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Sample records for interstitial acochlidian gastropod

  1. Pleurotomarioidean gastropods.

    PubMed

    Harasewych, M G

    2002-01-01

    Pleurotomarioidean gastropods are continuously present in the fossil record since the Upper Cambrian and survive into the Recent fauna, thus providing rare insights into the evolutionary history of the class Gastropoda. Pleurotomarioidea achieved greatest numerical and morphological diversity during the Paleozoic, and dominated global shallow water marine gastropod faunas during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Only a single family, the Pleurotomariidae, survived the end-Cretaceous Extinction, but was restricted to deep water through most of the Cenozoic. The first living pleurotomariid was discovered during the mid-nineteenth century, along the bathyal zone of the western Atlantic. Subsequently collected specimens of these "living fossils" revealed that these animals comprise a mosaic of primitive and highly derived characters that originally inspired a new model of gastropod evolution, but more recently defy the orderly inclusion of this group within a cladistic framework of gastropod phylogeny. Molecular studies have likewise shown that the 18S rDNA gene of pleurotomariids contains novel insertions, and evolves more rapidly than in related taxa. A number of studies confirm that the Pleurotomarioidea may be included in the clade Vetigastropoda together with the Trochoidea, Fissurelloidea, Haliotoidea, and Scissurelloidea. However, neither the position of the superfamily within Vetigastropoda, nor the position of Vetigastropoda within Gastropoda is yet robustly resolved. The anatomical and molecular data are reviewed; the latter used to produce a well-resolved phylogeny of the genera within the family, and to justify the naming of the long-used informal grouping "Perotrochus Group B" as the genus Bayerotrochus. A review of the geographic and bathymetric distributions of pleurotomariids reveals that the higher taxa segregate bathymetrically, while the species within each genus generally segregate geographically, so that most species exist in allopartry. The diet of

  2. Interstitial nephritis

    MedlinePlus

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis; Nephritis - interstitial; Acute interstitial (allergic) nephritis ... Interstitial nephritis may be temporary ( acute ), or it may be long-lasting ( chronic ) and get worse over ...

  3. Interstitial keratitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cornea. This condition is often caused by infections. Syphilis is the most common cause of interstitial keratitis, ... Tuberculosis In the United States, most cases of syphilis are recognized and treated before this eye condition ...

  4. Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Gastropod mitochondrial genomes exhibit an unusually great variety of gene orders compared to other metazoan mitochondrial genome such as e.g those of vertebrates. Hence, gastropod mitochondrial genomes constitute a good model system to study patterns, rates, and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome rearrangement. However, this kind of evolutionary comparative analysis requires a robust phylogenetic framework of the group under study, which has been elusive so far for gastropods in spite of the efforts carried out during the last two decades. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of five mitochondrial genomes of gastropods (Pyramidella dolabrata, Ascobulla fragilis, Siphonaria pectinata, Onchidella celtica, and Myosotella myosotis), and we analyze them together with another ten complete mitochondrial genomes of gastropods currently available in molecular databases in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of gastropods. Results Comparative analyses with other mollusk mitochondrial genomes allowed us to describe molecular features and general trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genome organization in gastropods. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (ME, MP, ML, BI) arrived at a single topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in the group. Conclusion Four main lineages were identified within gastropods: Caenogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Patellogastropoda, and Heterobranchia. Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are sister taxa, as well as, Patellogastropoda and Heterobranchia. This result rejects the validity of the derived clade Apogastropoda (Caenogastropoda + Heterobranchia). The position of Patellogastropoda remains unclear likely due to long-branch attraction biases. Within Heterobranchia, the most heterogeneous group of gastropods, neither Euthyneura (because of the inclusion of P. dolabrata) nor Pulmonata

  5. Aragonite twinning in gastropod nacre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Hiroki; Saruwatari, Kazuko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2010-10-01

    Aragonite twinning in gastropod nacre has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with the focused ion beam (FIB) sample preparation technique. At the growth front of nacre, Haliotis discus hannai and Omphalius rusticus form a "stack-of-coins" structures, which consist of pseudo-hexagonal and elliptical aragonite tablets, respectively. SEM, EBSD, and TEM analyses revealed that these tablets are monolithic single crystal and almost free of the {1 1 0} twins that are common in aragonite of biotic or abiotic origin. The longest diagonal of the hexagon and the longer axis of the ellipse are parallel to the a-axis of aragonite. The crystal orientation of each tablet in a stack, measured by TEM-Kikuchi pattern analysis, is almost the same but there is occasionally {1 1 0} twin-like relationship between adjacent tablets along the stacking. On the other hand, the fibrous aragonite layer formed prior to the nacreous structure is composed of polycrystalline aragonite with high density of {1 1 0} twins. TEM observation suggests that the interlamellar organic sheet prevents the inheritance of the twins, by selecting only single domain of the twins, through the mineral bridge.

  6. Interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, A J; Winearls, C G; Dunnill, M S

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings are reviewed in ten cases where renal biopsy showed abnormalities predominantly within the interstitium. In six the nephritis was considered to be drug-induced; in two the aetiology was slightly obscure but the most likely diagnosis was considered to be sarcoidosis. Of the remaining two cases one was chronic pyelonephritis and the other polyarteritis nodosa. The diagnosis and pathogenesis of the renal lesions are discussed and attention is drawn to the importance of distinguishing primary interstitial changes from those found in association with glomerular disease. Images PMID:7251904

  7. [Gastropods and their role in the transmission of Trichinella invasion].

    PubMed

    Odoevskaia, I M; Bukina, L A

    2014-01-01

    Gastropods were established to be able to absorb decapsulated and encapsulated Trichinella larvae located in muscle tissue. Trichinella larvae remain viable and infectious for 24 to 48 hours after passing through the gastrointenstinal tract of gastropods. PMID:25286545

  8. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  9. Fracture Mitigation Strategies in Gastropod Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Christopher; Kisailus, David

    2013-04-01

    For hundreds of millions of years, gastropods have been evolving, modifying their external calcified shells for defense against shell-breaking and drilling predators. They have evolved primarily to use two different aragonitic microstructures: the evolutionary older Nacre (mother of pearl) structure and the more recently developed crossed-lamellar structure. By using both of these structures, gastropods are able to produce shells that are significantly tougher then geologic aragonite. However, the crossed-lamellar structure allows for a wider variety of shell morphologies, ensuring its increasing presence since the Mesozoic Marine Revolution more than 200 million years ago.

  10. Interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Davies, M F

    1998-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a multifactorial syndrome with symptoms of pelvic or perineal pain, urinary frequency and urgency. The etiologies are unknown, but several theories have been proposed. Diagnosis is often delayed because most of the conventional evaluation is normal. Pelvic examination is normal except for bladder tenderness. Urodynamics are normal except for increased bladder sensitivity and low capacity. Urinalysis, urine culture and office cystoscopy are also normal. The diagnostic test is cystoscopy under anesthesia with bladder distension. Small submucosal hemorrhages (glomerulations) or ulcers appear after distension. Many empiric treatments have been proposed for IC. None is universally effective, and so treatments are tried sequentially until good symptom relief is achieved. Bladder distension gives excellent (but transient) relief in some patients, especially those with severe bladder inflammation (who also tend to be older). A variety of oral, intravesical and adjunctive treatments are also described.

  11. Gastropod seed dispersal: an invasive slug destroys far more seeds in its gut than native gastropods.

    PubMed

    Blattmann, Tamara; Boch, Steffen; Türke, Manfred; Knop, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Seed dispersal is one of the most important mechanisms shaping biodiversity, and animals are one of the key dispersal vectors. Animal seed dispersal can directly or indirectly be altered by invasive organisms through the establishment of new or the disruption of existing seed dispersal interactions. So far it is known for a few gastropod species that they ingest and defecate viable plant seeds and consequently act as seed dispersers, referred to as gastropodochory. In a multi-species experiment, consisting of five different plant species and four different gastropod species, we tested with a fully crossed design whether gastropodochory is a general mechanism across native gastropod species, and whether it is altered by the invasive alien slug species Arion lusitanicus. Specifically, we hypothesized that a) native gastropod species consume the seeds from all tested plant species in equal numbers (have no preference), b) the voracious invasive alien slug A. lusitanicus--similarly to its herbivore behaviour--consumes a higher amount of seeds than native gastropods, and that c) seed viability is equal among different gastropod species after gut passage. As expected all tested gastropod species consumed all tested plant species. Against our expectation there was a difference in the amount of consumed seeds, with the largest and native mollusk Helix pomatia consuming most seeds, followed by the invasive slug and the other gastropods. Seed damage and germination rates did not differ after gut passage through different native species, but seed damage was significantly higher after gut passage through the invasive slug A. lusitanicus, and their germination rates were significantly reduced.

  12. [Interstitial pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Brasch, F

    2006-03-01

    Interstitial pneumonia is a rare disease, posing a diagnostic challenge to pneumologists, pediatricians, radiologists and pathologists. Only by the combined efforts of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) has has been possible to standardize the formerly different European and Northern American nomenclature of interstitial lung diseases (alveolitis versus interstitial pneumonia) in adults and to clearly and unambiguously define the diagnostic criteria. The ATS/ERS classification of 2002 comprises seven entities: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), lymphocyte interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). Using the ATS/ERS classification of interstitial pulmonary diseases in premature infants, infants and children is problematic, since UIP, RB-ILD and AIP do not occur at this age. Although infants with severe respiratory insufficiency may sometimes show morphological features similar to DIP or NSIP, this entity should rather be classified as chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) because of differences in etiology, pathogenesis and prognostic outcome.

  13. Phylogenomic analyses of deep gastropod relationships reject Orthogastropoda

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Felipe; Wilson, Nerida G.; Howison, Mark; Andrade, Sónia C. S.; Jörger, Katharina M.; Schrödl, Michael; Goetz, Freya E.; Giribet, Gonzalo; Dunn, Casey W.

    2014-01-01

    Gastropods are a highly diverse clade of molluscs that includes many familiar animals, such as limpets, snails, slugs and sea slugs. It is one of the most abundant groups of animals in the sea and the only molluscan lineage that has successfully colonized land. Yet the relationships among and within its constituent clades have remained in flux for over a century of morphological, anatomical and molecular study. Here, we re-evaluate gastropod phylogenetic relationships by collecting new transcriptome data for 40 species and analysing them in combination with publicly available genomes and transcriptomes. Our datasets include all five main gastropod clades: Patellogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia. We use two different methods to assign orthology, subsample each of these matrices into three increasingly dense subsets, and analyse all six of these supermatrices with two different models of molecular evolution. All 12 analyses yield the same unrooted network connecting the five major gastropod lineages. This reduces deep gastropod phylogeny to three alternative rooting hypotheses. These results reject the prevalent hypothesis of gastropod phylogeny, Orthogastropoda. Our dated tree is congruent with a possible end-Permian recovery of some gastropod clades, namely Caenogastropoda and some Heterobranchia subclades. PMID:25232139

  14. Gastropod fauna of the Cameroonian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandel, K.; Kowalke, T.

    1999-11-01

    Eighteen species of gastropods were encountered living near and within the large coastal swamps, mangrove forests, intertidal flats and the rocky shore of the Cameroonian coast of the Atlantic Ocean. These represent members of the subclasses Neritimorpha, Caenogastropoda, and Heterostropha. Within the Neritimorpha, representatives of the genera Nerita, Neritina, and Neritilia could be distinguished by their radula anatomy and ecology. Within the Caenogastropoda, representatives of the families Potamididae with Tympano-tonos and Planaxidae with Angiola are characterized by their early ontogeny and ecology. The Pachymelaniidae are recognized as an independent group and are introduced as a new family within the Cerithioidea. Littorinimorpha with Littorina, Assiminea and Potamopyrgus as well as Neogastropoda (Thais) and Heterostropha (Melampus and Onchidium) are described and compared with representatives of the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific province.

  15. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  16. Acute interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bouros, D; Nicholson, A C; Polychronopoulos, V; du Bois, R M

    2000-02-01

    The term "acute interstitial pneumonia" (AIP) describes an idiopathic clinicopathological condition, characterized clinically by an interstitial lung disease causing rapid onset of respiratory failure, which is distinguishable from the other more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia. It is synonymous with Hamman-Rich syndrome, occurring in patients without pre-existing lung disease. The histopathological findings are those of diffuse alveolar damage. AIP radiologically and physiologically resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is considered to represent the small subset of patients with idiopathic ARDS. It is frequently confused with other clinical entities characterized by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia, especially secondary acute interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbations and accelerated forms of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis . Furthermore, many authors use the above terms, both erroneously and interchangeably. It has a grave prognosis with >70% mortality in 3 months, despite mechanical ventilation. This review aims to clarify the relative clinical and pathological issues and terminology.

  17. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - ...

  18. Morphometry of interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    De Heer, E; Sijpkens, Y W; Verkade, M; den Dulk, M; Langers, A; Schutrups, J; Bruijn, J A; van Es, L A

    2000-01-01

    Several clinical studies have confirmed that histomorphometric changes in the tubulointerstitial compartment contain the best correlating parameters to predict the development of progressive renal insufficiency. The process of interstitial fibrosis is accompanied by an influx of inflammatory cells, up-regulation of fibrogenic cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta and basic fibroblast growth factor, transient down-modulation of their antagonists, generation and proliferation of myofibroblasts, and, finally, by accumulation of interstitial collagens and proteoglycans. A careful morphometric analysis of interstitial fibrosis requires sensitive parameters through which the severity can be quantified and by which the progression into renal insufficiency can be predicted. We have addressed these issues by morphometric analysis of both human biopsies and by refining existing experimental models in the rat. Morphometric analysis was performed using a Zeiss microscope equipped with a full colour 3CCD camera and KS-400 image analysis software from Zeiss-Kontron. For studies with human material, biopsies were examined from patients with various renal diseases including patients with chronic allotransplant dysfunction. The development of interstitial fibrosis was correlated with clinical parameters. In experimental models, we analysed the interstitial composition and eventual glomerular alterations in rats with bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced protein overload nephropathy and with human IgG-induced chronic serum sickness nephritis. Finally, we adapted and refined the model of ureter obstruction-induced interstitial fibrosis in the rat. For this purpose, custom-made titanium clips (S&T, Neuhaus, Switzerland) were implanted around the ureter in the abdomen of rats to obstruct the ureter without causing necrosis. The clips were removed at various time points after obstruction of the ureter (1-14 days). The subsequent remodelling of the interstitium was studied

  19. Does energy availability predict gastropod reproductive strategies?

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Craig R.; Filler, Ryan; Auld, Josh R.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of reproductive strategies in nature is shaped by a plethora of factors including energy availability. For example, both low temperatures and limited food availability could increase larval exposure to predation by slowing development, selecting against pelagic and/or feeding larvae. The frequency of hermaphroditism could increase under low food availability as population density (and hence mate availability) decreases. We examine the relationship between reproductive/life-history traits and energy availability for 189 marine gastropod families. Only larval type was related to energy availability with the odds of having planktotrophic larvae versus direct development decreasing by 1% with every one-unit increase in the square root of carbon flux. Simultaneous hermaphroditism also potentially increases with carbon flux, but this effect disappears when accounting for evolutionary relationships among taxa. Our findings are in contrast to some theory and empirical work demonstrating that hermaphroditism should increase and planktotrophic development should decrease with decreasing productivity. Instead, they suggest that some reproductive strategies are too energetically expensive at low food availabilities, or arise only when energy is available, and others serve to capitalize on opportunities for aggregation or increased energy availability. PMID:25009058

  20. Cretaceous gastropods: contrasts between tethys and the temperate provinces.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the Cretaceous Period, gastropod faunas show considerable differences in their evolution between the Tethyan Realm (tropical) and the Temperate Realms to the north and south. Like Holocene faunas, prosobranch, gastropods constitute the dominant part of Cretaceous marine snail faunas. Entomotaeneata and opisthobranchs usually form all of the remainder. In Tethyan faunas the Archaeogastropoda form a consistent high proportion of total taxa but less than the Mesogastropoda throughout the period. In contrast, the Temperate faunas beginning in Albian times show a decline in percentages of archaeogastropod taxa and a significant increase in the Neogastropoda, until they constitute over 50 percent of the taxa in some faunas. The neogastropods never attain high diversity in the Cretaceous of the Tethyan Realm and are judged to be of Temperate Realm origin. Cretaceous Tethyan gastropod faunas are closely allied to those of the 'corallien facies' of the Jurassic and begin the period evolutionarily mature and well diversified. Three categories of Tethyan gastropods are analyzed. The first group consists of those of Jurassic ancestry. The second group orginates mainly during the Barremian and Aptian, reaches a climax in diversification during middle Cretaceous time, and usually declines during the latest Cretaceous. The third group originates late in the Cretaceous and consists of taxa that manage to either survive the Cretaceous-Tertiary crisis or give rise to forms of prominence among Tertiary warm water faunas. Temperate Realm gastropod faunas are less diverse than those of Tethys during the Early Cretaceous. They show a steady increase in diversity, primarily among the Mesogastropoda and Neogastropoda. This trend culminates in latest Cretaceous times when the gastropod assemblages of the clastic provinces of the inner shelf contain an abundance of taxa outstripping that of any other part of the Cretaceous of either realm. Extinction at the Cretaceous

  1. ‘Clumped isotopes’ thermometry in land gastropod carbonate shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaarur, S.; Affek, H. P.

    2009-12-01

    The carbonate ‘clumped isotope’ (Δ47) thermometer is based on the dependence of the abundance of 13C-18O bonds in carbonates on the carbonate formation temperature. We repeated at higher analytical precision the original thermometer calibration experiments of Ghosh et al., (2006) using carbonates precipitated synthetically by slow degassing of CO2 from saturated Ca(HCO3)2 solutions at a temperature range of 8°C to 70°C. Our data fall within error of the original calibration and generally confirms it. However, the samples precipitated at lower temperatures are slightly shifted, forming a line with a lower slope, fitting better the theoretical calibration thermometer predicted by Guo et al., (in press). We tested the Δ47 thermometer in land gastropods (snails) by analyzing modern gastropod shells from various geographical locations in comparison to the gastropods’ growing season temperatures. No significant inhomogeneity was observed within an individual shell. Segments growing at different stages in the gastropods’ life (e.g., inner part of the helix reflecting young gastropod growth and outer shell that grew at older gastropod age) revealed no significant variations within a specimen in either Δ47 or δ18O, whereas δ13C varied significantly (0.5 ‰) implying a change in the gastropods’ food source. Inter-species comparison revealed significant δ13C and δ18O variations among specimens collected at the same location (Sphincterochila zonata and Trochoidea simulate, south Israel, and Pleurodonte acuta and Orthalicus undutus, Jamaica) but no significant interspecies variations in Δ47, providing a strong indication for carbonate precipitation in isotopic equilibrium. Gastropod shells do not grow year-round, with most gastropods being dormant during dry cold seasons. ‘Clumped isotopes’ values are therefore expected to record the temperature of the gastropods’ growth season. Hence gastropod ecology and preferred growth conditions has to be taken

  2. Karyomegalic Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Isnard, Pierre; Rabant, Marion; Labaye, Jacques; Antignac, Corinne; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Zaidan, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of hereditary chronic interstitial nephritis, described for the first time over 40 years ago. A 36-year-old woman, of Turkish origin, presented with chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure. She had a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections but no familial history of nephropathy. Physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory tests showed serum creatinine at 2.3 mg/dL with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 26 mL/min/1.73m2, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase at 3 and 1.5 times the upper normal limit. Urinalysis showed 0.8 g/day of nonselective proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and aseptic leukocyturia. Immunological tests and tests for human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses were negative. Complement level and serum proteins electrophoresis were normal. Analysis of the renal biopsy showed severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Numerous tubular cells had nuclear enlargement with irregular outlines, hyperchromatic aspect, and prominent nucleoli. These findings were highly suggestive of karyomegalic interstitial nephritis, which was further confirmed by exome sequencing of FAN1 gene showing an identified homozygous frameshift mutation due to a one-base-pair deletion in exon 12 (c.2616delA). The present case illustrates a rare but severe cause of hereditary interstitial nephritis, sometimes accompanied by subtle extrarenal manifestations. Identification of mutations in FAN1 gene underscores recent insights linking inadequate DNA repair and susceptibility to chronic kidney disease. PMID:27196444

  3. Annotated Checklist of the Terrestrial Gastropods of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Budha, Prem B.; Naggs, Fred; Backeljau, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This is the very first checklist of the terrestrial gastropods of Nepal. It includes 138 species and six subspecies, of which 22 species are endemic and four are introduced. It highlights 34 species recorded for the first time in Nepal and provides new distribution records for another 30 species. PMID:25878541

  4. Transcriptome of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica.

    PubMed

    Clark, Melody S; Thorne, Michael A S

    2015-12-01

    454 RNA-Seq transcriptome data were generated from foot tissue of the Antarctic brooding gastropod mollusc Margarella antarctica. A total of 6195 contigs were assembled de novo, providing a useful resource for researchers with an interest in Antarctic marine species, phylogenetics and mollusc biology, especially shell production.

  5. Pennsylvanian gastropod Pseudozygopleura (Pseudozygopleura) from the Appalachian basin: II

    SciTech Connect

    Hoare, R.E.; Sturgeon, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five additional taxa to those described by Hoare and Sturgeon (1981) of the gastropod Pseudozygopleura (Pseudozygopleura) are described from the Pennsylvania System of the Appalachian Basin. A key for identification of known Pennsylvanian species from this region is included.

