a great challenge. Here we synthesize a nickel-carbon-based catalyst, from carbonization of metal-organic frameworks, to replace currently best-known platinum-based materials for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. This nickel-carbon-based catalyst can be activated to obtain isolated nickel atoms on the graphitic carbon support when applying electrochemical potential, exhibiting highly efficient hydrogen evolution performance with high exchange current density of 1.2 mA cm-2 and impressive durability. This work may enable new opportunities for designing and tuning properties of electrocatalysts at atomic scale for large-scale water electrolysis.

  5. Atomically isolated nickel species anchored on graphitized carbon for efficient hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lili; Liu, Peng Fei; Yan, Xuecheng; Gu, Lin; Yang, Zhen Zhong; Yang, Hua Gui; Qiu, Shilun; Yao, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production through electrochemical process is at the heart of key renewable energy technologies including water splitting and hydrogen fuel cells. Despite tremendous efforts, exploring cheap, efficient and durable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution still remains as a great challenge. Here we synthesize a nickel–carbon-based catalyst, from carbonization of metal-organic frameworks, to replace currently best-known platinum-based materials for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. This nickel-carbon-based catalyst can be activated to obtain isolated nickel atoms on the graphitic carbon support when applying electrochemical potential, exhibiting highly efficient hydrogen evolution performance with high exchange current density of 1.2 mA cm−2 and impressive durability. This work may enable new opportunities for designing and tuning properties of electrocatalysts at atomic scale for large-scale water electrolysis. PMID:26861684

  6. Atomic hydrogen in. gamma. -irradiated hydroxides of alkaline-earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Yurik, T.K.; Barsova, L.I.

    1982-04-01

    Atomic hydrogen is an important intermediate product formed in the radiolysis of compounds containing X-H bonds. H atoms have been detected in irradiated matrices of H/sub 2/ and inert gases at 4/sup 0/K, in irradiated ice and frozen solutions of acids in irradiated salts and in other systems. Here results are presented from a study of the ESR spectra of H atoms generated in polycrystalline hydroxides of alkaline-earth elements that have been ..gamma..-irradiated at 77/sup 0/K, after preliminary treatment at various temperatures. For the first time stabilization of atomic hydrogen in ..gamma..-irradiated polycrystalline alkaline-earth element hydroxides has been detected. Depending on the degree of dehydroxylation, several types of hydrogen atoms may be stabilized in the hydroxides, these hydrogen atoms having different radiospectroscopic parameters. In the magnesium-calcium-strontium-barium hydroxide series, a regular decrease has been found in the hfi constants for H atoms with the cations in the immediate surroundings. A direct proportionality has been found between the parameters ..delta..A/A/sub 0/ and the polarizability of the cation.

  7. Integrated numerical prediction of atomization process of liquid hydrogen jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimoto, Jun; Ohira, Katsuhide; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Chitose, Keiko

    2008-05-01

    The 3-D structure of the liquid atomization behavior of an LH jet flow through a pinhole nozzle is numerically investigated and visualized by a new type of integrated simulation technique. The present computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis focuses on the thermodynamic effect on the consecutive breakup of a cryogenic liquid column, the formation of a liquid film, and the generation of droplets in the outlet section of the pinhole nozzle. Utilizing the governing equations for a high-speed turbulent cryogenic jet flow through a pinhole nozzle based on the thermal nonequilibrium LES-VOF model in conjunction with the CSF model, an integrated parallel computation is performed to clarify the detailed atomization process of a high-speed LH2 jet flow through a pinhole nozzle and to acquire data, which is difficult to confirm by experiment, such as atomization length, liquid core shape, droplet-size distribution, spray angle, droplet velocity profiles, and thermal field surrounding the atomizing jet flow. According to the present computation, the cryogenic atomization rate and the LH2 droplets-gas two-phase flow characteristics are found to be controlled by the turbulence perturbation upstream of the pinhole nozzle, hydrodynamic instabilities at the gas-liquid interface and shear stress between the liquid core and the periphery of the LH2 jet. Furthermore, calculation of the effect of cryogenic atomization on the jet thermal field shows that such atomization extensively enhances the thermal diffusion surrounding the LH2 jet flow.

  8. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD DETERMINED FROM THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON

    SciTech Connect

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-02-10

    The solar wind emanating from the Sun interacts with the local interstellar medium (LISM), forming the heliosphere. Hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) produced by the solar-interstellar interaction carry important information about plasma properties from the boundaries of the heliosphere, and are currently being measured by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). IBEX observations show the existence of a “ribbon” of intense ENA emission projecting a circle on the celestial sphere that is centered near the local interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) vector. Here we show that the source of the IBEX ribbon as a function of ENA energy outside the heliosphere, uniquely coupled to the draping of the ISMF around the heliopause, can be used to precisely determine the magnitude (2.93 ± 0.08 μG) and direction (227.°28 ± 0.°69, 34.°62 ± 0.°45 in ecliptic longitude and latitude) of the pristine ISMF far (∼1000 AU) from the Sun. We find that the ISMF vector is offset from the ribbon center by ∼8.°3 toward the direction of motion of the heliosphere through the LISM, and their vectors form a plane that is consistent with the direction of deflected interstellar neutral hydrogen, thought to be controlled by the ISMF. Our results yield draped ISMF properties close to that observed by Voyager 1, the only spacecraft to directly measure the ISMF close to the heliosphere, and give predictions of the pristine ISMF that Voyager 1 has yet to sample.

  9. Interstellar H(3)(+).

    PubMed

    Oka, Takeshi

    2006-08-15

    Protonated molecular hydrogen, H(3)(+), is the simplest polyatomic molecule. It is the most abundantly produced interstellar molecule, next only to H(2), although its steady state concentration is low because of its extremely high chemical reactivity. H(3)(+) is a strong acid (proton donor) and initiates chains of ion-molecule reactions in interstellar space thus leading to formation of complex molecules. Here, I summarize the understandings on this fundamental species in interstellar space obtained from our infrared observations since its discovery in 1996 and discuss the recent observations and analyses of H(3)(+) in the Central Molecular Zone near the Galatic center that led to a revelation of a vast amount of warm and diffuse gas existing in the region.

  10. Interstellar H3+

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    Protonated molecular hydrogen, H3+, is the simplest polyatomic molecule. It is the most abundantly produced interstellar molecule, next only to H2, although its steady state concentration is low because of its extremely high chemical reactivity. H3+ is a strong acid (proton donor) and initiates chains of ion-molecule reactions in interstellar space thus leading to formation of complex molecules. Here, I summarize the understandings on this fundamental species in interstellar space obtained from our infrared observations since its discovery in 1996 and discuss the recent observations and analyses of H3+ in the Central Molecular Zone near the Galatic center that led to a revelation of a vast amount of warm and diffuse gas existing in the region. PMID:16894171

  11. Origin of the smaller conductances of Rh, Pb, and Co atomic junctions in hydrogen environment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue; Chen, Mingyan; Ye, Xiang; Xie, Yi-qun; Ke, San-huang

    2015-02-14

    We study theoretically the structural and electronic origins of the smaller conductances (one conductance quantum, G{sub 0}, and smaller) of Rh, Pb, and Co metal atomic junctions (MAJs) in a hydrogen environment, as were measured in recent experiments. For the Rh MAJs, the 1G{sub 0} conductance is attributed to a stable contact bridged by a single hydrogen molecule whose antibonding state provides a single transport channel. For the Pb and Co MAJs the 1G{sub 0} conductance is, however, ascribed to a linear atomic chain adsorbing two dissociated H atoms, which largely reduces the density of states at the Fermi energy with respect to the pure ones. On the other hand, the small conductances of 0.3G{sub 0} (Rh) and 0.2G{sub 0} (Co) are due to H-decorated atomic chains connected to electrodes by a H atom.

  12. Symmetry in chemistry from the hydrogen atom to proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    The last 2 decades have seen discoveries in highly excited states of atoms and molecules of phenomena that are qualitatively different from the “planetary” model of the atom, and the near-rigid model of molecules, characteristic of these systems in their low-energy states. A unified view is emerging in terms of approximate dynamical symmetry principles. Highly excited states of two-electron atoms display “molecular” behavior of a nonrigid linear structure undergoing collective rotation and vibration. Highly excited states of molecules described in the “standard molecular model” display normal mode couplings, which induce bifurcations on the route to molecular chaos. New approaches such as rigid–nonrigid correlation, vibrons, and quantum groups suggest a unified view of collective electronic motion in atoms and nuclear motion in molecules. PMID:8962040

  13. Hydrogen-induced atomic rearrangement in MgPd{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlmann, H. . E-mail: h.kohlmann@mx.uni-saarland.de; Renaudin, G.; Yvon, K.; Wannek, C.; Harbrecht, B.

    2005-04-15

    The hydrogenation behavior of MgPd{sub 3} has been studied by in situ X-ray powder diffraction and by neutron powder diffraction. At room temperature and p {approx}500kPa hydrogen pressure its structure is capable of incorporating up to one hydrogen atom per formula unit ({alpha}-MgPd{sub 3}H{sub {approx}}{sub 1}), thereby retaining a tetragonal ZrAl{sub 3}-type metal atom arrangement. Upon heating to 750K in a hydrogen atmosphere of 610kPa it transforms into a cubic modification with AuCu{sub 3}-type metal atom arrangement ({beta}-MgPd{sub 3}H{sub {approx}}{sub 0.7}). Neutron diffraction on the deuteride reveals an anion deficient anti-perovskite-type structure ({beta}-MgPd{sub 3}D{sub 0.67}, a=398.200(7)pm) in which octahedral sites surrounded exclusively by palladium atoms are occupied by deuterium. Complete removal of hydrogen (480K, 1Pa) stabilizes a new binary modification ({beta}-MgPd{sub 3}, a=391.78(2)pm) crystallizing with a primitive cubic AuCu{sub 3}-type structure. Mechanical treatment (grinding) transforms both {alpha} and {beta} modifications of MgPd{sub 3} into a cubic face-centered solid solution Mg{sub 0.25}Pd{sub 0.75} showing a random distribution of magnesium and palladium atoms.

  14. Positron scattering from hydrogen atom with screened Coulomb potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, Arijit; Nayek, Sujay; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-03-05

    Elastic positron-hydrogen collisions with screened Coulomb potentials have been investigated using a second-order distorted wave Born approximation in the momentum space. Two types of potentials have been considered, namely, static screened Coulomb potential and exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potential. Using a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in a closed form. A detailed study has been made on the differential and total cross sections in the energy range 20–300 eV.

  15. STM observation of the chemical reaction of atomic hydrogen on the N-adsorbed Cu(001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Takuma; Yamada, Masamichi; Komori, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    Chemical reaction of atomic hydrogen with the N-adsorbed Cu(001) surfaces was investigated at room temperature by scanning tunnel microscopy. At the low exposure of atomic hydrogen, it reacted with the N atoms and turned to be the NH species on the surface. The reaction rate is proportional to the amount of the unreacted N atoms. By increasing the exposure of atomic hydrogen from this condition, the amount of nitrogen species on the surface decreased. This is attributed to the formation of ammonia and its desorption from the surface. The NH species on the surface turn to NH3 through the surface NH2 species by atomic hydrogen. Coexistence of the clean Cu surface enhances the rate of ammonia formation owing to atomic hydrogen migrating on the clean surface.

  16. Hydrogen atom reactivity toward aqueous tert-butyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Lymar, Sergei V; Schwarz, Harold A

    2012-02-09

    Through a combination of pulse radiolysis, purification, and analysis techniques, the rate constant for the H + (CH(3))(3)COH → H(2) + (•)CH(2)C(CH(3))(2)OH reaction in aqueous solution is definitively determined to be (1.0 ± 0.15) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), which is about half of the tabulated number and 10 times lower than the more recently suggested revision. Our value fits on the Polanyi-type, rate-enthalpy linear correlation ln(k/n) = (0.80 ± 0.05)ΔH + (3.2 ± 0.8) that is found for the analogous reactions of other aqueous aliphatic alcohols with n equivalent abstractable H atoms. The existence of such a correlation and its large slope are interpreted as an indication of the mechanistic similarity of the H atom abstraction from α- and β-carbon atoms in alcohols occurring through the late, product-like transition state. tert-Butyl alcohol is commonly contaminated by much more reactive secondary and primary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, ethanol, and methanol), whose content can be sufficient for nearly quantitative scavenging of the H atoms, skewing the H atom reactivity pattern, and explaining the disparity of the literature data on the H + (CH(3))(3)COH rate constant. The ubiquitous use of tert-butyl alcohol in pulse radiolysis for investigating H atom reactivity and the results of this work suggest that many other previously reported rate constants for the H atom, particularly the smaller ones, may be in jeopardy.

  17. General model of depolarization and transfer of polarization of singly ionized atoms by collisions with hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derouich, M.

    2017-02-01

    Simulations of the generation of the atomic polarization is necessary for interpreting the second solar spectrum. For this purpose, it is important to rigorously determine the effects of the isotropic collisions with neutral hydrogen on the atomic polarization of the neutral atoms, ionized atoms and molecules. Our aim is to treat in generality the problem of depolarizing isotropic collisions between singly ionized atoms and neutral hydrogen in its ground state. Using our numerical code, we computed the collisional depolarization rates of the p-levels of ions for large number of values of the effective principal quantum number n* and the Unsöld energy Ep. Then, genetic programming has been utilized to fit the available depolarization rates. As a result, strongly non-linear relationships between the collisional depolarization rates, n* and Ep are obtained, and are shown to reproduce the original data with accuracy clearly better than 10%. These relationships allow quick calculations of the depolarizing collisional rates of any simple ion which is very useful for the solar physics community. In addition, the depolarization rates associated to the complex ions and to the hyperfine levels can be easily derived from our results. In this work we have shown that by using powerful numerical approach and our collisional method, general model giving the depolarization of the ions can be obtained to be exploited for solar applications.

  18. A New Time-Dependent Scattering Theory: Application to the Capture of Antiprotons by Hydrogen Atoms and Helium Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, X. M.; Hino, K.; Toshima, N.

    2008-08-08

    We present a theoretical method for Coulomb three-body rearrangement collisions solving a Chew-Goldberger-type integral equation directly. The scattering boundary condition is automatically satisfied by adiabatically switching on the interaction between the projectile and target. Hence the outgoing wave function is obtained without the tedious procedure of adjusting the total wave function in the asymptotic region. All the dynamical information can be derived from the scattering wave function obtained on pseudo-spectral grids numerically. Using this method, we obtained the state-specified capture cross sections when antiprotons collide with hydrogen atoms or helium atoms. Differing from the capture processes of antiprotons by hydrogen atoms, the anomalous bumpy structures are revealed in the total angular momentum dependent capture cross sections by helium atoms. Further analysis shows that the bumps arise from the partial channel closing due to the removal of the energy degeneracy in the antiprotonic helium atom. The ejected electron energy distributions are also provided for the comparison with future experiments.

  19. The hydrogen atom confined by one and two hard cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarsa, A.; Alcaraz-Pelegrina, J. M.; Le Sech, C.

    2017-02-01

    The bound states of the H atom in a semi-infinite space limited by one or two conical boundaries are studied. The exact solution when the nucleus is located at the apex of the conical boundaries is obtained. A rapid increase of the energy when the cone angle opens and tends to π / 2 is found. A second situation with the atom separated from the summit of the cone is considered. The changes on the energy and the electronic structure are analyzed. The quantum force is evaluated by calculating the energy derivative versus the distance to the cone vertex. One of the forces exerted on the tip of an Atomic Force Microscope can be modelized by a hard cone probing the electron cloud in the contact mode. Our numerical results show that the quantum force present an important dependence with the cone angle and it vanishes rapidly as the distance increases.

  20. Al13H-: hydrogen atom site selectivity and the shell model.

    PubMed

    Grubisic, A; Li, X; Stokes, S T; Vetter, K; Ganteför, G F; Bowen, K H; Jena, P; Kiran, B; Burgert, R; Schnöckel, H

    2009-09-28

    Using a combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we explored the influence of the shell model on H atom site selectivity in Al(13)H(-). Photoelectron spectra revealed that Al(13)H(-) has two anionic isomers and for both of them provided vertical detachment energies (VDEs). Theoretical calculations found that the structures of these anionic isomers differ by the position of the hydrogen atom. In one, the hydrogen atom is radially bonded, while in the other, hydrogen caps a triangular face. VDEs for both anionic isomers as well as other energetic relationships were also calculated. Comparison of the measured versus calculated VDE values permitted the structure of each isomer to be confirmed and correlated with its observed photoelectron spectrum. Shell model, electron-counting considerations correctly predicted the relative stabilities of the anionic isomers and identified the stable structure of neutral Al(13)H.

  1. Quantum mechanical study of atomic hydrogen interaction with a fluorinated boron-substituted coronene radical.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Smith, Sean C; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Nakamura, Hiroki

    2009-04-08

    In this work we study the transmission of atomic hydrogen across a fluorinated boron-substituted coronene radical (C(19)H(12)BF(6)) as a model for partially fluorinated and boron-doped nanotubes or fullerenes. Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) methods are employed to calculate the potential energy surfaces for both ground and excited electronic states, and one-dimensional R-matrix propagation is utilized to investigate the transmission/reflection dynamics of atomic hydrogen, through the central six-member ring of the fluorinated boron-substituted coronene radical. The quantum scattering includes resonance effects as well as non-adiabatic transitions between the ground and excited electronic states. Within the sudden approximation, both centre and off-centre approach trajectories have been investigated. Implications for atomic hydrogen encapsulation by carbon nanotube and fullerene are discussed.

  2. Hydrogen dissociation and spillover on individual isolated palladium atoms.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Heather L; Baber, Ashleigh E; Kitchin, John R; Sykes, E Charles H

    2009-12-11

    Using a combination of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory it is demonstrated how the nature of an inert host metal of an alloy can affect the thermodynamics and kinetics of a reaction pathway in a much more profound way than simply a dilution, electronic, or geometric effect. This study reveals that individual, isolated Pd atoms can promote H2 dissociation and spillover onto a Cu(111) surface, but that the same mechanism is not observed for an identical array of Pd atoms in Au(111).

  3. Hydrogen Dissociation and Spillover on Individual Isolated Palladium Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Heather L.; Baber, Ashleigh E.; Sykes, E. Charles H.; Kitchin, John R.

    2009-12-11

    Using a combination of low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory it is demonstrated how the nature of an inert host metal of an alloy can affect the thermodynamics and kinetics of a reaction pathway in a much more profound way than simply a dilution, electronic, or geometric effect. This study reveals that individual, isolated Pd atoms can promote H{sub 2} dissociation and spillover onto a Cu(111) surface, but that the same mechanism is not observed for an identical array of Pd atoms in Au(111).

  4. Lewis acid-water/alcohol complexes as hydrogen atom donors in radical reactions.

    PubMed

    Povie, Guillaume; Renaud, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Water or low molecular weight alcohols are, due to their availability, low price and low toxicity ideal reagents for organic synthesis. Recently, it was reported that, despite the very strong BDE of the O-H bond, they can be used as hydrogen atom donors in place of expensive and/or toxic group 14 metal hydrides when boron and titanium(III) Lewis acids are present. This finding represents a considerable innovation and uncovers a new perspective on the paradigm of hydrogen atom transfers to radicals. We discuss here the influence of complex formation and other association processes on the efficacy of the hydrogen transfer step. A delicate balance between activation by complex formation and deactivation by further hydrogen bonding is operative.

  5. Interstellar isomeric species: Energy, stability and abundance relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel E.; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-12-01

    Accurate enthalpies of formation are reported for known and potential interstellar isomeric species using high-level ab initio quantum-chemical calculations. A total of 130 molecules comprising of 31 isomeric groups and 24 cyanide/isocyanide pairs with molecules ranging from 3 to 12 atoms have been considered. The results show an interesting relationship between energy, stability and abundance (ESA) existing among these molecules. Among the isomeric species, isomers with lower enthalpies of formation are more easily observed in the interstellar medium compared to their counterparts with higher enthalpies of formation. Available data in the literature confirm the high abundance of the most stable isomer over other isomers in the different groups considered. Potential for interstellar hydrogen bonding accounts for the few exceptions observed. Thus, in general, it suffices to say that the interstellar abundances of related species could be linked to their stabilities if other factors do not dominate. The immediate consequences of this relationship in addressing some of the whys and wherefores among interstellar molecules and in predicting some possible candidates for future astronomical observations are discussed.

  6. Two-photon ionization of atomic hydrogen with elliptically polarized light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassaee, A.; Rustgi, M. L.; Long, S. A. T.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of two-photon ionization of a hydrogenic state in the nonrelativistic dipole approximation is generalized for elliptically polarized light. An application to the metastable 2S state of atomic hydrogen is made. Significant differences in the angular distribution of the outgoing electrons are found depending upon the polarization of the photons. It is claimed that two-photon ionization employing elliptically polarized photons from lasers may provide an additional test for the theories of multiphoton ionization.

  7. LOX/hydrogen coaxial injector atomization test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, M.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative information about the atomization of injector sprays is needed to improve the accuracy of computational models that predict the performance and stability margin of liquid propellant rocket engines. To obtain this data, a facility for the study of spray atomization is being established at NASA-Lewis to determine the drop size and velocity distributions occurring in vaporizing liquid sprays at supercritical pressures. Hardware configuration and test conditions are selected to make the cold flow simulant testing correspond as closely as possible to conditions in liquid oxygen (LOX)/gaseous H2 rocket engines. Drop size correlations from the literature, developed for liquid/gas coaxial injector geometries, are used to make drop size predictions for LOX/H2 coaxial injectors. The mean drop size predictions for a single element coaxial injector range from 0.1 to 2000 microns, emphasizing the need for additional studies of the atomization process in LOX/H2 engines. Selection of cold flow simulants, measurement techniques, and hardware for LOX/H2 atomization simulations are discussed.

  8. Classical stabilization of the hydrogen atom in a monochromatic field

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuto, F.; Casati, G. ); Shepelyansky, D.L. )

    1993-02-01

    We report the results of analytical and numerical investigations on the ionization of a classical atom in a strong, linearly polarized, monochromatic field. We show that the ionization probability decreases with increasing field intensity at field amplitudes much larger than the classical chaos border. This effect should be observable in real laboratory experiments.

  9. LOX/Hydrogen Coaxial Injector Atomization Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, M.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative information about the atomization of injector sprays is needed to improve the accuracy of computational models that predict the performance and stability margin of liquid propellant rocket engines. To obtain this data, a facility for the study of spray atomization is being established at NASA-Lewis to determine the drop size and velocity distributions occurring in vaporizing liquid sprays at supercritical pressures. Hardware configuration and test conditions are selected to make the cold flow simulant testing correspond as closely as possible to conditions in liquid oxygen (LOX)/gaseous H2 rocket engines. Drop size correlations from the literature, developed for liquid/gas coaxial injector geometries, are used to make drop size predictions for LOX/H2 coaxial injectors. The mean drop size predictions for a single element coaxial injector range from 0.1 to 2000 microns, emphasizing the need for additional studies of the atomization process in LOX/H2 engines. Selection of cold flow simulants, measured techniques, and hardware for LOX/H2 atomization simulations are discussed.

  10. Conformer-specific hydrogen atom tunnelling in trifluoromethylhydroxycarbene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardyukov, Artur; Quanz, Henrik; Schreiner, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Conformational control of organic reactions is at the heart of the biomolecular sciences. To achieve a particular reactivity, one of many conformers may be selected, for instance, by a (bio)catalyst, as the geometrically most suited and appropriately reactive species. The equilibration of energetically close-lying conformers is typically assumed to be facile and less energetically taxing than the reaction under consideration itself: this is termed the 'Curtin-Hammett principle'. Here, we show that the trans conformer of trifluoromethylhydroxycarbene preferentially rearranges through a facile quantum-mechanical hydrogen tunnelling pathway, while its cis conformer is entirely unreactive. Hence, this presents the first example of a conformer-specific hydrogen tunnelling reaction. The Curtin-Hammett principle is not applicable, due to the high barrier between the two conformers.

  11. Deformylation Reaction by a Nonheme Manganese(III)-Peroxo Complex via Initial Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction.