  6. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Rech, J.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods are commonly preserved in wetland, alluvial, loess, and glacial deposits, as well as in sediments at many archeological sites. These shells are composed largely of aragonite (CaCO3) and potentially could be used for radiocarbon dating, but they must meet two criteria before their 14C ages can be considered to be reliable: (1) when gastropods are alive, the 14C activity of their shells must be in equilibrium with the 14C activity of the atmosphere, and (2) after burial, their shells must behave as closed systems with respect to carbon. To evaluate the first criterion, we conducted a comprehensive examination of the 14C content of the most common small terrestrial gastropods in North America, including 247 AMS measurements of modern shell material (3749 individual shells) from 46 different species. The modern gastropods that we analyzed were all collected from habitats on carbonate terrain and, therefore, the data presented here represent worst-case scenarios. In sum, ~78% of the shell aliquots that we analyzed did not contain dead carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks even though it was readily available at all sites, 12% of the aliquots contained between 5 and 10% dead carbon, and a few (3% of the total) contained more than 10%. These results are significantly lower than the 20-30% dead carbon that has been reported previously for larger taxa living in carbonate terrain. For the second criterion, we report a case study from the American Midwest in which we analyzed fossil shells of small terrestrial gastropods (7 taxa; 18 AMS measurements; 173 individual shells) recovered from late-Pleistocene sediments. The fossil shells yielded 14C ages that were statistically indistinguishable from 14C ages of well-preserved plant macrofossils from the same stratum. Although just one site, these results suggest that small terrestrial gastropod shells may behave as closed systems with respect to carbon over geologic

  7. [Interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Carughi, Stefano; De Cata, Angelo; Giuliani, Antonio; Masciale, Nunzia; La Viola, Marco; Puzzolante, Felice; Balzanelli, Mario

    2003-05-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are an heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases characterized by an anatomical distortion of peripheral airways and interstitium, determined by a first stage of alveolitis and a following stage of fibrosis. Natural history of several ILD is characterized by slow and progressive destruction of alveolar-capillary functional units, often with respiratory failure and death. For their smoldering evolution and not specificity of symptoms (exertional dyspnea and cough) ILD may remain not diagnosed and not treated for a long time.

  8. Interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment. Although the clinical course of IPF is highly variable, novel tools have been developed for individual prediction of prognosis. Acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with increased mortality and may occur with higher frequency in IPF patients with associated pulmonary hypertension. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease has been definitely established to have a better long-term survival than IPF. A subset of patients present with symptoms and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given autoimmune disease; this condition is associated with a higher prevalence of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern, female sex and younger age, although survival relevance is unclear.

  9. Methanotrophic gastropods from a bathyal hydrocarbon seep, Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, L.C.; Aharon, P.; Gupta, S. )

    1992-01-01

    Two gastropods, Neritina sp. and Truncatella sp., collected live from a Gulf of Mexico active gas seep with the submersible Johnson Sea Link in September 1991, apparently incorporate methane-derived carbon in their soft tissues. Flesh of an individual Neritina sp. had a delta C-13 of [minus]50.92 per mil PDB, and that of two coexisting individuals of Truncatella sp. had values of [minus]45.11 and [minus]49.27 per mil. These isotope values are comparable to those reported for the methanotrophic mytilid bivalve Bathymodiolus sp. from other hydrocarbon seeps on the Gulf of Mexico, and are lighter than published isotopic values of chemosynthetic organisms with sulfur-oxidizing symbionts. The anomalously light carbon-isotopic values of Neritina sp. and Truncatella sp. may steam from one of three causes: (1) these gastropods host symbiotic methanotrophic bacteria, (2) their chief food is methane-oxidizing bacteria present at the seep, or (3) they incorporate some carbon from the periostracum of mussels on which they may graze. The presence of abundant juveniles of Bathymodiolus, reported to settle preferentially in areas of active seepage and high methane release, indicates that methane was abundant and supported a community with multiple trophic levels. Generally, studies of hydrocarbon-seep communities have focused on larger community members, especially bivalves and tube worms. The presence of living Neritina and Truncatella at the authors sampling site, however, draws attention to the fact that these gastropods are integral and significant parts of hydrocarbon-seep communities. Both gastropod species are members of genera that characteristically inhabit shallow marine, intertidal, and semiterrestrial environments. The presence of these genera in bathyal hydrocarbon seeps indicates that they have very broad environmental ranges, thus limiting their utility in paleoecologic reconstructions.

  10. Predation through geological time: evidence from gastropod shell repair.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, G J; Schindel, D E; Zipser, E

    1981-11-27

    Warm-water marine gastropods from soft-bottom habitats show an increase in the incidence of breakage-resistant shell characteristics over geological time. The hypothesis that breakage became a more important component of selection in the middle of the Mesozoic Era is supported by the finding that frequencies of breakage-induced shell repair increased from the Pennsylvanian and Triassic periods to the Cretaceous, Miocene, and Recent.

  11. Pathology of Haplosporidium patagon affecting siphonariid gastropods in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Di Giorgio, Gisele; Gilardoni, Carmen; Ituarte, Cristián

    2014-11-13

    Haplosporidium patagon was found parasitizing Siphonaria lessonii and S. lateralis, 2 siphonariid gastropods co-occurring on the littoral rocky shore at Puerto Deseado, Santa Cruz, Argentina. Gastropods from 2 habitats representing 2 different levels of environmental harshness were studied. In both cases, S. lessonii showed a higher prevalence of infection (3.78%) over the entire 14 mo study period than S. lateralis (0.13%). Very different values of prevalence of infection were observed at the different sampling sites: Site 1, the more restrictive habitat (exposed for long periods to desiccation during low tides, higher ultraviolet exposure, and high ranges of temperature variation) showed a higher prevalence value (5.99%) than Site 2 (1.46%). Statistical differences in prevalence were also found between values corresponding to the austral spring (3.35% at Site 1 and 0.74% at Site 2) and winter (13.79% at Site 1 and 2.13% at Site 2). The presence/absence of H. patagon did not vary significantly with gastropod shell length. Infection affected the digestive gland, whose normal histology was greatly modified. The hermaphroditic gonads were also affected; the female germinal cells disappeared or only a few primary or previtellogenic oocytes were present, and vitellogenesis was inhibited. The function of the male germinal epithelium, as well as spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis processes and associated organs (seminal vesicles and seminal receptacles), were not affected. However, the glandular pallial complex of the reproductive systemwas affected, and we observed a significant reduction in development in parasitized gastropods. H. patagon sporocysts also invaded the supporting connective tissues of both the kidney and pseudobranch.

  12. Are gastropods, rather than ants, important dispersers of seeds of myrmecochorous forest herbs?

    PubMed

    Türke, Manfred; Andreas, Kerstin; Gossner, Martin M; Kowalski, Esther; Lange, Markus; Boch, Steffen; Socher, Stephanie A; Müller, Jörg; Prati, Daniel; Fischer, Markus; Meyhöfer, Rainer; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2012-01-01

    Seed dispersal by ants (myrmecochory) is widespread, and seed adaptations to myrmecochory are common, especially in the form of fatty appendices (elaiosomes). In a recent study, slugs were identified as seed dispersers of myrmecochores in a central European beech forest. Here we used 105 beech forest sites to test whether myrmecochore presence and abundance is related to ant or gastropod abundance and whether experimentally exposed seeds are removed by gastropods. Myrmecochorous plant cover was positively related to gastropod abundance but was negatively related to ant abundance. Gastropods were responsible for most seed removal and elaiosome damage, whereas insects (and rodents) played minor roles. These gastropod effects on seeds were independent of region or forest management. We suggest that terrestrial gastropods can generally act as seed dispersers of myrmecochorous plants and even substitute myrmecochory, especially where ants are absent or uncommon. PMID:22173465

  13. Phyletic patterns of early development in gastropod molluscs.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, David R; Guralnick, Robert P

    2003-01-01

    Cell lineage data for 30 exemplar gastropod taxa representing all major subclades and the outgroup Polyplacophora were examined for phylogenetic signal using cladistic analysis. Most cell lineages show phyletic trends of acceleration or retardation relative to the outgroup and more basal ingroup taxa, and when coded this variation is phylo-genetically informative. PAUP analyses of a cell lineage data set under three sets of character ordering assumptions produced similar tree topologies. The topologies of the strict consensus trees for both ordered and Dollo (near irreversibility of character transformations) character assumptions were similar, whereas the unordered character assumption recovers the least phyletic information. The cell lineage cladograms are also in agreement with the fossil record of the timing and sequence of gastropod subclade origination. A long branch lies between the Patellogastropoda+Vetigastropoda grade and the Neritopsina+Apogastropoda clade. The geological timing of this long branch is correlated with the first large-scale terrestrially derived eutrophication of the near-shore marine habitat, and one possible explanation for this branch may be a developmental shift associated with the evolution of feeding larvae in response to the more productive conditions in the near-shore water column. Although character transformations are highly ordered in this data set, developmental rate characters (like all other morphological and molecular characters) are also subject to homoplasy. Finally, this study further supports the hypothesis that early development of gastropod molluscs has conserved a strong phyletic signal for about half a billion years. PMID:12950628

  14. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP.

  16. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process. PMID:27514593

  17. Subclinical Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Tracy J.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of high-resolution computed tomography in clinical and research settings has increased the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals. We reported that in smokers, ILA were present in about 1 of every 12 high-resolution computed tomographic scans; however, the long-term significance of these subclinical changes remains unclear. Studies in families affected with pulmonary fibrosis, smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients with inflammatory lung disease have shown that asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals with ILA have reductions in lung volume, functional limitations, increased pulmonary symptoms, histopathologic changes, and molecular profiles similar to those observed in patients with clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). These findings suggest that, in select at-risk populations, ILA may represent early stages of pulmonary fibrosis or subclinical ILD. The growing interest surrounding this topic is motivated by our poor understanding of the inciting events and natural history of ILD, coupled with a lack of effective therapies. In this perspective, we outline past and current research focused on validating radiologic, physiological, and molecular methods to detect subclinical ILD. We discuss the limitations of the available cross-sectional studies and the need for future longitudinal studies to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of subclinical ILD in populations at risk of developing clinically significant ILD. PMID:22366047

  18. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  19. Using microwaves to prepare gastropods for DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Galindo, L A; Puillandre, N; Strong, E E; Bouchet, P

    2014-07-01

    Extracting DNA from gastropods presents particular difficulties due to the capacity of the living animal to retract into the shell, resulting in poor penetration of the ethanol into the tissues. Because the shell is essential to establish the link between sequences and traditional taxonomic identity, cracking the shell to facilitate fixation is not ideal. Several methods are currently in routine use to overcome this difficulty, including chemical relaxation, drilling the shell and boiling. Most of these methods are time-consuming, may be safety hazards and constitute a bottleneck in the preparation of large numbers of specimens in the field. We have experimented with a method traditionally used to clean shells that involves placing the living gastropods in a microwave (MW) oven; the electromagnetic radiation very quickly heats both the animal and the water trapped inside the shell, resulting in separation of the muscles that anchor the animal to the shell. Done properly, the body can be removed intact from the shell and the shell voucher is preserved undamaged. To test the method, the bodies of live-collected specimens from two gastropod species were separated from their shell by microwaving and by anesthetizing/drilling. After identical extraction and PCR procedures, the gels showed no difference in DNA quantity or quality, and the resulting sequences are identical within species. The method was then implemented on a large scale during expeditions, resulting in higher percentage of DNA extraction success. The MWs are also effective for quickly and easily removing other molluscs from their shells, that is, bivalves and scaphopods. Workflows implementing the MW technique show a three- to fivefold increase in productivity compared with other methods.

  20. Phylogeographical disjunction in abundant high-dispersal littoral gastropods.

    PubMed

    Waters, J M; King, T M; O'Loughlin, P M; Spencer, H G

    2005-08-01

    Abstract Phylogeographical disjunctions in high-dispersal marine taxa are variously ascribed to palaeogeographical conditions or contemporary ecological factors. Associated biogeographical studies, however, seldom incorporate the sampling design required to confidently discriminate among such competing hypotheses. In the current study, over 7800 gastropod specimens were examined for operculum colour, and 129 specimens genetically, to test ecological and historical biogeographical hypotheses relating to biogeographical disjunction in the Southern Hemisphere, and to southern Australia in particular. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of the high-dispersal intertidal gastropod Nerita atramentosa in southern Australia (88 specimens; 18 localities) revealed an east-west phylogeographical split involving two highly divergent clades (26.0 +/- 1.9%) exhibiting minimal geographical overlap in the southeast. The eastern clade of Nerita atramentosa is also widespread in northern New Zealand (43 specimens, 10 localities), but no significant genetic differentiation is explained by the Tasman Sea, a 2000-km-wide oceanic barrier. Spatial genetic structure was not detected within either clade, consistent with the species' dispersive planktotrophic phase lasting for 5-6 months. Digital analysis of operculum colouration revealed substantial differences between eastern (tan) and western (black) specimens. Genetic analysis and visual inspection of 88 Australian specimens revealed a completely nonrandom association between mtDNA data and operculum colouration. Independent examination of a further 7822 specimens from 14 sites in southern Australia revealed both colour morphs at all localities, but reinforced the phylogeographical data by indicating a marked turnover in colour morph abundance associated with a palaeogeographical barrier: Wilsons Promontory. This sharp biogeographical disjunction is in marked contrast to the species' high dispersal abilities. The genetic similarity of

  1. Phylogeographical disjunction in abundant high-dispersal littoral gastropods.

    PubMed

    Waters, J M; King, T M; O'Loughlin, P M; Spencer, H G

    2005-08-01

    Abstract Phylogeographical disjunctions in high-dispersal marine taxa are variously ascribed to palaeogeographical conditions or contemporary ecological factors. Associated biogeographical studies, however, seldom incorporate the sampling design required to confidently discriminate among such competing hypotheses. In the current study, over 7800 gastropod specimens were examined for operculum colour, and 129 specimens genetically, to test ecological and historical biogeographical hypotheses relating to biogeographical disjunction in the Southern Hemisphere, and to southern Australia in particular. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of the high-dispersal intertidal gastropod Nerita atramentosa in southern Australia (88 specimens; 18 localities) revealed an east-west phylogeographical split involving two highly divergent clades (26.0 +/- 1.9%) exhibiting minimal geographical overlap in the southeast. The eastern clade of Nerita atramentosa is also widespread in northern New Zealand (43 specimens, 10 localities), but no significant genetic differentiation is explained by the Tasman Sea, a 2000-km-wide oceanic barrier. Spatial genetic structure was not detected within either clade, consistent with the species' dispersive planktotrophic phase lasting for 5-6 months. Digital analysis of operculum colouration revealed substantial differences between eastern (tan) and western (black) specimens. Genetic analysis and visual inspection of 88 Australian specimens revealed a completely nonrandom association between mtDNA data and operculum colouration. Independent examination of a further 7822 specimens from 14 sites in southern Australia revealed both colour morphs at all localities, but reinforced the phylogeographical data by indicating a marked turnover in colour morph abundance associated with a palaeogeographical barrier: Wilsons Promontory. This sharp biogeographical disjunction is in marked contrast to the species' high dispersal abilities. The genetic similarity of

  2. Spatially explicit analysis of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of scientific infrastructure. The European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes. In a total of 284 samples from 224 different locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, 68 gastropod species, with 50 of them (= 73.5%) being endemic, could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i) within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii) widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond) are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii) while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the proportion of endemics increases, and (iv) the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity. Moreover, gastropod communities of Lake Ohrid and its feeder springs are both distinct from each other and from the surrounding waters. The analysis also shows that community similarity of Lake Ohrid is mainly driven by niche processes (e.g. environmental factors), but also by neutral processes (e.g. dispersal limitation and

  3. Space: A non-limiting resource in the niches of some abundant coral reef gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichelt, R. E.

    1982-06-01

    Given the importance attributed to the occupation of space in benthic coral reef communities, this study asks the question: are any particular microhabitat types limiting resources for an assemblage of worm-eating gastropods on Heron reef (Great Barrier Reef). Microhabitat resource use was measured on three occasions, separated by 12 and 20-month periods. The gastropod populations were typical of those of other Indo-Pacific sites with respect to mean shell size and density. Fluctuations in species' size and density are assumed to have not significantly influenced availability of microhabitat resources. Gastropods occurred mainly in the structurally complex “refuge” microhabitats during the day and showed an increased abundance in smooth, exposed, “foraging” microhabitat nocturnally. Nassarius gaudiosus is the most extreme microhabitat specialist diurnally and the most extreme microhabitat generalist nocturnally. A similar, although less pronounced trend was exhibited by other gastropod species. Microhabitat niche overlap was high for Conus coronatus, C. miliaris, C. flavidus, Vasum turbinellus and N. gaudiosus at night and was also high during the day for all these species except N. gaudiosus, which showed little overlap with other gastropod species diurnally. Using gastropod abundance data from all samples, and independently derived microhabitat abundance data, multiple regression analysis demonstrated: 1) A significant relationship between the abundances of N. gaudiosus, C. coronatus, and C. flavidus and the abundance of microhabitat 2 (sand under rocks=“refuge”). 2) No positive association between gastropod abundance and the abundance of microhabitat 7a (thin layer of algal-bound sand on reef limestone). Only N. gaudiosus is abundant in microhabitat 2. Therefore it is concluded that, with some exceptions, microhabitat abundance does not have a significant influence, directly or indirectly, on gastropod abundance. It is possible that density

  4. The vermetid gastropod Dendropoma maximum reduces coral growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Shima, Jeffrey S.; Osenberg, Craig W.; Stier, Adrian C.

    2010-01-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most diverse systems on the planet; yet, only a small fraction of coral reef species have attracted scientific study. Here, we document strong deleterious effects of an often overlooked species—the vermetid gastropod, Dendropoma maximum—on growth and survival of reef-building corals. Our surveys of vermetids on Moorea (French Polynesia) revealed a negative correlation between the density of vermetids and the per cent cover of live coral. Furthermore, the incidence of flattened coral growth forms was associated with the presence of vermetids. We transplanted and followed the fates of focal colonies of four species of corals on natural reefs where we also manipulated presence/absence of vermetids. Vermetids reduced skeletal growth of focal corals by up to 81 per cent and survival by up to 52 per cent. Susceptibility to vermetids varied among coral species, suggesting that vermetids could shift coral community composition. Our work highlights the potential importance of a poorly studied gastropod to coral dynamics. PMID:20484230

  5. Carbonate biomineralization in terrestrial gastropods: environmental vs. physiological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierzwa, D.; Stolarski, J.

    2009-04-01

    Preservational potential of shells of terrestrial gastropods allows to use them as valuable (paleo)climatic proxies. Despite of the fact, that the elements incorporated in their skeleton derive almost entirely from their diet, details of the ion uptake routes have not been studied in details. This work is a first step in the investigations of element uptake and biomineralization processes in pulmonate gastropod Cepaea vindobonensis (Férussac, 1821). Although phenotypic plasticity in the shell characters of the species appears to be mainly genetic in nature, some differences seem to correlate with availability of ions used in biomineralization. For example, shells of individuals living in marginal parts of flood plains (environment extreme for the species and generally depleted in calcium) have weakened structure and faded color pattern, whereas individuals from the lime substrata form typically developed, pigmented shells with several cross-lamellar layers. Micro- and nanostructural characteristics of shells from different environments are visualized by SEM and AFM imaging techniques and some biogeochemical properties are characterized by spectroscopic and fluorescence methods. Further experiments are required to elucidate the ion/trace elements transfer between the substratum, nutrients, organism, and the shell.

  6. Variation in the diets of hydrothermal vent gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govenar, Breea; Fisher, Charles R.; Shank, Timothy M.

    2015-11-01

    A prevailing paradigm of hydrothermal vent ecology is that primary consumers feed on chemoautotrophic bacteria. However, for the purposes of reconstructing vent food webs and for tracking energy flow from the generation of rock and fluid chemistry through primary/ secondary productivity and consumption to the overlying water column, it remains unclear which consumers feed on which bacteria. In paired analyses of carbon and nitrogen tissue stable isotope values with unique 16S rRNA sequences from the stomach contents, we determined that two species of gastropod grazers appear to feed on epsilon-proteobacteria, while two other species have more diverse diets, including one species that consumes alpha-proteobacteria, planctomycetes, and non-green sulfur bacteria. Different carbon fixation pathways used by epsilon- and alpha-proteobacteria may account for the variation in the carbon stable isotope values among the consumers. Furthermore, our results indicate that trophic specialization and niche partitioning may contribute to the distribution and abundance of vent-endemic gastropods and support the hypothesis that consumers in the warmer habitats commonly feed on epsilon-proteobacteria that use the rTCA cycle, while in the cooler habitats they feed on additional bacteria that use the CBB cycle. These results suggest that the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of free-living bacteria may play an important and previously overlooked role in facilitating species coexistence among primary consumers at hydrothermal vents and other chemosynthesis-based ecosystems.

  7. Morphological evidence for a morphogenetic field in gastropod mollusc eggs.

    PubMed

    Tyler, S E; Butler, R D; Kimber, S J

    1998-01-01

    Eggs of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata examined by confocal imaging of FITC-lectin binding to the surface, and cryoscopic-SEM both reveal a surface architecture of linear structures organized around the animal-vegetal axis, which is spatially related to the anterior-posterior (a-p) axis of the subsequent embryo. A series of structures is also orientated with reference to specific micromere quartets formed during spiral cleavage. Thus, the surface architecture may provide a visible marker for a morphogenetic field which generates the a-p axis and organizes the cleavage pattern. Moreover, this architecture is co-extensive with that found on the vegetal, polar lobe-bearing region of eggs, as described by others, and which varies between gastropod taxa with varied types of body form. Confocal imaging reveals a distinct localization of F-actin to the architecture of the lobe region. However, the integrity of this F-actin is not responsible for the maintenance of the surface architecture. The significance of these findings to our understanding of the generation of diversity within the Gastropoda and general ontogenic mechanisms is discussed.

  8. Atmospheric O2 Levels Compared to Gastropod Body Size in the Phanerozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, C.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Body size greatly impacts the physiological and biological composition of an organism, and the tendency for body size to increase over time (Cope's Rule) indicates that large body size is evolutionally favored for some clades. However, many environmental and ecological factors driving Cope's Rule are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the effects of oxygen levels on gastropod body size during the Phanerozoic by taking numerous measurements of gastropod body size from the primary literature and comparing the resulting data with reconstructed atmospheric oxygen levels. Our graphs show that atmospheric oxygen levels had little effect on gastropod body size. Gastropod body size slowly decreased during the first half of the Paleozoic then stayed fairly constant, while atmospheric oxygen levels increased substantially through the same interval. This finding indicates that there must have been factors more dominant than oxygen in driving Gastropod body size during that time period. In contrast, starting 200mya, as oxygen levels steadily rose, gastropod body size also increased. Our findings act as strong motivation for future research in understanding whether or not oxygen became a dominant factor affecting Gastropod body size 200mya.

  9. Interstitial Functionalization in elemental Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, Edwin

    Societies in the 21st century will face many challenges. Materials science and materials design will be essential to address and master some if not all of these challenges. Semiconductors are among the most important technological material classes. Properties such as electrical transport are strongly affected by defects and a central goal continues to be the reduction of defect densities as much as possible in these compounds. Here we present results of interstitial Fe doping in elemental Si using first-principles DFT calculations. The preliminary results show that Fe will only occupy octahedral interstitial sites. The analysis of the electronic structure shows that the compounds are ferromagnetic and that a bandgap opens as interstitial Fe concentrations decrease, with a possible intermittent semi-metallic phase. The formation energy for interstitial Fe is unfavorable, as expected, by ~1.5 eV but becomes favorable as the chemical potential of Fe increases. Therefore, we expect that biasing the system with an external electrical field will lead to the formation of these materials. Thus, our results show that interstitial defects can be beneficial for the design of functionalities that differ significantly from those of the host material.

  10. Tetrodotoxin and derivatives in several species of the gastropod Naticidae.

    PubMed

    Hwang, D F; Tai, K P; Chueh, C H; Lin, L C; Jeng, S S

    1991-01-01

    The organs of 195 specimens of 4 species of the gastropod Naticidae, collected from fish markets in Taiwan, were assayed for toxicity. The calf moon shell Natica vitellus contained weak toxicity (10-99 MU/g) in the muscle and digestive gland. The bladder moon shell Polinices didyma contained moderate (100-999 MU/g) and weak toxicity in the muscle and digestive gland, respectively. The digestive gland in 1 out of 20 specimens of the pear-shaped moon shell P. tumidus was toxic (4 MU/g). All tissues of the butterfly moon shell N. alapapilionis were non-toxic. The toxins were partially purified from the toxic specimens of the calf moon shell and the bladder moon shell, and identified to be tetrodotoxin and anhydrotetrodotoxin.

  11. Europe's Neogene and Quaternary lake gastropod diversity - a statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    During the Neogene Europe's geodynamic history gave rise to several long-lived lakes with conspicuous endemic radiations. However, such lacustrine systems are rare today as well as in the past compared to the enormous numbers of "normal" lakes. Most extant European lakes are mainly results of the Ice Ages and are due to their (geologically) temporary nature largely confined to the Pleistocene-Holocene. As glacial lakes are also geographically restricted to glacial regions (and their catchment areas) their preservation potential is fairly low. Also deposits of streams, springs, and groundwater, which today are inhabited by species-rich gastropod assemblages, are rarely preserved. Thus, the pre-Quaternary lacustrine record is biased towards long-lived systems, such as the Late Miocene Lake Pannon, the Early to Middle Miocene Dinaride Lake System, the Middle Miocene Lake Steinheim and several others. All these systems have been studied for more than 150 years concerning their mollusk inventories and the taxonomic literature is formidable. However, apart from few general overviews precise studies on the γ-diversities of the post-Oligocene European lake systems and the shifting biodiversity in European freshwater systems through space and time are entirely missing. Even for the modern faunas, literature on large-scale freshwater gastropod diversity in extant lakes is scarce and lacks a statistical approach. Our preliminary data suggest fundamental differences between modern and pre-Pleistocene freshwater biogeography in central Europe. A rather homogenous central European Pleistocene and Holocene lake fauna is contrasted by considerable provincialism during the early Middle Miocene. Aside from the ancient Dessaretes lakes of the Balkan Peninsula, Holocene lake faunas are dominated by planorbids and lymnaeids in species numbers. This composition differs considerably from many Miocene and Pliocene lake faunas, which comprise pyrgulid-, hydrobiid-, viviparid-, melanopsid

  12. Rare and endangered species: freshwater gastropods of southern New England

    SciTech Connect

    Jokinen, E.H.; Pondick, J.

    1981-01-01

    The rare and endangered species of freshwater gastropods of southern New England are reported on based upon data collected over the past four years. Field sampling was concentrated in Connecticut but included parts of southern Massachusetts east to Cape Code (69 55 W to 73 45'W, 40 00'N). Water chemistry data were collected along with the snails. Collection methods and water analysis techniques have been described elsewhere by Jokinen (The Nautilus 92:156-160, 1978). Voucher specimens have been placed in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, The Florida State Museum, and the Museum of Zoology, the University of Michigan. Acid rain poses a threat to poorly buffered habitats. 6 references, 1 table.

  13. Mass mortality of the vermetid gastropod Ceraesignum maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. L.; Frazer, T. K.; Shima, J. S.; Osenberg, C. W.

    2016-09-01

    Ceraesignum maximum (G.B. Sowerby I, 1825), formerly Dendropoma maximum, was subject to a sudden, massive die-off in the Society Islands, French Polynesia, in 2015. On Mo'orea, where we have detailed documentation of the die-off, these gastropods were previously found in densities up to 165 m-2. In July 2015, we surveyed shallow back reefs of Mo'orea before, during and after the die-off, documenting their swift decline. All censused populations incurred 100% mortality. Additional surveys and observations from Mo'orea, Tahiti, Bora Bora, and Huahine (but not Taha'a) suggested a similar, and approximately simultaneous, die-off. The cause(s) of this cataclysmic mass mortality are currently unknown. Given the previously documented negative effects of C. maximum on corals, we expect the die-off will have cascading effects on the reef community.

  14. The effects of experimentally induced adelphophagy in gastropod embryos.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Olaf; Collin, Rachel; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Adelphophagy, development where embryos grow large by consuming morphologically distinct nutritive embryos or their own normal siblings is widespread but uncommon among animal phyla. Among invertebrates it is particularly common in some families of marine gastropods and segmented worms, but rare or unknown in other closely related families. In calyptraeid gastropods phylogenetic analysis indicates that adelphophagy has arisen at least 9 times from species with planktotrophic larval development. This pattern of frequent parallel evolution of adelphophagy suggests that the embryos of planktotrophic species might be predisposed to evolve adelphophagy. Here we used embryos of three species of planktotrophic calyptraeids, one from each of three major genera in the family (Bostrycapulus, Crucibulum, and Crepidula), to answer the following 3 questions: (1) Can embryos of species with planktotrophic development benefit, in terms of pre-hatching growth, from the ingestion of yolk and tissue from experimentally damaged siblings? (2) Does ingestion of this material from damaged siblings increase variation in pre-hatching size? and (3) Does this experimentally induced adelphophagy alter the allometry between the velum and the shell, increasing morphological similarity to embryos of normally adelphophagic species? We found an overall increase in shell length and velum diameter when embryos feed on damaged siblings within their capsules. There was no detectable increase in variation in shell length or velum diameter, or changes in allometry. The overall effect of our treatment was small compared to the embryonic growth observed in naturally adelphophagic development. However each embryo in our experiment probably consumed less than one sibling on average, whereas natural adelphophages often each consume 10-30 or more siblings. These results suggest that the ability to consume, assimilate, and benefit from yolk and tissue of their siblings is widespread across calyptraeids.

  15. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Adelphophagy in Gastropod Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Olaf; Collin, Rachel; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Adelphophagy, development where embryos grow large by consuming morphologically distinct nutritive embryos or their own normal siblings is widespread but uncommon among animal phyla. Among invertebrates it is particularly common in some families of marine gastropods and segmented worms, but rare or unknown in other closely related families. In calyptraeid gastropods phylogenetic analysis indicates that adelphophagy has arisen at least 9 times from species with planktotrophic larval development. This pattern of frequent parallel evolution of adelphophagy suggests that the embryos of planktotrophic species might be predisposed to evolve adelphophagy. Here we used embryos of three species of planktotrophic calyptraeids, one from each of three major genera in the family (Bostrycapulus, Crucibulum, and Crepidula), to answer the following 3 questions: (1) Can embryos of species with planktotrophic development benefit, in terms of pre-hatching growth, from the ingestion of yolk and tissue from experimentally damaged siblings? (2) Does ingestion of this material from damaged siblings increase variation in pre-hatching size? and (3) Does this experimentally induced adelphophagy alter the allometry between the velum and the shell, increasing morphological similarity to embryos of normally adelphophagic species? We found an overall increase in shell length and velum diameter when embryos feed on damaged siblings within their capsules. There was no detectable increase in variation in shell length or velum diameter, or changes in allometry. The overall effect of our treatment was small compared to the embryonic growth observed in naturally adelphophagic development. However each embryo in our experiment probably consumed less than one sibling on average, whereas natural adelphophages often each consume 10–30 or more siblings. These results suggest that the ability to consume, assimilate, and benefit from yolk and tissue of their siblings is widespread across calyptraeids

  16. Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

  17. Pathology of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Hashisako, Mikiko; Fukuoka, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The updated classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) in 2013 by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society included several important revisions to the categories described in the 2002 classification. In the updated classification, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) was moved from major to rare IIPs, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was newly included in the rare IIPs, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) and interstitial pneumonias with a bronchiolocentric distribution are recognized as rare histologic patterns, and unclassifiable IIP (UCIP) was classified as an IIP. However, recent reports indicate the areas of concern that may require further evaluation. Here, we describe the histopathologic features of the updated IIPs and their rare histologic patterns and also point out some of the issues to be considered in this context. PMID:26949346

  18. Interstitial brines in playa sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Van Denburgh, A.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Rettig, S.L.

    1969-01-01

    Study of several closed drainages in the Great Basin has shown that the interstitial solutions of shallow, fine-grained playa deposits store a large quantity of dissolved solids and are often more concentrated than associated lakes and ponds, except in peripheral zones of stream or ground-water inflow. These interstitial fluids, when compared with local runoff, impoundments, or spring waters, commonly have a distinctive ionic composition which sometimes cannot be explained by either simple mixing of surface and subsurface inflow or by evaporative concentration. At Abert Lake, Oregon, the interstitial solute concentrations increased with depth to values as much as five times greater than the lake, except where springs indicate significant ground-water input. Where Na+, Cl, and CO2 species constitute more than 90% of the solutes, Na+ Cl- ratios in the lake water are lower than in interstitial solutions of bottom cores and higher than in playa fluids. At the same time, Na+ K+ ratios are highest in the fluids of lake bottom muds and lowest in playa interstitials. In deeper playa profiles, interstitial Na+ Cl- tended to decrease with depth (5 ft. maximum). In the Abert Lake area, as in other parts of the western Great Basin, Na+ Cl- ratios are indicative of total CO2 in solution and the effects of organic decay in surficial sediments. These ratios, coupled with data on silica and bulk density, show that higher PCO2 accompanying decay promotes silicate dissolution and hydrogen ion exchange, stripping alkalis from sediment which had preferentially adsorbed K+ when entering the lake. On subsequent loss of pore fluid in the playa regime, silica initially released to solution in the lake environment is readsorbed on dissolution products. ?? 1969.

  19. Equine testicular interstitial cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, H B; McEntee, K

    1987-05-01

    Interstitial cell tumors from nine stallions were described. In all but one horse the tumors were found in undescended testes. Five animals had bilateral tumors. Two animals showed increased aggression. Tumors contained two cell types. The first type were large distinctly bordered eosinophilic cells interpreted to be hyperplastic and hypertrophic interstitial cells. They blended with pleomorphic often spindloid neoplastic cells which had fibrillar, vacuolated cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. This latter cell population was arranged in nodules or broad sheets as endocrine-like packets or interweaving fascicles. Biologic behavior of the neoplasms could not be ascertained from histologic examination. PMID:2885961

  20. Interstitial lung disease in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Sara R; Castelino, Flavia V

    2015-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a heterogeneous disease of unknown etiology with limited effective therapies. It is characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis and is clinically manifested by multiorgan involvement. Interstitial lung disease is a common complication of systemic sclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of interstitial lung disease hinges on careful clinical evaluation and pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography. Effective therapeutic options are still limited. Several experimental therapies are currently in early-phase clinical trials and show promise.

  1. Interstitial nephritis. A brief review.

    PubMed Central

    Heptinstall, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common condition, which in spite of a relatively constant pathologic picture has different etiologic agents and pathogenetic mechanisms. Failure to appreciate this, particularly in the chronic group, has led to considerable confusion and has been largely responsible for the overdiagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis. Although we are still largely ignorant of the causes of interstitial nephritis, it is now possible to define many of them. While experimental studies have not made spectacular contributions to our understanding, an attempt is now being made to develop appropriate models, and we hope these will enable us to still further clarify our understanding of other entities. PMID:776003

  2. Prior exposure influences the behavioural avoidance by an intertidal gastropod, Bembicium auratum, of acidified waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Valter; Cabral, Henrique N.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may be critical to the maintenance of viable populations under future environmental change. Here we examined the role of behavioural avoidance of sub-optimal conditions in enabling the intertidal gastropod, Bembicium auratum, to persist in mangrove forests affected by the low pH runoff from acid sulphate soils (ASS). Behaviourally, the gastropod may be able to avoid periods of particularly high acidity by using pneumatophores and/or mangrove trunks to vertically migrate above the water line or by retreating into its shell. We hypothesised that (1) B. auratum would display greater and more rapid vertical migration out of acidified than reference estuarine waters, and (2) responses would be more pronounced in gastropods collected from acidified than reference sites. Gastropods from acidified sites showed significantly higher activity in and more rapid migration out of acidified waters of pH 6.2-7.0, than reference waters or waters of pH < 5.0. Gastropods from reference locations showed a significantly weaker response to acidified water than those from acidified waters, and which did not significantly differ from their response to reference water. At extremely low pHs, <5.0, a higher proportion of both acidified and reference gastropods retreated into their shell than at higher pHs. Both the migration of gastropods out of acidified waters and retraction into their shells serves to reduce exposure time to acidified waters and may reduce the impact of this stressor on their populations. The stronger response to acidification of gastropods from populations previously exposed to this stressor suggests that the response may be learned, inherited or induced over multiple exposures. Our study adds to growing evidence that estuarine organisms may exhibit considerable physiological and behaviour adaptive capacity to acidification. The potential for such adaptive capacity should be incorporated into studies seeking to forecast impacts to marine organisms

  3. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods.

  4. Mitochondrial genome of the endangered marine gastropod Strombus gigas Linnaeus, 1758 (Mollusca: Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Márquez, Edna J; Castro, Erick R; Alzate, Juan F

    2016-01-01

    The queen conch Strombus gigas is an endangered marine gastropod of significant economic importance across the Greater Caribbean region. This work reports for the first time the complete mitochondrial genome of S. gigas, obtained by FLX 454 pyrosequencing. The mtDNA genome encodes for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNAs. In addition, the coding sequences and gene synteny were similar to other previously reported mitogenomes of gastropods. PMID:25186797

  5. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  6. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" ( ... affect are shown in the illustration below. Normal Lungs and Lung Structures Figure A shows the location ...

  7. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Laria, A; Lurati, A; Scarpellini, M

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs) are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US) findings in the follow-up of a NSIP's case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:26240772

  8. Spatially explicit analyses of gastropod biodiversity in ancient Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Schreiber, K.; Birkhofer, K.; Trajanovski, S.; Wilke, T.

    2010-07-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of biodiversity arises from evolutionary processes, constraints of environmental factors and the interaction of communities. The quality of such spatial analyses of biodiversity is improved by (i) utilizing study areas with well defined physiogeographical boundaries, (ii) limiting the impact of widespread species, and (iii) using taxa with heterogeneous distributions. These conditions are typically met by ecosystems such as oceanic islands or ancient lakes and their biota. While research on ancient lakes has contributed significantly to our understanding of evolutionary processes, statistically sound studies of spatial variation of extant biodiversity have been hampered by the frequently vast size of ancient lakes, their limited accessibility, and the lack of infrastructure around them. The small European ancient Lake Ohrid provides a rare opportunity for such a reliable spatial study. The comprehensive horizontal and vertical sampling of a species-rich taxon, the Gastropoda, presented here, revealed interesting patterns of biodiversity, which, in part, have not been shown before for other ancient lakes. In a total of 224 locations throughout the Ohrid Basin, representatives of 68 gastropod species with 50 of them being endemic (=73.5%) could be reported. The spatial distribution of these species shows the following characteristics: (i) within Lake Ohrid, the most frequent species are endemic taxa with a wide depth range, (ii) widespread species (i.e. those occurring throughout the Balkans or beyond) are rare and mainly occur in the upper layer of the lake, (iii) while the total number of species decreases with water depth, the share of endemics increases, (iv) the deeper layers of Lake Ohrid appear to have a higher spatial homogeneity of biodiversity and related environmental factors, (v) biotic interaction due to possible spillover effects may contribute to the establishment of hotspots, and (vi) eco-insularity within the Ohrid Basin occurs

  9. A molecular phylogenetic analysis of strombid gastropod morphological diversity.

    PubMed

    Latiolais, Jared M; Taylor, Michael S; Roy, Kaustuv; Hellberg, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    The shells of strombid gastropods show a wide variety of forms, ranging from small and fusiform to large and elaborately ornamented with a strongly flared outer lip. Here, we present the first species-level molecular phylogeny for strombids and use the resulting phylogenetic framework to explore relationships between species richness and morphological diversity. We use portions of one nuclear (325 bp of histone H3) and one mitochondrial (640 bp of cytochrome oxidase I, COI) gene to infer relationships within the two most species-rich genera in the Strombidae: Strombus and Lambis. We include 32 species of Strombus, representing 10 of 11 extant subgenera, and 3 of the 9 species of Lambis, representing 2 of 3 extant subgenera. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of COI and of H3 and COI combined suggest Lambis is nested within a paraphyletic Strombus. Eastern Pacific and western Atlantic species of Strombus form a relatively recent monophyletic radiation within an older, paraphyletic Indo-West Pacific grade. Morphological diversity of subclades scales positively with species richness but does not show evidence of strong phylogenetic constraints. PMID:16839783

  10. Spatial vision in the prosobranch gastropod ampularia sp

    PubMed

    Seyer; Nilsson; Warrant

    1998-05-01

    The eyes of gastropods of the genus Ampularia superficially resemble the well-developed camera-type eyes of Littorina littorea and Strombus raninus. The eyes are of the closed-vesicle type, having a cornea and a lens that is separated from the retina by a narrow vitreous body. Light and electron microscopy were used to generate an accurate geometrical model of the Ampularia sp. eye, which was then used to predict its optical performance. The image quality of the lens was investigated using a modified microscope and revealed that images suffer from severe aberrations. The focal length was estimated to be approximately 430 microm, putting the plane of best focus in or just proximal to the rhabdoms. The aberrant optics result in a large retinal blur-circle with a diameter of approximately 120 microm and an angular half-width of approximately 17 degrees, allowing only comparatively poor resolution compared with the eyes of Littorina littorea and Strombus raninus. Behavioural experiments revealed no significant optomotor response. The results imply that Ampularia sp. has poor spatial vision, limited by the blur-circles on the retina. The eyes appear to be suitable only for relatively simple visual tasks, such as finding an open water surface for breathing, but the large size of the eye allows it to perform this task even at night. PMID:9556547

  11. A Method for Quantifying, Visualising, and Analysing Gastropod Shell Form.

    PubMed

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of organismal form is an important component for almost every branch of biology. Although generally considered an easily-measurable structure, the quantification of gastropod shell form is still a challenge because many shells lack homologous structures and have a spiral form that is difficult to capture with linear measurements. In view of this, we adopt the idea of theoretical modelling of shell form, in which the shell form is the product of aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture growth trajectory that is quantified as curvature and torsion, and of aperture form that is represented by size and shape. We develop a workflow for the analysis of shell forms based on the aperture ontogeny profile, starting from the procedure of data preparation (retopologising the shell model), via data acquisition (calculation of aperture growth trajectory, aperture form and ontogeny axis), and data presentation (qualitative comparison between shell forms) and ending with data analysis (quantitative comparison between shell forms). We evaluate our methods on representative shells of the genera Opisthostoma and Plectostoma, which exhibit great variability in shell form. The outcome suggests that our method is a robust, reproducible, and versatile approach for the analysis of shell form. Finally, we propose several potential applications of our methods in functional morphology, theoretical modelling, taxonomy, and evolutionary biology.