    PubMed

    Barman, Prasenjit; Upadhyay, Pranav; Faponle, Abayomi S; Kumar, Jitendra; Nag, Sayanta Sekhar; Kumar, Devesh; Sastri, Chivukula V; de Visser, Sam P

    2016-09-05

    Metal-peroxo intermediates are key species in the catalytic cycles of nonheme metalloenzymes, but their chemical properties and reactivity patterns are still poorly understood. The synthesis and characterization of a manganese(III)-peroxo complex with a pentadentate bispidine ligand system and its reactivity with aldehydes was studied. Manganese(III)-peroxo can react through hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions instead of the commonly proposed nucleophilic addition reaction. Evidence of the mechanism comes from experiments which identify a primary kinetic isotope effect of 5.4 for the deformylation reaction. Computational modeling supports the established mechanism and identifies the origin of the reactivity preference of hydrogen-atom abstraction over nucleophilic addition.

  12. Reduction of uranium hexafluoride to tetrafluoride by using the hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, B. P.; Gordon, E. B.; Ivanov, A. V.; Kotov, A. A.; Smirnov, V. E.

    2016-09-01

    We consider the reduction of UF6 to UF4 by chemical reaction with hydrogen atoms originated in the powerful chemical generator. The principal design of such a chemical convertor is described. The results of the mathematical modeling of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the UF6 to UF4 reduction process are analyzed. The few options for the hydrogen atom generator design are proposed. A layout of the experimental setup with the chemical reactor is presented. The high efficiency together with the ability of the process scaling without loss of its efficiency makes this approach to the uranium hexafluoride depletion into tetrafluoride promising for its application in the industry.

  13. Surface Magnetism of Cobalt Nanoislands Controlled by Atomic Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Park, Jewook; Park, Changwon; Yoon, Mina; Li, An-Ping

    2017-01-11

    Controlling the spin states of the surface and interface is key to spintronic applications of magnetic materials. Here, we report the evolution of surface magnetism of Co nanoislands on Cu(111) upon hydrogen adsorption and desorption with the hope of realizing reversible control of spin-dependent tunneling. Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy reveals three types of hydrogen-induced surface superstructures, 1H-(2 × 2), 2H-(2 × 2), and 6H-(3 × 3), with increasing H coverage. The prominent magnetic surface states of Co, while being preserved at low H coverage, become suppressed as the H coverage level increases, which can then be recovered by H desorption. First-principles calculations reveal the origin of the observed magnetic surface states by capturing the asymmetry between the spin-polarized surface states and identify the role of hydrogen in controlling the magnetic states. Our study offers new insights into the chemical control of magnetism in low-dimensional systems.

  14. Possibility of nonexistence of hot and superhot hydrogen atoms in electrical discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Loureiro, J.; Amorim, J.

    2010-09-15

    Recently, the existence of extremely energetic hydrogen atoms in electrical discharges has been proposed in the literature with large controversy, from the analysis of the anomalous broadening of hydrogen Balmer lines. In this paper, the velocity distribution of H atoms and the profiles of the emitting atom lines created by the exothermic reaction H{sub 2}{sup +}+H{sub 2}{yields}H{sub 3}{sup +}+H+{Delta}E are calculated, as a function of the internal energy defect {Delta}E. The shapes found for the non-Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions resulting in non-Gaussian line profiles raise serious arguments against the existence of hot and superhot H atoms as it has been proposed, at least with those temperatures.

  15. New power source from fractional quantum energy levels of atomic hydrogen that surpasses internal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, R. L.; Ray, P.; Dhandapani, B.; Nansteel, M.; Chen, X.; He, J.

    2002-12-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy was recorded on microwave discharges of helium with 2% hydrogen. Novel emission lines were observed with energies of q·13.6 eV where q=1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9, or 11 or these lines inelastically scattered by helium atoms wherein 21.2 eV was absorbed in the excitation of He (1s 2) to He (1s 12p 1). These lines were identified as hydrogen transitions to electronic energy levels below the 'ground' state corresponding to fractional quantum numbers. Significant line broadening corresponding to an average hydrogen atom temperature of 33-38 eV was observed for helium-hydrogen discharge plasmas; whereas pure hydrogen showed no excessive broadening corresponding to an average hydrogen atom temperature of ≈3 eV. Since a significant increase in H temperature was observed with helium-hydrogen discharge plasmas, and energetic hydrino lines were observed at short wavelengths in the corresponding microwave plasmas that required a very significant reaction rate due to low photon detection efficiency in this region, the power balance was measured on the helium-hydrogen microwave plasmas. With a microwave input power of 30 W, the thermal output power was measured to be at least 300 W corresponding to a reactor temperature rise from room temperature to 900 °C within 90 s, a power density of 30 MW/m 3, and an energy balance of about -4×10 5 kJ/mol H 2 compared to the enthalpy of combustion of hydrogen of -241.8 kJ/mol H 2.

  16. Ground state properties of solid and liquid spin-aligned atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilowicz, R. L.; Dugan, J. V., Jr.; Etters, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    Calculations of the ground state energy in the solid phase were performed with the aid of a variational approach. The Morse potential form of the atomic triple potential computed by Kolos and Wolniewicz (1965) was employed for the calculations. The ground state energies of both the liquid and solid phases of spin-aligned atomic hydrogen around the volume of the transition are presented in a graph.

  17. Interstellar Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontcharov, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    This review describes our current understanding of interstellar extinction. This differ substantially from the ideas of the 20th century. With infrared surveys of hundreds of millions of stars over the entire sky, such as 2MASS, SPITZER-IRAC, and WISE, we have looked at the densest and most rarefied regions of the interstellar medium at distances of a few kpc from the Sun. Observations at infrared and microwave wavelengths, where the bulk of the interstellar dust absorbs and radiates, have brought us closer to an understanding of the distribution of the dust particles on scales of the Galaxy and the universe. We are in the midst of a scientific revolution in our understanding of the interstellar medium and dust. Progress in, and the key results of, this revolution are still difficult to predict. Nevertheless, (a) a physically justified model has been developed for the spatial distribution of absorbing material over the nearest few kiloparsecs, including the Gould belt as a dust container, which gives an accurate estimate of the extinction for any object just by its galactic coordinates. It is also clear that (b) the interstellar medium contains roughly half the mass of matter in the galactic vicinity of the solar system (the other half is made up of stars, their remnants, and dark matter) and (c) the interstellar medium and, especially, dust, differ substantially in different regions of space and deep space cannot be understood by only studying near space.

  18. H3+ in the diffuse interstellar medium.

    PubMed

    Liszt, Harvey S

    2006-11-15

    Three forms of solely hydrogen-bearing molecules--H2, HD and H3+--are observed in diffuse or optically transparent interstellar clouds. Although no comprehensive theory exists for the diffuse interstellar medium or its chemistry, the abundances of these species can generally be accommodated locally within the existing static equilibrium frameworks for heating/cooling, H2-formation on large grains, etc. with one modification demanded equally by observations of HD and H3+, i.e. a pervasive low-level source of H and H2 ionization ca 10 times faster than the usual cosmic ray ionization rate zetaH = 10(-17) s(-1) per free H-atom. We discuss this situation with reference to observation and time-dependent modelling of H2 and H3+ formation. While not wishing to appear ungrateful for the success of what are very simplistic notions of the interstellar medium, we point out several reasons not to feel smug. The equilibrium conditions which foster high H2 and H3+ abundances are very slow to appear and these same simple ideas of static equilibrium cannot explain any, but a few, of the simplest of the trace species, which are ubiquitously embedded in H2-bearing diffuse gases.

  19. Hydrogen-atom spectrum under a minimal-length hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Benczik, Sandor; Chang, Lay Nam; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    2005-07-15

    The energy spectrum of the Coulomb potential with minimal length commutation relations [X{sub i},P{sub j}]=i({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){l_brace}{delta}{sub ij}(1+{beta}P{sup 2})+{beta}{sup '}P{sub i}P{sub j}{r_brace} is determined both numerically and perturbatively for arbitrary values of {beta}{sup '}/{beta} and angular momenta l. The constraint on the minimal length scale from precision hydrogen spectroscopy data is of the order of a few GeV{sup -1}, weaker than previously claimed.

  20. SIMULATIONS OF A DYNAMIC SOLAR CYCLE AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE INTERSTELLAR BOUNDARY EXPLORER RIBBON AND GLOBALLY DISTRIBUTED ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOM FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; McComas, D. J.; Dayeh, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    Since 2009, observations by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) have vastly improved our understanding of the interaction between the solar wind (SW) and local interstellar medium through direct measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), which inform us about the heliospheric conditions that produced them. An enhanced feature of flux in the sky, the so-called IBEX ribbon, was not predicted by any global models before the first IBEX observations. A dominating theory of the origin of the ribbon, although still under debate, is a secondary charge-exchange process involving secondary ENAs originating from outside the heliopause. According to this mechanism, the evolution of the solar cycle should be visible in the ribbon flux. Therefore, in this paper we simulate a fully time-dependent ribbon flux, as well as globally distributed flux from the inner heliosheath (IHS), using time-dependent SW parameters from Sokół et al. as boundary conditions for our time-dependent heliosphere simulation. After post-processing the results to compute H ENA fluxes, our results show that the secondary ENA ribbon indeed should be time dependent, evolving with a period of approximately 11 yr, with differences depending on the energy and direction. Our results for the IHS flux show little periodic change with the 11 yr solar cycle, but rather with short-term fluctuations in the background plasma. While the secondary ENA mechanism appears to emulate several key characteristics of the observed IBEX ribbon, it appears that our simulation does not yet include all of the relevant physics that produces the observed ribbon.

  1. Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    2013-01-15

    We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

  2. Nucleon polarizabilities: From Compton scattering to hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelstein, Franziska; Miskimen, Rory; Pascalutsa, Vladimir

    2016-05-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of the nucleon polarizabilities and of their role in nucleon Compton scattering and in hydrogen spectrum. We discuss the basic concepts, the recent lattice QCD calculations and advances in chiral effective-field theory. On the experimental side, we review the ongoing programs aimed to measure the nucleon (scalar and spin) polarizabilities via the Compton scattering processes, with real and virtual photons. A great part of the review is devoted to the general constraints based on unitarity, causality, discrete and continuous symmetries, which result in model-independent relations involving nucleon polarizabilities. We (re-)derive a variety of such relations and discuss their empirical value. The proton polarizability effects are presently the major sources of uncertainty in the assessment of the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and hyperfine structure. Recent calculations of these effects are reviewed here in the context of the "proton-radius puzzle". We conclude with summary plots of the recent results and prospects for the near-future work.

  3. Bounds on halo-particle interactions from interstellar calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chivukula, Sekhar R.; Cohen, Andrew G.; Dimopoulos, Savas; Walker, Terry P.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the existence of neutral interstellar clouds constrains the interaction of any particulate dark-matter candidate with atomic hydrogen to be quite small. Even for a halo particle of mass 1 PeV (10 to the 6 GeV), it is shown that the cross section with hydrogen must be smaller than the typical atomic cross section that is expected for a positively charged particle bound to an electron. The argument presented is that if the clouds are in equilibrium, then the rate at which energy is deposited by collisions with dark-matter particles must be smaller than the rate at which the cloud can cool. This argument is used to constrain the interaction cross section of dark matter with hydrogen. Remarks are made on the general viability of charged dark matter. Comments are also made on a bound which derives from the dynamical stability of the halo.

  4. Zirconium-nickel crystals—hydrogen accumulators: Dissolution and penetration of hydrogen atoms in alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matysina, Z. A.; Zaginaichenko, S. Yu.; Shchur, D. V.; Gabdullin, M. T.; Kamenetskaya, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    The calculation of the free energy, thermodynamic equilibrium equations, and kinetic equations of the intermetallic compound Zr2NiH x has been carried out based on molecular-kinetic concepts. The equilibrium hydrogen concentration depending on the temperature, pressure, and energy parameters has been calculated. The absorption-desorption of hydrogen has been studied, and the possibility of the realization of the hysteresis effect has been revealed. The kinetics of the dissolution and permeability of hydrogen is considered, the time dependence of these values has been found, and conditions for the extremum character of their time dependence have been determined. Relaxation times of the dissolution and permeability of hydrogen into the alloy have been calculated. The calculation results are compared with the experimental data available in the literature.

  5. A spectroscopic study of hydrogen atom and molecule collisions. Progress report, 1994--1997

    SciTech Connect

    Kielkopf, J.F.

    1997-01-15

    In this project the fundamental processes which occur in low energy collisions of excited states of atomic hydrogen with other atoms and ions are being studied with optical, vacuum ultraviolet and laser spectroscopy. This report covers the period from 1994 to early 1997. We begin here with a brief description of the status of the work at the beginning of this project period, then discuss the goals for this period, our results, and the work in progress now. As the accompanying renewal proposal describes in more detail, the purpose of our work is to understand low energy atom-atom collisions during which light is emitted or absorbed. Because of their fundamental character, such collisions of atomic hydrogen could play a central role if experimental data could be compared with a priori theory. Some interactions involving atomic hydrogen can be calculated very accurately, namely those of H{sub 2}, H{sup +}{sub 2} H{sub 3}, and H{sup +}{sub 3}, and simpler diatomic radicals including OH, CH, and NH. The primary difficulty from the experimental side has been the development of techniques to observe neutral atomic hydrogen interactions at densities high enough for spectral line broadening effects to be observable. This specific research discusses in this report are: laser-produced plasmas in H{sub 2},H{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}+Na; layman alpha wing; line shape theory; ArF laser interaction with H{sub 2}; and work in progress.

  6. Atomic and molecular hydrogen from Titan in the Kronian magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, Aharon; Podolak, Morris; Richardson, John D.

    1990-01-01

    The question of the neutral gas and plasma population in the region of the Kronian magnetosphere, outside the plasma mantle and inside the magnetopause, dominated by the efflux of Titan's atmosphere is considered. A model that has been used successfully to describe the inner magnetosphere is applied to this region under constraints derived from the plasma science and ultraviolet spectrometer experiments on Voyager. It is shown that it is not possible to reconcile the results of these two experiments simultaneously with the values of the atomic and molecular source strengths of the atmosphere of Titan extant in the literature. The possible sources of the discrepancy are delineated.

  7. Moøller polarimetry with polarized atomic hydrogen at MESA

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Aulenbacher, K.; Tyukin, V.

    2013-11-07

    A new generation of parity violation (PV) electron scattering experiments are planned to be carried out at the Institut für Kernphysik in Mainz. These experiments will be performed at low energies of 100-200 MeV using the new accelerator MESA (Mainz Energy recovering Superconducting Accelerator). One of the main challenges of such experiments is to achieve an accuracy in beam polarization measurements that must be below 0.5%. This very high accuracy can be reached using polarized atomic hydrogen gas, stored in an ultra-cold magnetic trap, as the target for electron beam polarimetry based on Mo/ller scattering. Electron spin-polarized atomic hydrogen can be stored at high densities of 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}, over relatively long time periods, in a high magnetic field (8T) and at low temperatures (0.3K). The gradient force splits the ground state of the hydrogen into four states with different energies. Atoms in the low energy states are trapped in the strong magnetic field region whereas the high energy states are repelled and pumped away. The physics of ultra-cold atomic hydrogen in magnetic traps and the status of the Mainz Hydro-Mo/ller project will be presented.

  8. Moøller polarimetry with polarized atomic hydrogen at MESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Aulenbacher, K.; Tyukin, V.

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of parity violation (PV) electron scattering experiments are planned to be carried out at the Institut für Kernphysik in Mainz. These experiments will be performed at low energies of 100-200 MeV using the new accelerator MESA (Mainz Energy recovering Superconducting Accelerator). One of the main challenges of such experiments is to achieve an accuracy in beam polarization measurements that must be below 0.5%. This very high accuracy can be reached using polarized atomic hydrogen gas, stored in an ultra-cold magnetic trap, as the target for electron beam polarimetry based on Mo/ller scattering. Electron spin-polarized atomic hydrogen can be stored at high densities of 1016 cm-2, over relatively long time periods, in a high magnetic field (8T) and at low temperatures (0.3K). The gradient force splits the ground state of the hydrogen into four states with different energies. Atoms in the low energy states are trapped in the strong magnetic field region whereas the high energy states are repelled and pumped away. The physics of ultra-cold atomic hydrogen in magnetic traps and the status of the Mainz Hydro-Mo/ller project will be presented.

  9. Determination of the Relative Atomic Masses of Metals by Liberation of Molecular Hydrogen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waghorne, W. Earle; Rous, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Students determine the relative atomic masses of calcium, magnesium, and aluminum by reaction with hydrochloric acid and measurement of the volume of hydrogen gas liberated. The experiment demonstrates stoichiometry and illustrates clearly that mass of the reagent is not the determinant of the amounts in chemical reactions. The experiment is…

  10. Learning about Regiochemistry from a Hydrogen-Atom Abstraction Reaction in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears-Dundes, Christopher; Huon, Yoeup; Hotz, Richard P.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment has been developed in which the hydrogen-atom abstraction and the coupling of propionitrile, using Fenton's reagent, are investigated. Students learn about the regiochemistry of radical formation, the stereochemistry of product formation, and the interpretation of GC-MS data, in a safe reaction that can be easily completed in one…

  11. The Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom: Shift of s states

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    1995-02-01

    A theoretical expression for the difference of the Lamb shifts of the 1s{sub 1/2} and 2s{sub 1/2} levels is obtained. The Lamb shift of the ground state in the hydrogen atom is recalculated and found to be 8172.898(26) MHz. 22 refs.

  12. Atomic and molecular hydrogen in the circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of atomic and molecular hydrogen in the expanding circumstellar envelopes of cool evolved stars is discussed. The main concern is to evaluate the effects of photodestruction of H2 by galactic UV radiation, including shielding of the radiation by H2 itself and by dust in the envelope. One of the most important parameters is the H/H2 ratio which is frozen out in the upper atmosphere of the star. For stars with photospheric temperatures greater than about 2500 K, atmospheric models suggest that the outflowing hydrogen is mainly atomic, whereas cooler stars should be substantially molecular. In the latter case, photodissociation of H2 and heavy molecules contribute to the atomic hydrogen content of the outer envelope. The presented estimates indicate that atomic hydrogen is almost at the limit of detection in the C-rich star IRC + 10216, and may be detectable in warmer stars. Failure to detect it would have important implications for the general understanding of circumstellar envelopes.

  13. Paramagnetic products of the reaction of hydrogen atoms with sodium azide

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil'ev, A.A.; Lisetskii, V.N.; Kulikov, N.F.; Savel'ev, G.G.

    1987-09-01

    The reaction of hydrogen atoms with sodium azide in high-frequency discharges has been postulated to lead to NaNH and molecular nitrogen as reaction products. This article investigates these products via electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Data are given on reaction and ionization kinetics as well as on the electronic structure and hyperfine interaction of the products.

  14. Kramers-map approach for stabilization of a hydrogen atom in a monochromatic field

    SciTech Connect

    Shepelyansky, D.L. )

    1994-07-01

    The phenomenon of stabilization of highly excited states of a hydrogen atom in a strong monochromatic field is discussed. An approximate description of the dynamics from the introduction of the Kramers map allows one to understand the main properties of this phenomenon through analogy with the Kepler map. The analogy between the stabilization and the channneling of particles in a crystal is also discussed.

  15. Bohr-Sommerfeld Quantization of Hydrogen-Like Atoms in Kaluza-Klein Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Weldon J.

    1984-12-01

    A low energy phenomenon in quantum theories with extra dimensions is studied. The method of Bohr and Sommerfeld is used to compute the relativistic bound state energy spectrum for hydrogen-like atoms in the flat, five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein model.

  16. Irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintgen, D.; Hoenig, A.

    1989-01-01

    The highly excited irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field are investigated analytically, with wave function scarring by periodic orbits considered quantitatively. The results obtained confirm that the contributions of closed classical orbits to the spatial wave functions vanish in the semiclassical limit. Their disappearance, however, is slow. This discussion is illustrated by numerical examples.

  17. Laboratory Measurements of Charge Transfer on Atomic Hydrogen at Thermal Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havener, C. C.; Vane, C. R.; Krause, H. F.; Stancil, P. C.; Mroczkowski, T.; Savin, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our ongoing program to measure velocity dependent charge transfer (CT) cross sections for selected ions on atomic hydrogen using the ion-aloin merged-beams apparatus at Oak Ridge Natioiial Laboralory. Our focus is on those ions for which CT plays an important role in determining the ionization structure, line emis sion, and thermal structure of observed cosmic photoionized plasmas.

  18. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H.; Burghardt, Irene

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  19. Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, Matteo; Jackson, Bret; Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene; Martinazzo, Rocco

    2015-09-28

    An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.

  20. Photoelectron momentum spectra for multiphoton ionization of Hydrogen atoms by intense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Serge; Macek, Joseph

    2007-06-01

    Full three-dimensional electron momentum distribution for multiphoton ionization of Hydrogen atoms by intense laser pulses are calculated by solving the time-dependent solutions of Schr"odinger equation on a three-dimensional lattice in a scaled coordinate representation (CSLTDSE). This approach allows one to circumvent many difficulties related to the propagation of wave function to macroscopic distances.

  1. Effects of laser radiation field on energies of hydrogen atom in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bahar, M. K.

    2015-09-15

    In this study, for the first time, the Schrödinger equation with more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb (MGECSC) potential is solved numerically in the presence of laser radiation field within the Ehlotzky approximation using the asymptotic iteration method. The MGECSC potential includes four different potential forms in consideration of different sets of the parameters in the potential. By applying laser field, the total interaction potential of hydrogen atom embedded in plasmas converts to double well-type potential. The plasma screening effects under the influence of laser field as well as confinement effects of laser field on hydrogen atom in Debye and quantum plasmas are investigated by solving the Schrödinger equation with the laser-dressed MGECSC potential. It is resulted that since applying a monochromatic laser field on hydrogen atom embedded in a Debye and quantum plasma causes to shift in the profile of the total interaction potential, the confinement effects of laser field on hydrogen atom in plasmas modeled by the MGECSC potential change localizations of energy states.

  2. Effects of laser radiation field on energies of hydrogen atom in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, M. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, for the first time, the Schrödinger equation with more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb (MGECSC) potential is solved numerically in the presence of laser radiation field within the Ehlotzky approximation using the asymptotic iteration method. The MGECSC potential includes four different potential forms in consideration of different sets of the parameters in the potential. By applying laser field, the total interaction potential of hydrogen atom embedded in plasmas converts to double well-type potential. The plasma screening effects under the influence of laser field as well as confinement effects of laser field on hydrogen atom in Debye and quantum plasmas are investigated by solving the Schrödinger equation with the laser-dressed MGECSC potential. It is resulted that since applying a monochromatic laser field on hydrogen atom embedded in a Debye and quantum plasma causes to shift in the profile of the total interaction potential, the confinement effects of laser field on hydrogen atom in plasmas modeled by the MGECSC potential change localizations of energy states.

  3. An unexplained 10-40° shift in the location of some diverse neutral atom data at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Simpson, David; Roberts, Aaron; Szabo, Adam; Fuselier, Stephen; Wurz, Peter; Lee, Martin A.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2004-01-01

    Four different data sets pertaining to the neutral atom environment at 1 AU are presented and discussed. These data sets include neutral solar wind and interstellar neutral atom data from IMAGE/LENA, energetic hydrogen atom data from SOHO/HSTOF and plasma wave data from the magnetometer on ISEE-3. Surprisingly, these data sets are centered between 262° and 292° ecliptic longitude, ˜10-40° from the upstream interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction at 254° resulting from the motion of the Sun relative to the local interstellar cloud (LIC). Some possible explanations for this offset, none of which is completely satisfactory, are discussed.

  4. Direct observation of hydrogen atom dynamics and interactions by ultrahigh resolution neutron protein crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Julian C.-H.; Hanson, B. Leif; Fisher, S. Zoë; Langan, Paul; Kovalevsky, Andrey Y.