  12. A Method for Quantifying, Visualising, and Analysing Gastropod Shell Form

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of organismal form is an important component for almost every branch of biology. Although generally considered an easily-measurable structure, the quantification of gastropod shell form is still a challenge because many shells lack homologous structures and have a spiral form that is difficult to capture with linear measurements. In view of this, we adopt the idea of theoretical modelling of shell form, in which the shell form is the product of aperture ontogeny profiles in terms of aperture growth trajectory that is quantified as curvature and torsion, and of aperture form that is represented by size and shape. We develop a workflow for the analysis of shell forms based on the aperture ontogeny profile, starting from the procedure of data preparation (retopologising the shell model), via data acquisition (calculation of aperture growth trajectory, aperture form and ontogeny axis), and data presentation (qualitative comparison between shell forms) and ending with data analysis (quantitative comparison between shell forms). We evaluate our methods on representative shells of the genera Opisthostoma and Plectostoma, which exhibit great variability in shell form. The outcome suggests that our method is a robust, reproducible, and versatile approach for the analysis of shell form. Finally, we propose several potential applications of our methods in functional morphology, theoretical modelling, taxonomy, and evolutionary biology. PMID:27280463

  13. [Lipids composition and speed of energy metabolism in gastropods].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S

    2008-01-01

    Lipid composition of digestive gland and pedal muscle of two northern freshwater pulmonate snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata and three marine prosobranch gastropods Littorina obtusata, Littorina littorea, Buccinum undatum from the White Sea was studied. The species differ in ecology, particularly in trophic nabits and motor activity. The content of triacilglycerides both in digestive gland and pedal was higher in littoral dwellers Littorina the activity of which depends on the tide level. The phospholipids content in digestive gland does not differ in quantity in all cases and does not relate to type of feeding or resource quality. In a pedal muscle of marine species the quantity of common phospholipids is higher in comparison with the freshwater ones. The amount of total phospholipids in pedal muscle correlates with mass of metabolic inert formation which constitutes a part of whole mass of snails. The presence of massive shell enhances demands in energy needed for supporting movement and activity. Because the intensity of energy metabolism is related to quantity of total phospholipids, mitochondria and activity of their oxidizing ferments, the presence of thick shell in marine snails together with motor activity costs more in terms of energy than in freshwater snails with thin shell. This hypothesis is supported by the higher specific rate of oxygen consumption in marine snails than in freshwaters. PMID:19140337

  14. Model of naticid gastropod predator-prey coevolution

    SciTech Connect

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Kitchell, J.A.; Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Size change over evolutionary time between two interacting species, a predatory naticid gastropod and its bivalve prey, is analyzed. We show that two simultaneous, maximizing algorithms (the predator maximizes energy intake; the prey maximizes reproductive output) result in an endogenous, coevolutionary size increase, to a stable attracting point. In particular, we show that selection for delayed reproduction in a predatorpreay system that is highly size-selective due to the predatory strategy of cost-benefit prey selection, coupled with the relative allometries of cost (prey shell thickness) and benefit (prey biomass) with prey size, and the highly size-dependent probability of successful predation, lead to a coevolutionary size increase for both predator and prey, up to a limit condition dictated by predatory respiration costs. In the absence of predation, the prey species attains a smaller size than in the presence of predation. Addition of the predator results in a delay in the timing of reproduction by the prey, thereby facilitating a size response.

  15. [Lipids composition and speed of energy metabolism in gastropods].

    PubMed

    Arakelova, E S

    2008-01-01

    Lipid composition of digestive gland and pedal muscle of two northern freshwater pulmonate snails Lymnaea stagnalis and Lymnaea ovata and three marine prosobranch gastropods Littorina obtusata, Littorina littorea, Buccinum undatum from the White Sea was studied. The species differ in ecology, particularly in trophic nabits and motor activity. The content of triacilglycerides both in digestive gland and pedal was higher in littoral dwellers Littorina the activity of which depends on the tide level. The phospholipids content in digestive gland does not differ in quantity in all cases and does not relate to type of feeding or resource quality. In a pedal muscle of marine species the quantity of common phospholipids is higher in comparison with the freshwater ones. The amount of total phospholipids in pedal muscle correlates with mass of metabolic inert formation which constitutes a part of whole mass of snails. The presence of massive shell enhances demands in energy needed for supporting movement and activity. Because the intensity of energy metabolism is related to quantity of total phospholipids, mitochondria and activity of their oxidizing ferments, the presence of thick shell in marine snails together with motor activity costs more in terms of energy than in freshwater snails with thin shell. This hypothesis is supported by the higher specific rate of oxygen consumption in marine snails than in freshwaters.

  16. [Toxicity and tetramine contents of salivary glands from carnivorous gastropods].

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Yoko; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2002-12-01

    Salivary glands from 29 species of marine carnivorous gastropods in nine families were examined for lethal activity against mice and tetramine content. Mouse lethality was assayed by intravenous injection of buffer extracts into mice, and was detected in 14 species. Heat-stability tests confirmed that toxins in four species were thermolabile, while those in eight species were thermostable. Based on the tetramine contents determined by the colorimetric method using methanolic extracts, the thermostable toxins in seven species (Neptunea eulimatalamellosa, N. vinosa, N. arthritica, N. bulbacea, N. intersculpta f. pribiloffensis, N. intersculpta f. frater pilsbry and Hemifusus tuba) were considered to be tetramine contained at high levels (more than 900 micrograms/g salivary gland), but that in one species (Buccinum opisthoplectum) appeared to be a low-molecular-weight compound differing from tetramine. It is interesting that one (Hemifusus tuba) of the seven species containing high amounts of tetramine belongs to the family Melongenidae, although the other six Neptunea species are members of the family Buccinidae, as expected from previous studies.

  17. Comparative Transcriptomics of Alternative Developmental Phenotypes in a Marine Gastropod.

    PubMed

    Lesoway, Maryna Pauline; Abouheif, Ehab; Collin, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    Alternative phenotypes are discrete phenotypic differences that develop in response to both genetic and environmental cues. Nutritive embryos, which arrest their development to serve as nutrition for their viable siblings, are an example of an alternative developmental phenotype found in many animal groups. Females of the marine snail, Crepidula navicella, produce broods that consist mainly of nutritive embryos and a small number of viable embryos. In order to better understand the genetic mechanisms that lead to the development of alternative phenotypes in this species, we compared the transcriptomes of viable and nutritive embryos at the earliest stage that we were able to distinguish visually between the two. Using high-throughput Illumina sequencing, we assembled and annotated a de novo transcriptome and compared transcript levels in viable and nutritive embryos. Viable embryos express high levels of transcripts associated with known developmental events, while nutritive embryos express high levels of apoptosis-related transcripts. Gene Ontology term enrichment with GOSeq found that these are associated with the negative regulation of apoptotic processes. This enrichment, combined with morphological evidence, suggests that apoptosis is important in the formation of gastrula-like nutritive embryos. Apoptosis has been implicated in the development of alternative phenotypes in other animal groups, raising the possibility that this mechanism's role in alternative phenotypes is conserved in gastropod development. We suggest possible alternative mechanisms of nutritive embryo development. Most importantly, we contribute further evidence to the hypothesis that nutritive embryos are an alternative developmental phenotype.

  18. Assessing open-system behavior of 14C in terrestrial gastropod shells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rech, J.A.; Pigati, J.S.; Lehmann, S.B.; McGimpsey, C.N.; Grimley, D.A.; Nekola, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess open-system behavior of radiocarbon in fossil gastropod shells, we measured the 14C activity on 10 aliquots of shell material recovered from Illinoian (~190-130 ka) and pre-Illinoian (~800 ka) loess and lacustrine deposits in the Midwestern USA. Eight of the 10 aliquots yielded measurable 14C activities that ranged from 0.25 to 0.53 percent modern carbon (pMC), corresponding to apparent 14C ages between 48.2 and 42.1 ka. This small level of open-system behavior is common in many materials that are used for 14C dating (e.g. charcoal), and typically sets the upper practical limit of the technique. Two aliquots of gastropod shells from the Illinoian-aged Petersburg Silt (Petersburg Section) in central Illinois, USA, however, yielded elevated 14C activities of 1.26 and 1.71 pMC, which correspond to apparent 14C ages of 35.1 and 32.7 ka. Together, these results suggest that while many fossil gastropods shells may not suffer from major (>1%) open-system problems, this is not always the case. We then examined the mineralogy, trace element chemistry, and physical characteristics of a suite of fossil and modern gastropod shells to identify the source of contamination in the Petersburg shells and assess the effectiveness of these screening techniques at identifying samples suitable for 14C dating. Mineralogical (XRD) and trace element analyses were inconclusive, which suggests that these techniques are not suitable for assessing open-system behavior in terrestrial gastropod shells. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), however, identified secondary mineralization (calcium carbonate) primarily within the inner whorls of the Petersburg shells. This indicates that SEM examination, or possibly standard microscope examination, of the interior of gastropod shells should be used when selecting fossil gastropod shells for 14C dating. ?? 2011 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  19. Assessing open-system behavior of 14C in terrestrial gastropod shells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rech, Jason A.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Lehmann, Sophie B.; McGimpsey, Chelsea N.; Grimley, David A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess open-system behavior of radiocarbon in fossil gastropod shells, we measured the 14C activity on 10 aliquots of shell material recovered from Illinoian (~190-130 ka) and pre-Illinoian (~800 ka) loess and lacustrine deposits in the Midwestern USA. Eight of the 10 aliquots yielded measurable 14C activities that ranged from 0.25 to 0.53 percent modern carbon (pMC), corresponding to apparent 14C ages between 48.2 and 42.1 ka. This small level of open-system behavior is common in many materials that are used for 14C dating (e.g. charcoal), and typically sets the upper practical limit of the technique. Two aliquots of gastropod shells from the Illinoian-aged Petersburg Silt (Petersburg Section) in central Illinois, USA, however, yielded elevated 14C activities of 1.26 and 1.71 pMC, which correspond to apparent 14C ages of 35.1 and 32.7 ka. Together, these results suggest that while many fossil gastropods shells may not suffer from major (>1%) open-system problems, this is not always the case. We then examined the mineralogy, trace element chemistry, and physical characteristics of a suite of fossil and modern gastropod shells to identify the source of contamination in the Petersburg shells and assess the effectiveness of these screening techniques at identifying samples suitable for 14C dating. Mineralogical (XRD) and trace element analyses were inconclusive, which suggests that these techniques are not suitable for assessing open-system behavior in terrestrial gastropod shells. Analysis with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), however, identified secondary mineralization (calcium carbonate) primarily within the inner whorls of the Petersburg shells. This indicates that SEM examination, or possibly standard microscope examination, of the interior of gastropod shells should be used when selecting fossil gastropod shells for 14C dating.

  20. Species, Diaspore Volume and Body Mass Matter in Gastropod Seed Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Türke, Manfred; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Seed dispersal of ant-dispersed plants (myrmecochores) is a well studied ecosystem function. Recently, slugs have been found to act as seed dispersers of myrmecochores. The aim of our study was to (1) further generalize the finding that gastropods feed on seeds of myrmecochores and hence may act as seed dispersers, (2) to test whether gastropod body mass and the volume of diaspores have an influence on the seed dispersal potential. Methodology and Principal Findings We assessed the seed dispersal potential of four slug and snail species with a set of seven myrmecochorous plant species from seven different plant families common to Central European beech forests. Diaspores differed in shape and size. Gastropods differed in their readiness to feed on diaspores and in the proportion of seeds that were swallowed as a whole, and this readiness generally decreased with increasing diaspore size. Smaller Arionid slugs (58 mm body length; mean) mostly fed on the elaiosome but also swallowed small diaspores and therefore not only act as elaiosome consumers, a nutrient rich appendage on myrmecochorous diaspores, but may also disperse seeds. Large Arionid slugs (>100 mm body length) swallowed diaspores of all sizes. Diaspores swallowed by gastropods were defecated without damage. Within-species variability in body size also affect seed dispersal potential, as larger individuals of the red slug (Arion rufus) swallowed more diaspores of wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa) than smaller ones. Conclusions and Significance Our results help to generalize the finding that gastropods consume and potentially disperse seeds of myrmecochores. The dispersal potential of gastropods is strongly influenced by diaspore size in relation to gastropod size. PMID:23844239

  1. Ancient lakes as evolutionary reservoirs: evidence from the thalassoid gastropods of Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anthony B.; Glaubrecht, Matthias; Meyer, Axel

    2004-01-01

    Ancient lakes are often collectively viewed as evolutionary hot spots of diversification. East Africa's Lake Tanganyika has long been the subject of scientific interest owing to dramatic levels of endemism in species as diverse as cichlid fishes, paludomid gastropods, decapod and ostracod crustaceans and poriferans. It is the largest and deepest of the African rift lakes, and its endemic fauna has been presented with a stable inland environment for over 10 Myr, offering unique opportunities for within-lake diversification. Although astonishing diversification has been documented in the endemic cichlid fauna of the lake, similar patterns of rapid diversification have long been assumed for other groups. In contrast to this hypothesis of rapid speciation, we show here that there has been no acceleration in the rate of speciation in the thalassoid gastropods of the lake following lake colonization. While limited within-lake speciation has occurred, the dramatic conchological diversity of gastropods presently found within the lake has evolved from at least four major lineages that pre-date its formation by as much as 40 Myr. At the same time, a widespread group of African gastropods appears to have evolved from taxa presently found in the lake. While Lake Tanganyika has been a cradle of speciation for cichlid fishes, it has also been an important evolutionary reservoir of gastropod lineages that have been extirpated outside the basin. PMID:15129964

  2. Conservation status of freshwater gastropods of Canada and the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Paul D.; Bogan, Arthur E.; Brown, Kenneth M.; Burkhead, Noel M.; Cordeiro, James R.; Garner, Jeffrey T.; Hartfield, Paul D.; Lepitzki, Dwayne A.; Mackie, Gerry L.; Pip, Eva; Tarpley, Thomas A.; Tiemann, Jeremy S.; Whelan, Nathan V.; Strong, Ellen E.

    2013-01-01

    This is the first American Fisheries Society conservation assessment of freshwater gastropods (snails) from Canada and the United States by the Gastropod Subcommittee (Endangered Species Committee). This review covers 703 species representing 16 families and 93 genera, of which 67 species are considered extinct, or possibly extinct, 278 are endangered, 102 are threatened, 73 are vulnerable, 157 are currently stable, and 26 species have uncertain taxonomic status. Of the entire fauna, 74% of gastropods are imperiled (vulnerable, threatened, endangered) or extinct, which exceeds imperilment levels in fishes (39%) and crayfishes (48%) but is similar to that of mussels (72%). Comparison of modern to background extinction rates reveals that gastropods have the highest modern extinction rate yet observed, 9,539 times greater than background rates. Gastropods are highly susceptible to habitat loss and degradation, particularly narrow endemics restricted to a single spring or short stream reaches. Compilation of this review was hampered by a paucity of current distributional information and taxonomic uncertainties. Although research on several fronts including basic biology, physiology, conservation strategies, life history, and ecology are needed, systematics and curation of museum collections and databases coupled with comprehensive status surveys (geographic limits, threat identification) are priorities.

  3. Digenean-gastropod host associations inform on aspects of specific immunity in snails

    PubMed Central

    Adema, C.M.; Loker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Gastropod immunology is informed importantly by the study of the frequent encounters snails endure with digeneans (digenetic trematodes). One of the hallmarks of gastropod-digenean associations is their specificity: any particular digenean parasite species is transmitted by a limited subset of snail taxa. We discuss the nature of this specificity, including its immunological basis. We then review studies of the model gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata indicating that the baseline responses of snails to digeneans can be elevated in a specific manner. Studies incorporating molecular and functional approaches are then highlighted, and are further suggestive of the capacity for specific gastropod immune responses. These studies have led to the compatibility polymorphism hypothesis: the interactions between diversified fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) and diverse carbohydrate-decorated polymorphic parasite antigens determine recognition and trigger specific immunity. Complex glycan structures are also likely to play a role in the host specificity typifying snail-digenean interactions. We conclude by noting the dynamic and consequential interactions between snails and digeneans can be considered as drivers of diversification of digenean parasites and in the development and maintenance of specific immunity in gastropods. PMID:25034871

  4. Radiocarbon dating loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley using terrestrial gastropod shells (Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Grimley, David A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.

    2015-03-01

    Small terrestrial gastropod shells (mainly Succineidae) have been used successfully to date late Quaternary loess deposits in Alaska and the Great Plains. However, Succineidae shells are less common in loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley compared to those of the Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae families. In this study, we conducted several tests to determine whether shells of these gastropods could provide reliable ages for loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley. Our results show that most of the taxa that we investigated incorporate small amounts (1-5%) of old carbon from limestone in their shells, meaning that they should yield ages that are accurate to within a few hundred years. In contrast, shells of the genus Mesodon (Mesodon elevatus and Mesodon zaletus) contain significant and variable amounts of old carbon, yielding ages that are up to a couple thousand 14C years too old. Although terrestrial gastropod shells have tremendous potential for 14C dating loess deposits throughout North America, we acknowledge that accuracy to within a few hundred years may not be sufficient for those interested in developing high-resolution loess chronologies. Even with this limitation, however, 14C dating of terrestrial gastropod shells present in Mississippi Valley loess deposits may prove useful for researchers interested in processes that took place over multi-millennial timescales or in differentiating stratigraphic units that have significantly different ages but similar physical and geochemical properties. The results presented here may also be useful to researchers studying loess deposits outside North America that contain similar gastropod taxa.

  5. At the limits of a successful body plan – 3D microanatomy, histology and evolution of Helminthope (Mollusca: Heterobranchia: Rhodopemorpha), the most worm-like gastropod

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastropods are among the most diverse animal clades, and have successfully colonized special habitats such as the marine sand interstitial. Specialized meiofaunal snails and slugs are tiny and worm-shaped. They combine regressive features – argued to be due to progenetic tendencies – with convergent adaptations. Microscopic size and concerted convergences make morphological examination non-trivial and hamper phylogenetic reconstructions. The enigmatic turbellarian-like Rhodopemorpha are a small group that has puzzled systematists for over a century. A preliminary molecular framework places the group far closer to the root of Heterobranchia – one of the major gastropod groups – than previously suggested. The poorly known meiofaunal Helminthope psammobionta Salvini-Plawen, 1991 from Bermuda is the most worm-shaped free-living gastropod and shows apparently aberrant aspects of anatomy. Its study may give important clues to understand the evolution of rhodopemorphs among basal heterobranchs versus their previously thought origin among ‘higher’ euthyneuran taxa. Results We describe the 3D-microanatomy of H. psammobionta using three-dimensional digital reconstruction based on serial semithin histological sections. The new dataset expands upon the original description and corrects several aspects. Helminthope shows a set of typical adaptations and regressive characters present in other mesopsammic slugs (called ‘meiofaunal syndrome’ herein). The taxonomically important presence of five separate visceral loop ganglia is confirmed, but considerable further detail of the complex nervous system are corrected and revealed. The digestive and reproductive systems are simple and modified to the thread-like morphology of the animal; the anus is far posterior. There is no heart; the kidney resembles a protonephridium. Data on all organ systems are compiled and compared to Rhodope. Conclusions Helminthope is related to Rhodope sharing unique apomorphies

  6. The Environmental Context of Gastropods on Western Laurentia (Basin and Range Province) during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Robyn Mieko

    2015-01-01

    Gastropods are a major component of modern marine ecosystems and can be found in nearly every type of marine ecosystem. They experienced their first notable radiation during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (~470 Ma), during which their diversity tripled. This study examines the gastropod assemblage preserved in the Basin and Range…

  7. Bioaccumulation of 210Po in common gastropod and bivalve species from the northern Gulf.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Bebhehani, M

    2014-06-01

    This study sets the baseline for the concentration of the natural-series radionuclide polonium-210 in two species of gastropods and four species of bivalves that are common to the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf. (210)Po is primarily absorbed from water and via ingestion of detrital material by gastropoda and bivalves. This concentrated (210)Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The lowest (210)Po concentration was measured in the gastropod Stomatella auricular (10.36-12.39Bq kg(-1)dry) and the highest in the bivalve Marica marmorata (193.51-215.60Bq kg(-1)dry). The measured concentration factor for these molluscs in the northern Gulf varied between 4.8 and 115×10(3), values very similar to the IAEA recommended value for bivalves and gastropods of 2×10(4).

  8. Antimicrobial secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsules and egg masses

    PubMed Central

    Kaviarasan, T; Siva, Sankar R; Yogamoorthi, A

    2012-01-01

    Marine organisms have attracted special attention in the last three decades for their ability to produce interesting pharmacological active compounds. Even though all marine organisms have the potential to produce antimicrobial secondary metabolites, the gastropod has the vital sources of secondary metabolites particularly their egg capsule which has the promising antimicrobial secondary metabolites. In the present review, we intend to focus on marine secondary metabolites from marine gastropod egg capsule. The following compounds i.e. Kabiramid C, Aplysianin E, Aplysianin A, Thisaplysianin E and Tyrian purple have been documented in egg capsule of various gastropod and most of the antimicrobial secondary metabolites have not been isolated from the egg capsule because of the odious, and complex chemical structure. Stability of the compounds is unknown. PMID:23569871

  9. Increased plastic litter cover affects the foraging activity of the sandy intertidal gastropod Nassarius pullus.

    PubMed

    Aloy, Alexander B; Vallejo, Benjamin M; Juinio-Meñez, Marie Antonette

    2011-08-01

    This study analyzed the foraging behavior of the gastropod Nassarius pullus on garbage-impacted sandy shores of Talim Bay, Batangas, Philippines. The effect of different levels of plastic garbage cover on foraging efficiency was investigated. Controlled in situ baiting experiments were conducted to quantify aspects of foraging behavior as affected by the levels of plastic litter cover in the foraging area. The results of the study indicated that the gastropod's efficiency in locating and in moving towards a food item generally decreased as the level of plastic cover increased. Prolonged food searching time and increased self-burial in sand were highly correlated with increased plastic cover. The accuracy of orientation towards the actual position of the bait decreased significantly when the amount of plastic cover increased to 50%. These results are consistent with the significant decreases in the abundance of the gastropod observed during periods of deposition of large amounts of plastic and other debris on the shore.

  10. Gastropod-Borne Helminths: A Look at the Snail-Parasite Interplay.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Alessio; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Colella, Vito; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2016-03-01

    More than 300 million people suffer from a range of diseases caused by gastropod-borne helminths, predominantly flatworms and roundworms, whose life cycles are characterized by a diversified ecology and epidemiology. Despite the plethora of data on these parasites, very little is known of the fundamental biology of their gastropod intermediate hosts, or of the interactions occurring at the snail-helminth interface. In this article, we focus on schistosomes and metastrongylids of human and animal significance, and review current knowledge of snail-parasite interplay. Future efforts aimed at elucidating key elements of the biology and ecology of the snail intermediate hosts, together with an improved understanding of snail-parasite interactions, will aid to identify, plan, and develop new strategies for disease control focused on gastropod intermediate hosts.

  11. Bioaccumulation of 210Po in common gastropod and bivalve species from the northern Gulf.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S; Bebhehani, M

    2014-06-01

    This study sets the baseline for the concentration of the natural-series radionuclide polonium-210 in two species of gastropods and four species of bivalves that are common to the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf. (210)Po is primarily absorbed from water and via ingestion of detrital material by gastropoda and bivalves. This concentrated (210)Po can then be passed along to the next trophic level of the marine food web. The lowest (210)Po concentration was measured in the gastropod Stomatella auricular (10.36-12.39Bq kg(-1)dry) and the highest in the bivalve Marica marmorata (193.51-215.60Bq kg(-1)dry). The measured concentration factor for these molluscs in the northern Gulf varied between 4.8 and 115×10(3), values very similar to the IAEA recommended value for bivalves and gastropods of 2×10(4). PMID:24675441

  12. Cheсklist of gastropod molluscs in mangroves of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Zvonareva, Sofya; Kantor, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod molluscs are one of the most important components of mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves in Central Vietnam have a rather limited distribution due to peculiarities of the coastline morphology and presently their fauna remains understudied. Extensive surveys were conducted in both natural vegetation and artificial mangrove plantations in several localities in Nha Trang Bay from 2005 to 2015. In total 65 species of gastropod molluscs were found alive, 17 of which can be considered as predominantly mangrove-associated. An illustrated guide is provided, with short synonymies and data on ecology and distribution. The recorded molluscan diversity is compared with published data on mangrove gastropods in different regions of the Indo-Pacific. Total species number and the proportion of mangrove-associated species are similar to studied faunas in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand, but the diversity is much lower than that of the mangal fauna of the Philippines. PMID:27615983

  13. Labelling and Marketing of Bivalve and Gastropod Molluscs Retailed in Sardinia, Italy Between 2009 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present survey was to investigate the correct enforcement of the Community rules on the labelling and marketing of bivalve and gastropod molluscs retailed in Sardinia, Italy between 2009 and 2013. A total of 1500 packages and labels for live bivalve and gastropod molluscs were considered. A total of 375 labels (25%) presented non-compliance concerning the wrong trade name and additional wrong or missing information. The highest percentage of anomalous labels has been detected in small-scale retail shops (35%) and open-air markets (25%) compared with the big retailing chains (20%). The 5% of packages were not in compliance with the European Community rules on packaging of bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The high percentage of non-compliance with the European regulations on labelling results is a strong limitation for the consumers and highlights the need to improve the control system about labelling of seafood products. PMID:27800397

  14. Cheсklist of gastropod molluscs in mangroves of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Zvonareva, Sofya; Kantor, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Gastropod molluscs are one of the most important components of mangrove ecosystem. Mangroves in Central Vietnam have a rather limited distribution due to peculiarities of the coastline morphology and presently their fauna remains understudied. Extensive surveys were conducted in both natural vegetation and artificial mangrove plantations in several localities in Nha Trang Bay from 2005 to 2015. In total 65 species of gastropod molluscs were found alive, 17 of which can be considered as predominantly mangrove-associated. An illustrated guide is provided, with short synonymies and data on ecology and distribution. The recorded molluscan diversity is compared with published data on mangrove gastropods in different regions of the Indo-Pacific. Total species number and the proportion of mangrove-associated species are similar to studied faunas in Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand, but the diversity is much lower than that of the mangal fauna of the Philippines.

  15. [Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Marten, Katharina

    2007-03-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  16. Host-symbiont relationships in hydrothermal vent gastropods of the genus Alviniconcha from the Southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yohey; Kojima, Shigeaki; Sasaki, Takenori; Suzuki, Masae; Utsumi, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Tsuchida, Shinji; Nunoura, Takuro; Hirayama, Hisako; Takai, Ken; Nealson, Kenneth H; Horikoshi, Koki

    2006-02-01

    Hydrothermal vent gastropods of the genus Alviniconcha are unique among metazoans in their ability to derive their nutrition from chemoautotrophic gamma- and epsilon-proteobacterial endosymbionts. Although host-symbiont relationships in Alviniconcha gastropods from the Central Indian Ridge in the Indian Ocean and the Mariana Trough in the Western Pacific have been studied extensively, host-symbiont relationships in Alviniconcha gastropods from the Southwest Pacific remain largely unknown. Phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene sequences of host gastropods from the Manus, North Fiji, and Lau Back-Arc Basins in the Southwest Pacific has revealed a new host lineage in a Alviniconcha gastropod from the Lau Basin and the occurrence of the host lineage Alviniconcha sp. type 2 in the Manus Basin. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences of bacterial endosymbionts, two gamma-proteobacterial lineages and one epsilon-proteobacterial lineage were identified in the present study. The carbon isotopic compositions of the biomass and fatty acids of the gastropod tissues suggest that the gamma- and epsilon-proteobacterial endosymbionts mediate the Calvin-Benson cycle and the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle, respectively, for their chemoautotrophic growth. Coupling of the host and symbiont lineages from the three Southwest Pacific basins revealed that each of the Alviniconcha lineages harbors different bacterial endosymbionts belonging to either the gamma- or epsilon-Proteobacteria. The host specificity exhibited in symbiont selection provides support for the recognition of each of the host lineages as a distinct species. The results from the present study also suggest the possibility that Alviniconcha sp. types 1 and 2 separately inhabit hydrothermal vent sites approximately 120 m apart in the North Fiji Basin and 500 m apart in the Manus Basin.

  17. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Sjoerd A M E G; Christiaans, Maarten H L; Abdul-Hamid, Myrurgia A; Stifft, Frank; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; van Paassen, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis has been observed in <1% of native renal biopsies. Here, we describe two patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis in relation to Crohn's disease. Circulating helper and cytotoxic T cells were highly activated, and both cell types predominated in the interstitial infiltrate, indicating a cellular autoimmune response. After immunosuppressive treatment, renal function either improved or stabilized in both patients. In conclusion, granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a genuine extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease, the treatment of which should include immunosuppressive agents. PMID:27478596

  18. Secondary metabolites from the marine gastropod molluscs of Antarctica, southern Africa and South America.

    PubMed

    Davies-Coleman, M T

    2006-01-01

    Despite their perceived inaccessibility, the marine intertidal and benthic environments of Antarctica, southern Africa and South America have continued to provide marine natural products for chemists with unique opportunities to study the secondary metabolite constituents and chemical ecology of a diverse array of marine gastropod molluscs. This review covers the literature up to 31 January 2005 and describes the structures and, where applicable, biological activities of 100 secondary metabolites isolated from 21 species of marine gastropod molluscs. Not unexpectedly, the chemistry of chemically defended shell-less opisthobranchs dominates the natural product studies of molluscs collected from these regions of the southern hemisphere.

  19. [Diversity of trematode larvae in gastropod molluscs in water bodies of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Akimova, L N; Shimalova, V V; Bychkova, E I

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of literary data and own investigations of gastropod molluscs on existence of cercariae of trematodes in Belarus was carried out. 13 856 specimens of 11 species and 2 species complexes of freshwater gastropod molluscs were examined on infection with cercariae of trematodes in 2010 by the authors of this article. Total infestation was 13.1% and infection of some molluscs species varied from 0.4% (Dnieper River, Gomel region) to 66.7% (Lukomskoe reservoir, Vitebsk region). The cercariae of 90 trematode species were found. The majority (51 species) at the adult stage parasitize birds. The cercariae of 14 trematode species have medical significance.

  20. Late Mississippian gastropods of the Chainman Shale, west-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Mackenzie; Yochelson, Ellis L.

    1987-01-01

    The Chainman Shale of Mississippian (Osagean to late Chesterian) age, well exposed in the Confusion Range of western Utah, has yielded a profusion of fossils during investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the past 30 years. Conspicuous among these fossils are gastropods, which range in age from latest Meramecian to late Chesterian. In west-central Utah, not far from the State boundary, the Chainman outcrop belt stretches from Granite Mountain south to the northern part of the Needle Range, a distance of69 miles (110 km). The Chainman thickens from north to south; the section at Granite Mountain is 1,315 feet (401 m) thick and that at Jensen Wash in the Burbank Hills, 2,203 feet (671 m). The rocks of the Chainman Shale record a general though irregular shallowing of the area from moderate depths of 330 feet (100 m) or so to quite shallow depths of perhaps locally little more than 3-6 feet (1-2 m). Most of the gastropods occur with ammonoids in a facies of shale or shale containing phosphatic limestone concretions, In this lutaceous facies, Glabrocingulum is predominant and Lunulazona and Retispira are common; these genera are represented by a succession of species. A thick limestone unit is present in some areas in the upper part of the formation, particularly in the vicinity of Skunk Spring, where it is 318 feet (97 m) thick. This limestone unit represents a calcareous shoal facies having an entirely different gastropod fauna, characterized by Catazona and species of Naticopsis. The Chainman Shale could be easily zoned by gastropods, but we are not proposing such azonation. A framework of ammonoid and foraminiferal zones already is available, and we prefer to regard the gastropod assemblages as part of this framework. The assemblages are confined to the major ammonoid and foraminiferal zones, and only three of the gastropod species seem to range across major zonal boundaries. These species are Bellerophon (Bellerophon vespertinus Gordon and

  1. [Interstitial lung diseases. The pattern is important].

    PubMed

    Fink, L

    2014-11-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a number of rare entities with an estimated incidence of 10-25 per 100,000 inhabitants but the incidence greatly increases beyond the age of 65 years. The prognosis depends on the underlying cause. The fibrotic disorders show a set of radiological and histopathological patterns that are distinct but not entirely specific. In the absence of a clear clinical picture and consistent high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, patients are advised to undergo surgical lung biopsies from two or three lung lobes (or transbronchial biopsies) to determine the histopathological pattern. The ILDs are differentiated into disorders of known causes (e.g. collagen vascular disease, drug-related), idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), granulomatous ILDs (e.g. sarcoidosis) and other forms of ILD (e.g. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis). The IIPs encompass idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), non-specific interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease, cryptogen organizing pneumonia, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia. Additionally, a category of unclassified interstitial pneumonia exists. The pathologist has to recognize and address the histopathological pattern. In a multidisciplinary discussion the disorder is allocated to a clinicopathological entity and the histopathological pattern plays a major role in the classification of the entity. Recognition of the underlying pattern and the respective histopathological differential diagnoses is important as the therapy varies depending on the cause and ranges from elimination of the stimulus (if possible) to antifibrotic drug therapy up to preparation for lung transplantation.

  2. Paleobiogeographic affinities of emsian (late early devonian) gastropods from farewell terrane (west-central Alaska)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of Emsian gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell terrane) belong to species with lecithotrophic larval strategy. The present data show that there is no significant difference in the paleobiogeo-graphic distribution of Emsian gastropod genera with lecithotrophic and planktotrophic larval strategies. Numerical analysis of the faunal affinities of the Emsian gastropod fauna from the Farewell terrane reveals that this terrane has much stronger faunal connections to regions like Variscan Europe, eastern Australia, and the Alexander terrane of southeast Alaska than to cratonic North America (Laurentia). The Canadian Arctic Islands is the only region of cratonic North America (Laurentia) that shows significant faunal affinities to the Emsian gastropod faunas of the Farewell terrane. The analysis also indicates a close faunal link between the Farewell and Alexander terranes. Published paleontological and geological data suggest that the Farewell and Alexander terranes represents tectonic entities that have been rifted away from the Siberia, Baltica, or the paleo-Pacific margin of Australia. The results of the present numerical analysis are not in conflict with any of these possibilities. However, the principle of spatial continuity of the wandering path prefers Siberia as the most probable "parental" paleocontinent for the derivation of both the Farewell and Alexander terranes. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  3. [Oral therapy of interstitial cystitis].

    PubMed

    Sievert, K D; Edenfeld, K D; Oberpenning, F; Piechota, H J

    2000-11-01

    Up to now there is no specific treatment targeting the ultimate cause of interstitial cystitis (IC), since its pathogenesis and etiology are still unknown. Most studies focussing on oral medication have not been randomized, double-blinded or placebo-controlled. Numerous case reports and intent-to-treat trials are lacking a systematic approach and do not meet evidence-based medicine criteria. Consequently there is as yet no standard oral therapy available for the treatment of IC. However, only a few oral substances have shown a potential to improve symptoms such as frequency and pain. The best results were obtained from monotherapeutic use of pentosanpolysulfate, amitriptylin and hydroxycin. The true benefit of these substances alone should be compared to analgesics and anticholinergics in the course of controlled clinical trials.

  4. Cough in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Garner, Justin; George, Peter M; Renzoni, Elisabetta

    2015-12-01

    Cough in the context of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been the focus of many studies. However, chronic cough has a major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients with ILD. For the purpose of this review, we have chosen to highlight some of the more frequently encountered diffuse lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. Many of the underlying mechanisms remain speculative and further research is now required to elucidate the complex pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic cough in ILD. This will hopefully pave the way for the identification of new therapeutic agents to alleviate this distressing and often intractable symptom.

  5. Interstitial cystitis--an update.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A C; Christmas, T J

    1996-12-01

    Interstitial cystitis is a rare chronic debilitating condition predominantly affecting middle-aged women. The diagnosis, made from the combination of symptoms, cystoscopic findings and bladder biopsies, is often delayed because GPs are often unaware of the condition. The precise aetiology remains obscure and it is clear that there is much research that needs to be undertaken to shed any light on the various current aetiological theories. There is a wide assortment of therapies already available and many more currently under trial. Until there is further progress in the pathogenesis of IC, it seems unlikely that non-operative treatment will consist of anything but palliation. The only potential cures currently available are cystectomy and urinary diversion or surgical replacement of the bladder by enterocystoplasty.

  6. Long-term effects of sowing high or low diverse seed mixtures on plant and gastropod diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedov, Ivailo; Stoyanov, Ivailo L.; Penev, Lyubomir; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Bezemer, T. Martijn

    2006-09-01

    A number of studies have reported that consumers affect a range of community-level processes, and in turn their diversity and abundance is influenced by the structure and diversity of the plant community. Although gastropods are important generalist herbivores in many environments, few studies have examined the effects of plant species richness and plant community structure on gastropods. This study investigated gastropod species richness and interactions with various above-ground parameters of the vegetation on an experimental field with four plant treatments: low and high diversity of sown later succession plant species, natural colonization at the start of the experiment and natural colonization after 3 years of continued agricultural practice. The investigated gastropod assemblage contained only seven species and was highly dominated by two of them. Both in pitfalls and with hand-sorting the number of species collected per plot was highest in plots with natural plant colonization. Multivariate analysis revealed that overall gastropod abundance was positively associated with plant height and percentage cover of plants, and negatively with percentage grass cover. The same pattern holds for one of the dominant species-complex ( Cochlicopa lubrica/ lubricella). The other dominant gastropod species ( Deroceras reticulatum) was more abundant in samples with higher percentages of moss cover and higher plant diversity, while less abundant at samples with higher plant cover, indicating that the gastropod species preferences may matter more than just their response to plant diversity. Two plant-gastropod species-level associations were observed: Senecio jacobaea with D. reticulatum and Tanacetum vulgare with Cochlicopa spp. The present study also demonstrated that pitfall-traps are suitable for collecting terrestrial gastropods, at least for species-poor grassland habitats.

  7. Radiocarbon dating loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley using terrestrial gastropod shells (Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeffery S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel; Grimley, David A.; Nekola, Jeffery C.

    2014-01-01

    Small terrestrial gastropod shells (mainly Succineidae) have been used successfully to date late Quaternary loess deposits in Alaska and the Great Plains. However, Succineidae shells are less common in loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley compared to those of the Polygyridae, Helicinidae, and Discidae families. In this study, we conducted several tests to determine whether shells of these gastropods could provide reliable ages for loess deposits in the Mississippi Valley. Our results show that most of the taxa that we investigated incorporate small amounts (1–5%) of old carbon from limestone in their shells, meaning that they should yield ages that are accurate to within a few hundred years. In contrast, shells of the genus Mesodon(Mesodon elevatus and Mesodon zaletus) contain significant and variable amounts of old carbon, yielding ages that are up to a couple thousand 14C years too old. Although terrestrial gastropod shells have tremendous potential for 14C dating loess deposits throughout North America, we acknowledge that accuracy to within a few hundred years may not be sufficient for those interested in developing high-resolution loess chronologies. Even with this limitation, however, 14C dating of terrestrial gastropod shells present in Mississippi Valley loess deposits may prove useful for researchers interested in processes that took place over multi-millennial timescales or in differentiating stratigraphic units that have significantly different ages but similar physical and geochemical properties. The results presented here may also be useful to researchers studying loess deposits outside North America that contain similar gastropod taxa..

  8. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Klein, Eduardo; Iken, Katrin; Weinberger, Vanessa; Konar, Brenda; Trott, Tom; Pohle, Gerhard; Bigatti, Gregorio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Mead, Angela; Palomo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Manuel; Gobin, Judith; Sardi, Adriana; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Knowlton, Ann; Wong, Melisa; Peralta, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1) describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2) identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3) identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME) following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas) standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org). A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2%) appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs) followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs). In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska). No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05). Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages. PMID

  9. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Klein, Eduardo; Iken, Katrin; Weinberger, Vanessa; Konar, Brenda; Trott, Tom; Pohle, Gerhard; Bigatti, Gregorio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Mead, Angela; Palomo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Manuel; Gobin, Judith; Sardi, Adriana; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Knowlton, Ann; Wong, Melisa; Peralta, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1) describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2) identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3) identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME) following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas) standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org). A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2%) appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs) followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs). In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska). No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05). Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  10. Large-Scale Spatial Distribution Patterns of Gastropod Assemblages in Rocky Shores

    PubMed Central

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Klein, Eduardo; Iken, Katrin; Weinberger, Vanessa; Konar, Brenda; Trott, Tom; Pohle, Gerhard; Bigatti, Gregorio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Mead, Angela; Palomo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Manuel; Gobin, Judith; Sardi, Adriana; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Knowlton, Ann; Wong, Melisa; Peralta, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1) describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2) identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3) identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME) following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas) standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org). A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2%) appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs) followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs). In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska). No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05). Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages. PMID

  11. Abundance, diversity, and latitudinal gradients of southeastern Atlantic and Antarctic abyssal gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrödl, M.; Bohn, J. M.; Brenke, N.; Rolán, E.; Schwabe, E.

    2011-03-01

    Mollusca are widely used for deriving concepts on deep-sea biology and biodiversity, yet abyssal collections are limited to only a few regions of the world ocean and biased toward the northern Atlantic. The present study compares gastropod molluscs sampled along a transect through the southern Atlantic from the equator to Antarctica. The DIVA I and II expeditions concentrated on the hardly explored Guinea, Angola, and Cape Basins. Of the 145 deep-sea deployments (5025-5656 m depth) analyzed to date, 20 have yielded 68 specimens of benthic gastropods, representing 27 species. Only five abyssal species were previously known, four of them from the northern Atlantic deep sea; the remainder appear to be undescribed. Interestingly, there is no faunal overlap with the nearby Antarctic deep-sea. Most of these DIVA species (63%) are represented by single individuals, or limited to one or two stations. The rarity (i.e. 0.55 specimens m -2 calculated from quantitative corers) and still undetectable patchiness of southeastern Atlantic abyssal gastropods may indicate "source-sink" dynamics, but comparison is needed with thus far hardly explored regional bathyal faunas. The BRENKE-epibenthic sledge (EBS) may be efficient at surveying the abyssal gastropod species richness, but is shown to drastically underestimate true abundances. Low diversity values throughout the three southern Atlantic ocean basins do further challenge earlier estimates of a hyperdiverse global abyssal macrofauna. Comparative EBS data available from the southern hemisphere indicate a gradient from the equatorial Guinea Basin towards higher gastropod abundances and diversity in Antarctica. This is in clear contrast to the paradigm of a globally strongly decreasing marine diversity from lower to higher latitudes, highlighting the importance of further exploring the southern fauna from the tropics to Antarctica.