    2012-01-01

    The 1.1 Å, ultrahigh resolution neutron structure of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchanged crambin is reported. Two hundred ninety-nine out of 315, or 94.9%, of the hydrogen atom positions in the protein have been experimentally derived and resolved through nuclear density maps. A number of unconventional interactions are clearly defined, including a potential O─H…π interaction between a water molecule and the aromatic ring of residue Y44, as well as a number of potential C─H…O hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonding networks that are ambiguous in the 0.85 Å ultrahigh resolution X-ray structure can be resolved by accurate orientation of water molecules. Furthermore, the high resolution of the reported structure has allowed for the anisotropic description of 36 deuterium atoms in the protein. The visibility of hydrogen and deuterium atoms in the nuclear density maps is discussed in relation to the resolution of the neutron data. PMID:22949690

  5. Measurement of a hyperfine-induced spin-exchange frequency shift in atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Walsworth, R.L.; Silvera, I.F. ); Mattison, E.M.; Vessot, R.F.C. )

    1992-09-01

    We have measured a hyperfine-induced spin-exchange frequency shift in the atomic-hydrogen ground-state hyperfine transition. A recent quantum-mechanical treatment of low-energy hydrogen-hydrogen scattering by Koelman {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Rev. A 38, 3535 (1988)) predicts such frequency shifts to become large at low temperature, and to affect the performance of atomic clocks such as the cryogenic hydrogen maser. The experiment reported here was performed with a hydrogen maser operating near room temperature, where the reported hyperfine effects are predicted to be small, but measurable. Using an adiabatic fast passage (AFP) technique to vary the incoming atomic population in the masing states from approximately 100% (AFP on) to 50% (AFP off), we determined the change in the dimensionless hyperfine-induced frequency-shift parameter {Omega} to be {Omega}{sub on}{minus}{Omega}{sub off}=5.38 (1.06){times}10{sup {minus}4}. The theoretical prediction at this temperature is {Omega}{sub on}{minus}{Omega}{sub off}={minus}0.76{times}10{sup {minus}4} to {minus}1.12{times}10{sup {minus}4}, for the range of masing-state populations used in the present experiment. We review the relevant theory, report our experimental method and results, and discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy between experiment and theory.

  6. Continuous spectra of atomic hydrogen in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L. B.; Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K.

    2016-09-01

    We describe a theoretical method, developed in the coupled-channel formalism, to study photoionization of H atoms in a strong magnetic field of a size that is typical for magnetic white dwarfs. The coupled Schrödinger equations are solved numerically using the renormalized Numerov method proposed by Johnson [B. R. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4086 (1977), 10.1063/1.435384; B. R. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 4678 (1978), 10.1063/1.436421]. The distinct advantage of this method is the fact that no overflow problems are encountered in the classically forbidden region, and hence the method exhibits excellent numerical stability. Photoionization cross sections are presented for magnetized H atoms in the ground and 2 p excited states. The calculated results are compared with those obtained by other theories. The present method is particularly useful for explaining the complex features of continuous spectra in a strong magnetic field and hence provides an efficient tool for modeling photoionization spectra observed in the atmosphere of magnetic white dwarfs.

  7. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, Janda K. G.; Jellison, James L.; Staley, David J.

    1995-01-01

    A system for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs.

  8. Dry soldering with hot filament produced atomic hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Panitz, J.K.G.; Jellison, J.L.; Staley, D.J.

    1995-04-25

    A system is disclosed for chemically transforming metal surface oxides to metal that is especially, but not exclusively, suitable for preparing metal surfaces for dry soldering and solder reflow processes. The system employs one or more hot, refractory metal filaments, grids or surfaces to thermally dissociate molecular species in a low pressure of working gas such as a hydrogen-containing gas to produce reactive species in a reactive plasma that can chemically reduce metal oxides and form volatile compounds that are removed in the working gas flow. Dry soldering and solder reflow processes are especially applicable to the manufacture of printed circuit boards, semiconductor chip lead attachment and packaging multichip modules. The system can be retrofitted onto existing metal treatment ovens, furnaces, welding systems and wave soldering system designs. 1 fig.

  9. Charting the Interstellar Magnetic Field behind the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Wiktorowicz, S.; Magalhaes, A. M.; Seriacopi, D.; Andersson, B. G.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Slavin, J. D.; Hanson, A.; Fu, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    The relation between the interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) controlling the configuration of the "ribbon" of energetic neutral atoms discovered by IBEX, and the ISMF in deep space, can be probed with polarized starlight. Starlight is polarized in a dichroic interstellar medium formed by interstellar dust grains that are aligned with respect to the ISMF. Our ongoing survey of polarized starlight traces the ISMF within 40 parsecs. The local ISMF direction was evaluated using the weighted means of the linear polarization vectors. The dominant nearby magnetic field direction is within 7.6 (+14.9,-7.6) degrees of the ISMF direction that is traced by the IBEX ribbon. A low level of random magnetic turbulence is obtained from the polarization data that best trace the IBEX ribbon field direction, 9 (+/-1) deg, which explains the continuity of the IBEX ISMF out into space where it can be traced by starlight polarization. The ISMF direction is perpendicular to the velocity of the cloud around the heliosphere, and it orders the kinematics of the other local interstellar clouds. These results are obtained only after a well-defined subset of the polarization data is omitted from the sample. A separate analysis shows that these polarization vectors are oriented toward the upwind direction of the interstellar gas flowing into the heliosphere. This group of polarization data traces an elongated filamentary-type feature that is perpendicular to the hydrogen deflection plane. We suggest a heliosheath origin for the grains that create this polarized feature. One characteristic shown by the polarization and IBEX field directions is that the ribbon ISMF extends to the boundaries of the BICEP2 region where the polarized CMB background has been studied. Inside of the BICEP2 region other nearby magnetic components are also present. The sightline toward the star Capella suggests that the polarization mechanism is very efficient in this nearby cloud.

  10. Loss of hydrogen atoms in H{sub 2} plasma on the surfaces of materials used in EUV lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Zyryanov, S. M.; Kovalev, A. S.; Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Rakhimov, A. T.; Rakhimova, T. V.; Koshelev, K. N.; Krivtsun, V. M.

    2011-10-15

    Low-pressure hydrogen is an important component of the working medium in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) projection lithography. Under the action of EUV photons and fast secondary electrons on the gas medium, plasma and atomic hydrogen, actively interacting with the surface, are produced. This interaction is very important, because it largely determines the lifetime of the multilayered EUV optics. In this study, the loss of atomic hydrogen under the conditions of a low pressure (<10 Torr) RF plasma discharge on the surfaces of materials used in EUV lithography is investigated. The surface loss probabilities of H atoms on these materials are measured. It is shown that surface recombination of atomic hydrogen goes according to the Eley-Rideal mechanism via direct recombination of H atoms from the gas phase with chemically and physically adsorbed atoms. In this case, the surface recombination probability is mainly determined by the density of chemical adsorption sites. The density of adsorption sites and the desorption energy of H atoms are estimated. The desorption energy of physically adsorbed H atoms on pure metal surfaces (or surfaces exposed to plasma) is about 0.5 eV, and the density of sorption sites is close to the surface density of atoms. This results in a high loss probability of H atoms on metals ({approx}0.1). Therefore, to provide efficient transportation of hydrogen atoms, it is necessary to use materials with the lowest loss probability of H atoms, i.e., dielectrics.

  11. Infrared absorption on a complex comprising three equivalent hydrogen atoms in ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herklotz, F.; Hupfer, A.; Johansen, K. M.; Svensson, B. G.; Koch, S. G.; Lavrov, E. V.

    2015-10-01

    A hydrogen-related defect in ZnO which causes two broad IR absorption bands at 3303 and 3321 cm-1 is studied by means of infrared absorption spectroscopy and first-principles theory. In deuterated samples, the defect reveals two sharp absorption lines at 2466 and 2488 cm-1 accompanied by weaker sidebands at 2462 and 2480 cm-1. Isotope substitution experiments with varying concentrations of H and D together with polarization-sensitive measurements strongly suggest that these IR absorption lines are due to stretch local vibrational modes of a defect comprising three equivalent hydrogen atoms. The zinc vacancy decorated by three hydrogen atoms, VZnH3 , and ammonia trapped at the zinc vacancy, (NH3)Zn, are discussed as a possible origin for the complex.

  12. Self-interaction in Green's-function theory of the hydrogen atom

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.; Bokes, P.; Rinke, Patrick; Godby, R. W.

    2007-03-15

    Atomic hydrogen provides a unique test case for computational electronic structure methods, since its electronic excitation energies are known analytically. With only one electron, hydrogen contains no electronic correlation and is therefore particularly susceptible to spurious self-interaction errors introduced by certain computational methods. In this paper we focus on many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) in Hedin's GW approximation. While the Hartree-Fock and the exact MBPT self-energy are free of self-interaction, the correlation part of the GW self-energy does not have this property. Here we use atomic hydrogen as a benchmark system for GW and show that the self-interaction part of the GW self-energy, while nonzero, is small. The effect of calculating the GW self-energy from exact wave functions and eigenvalues, as distinct from those from the local-density approximation, is also illuminating.

  13. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H

    2016-05-05

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species.

  14. The possibility of constructing the hydrogen scale of the absolute atomic masses of the elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuz'min, I. I.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents a scheme for the experimental-empirical construction of the existing chemical, physical, and carbon scales of the relative nonintegral atomic masses of the elements. The quantitative interrelation between the nonintegral relative atomic masses, their minimized fractional positive and negative natural deviations from integral numbers, and their integral parts are reproduced mathematically. Nonisotopic fractional deviations are shown to be a consequence of methodological side effects of the scheme for theoretical processing of the data of thorough physical and chemical measurements performed by Stas and Aston in constructing scales of relative atomic masses. In conformity with the Prout hypothesis, the absolute atomic mass unit and the corresponding Avogadro’s number value are suggested for the construction of the hydrogen scale of absolute atomic masses of nonisotopic elements, individual isotopes, and isotope-containing elements.

  15. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J

    2016-02-23

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. These multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments.

  16. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage

    DOE PAGES

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M.; Aloni, Shaul; ...

    2016-02-23

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in themore » total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. In conclusion, these multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments.« less

  17. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M.; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-23

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. In conclusion, these multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments.

  18. Electrochemical removal of hydrogen atoms in Mg-doped GaN epitaxial layers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, June Key E-mail: hskim7@jbnu.ac.kr; Hyeon, Gil Yong; Tawfik, Wael Z.; Choi, Hee Seok; Ryu, Sang-Wan; Jeong, Tak; Jung, Eunjin; Kim, Hyunsoo E-mail: hskim7@jbnu.ac.kr

    2015-05-14

    Hydrogen atoms inside of an Mg-doped GaN epitaxial layer were effectively removed by the electrochemical potentiostatic activation (EPA) method. The role of hydrogen was investigated in terms of the device performance of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The effect of the main process parameters for EPA such as solution type, voltage, and time was studied and optimized for application to LED fabrication. In optimized conditions, the light output of 385-nm LEDs was improved by about 26% at 30 mA, which was caused by the reduction of the hydrogen concentration by ∼35%. Further removal of hydrogen seems to be involved in the breaking of Ga-H bonds that passivate the nitrogen vacancies. An EPA process with high voltage breaks not only Mg-H bonds that generate hole carriers but also Ga-H bonds that generate electron carriers, thus causing compensation that impedes the practical increase of hole concentration, regardless of the drastic removal of hydrogen atoms. A decrease in hydrogen concentration affects the current-voltage characteristics, reducing the reverse current by about one order and altering the forward current behavior in the low voltage region.

  19. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M.; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. These multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments.

  20. Graphene oxide/metal nanocrystal multilaminates as the atomic limit for safe and selective hydrogen storage

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Seon; Ruminski, Anne M.; Aloni, Shaul; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Guo, Jinghua; Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in hydrogen fuel is growing for automotive applications; however, safe, dense, solid-state hydrogen storage remains a formidable scientific challenge. Metal hydrides offer ample storage capacity and do not require cryogens or exceedingly high pressures for operation. However, hydrides have largely been abandoned because of oxidative instability and sluggish kinetics. We report a new, environmentally stable hydrogen storage material constructed of Mg nanocrystals encapsulated by atomically thin and gas-selective reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. This material, protected from oxygen and moisture by the rGO layers, exhibits exceptionally dense hydrogen storage (6.5 wt% and 0.105 kg H2 per litre in the total composite). As rGO is atomically thin, this approach minimizes inactive mass in the composite, while also providing a kinetic enhancement to hydrogen sorption performance. These multilaminates of rGO-Mg are able to deliver exceptionally dense hydrogen storage and provide a material platform for harnessing the attributes of sensitive nanomaterials in demanding environments. PMID:26902901

  1. Production of Excited Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium from HD Photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacek, J. R.; Bozek, J. D.; Furst, J. E.; Gay, T. J.; Gould, H.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; McLaughlin, K. W.

    2008-05-01

    We have measured the production of Lyα, Hα, and Hβ fluorescence from atomic H and D for the photodissociation of HD by linearly-polarized photons with energies between 20 and 66 eV. In this energy range, excited photofragments result primarily from the production of doubly-excited molecular species which promptly autoionize or dissociate into two neutrals. Theoretical calculation are not yet available for HD, but comparison between the relative cross sections for H2, D2 and HD targets and the available theory for H2 and D2 [1] allow for an estimate of the relative strength of each dissociation channel in this energy range. [1] J. D. Bozek et al., J. Phys. B 39, 4871 (2006). Support provided by the NSF (Grant PHY-0653379), DOE (LBNL/ALS) and ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  2. Hydrogen atom initiated chemistry. [chemical evolution in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, J. H.; Becker, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    H Atoms have been created by the photolysis of H2S. These then initiated reactions in mixtures involving acetylene-ammonia-water and ethylene-ammonia-water. In the case of the acetylene system, the products consisted of two amino acids, ethylene and a group of primarily cyclic thio-compounds, but no free sulfur. In the case of the ethylene systems, seven amino acids, including an aromatic one, ethane, free sulfur, and a group of solely linear thio-compounds were produced. Total quantum yields for the production of amino acids were about 3 x 10 to the -5th and about 2 x 10 to the -4th with ethylene and acetylene respectively as carbon substrates. Consideration is given of the mechanism for the formation of some of the products and implications regarding planetary atmosphere chemistry, particularly that of Jupiter, are explored.

  3. Excited state distribution of reflected hydrogen atoms at metal surfaces - Development of theoretical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, D.; Kenmotsu, T.; Ohya, K.; Tanabe, T.

    2009-06-01

    Numerical methods were developed to study single electron capture by translating hydrogen atoms above metal surfaces. The present method gives predictions for hitherto unknown population distribution of excited species in hydrogen atoms reflected at the metal surfaces. The excited state abundance was calculated for Mo surface. Kinetic energy distribution of the reflected atoms was taken into account with the aid of the Monte-Carlo simulation code (ACAT). Energy distribution associated with the 3d 2 excited state in reflected neutrals consistently explains peak energy variation with incident energies of Doppler-shifted D α lines measured by Tanabe et al. Occupation probability of the magnetic sub-levels is obtained to be highly polarized. It suggests strong anisotropy in angular distribution of photon emission from the excited states created via the surface electron capture.

  4. Local atomic structure modulations activate metal oxide as electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in acidic water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu Hang; Liu, Peng Fei; Pan, Lin Feng; Wang, Hai Feng; Yang, Zhen Zhong; Zheng, Li Rong; Hu, P.; Zhao, Hui Jun; Gu, Lin; Yang, Hua Gui

    2015-01-01

    Modifications of local structure at atomic level could precisely and effectively tune the capacity of materials, enabling enhancement in the catalytic activity. Here we modulate the local atomic structure of a classical but inert transition metal oxide, tungsten trioxide, to be an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in acidic water, which has shown promise as an alternative to platinum. Structural analyses and theoretical calculations together indicate that the origin of the enhanced activity could be attributed to the tailored electronic structure by means of the local atomic structure modulations. We anticipate that suitable structure modulations might be applied on other transition metal oxides to meet the optimal thermodynamic and kinetic requirements, which may pave the way to unlock the potential of other promising candidates as cost-effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution in industry. PMID:26286479

  5. Local atomic structure modulations activate metal oxide as electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in acidic water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu Hang; Liu, Peng Fei; Pan, Lin Feng; Wang, Hai Feng; Yang, Zhen Zhong; Zheng, Li Rong; Hu, P.; Zhao, Hui Jun; Gu, Lin; Yang, Hua Gui

    2015-08-01

    Modifications of local structure at atomic level could precisely and effectively tune the capacity of materials, enabling enhancement in the catalytic activity. Here we modulate the local atomic structure of a classical but inert transition metal oxide, tungsten trioxide, to be an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in acidic water, which has shown promise as an alternative to platinum. Structural analyses and theoretical calculations together indicate that the origin of the enhanced activity could be attributed to the tailored electronic structure by means of the local atomic structure modulations. We anticipate that suitable structure modulations might be applied on other transition metal oxides to meet the optimal thermodynamic and kinetic requirements, which may pave the way to unlock the potential of other promising candidates as cost-effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution in industry.

  6. Local atomic structure modulations activate metal oxide as electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in acidic water.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu Hang; Liu, Peng Fei; Pan, Lin Feng; Wang, Hai Feng; Yang, Zhen Zhong; Zheng, Li Rong; Hu, P; Zhao, Hui Jun; Gu, Lin; Yang, Hua Gui

    2015-08-19

    Modifications of local structure at atomic level could precisely and effectively tune the capacity of materials, enabling enhancement in the catalytic activity. Here we modulate the local atomic structure of a classical but inert transition metal oxide, tungsten trioxide, to be an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution in acidic water, which has shown promise as an alternative to platinum. Structural analyses and theoretical calculations together indicate that the origin of the enhanced activity could be attributed to the tailored electronic structure by means of the local atomic structure modulations. We anticipate that suitable structure modulations might be applied on other transition metal oxides to meet the optimal thermodynamic and kinetic requirements, which may pave the way to unlock the potential of other promising candidates as cost-effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution in industry.

  7. Semiclassical study of the quenching of excited-state fluorine atom by hydrogen molecule - Comparison between reactive and nonreactive processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, J.-M.; Skuse, B. M.; Jaffe, R. L.; Komornicki, A.; Morokuma, K.; George, T. F.

    1980-01-01

    Semiclassical calculations are carried out for the quenching of excited-state fluorine atom by collinear collisions with hydrogen molecule. The overall quenching probability is the sum of two contributions: the reactive quenching probability associated with the formation of hydrogen fluoride and the nonreactive quenching probability leading to ground-state fluorine atom and hydrogen molecule. The reactive probability is greater in the threshold region of the collision energy, whereas the nonreactive probability dominates for energies above the threshold region.

  8. Benchmarking all-atom simulations using hydrogen exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, John J.; Yu, Wookyung; Gichana, Elizabeth K.; Baxa, Michael C.; Hinshaw, James R.; Freed, Karl F.; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2014-10-27

    We are now able to fold small proteins reversibly to their native structures [Lindorff-Larsen K, Piana S, Dror RO, Shaw DE (2011) Science 334(6055):517–520] using long-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our results indicate that modern force fields can reproduce the energy surface near the native structure. In this paper, to test how well the force fields recapitulate the other regions of the energy surface, MD trajectories for a variant of protein G are compared with data from site-resolved hydrogen exchange (HX) and other biophysical measurements. Because HX monitors the breaking of individual H-bonds, this experimental technique identifies the stability and H-bond content of excited states, thus enabling quantitative comparison with the simulations. Contrary to experimental findings of a cooperative, all-or-none unfolding process, the simulated denatured state ensemble, on average, is highly collapsed with some transient or persistent native 2° structure. The MD trajectories of this protein G variant and other small proteins exhibit excessive intramolecular H-bonding even for the most expanded conformations, suggesting that the force fields require improvements in describing H-bonding and backbone hydration. Finally and moreover, these comparisons provide a general protocol for validating the ability of simulations to accurately capture rare structural fluctuations.

  9. Benchmarking all-atom simulations using hydrogen exchange

    DOE PAGES

    Skinner, John J.; Yu, Wookyung; Gichana, Elizabeth K.; ...

    2014-10-27

    We are now able to fold small proteins reversibly to their native structures [Lindorff-Larsen K, Piana S, Dror RO, Shaw DE (2011) Science 334(6055):517–520] using long-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our results indicate that modern force fields can reproduce the energy surface near the native structure. In this paper, to test how well the force fields recapitulate the other regions of the energy surface, MD trajectories for a variant of protein G are compared with data from site-resolved hydrogen exchange (HX) and other biophysical measurements. Because HX monitors the breaking of individual H-bonds, this experimental technique identifies the stability andmore » H-bond content of excited states, thus enabling quantitative comparison with the simulations. Contrary to experimental findings of a cooperative, all-or-none unfolding process, the simulated denatured state ensemble, on average, is highly collapsed with some transient or persistent native 2° structure. The MD trajectories of this protein G variant and other small proteins exhibit excessive intramolecular H-bonding even for the most expanded conformations, suggesting that the force fields require improvements in describing H-bonding and backbone hydration. Finally and moreover, these comparisons provide a general protocol for validating the ability of simulations to accurately capture rare structural fluctuations.« less

  10. Benchmarking all-atom simulations using hydrogen exchange

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, John J.; Yu, Wookyung; Gichana, Elizabeth K.; Baxa, Michael C.; Hinshaw, James R.; Freed, Karl F.; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2014-01-01

    Long-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are now able to fold small proteins reversibly to their native structures [Lindorff-Larsen K, Piana S, Dror RO, Shaw DE (2011) Science 334(6055):517–520]. These results indicate that modern force fields can reproduce the energy surface near the native structure. To test how well the force fields recapitulate the other regions of the energy surface, MD trajectories for a variant of protein G are compared with data from site-resolved hydrogen exchange (HX) and other biophysical measurements. Because HX monitors the breaking of individual H-bonds, this experimental technique identifies the stability and H-bond content of excited states, thus enabling quantitative comparison with the simulations. Contrary to experimental findings of a cooperative, all-or-none unfolding process, the simulated denatured state ensemble, on average, is highly collapsed with some transient or persistent native 2° structure. The MD trajectories of this protein G variant and other small proteins exhibit excessive intramolecular H-bonding even for the most expanded conformations, suggesting that the force fields require improvements in describing H-bonding and backbone hydration. Moreover, these comparisons provide a general protocol for validating the ability of simulations to accurately capture rare structural fluctuations. PMID:25349413

  11. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation Energy and Imaging Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents particle formation energy balances and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium during the Phase II testing in 2001. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. The particle formation efficiency is also estimated. Particle sizes from the Phase I testing in 1999 and the Phase II testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles and it allows designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  12. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation, Imaging, Observations, and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    This report presents particle formation observations and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Hydrogen was frozen into particles in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. These newly analyzed data are from the test series held on February 28, 2001. Particle sizes from previous testing in 1999 and the testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed: microparticles and delayed particle formation. These experiment image analyses are some of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and they allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  13. Platinum single-atom and cluster catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Niancai; Stambula, Samantha; Wang, Da; Banis, Mohammad Norouzi; Liu, Jian; Riese, Adam; Xiao, Biwei; Li, Ruying; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Liu, Li-Min; Botton, Gianluigi A.; Sun, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Platinum-based catalysts have been considered the most effective electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction in water splitting. However, platinum utilization in these electrocatalysts is extremely low, as the active sites are only located on the surface of the catalyst particles. Downsizing catalyst nanoparticles to single atoms is highly desirable to maximize their efficiency by utilizing nearly all platinum atoms. Here we report on a practical synthesis method to produce isolated single platinum atoms and clusters using the atomic layer deposition technique. The single platinum atom catalysts are investigated for the hydrogen evolution reaction, where they exhibit significantly enhanced catalytic activity (up to 37 times) and high stability in comparison with the state-of-the-art commercial platinum/carbon catalysts. The X-ray absorption fine structure and density functional theory analyses indicate that the partially unoccupied density of states of the platinum atoms' 5d orbitals on the nitrogen-doped graphene are responsible for the excellent performance. PMID:27901129

  14. Electrical and Surface Properties of InAs/InSb Nanowires Cleaned by Atomic Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Webb, James L; Knutsson, Johan; Hjort, Martin; Gorji Ghalamestani, Sepideh; Dick, Kimberly A; Timm, Rainer; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2015-08-12

    We present a study of InAs/InSb heterostructured nanowires by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and in-vacuum electrical measurements. Starting with pristine nanowires covered only by the native oxide formed through exposure to ambient air, we investigate the effect of atomic hydrogen cleaning on the surface chemistry and electrical performance. We find that clean and unreconstructed nanowire surfaces can be obtained simultaneously for both InSb and InAs by heating to 380 ± 20 °C under an H2 pressure 2 × 10(-6) mbar. Through electrical measurement of individual nanowires, we observe an increase in conductivity of 2 orders of magnitude by atomic hydrogen cleaning, which we relate through theoretical simulation to the contact-nanowire junction and nanowire surface Fermi level pinning. Our study demonstrates the significant potential of atomic hydrogen cleaning regarding device fabrication when high quality contacts or complete control of the surface structure is required. As hydrogen cleaning has recently been shown to work for many different types of III-V nanowires, our findings should be applicable far beyond the present materials system.