  12. [Histopathological classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias].

    PubMed

    Povýsil, Ctibor

    2010-01-01

    The classification scheme of interstitial lung diseases has undergone numerous revisions. The criteria for distinguishing seven distinct subtypes of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are now well defined by consensus in the recently published ATS/ERS classification of these lung diseases. In our present review the histological patterns of the different types are described and the differential diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias is discussed. Surgical lung biopsy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of interstitial pneumonias, and sampling from at least 2 sites is recommended. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy is the preferred method for obtaining lung tissue as this procedure offers a similar yield as an open thoracotomy The most common histological subtype of chronic interstitial lung disease is the usual interstitial pneumonia [UIP] which makes up 47-71% of cases. The key histologic features include patchy subpleural and paraseptal distribution of remodeling lung architecture with dense fibrosis, frequent honeycombing, and large fibroblastic foci. Temporal and spatial heterogeneity are the hallmarks. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia [NSIP] occurs primarily in middle-aged women who have never smoked, with more than 5-years survival rate in 80% of patients. The major feature of NSIP is a uniform interstitial thickening of alveolar septa by a fibrosing or cellular process. The cardinal histological feature in respiratory bronchiolitis and desquamative pneumonia is an excess of intraalveolar histiocytes. In both patterns, there is variable interstitial fibrosis and chronic inflammation, and a strong association with a history of smoking. Organizing pneumonia (idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia [BOOP]) is not strictly an interstitial process, because the alveoli and bronchioles are filled by intraluminal polyps of fibroblastic tissue and the expansion of the interstitium is mild. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia

  13. [Interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Froidevaux-Janin, Sylvie; Dudler, Jean; Nicod, Laurent P; Lazor, Romain

    2011-11-23

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is found in up to 30% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is clinically manifest in 5 to 10%, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The most frequent histopathological forms are usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Another recently described presentation is combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Similarly to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, acute exacerbation of ILD may occur in RA and is associated with severe prognosis. Smoking is a known risk factor of RA and may also play a role in the pathogenesis of RA-associated ILD, in combination with genetic and immunologic mechanisms. Several treatments of RA may also lead to drug-induced ILD.

  14. Grazing damage to plants and gastropod and grasshopper densities in a CO 2-enrichment experiment on calcareous grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledergerber, Stephan; Thommen, G. Heinrich; Baur, Bruno

    Plant-herbivore interactions may change as atmospheric CO 2 concentrations continue to rise. We examined the effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 and CO 2-exposure chambers on the grazing damage to plants, and on the abundances of potential herbivores (terrestrial gastropods and grasshoppers) in a calcareous grassland in the Jura mountains of Switzerland (village of Nenzlingen). Individuals of most plant species examined showed slight grazing damage. However, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in the extent of grazing damage. Similarly, plots with CO 2 enrichment and plots with ambient atmosphere did not differ in either gastropod or grasshopper density. Experimental plots with and without chambers did not differ in the number of gastropods. However, the densities of gastropods and grasshoppers and extent of grazing damage to plants were generally lower in the experimental area than in the grassland outside the experimental field.

  15. Radiocarbon dating late Quaternary loess deposits using small terrestrial gastropod shells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeff S.; McGeehin, John P.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Bettis, E. Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Constraining the ages and mass accumulation rates of late Quaternary loess deposits is often difficult because of the paucity of organic material typically available for 14C dating and the inherent limitations of luminescence techniques. Radiocarbon dating of small terrestrial gastropod shells may provide an alternative to these methods as fossil shells are common in loess and contain ∼12% carbon by weight. Terrestrial gastropod assemblages in loess have been used extensively to reconstruct past environmental conditions but have been largely ignored for dating purposes. Here, we present the results of a multi-faceted approach to understanding the potential for using small terrestrial gastropod shells to date loess deposits in North America. First, we compare highly resolved 14C ages of well-preserved wood and gastropod shells (Succineidae) recovered from a Holocene loess section in Alaska. Radiocarbon ages derived from the shells are nearly identical to wood and plant macrofossil ages throughout the section, which suggests that the shells behaved as closed systems with respect to carbon for at least the last 10 ka (thousands of calibrated 14C years before present). Second, we apply 14C dating of gastropod shells to late Pleistocene loess deposits in the Great Plains using stratigraphy and independent chronologies for comparison. The new shell ages require less interpretation than humic acid radiocarbon ages that are commonly used in loess studies, provide additional stratigraphic coverage to previous dating efforts, and are in correct stratigraphic order more often than their luminescence counterparts. Third, we show that Succineidae shells recovered from historic loess in the Matanuska River Valley, Alaska captured the 20th century 14C bomb spike, which suggests that the shells can be used to date late Holocene and historic-aged loess. Finally, results from Nebraska and western Iowa suggest that, similar to other materials, shell ages approaching ∼40 ka should

  16. Fractionalization of interstitials in curved colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, William T. M.; Bowick, Mark J.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the effect of curvature and topological frustration in crystals yields insights into the fragility of the ordered state. For instance, a one-dimensional crystal of identical charged particles can accommodate an extra particle (interstitial) if all the particle positions are readjusted, yet in a planar hexagonal crystal interstitials remain trapped between lattice sites and diffuse by hopping. Using optical tweezers operated independently of three-dimensional imaging, we inserted interstitials in a lattice of similar colloidal particles sitting on flat or curved oil/glycerol interfaces, and imaged the ensuing dynamics. We find that, unlike in flat space, the curved crystals self-heal through a collective particle rearrangement that redistributes the increased density associated with the interstitial. This process can be interpreted in terms of the out-of-equilibrium interaction of topological defects with each other and with the underlying curvature. Our observations suggest the existence of particle fractionalization on curved surface crystals.

  17. Thermodynamic processes of si-interstitial clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Birner, S.; Richie, D. A.; Voter, A. F.

    2001-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of silicon interstitial defects are extracted from extensive atomistic simulations using ab initio total energy calculations. With increasing number of interstitials, the stable defect shape evolves from compact to chain-like to rod-like. The rodlike {l_brace}311{r_brace} defect, formed from (011) interstitial chains, is stabilized as it grows, elongating in the chain direction. We utilize new accelerated dynamics algorithms based on the parallel-replica method and reliable empirical potentials to efficiently explore large configurational space involving many degrees of freedom. We evaluate the empirical potentials that have been widely used for bulk silicon in light of the energetic and structural properties of interstitial defects.

  18. Mathematical model of renal interstitial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenrui; Rovin, Brad H.; Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when autoantibodies complex with self-antigen and form immune complexes that accumulate in the glomeruli. These immune complexes initiate an inflammatory response resulting in glomerular injury. LN often concomitantly affects the tubulointerstitial compartment of the kidney, leading first to interstitial inflammation and subsequently to interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the renal tubules if not appropriately treated. Presently the only way to assess interstitial inflammation and fibrosis is through kidney biopsy, which is invasive and cannot be repeated frequently. Hence, monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy is suboptimal. In this paper we describe a mathematical model of the progress from tubulointerstitial inflammation to fibrosis. We demonstrate how the model can be used to monitor treatments for interstitial fibrosis in LN with drugs currently being developed or used for nonrenal fibrosis. PMID:25225370

  19. Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

  20. Acute exacerbations of fibrotic interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Tazelaar, Henry D

    2011-03-01

    An acute exacerbation is the development of acute lung injury, usually resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, in a patient with a pre-existing fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. By definition, acute exacerbations are not caused by infection, heart failure, aspiration or drug reaction. Most patients with acute exacerbations have underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, either idiopathic or in association with a connective tissue disease, but the same process has been reported in patients with fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and asbestosis. Occasionally an acute exacerbation is the initial manifestation of underlying interstitial lung disease. On biopsy, acute exacerbations appear as diffuse alveolar damage or bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) superimposed upon the fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Biopsies may be extremely confusing, because the acute injury pattern can completely obscure the underlying disease; a useful clue is that diffuse alveolar damage and organizing pneumonia should not be associated with old dense fibrosis and peripheral honeycomb change. Consultation with radiology can also be extremely helpful, because the fibrosing disease may be evident on old or concurrent computed tomography scans. The aetiology of acute exacerbations is unknown, and the prognosis is poor; however, some patients survive with high-dose steroid therapy.

  1. Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluba, M. A.; Nickel, N. H.; Karpensky, N.

    2013-12-01

    Doped zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits anomalous Raman modes in the range of 270 to 870 cm-1. Commonly, the resonance at 275 cm-1 is attributed to the local vibration of Zn atoms in the vicinity of extrinsic dopants. We revisit this assignment by investigating the influence of isotopically purified zinc oxide thin films on the frequency of the vibrational mode around 275 cm-1. For this purpose, undoped and nitrogen-doped ZnO thin-films with Zn isotope compositions of natural Zn, 64Zn, 68Zn, and a 1:1 mixture of 64Zn and 68Zn were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The isotopic shift and the line shape of the Raman resonance around 275 cm-1 are analyzed in terms of three different microscopic models, which involve the vibration of (i) interstitial zinc atoms bound to extrinsic defects, (ii) interstitial diatomic Zn molecules, and (iii) interstitial zinc clusters. The energy diagram of interstitial Zn-Zn bonds in a ZnO matrix is derived from density functional theory calculations. The interstitial Zn-Zn bond is stabilized by transferring electrons from the antibonding orbital into the ZnO conduction band. This mechanism facilitates the formation of interstitial Zn clusters and fosters the common n-type doping asymmetry of ZnO.

  2. A review of interstitial pneumonia in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kerr, L A; Linnabary, R D

    1989-06-01

    Interstitial pneumonias comprise a significant proportion of cattle respiratory diseases. Known by different names, such as acute bovine pulmonary emphysema and edema (ABPE), fog fever, atypical interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and cow asthma, the condition seems to occur predominantly in late summer or fall. However, depending on the etiology, cases have occurred throughout the year. Interstitial pneumonia often begins with acute respiratory distress in animals that were clinically normal 12 hr earlier. Animals are observed breathing very rapid and shallow with their mouths open. If disturbed, death may occur rapidly from hypoxia. Causes of interstitial pneumonia are quite varied ranging from parasitic, viral and bacterial to toxic. Toxic agents constitute the most economically important cause of this condition in cattle. The primary toxin is the amino acid L-tryptophan in lush pasture grasses, a compound which is converted to 3-methylindole by rumen microorganisms. Other leading toxic causes of interstitial pneumonia are perilla mint and moldy sweet potatoes. Although treatments are mainly symptomatic and ineffective, preventive measures will reduce the occurrence of interstitial pneumonia. Prevention consists of denying animals exposure to know pneumotoxic agents, eliminating certain rumen microflora that break down the toxic compounds to reactive metabolites, and supplying ample good forage so that cattle will not as likely consume toxic plants.

  3. [Diversity of terrestrial gastropod mollusks in the Pacific region of Nicaragua, and their habitat preferences].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Antonio Mijail; Sotelo, Marlon; Arana, Irma; López, Adolfo

    2008-03-01

    Diversity of terrestrial gastropod mollusks in the Pacific region of Nicaragua, and their habitat preferences. Landsnail communities of the Nicaraguan Pacific Slope were studied. The study area was subdivided into 21 quadrats (ca. 40 x 40 km). A high taxonomic richness was found: 79 species, 43 genera and 23 families. Species richness (S) per quadrat ranged from 17 through 50. The biogeographic index presented higher values on quadrats 5 (3.04), 6 (3.03), 8 (2.96) and 11(2.96). Quadrat 11 had the highest species richness (S=50), and one of the highest biogeographic index values (IB=2.96). Gastropod mollusk communities are favored by sites with an illumination of filtered sun, associated to riparian forests and with a susbtratum of wet soils and leaf litter.

  4. Does Height to Width Ratio Correlate with Mean Volume in Gastropods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriga, R.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine organisms' shell shape and size show important biological information. For example, shape and size can dictate how the organism ranges for food and escapes predation. Due to lack of data and analysis, the evolution of shell size in marine gastropods (snails) remains poorly known. In this study, I attempt to find the relationship between height to width ratio and mean volume. I collected height and width measurements from primary literature sources and calculated volume from these measurements. My results indicate that there was no correlation between height to width ratio and mean volume between 500 to 200 Ma, but there was a correlation between 200 Ma to present where there is a steady increase in both height to width ratio and mean volume. This means that shell shape was not an important factor at the beginning of gastropod evolution but after 200 Ma body size evolution was increasingly driven by the height to width ratio.

  5. Stable isotope data of selected gastropod genera as proxies for seawater chemistry of the Central Paratethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latal, C.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.

    2003-04-01

    Geodynamic processes influenced the complex evolution of the Paratethys, an extended marginal sea, which is characterised by intermittently open and closed marine seaways with its surrounding oceans. Especially in the Miocene, this led to substantial changes in marine environments and ecosystems by changing basin geometries, water circulation, water depth, water chemistry, climate etc. Investigations of stable isotopes of fossil carbonate shells provide information about paleoenvironmental parameters of the ancient seawater. Oxygen and carbon isotope data of selected gastropod genera, mainly Turritellidae, are used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental parameters of different time slices of the Miocene of Austrian Neogene basins. Recent Turritellidae live in a wide range of environments, mainly shallow infaunal or epifaunal, but prefer fully marine conditions. Stable isotope investigations of recent specimens support their usefulness as isotopic indicators for environmental parameters. For detecting diagenetic alterations of the aragonitic gastropod shells, samples were analysed for their shell mineralogy and microstructures with X-ray diffraction analyses and scanning electron microscopy prior to stable isotope analyses. Several microsamples for isotope analyses of each shell were taken to test the intrashell variability. Oxygen and carbon isotopes for Karpatian and Badenian turritellids from the Vienna Basin and the Korneuburg Basin show slightly lighter oxygen and carbon isotope values for the Karpatian. In addition to turritellids, two other gastropod genera (Ocenebra and Granulolabium), both preferring an intertidal habitat and tolerating some salinity fluctuations, were investigated, yielding information about mixing of seawater with freshwater. So parameters for different environments can be obtained, and also comparisons of different gastropod genera are possible. The study was supported by the Austrian Science Foundation (FWF), project "Stable isotopes and

  6. Urine markers of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the current state of the art with regard to urine markers of interstitial cystitis (IC), and describes the areas that need continuing research. Articles referenced in MEDLINE that describe urine alterations in IC were reviewed. Additional articles were identified by cross-referencing. The different marker alterations were tabulated. The relevant articles were discussed, considering different purposes for urine markers including: (1) diagnosing IC; (2) confirming a specific pathophysiology for IC; and (3) predicting or following response to a specific treatment. Currently, 2 markers (glycoprotein-51 and antiproliferative factor [APF]) clearly separate IC and control subjects, with minimal overlap. Markers that correlate with specific bladder biopsy features include 1,4-methylimidazole acetic acid and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which correlate with mast cell density, and interleukin (IL)-6, which correlates with mononuclear inflammation. Markers that changed after treatment were as follows: (1) nitric oxide synthase and cyclic guanosine monophosphate increased with oral L-arginine; (2) ECP decreased with subcutaneous heparin; (3) prostaglandin E(2) and kallikrein decreased after bladder distention; (4) neutrophil chemotactic activity decreased after dimethyl sulfoxide; (5) IL-2 inhibitor decreased after oral nifedipine; (6) IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine; and (7) APF and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor changed to or toward normal levels after bladder distention or sacral nerve stimulation. A larger number of urine alterations have been reported, and a few are being pursued further by correlating with bladder biopsy findings or treatment responses. Further research is needed.

  7. Geometric analysis and estimation of the growth rate gradient on gastropod shells.

    PubMed

    Noshita, Koji; Shimizu, Keisuke; Sasaki, Takenori

    2016-01-21

    The morphology of gastropod shells provides a record of the growth rate at the aperture of the shell, and molecular biological studies have shown that the growth rate gradient along the aperture of a gastropod shell can be closely related to gene expression at the aperture. Here, we develop a novel method for deriving microscopic growth rates from the macroscopic shapes of gastropod shells. The growth vector map of a shell provides information on the growth rate gradient as a vector field along the aperture, over the growth history. However, it is difficult to estimate the growth vector map directly from the macroscopic shape of a specimen, because the degree of freedom of the growth vector map is very high. In order to overcome this difficulty, we develop a method of estimating the growth vector map based on a growing tube model, where the latter includes fewer parameters to be estimated. In addition, we calculate an aperture map specifying the magnitude of the growth vector at each location, which can be compared with the expression levels of several genes or proteins that are important in morphogenesis. Finally, we show a concrete example of how macroscopic shell shapes evolve in a morphospace when microscopic growth rate gradient changes.

  8. Cassiopidae gastropods, influence of Tethys Sea of the Romualdo Formation (Aptian-Albian), Araripe Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Priscilla Albuquerque; Cassab, Rita de Cassia Tardin; Barreto, Alcina Magnólia Franca

    2016-10-01

    The Cassiopidae family belongs to a group of gastropods of the Tethyan Realm, whose origin and dispersion are related a transgression of the Tethys Sea during the Early Cretaceous. The Romualdo Formation in the Araripe Basin, located in Northeast Brazil, presents fossil assemblages with echinoids, bivalves and cassiopid gastropods, indicating a marine sedimentation at the top of the formation. This research reveals three new species of this fauna: Gymnentome (Craginia) beurleni sp. nov., 'Pseudomesalia' ('Pseudomesalia') mennessieri sp. nov and 'Pseudomesalia' ('Pseudomesalia') santanensis sp. nov. We also review two other species: Craginia araripensisBeurlen, 1964 and Gymnentome romualdoiBeurlen, 1964, which we reclassify taxonomically as Paraglauconia (Diglauconia) araripensis and Gymnentome (Gymnentome) romualdoi, respectively; Paraglauconia (Diglauconia) lyrica Maury, 1936 and Gymnentome (Gymnentome) carregozica Maury, 1936 were the first recorded species in the Araripe Basin. The occurrence of these cassiopid gastropod fauna in other basins, such as Sergipe, Potiguar and Parnaíba, indicate the influence of waters coming from the north through the Tethys Sea in the Aptian-Albian and in the marginal continental basins of the Brazilian Northeast.

  9. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  10. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    PubMed

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  11. [Methods and clinical results of interstitial thermoradiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Seegenschmiedt, M H; Sauer, R

    1989-05-01

    Besides percutaneous hyperthermia techniques, some new interstitial procedures have been developed and included into the arsenal of radiotherapists. As compared to percutaneous techniques, considerable benefits are offered by interstitial methods: a more homogeneous distribution of therapeutical temperatures, a better sparing of normal tissue, the possibility to treat deep tumors, and better therapy control and evaluation by extensive "thermal mapping" within the target volume. This study presents the technical principles and the clinical possibilities of the interstitial hyperthermia methods developed hitherto: resistive radiofrequency hyperthermia, radiative microwave hyperthermia, inductive ferromagnetic seed hyperthermia, and conductive hot-water perfusion hyperthermia. Until now, interstitial thermo-radiotherapy was only performed during some phase I/II studies. It was applied for palliative reasons in persisting and recurrent tumors accessible for implantation and situated in superficial to semi-deep locations with no or insufficient response to differently combined treatment modalities (surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy). The preliminary clinical results obtained in almost 300 patients are quite promising: complete remission rates up to 70% have been achieved. Interstitial hyperthermia represents an effective and safe therapy modality, especially when combined with radiotherapy in palliative tumor therapy. At present, several prospective randomized multicentric studies are conducted to investigate its value as adjuvant therapy modality.

  12. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    PubMed

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article. PMID:26234096

  13. The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRα+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

  14. The significance of interstitial cells in neurogastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-07-31

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα(+)) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract.

  15. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis secondary to soy.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Senait W; Hirsch, Ann; Jaworsky, Christine

    2004-08-01

    A healthy 58-year-old woman developed an asymptomatic papular eruption of the neck, cheek, abdomen, arms, and flexures. There was an 8-year history of the lesions, which had erupted when the patient started a strict vegetarian diet. Lesions lasted 3 to 5 days, cleared without scarring, and were associated with burning and increased tearing of the eyes. The biopsy specimen showed an interstitial granulomatous dermatitis without vascular injury, collagen alteration, or mononuclear atypia. The eruption cleared when the patient omitted soy products from her diet. It subsequently recurred with intake of even minimal amounts of soy. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis is a histologic pattern of inflammation that generates a broad differential diagnosis. No previous reports of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis related to soy products are available in the literature.

  16. [Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis: A new French case].

    PubMed

    Verine, Jérôme; Reade, Richard; Janin, Anne; Droz, Dominique

    2010-06-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) is a rare and slowly progressive chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) (28 cases reported), described for the first time by Mihatsch et al. in 1979. Here, we report on a 50-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic renal failure and mild proteinuria without hematuria. Renal biopsy showed large tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and massively enlarged tubular epithelial cell nuclei, without viral inclusion. KIN is a rare CIN defined by a karyomegaly of tubular epithelial cell nuclei. Its pathogenesis remains obscure. Nevertheless, an exogenous factor is suspected, ochratoxin A particularly. The familial clustering of patients and the frequency of HLA-A9 and HLA-B35 haplotypes suggest the presence of a possible genetic susceptibility to this disorder.

  17. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G.; Chroneos, A.

    2013-11-21

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup −1}, which disappears from the spectra at ∼170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup −1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

  18. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  19. Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

  20. Interstitial Pneumonitis from Treatment with Gemcitabine

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Brolin B.; Brockman, Megan M.; Byrd, Debbie C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of gemcitabine may lead to numerous adverse effects ranging from mild to very severe, such as interstitial pneumonitis. The diagnosis of this complication is based on multiple laboratory findings, radiographic evidence, and high clinical suspicion. Presented is a case report of a patient who met these criteria and had onset consistent with drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Case Presentation: A 76-year-old White female was treated with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer. Two months after the initiation of therapy, she was admitted to the hospital for worsening dyspnea and cough. High clinical suspicion, bilateral interstitial opacities on chest x-ray, worsening pulmonary status, and onset 2 months after initiation of therapy led to the diagnosis of gemcitabine-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Steroid therapy with prednisone was initiated, and the patient’s clinical symptoms and radiographic findings improved. Discussion: Gemcitabine-induced interstitial pneumonitis is well described in the literature. It is a rare but serious complication associated with gemcitabine therapy in which patients present with worsening dyspnea. Most patients only require supportive care and discontinuation of the drug for treatment, but in severe cases supplemental oxygen and steroid therapy must be used before resolution of symptoms. It is important to obtain an accurate medication history to evaluate for other potentially pulmonary toxic medications. Radiographic findings such as bilateral infiltrates should be completely resolved after therapy. Conclusion: Radiographic findings, clinical symptoms, and clinical suspicion can lead to early recognition of interstitial pneumonitis from gemcitabine. Physician awareness of this adverse effect and early recognition are keys to providing prompt treatment in resolving symptoms and decreasing mortality. PMID:25477616

  1. Usual interstitial pneumonia in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Elicker, B M; Maldonado, F; Webb, W R; Ryu, J H; Van Uden, J H; Lee, J S; King, T E; Collard, H R

    2010-06-01

    Interstitial lung disease is a common manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis; however, little is known about factors that influence its prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern found on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is of prognostic significance in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). Patients with RA-ILD were identified retrospectively (n = 82). The relationship of a definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT to survival was determined and compared to that in a cohort of patients with radiologically diagnosed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 51). A definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern was seen in 20 (24%) out of 82 patients with RA-ILD. These patients showed worse survival than those without this pattern (median survival 3.2 versus 6.6 yrs), and a similar survival to those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. On multivariate analysis, a definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT was associated with worse survival (hazard ratio of 2.3). Analysis of specific HRCT features demonstrated that traction bronchiectasis and honeycomb fibrosis were associated with worse survival (hazard ratio of 2.6 and 2.1, respectively). Female sex (hazard ratio of 0.30) and a higher baseline diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (hazard ratio of 0.96) were associated with better survival. A definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT has important prognostic implications in RA-ILD.

  2. [Interstitial cystitis. A challenge for the clinician].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; González, Martín; Comercio, Laura P; Quezel, Mariano; Bruetman, Julio E

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline.

  3. [Interstitial cystitis. A challenge for the clinician].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; González, Martín; Comercio, Laura P; Quezel, Mariano; Bruetman, Julio E

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline. PMID:20679058

  4. Interstitial irradiation of brain tumors: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, M.; Gutin, P.H.

    1981-12-01

    As an adjuvant to surgery, radiation therapy has consistently proven to be the most successful form of treatment for primary and secondary malignant brain tumors and possibly for inoperable benign tumors. Because the risk of radiation necrosis of normal brain limits the amount of radiation that can be given by external beam therapy at conventional dose rates, interstitial radiation of brain tumors is a logical alternative treatment approach. We discuss the radiobiological advantages of low dose rate irradiation and intratumoral placement of sources that make interstitial irradiation an attractive treatment for brain tumors and review the history of clinical brachytherapy for intracranial neoplasia.

  5. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  6. Bivalves and gastropods from the middle Campanian Anacacho limestone, South Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, W.P.

    1996-01-01

    The Anacacho Limestone was deposited during the Campanian and represents two depositional intervals, one of early Campanian and one of middle Campanian age. These two intervals correspond to periods of major eustatic sea level rise. This study focuses on the molluscan paleontology of the middle Campanian interval in the eastern part of the Anacacho exposure belt in Medina County, Texas. Molluscan assemblages in this area are indicative of inner to mid-shelf environments. No significant reef components are present. These eastern Anacacho deposits are interpreted to represent more offshore, deeper water environments than those to the southwest, where reef and lagoonal deposits have been reported. Analysis of the macrofossil components from these eastern localities has expanded the number of invertebrate species known from the Anacacho Limestone by nearly three-fold. This increase in diversity, based on a small amount of new work, suggests that many more taxa are yet to be identified, particularly in the western part of the exposure belt in Uvalde and Kinney Counties. This paper documents the bivalve and gastropod fauna, discussing and illustrating 24 bivalve taxa and 11 gastropod species. Two new bivalve species are named, Panopea anacachoensis new species and Spondylus siccus new species, and two potentially new gastropod species are identified but not named herein due to inadequate material. This paper expands the distribution of many eastern Gulf Coast and Atlantic Coast taxa westward into Texas and shows strong ties between the Anacacho fauna and that of the Campanian Tar Heel and Bladen Formations of the Black Creek Group in North Carolina. The taxonomic ties between these two areas probably reflect the thorough documentation of the North Carolina fauna, which is the best documented Campanian bivalve fauna in the Gulf or Atlantic Coast regions.

  7. Increasing sea surface temperature and range shifts of intertidal gastropods along the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Cacabelos, Eva; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    There are well-documented changes in abundance and geographical range of intertidal invertebrates related to climate change at north Europe. However, the effect of sea surface warming on intertidal invertebrates has been poorly studied at lower latitudes. Here we analyze potential changes in the abundance patterns and distribution range of rocky intertidal gastropods related to climate change along the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, the spatial distribution and range of sub-tropical, warm- and cold-water species of intertidal gastropods was explored by a fully hierarchical sampling design considering four different spatial scales, i.e. from region (100 s of km apart) to quadrats (ms apart). Variability on their patterns of abundance was explored by analysis of variance, changes on their distribution ranges were detected by comparing with previous records and their relationship with sea water temperature was explored by rank correlation analyses. Mean values of sea surface temperature along the Iberian coast, between 1949 and 2010, were obtained from in situ data compiled for three different grid squares: south Portugal, north Portugal, and Galicia. Lusitanian species did not show significant correlation with sea water temperature or changes on their distributional range or abundance, along the temperature gradient considered. The sub-tropical species Siphonaria pectinata has, however, increased its distribution range while boreal cold-water species showed the opposite pattern. The latter was more evident for Littorina littorea that was almost absent from the studied rocky shores of the Iberian Peninsula. Sub-tropical and boreal species showed significant but opposite correlation with sea water temperature. We hypothesized that the energetic cost of frequent exposures to sub-lethal temperatures might be responsible for these shifts. Therefore, intertidal gastropods at the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coast are responding to the effect of global warming as it

  8. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia. PMID:27123874

  9. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema.

  10. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia.

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Joshua J; Brown, Kevin K

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disorder affecting 1% of the US population. Patients can have extra-articular manifestations of their disease and the lungs are commonly involved. RA can affect any compartment of the respiratory system and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lung is abnormal in over half of these patients. Interstitial lung disease is a dreaded complication of RA. It is more prevalent in smokers, males, and those with high antibody titers. The pathogenesis is unknown but data suggest an environmental insult in the setting of a genetic predisposition. Smoking may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease through citrullination of protein in the lung leading to the development of autoimmunity. Patients usually present in middle age with cough and dyspnea. Pulmonary function testing most commonly shows reduced diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and HRCT reveals a combination of reticulation and ground glass abnormalities. The most common pattern on HRCT and histopathology is usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia seen less frequently. There are no large-scale well-controlled treatment trials. In severe or progressive cases, treatment usually consists of corticosteroids with or without a cytotoxic agent for 6 months or longer. RA interstitial lung disease is progressive; over half of patients show radiographic progression within 2 years. Patients with a UIP pattern on biopsy have a survival similar to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  13. Reversible Fluindione-Induced Chronic Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Crepin, Thomas; Bamoulid, Jamal; Courivaud, Cécile; Dahmani, Omar; Felix, Sophie; Ducloux, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Fluindione is well known to induce acute drug-induced interstitial nephritis (IN). Most cases occurred soon after the onset of treatment. We report a unique case of severe subacute fluindione-induced IN diagnosed 2 years after the treatment was begun. Renal function dramatically improved after fluindione withdrawal and steroid therapy. PMID:27127666

  14. Nerve fibre proliferation in interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J; Rode, J; Chapple, C R; Milroy, E J; Turner-Warwick, R T

    1990-01-01

    The aetiology of pain in interstitial cystitis is not understood, although it has been reported to be due to release of mediators from mast cell granules. Cystolysis and intravesical instillation of dimethyl sulphoxide have been shown to relieve pain in this condition. We have studied the nerve population within the bladder wall using immunohistochemical stains for protein gene product 9.5. A group of 18 cases of chronic interstitial cystitis and 12 controls; neuropathic bladder (n = 1), chronic bacterial cystitis (n = 3), systemic lupus erythematosus cystitis (n = 2) and normals (n = 6), were investigated. There were significantly more nerve fibres within the sub-urothelial and detrusor muscle layers in chronic interstitial cystitis than there were in normals. Patients with chronic cystitis of other aetiology did not have a significant increase in nerve fibre density within the bladder wall suggesting a specific association between nerve fibre proliferation and interstitial cystitis. Cystolysis is shown to deplete selectively the submucosal nerve plexuses without altering the nerve density within detrusor muscle. This finding explains the desensitisation of the bladder without impairment of detrusor function after this procedure.

  15. Radiocarbon ages of terrestrial gastropods extend duration of ice-free conditions at the Two Creeks forest bed, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rech, Jason A.; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of terrestrial gastropods that underlie the late Pleistocene Two Creeks forest bed (~ 13,800–13,500 cal yr BP) in eastern Wisconsin, USA provides evidence for a mixed tundra-taiga environment prior to formation of the taiga forest bed. Ten new AMS 14C analyses on terrestrial gastropod shells indicate the mixed tundra-taiga environment persisted from ~ 14,500 to 13,900 cal yr BP. The Twocreekan climatic substage, representing ice-free conditions on the shore of Lake Michigan, therefore began near the onset of peak warming conditions during the Bølling–Allerød interstadial and lasted ~ 1000 yr, nearly 600 yr longer than previously thought. These results provide important data for understanding the response of continental ice sheets to global climate forcing and demonstrate the potential of using terrestrial gastropod fossils for both environmental reconstruction and age control in late Quaternary sediments.

  16. New porcellioidean gastropods from early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.; Lenz, A.C.; Manda, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a description of new gastropods belonging to the superfamily Porcellioidea (Vetigastropoda) from the richly diverse Lower Devonian gastropod fauna of the Road River Formation in the Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory. This fauna belongs to Western Canada Province of the Old World Realm. The Pragian species Porcellia (Porcellia) yukonensis n. sp. and Porcellia (Paraporcellia) sp. represent the oldest presently known members of subgenera Porcellia (Porcellia) and Porcellia (Paraporcellia). Their simple shell ornamentation fits well with an earlier described evolutionary trend in shell morphology of the Porcellinae. Late Pragian to early Emsian Perryconcha pulchra n. gen. and n. sp. is the first member of the Porcellioidea bearing a row of tremata on adult teleoconch whorls. The occurrence of this shell feature in the Porcellioidea is additional evidence that the evolution of the apertural slit was much more complicated than has been proposed in classical models of Paleozoic gastropod evolution. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  17. Artificial seawater culture of the gastropod Crepidula fornicata for studies of larval settlement and metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Pires, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The slipper limpet, Crepidula fornicata, is a gastropod mollusc of growing importance as a research model in developmental biology and as an invasive organism. The large (>1 mm) veliger larvae of this species are well suited for neuroethological investigations of settlement and metamorphosis. In this chapter, methods are described for conditioning adult broodstock, growing microalgal food for larvae, and culturing larvae to metamorphic competence in artificial seawater. A protocol is also presented for obtaining electrophysiological recordings of ciliary arrest spikes from intact, behaving larvae, as putative neural correlates of larval settlement.

  18. A pioneer survey and DNA barcoding of some commonly found gastropod molluscs on Robben Island.

    PubMed

    van der Bank, Herman; Greenfield, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen species of abundant gastropods were collected at Robben Island, including introduced dune snails and European brown garden snails. They were identified using morphology and DNA barcoding. It was expected that the species recorded would be similar to those from the Cape peninsula, South Africa, but we were surprised to find some exceptions: the very abundant invasive mussel species in South Africa, the South American bisexual mussel (Semimytilusalgosus), and the beaded topshells (Oxysteleimpervia) were not found on Robben Island. Possible explanations are presented for these differences.

  19. Amino-acid sequence of a cooperative, dimeric myoglobin from the gastropod mollusc, Buccinum undatum L.

    PubMed

    Wen, D; Laursen, R A

    1994-10-19

    The complete amino-acid sequence of a dimeric myoglobin from the radular mussel of the gastropod mollusc, Buccinum undatum L. has been determined. The globin, which shows cooperative binding of oxygen, contains 146 amino acids, is N-terminal aminoacetylated, and has histidine residues at position 65 and 97, corresponding to the heme-binding histidines seen in mammalian myoglobins. It shows about 75% and 50% homology, respectively, with the dimeric molluscan myoglobins from Busycon canaliculatum and Cerithidea rhizophorarum, the former of which also shows weak cooperatively, but much less similarity to other species of myoglobin and hemoglobin.

  20. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.L.

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  1. Subtidal gastropods consume sulfur-oxidizing bacteria: evidence from coastal hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Stein, J L

    1984-02-17

    The black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), a commercially important shallow-water gastropod common off White Point, Southern California, is found frequently at subtidal hydrothermal vents within mats of filamentous sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Foraging vent abalones actively consume the bacteria and confine their nightly feeding forays to bacterial mats surrounding the vents. The growth of abalones consuming the sulfur bacteria exceeds that of control individuals consuming microalgae and is comparable to reported growth rates of abalones consuming macroalgae. Thus, off White Point, the black abalone may derive a portion of its nutrition from the subsidy of geothermal energy.

  2. A pioneer survey and DNA barcoding of some commonly found gastropod molluscs on Robben Island

    PubMed Central

    van der Bank, Herman; Greenfield, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of abundant gastropods were collected at Robben Island, including introduced dune snails and European brown garden snails. They were identified using morphology and DNA barcoding. It was expected that the species recorded would be similar to those from the Cape peninsula, South Africa, but we were surprised to find some exceptions: the very abundant invasive mussel species in South Africa, the South American bisexual mussel (Semimytilus algosus), and the beaded topshells (Oxystele impervia) were not found on Robben Island. Possible explanations are presented for these differences. PMID:25685029

  3. The Environmental Context of Gastropods on Western Laurentia (Basin and Range Province) During the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Robyn Mieko

    Gastropods are a major component of modern marine ecosystems and can be found in nearly every type of marine ecosystem. They experienced their first notable radiation during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (~470 Ma), during which their diversity tripled. This study examines the gastropod assemblage preserved in the Basin and Range Province of the Western United States to establish the environmental context for the Ordovician gastropod radiation. Gastropods are present within every facies examined, but their relative abundance and distribution varies. Gastropods are rare in normal marine settings and abundant in harsh (i.e., dysoxic, hypersaline) environments. Their environmental context is shown to impact survivorship through the end-Ordovician extinction event and throughout the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Collecting accurate density data for fossil deposits can prove challenging, especially when beds are not exposed in plane view. In these cases, paleontologists are tasked with reconstructing shellbed density from cross section exposure. This study presents a mathematical model to calculate the density of fossil material within a bed from bedding cross section counts. The model is calibrated against an Ordovician biofacies comprised of oncoids, macluritid gastropods and receptaculitids exposed in the Arrow Canyon Range of Southern Nevada, where unique preservation provides both cross section exposures and plan view of fossil concentrations. University Earth Science Departments seeking to establish impactful geoscience outreach programs often pursue large-scale, grant funded programs. While this type of outreach is highly successful, it is also extremely costly, and grant funding can be difficult to secure. Here, we present the Geoscience Education Outreach Program (GEOP), a small-scale, very affordable model tested over five years in the Department of Earth Sciences at UCR. GEOP provides a variety of outreach events and allows UCR Earth Sciences to

  4. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  5. Smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Kevin R; Fell, Charlene; Aubry, Marie-Christine; Brown, Kevin; Colby, Thomas; Costabel, Ulrich; Franks, Teri J; Gross, Barry H; Hansell, David M; Kazerooni, Ella; Kim, Dong Soon; King, Talmadge E; Kitachi, Masanori; Lynch, David; Myers, Jeff; Nagai, Sonoko; Nicholson, Andrew G; Poletti, Venerino; Raghu, Ganesh; Selman, Moises; Toews, Galen; Travis, William; Wells, Athol U; Vassallo, Robert; Martinez, Fernando J

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is a key factor in the development of numerous pulmonary diseases. An international group of clinicians, radiologists and pathologists evaluated patients with previously identified idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) to determine unique features of cigarette smoking. Phase 1 (derivation group) identified smoking-related features in patients with a history of smoking (n=41). Phase 2 (validation group) determined if these features correctly predicted the smoking status of IIP patients (n=100) to participants blinded to smoking history. Finally, the investigators sought to determine if a new smoking-related interstitial lung disease phenotype could be defined. Phase 1 suggested that preserved forced vital capacity with disproportionately reduced diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and various radiographic and histopathological findings were smoking-related features. In phase 2, the kappa coefficient among clinicians was 0.16 (95% CI 0.11-0.21), among the pathologists 0.36 (95% CI 0.32-0.40) and among the radiologists 0.43 (95% CI 0.35-0.52) for smoking-related features. Eight of the 100 cases were felt to represent a potential smoking-related interstitial lung disease. Smoking-related features of interstitial lung disease were identified in a minority of smokers and were not specific for smoking. This study is limited by its retrospective design, the potential for recall bias in smoking history and lack of information on second-hand smoke exposure. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between smoking and interstitial lung disease. PMID:25063244

  6. Genetic Analysis of Sporadic and Familial Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Although much progress has been made in understanding the biology and clinical course of interstitial pneumonia, the etiology of this disease remains elusive. Epidemiologic studies have consistently identified cigarette smoke as an important exposure; however, most smokers do not develop interstitial pneumonia and many individuals with interstitial pneumonia do not smoke cigarettes. Moreover, interstitial pneumonias have been reported to cluster in families. Thus, a more thorough understanding of the genetic etiology of interstitial pneumonia may prove critically important in defining the biology and clinical course of this complex human disease. PMID:18403331

  7. Parasitic infection alters the physiological response of a marine gastropod to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Macleod, C D; Poulin, R

    2016-09-01

    Increased hydrogen ion concentration and decreased carbonate ion concentration in seawater are the most physiologically relevant consequences of ocean acidification (OA). Changes to either chemical species may increase the metabolic cost of physiological processes in marine organisms, and reduce the energy available for growth, reproduction and survival. Parasitic infection also increases the energetic demands experienced by marine organisms, and may reduce host tolerance to stressors associated with OA. This study assessed the combined metabolic effects of parasitic infection and OA on an intertidal gastropod, Zeacumantus subcarinatus. Oxygen consumption rates and tissue glucose content were recorded in snails infected with one of three trematode parasites, and an uninfected control group, maintained in acidified (7·6 and 7·4 pH) or unmodified (8·1 pH) seawater. Exposure to acidified seawater significantly altered the oxygen consumption rates and tissue glucose content of infected and uninfected snails, and there were clear differences in the magnitude of these changes between snails infected with different species of trematode. These results indicate that the combined effects of OA and parasitic infection significantly alter the energy requirements of Z. subcarinatus, and that the species of the infecting parasite may play an important role in determining the tolerance of marine gastropods to OA. PMID:27222227

  8. What can aquatic gastropods tell us about phenotypic plasticity? A review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bourdeau, P E; Butlin, R K; Brönmark, C; Edgell, T C; Hoverman, J T; Hollander, J

    2015-01-01

    There have been few attempts to synthesise the growing body of literature on phenotypic plasticity to reveal patterns and generalities about the extent and magnitude of plastic responses. Here, we conduct a review and meta-analysis of published literature on phenotypic plasticity in aquatic (marine and freshwater) gastropods, a common system for studying plasticity. We identified 96 studies, using pre-determined search terms, published between 1985 and November 2013. The literature was dominated by studies of predator-induced shell form, snail growth rates and life history parameters of a few model taxa, accounting for 67% of all studies reviewed. Meta-analyses indicated average plastic responses in shell thickness, shell shape, and growth and fecundity of freshwater species was at least three times larger than in marine species. Within marine gastropods, species with planktonic development had similar average plastic responses to species with benthic development. We discuss these findings in the context of the role of costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity and environmental heterogeneity as important constraints on the evolution of plasticity. We also consider potential publication biases and discuss areas for future research, indicating well-studied areas and important knowledge gaps. PMID:26219231

  9. What can aquatic gastropods tell us about phenotypic plasticity? A review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bourdeau, P E; Butlin, R K; Brönmark, C; Edgell, T C; Hoverman, J T; Hollander, J

    2015-10-01

    There have been few attempts to synthesise the growing body of literature on phenotypic plasticity to reveal patterns and generalities about the extent and magnitude of plastic responses. Here, we conduct a review and meta-analysis of published literature on phenotypic plasticity in aquatic (marine and freshwater) gastropods, a common system for studying plasticity. We identified 96 studies, using pre-determined search terms, published between 1985 and November 2013. The literature was dominated by studies of predator-induced shell form, snail growth rates and life history parameters of a few model taxa, accounting for 67% of all studies reviewed. Meta-analyses indicated average plastic responses in shell thickness, shell shape, and growth and fecundity of freshwater species was at least three times larger than in marine species. Within marine gastropods, species with planktonic development had similar average plastic responses to species with benthic development. We discuss these findings in the context of the role of costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity and environmental heterogeneity as important constraints on the evolution of plasticity. We also consider potential publication biases and discuss areas for future research, indicating well-studied areas and important knowledge gaps. PMID:26219231

  10. The role of the ventral pedal waves in the locomotion of terrestrial gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Janice; Shepherd, Robert D.; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2008-03-01

    The locomotion of terrestrial gastropods exhibits unique characteristics which allow these animals to crawl on steep surfaces. Gastropods move by gliding over a ventral foot lubricated by mucus. They generate trains of pedal waves through periodic muscle contractions in the central portion of the ventral foot, producing a forward traction, while the rim of the foot adheres to the substrate and generates suction forces. We analyzed the kinematics and dynamics of locomotion by conducting two sets of experiments. In the first set, we used digital image processing to correlate the frequency and wavelength of the pedal waves to the migration velocity. In the second set, we computed the traction and adhesion forces produced by these animals from measurements of the deformation of an elastic substrate of known properties. We found that the strain energy exerted by the animal on the substrate is quasi-periodic, and explored a possible correlation between the mean speed of migration and the period of this energy fluctuation. In addition, we found that the pedal waves accelerate as they move forward along the ventral foot producing the symmetry break necessary for the generation of a net traction force.