  15. Single Pd atoms in activated carbon fibers and their contribution to hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Contescu, Cristian I; van Benthem, Klaus; Li, Sa; Bonifacio, Cecile S; Pennycook, Stephen J; Jena, Puru; Gallego, Nidia C

    2011-01-01

    Palladium-modified activated carbon fibers (Pd-ACF) were synthesized by meltspinning, carbonization and activation of an isotropic pitch carbon precursor premixed with an organometallic Pd compound. The hydrogen uptake at 25 oC and 20 bar on Pd- ACF exceeded the expected capacity based solely on Pd hydride formation and hydrogen physisorption on the microporous carbon support. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with sub- ngstrom spatial resolution provided unambiguous identification of isolated Pd atoms occurring in the carbon matrix that coexist with larger Pd particles. First principles calculations revealed that each single Pd atom can form Kubas-type complexes by binding up to three H2 molecules in the pressure range of adsorption measurements. Based on Pd atom concentration determined from STEM images, the contribution of various mechanisms to the excess hydrogen uptake measured experimentally was evaluated. With consideration of Kubas binding as a viable mechanism (along with hydride formation and physisorption to carbon support) the role of hydrogen spillover in this system may be smaller than previously thought.

  16. Controlling residual hydrogen gas in mass spectra during pulsed laser atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Kolli, R Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Residual hydrogen (H2) gas in the analysis chamber of an atom probe instrument limits the ability to measure H concentration in metals and alloys. Measuring H concentration would permit quantification of important physical phenomena, such as hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, hydrogen trapping, and grain boundary segregation. Increased insight into the behavior of residual H2 gas on the specimen tip surface in atom probe instruments could help reduce these limitations. The influence of user-selected experimental parameters on the field adsorption and desorption of residual H2 gas on nominally pure copper (Cu) was studied during ultraviolet pulsed laser atom probe tomography. The results indicate that the total residual hydrogen concentration, HTOT, in the mass spectra exhibits a generally decreasing trend with increasing laser pulse energy and increasing laser pulse frequency. Second-order interaction effects are also important. The pulse energy has the greatest influence on the quantity HTOT, which is consistently less than 0.1 at.% at a value of 80 pJ.

  17. Atomic hydrogen adsorption and incipient hydrogenation of the Mg(0001) surface: a density-functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanfang; Zhang, Ping; Sun, Bo; Yang, Yu; Wei, Yinghui

    2009-07-21

    We investigate the atomic hydrogen adsorption on Mg(0001) by using density-functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation and a supercell approach. The coverage dependence of the adsorption structures and energetics is systematically studied for a wide range of coverage Theta [from 0.11 to 2.0 monolayers (ML)] and adsorption sites. In the coverage range 0 < Theta < 1.0, the most stable among all possible adsorption sites is the on-surface fcc site followed by the hcp site, and the binding energy increases with the coverage, thus indicating the higher stability of on-surface adsorption and a tendency to the formation of H islands (clusters) when increasing the coverage within the region 0 < Theta < 1.0. The on-surface diffusion path energetics of atomic hydrogen as well as the activation barriers for hydrogen penetration from the on-surface to the subsurface sites are also presented at low coverage. At high coverage of 1.0 < Theta < or = 2.0, it is found that the coadsorption configuration with 1.0 monolayer of H residing on the surface fcc sites and the remaining (Theta-1.0) monolayer of H occupying the subsurface tetra-I sites is most energetically favorable. The resultant H-Mg-H sandwich structure for this most stable coadsorption configuration displays similar spectral features to the bulk hydride MgH(2) in the density of states. The other properties of the H/Mg(0001) system including the charge distribution, the lattice relaxation, the work function, and the electronic density of states are also studied and discussed in detail. It is pointed out that the H-Mg chemical bonding during surface hydrogenation displays a mixed ionic/covalent character.

  18. Antiproton-hydrogen atom annihilation. Final report, April-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    For antiproton energies of several eV or less, annihilation in matter occurs through atomic rearrangement processes in which the antiproton becomes bound to a nucleus prior to annihilation. Annihilation cross sections via rearrangement at such energies are much higher than for direct antiproton-nucleon annihilation and are, therefore, of consequence to antiproton annihilation propulsion of spacecraft. Existing calculations of the antiproton-hydrogen atom rearrangement cross section are semiclassical and employ the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. They also employ various arguments in regard to the behavior of the system when the Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down at small antiproton-proton separations. These arguments indicate that rearrangement is essentially irreversible. In this study, a detailed investigation was made of the antiproton-hydrogen atom system when the Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down. Results indicate that the previous arguments were approximately correct, but that there is a significant probability for rearrangement reversing prior to annihilation. This probability is estimated to be about 20%. This consequent reduction in annihilation cross section has little or no negative consequences for antiproton annihilation propulsion at the present time. However, because of the approximate nature of this result and because more-accurate values will be required in the future, it is important to conduct an accurate, fully quantum-mechanical calculation of antiproton-hydrogen atom rearrangement.

  19. Analytical transition-matrix treatment of electric multipole polarizabilities of hydrogen-like atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kharchenko, V.F.

    2015-04-15

    The direct transition-matrix approach to the description of the electric polarization of the quantum bound system of particles is used to determine the electric multipole polarizabilities of the hydrogen-like atoms. It is shown that in the case of the bound system formed by the Coulomb interaction the corresponding inhomogeneous integral equation determining an off-shell scattering function, which consistently describes virtual multiple scattering, can be solved exactly analytically for all electric multipole polarizabilities. Our method allows to reproduce the known Dalgarno–Lewis formula for electric multipole polarizabilities of the hydrogen atom in the ground state and can also be applied to determine the polarizability of the atom in excited bound states. - Highlights: • A new description for electric polarization of hydrogen-like atoms. • Expression for multipole polarizabilities in terms of off-shell scattering functions. • Derivation of integral equation determining the off-shell scattering function. • Rigorous analytic solving the integral equations both for ground and excited states. • Study of contributions of virtual multiple scattering to electric polarizabilities.

  20. Probe of hydrogen atom in plasmas with magnetic, electric, and Aharonov-Bohm flux fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, M. K.; Soylu, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, for the first time, the combined effects of external magnetic, electric, and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields on quantum levels of the hydrogen atom embedded in Debye and quantum plasmas modeled by the more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb (MGECSC) potential are investigated within cylindrical coordinate formalism using the asymptotic iteration method. The MGECSC potential includes four different potential forms when considering different sets of the parameters in the potential. The corresponding Schrödinger equation is solved numerically in order to examine both strong and weak regimes and confinement effects of external fields. The influence of screening parameters of the MGECSC potential on quantum levels of the hydrogen atom is also studied in detail in the presence of external magnetic, electric, and AB flux fields. As it is possible to model both Debye and quantum plasmas by using screening parameters in the MGECSC potential, the effects of each plasma environment on quantum levels of the hydrogen atom are also considered in the external fields. It is observed that there are important results of external fields on the total interaction potential profile, and the most dominant one in these fields is the magnetic field. Furthermore, the effects of confinement on the physical state of the plasma environment is a subject of this study. These details would be important in experimental and theoretical investigations in plasma and atomic physics fields.

  1. Nanochemistry at the atomic scale revealed in hydrogen-induced semiconductor surface metallization.

    PubMed

    Derycke, Vincent; Soukiassian, Patrick G; Amy, Fabrice; Chabal, Yves J; D'angelo, Marie D; Enriquez, Hanna B; Silly, Mathieu G

    2003-04-01

    Passivation of semiconductor surfaces against chemical attack can be achieved by terminating the surface-dangling bonds with a monovalent atom such as hydrogen. Such passivation invariably leads to the removal of all surface states in the bandgap, and thus to the termination of non-metallic surfaces. Here we report the first observation of semiconductor surface metallization induced by atomic hydrogen. This result, established by using photo-electron and photo-absorption spectroscopies and scanning tunnelling techniques, is achieved on a Si-terminated cubic silicon carbide (SiC) surface. It results from competition between hydrogen termination of surface-dangling bonds and hydrogen-generated steric hindrance below the surface. Understanding the ingredient for hydrogen-stabilized metallization directly impacts the ability to eliminate electronic defects at semiconductor interfaces critical for microelectronics, provides a means to develop electrical contacts on high-bandgap chemically passive materials, particularly for interfacing with biological systems, and gives control of surfaces for lubrication, for example of nanomechanical devices.

  2. Nanochemistry at the atomic scale revealed in hydrogen-induced semiconductor surface metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derycke, Vincent; Soukiassian, Patrick G.; Amy, Fabrice; Chabal, Yves J.; D'Angelo, Marie D.; Enriquez, Hanna B.; Silly, Mathieu G.

    2003-04-01

    Passivation of semiconductor surfaces against chemical attack can be achieved by terminating the surface-dangling bonds with a monovalent atom such as hydrogen. Such passivation invariably leads to the removal of all surface states in the bandgap, and thus to the termination of non-metallic surfaces. Here we report the first observation of semiconductor surface metallization induced by atomic hydrogen. This result, established by using photo-electron and photo-absorption spectroscopies and scanning tunnelling techniques, is achieved on a Si-terminated cubic silicon carbide (SiC) surface. It results from competition between hydrogen termination of surface-dangling bonds and hydrogen-generated steric hindrance below the surface. Understanding the ingredient for hydrogen-stabilized metallization directly impacts the ability to eliminate electronic defects at semiconductor interfaces critical for microelectronics, provides a means to develop electrical contacts on high-bandgap chemically passive materials, particularly for interfacing with biological systems, and gives control of surfaces for lubrication, for example of nanomechanical devices.

  3. On the potential role of the amino nitrogen atom as a hydrogen bond acceptor in macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Luisi, B; Orozco, M; Sponer, J; Luque, F J; Shakked, Z

    1998-06-26

    Crystallographic studies of duplex DNA have indicated that opposing exocyclic amino groups may form close NH⋯:N contacts. To study the nature of such interactions, we have examined the database of small molecule, high-resolution crystal structures for more accurate examples of this type of unconventional interaction. We have found cases where the amino groups in guanine and adenine bases accept hydrogen bonds from conventional donors, such as amino or hydroxyl groups. More frequently, the purine amino group was found to contact closely electropositive C-H groups. Searches of the nucleic acid structural databases also yielded several examples where the purine amino group is contacted by hydrogen bond donors in macromolecules. Ab initio calculations indicate that the hydrogen-amino contact is improved energetically when the amino group moves from the conventional geometry, where all atoms are co-planar with the base, to one in which the hydrogen atoms lie out of the plane and the nitrogen is at the apex of a pyramid, resulting in polarization of the amino group. The combined structural and theoretical data suggest that the amino group is flexible, and can accommodate close contacts, because the resulting polarization permits electropositive atoms to approach the amino group nitrogen more closely than expected for their conventional van der Waals radii. The flexibility of the amino group may permit particular DNA conformations that enforce hydrogen-amino contacts to optimize favorable stacking interactions, and it may play a role in the recognition of nucleosides. We speculate that the amino group can accept hydrogen bonds under special circumstances in macromolecules, and that this ability might play a mechanistic role in catalytic processes such as deamination or amino transfer.

  4. Theoretical realization of cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on terminated carbon atomic chains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Sheng; An, Hui; Guo, Ling-Ju; Zeng, Zhi; Ju, Xin

    2011-01-14

    The capacity of carbon atomic chains with different terminations for hydrogen storage is studied using first-principles density functional theory calculations. Unlike the physisorption of H(2) on the H-terminated chain, we show that two Li (Na) atoms each capping one end of the odd- or even-numbered carbon chain can hold ten H(2) molecules with optimal binding energies for room temperature storage. The hybridization of the Li 2p states with the H(2)σ orbitals contributes to the H(2) adsorption. However, the binding mechanism of the H(2) molecules on Na arises only from the polarization interaction between the charged Na atom and the H(2). Interestingly, additional H(2) molecules can be bound to the carbon atoms at the chain ends due to the charge transfer between Li 2s2p (Na 3s) and C 2p states. More importantly, dimerization of these isolated metal-capped chains does not affect the hydrogen binding energy significantly. In addition, a single chain can be stabilized effectively by the C(60) fullerenes termination. With a hydrogen uptake of ∼10 wt.% on Li-coated C(60)-C(n)-C(60) (n = 5, 8), the Li(12)C(60)-C(n)-Li(12)C(60) complex, keeping the number of adsorbed H(2) molecules per Li and stabilizing the dispersion of individual Li atoms, can serve as better building blocks of polymers than the (Li(12)C(60))(2) dimer. These findings suggest a new route to design cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials based on terminated sp carbon chains.

  5. Hydrogen atom in a strong laser field: Numerical simulation versus Keldysh-type theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. M.; Tikhonov, M. A.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Volkova, E. A.

    2008-05-01

    The dynamics of a 3D hydrogen atom in an intense laser pulse is investigated using the direct numerical integration of the nonstationary Schrödinger equation in the multiphoton regime of ionization. The results obtained are compared with the theoretical data of the strong-field approximation (SFA) method and the validity of the SFA and other Keldysh-type theories in the problem of the strong-field ionization of atoms is analyzed in a wide range of laser frequencies and intensities. The Reiss approximation (SFA) provides qualitative agreement with the numerical simulation for moderate laser intensities and reveals the channel closing phenomena during the multiphoton ionization. However, this approach is found to be inappropriate in the presence of strong fields where we numerically demonstrate the suppression of atomic ionization. The reason for the stabilization lies in the formation of a new system (dressed atom), which is not taken into account in the SFA and other Keldysh-type theories.

  6. Hydrogen Atom as AN Eigenvalue Problem in 3-D Spaces of Constant Curvature and Minimal Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, L. M.; Santander, M.; Rosu, H. C.

    An old result of Stevenson [Phys. Rev. 59, 842 (1941)] concerning the Kepler-Coulomb quantum problem on the three-dimensional (3-D) hypersphere is considered from the perspective of the radial Schrödinger equations on 3-D spaces of any (either positive, zero or negative) constant curvature. Further to Stevenson, we show in detail how to get the hypergeometric wave function for the hydrogen atom case. Finally, we make a comparison between the "space curvature" effects and minimal length effects for the hydrogen spectrum.

  7. The contribution of dissociative processes to the production of atomic lines in hydrogen plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The contribution of molecular dissociative processes to the production of atomic lines is considered for a steady-state hydrogen plasma. If the contribution of dissociative processes is dominant, a substantial simplification in plasma diagnostics can be achieved. Numerical calculations have been performed for the production of Balmer alpha, beta, and gamma lines in hydrogen plasmas with medium and large degrees of ionization (x greater than about 0.0001) and for electron temperatures of 5000-45,000 K and electron densities of 10 to the 10th to 10 to the 16th/cu cm.

  8. Relativistic spectrum of hydrogen atom in the space-time non-commutativity

    SciTech Connect

    Moumni, Mustafa; BenSlama, Achour; Zaim, Slimane

    2012-06-27

    We study space-time non-commutativity applied to the hydrogen atom and its phenomenological effects. We find that it modifies the Coulomb potential in the Hamiltonian and add an r{sup -3} part. By calculating the energies from Dirac equation using perturbation theory, we study the modifications to the hydrogen spectrum. We find that it removes the degeneracy with respect to the total angular momentum quantum number and acts like a Lamb shift. Comparing the results with experimental values from spectroscopy, we get a new bound for the space-time non-commutative parameter.

  9. Isotope effect in the reaction of hydrogen atom transfer from molecules of the matrix to a carboxymethyl radical in crystalline potassium hydrogen malonate

    SciTech Connect

    Syutkin, V.M.; Tolkachev, V.A.

    1987-02-01

    Using the EPR method, the authors have studied the kinetics of abstraction of hydrogen and deuterium atoms by carboxymethyl radicals from molecules of the matrix in potassium hydrogen malonate and its deuterium-substituted analog exposed to ..gamma.. irradiation at 77 K. The authors have shown: (1) the kinetics is not described by an exponential law; (2) the activation energy for abstraction of a hydrogen atom is approx. 45 kJ/mole; (3) when the transfer H atom is replaced by a D atom, the reaction rate at 225 K drops by a factor of approx. 2. The authors discuss the hypothesis that the transfer of an atom is not the limiting step.

  10. The existence and nature of the interstellar bow shock

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Strumik, M.; Ratkiewicz, R.; Grygorczuk, J.

    2013-12-20

    We report a new diagnosis of two different states of the local interstellar medium (LISM) near our solar system by using a sensitivity study constrained by several distinct and complementary observations of the LISM, solar wind, and inner heliosphere. Assuming the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) He flow parameters for the LISM, we obtain a strength of ∼2.7 ± 0.2 μG and a direction pointing away from galactic coordinates (28, 52) ± 3° for the interstellar magnetic field as a result of fitting Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 in situ plasma measurements and IBEX energetic neutral atoms ribbon. When using Ulysses parameters for the LISM He flow, we recently reported the same direction but with a strength of 2.2 ± 0.1 μG. First, we notice that with Ulysses He flow, our solution is in the expected hydrogen deflection plane (HDP). In contrast, for the IBEX He flow, the solution is ∼20° away from the corresponding HDP plane. Second, the long-term monitoring of the interplanetary H I flow speed shows a value of ∼26 km s{sup –1} measured upwind from the Doppler shift in the strong Lyα sky background emission line. All elements of the diagnosis seem therefore to support Ulysses He flow parameters for the interstellar state. In that frame, we argue that reliable discrimination between superfast, subfast, or superslow states of the interstellar flow should be based on most existing in situ and remote observations used together with global modeling of the heliosphere. For commonly accepted LISM ionization rates, we show that a fast interstellar bow shock should be standing off upstream of the heliopause.

  11. Theoretical Modeling of Interstellar Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    The chemistry of complex interstellar organic molecules will be described. Gas phase processes that may build large carbon-chain species in cold molecular clouds will be summarized. Catalytic reactions on grain surfaces can lead to a large variety of organic species, and models of molecule formation by atom additions to multiply-bonded molecules will be presented. The subsequent desorption of these mixed molecular ices can initiate a distinctive organic chemistry in hot molecular cores. The general ion-molecule pathways leading to even larger organics will be outlined. The predictions of this theory will be compared with observations to show how possible organic formation pathways in the interstellar medium may be constrained. In particular, the success of the theory in explaining trends in the known interstellar organics, in predicting recently-detected interstellar molecules, and, just as importantly, non-detections, will be discussed.

  12. Ionization of hydrogen atoms by multiply charged ions at low energies: The scaling law

    SciTech Connect

    Janev, R.K.; Ivanovski, G.; Solov'ev, E.A. Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, St. Cyril and Methodius University, P.O. Box 162, 91000 Skopje, Macedonia )

    1994-02-01

    Using the adiabatic superpromotion model of low-energy atomic collisions, a simple scaling relationship is derived for the ionization cross section of hydrogen atoms colliding with multiply charged ions. Detailed ionization-cross-section calculations for the systems H(1[ital s])+He[sup 2+], C[sup 6+], and O[sup 8+] have been performed and used to determine three numerical constants in the cross-section-scaling relationship. The scaled cross section represents well the available data for fully stripped ions with charge [ital Z][ge]2 in the energy region below the cross-section maximum.

  13. Electronic and optical properties of BxNyCz monolayers with adsorption of hydrogen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, L.; Azevedo, S.; de Lima Bernardo, B.

    2017-03-01

    We apply first-principles calculations, using density functional theory, to analyze the electronic and optical properties of monolayers of graphene with a nanodomain of 2D hexagonal boron nitrite (h-BN). It also investigated the effects of the adsorption of hydrogen atoms in different atoms at the edge of the h-BN nanodomain. We calculate the electronic band structure, the complex dielectric function and the optical conductivity. For such systems, the calculations demonstrate that the compounds exhibit a prominent excitement in the visible and near-infrared regions. In this form, the present study provides physical basis for potential applications of the considered materials in optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale.

  14. An Introduction to Multiphoton Ionization and Study of Ionization Rate of Hydrogen Atom

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, N.; Nakarmi, J. J.; Jha, L. N.

    2009-04-19

    From a semiclassical point of view, we discuss the problem of nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic radiation and atoms. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation for single electron systems is solved using perturbative technique to obtain transition probability. We also discuss higher order perturbation used in multiple processes where two or more quanta are emitted instead of a single photon. The approach is based on the assumption that the perturbation is small. From the transition probability ionization rate and absorption, the cross-section of hydrogen atoms is calculated. Variation in photon energy and field strength is analyzed. Variation of cross-section with photon energy is discussed.

  15. CHEMI-IONIZATION IN SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE: INFLUENCE ON THE HYDROGEN ATOM EXCITED STATES POPULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Mihajlov, Anatolij A.; Ignjatovic, Ljubinko M.; Sreckovic, Vladimir A.; Dimitrijevic, Milan S. E-mail: mihajlov@ipb.ac.rs

    2011-03-15

    In this paper, the influence of chemi-ionization processes in H*(n {>=} 2) + H(1s) collisions, as well as the influence of inverse chemi-recombination processes on hydrogen atom excited-state populations in solar photosphere, are compared with the influence of concurrent electron-atom and electron-ion ionization and recombination processes. It has been found that the considered chemi-ionization/recombination processes dominate over the relevant concurrent processes in almost the whole solar photosphere. Thus, it is shown that these processes and their importance for the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of the solar atmosphere should be investigated further.

  16. Nonadiabatic couplings in low-energy collisions of hydrogen ground-state atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Wolniewicz, L.

    2003-10-01

    The effect of nonadiabatic couplings on low-energy s-wave scattering of two hydrogen atoms is investigated. Coupling matrix elements are computed in a wide range of internuclear distances. The resulting scattering equations are numerically unstable and therefore are integrated only approximately. Computations are performed for H, D, and T atoms. The phase shifts in the zero velocity limit are inversely proportional to the nuclear reduced mass {delta}{sub 0}{approx_equal}0.392/{mu}. This leads to infinite scattering lengths.

  17. State-selective charge transfer cross sections for light ion impact of atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D. R.; Stancil, Phillip C.; Havener, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the utility of diagnosing plasma properties such as impurity concentration and spatial distribution, and plasma temperature and rotation, by detection of photon emission following capture of electrons from atomic hydrogen to excited states of multiply charged ions, new calculations of state-selective charge transfer involving light ions have been carried out using the atomic orbital close-coupling and the classical trajectory Monte Carlo methods. By comparing these with results of other approaches applicable in a lower impact energy regime, and by benchmarking them using key experimental data, knowledge of the cross sections can be made available across the range parameters needed by fusion plasma diagnostics.

  18. A stochastic electrodynamics interpretation of spontaneous transitions in the hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    França, H. M.; Franco, H.; Malta, C. P.

    1997-09-01

    Seidl and Lipas have calculated the lifetime of the excited states of the hydrogen atom within an entirely classical framework and obtained good agreement with the corresponding quantum results. Here we propose an explanation for this good agreement and show that the agreement can be significantly improved by including in their classical model the effects of the random zero-point electromagnetic fields postulated by the classical stochastic electrodynamics. Moreover, we show that the zero-point electromagnetic radiation provides a physical mechanism for the atomic stability on classical grounds.

  19. Magnetic state selection in atomic frequency and time standards. [hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, H. E.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic standards such as those based upon cesium and hydrogen rely upon magnetic state selection to obtain population inversion in the hyperfine transition levels. Use of new design approaches and improved magnetic materials has made it possible to fabricate improved state selectors of small size, and thus the efficiency of utilization of beam flux is greatly improved and the size and weight of the standard is reduced. The sensitivity to magnetic perturbations is also decreased, so that the accuracy and stability of the standard is improved. Several new state selector designs are illustrated and the application to standards utilizing different atomic species is analyzed.

  20. Organic chemistry and biology of the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Interstellar organic chemistry is discussed as the field of study emerging from the discovery of microwave lines of formaldehyde and of hydrogen cyanide in the interstellar medium. The reliability of molecular identifications and comparisons of interstellar and cometary compounds are considered, along with the degradational origin of simple organics. It is pointed out that the contribution of interstellar organic chemistry to problems in biology is not substantive but analogical. The interstellar medium reveals the operation of chemical processes which, on earth and perhaps on vast numbers of planets throughout the universe, led to the origin of life, but the actual molecules of the interstellar medium are unlikely to play any significant biological role.

  1. A fuzzy-atom analysis of electron delocalization on hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Guillaumes, L; Salvador, P; Simon, S

    2014-02-13

    The extent of electron delocalization is quantified for set of cyclic complexes exhibiting two or more hydrogen bonds (HBs). In particular, the delocalization index (DI) between the atoms directly involved in the HB, and the ING (a normalized n-center delocalization index) have been evaluated using several fuzzy-atom schemes, namely Becke, Becke-ρ, Hirshfeld, and Hirshfeld-Iterative. The results have been compared with the widely used Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) atomic definition. The DI values are found to correlate very well with geometrical or topological descriptors widely used in the literature to characterize HB systems. Among all fuzzy-atom methods, the ones that can better accommodate the different partial ionic character of the bonds perform particularly well. The best performing fuzzy-atom scheme for both pairwise and n-center electron delocalization is found to be the Becke-ρ method, for which similar results to QTAIM model are obtained with a much reduced computational cost. These results open up a wide range of applications of such electron delocalization descriptors based on fuzzy-atoms for noncovalent interactions in more complex and larger systems.

  2. Uniform Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 on Graphene by Reversible Hydrogen Plasma Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A novel method to form ultrathin, uniform Al2O3 layers on graphene using reversible hydrogen plasma functionalization followed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented. ALD on pristine graphene is known to be a challenge due to the absence of dangling bonds, leading to nonuniform film coverage. We show that hydrogen plasma functionalization of graphene leads to uniform ALD of closed Al2O3 films down to 8 nm in thickness. Hall measurements and Raman spectroscopy reveal that the hydrogen plasma functionalization is reversible upon Al2O3 ALD and subsequent annealing at 400 °C and in this way does not deteriorate the graphene’s charge carrier mobility. This is in contrast with oxygen plasma functionalization, which can lead to a uniform 5 nm thick closed film, but which is not reversible and leads to a reduction of the charge carrier mobility. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations attribute the uniform growth on both H2 and O2 plasma functionalized graphene to the enhanced adsorption of trimethylaluminum (TMA) on these surfaces. A DFT analysis of the possible reaction pathways for TMA precursor adsorption on hydrogenated graphene predicts a binding mechanism that cleans off the hydrogen functionalities from the surface, which explains the observed reversibility of the hydrogen plasma functionalization upon Al2O3 ALD.

  3. Combined effect of Debye plasma environment and external electric field on hydrogen atom

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, S.; Ho, Y. K.

    2010-08-15

    We consider weakly coupled plasmas, characterized by Debye-Huckel model potential, and an external electric field along z-axis. Due to plasma environment the energy levels of atom are shifted up, bound states are merged to continuum. For external electric field the excited energy levels also split up; degenerate energy eigenvalues become nondegenerate. In the presence of external electric field, energy levels are shifted up and down, except ground state. The ground state energy value is shifted only down. Therefore, it is very interesting to study the combined effect of plasmas and external electric field on a simple atom (hydrogen). To calculate the energy levels and the corresponding states, we expand the wave function in terms of linear combination of the basis functions. The basis is generated by hydrogenic wave functions. Here, we estimate various plasma surroundings and electric field strengths. We observe converged results for the basis size 45, with angular momentum states up to eight.

  4. A tabulation of the bound-state energies of atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessels, E. A.; Horbatsch, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present tables for the bound-state energies for atomic hydrogen which include the hyperfine structure, and thus this work extends the work of. The tabulation includes corrections of the hyperfine structure due to the anomalous moment of the electron, due to the finite mass of the proton, and due to off-diagonal matrix elements of the hyperfine Hamiltonian. Simple formulas valid for all quantum numbers (not found previously in the literature) are presented for the hyperfine corrections. The tabulated energies have uncertainties of less than 1 kHz for all states. This accuracy is possible because of the recent precision measurement of the proton radius. The effect of this new radius on the energy levels is also tabulated, and the energies are compared to precision measurements of atomic hydrogen energy intervals. NSERC Canada, Canada Research Chair Program.

  5. Interstitial modification of palladium nanoparticles with boron atoms as a green catalyst for selective hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chun Wong Aaron; Mahadi, Abdul Hanif; Li, Molly Meng-Jung; Corbos, Elena Cristina; Tang, Chiu; Jones, Glenn; Kuo, Winson Chun Hsin; Cookson, James; Brown, Christopher Michael; Bishop, Peter Trenton; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman

    2014-12-01

    Lindlar catalysts comprising of palladium/calcium carbonate modified with lead acetate and quinoline are widely employed industrially for the partial hydrogenation of alkynes. However, their use is restricted, particularly for food, cosmetic and drug manufacture, due to the extremely toxic nature of lead, and the risk of its leaching from catalyst surface. In addition, the catalysts also exhibit poor selectivities in a number of cases. Here we report that a non-surface modification of palladium gives rise to the formation of an ultra-selective nanocatalyst. Boron atoms are found to take residence in palladium interstitial lattice sites with good chemical and thermal stability. This is favoured due to a strong host-guest electronic interaction when supported palladium nanoparticles are treated with a borane tetrahydrofuran solution. The adsorptive properties of palladium are modified by the subsurface boron atoms and display ultra-selectivity in a number of challenging alkyne hydrogenation reactions, which outclass the performance of Lindlar catalysts.

  6. Superconducting state in the atomic metallic hydrogen just above the pressure of the molecular dissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szcze&şacute; niak, R.; Szcze&şacute; niak, D.; Drzazga, E. A.

    2012-11-01

    Above the pressure of ˜500 GPa, the molecular metallic hydrogen gets converted into the atomic phase. The properties of the superconducting state in the metallic hydrogen just above the molecular-atomic phase transition have been examined in the paper (p=539 GPa). The numerical calculations have been conducted in the framework of the Eliashberg formalism. It has been stated that the critical temperature (TC) is equal to 360 K when the Coulomb pseudopotential takes the value of 0.1. In the considered case, TC considerably exceeds the value calculated with the help of the McMillan or Allen-Dynes formula. The remaining thermodynamic parameters significantly diverge from the canonical values predicted by the BCS theory. In particular: RΔ≡2Δ(0)/kBTC=4.95, RC≡ΔC(TC)/CN(TC)=2.78, and RH≡TCCN(TC)/HC2(0)=0.126.

  7. Hydrogen atom in a magnetic field: Ghost orbits, catastrophes, and uniform semiclassical approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Main, J.; Wunner, G.

    1997-03-01

    Applying closed-orbit theory to the recurrence spectra of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field, one can interpret most, but not all, structures semiclassically in terms of closed classical orbits. In particular, conventional closed-orbit theory fails near bifurcations of orbits where semiclassical amplitudes exhibit unphysical divergences. Here we analyze the role of ghost orbits living in complex phase space. The ghosts can explain resonance structures in the spectra of the hydrogen atom in a magnetic field at positions where no real orbits exist. For three different types of catastrophes, viz. fold, cusp, and butterfly catastrophes, we construct uniform semiclassical approximations and demonstrate that these solutions are completely determined by classical parameters of the real orbits and complex ghosts. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Oxygen atom kinetics in silane-hydrogen-nitrous oxide mixtures behind reflected shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javoy, S.; Mével, R.; Dupré, G.

    2010-11-01

    Resonance Absorption Spectroscopy has been used to study the O-atom dynamics behind reflected shock waves in highly argon diluted silane-hydrogen-nitrous oxide mixtures in the temperature range 1606-2528 K and at total pressures from 234 to 584 kPa. The absorptions at 130.5 nm of N 2O, SiH 4 and Si have been taken into account to compare simulated and experimental absorption profiles. A detailed kinetic model has been also used to interpret the results and reaction pathway and sensitivity analyses have been performed to underline important elementary reactions. A comparison with the O-atom kinetic in silane-nitrous oxide and hydrogen-nitrous oxide mixtures is also proposed.

  9. The Abundances of Hydrocarbon Functional Groups in the Interstellar Medium Inferred from Laboratory Spectra of Hydrogenated and Methylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, M.; Jäger, C.; Huisken, F.; Friedrich, M.; Plass, W.; Räder, H.-J.; Müllen, K.; Henning, Th.

    2013-10-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing methyl (\\sbondCH3), methylene (\\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un01.eps}}CH2), or diamond-like \\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un02.eps}}CH groups and IR spectra of mixtures of methylated and hydrogenated PAHs prepared by gas-phase condensation were measured at room temperature (as grains in pellets) and at low temperature (isolated in Ne matrices). In addition, the PAH blends were subjected to an in-depth molecular structure analysis by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Supported by calculations at the density functional theory level, the laboratory results were applied to analyze in detail the aliphatic absorption complex of the diffuse interstellar medium at 3.4 μm and to determine the abundances of hydrocarbon functional groups. Assuming that the PAHs are mainly locked in grains, aliphatic CH x groups (x = 1, 2, 3) would contribute approximately in equal quantities to the 3.4 μm feature (N CHx /N H ≈ 10-5-2 × 10-5). The abundances, however, may be two to four times lower if a major contribution to the 3.4 μm feature comes from molecules in the gas phase. Aromatic \\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un03.eps} CH groups seem to be almost absent from some lines of sight, but can be nearly as abundant as each of the aliphatic components in other directions (N_{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un03.eps} CH}/N H lsim 2 × 10-5 upper value for grains). Due to comparatively low binding energies, astronomical IR emission sources do not display such heavy excess hydrogenation. At best, especially in protoplanetary nebulae, \\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un01.eps}}CH2 groups bound to aromatic molecules, i.e., excess hydrogens on the molecular periphery only, can survive the presence of a nearby star.

  10. Absolute rate of the reaction of hydrogen atoms with ozone from 219-360 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. H.; Michael, J. V.; Payne, W. A.; Stief, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the reaction of atomic hydrogen with ozone were obtained over the temperature range 219-360 K by the flash photolysis-resonance fluorescence technique. The results can be expressed in Arrhenius form by K = (1.33 plus or minus 0.32)x10 to the minus 10 power exp (-449 plus or minus 58/T) cu cm/molecule/s (two standard deviations). The present work is compared to two previous determinations and is discussed theoretically.

  11. Distortion effects in electron excitation of hydrogen atoms by impact of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, C.A.; Rivarola, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    Electron excitation from the fundamental state of hydrogen atoms by impact of bare ions is studied at intermediate and high collision velocities. Total cross sections for final {ital np} states by impact of protons, alpha particles, and He{sup +} ions are calculated using the symmetric eikonal approximation and compared with experimental data. This comparison supports the existence of distortion effects recently predicted by Bugacov and co-workers [Phys. Rev. A {bold 47}, 1052 (1993)]. The validity of scaling laws is analyzed.

  12. Lamb shift in the hydrogen atom: Lifetime of the 2p{1/2}level

    SciTech Connect

    Karshenboim, S.G.

    1995-05-01

    Corrections of order {alpha}(Z{alpha}){sup 2} to the width of the 2p{1/2} level in the hydrogen atom are considered in the logarithmic approximation. The ratio of this width to the splitting of n=2 states can be measured to high accuracy. With the aid of the experimental data available for this ratio, the new value for the Lamb splitting is found to be 1057.8576(21) MHz. 17 refs.

  13. Time delay in strong-field photoionization of a hydrogen atom

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, I. A.

    2011-02-15

    We study time delay for the process of photoionization of a hydrogen atom in a strong electromagnetic field. We compute this quantity by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We show that even a moderately strong field can have quite a considerable effect on the time delay. Analysis of the wave-packet motion performed by means of the Gabor transform shows that a simple semiclassical model can explain this phenomenon.

  14. Laser Induced Fluorescence of Ground State Hydrogen Atoms in an Arcjet Plume

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    hydrogen atom unfocussed beam is sent to a turning prism inside densities. These VUV and XUV spectroscopy the chamber located underneath the arcjet...so5. f55,po’s.oo~s 5. 0 ,.,os3s 55500 i ~s.s~OS0 sos.55 sfr ~ol~O.l 5055 osL, stOs.SLs..Fi,,5 O.do~s~ yd osss 1l i~ "൱ *’. ......

  15. Hydrogen atom donor compounds as contrast enhancers for black-and-white photothermographic and thermographic elements

    DOEpatents

    Harring, Lori S.; Simpson, Sharon M.; Sansbury, Francis H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen atom donor compounds are useful as contrast enhancers when used in combination with (i) hindered phenol developers, and (ii) trityl hydrazide and/or formyl-phenyl hydrazine co-developers, to produce ultra-high contrast black-and-white photothermographic and thermographic elements. The photothermographic and thermographic elements may be used as a photomask in a process where there is a subsequent exposure of an ultraviolet or short wavelength visible radiation-sensitive imageable medium.

  16. Proton-polarizability effect in the Lamb shift for the hydrogen atom

    SciTech Connect

    Martynenko, A. P.

    2006-08-15

    The proton-polarizability contribution to the Lamb shift for the ordinary and muonic hydrogen atoms is calculated on the basis of the isobar model and experimental data on structure functions for deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. The contributions of Born terms, vector mesons, and nucleon resonances are taken into account in constructing cross sections for the absorption of transversely and longitudinally polarized virtual photons, {sigma}{sub T,L}.

  17. Breit and Quantum Electrodynamics Energy Contributions in Multielectron Atoms from the Relativistic Screened Hydrogenic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Rocco, Héctor O.; Lanzini, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The correction to the Coulomb repulsion between two electrons due to the exchange of a transverse photon, referred to as the Breit interaction, as well as the main quantum electrodynamics contributions to the atomic energies (self-energy and vacuum polarization), are calculated using the recently formulated relativistic screened hydrogenic model. Comparison with the results of multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations and experimental X- ray energies is made.

  18. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH SOME OR ALL HYDROGEN ATOMS REMOVED

    SciTech Connect

    Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Ricca, Alessandra E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov

    2013-10-20

    The loss of one hydrogen from C{sub 96}H{sub 24} does not significantly affect the infrared spectra of the neutral, cation, or anion. Excluding a very weak C-C stretching band at 5.1 μm, the loss of two adjacent duo hydrogens does not significantly affect the spectra compared with the parent. Removing all of the hydrogen atoms significantly increases the intensity of the new C-C stretching band, and, for the cation, shifts it to a longer (5.2 μm) wavelength. Observations show a feature near 5.25 μm, which has been attributed to overtone and combination bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This current work suggests that dehydrogenated PAHs might also contribute to this band, but its weakness implies that fully dehydrogenated cationic or dicationic species are very rare.

  19. A Classical Description of the Hyperfine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaney, Andrea; Espinosa, James; Woodyard, James

    2010-10-01

    As stronger dispersion gratings are utilized, the Hydrogen spectrum is broken into small groupings. At first, the fine structure was successfully described by Sommerfeld by utilizing the special theory of relativity. The fine structure groupings are three orders of magnitude smaller than the series separations as described by Balmer and others. With even further powerful instruments, Michelson was the first to split these lines into further groupings which are a further two orders of magnitude smaller. It was almost fifty years before Breit used quantum mechanics to describe this hyperfine structure. It is almost universally believed that classical theory utterly fails to describe this phenomenon. We will show how our classical Hydrogen atom based on Ritz's magnetic model can account for the splitting of the 1s state, which is famous for its use by radio astronomers to map out the distribution of hydrogen in the universe.

  20. Confinement effects of magnetic field on two-dimensional hydrogen atom in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bahar, M. K.; Soylu, A.

    2015-05-15

    In this study, for the first time, the Schrödinger equation with more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb (MGECSC) potential is solved numerically in the presence and in the absence of an external magnetic field within two-dimensional formalism using the asymptotic iteration method. The MGECSC potential includes four different potential forms when considering different sets of the parameters in the potential. The plasma screening effects in the weak and strong magnetic field regimes as well as the confinement effects of magnetic field on the two-dimensional hydrogen atom in Debye and quantum plasmas are investigated by solving the corresponding equations. It is found that applying a uniform magnetic field on the hydrogen atom embedded in a plasma leads to change in the profile of the total interaction potential. Thus, confinement effects of magnetic field on hydrogen atom embedded in Debye and quantum plasmas modeled by a MGECSC potential lead to shift bound state energies. This effect would be important to isolate the plasma from the external environment in the experimental applications of plasma physics.

  1. Atomic and molecular hydrogen gas temperatures in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuell, Cameron M.; Corr, Cormac S.

    2015-08-01

    Neutral gas temperatures in hydrogen plasmas are important for experimental and modelling efforts in fusion technology, plasma processing, and surface modification applications. To provide values relevant to these application areas, neutral gas temperatures were measured in a low pressure (< 10 mTorr) radiofrequency helicon discharge using spectroscopic techniques. The atomic and molecular species were not found to be in thermal equilibrium with the atomic temperature being mostly larger then the molecular temperature. In low power operation (< 1 kW), the molecular hydrogen temperature was observed to be linearly proportional to the pressure while the atomic hydrogen temperature was inversely proportional. Both temperatures were observed to rise linearly with input power. For high power operation (5-20 kW), the molecular temperature was found to rise with both power and pressure up to a maximum of approximately 1200 K. Spatially resolved measurements near a graphite target demonstrated localised cooling near the sample surface. The temporal evolution of the molecular gas temperature during a high power 1.1 ms plasma pulse was also investigated and found to vary considerably as a function of pressure.

  2. Confinement effects of magnetic field on two-dimensional hydrogen atom in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahar, M. K.; Soylu, A.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, for the first time, the Schrödinger equation with more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb (MGECSC) potential is solved numerically in the presence and in the absence of an external magnetic field within two-dimensional formalism using the asymptotic iteration method. The MGECSC potential includes four different potential forms when considering different sets of the parameters in the potential. The plasma screening effects in the weak and strong magnetic field regimes as well as the confinement effects of magnetic field on the two-dimensional hydrogen atom in Debye and quantum plasmas are investigated by solving the corresponding equations. It is found that applying a uniform magnetic field on the hydrogen atom embedded in a plasma leads to change in the profile of the total interaction potential. Thus, confinement effects of magnetic field on hydrogen atom embedded in Debye and quantum plasmas modeled by a MGECSC potential lead to shift bound state energies. This effect would be important to isolate the plasma from the external environment in the experimental applications of plasma physics.

  3. Polarization dependence in inelastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in a circularly polarized laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buică, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically study the influence of laser polarization in inelastic scattering of electrons by hydrogen atoms in the presence of a circularly polarized laser field in the domain of field strengths below 107 V/cm and high projectile energies. A semi-perturbative approach is used in which the interaction of the projectile electrons with the laser field is described by Gordon-Volkov wave functions, while the interaction of the hydrogen atom with the laser field is described by first-order time-dependent perturbation theory. A closed analytical solution is derived in laser-assisted inelastic electron-hydrogen scattering for the 1 s → nl excitation cross section which is valid for both circular and linear polarizations. For the excitation of the n=2 levels simple analytical expressions of differential cross section are derived for laser-assisted inelastic scattering in the perturbative domain, and the differential cross sections by the circularly and linearly polarized laser fields and their ratios for one- and two-photon absorption are calculated as a function of the scattering angle. Detailed numerical results for the angular dependence and the resonance structure of the differential cross sections are discussed for the 1 s → 4 l excitations of hydrogen in a circularly polarized laser field.

  4. Interstellar Aldehydes and their corresponding Reduced Alcohols: Interstellar Propanol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    There is a well-defined trend of aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols among the known interstellar molecules; methanal (CH_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH); ethenone (C_2H_2O) and vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH); ethanal (C_2H_4O) and ethanol(C_2H_5OH); glycolaldehyde (C_2H_4O_2) and ethylene glycol(C_2H_6O_2). The reduced alcohol of propanal (CH_3CH_2CHO) which is propanol (CH_3CH_2CH_2OH) has not yet been observed but its isomer; ethyl methyl ether (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) is a known interstellar molecule. In this article, different studies are carried out in investigating the trend between aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols and the deviation from the trend. Kinetically and with respect to the formation route, alcohols could have been produced from their corresponding reduced aldehydes via two successive hydrogen additions. This is plausible because of (a) the unquestionable high abundance of hydrogen, (b) presence of energy sources within some of the molecular clouds and (c) the ease at which successive hydrogen addition reaction occurs. In terms of stability, the observed alcohols are thermodynamically favorable as compared to their isomers. Regarding the formation process, the hydrogen addition reactions are believed to proceed on the surface of the interstellar grains which leads to the effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding. From the studies, propanol and propan-2-ol are found to be more strongly attached to the surface of the interstellar dust grains which affects its overall gas phase abundance as compared to its isomer ethyl methyl ether which has been observed.

  5. Excitation of hydrogen atoms in collisions with helium atoms: the role of electron–electron interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frémont, F.; Belyaev, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Cross sections for producing H(nl) excited state atoms in H(1s) + He(1s2) collisions are calculated using the CTMC method, at impact energies ranging from 20 eV to 100 keV. The role of the electron correlation is studied. In the first step, the interactions between each pair of the three electrons are neglected. This leads to disagreement of the calculated total cross section for producing H(2l) atoms with previous experimental and theoretical results. In a second step, the electron–electron interaction is taken into account in a rigorous way, that is, in the form of the pure Coulomb potential. To make sure that the He target is stable before the collision, phenomenological potentials for the electron–helium-nucleus interactions that simulate the Heisenberg principle are included in addition to the Coulomb potential. The excitation cross section calculated in the frame of this model is in remarkable agreement with previous data in the range between 200 eV and 5 keV. At other energies, discrepancies are revealed, but only by a factor of less than 2 at high energies. The present results show the decisive role of the electron–electron interaction during collisions. In addition, they demonstrate the ability of classical mechanics to take into account the effects of the electron correlation.

  6. Multiphase Turbulent Interstellar Medium: Some Recent Results from Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Nirupam

    2015-06-01

    The radio frequency 1.4 GHz transition of the atomic hydrogen is one of the important tracers of the diffuse neutral interstellar medium. Radio astronomical observations of this transition, using either a single dish telescope or an array interferometer, reveal different properties of the interstellar medium. Such observations are particularly useful to study the multiphase nature and turbulence in the interstellar gas. Observations with multiple radio telescopes have recently been used to study these two closely related aspects in greater detail. This review article presents a brief outline of some of the basic ideas of radio astronomical observations and data analysis, summarizes the results from these recent observations, and discusses possible implications of the results. Using various observational techniques, the density and the velocity fluctuations in the Galactic interstellar medium was found to have a Kolmogorov-like power law power spectra. The observed power law scaling of the turbulent velocity dispersion with the length scale can be used to derive the true temperature distribution of the medium. Observations from a large ongoing atomic hydrogen absorption line survey have also been used to study the distribution of gas at different temperature. The thermal steady state model predicts that the multiphase neutral gas will exist in cold and warm phase with temperature below 200 K and above 5000 K respectively. However, these observations clearly show the presence of a large fraction of gas in the intermediate unstable phase. These results raise serious doubt about the validity of the standard model, and highlight the necessity of alternative theoretical models. Interestingly, numerical simulations suggest that some of the observational results can be explained consistently by including the effects of turbulence in the models of the multiphase medium.

  7. Vibrational Product States from Reactions of CN(-) with the Hydrogen Halides and Hydrogen Atoms,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-15

    not possible for the (00n) levels of CO2 . A. The flowing afterglow apparatus The ion-molecule reactions which are the subject of The flowing afterglow...51: 0. 44: 0. 051. Errors for these values are ± 10%. atomic molecule about which a great deal is known, CO2 From this we see that when the extra...Total 2J. Berkowitz, W. A. Chupka, and T. A. Walter, J. Chem. Reaction Filter intensity emission Phys. 50, 1497 (1968). "’D. R. Stull and H. Prophet

  8. A molecular dynamics simulation of hydrogen atoms collisions on an H-preadsorbed silica surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutigliano, M.; Gamallo, P.; Sayós, R.; Orlandini, S.; Cacciatore, M.

    2014-08-01

    The interaction of hydrogen atoms and molecules with a silica surface is relevant for many research and technological areas. Here, the dynamics of hydrogen atoms colliding with an H-preadsorbed β-cristobalite (0 0 1) surface has been studied using a semiclassical collisional method in conjunction with a recently developed analytical potential energy surface based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The atomic recombination probability via an Eley-Rideal (E-R) mechanism, as well as the probabilities for other competitive surface processes, have been determined in a broad range of collision energies (0.04-3.0 eV) for off-normal (θv = 45°) and normal (θv = 0°) incidence and for two different surface temperatures (TS = 300 and 1000 K). H2,gas molecules form in roto-vibrational excited levels while the energy transferred to the solid surface is below 10% for all simulated conditions. Finally, the global atomic recombination coefficient (γE-R) and vibrational state resolved recombination coefficients (γ(v)) were calculated and compared with the available experimental values. The calculated collisional data are of interest in chemical kinetics studies and fluid dynamics simulations of silica surface processes in H-based low-temperature, low-pressure plasmas.

  9. Revisiting the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of single hydrogen atom adsorbed on the Cu(100) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zhuoling; Wang, Hao; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin

    2015-12-21

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of a single hydrogen atom on the Cu(100) surface in a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) configuration has been investigated by employing the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism combined with density functional theory. The electron-vibration interaction is treated at the level of lowest order expansion. Our calculations show that the single peak observed in the previous STM-IETS experiments is dominated by the perpendicular mode of the adsorbed H atom, while the parallel one only makes a negligible contribution even when the STM tip is laterally displaced from the top position of the H atom. This propensity of the IETS is deeply rooted in the symmetry of the vibrational modes and the characteristics of the conduction channel of the Cu-H-Cu tunneling junction, which is mainly composed of the 4s and 4p{sub z} atomic orbitals of the Cu apex atom and the 1s orbital of the adsorbed H atom. These findings are helpful for deepening our understanding of the propensity rules for IETS and promoting IETS as a more popular spectroscopic tool for molecular devices.

  10. Revisiting the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy of single hydrogen atom adsorbed on the Cu(100) surface.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhuoling; Wang, Hao; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin

    2015-12-21

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) of a single hydrogen atom on the Cu(100) surface in a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) configuration has been investigated by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory. The electron-vibration interaction is treated at the level of lowest order expansion. Our calculations show that the single peak observed in the previous STM-IETS experiments is dominated by the perpendicular mode of the adsorbed H atom, while the parallel one only makes a negligible contribution even when the STM tip is laterally displaced from the top position of the H atom. This propensity of the IETS is deeply rooted in the symmetry of the vibrational modes and the characteristics of the conduction channel of the Cu-H-Cu tunneling junction, which is mainly composed of the 4s and 4pz atomic orbitals of the Cu apex atom and the 1s orbital of the adsorbed H atom. These findings are helpful for deepening our understanding of the propensity rules for IETS and promoting IETS as a more popular spectroscopic tool for molecular devices.

  11. Isotope Dependence and Quantum Effects on Atomic Hydrogen Diffusion in Liquid Water.

    PubMed

    Walker, J A; Mezyk, S P; Roduner, E; Bartels, D M

    2016-03-03

    Relative diffusion coefficients were determined in water for the D, H, and Mu isotopes of atomic hydrogen by measuring their diffusion-limited spin-exchange rate constants with Ni(2+) as a function of temperature. H and D atoms were generated by pulse radiolysis of water and measured by time-resolved pulsed EPR. Mu atoms are detected by muonium spin resonance. To isolate the atomic mass effect from solvent isotope effect, we measured all three spin-exchange rates in 90% D2O. The diffusion depends on the atomic mass, demonstrating breakdown of Stokes-Einstein behavior. The diffusion can be understood using a combination of water "cavity diffusion" and "hopping" mechanisms, as has been proposed in the literature. The H/D isotope effect agrees with previous modeling using ring polymer molecular dynamics. The "quantum swelling" effect on muonium due to its larger de Broglie wavelength does not seem to slow its "hopping" diffusion as much as predicted in previous work. Quantum effects of both the atom mass and the water librations have been modeled using RPMD and a qTIP4P/f quantized flexible water model. These results suggest that the muonium diffusion is very sensitive to the Mu versus water potential used.

  12. In situ atomic force microscopy observation of hydrogen absorption/desorption by Palladium thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Itoko; Sakaki, Kouji; Nakamura, Yumiko; Akiba, Etsuo

    2011-12-01

    Grain structure changes in Pd thin film during hydrogen absorption and desorption were observed by in situ atomic force microscopy. The as-sputtered film had a smooth flat surface with 20-30 nm grains. Film that absorbed hydrogen showed buckling, caused by the compressive stress due to lattice expansion as Pd metal reacted with hydrogen to form the hydride. Grains on the buckles were agglomerated and deformed unlike those on flat areas beside the buckles. Film that absorbed and then desorbed hydrogen still showed some buckling; however, many buckles shrank and flattened when the compressive stress of lattice expansion was released during desorption. On both the remaining and the shrunken buckles, grain agglomeration was retained; whereas, the deformed grains reverted back to their original form. X-ray diffraction indicated compressive residual stress in the as-sputtered film and tensile residual stress in the film after hydrogen absorption/desorption. These results indicate that irreversible grain agglomeration is related to residual tensile stress in the film although agglomeration occurs only on the buckled areas.

  13. Surface atomic relaxation and magnetism on hydrogen-adsorbed Fe(110) surfaces from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, Urslaan K.; Jimenez-Melero, Enrique; Koehler, Sven P. K.

    2016-11-01

    We have computed adsorption energies, vibrational frequencies, surface relaxation and buckling for hydrogen adsorbed on a body-centred-cubic Fe(110) surface as a function of the degree of H coverage. This adsorption system is important in a variety of technological processes such as the hydrogen embrittlement in ferritic steels, which motivated this work, and the Haber-Bosch process. We employed spin-polarised density functional theory to optimise geometries of a six-layer Fe slab, followed by frozen mode finite displacement phonon calculations to compute Fe-H vibrational frequencies. We have found that the quasi-threefold (3f) site is the most stable adsorption site, with adsorption energies of ∼3.0 eV/H for all coverages studied. The long-bridge (lb) site, which is close in energy to the 3f site, is actually a transition state leading to the stable 3f site. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies collectively span from 730 to 1220 cm-1, for a range of coverages. The increased first-to-second layer spacing in the presence of adsorbed hydrogen, and the pronounced buckling observed in the Fe surface layer, may facilitate the diffusion of hydrogen atoms into the bulk, and therefore impact the early stages of hydrogen embrittlement in steels.

  14. Interaction of gaseous hydrogen atoms with oxygen covered Cu(1 0 0) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolovos-Vellianitis, D.; Kammler, Th; Küppers, J.

    2001-06-01

    The interaction of H atoms with O precovered Cu(1 0 0) surfaces was studied with thermal desorption and Auger electron spectroscopies between 90 and 300 K. Gaseous product formation was monitored during H admission to the surface and allowed to elucidate the role of elementary reaction steps. Adsorbed and gaseous water were formed as reaction products, their kinetics and yields depending on the reaction temperature. Three elementary reaction steps were identified, two of which involve gaseous H: hydrogenation of adsorbed O towards adsorbed OH, hydrogenation of adsorbed OH towards adsorbed and gaseous water. As third reaction, recombination of adsorbed OH and H was observed. Below 120 K two sequential hydrogenation steps lead to gaseous and adsorbed water, rate determined by OH hydrogenation. Between 130 and 180 K isothermal desorption of water occurs. Above 190 K recombination of OH and H affects the kinetics. The various mechanisms lead to a complicated temperature dependence of the kinetics of gaseous water formation. At any temperature the reactions lead to a complete hydrogenation of oxygen to water. Abstraction of H from adsorbed water was not observed in accordance with the reaction energetics.

  15. Interstellar grains within interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst K.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1991-01-01

    Five interstellar graphite spherules extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite are studied. The isotopic and elemental compositions of individual particles are investigated with the help of an ion microprobe, and this analysis is augmented with structural studies of ultrathin sections of the grain interiors by transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the following procedure for the formation of the interstellar graphite spherule bearing TiC crystals is inferred: (1) high-temperature nucleation and rapid growth of the graphitic carbon spherule in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star, (2) nucleation and growth of TiC crystals during continued growth of the graphitic spherule and the accretion of TiC onto the spherule, (3) quenching of the graphite growth process by depletion of C or by isolation of the spherule before other grain types could condense.

  16. The role of hydrogen atoms in interactions involving imidazolium-based ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempter, V.; Kirchner, B.

    2010-05-01

    In the first part of this report experimental results are discussed which focus onto the importance of hydrogen atoms in the interaction of imidazolium-based ionic liquids. These include examples for the cation-anion interaction in neat ionic liquids as well as the interactions between ionic liquids and their molecular environment, water in particular. Most of the studies emphasize the importance of the C(2)-H group of the imidazolium ring for the intra- and intermolecular interactions; commonly, the interactions of the type C-H … X (X =: O, halide) are attributed to "hydrogen bonding". In the second part it is analyzed whether these interactions and their consequences fulfill the criteria set by standard definitions of hydrogen bonding. Two cation-anion co-conformations at the C(2)-H group are found. One co-conformer (in-plane) often resembles a hydrogen bond while the other one (on-top) points to a non-hydrogen bonding behavior. Furthermore, the degree of hydrogen bonding for the in-plane structure is very dependent on the anion. Spatial distribution functions show that, in general, both co-conformations are occupied. However, the question of how long a particular co-conformer is populated in the liquid state has yet to be answered. Therefore, it is concluded that the term "hydrogen bond" should, at present, be treated with care to characterize the cation-anion contacts, because of the above-mentioned difficulties. Once more it must be stressed that oversimplifications and generalizations, even for this subclass of ionic liquids have to be avoided, because these liquids are more complicated than it appears from first sight.

  17. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene on platinum–copper alloys at the single-atom limit

    SciTech Connect

    Lucci, Felicia R.; Liu, Jilei; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Yang, Ming; Allard, Lawrence F.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2015-10-09

    Platinum is ubiquitous in the production sectors of chemicals and fuels; however, its scarcity in nature and high price will limit future proliferation of platinum-catalysed reactions. One definite approach to conserve platinum involves understanding the smallest number of platinum atoms needed to catalyse a reaction, then designing catalysts with the minimal platinum ensembles. Here we design and test a new generation of platinum–copper nanoparticle catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene,, an industrially important reaction. Isolated platinum atom geometries enable hydrogen activation and spillover but are incapable of C–C bond scission that leads to loss of selectivity and catalyst deactivation. γ-Alumina-supported single-atom alloy nanoparticle catalysts with <1 platinum atom per 100 copper atoms are found to exhibit high activity and selectivity for butadiene hydrogenation to butenes under mild conditions, demonstrating transferability from the model study to the catalytic reaction under practical conditions.

  18. Selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene on platinum–copper alloys at the single-atom limit

    PubMed Central

    Lucci, Felicia R.; Liu, Jilei; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Yang, Ming; Allard, Lawrence F.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum is ubiquitous in the production sectors of chemicals and fuels; however, its scarcity in nature and high price will limit future proliferation of platinum-catalysed reactions. One promising approach to conserve platinum involves understanding the smallest number of platinum atoms needed to catalyse a reaction, then designing catalysts with the minimal platinum ensembles. Here we design and test a new generation of platinum–copper nanoparticle catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of 1,3-butadiene,, an industrially important reaction. Isolated platinum atom geometries enable hydrogen activation and spillover but are incapable of C–C bond scission that leads to loss of selectivity and catalyst deactivation. γ-Alumina-supported single-atom alloy nanoparticle catalysts with <1 platinum atom per 100 copper atoms are found to exhibit high activity and selectivity for butadiene hydrogenation to butenes under mild conditions, demonstrating transferability from the model study to the catalytic reaction under practical conditions. PMID:26449766

  19. A Guided-Inquiry Lab for the Analysis of the Balmer Series of the Hydrogen Atomic Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2011-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab was developed to analyze the Balmer series of the hydrogen atomic spectrum. The emission spectrum of hydrogen was recorded with a homemade benchtop spectrophotometer. By drawing graphs and a trial-and-error approach, students discover the linear relationship presented in the Rydberg formula and connect it with the Bohr model…

  20. Interstellar Molecules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Philip M.

    1973-01-01

    Radioastronomy reveals that clouds between the stars, once believed to consist of simple atoms, contain molecules as complex as seven atoms and may be the most massive objects in our Galaxy. (Author/DF)

  1. Kinetics of suprathermal hydrogen atom reactions with saturated hydrides in planetary and satellite atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Richard J.; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2003-05-01

    The kinetics of saturated hydrides methane (CH 4), silane (SiH 4), germane (GeH 4), ammonia (NH 3), phosphine (PH 3), arsane (AsH 3), water (H 2O), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) in the low-temperature atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Titan, and Triton reacting with suprathermal hydrogen atoms were investigated computationally to extract suprathermal rate constants k( E) via an inverse Laplace transformation from experimentally available thermal rate constants k( T). Our data reveal that all suprathermal rate constants range up to 10 -10 cm3 s-1, whereas the thermal counterparts are as low as 8×10 -73 cm3 s-1. These data demonstrate explicitly a significantly enhanced reactivity of photolytically generated suprathermal hydrogen atoms in the low-temperature planetary and satellite atmospheres and suggest that this hitherto unaccounted reaction class should be included by the planetary modeling community into future photochemical networks of atmospheres of outer solar system planets and their moons.

  2. Stable isolated metal atoms as active sites for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jun; Chen, Jian Fu; Li, Yu Hang; Yuan, Wen Tao; Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Li Rong; Wang, Hai Feng; Hu, P; Wang, Yun; Zhao, Hui Jun; Wang, Yong; Yang, Hua Gui

    2014-02-17

    The process of using solar energy to split water to produce hydrogen assisted by an inorganic semiconductor is crucial for solving our energy crisis and environmental problems in the future. However, most semiconductor photocatalysts would not exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity without loading suitable co-catalysts. Generally, the noble metals have been widely applied as co-catalysts, but always agglomerate during the loading process or photocatalytic reaction. Therefore, the utilization efficiency of the noble co-catalysts is still very low on a per metal atom basis if no obvious size effect exists, because heterogeneous catalytic reactions occur on the surface active atoms. Here, for the first time, we have synthesized isolated metal atoms (Pt, Pd, Rh, or Ru) stably by anchoring on TiO2 , a model photocatalystic system, by a facile one-step method. The isolated metal atom based photocatalysts show excellent stability for H2 evolution and can lead to a 6-13-fold increase in photocatalytic activity over the metal clusters loaded on TiO2 by the traditional method. Furthermore, the configurations of isolated atoms as well as the originality of their unusual stability were analyzed by a collaborative work from both experiments and theoretical calculations.

  3. Hydrogen and silyl bridges in group 13 and 14 atom containing molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Klára Tarcsay; Veszprémi, Tamás

    Group 13 and group 14 atom containing small hydrides were investigated by quantum chemical methods to characterize their possible nonclassical bridged isomers. A robust set of methods were used like NBO analysis, topological analysis of ELF, AIM theory, several bond indices (Mayer bond order, fuzzy atoms bond order, Wiberg bond index, atom-atom overlap weighted NAO bond order), and geometry. The hydrogen bridges can be interpreted by 2 electron - 3 center bonds in NBO analysis, trisynaptic X1-Hb-X2 valence cores in ELF, and two X-Hb bond critical points in AIM theory. The bond orders of the X-Hb bonds are always around half of that in a classical bond, and the sum of the bond orders for the two bridging bonds is always around one. Bonding interaction between the pillar X1-X2 atoms exists in several cases, suggested by NBO analysis, ELF, the geometry and the bond orders. In the AIM picture, however, the X1-X2 pillar bond or one of the X-Hb bridging bond is missing.

  4. Investigating the role of atomic hydrogen on chloroethene reactions with iron using tafel analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiankang; Farrell, James

    2003-09-01

    Metallic iron filings are commonly employed as reducing agents in permeable barriers used for remediating groundwater contaminated by chlorinated solvents. Reactions of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with zerovalent iron were investigated to determine the role of atomic hydrogen in their reductive dechlorination. Experiments simultaneously measuring dechlorination and iron corrosion rates were performed to determine the fractions of the total current going toward dechlorination and hydrogen evolution. Corrosion rates were determined using Tafel analysis, and dechlorination rates were determined from rates of byproduct generation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to determine the number of reactions that controlled the observed rates of chlorocarbon disappearance, as well as the role of atomic hydrogen in TCE and PCE reduction. Comparison of iron corrosion rates with those for TCE reaction showed that TCE reduction occurred almost exclusively via atomic hydrogen at low pH values and via atomic hydrogen and direct electron transfer at neutral pH values. In contrast, reduction of PCE occurred primarily via direct electron transfer at both low and neutral pH values. At low pH values and micromolar concentrations, TCE reaction rates were faster than those for PCE due to more rapid reduction of TCE by atomic hydrogen. At neutral pH values and millimolar concentrations, PCE reaction rates were faster than those for TCE. This shift in relative reaction rates was attributed to a decreasing contribution of the atomic hydrogen reaction mechanism with increasing halocarbon concentrations and pH values. The EIS data showed that all the rate limitations for TCE and PCE dechlorination occurred during the transfer of the first two electrons. Results from this study show that differences in relative reaction rates of TCE and PCE with iron are dependent on the significance of the reduction pathway involving atomic hydrogen.

  5. Correlation properties of interstellar dust: Diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a research program in which an attempt was made to establish the physical nature of the interstellar grains, and the carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands, by comparing relations between different observed properties; the properties used include the extinction in the optical and ultraviolet (including wavelength 2200 and the far-UV rise), cloud density, atomic depletions, and strengths of the diffuse bands. Observations and also data from literature were used, selecting particularly sight-lines where some observed property was found to have anomalous behavior.

  6. Reduction of copper oxides by UV radiation and atomic hydrogen studied by XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleisch, T. H.; Mains, G. J.

    The reduction of polycrystalline cupric oxide (CuO) and cuprous oxide (Cu 2O) by UV irradiation and by atomic hydrogen was investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA). UV photons from a low pressure mercury lamp(λ=2537A, hv=4.8cV) slowly reduce both CuO and Cu 2O at room temperature. After approximately 10 h of irradiation the sample surfaces appear completely reduced to metallic Cu. This indicates that after that time the top 30 A of the sample pellets, the approximate sampling depth of XPS, have been reduced. Further irradiation causes the reduction to progress through the pellet interior and bulk phase. The sample color changes from dark to metallic copper. Photochemically generated hydrogen atoms reduce copper oxides at ambient temperatures. The reduction rate is about 10 times faster than the one caused by UV light alone. The reduction of Cu 2O is in both cases slightly slower than the one of CuO. The degree of reduction has been calculated from XPS data in different ways involving the atomic ratio of O/Cu, the relative intensity of the shake-up structure of CuO, and changes in the structure of the Cu L 3M 45M 45 Auger line. Freshly reduced Cu surfaces are sensitive to air exposure. They oxidize easily to Cu 2O.

  7. Hydrogen atom transfer reactions in thiophenol: photogeneration of two new thione isomers.

    PubMed

    Reva, Igor; Nowak, Maciej J; Lapinski, Leszek; Fausto, Rui

    2015-02-21

    Photoisomerization reactions of monomeric thiophenol have been investigated for the compound isolated in low-temperature argon matrices. The initial thiophenol population consists exclusively of the thermodynamically most stable thiol form. Phototransformations were induced by irradiation of the matrices with narrowband tunable UV light. Irradiation at λ > 290 nm did not induce any changes in isolated thiophenol molecules. Upon irradiation at 290-285 nm, the initial thiol form of thiophenol converted into its thione isomer, cyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-thione. This conversion occurs by transfer of an H atom from the SH group to a carbon atom at the ortho position of the ring. Subsequent irradiation at longer wavelengths (300-427 nm) demonstrated that this UV-induced hydrogen-atom transfer is photoreversible. Moreover, upon irradiation at 400-425 nm, the cyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-thione product converts, by transfer of a hydrogen atom from the ortho to para position, into another thione isomer, cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1-thione. The latter thione isomer is also photoreactive and is consumed if irradiated at λ < 332 nm. The obtained results clearly show that H-atom-transfer isomerization reactions dominate the unimolecular photochemistry of thiophenol confined in a solid argon matrix. A set of low-intensity infrared bands, observed in the spectra of UV irradiated thiophenol, indicates the presence of a phenylthiyl radical with an H- atom detached from the SH group. Alongside the H-atom-transfer and H-atom-detachment processes, the ring-opening photoreaction occurred in cyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-thione by the cleavage of the C-C bond at the alpha position with respect to the thiocarbonyl C[double bond, length as m-dash]S group. The resulting open-ring conjugated thioketene adopts several isomeric forms, differing by orientations around single and double bonds. The species photogenerated upon UV irradiation of thiophenol were identified by comparison of their experimental infrared

  8. Direct imaging of hydrogen-atom columns in a crystal by annular bright-field electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Okunishi, Eiji; Sawada, Hidetaka; Kondo, Yukihito; Hosokawa, Fumio; Abe, Eiji

    2011-04-01

    Enhancing the imaging power of microscopy to identify all chemical types of atom, from low- to high-atomic-number elements,would significantly contribute for a direct determination of material structures. Electron microscopes have successfully provided images of heavy-atom positions, particularly by the annular dark-field method, but detection of light atoms was difficult owing to their weak scattering power. Recent developments of aberration-correction electron optics have significantly advanced the microscope performance, enabling identification of individual light atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, boron and lithium. However, the lightest hydrogen atom has not yet been observed directly, except in the specific condition of hydrogen adatoms on a graphene membrane. Here we show the first direct imaging of the hydrogen atom in a crystalline solid YH(2), based on a classic 'hollow-cone' illumination theory combined with state-of-the-art scanning transmission electronmicroscopy. The optimized hollow-cone condition derived from the aberration-corrected microscope parameters confirms that the information transfer can be extended to 22.5 nm(-1), which corresponds to a spatial resolution of about 44.4 pm. These experimental conditions can be readily realized with the annular bright-field imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy according to reciprocity, revealing successfully the hydrogen-atom columns as dark dots, as anticipated from phase contrast of a weak-phase object.

  9. Rate constants for 1,5- and 1,6-hydrogen atom transfer reactions of mono-, di-, and tri-aryl-substituted donors, models for hydrogen atom transfers in polyunsaturated fatty acid radicals.

    PubMed

    DeZutter, Christopher B; Horner, John H; Newcomb, Martin

    2008-03-06

    Rate constants for 1,5- and 1,6-hydrogen atom transfer reactions in models of polyunsaturated fatty acid radicals were measured via laser flash photolysis methods. Photolyses of PTOC (pyridine-2-thioneoxycarbonyl) ester derivatives of carboxylic acids gave primary alkyl radicals that reacted by 1,5-hydrogen transfer from mono-, di-, and tri-aryl-substituted positions or 1,6-hydrogen transfer from di- and tri-aryl-substituted positions to give UV-detectable products. Rate constants for reactions in acetonitrile at room temperature ranged from 1 x 10(4) to 4 x 10(6) s(-1). The activation energies for a matched pair of 1,5- and 1,6-hydrogen atom transfers giving tri-aryl-substituted radicals were approximately equal, as were the primary kinetic isotope effects, but the 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer reaction was 1 order of magnitude faster at room temperature than the 1,6-hydrogen atom transfer reaction due to a less favorable entropy of activation for the 1,6-transfer reaction. Solvent effects on the rate constants for the 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer reaction of the 2-[2-(diphenylmethyl)phenyl]ethyl radical at ambient temperature were as large as a factor of 2 with the reaction increasing in rate in lower polarity solvents. Hybrid density functional theory computations for the 1,5- and 1,6-hydrogen atom transfers of the tri-aryl-substituted donors were in qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Quantitative two-photon laser-induced fluorescence of hydrogen atoms in a 1 kW arcjet thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysong, I. J.; Pobst, J. A.

    1998-08-01

    Quantitative measurements of atomic hydrogen are reported for an arcjet thruster using two-photon laser-induced fluorescence. Number density, axial and radial velocity, and temperature of ground state atomic hydrogen are obtained at the nozzle exit plane and in the downstream plume of a 1 kW arcjet operating on hydrogen propellant. Details of the technique and data analysis are provided. Comparisons with other related available data are made, as well as with several computational models. The observed dissociation fraction of 31ᆢ %is significantly higher than predicted by the models.

  11. Hydrogen abstraction from metal surfaces: when electron-hole pair excitations strongly affect hot-atom recombination.

    PubMed

    Galparsoro, Oihana; Pétuya, Rémi; Busnengo, Fabio; Juaristi, Joseba Iñaki; Crespos, Cédric; Alducin, Maite; Larregaray, Pascal

    2016-11-23

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we predict that the inclusion of nonadiabatic electronic excitations influences the dynamics of preadsorbed hydrogen abstraction from the W(110) surface by hydrogen scattering. The hot-atom recombination, which involves hyperthermal diffusion of the impinging atom on the surface, is significantly affected by the dissipation of energy mediated by electron-hole pair excitations at low coverage and low incidence energy. This issue is of importance as this abstraction mechanism is thought to largely contribute to molecular hydrogen formation from metal surfaces.

  12. Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the Heliosphere Measured with ASPERA-3 and ASPERA-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, André; Wurz, Peter; Kollmann, Peter; Brandt, Pontus C.; Bzowski, Maciej; Sokół, Justyna M.; Kubiak, Marzena A.; Grigoriev, Alexander; Barabash, Stas

    2013-04-01

    We re-analyze a residual signal of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) in the 0.4-5.0 keV range across the sky obtained from the Neutral Particle Detector of the ASPERA-3&4 experiments on board the Mars and Venus Express satellites. Due to improved knowledge of sensor characteristics and exclusion of datasets affected by instrument effects, the typical intensity of the ENA signal obtained by ASPERA-3 is an order of magnitude lower than in earlier reports. The discrepancy between ASPERA-3 and ASPERA-4 no longer exists. We now also correct the non-planetary signal for Compton-Getting and for ionization loss processes under the assumption of a heliospheric origin of the ENAs. We find spectral shapes and intensities (1×103 cm-2 sr-1 s-1) consistent with those measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The principal advantage of ASPERA-3&4 with respect to the IBEX sensors is the higher spectral resolution. In this presentation we discuss the physical significance of the spectral shapes and their potential variation across the sky. At present, these observations are the only independent confirmation of the heliospheric ENAs measured with IBEX in this energy range. The ASPERA-3&4 measurements also allow to check for a temporal variation of the heliospheric signal as they were obtained between 2003 and 2007, whereas IBEX is operational since the end of 2008.

  13. Multiply Confined Nickel Nanocatalysts Produced by Atomic Layer Deposition for Hydrogenation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhe; Dong, Mei; Wang, Guizhen; Sheng, Pei; Wu, Zhiwei; Yang, Huimin; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Guofu; Wang, Jianguo; Qin, Yong

    2015-07-27

    To design highly efficient catalysts, new concepts for optimizing the metal-support interactions are desirable. Here we introduce a facile and general template approach assisted by atomic layer deposition (ALD), to fabricate a multiply confined Ni-based nanocatalyst. The Ni nanoparticles are not only confined in Al2 O3 nanotubes, but also embedded in the cavities of Al2 O3 interior wall. The cavities create more Ni-Al2 O3 interfacial sites, which facilitate hydrogenation reactions. The nanotubes inhibit the leaching and detachment of Ni nanoparticles. Compared with the Ni-based catalyst supported on the outer surface of Al2 O3 nanotubes, the multiply confined catalyst shows a striking improvement of catalytic activity and stability in hydrogenation reactions. Our ALD-assisted template method is general and can be extended for other multiply confined nanoreactors, which may have potential applications in many heterogeneous reactions.

  14. Use of predissociation to enhance the atomic hydrogen ion fraction in ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1979-01-01

    A duopigatron ion source is modified by replacing the normal oxide-coated wire filament cathode of the ion source with a hot tungsten oven through which hydrogen gas is fed into the arc chamber. The hydrogen gas is predissociated in the hot oven prior to the arc discharge, and the recombination rate is minimized by hot walls inside of the arc chamber. With the use of the above modifications, the atomic H.sub.1.sup.+ ion fraction output can be increased from the normal 50% to greater than 70% with a corresponding decrease in the H.sub.2.sup.+ and H.sub.3.sup.+ molecular ion fraction outputs from the ion source.

  15. Tunnelling in low-temperature hydrogen-atom and proton transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaut, Luis G.; Formosinho, Sebastião J.; Barroso, Monica

    2006-04-01

    The reaction path of the interacting-state model with the Lippincott-Schroeder potential for hydrogen bonds, is used in transition-state theory calculations with the semiclassical correction for tunnelling (LS-ISM/scTST) to estimate proton and hydrogen-atom transfer rates at low temperatures. Down to 100 K, the semiclassical correction leads to semi-empirical rates and isotope effects that are in good agreement with the thermal tautomerism of porphine, and the excited-state tautomerisms of salicylideneanilines and 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole. For lower temperatures, the tunnelling corrections become extremely high and unreliable. It is shown that the permeability of an Eckart barrier fitted to the curvature of the LS-ISM reaction path leads to good estimates of these reaction rates down to 2 K.

  16. Hydrogen-induced atomic structure evolution of the oxygen-chemisorbed Cu(110) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Weitao; Liu, Qianqian; Li, Jonathan; Cai, Na; Saidi, Wissam A.; Zhou, Guangwen

    2016-12-01

    Using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) modeling, we determine the mechanism of the atomic structural evolution of the oxygenated Cu(110) surface induced by the reaction of adsorbed hydrogen with chemisorbed oxygen in the Cu(110)-c(6 × 2)-O structure. Our STM observations show that the reconstructed Cu(110)-c(6 × 2)-O surface undergoes a phase transition to the (2 × 1)-O reconstruction in the course of oxygen loss induced by the reaction with H2 gas. Using DFT modeling, we find that the surface phase transition is initiated via the adsorption of molecular hydrogen on the chemisorbed oxygen, which results in the formation of H2O molecules that desorb spontaneously from the surface. The loss of chemisorbed oxygen induces the c(6 × 2) → (2 × 1) transition that involves the diffusion of Cu―O―Cu chains along the ⟨1 ¯ 10 ⟩ direction.

  17. Chemical reactions of atomic hydrogen at SiC surface and heterogeneous chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styrov, V. V.; Tyutyunnikov, V. I.; Sergeev, O. T.; Oya, Y.; Okuno, K.

    2005-02-01

    In studies of the surface properties of SiC polytypes and chemical reactions of hydrogen atoms at SiC surfaces the surface (chemi)luminescence of SiC has been applied excited in the reaction of hydrogen atoms due to chemical energy released (heterogeneous chemiluminescence, HCL). The bulk photoluminescence (PL) have also been used for comparison with surface HCL. All the samples showed HCL, but only α-SiC (6H, 15R), technologically or specially doped (predominantly by N, B, Al), exhibited PL (λex=365 nm). Cubic polycrystalline β-SiC (or 3C SiC) did not show PL. The general luminescence band of α-SiC (6H, 15R) and B and Al doped SiC (6H) was a broad yellow band with λmax ranged from 620 to 650 nm for PL (110 K). Another less intensive luminescence band is a blue one, which has been observed only at low temperatures for α-SiC (6H,15R) and B and Al doped SiC (6H) in PL spectra and as a shoulder in HCL spectra (λmax=477 nm at 110 K for 15R SiC). The green band near 540 nm was also observed sometimes in PL spectra for α-SiC. The heat of adsorption of hydrogen atoms at polycrystalline β-SiC estimated from HCL data was found to be in the range from 2 to 3 eV.

  18. Infrared emission from interstellar PAHs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The mid-IR absorption and Raman spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the mechanisms determining them are reviewed, and the implications for observations of similar emission spectra in interstellar clouds are considered. Topics addressed include the relationship between PAHs and amorphous C, the vibrational spectroscopy of PAHs, the molecular emission process, molecular anharmonicity, and the vibrational quasi-continuum. Extensive graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra are provided, and the interstellar emission bands are attributed to PAHs with 20-30 C atoms on the basis of the observed 3.3/3.4-micron intensity ratios.

  19. In situ observation of atomic hydrogen etching on diamond-like carbon films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.-L.; Chia, C.-T.; Chiu, C.-C.; Wu, C.-C.; Cheng, H.-F.; Lin, I.-N.

    2001-04-01

    Atomic hydrogen etching on the pulsed laser deposited (PLD) diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were examined in situ by using Raman spectroscopy. Thermal annealing of the as-prepared DLC films was found to alter the D-band (˜1355 cm -1) and G-band (˜1582 cm -1) from unresolved features at room temperature to clearly separated bands at above 500°C, indicating graphitization of the films. The presence of atomic hydrogen retards graphitization at temperatures lower than 500°C, presumably because reactive atomic hydrogen formed sp 3-bonding carbons which prevented graphitization at below 500°C, while at above 500°C, the hydrogen etches away disordered structure of the DLC film as the intensity changes of the D-bands demonstrate.

  20. Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000A: hydrogen through argon

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    A critical tabulation of observed spectral lines below 2000 angstroms has been prepared from the published literature up to July 1978. It is intended principally as an aid to those physicists and astronomers who deal with the spectra of highly stripped atoms. This report includes the first 18 elements, from hydrogen (including deuterium) through argon. The tabulation is divided into two main sections: the spectrum lines by spectrum, and a finding list. The entries for each element give the ionization species, ground state term, and ionization potential, as well as the best values of vacuum wavelength, intensity, and classification. A list of the pertinent references is appended at the end.

  1. Absolute differential cross sections for electron capture and loss by kilo-electron-volt hydrogen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. J.; Johnson, L. K.; Gao, R. S.; Smith, K. A.; Stebbings, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports measurements of absolute differential cross sections for electron capture and loss for fast hydrogen atoms incident on H2, N2, O2, Ar, and He. Cross sections have been determined in the 2.0- to 5.0-keV energy range over the laboratory angular range 0.02-2 deg, with an angular, resolution of 0.02 deg. The high angular resolution allows observation of the structure at small angles in some of the cross sections. Comparison of the present results with those of other authors generally shows very good agreement.

  2. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with anthracene and polyacene from density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Castellani, Norberto J.; Belelli, Patricia G.

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of atomic hydrogen with two linear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), anthracene and polyacene (the polymer of benzene), was studied within the density functional theory (DFT). Using a proper dispersion-corrected method (DFT-D) the preferential physisorption sites were explored. The activation barrier for the bond formation between a peripheral C and the incoming H was calculated to be 58.5 and 34.1 meV with pure DFT on anthracene and polyacene at its antiferromagnetic ground state, respectively. DFT-D, although improves the description of the physisorbed state, tends to underestimate the chemisorption barriers due an artifact arising from the dispersion correction.

  3. Ultrafast excited state hydrogen atom transfer in salicylideneaniline driven by changes in aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Arzaluz, Luis; Cortés-Guzmán, Fernando; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás; Peón, Jorge

    2015-12-21

    We investigated two important unresolved issues on excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reactions, i.e., their driving force and the charge state of the transferred species by means of quantum chemical topology. We related changes in the aromaticity of a molecule after electron excitation to reaction dynamics in an excited state. Additionally, we found that the conveyed particle has a charge intermediate between that of a bare proton and a neutral hydrogen atom. We anticipate that the analysis presented in this communication will yield valuable insights into ESIPT and other similar photochemical reactions.

  4. Heuristic exchange gradient-type functional for the hydrogen atom in two dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, M. L.; Nagy, I.

    2010-09-15

    Following the idea of Gill and Pople [Phys. Rev. A 47, 2383 (1993)] in three dimensions, we have constructed a gradient-corrected functional for the hydrogen atom for the two-dimensional case. The corresponding potential is constrained by the requirement that it cancel precisely the Coulomb potential of the normalized ground-state electronic charge density distribution which characterizes the localized single-electron state around a proton. Within this condition for a gradient-corrected functional, the dimensionality dependence is quantified and found to be relatively small.

  5. Absorption of infrared radiation by electrons in the field of a neutral hydrogen atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical expression for the absorption coefficient is developed from a relationship between the cross-section for inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and the cross-section for electron-atom momentum transfer; it is accurate for those photon frequencies v and temperatures such that hv/kT is small. The determination of the absorption of infrared radiation by free-free transitions of the negative hydrogen ion has been extended to higher temperatures. A simple analytical expression for the absorption coefficient has been derived.

  6. Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, L. H. C.; Barone, F. A.

    2016-02-01

    Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector.

  7. A correlational analysis of the effects of changing environmental conditions on the NR atomic hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragonette, Richard A.; Suter, Joseph J.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive statistical analysis has been undertaken to determine if a correlation exists between changes in an NR atomic hydrogen maser's frequency offset and changes in environmental conditions. Correlation analyses have been performed comparing barometric pressure, humidity, and temperature with maser frequency offset as a function of time for periods ranging from 5.5 to 17 days. Semipartial correlation coefficients as large as -0.9 have been found between barometric pressure and maser frequency offset. Correlation between maser frequency offset and humidity was small compared to barometric pressure and unpredictable. Analysis of temperature data indicates that in the most current design, temperature does not significantly affect maser frequency offset.

  8. Existence of a ground state for the confined hydrogen atom in non-relativistic QED

    SciTech Connect

    Amour, Laurent; Faupin, Jeremy

    2008-04-03

    We consider a system of a hydrogen atom interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field. Instead of fixing the nucleus, we assume that the system is confined by its center of mass. This model is used in theoretical physics to explain the Lamb-Dicke effect. After a brief review of the literature, we explain how to verify some properly chosen binding conditions which lead to the existence of a ground state for our model, and for all values of the fine-structure constant.

  9. A Simple Marcus-Theory Type Model for Hydrogen Atom Transfer/Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Mayer, James M

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen atom transfer reactions are the simplest class of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes. These reactions involve transfer of one electron and one proton from one reagent to another, in the same kinetic step: XH + Y → X + HY. A predictive model for these reactions based on the Marcus cross relation is described. The model predicts rate constants within one or two orders of magnitude in most cases, over a very wide range of reactants and solvents. This remarkable result implies a surprising generality of the additivity postulate for the reaction intrinsic barriers, and a smaller role for the quantum mechanical details of the proton and electron transfers.

  10. Spontaneous light emission by atomic hydrogen: Fermi's golden rule without cheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debierre, V.; Durt, T.; Nicolet, A.; Zolla, F.

    2015-10-01

    Focusing on the 2 p- 1 s transition in atomic hydrogen, we investigate through first order perturbation theory the time evolution of the survival probability of an electron initially taken to be in the excited (2 p) state. We examine both the results yielded by the standard dipole approximation for the coupling between the atom and the electromagnetic field - for which we propose a cutoff-independent regularisation - and those yielded by the exact coupling function. In both cases, Fermi's golden rule is shown to be an excellent approximation for the system at hand: we found its maximal deviation from the exact behaviour of the system to be of order 10-8 /10-7. Our treatment also yields a rigorous prescription for the choice of the optimal cutoff frequency in the dipole approximation. With our cutoff, the predictions of the dipole approximation are almost indistinguishable at all times from the exact dynamics of the system.

  11. Hidden momentum in a hydrogen atom and the Lorentz-force law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filho, J. S. Oliveira; Saldanha, Pablo L.

    2015-11-01

    By using perturbation theory, we show that a hydrogen atom with magnetic moment due to the orbital angular momentum of the electron has so-called hidden momentum in the presence of an external electric field. This means that the atomic electronic cloud has a nonzero linear momentum in its center-of-mass rest frame due to a relativistic effect. This is completely analogous to the hidden momentum that a classical current loop has in the presence of an external electric field. We discuss how this effect is essential for the validity of the Lorentz-force law in quantum systems. We also connect our results to the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski debate about the momentum of light in material media.

  12. State of the art and future directions for the atomic hydrogen maser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vessot, Robert F. C.

    1990-01-01

    The present status of technology development for atomic hydrogen masers (H-masers) is reviewed. The limitations to frequency stability and accuracy are discussed with emphasis on the problems associated with cavity resonator instability and the lack of reproducibility and stability of the storage volume wall coating frequency shift. New types of coating developed in the Soviet Union and better, cavity resonator materials, are expected to make possible frequency at the 10(exp -16) level at 10(exp 4) sec. Better control of systematic effects should extend the long-term stability to levels better than 10(exp -15) for intervals beyond one day. Present use of H-masers as flywheel oscillators in timekeeping systems is discussed as is the outlook for the future cryogenic and room temperature H-masers as flywheel oscillators to operate very high resolution frequency discriminators based on the newly evolving technology of trapped and cooled ions and atoms.

  13. Properties of Vacancy Complexes with Hydrogen and Helium Atoms in Tungsten from First Principles

    DOE PAGES

    Samolyuk, German D.; Osetsky, Yury N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2016-12-03

    Tungsten and its alloys are the primary candidate materials for plasma-facing components in fusion reactors. The material is exposed to high-energy neutrons and the high flux of helium and hydrogen atoms. In this paper, we have studied the properties of vacancy clusters and their interaction with H and He in W using density functional theory. Convergence of calculations with respect to modeling cell size was investigated. It is demonstrated that vacancy cluster formation energy converges with small cells with a size of 6 × 6 × 6 (432 lattice sites) enough to consider a microvoid of up to six vacanciesmore » with high accuracy. Most of the vacancy clusters containing fewer than six vacancies are unstable. Introducing He or H atoms increases their binding energy potentially making gas-filled bubbles stable. Finally, according to the results of the calculations, the H2 molecule is unstable in clusters containing six or fewer vacancies.« less

  14. Properties of Vacancy Complexes with Hydrogen and Helium Atoms in Tungsten from First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, German D.; Osetsky, Yury N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2016-12-03

    Tungsten and its alloys are the primary candidate materials for plasma-facing components in fusion reactors. The material is exposed to high-energy neutrons and the high flux of helium and hydrogen atoms. In this paper, we have studied the properties of vacancy clusters and their interaction with H and He in W using density functional theory. Convergence of calculations with respect to modeling cell size was investigated. It is demonstrated that vacancy cluster formation energy converges with small cells with a size of 6 × 6 × 6 (432 lattice sites) enough to consider a microvoid of up to six vacancies with high accuracy. Most of the vacancy clusters containing fewer than six vacancies are unstable. Introducing He or H atoms increases their binding energy potentially making gas-filled bubbles stable. Finally, according to the results of the calculations, the H2 molecule is unstable in clusters containing six or fewer vacancies.

  15. Hydrogen trapping by solute atoms in Nb-Mo(3 at. %) alloys as observed by the channeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Eiichi; Nakamura, Shiho; Kano, Fumihisa; Kobayashi, Takane; Watanabe, Kenji; Fukai, Yuh; Matsumoto, Takehiko

    1989-01-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of the enhancement of the terminal solubility for hydrogen (TSH) in Nb by alloying with undersized Mo atoms, the state of hydrogen was studied by the channeling method using a nuclear reaction 1H(11B, α)αα in Nb-Mo(3 at. %) alloys. At room temperature H atoms are located at sites displaced from tetrahedral (T) sites by about 0.6 Å towards the nearest-neighbor lattice points, while at 373 K they are at T sites. These results give direct evidence for trapping of hydrogen by Mo atoms and strongly support the trapping model for the enhancement of the TSH in the low-concentration region of Mo atoms.

  16. Hydrogen trapping by solute atoms in Nb--Mo(3 at. %) alloys as observed by the channeling method

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, E.; Nakamura, S.; Kano, F.; Kobayashi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Fukai, Y.; Matsumoto, T.

    1989-01-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of the enhancement of the terminal solubility for hydrogen (TSH) in Nb by alloying with undersized Mo atoms, the state of hydrogen was studied by the channeling method using a nuclear reaction /sup 1/H(/sup 11/B, ..cap alpha..)..cap alpha cap alpha.. in Nb--Mo(3 at. %) alloys. At room temperature H atoms are located at sites displaced from tetrahedral (T) sites by about 0.6 A towards the nearest-neighbor lattice points, while at 373 K they are at T sites. These results give direct evidence for trapping of hydrogen by Mo atoms and strongly support the trapping model for the enhancement of the TSH in the low-concentration region of Mo atoms.

  17. On the role of atomic metastability in the production of Balmer line radiation from ‘cold’ atomic hydrogen, deuterium and hydrogenic ion impurities in fusion edge plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, J. D.

    2012-03-01

    Published arguments, which assign an important role to atomic metastability in the production of ‘narrow’ Zeeman component radiation from the boundary region of fusion plasmas, are examined critically in relation to l-redistribution by proton and electron collisions, and mixing of unperturbed atomic states by the ion microfield and microfield gradient. It is concluded that these important processes indeed severely constrain the contribution from ‘metastable’ states to the generation of the hydrogen Balmer spectra, for electron concentrations above 1012 cm-3, as pointed out before by the present author (Hey et al 1999 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 3555). The analysis of collision-induced l-redistribution represents an extension of that used previously (Hey et al 1996 Contrib. Plasma Phys. 36 583), applicable up to higher electron densities. For comparison purposes, we also consider the question of metastability of ionized helium in a low-temperature plasma, and that of some common hydrogenic impurities (C5+ and Ne9+) in a hydrogen (deuterium) fusion plasma. While for low nuclear charge Z the metastability of 2s1/2 levels is quenched by the plasma environment, it is much reduced in high-Z ions owing to the rapid increase with Z of the two-photon electric dipole (2E1) and magnetic dipole (M1) spontaneous transition rates to the ground state, whereas the role of the plasma in these cases is less important. The main new principle elaborated in this work is the sensitivity of atomic line strengths, and hence collision strengths, to perturbation by the plasma environment for transitions between fine-structure sublevels of the same principal quantum number. As the plasma microfield strength grows, ‘allowed’ transitions diminish in strength, while ‘forbidden’ transitions grow. However, owing to violation of the parity selection rule, there is an overall loss of collision strength available to transitions, resulting from the appearance of significant

  18. Hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from tertiary amines by benzyloxyl and cumyloxyl radicals: influence of structure on the rate-determining formation of a hydrogen-bonded prereaction complex.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Michela; DiLabio, Gino A; Bietti, Massimo

    2011-08-05

    A time-resolved kinetic study on the hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from a series of tertiary amines by the cumyloxyl (CumO(•)) and benzyloxyl (BnO(•)) radicals was carried out. With the sterically hindered triisobutylamine, comparable hydrogen atom abstraction rate constants (k(H)) were measured for the two radicals (k(H)(BnO(•))/k(H)(CumO(•)) = 2.8), and the reactions were described as direct hydrogen atom abstractions. With the other amines, increases in k(H)(BnO(•))/k(H)(CumO(•)) ratios of 13 to 2027 times were observed. k(H) approaches the diffusion limit in the reactions between BnO(•) and unhindered cyclic and bicyiclic amines, whereas a decrease in reactivity is observed with acyclic amines and with the hindered cyclic amine 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine. These results provide additional support to our hypothesis that the reaction proceeds through the rate-determining formation of a C-H/N hydrogen-bonded prereaction complex between the benzyloxyl α-C-H and the nitrogen lone pair wherein hydrogen atom abstraction occurs, and demonstrate the important role of amine structure on the overall reaction mechanism. Additional mechanistic information in support of this picture is obtained from the study of the reactions of the amines with a deuterated benzyloxyl radical (PhCD(2)O(•), BnO(•)-d(2)) and the 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyloxyl radical.

  19. Quantitative analysis of hydrogen in SiO2/SiN/SiO2 stacks using atom probe tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunimune, Yorinobu; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Sakurai, Yusuke; Inoue, Masao; Nishida, Akio; Han, Bin; Tu, Yuan; Takamizawa, Hisashi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Yano, Fumiko; Nagai, Yasuyoshi; Katayama, Toshiharu; Ide, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We have demonstrated that it is possible to reproducibly quantify hydrogen concentration in the SiN layer of a SiO2/SiN/SiO2 (ONO) stack structure using ultraviolet laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT). The concentration of hydrogen atoms detected using APT increased gradually during the analysis, which could be explained by the effect of hydrogen adsorption from residual gas in the vacuum chamber onto the specimen surface. The amount of adsorbed hydrogen in the SiN layer was estimated by analyzing another SiN layer with an extremely low hydrogen concentration (<0.2 at. %). Thus, by subtracting the concentration of adsorbed hydrogen, the actual hydrogen concentration in the SiN layer was quantified as approximately 1.0 at. %. This result was consistent with that obtained by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), which confirmed the accuracy of the APT quantification. The present results indicate that APT enables the imaging of the three-dimensional distribution of hydrogen atoms in actual devices at a sub-nanometer scale.

  20. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization and Relaxation of H and D Atoms in Solid Mixtures of Hydrogen Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheludiakov, S.; Ahokas, J.; Järvinen, J.; Vainio, O.; Lehtonen, L.; Vasiliev, S.; Lee, D. M.; Khmelenko, V. V.

    2017-04-01

    We report on a study of dynamic nuclear polarization and electron and nuclear spin relaxation of atomic hydrogen and deuterium in solid molecular matrices of H2, D2, and HD mixtures. The electron and nuclear spin relaxation times (T_{1e} and T_{1N}) were measured within the temperature range 0.15-2.5 K in a magnetic field of 4.6 T, conditions which ensure a high polarization of electron spins. We found that T_{1e} is nearly temperature independent in this temperature range, while T_{1N} decreased by two orders of magnitude upon raising temperature. Such strong temperature dependence is typical for the nuclear Orbach mechanism of relaxation via the electron spins. We found that the nuclear spins of H atoms in solid D2 and D2{:}HD can be efficiently polarized by the Overhauser effect. Pumping the forbidden transitions of H atoms also leads to DNP, with the efficiency strongly dependent on the concentration of D atoms. This behavior indicates the cross effect mechanism of the DNP and nuclear relaxation, which turns out to be well resolved in the conditions of our experiments. Efficient DNP of H atoms was also observed when pumping the middle D line located in the center of the ESR spectrum. This phenomenon can be explained in terms of clusters or pairs of H atoms with a strong exchange interaction. These clusters have partially allowed transitions in the center of the ESR spectrum, and DNP may be created via the resolved cross effect.

  1. Reduction of FeO/Pt(1 1 1) Thin Films by Exposure to Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, Jan; Merte, L. R.; Grabow, Lars C.; Eichhorn, Falk M.; Porsgaard, Soeren; Zeuthen, Helene; Vang, Ronnie T.; Laegsgaard, E.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Besenbacher, Fleming

    2010-01-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations we have studied the reduction of ultra-thin films of FeO(1 1 1) grown on Pt(1 1 1) after exposure to atomic hydrogen at room temperature. A number of new ordered, partlyreduced FeOx structures are identified and as a general trend we reveal that all the reduced FeOx structures incorporate 2-fold coordinated Fe atoms as opposed to the original 3-fold coordinated Fe atoms in the FeO film. We find that when all the Fe atoms are 2-fold O-coordinated the FeOx surface structure is resistant to further reduction at room temperature. We observe that water easily dissociates on the most heavily reduced FeOx, structure in contrast to the initially inert FeO film, and reveal that it is possible to partially re-oxidize the FeOx film by heating the surface slightly in the presence of water.

  2. Interaction of the Local Interstellar Medium with the Heliosphere: Role of the Interior and Exterior Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Aaron; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A complete model of the global interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium must take account of interstellar neutral atoms, interstellar ionized gas, solar and galactic magnetic fields, galactic and anomalous cosmic rays. For now, however, in view of the many uncertainties about conditions in the interstellar medium, etc., all models must be regarded as highly idealized and incomplete. In the present review I concentrate on the role of magnetic fields of solar and interstellar origin. The former, the interior field, has negligible influence on the unshocked solar wind; the immediate post-shock solar wind is probably low-beta, so that the interior magnetic field is still unimportant, but this situation changes as the plasma flows through the heliosheath, and a ridge of strong magnetic field may form to separate materials of polar and equatorial origin. The exterior (interstellar) field is likely to play an important role in determining the global morphology of the system outside the termination shock. If the exterior field is strong enough, it can compress the heliosphere (although exterior neutral and/or ionized hydrogen may play the dominant role). Even if the interstellar magnetic field does not provide the dominant pressure, its orientation can substantially affect the configuration of the heliosphere, especially the location and orientation of the heliospheric discontinuities. The configurations can be quite different for the situations in which the field and flow are (a) aligned or (b) transverse. Obliquity of the field produces asymmetry in the geometry of the system; in particular the noses of heliopause and interstellar bow shock are shifted away from the interstellar flow direction, and in opposite directions, due to the asymmetric draping of the magnetic field.

  3. The evolution of organic mantles on interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Willem A.; Greenberg, J. Mayo

    1989-01-01

    By laboratory simulation of the chemical processes on dust grains it was investigated how solid organic materials can be produced in the interstellar medium. The ice mantles that accrete on grains in molecular clouds, consisting primarily of H2O, CO, H2CO, NH3, and O2, are irradiated by the internal UV field, resulting in the storage of radicals upon photodissociation of the original molecules. Transient heating events lead to the production of oxygen-rich organic species by recombination reactions. The experiments indicated that in this way the observed amount of organic material can be produced if a grain passes a few times through a molecular cloud during its life. After the destruction of the cloud the grains enter a more diffuse medium. Here they are subjected to the interstellar UV field as well as to collisions with atomic hydrogen. Experiments show that the intense photoprocessing results in the removal of small species like H2O and NH3 as well as in carbonization of the organic molecules. Contrary to this, the atomic H flux will maintain a certain hydrogen level in the mantle. These processes likely convert the original, oxygen-rich organics into an unsaturated hydrocarbon type material such as that observed towards IRS 7 and in Comet Halley grains.

  4. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  5. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrogen Atom Abstraction from Allylic Sites by (3)O2; Implications for Combustion Modeling and Simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Somers, Kieran P; Goldsmith, C Franklin; Curran, Henry J

    2017-03-09

    Hydrogen atom abstraction from allylic C-H bonds by molecular oxygen plays a very important role in determining the reactivity of fuel molecules having allylic hydrogen atoms. Rate constants for hydrogen atom abstraction by molecular oxygen from molecules with allylic sites have been calculated. A series of molecules with primary, secondary, tertiary, and super secondary allylic hydrogen atoms of alkene, furan, and alkylbenzene families are taken into consideration. Those molecules include propene, 2-butene, isobutene, 2-methylfuran, and toluene containing the primary allylic hydrogen atom; 1-butene, 1-pentene, 2-ethylfuran, ethylbenzene, and n-propylbenzene containing the secondary allylic hydrogen atom; 3-methyl-1-butene, 2-isopropylfuran, and isopropylbenzene containing tertiary allylic hydrogen atom; and 1-4-pentadiene containing super allylic secondary hydrogen atoms. The M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory was used to optimize the geometries of all of the reactants, transition states, products and also the hinder rotation treatments for lower frequency modes. The G4 level of theory was used to calculate the electronic single point energies for those species to determine the 0 K barriers to reaction. Conventional transition state theory with Eckart tunnelling corrections was used to calculate the rate constants. The comparison between our calculated rate constants with the available experimental results from the literature shows good agreement for the reactions of propene and isobutene with molecular oxygen. The rate constant for toluene with O2 is about an order magnitude slower than that experimentally derived from a comprehensive model proposed by Oehlschlaeger and coauthors. The results clearly indicate the need for a more detailed investigation of the combustion kinetics of toluene oxidation and its key pyrolysis and oxidation intermediates. Despite this, our computed barriers and rate constants retain an important internal consistency. Rate constants

  6. Observation and Interpretation of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Shih, A. Y.; Stone, E. C.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Labrador, A. W.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss observations of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs) from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection event reported by Mewaldt et al. (2009). The observations were made during the 5 December 2006 X9 solar flare, located at E79, by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on STEREO A and B. Prior to the arrival of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV particles arriving from the Sun. The derived solar emission profile, arrival directions, and energy spectrum all show that the <5 MeV particles were due to energetic neutral hydrogen atoms produced by either flare or shock-accelerated protons. RHESSI measurements of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line provide an estimate of the number of interacting flare-accelerated protons in this event, which leads to an improved estimate of ENA production by flare-accelerated protons. CME-driven shock acceleration is also considered. Taking into account ENA losses, we conclude that the observed ENAs must have been produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances .2 solar radii.

  7. Observations and Interpretations of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Shih, A. Y.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. f.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. c.; Labrador, A. W.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss recently reported observations of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs) from an X9 solar flare/coronal mass ejection event on 5 December 2006, located at E79. The observations were made by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on STEREO A and B. Prior to the arrival of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV energetic neutral hydrogen atoms produced by either flare or shock-accelerated protons. RHESSI measurements of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line provide an estimate of the number of interacting flare-accelerated protons in this event, which leads to an improved estimate of ENA production by flare-accelerated protons. Taking into account ENA losses, we find that the observed ENAs must have been produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances > or equal to 2 solar radii. Although there are no CME images from this event, it is shown that CME-shock-accelerated protons can, in principle, produce a time-history consistent with the observations.

  8. STEREO Observations of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms during the 5 December 2006 Solar Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. F.; Labrador, A. W.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms emitted during the X9 solar event of December 5, 2006. Beginning 1 hour following the onset of this E79 flare, the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on both the STEREO A and B spacecraft observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV protons beginning hours before the onset of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth. More than 70% of these particles arrived from a longitude within 10 of the Sun, consistent with the measurement resolution. The derived emission profile at the Sun had onset and peak times remarkably similar to the GOES soft X-ray profile and continued for more than an hour. The observed arrival directions and energy spectrum argue strongly that the particle events less than 5 MeV were due to energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs). To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of ENA emission from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection. Possible origins for the production of ENAs in a large solar event are considered. We conclude that the observed ENAs were most likely produced in the high corona and that charge-transfer reactions between accelerated protons and partially-stripped coronal ions are an important source of ENAs in solar events.

  9. On the thermal process of atomic hydrogen escape from the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudovkin, M. I.; Golovchanskaia, I. V.

    1983-10-01

    The authors' approach to the problem of the escape of gases from the planetary gravitational field is close to the consideration by Biutner (1958, 1959) which generalizes results obtained by Jones (1923) for the particular cases of the dense and rarefied atmosphere. The choice of the escape layer, the height distribution of the escape probability as well as escape intensity, have been investigated carefully by Biutner when considering the helium isotope escape from the atmosphere. The objects of the present paper include: (1) to take into account the escape of atomic hydrogen from the bulk atmospheric layer (h approximately 100-1000 km) using present-day data on the composition and temperature distribution in the upper atmosphere (Jacchia, 1977), (2) to find the perturbation of the velocity distribution function in energy space under escape conditions when it is not assumed to be Maxwellian or close to it in the whole dissipation layer and (3) to compare the escape rates obtained under such consideration with the production rates of atomic hydrogen in the atmosphere as well as with local values of the fluxes that are observed. The difference between the results obtained and those of Monte Carlo calculations is attributed to the placing of the lower boundary surface at a lower atmospheric level in the present model.

  10. Excited-state hydrogen atom transfer reaction in solvated 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Nuwan; Minezawa, Noriyuki; Gordon, Mark S

    2013-12-12

    Excited-state enol to keto tautomerization of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (C456) with three water molecules (C456:3H2O), is theoretically investigated using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) combined with the polarizable continuum model and 200 waters explicitly modeled with the effective fragment potential. The tautomerization of C456 in the presence of three water molecules is accompanied by an asynchronous quadruple hydrogen atom transfer reaction from the enol to the keto tautomer in the excited state. TDDFT with the PBE0 functional and the DH(d,p) basis set is used to calculate the excited-state reaction barrier height, absorption (excitation), and fluorescence (de-excitation) energies. These results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. In contrast to previous work, it is predicted here that the coumarin 456 system undergoes a hydrogen atom transfer, not a proton transfer. The calculated reaction barrier of the first excited state of C456:3H2O with 200 water molecules is found to be -0.23 kcal/mol without zero-point energy (-5.07 kcal/mol with zero point energy, i.e., the activation energy).

  11. Three-dimensional atomic mapping of hydrogenated polymorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wanghua; Pareige, Philippe; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogenated polymorphous silicon (pm-Si:H) is a nanostructured material consisting of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous silicon matrix. Its use as the intrinsic layer in thin film p-i-n solar cells has led to good cell properties in terms of stability and efficiency. Here, we have been able to assess directly the concentration and distribution of nanocrystals and impurities (dopants) in p-i-n solar cells, by using femtosecond laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT). An effective sample preparation method for APT characterization is developed. Based on the difference in atomic density between hydrogenated amorphous and crystalline silicon, we are able to distinguish the nanocrystals from the amorphous matrix by using APT. Moreover, thanks to the three-dimensional reconstruction, we demonstrate that Si nanocrystals are homogeneously distributed in the entire intrinsic layer of the solar cell. The influence of the process pressure on the incorporation of nanocrystals and their distribution is also investigated. Thanks to APT we could determine crystalline fractions as low as 4.2% in the pm-Si:H films, which is very difficult to determine by standard techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Moreover, we also demonstrate a sharp p/i interface in our solar cells.

  12. Time-resolved Absorption Spectra of the Laser-dressed Hydrogen Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Mitsuko; Chu, Shih-I.

    2013-05-01

    A theoretical study of the transient absorption spectra for the laser-dressed hydrogen atom based on the accurate numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is presented. The timing of absorption is controlled by the time delay between an isolated extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse and a dressing infrared (IR) field. We identify two different kinds of physical processes in the spectra. One is the formation of dressed states, signified by the appearance of sidebands between the XUV absorption lines separated by one IR-photon energy. We show that their population is maximized when the XUV pulse coincides with the zero-crossing of the IR field, and that their energy can be manipulated by using a chirped IR field. The other process is the dynamical AC Stark shift induced by the IR field and probed by the XUV pulse. Our calculations indicate that the accidental degeneracy of the hydrogen atom leads to the multiple splittings of each XUV absorption line whose separations change in response to a slowly-varying IR envelope. Furthermore, we observe the Autler-Townes doublets for the n=2 and 3 states using the 656 nm dressing field, but their separation does not agree with the prediction by the conventional 3-level model that neglects the dynamical AC Stark effects.

  13. Emission of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms from the Martian subsolar magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-D.; Alho, M.; Jarvinen, R.; Kallio, E.; Barabash, S.; Futaana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We have simulated the hydrogen energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions from the subsolar magnetosheath of Mars using a hybrid model of the proton plasma charge exchanging with the Martian exosphere to study statistical features revealed from the observations of the Neutral Particle Detectors on Mars Express. The simulations reproduce well the observed enhancement of the hydrogen ENA emissions from the dayside magnetosheath in directions perpendicular to the Sun-Mars line. Our results show that the neutralized protons from the shocked solar wind are the dominant ENA population rather than those originating from the pickup planetary ions. The simulation also suggests that the observed stronger ENA emissions in the direction opposite to the solar wind convective electric field result from a stronger proton flux in the same direction at the lower magnetosheath; i.e., the proton fluxes in the magnetosheath are not cylindrically symmetric. We also confirm the observed increasing of the ENA fluxes with the solar wind dynamical pressure in the simulations. This feature is associated with a low altitude of the induced magnetic boundary when the dynamic pressure is high and the magnetosheath protons can reach to a denser exosphere, and thus, the charge exchange rate becomes higher. Overall, the analysis suggests that kinetic effects play an important and pronounced role in the morphology of the hydrogen ENA distribution and the plasma environment at Mars, in general.

  14. Atomic hydrogen concentration in a diamond depositing dc arcjet determined by calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Juchmann, W.; Luque, J.; Jeffries, J.B.

    1997-06-01

    The fraction of hydrogen dissociated in the plume of a dc arcjet used for diamond deposition is determined by calorimetry to be 0.33{plus_minus}0.12. A dc arc is struck in a mixture of argon and hydrogen at 90 psi and the effluent is expanded through a converging/diverging nozzle into a reactor maintained at 25 Torr. Methane ({lt}1{percent}) is added to the luminous gas plume in the diverging nozzle. This supersonic jet impinges on a water cooled molybdenum substrate, and diamond thin film grows from the reactive mixture. The electrical power input of the arcjet (1.6 kW) is balanced by the power losses due to cooling of the nozzle, enthalpy change in the gas, ionization of the gas, dissociation of H{sub 2}, and the directed velocity of the gas phase. The gas temperature is determined by linear laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements of several rotational lines of NO seeded to the gas plume. The velocity of the gas plume is obtained via the Doppler shift between LIF signals measured simultaneously in a stationary reference cell and in the arcjet. The atomic hydrogen fraction increases as a function of the feedstock H{sub 2}/Ar ratio and with increasing input power to the arcjet. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Assessment of detectability of neutral interstellar deuterium by IBEX observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Möbius, E.; Rodríguez, D. F.; Wurz, P.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-08-01

    Context. The abundance of deuterium in the interstellar gas in front of the Sun gives insight into the processes of filtration of neutral interstellar species through the heliospheric interface and potentially into the chemical evolution of the Galactic gas. Aims: We investigate the possibility of detection of neutral interstellar deuterium at 1 AU from the Sun by direct sampling by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Methods: Using both previous and the most recent determinations of the flow parameters of neutral gas in the local interstellar cloud (LIC) and an observation-based model of solar radiation pressure and ionization in the heliosphere, we simulated the flux of neutral interstellar D at IBEX for the actual measurement conditions. We assessed the number of interstellar D atom counts expected during the first three years of IBEX operation. We also simulated the observations expected during an epoch of high solar activity. In addition, we calculated the expected counts of D atoms from the thin terrestrial water layer covering the IBEX-Lo conversion surface, sputtered by neutral interstellar He atoms. Results: Most D counts registered by IBEX-Lo are expected to come from the water layer, exceeding the interstellar signal by 2 orders of magnitude. However, the sputtering should stop once the Earth leaves the portion of orbit traversed by interstellar He atoms. We identify seasons during the year when mostly the genuine interstellar D atoms are expected in the signal. During the first 3 years of IBEX operations about 2 detectable interstellar D atoms are expected. This number is comparable to the expected number of sputtered D atoms registered during the same time intervals. Conclusions: The most favorable conditions for the detection occur during low solar activity, in an interval including March and April each year. The detection chances could be improved by extending the instrument duty cycle, say, by making observations in the special deuterium mode

  16. The Broadening of Spectral Lines by Collisions with Neutral Hydrogen Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.

    1998-10-01

    In this thesis the theory of collisional broadening by neutral hydrogen of Anstee and O'Mara (1991,1992,1995) for s-p and p-s transitions of neutrals is extended and applied to both p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions of neutral atoms, and the broadening of transitions of ions. The interaction between a ground state hydrogen atom with a generic neutral atom, is considered using Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory. The usual second order expression for the interaction energy between the two atoms involves an infinite sum over virtual states of the two-atom system, and an energy denominator which is the energy debt incurred when the two atom system makes a transition from the state of interest to a virtual state. Unsöld (1927,1955) showed that the expression for the in teraction energy can be greatly simplified if the variable energy debt incurred in making a transition from the state of interest to a virtual state is replaced by a fixed debt Ep. Closure can then be used to complete the sum over the virtual states leading to an expression for the interaction energy in terms of diagonal matrix elements of V2 (where V is the electrostatic interaction between the two atoms), and Ep. This is commonly referred to as the Unsöld approximation. It is the most important approximation in the development of the treatment of spectral line broadening presented in this thesis. Expressions for the interaction energy between a ground state hydrogen atom and a generic neutral atom in both d- and f-states are presented. Adiabatic potential curves calculated from code written to compute these expressions are presented. For interactions of neutral atoms, the Unsöld value of Ep=-4/9 atomic units is used throughout. Code was written to compute line broadening cross-sections for p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions of neutral atoms, using the semi-classical procedure of Roueff (1974) adapted for these transitions. Firstly, the dependence of cross-sections on regions of the potential

  17. Coupled cluster and density functional theory calculations of atomic hydrogen chemisorption on pyrene and coronene as model systems for graphene hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Qian, Hu-Jun; Morokuma, Keiji; Irle, Stephan

    2012-07-05

    Ab initio coupled cluster and density functional theory studies of atomic hydrogen addition to the central region of pyrene and coronene as molecular models for graphene hydrogenation were performed. Fully relaxed potential energy curves (PECs) were computed at the spin-unrestricted B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of theory for the atomic hydrogen attack of a center carbon atom (site A), the midpoint of a neighboring carbon bond (site B), and the center of a central hexagon (site C). Using the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ PEC geometries, we evaluated energies at the PBE density functional, as well as ab initio restricted open-shell ROMP2, ROCCSD, and ROCCSD(T) levels of theory, employing cc-pVDZ and cc-pVTZ basis sets, and performed a G2MS extrapolation to the ROCCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level of theory. In agreement with earlier studies, we find that only site A attack leads to chemisorption. The G2MS entrance channel barrier heights, binding energies, and PEC profiles are found to agree well with a recent ab initio multireference wave function theory study (Bonfanti et al. J. Chem. Phys.2011, 135, 164701), indicating that single-reference open-shell methods including B3LYP are sufficient for the theoretical treatment of the interaction of graphene with a single hydrogen atom.

  18. Concerted hydrogen atom and electron transfer mechanism for catalysis by lysine-specific demethylase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Higashi, Masahiro; Cembran, Alessandro; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-07-18

    We calculate the free energy profile for the postulated hydride transfer reaction mechanism for the catalysis of lysine demethylation by lysine-specific demethylase LSD1. The potential energy surface is obtained by using combined electrostatically embedded multiconfiguration molecular mechanics (EE-MCMM) and single-configuration molecular mechanics (MM). We employ a constant valence bond coupling term to obtain analytical energies and gradients of the EE-MCMM subsystem, which contains 45 quantum mechanics (QM) atoms and which is parametrized with density functional calculations employing specific reaction parameters obtained by matching high-level wave function calculations. In the MM region, we employ the Amber ff03 and TIP3P force fields. The free energy of activation at 300 K is calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) umbrella sampling on a system with 102,090 atoms as the maximum of the free energy profile along the reaction coordinate as obtained by the weighted histogram analysis method with 17 umbrella sampling windows. This yields a free energy of activation of only 10 kcal/mol, showing that the previously postulated direct hydride transfer reaction mechanism is plausible, although we find that it is better interpreted as a concerted transfer of a hydrogen atom and an electron.

  19. Theoretical investigation of charge transfer between N{sup 6+} and atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Stancil, P. C.; Liebermann, H. P.; Funke, P.; Rai, S. N.; Buenker, R. J.; Schultz, D. R.; Hui, Y.; Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C.

    2011-08-15

    Charge transfer due to collisions of ground-state N{sup 6+}(1s {sup 2} S) with atomic hydrogen has been investigated theoretically using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (QMOCC) method, in which the adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic couplings were obtained using the multireference single- and double-excitation configuration-interaction (MRDCI) approach. Total, n-, l-, and S-resolved cross sections have been obtained for energies between 10 meV/u and 10 keV/u. The QMOCC results were compared to available experimental and theoretical data as well as to merged-beams measurements and atomic-orbital close-coupling and classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. The accuracy of the QMOCC charge-transfer cross sections was found to be sensitive to the accuracy of the adiabatic potentials and couplings. Consequently, we developed a method to optimize the atomic basis sets used in the MRDCI calculations for highly charged ions. Since cross sections, especially those that are state selective, are necessary input for x-ray emission simulation of heliospheric and Martian exospheric spectra arising from solar wind ion-neutral gas collisions, a recommended set of state-selective cross sections, based on our evaluation of the calculations and measurements, is provided.

  20. Theoretical Investigation of Charge Transfer between N6+ and atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Stancil, P C; Liebermann, H. P.; Funke, P.; Rai, S. N.; Buenker, R. J.; Schultz, David Robert; Hui, Yawei; Draganic, Ilija N; Havener, Charles C

    2011-01-01

    Charge transfer due to collisions of ground-state N{sup 6+}(1s{sup 2} S) with atomic hydrogen has been investigated theoretically using the quantum-mechanical molecular-orbital close-coupling (QMOCC) method, in which the adiabatic potentials and nonadiabatic couplings were obtained using the multireference single- and double-excitation configuration-interaction (MRDCI) approach. Total, n-, l-, and S-resolved cross sections have been obtained for energies between 10 meV/u and 10 keV/u. The QMOCC results were compared to available experimental and theoretical data as well as to merged-beams measurements and atomic-orbital close-coupling and classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. The accuracy of the QMOCC charge-transfer cross sections was found to be sensitive to the accuracy of the adiabatic potentials and couplings. Consequently, we developed a method to optimize the atomic basis sets used in the MRDCI calculations for highly charged ions. Since cross sections, especially those that are state selective, are necessary input for x-ray emission simulation of heliospheric and Martian exospheric spectra arising from solar wind ion-neutral gas collisions, a recommended set of state-selective cross sections, based on our evaluation of the calculations and measurements, is provided.