  11. Parasitic infection alters the physiological response of a marine gastropod to ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Macleod, C D; Poulin, R

    2016-09-01

    Increased hydrogen ion concentration and decreased carbonate ion concentration in seawater are the most physiologically relevant consequences of ocean acidification (OA). Changes to either chemical species may increase the metabolic cost of physiological processes in marine organisms, and reduce the energy available for growth, reproduction and survival. Parasitic infection also increases the energetic demands experienced by marine organisms, and may reduce host tolerance to stressors associated with OA. This study assessed the combined metabolic effects of parasitic infection and OA on an intertidal gastropod, Zeacumantus subcarinatus. Oxygen consumption rates and tissue glucose content were recorded in snails infected with one of three trematode parasites, and an uninfected control group, maintained in acidified (7·6 and 7·4 pH) or unmodified (8·1 pH) seawater. Exposure to acidified seawater significantly altered the oxygen consumption rates and tissue glucose content of infected and uninfected snails, and there were clear differences in the magnitude of these changes between snails infected with different species of trematode. These results indicate that the combined effects of OA and parasitic infection significantly alter the energy requirements of Z. subcarinatus, and that the species of the infecting parasite may play an important role in determining the tolerance of marine gastropods to OA.

  12. Studies on bioprospecting potential of a gastropod mollusc Cantharus tranquebaricus (Gmelin, 1791)

    PubMed Central

    Sarumathi, G; Arumugam, M; Kumaresan, S; Balasubramanian, T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the biological activities of the tissue extract of Cantharus tranquebaricus (C. tranquebaricus). Methods Crude extract of gastropod was tested for inhibition of bacterial growth. Antibacterial assay was carried out by disc diffusion method and the activity was measured accordingly based on the inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with gastropod extract. Molecular weight of the extract was determined by using SDS-PAGE. Plasma coagulation, Fibrin plate assay and substrate SDS-PAGE were used to determine the effect of sample on plasma coagulation, fibrin (ogen) olytic and proteolytic activity. Results The maximum inhibition zone (10 mm) was observed against Vibrio cholera (V. cholera) and minimum inhibition zone (2 mm) was noticed against Proteus mirablis (P. mirablis). The molecular weight was determined as 47-106 kDa. The tissue extract shows proteolytic activity above 48 kDa. SDS-PAGE analysis of fibrinogen after incubation with the tissue extract showed fibrinogenolytic activity. In plasma coagulation assay C. tranquebaricus tissue extract showed procoagulant property and it coagulated chicken plasma within 150 s, while control took 5 min to clot. The 9 HU hemolytic units were found against chicken blood and also exhibit high level of brine shrimp lethality. Conclusions This study suggests that C. tranquebaricus could be used as potential source for isolating bioactive compounds, since it is explored first time and found with promising results. PMID:23569843

  13. Rhodopsin and retinochrome in the retina of a marine gastropod, Conomulex luhuanus.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, K; Terakita, A; Hara, R; Hara, T

    1986-01-01

    Photopigments in the conch retina were examined with special attention given to the photic vesicles characteristic of gastropod photoreceptors. Three different fractions of visual cell fragments were prepared from the retina: the MV-fraction containing the rhabdomal microvilli, and the PVH- and PVL-fractions containing the photic vesicles located in the visual cell body. Rhodopsin was found in the MV-fraction (lambda max = 474 nm), and yielded a photoequilibrium mixture with metarhodopsin (lambda max = 512 nm) on irradiation with blue light. Retinochrome was found in both of the PVH- and PVL-fractions (lambda max = approximately 510 nm), and was bleached into metaretinochrome by exposure to orange light, showing no marked shift of the absorption peak. Unlike the PVH-fraction, the PVL-fraction contains much aporetinochrome in addition to retinochrome, suggesting that the large mass of photic vesicles around the nucleus may serve as storage for retinal in retinochrome and for newly synthesized aporetinochrome. The total amount of retinochrome in the retina was several times higher than that of rhodopsin, distinguishing the gastropod eye from the cephalopod eye.

  14. Vermetid gastropods reduce foraging by herbivorous fishes on algae on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tootell, Jesse S.; Steele, Mark A.

    2014-12-01

    Vermetid gastropods have the potential to reduce foraging by herbivorous fishes on algae on coral reefs because they produce mucous nets that cover the surfaces of coral skeletons, potentially inhibiting foraging by fishes. We assessed this possibility using both observational and experimental approaches in Moorea, French Polynesia. Foraging rates of herbivorous fishes (total number of bites by all species per minute) were recorded in plots that varied naturally in the cover of vermetid mucous nets. This study, done at six sites, revealed that foraging on algal turf declined with increasing cover of vermetid mucous nets, ranging from ~2 to 22 bites m-2 min-1 at 0 % coverage to 0-5 bites m-2 min-1 at 100 % coverage. The magnitude of this effect of vermetid nets varied among microhabitats (high, mid, and low bommies) and sites, presumably due to variation in the intensity of herbivory. Experimental removal of vermetid mucous nets from plots more than doubled the foraging intensity on turf algae relative to when vermetid nets were present at high (≥70 %) cover. Our results indicate that algal turf on coral reefs may benefit from associational refuge from grazing provided by vermetid gastropods, which might in turn harm corals via increased competition with algal turf.

  15. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  16. The Heritability of Shell Morphometrics in the Freshwater Pulmonate Gastropod Physa

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Robert T.; Jacquemin, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan freshwater pulmonate snail Physa acuta hybridizes readily with Physa carolinae in the laboratory, although their F1 progeny are sterile. The two species differ qualitatively in shell shape, the former bearing a more globose shell and the latter more fusiform. We performed a hybridization experiment, measuring a set of 14 traditional (linear) and landmark-based shell morphological variables on even-aged parents and their offspring from both hybrids and purebred control lines. Parent-offspring regression yielded a strikingly high heritability estimate for score on the first relative warp axis, h2 = 0.819 ± 0.073, a result that would seem to confirm the value of geometric morphometrics as a tool for retrieving evolutionary relationships from gastropod shell form. Score on the second relative warp axis was also significantly heritable (h2 = 0.312 ± 0.123), although more moderate, as were scores on second principal components extracted from traditional measurements (correlation h2 = 0.308 ± 0.069, covariance h2 = 0.314 ± 0.050). Although score on the first relative warp axis was significantly correlated with centroid size (p < 0.001), scores on none of the three second axes were so correlated. This result suggests that second axis score might prove especially useful for estimating genetic divergence among mixed-age populations of gastropods sampled from the field. PMID:25876155

  17. The role of MAPK signaling in patterning and establishing axial symmetry in the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Koop, Demian; Richards, Gemma S; Wanninger, Andreas; Gunter, Helen M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2007-11-01

    Gastropods are members of the Spiralia, a diverse group of invertebrates that share a common early developmental program, which includes spiral cleavage and a larval trochophore stage. The spiral cleavage program results in the division of the embryo into four quadrants. Specification of the dorsal (D) quadrant is intimately linked with body plan organization and in equally cleaving gastropods occurs when one of the vegetal macromeres makes contact with overlying micromeres and receives an inductive signal that activates a MAPK signaling cascade. Following the induction of the 3D macromere, the embryo begins to gastrulate and assumes a bilateral cleavage pattern. Here we inhibit MAPK activation in 3D with U0126 and examine its effect on the formation and patterning of the trochophore, using a suite of territory-specific markers. The head (pretrochal) region appears to maintain quadri-radial symmetry in U0126-treated embryos, supporting a role for MAPK signaling in 3D in establishing dorsoventral polarity in this region. Posterior (posttrochal) structures - larval musculature, shell and foot--fail to develop in MAPK inhibited trochophores. Inhibition of 3D specification by an alternative method--monensin treatment--yields similar abnormal trochophores. However, genes that are normally expressed in the ectodermal structures (shell and foot) are detected in U0126- and monensin-perturbed larvae in patterns that suggest that this region has latent dorsoventral polarity that is manifested even in the absence of D quadrant specification.

  18. Expression of anterior Hox genes during larval development of the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Veronica F; O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Richards, Gemma S; Degnan, Bernard M

    2003-01-01

    We report the spatial expression patterns of five anterior Hox genes during larval development of the gastropod mollusc Haliotis asinina, an unsegmented spiralian lophotrochozoan. Molecular alignments and phylogenetic analysis indicate that these genes are homologues of Drosophila HOM-C genes labial, proboscipedia, zen, Deformed, and Sex combs reduced; the abalone genes are named Has-Hox1, -Hox2, -Hox3, -Hox4, and -Hox5. Has-Hox transcripts are first detected in the free-swimming trochophore larval stage and restricted to the posttrochal ectoderm. Has-Hox2, -Hox3, and -Hox4 are expressed in bilaterally symmetrical and overlapping patterns in presumptive neuroectodermal cells on the ventral side of the trochophore. Has-Hox1 expression is restricted to a ring of cells on the dorsoposterior surface, corresponding to the outer mantle edge where new larval shell is being synthesized. There appears to be little change in the expression domains of these Has-Hox genes in pre- and posttorsional veliger larvae, with expression maintained in ectodermal and neuroectodermal tissues. Has-Hox2, -Hox3, -Hox4, and-Hox5 appear to be expressed in a colinear manner in the ganglia and connectives in the twisted nervous system. This pattern is not evident in older larvae. Has-Hox1 and-Hox4 are expressed in the margin of the mantle in the posttorsional veliger, suggesting that Hox genes play a role in gastropod shell formation.

  19. Rhodopsin and retinochrome in the retina of a marine gastropod, Conomulex luhuanus.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, K; Terakita, A; Hara, R; Hara, T

    1986-01-01

    Photopigments in the conch retina were examined with special attention given to the photic vesicles characteristic of gastropod photoreceptors. Three different fractions of visual cell fragments were prepared from the retina: the MV-fraction containing the rhabdomal microvilli, and the PVH- and PVL-fractions containing the photic vesicles located in the visual cell body. Rhodopsin was found in the MV-fraction (lambda max = 474 nm), and yielded a photoequilibrium mixture with metarhodopsin (lambda max = 512 nm) on irradiation with blue light. Retinochrome was found in both of the PVH- and PVL-fractions (lambda max = approximately 510 nm), and was bleached into metaretinochrome by exposure to orange light, showing no marked shift of the absorption peak. Unlike the PVH-fraction, the PVL-fraction contains much aporetinochrome in addition to retinochrome, suggesting that the large mass of photic vesicles around the nucleus may serve as storage for retinal in retinochrome and for newly synthesized aporetinochrome. The total amount of retinochrome in the retina was several times higher than that of rhodopsin, distinguishing the gastropod eye from the cephalopod eye. PMID:3750849

  20. Body Size Extinction and Origination Selectivity: A Case Study of Marine Gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, E.; Seixas, G.; Faerber, M.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Body size has received exceptional interest in evolutionary biology because of its correlation with many ecological and physiological traits. Because large size is typically associated with long generation time and small population size, it has been widely assumed that extinction risk is positively correlated with body size. Data from Pleistocene and Holocene terrestrial mammals and birds support this inference. However, there have been few studies on size bias of marine invertebrate animals, so the true extent of this pattern remains unknown. For this study, we compiled genus-level body size data for marine gastropods spanning the entire Phanerozoic. We use this dataset to examine the statistical evidence for size bias in both origination and extinction of marine gastropods. We perform logistic regression analyses on the data from each Phanerozoic stage to determine the association of body size with origination and extinction. Contrary to previous studies on terrestrial vertebrates, we observe no strong or persistent association between body size and the probability that a genus either originated or went extinct during that stage. Hence, our findings indicate that size bias in extinction risk may reflect particular aspects of mammalian biology or anthropogenic environmental change rather than a general pattern of animal evolution.

  1. Facts and controversies in the classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Poletti, V; Kitaichi, M

    2000-10-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are defined from the pathological point of view as non granulomatous intralobular inflammatory and fibrotic processes involving the alveolar walls. More than thirty years ago Liebow and Carrington pioneered the notion that morphological characteristics could be used with benefit in separating the different entities found in this group, which present with typical, but not pathognomonic clinical features. In the mid-1980s some entities, including giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP), were removed from this group and considered as peculiar forms. In the early 90s the concept of cellular or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia was reconsidered, leading to an in depth revision of various types of interstitial pneumonia of unknown etiology. The histological pattern observed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is now referred to as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Other entities that have been revised during the last ten years are desquamative interstitial pneumonia/alveolar macrophage pneumonia (DIP/AMP), respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). This paper provides a detailed description of pulmonary disorders which have been included in the new classification systems of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. In the second part of the paper we will discuss several doubts and controversies that this new classification schemes leave unresolved.

  2. Interstitial pregnancy management and subsequent pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Ron; Debby, Abraham; Keidar, Ran; Kerner, Ram; Golan, Abraham

    2013-11-01

    We report on management and subsequent fertility outcome of interstitial pregnancy in a retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3) at a university affiliated teaching hospital. Of 706 women with extrauterine pregnancy, 14 consecutive women with interstitial pregnancy were treated by methotrexate, laparotomy or laparoscopy between 1997 and 2007. The first four women, with significant hemoperitoneum, were treated by laparotomy. Of the next 10 women, four were selected for medical treatment with methotrexate. Only one case was treated successfully. The other six women had laparoscopic treatment. Of nine laparoscopies, one was converted to laparotomy due to excessive blood loss during the procedure. Of nine women desiring a child, three were infertile, whereas six conceived with an intrauterine pregnancy. A change from diagnosis later in pregnancy and laparotomy to more conservative treatment, mainly by laparoscopy, suggests a possibly better subsequent pregnancy rate.

  3. Interstitial laser thermotherapy in neurosurgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Menovsky, T; Beek, J F; van Gemert, M J; Roux, F X; Bown, S G

    1996-01-01

    One of the most recent laser treatment modalities in neurosurgery is interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILTT). In this review, experimental and clinical studies concerning intracranial ILTT are discussed. Two methods for intra-operative control of the laser induced lesions are described; i.e., computer-controlled power delivery, using a thermocouple that is positioned interstitially at the periphery of the tumour to maintain the desired temperature at that point, and MRI, to visualise the extent of the thermal lesions induced by ILTT. The results show that ILTT using a Nd: YAG laser is easy and relatively effective in the treatment of small deep-seated brain tumours with minimal risk and complications. This review is concluded with suggestions for further improvement of this treatment modality.

  4. Noninvasive NIR monitoring of interstitial ethanol concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Vanslyke, Stephen J.; Way, Jeff F.

    2009-02-01

    A practical limitation encountered in alcohol research is the relatively small number of body compartments (e.g. blood, liver, tissue) that can be directly interrogated. In this work, an NIR spectroscopic device was investigated that provided a direct measurement of alcohol concentration in skin tissue (interstitial fluid). This work is intended to characterize the relationship of forearm interstitial fluid alcohol concentration relative to capillary blood using a first order kinetic model. Concurrent blood and tissue alcohol concentrations were collected on 101 test subjects while consuming alcohol. Estimates of the first order kinetic rate constant were calculated for each of the subjects. It is hoped that this characterization will lead to further improvements in optical based alcohol monitors for impairment detection.

  5. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  6. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  7. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Alis Kolter

    2007-02-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic, painful bladder syndrome primarily found in women. Although the direct cause(s) of IC are unknown, several theories exist. Common symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, and pain. Treatment options include behavioral therapies, use of pharmacologic agents, and surgery. Patients benefit from prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatments. Important clinical features of IC in women including the pathology, common symptoms, and recommended evaluation and management strategies are reviewed.

  8. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientation depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.

  9. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientationmore » depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.« less

  10. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  11. INTERSTITIAL IMMUNE COMPLEX THYROIDITIS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Clagett, James A.; Wilson, Curtis B.; Weigle, William O.

    1974-01-01

    Mice immunized with soluble heterologous thyroglobulins developed autoantibody that cross-reacted with autologous thyroglobulin. There was a direct correlation between the temporal appearance and quantity of serum autoantibody and the presumed in situ formation of immune complexes in the interstitium of the thyroid glands. Immediately after the formation of interstitial immune complexes containing antibody of the IgG complement-fixing type, the thyroids were invaded by a transient but intense neutrophil infiltrate which within 1 wk was replaced by chronic mononuclear elements. By the combination of fluorescence microscopy and autoradiography, thyroglobulin was demonstrated to be one, if not the sole, antigen in the interstitial immune complexes. The interstitial immune complexes were granular to lumpy in appearance and formed at the basal area of the follicular cells in intimate association with the follicular basement membrane. Electron microscopy revealed electron dense deposits, presumably immune complexes, between the follicular basement membrane and the plasma membrane. The presumed in situ formation of immune complexes in this model is similar to that which occurs in the Arthus reaction and is a different mechanism of immune complex injury than that caused by tissue deposition of circulating immune complexes as occurs in serum sickness. PMID:4279269

  12. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  13. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-04-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells.

  14. Five new cryptic freshwater gastropod species from New Caledonia (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea, Tateidae)

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Martin; Zielske, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the course of a project aiming at the reconstruction of the colonization of the South Pacific islands by tateid gastropods based on molecular data we discovered five new species on New Caledonia belonging to the genera Hemistomia and Leiorhagium, respectively. We describe these species based on morphological, anatomical and genetic data. All five species are morphologically cryptic as they closely resemble or are even indistinguishable from known species stressing the importance of a comprehensive taxonomic approach integrating several methods. As a consequence of their small and fragmented geographic ranges and the rapidly progressing anthropogenic land cover changes on New Caledonia, all five species qualify as critically endangered according to the criteria of the IUCN. PMID:26478699

  15. Odontomariinae, a new middle paleozoic subfamily of slit-bearing euophaloidean gastropods (Euophalomorpha, Gastropoda)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryda, J.; Heidelberger, D.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    A new subfamily, the Odontomariinae subfam. nov., is established herein for a distinctive group of uncoiled, slit-bearing Middle Devonian euomphalid gastropods. Its taxonomic position is based on the recent discovery of open coiled protoconchs and it is placed within the Euomphalomorpha. The genera Odontomaria Odontomaria C. F. Roemer and Tubiconcha n. gen. belonging to this new subfamily are enlarged based on studies on new material of the following species: Odontomaria semiplicata (Sandberger & Sandberger), Odontomaria gracilis n. sp., Odontomaria jankei n. sp., Odontomaria cheeneetnukensis n. sp., Odontomaria cindiprellerae n. sp. and Tubiconcha leunissi (Heidelberger, 2001). Members of the Odontomariinae were mainly sedentary organisms in high-energy, moderately shallow water. ?? 2006 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  16. Correlations between gastropod shell dissolution and water chemical properties in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David J; Santos, Jose H; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Chak, Wang H

    2008-10-01

    Although poorly reported in the scientific literature, acidic waters characterize many South East Asian estuaries. The observation of shell dissolution in a typically marine gastropod whelk (Thais) prompted investigation into determining relationships between shell properties of this whelk and the water chemistry (including pH) of the Sungai Brunei estuary (Borneo) in which it occurs. Shell weight, shell length and topographical shell features were determined for populations of Thais gradata distributed along a gradient of pH and salinity ranging between 5.78 and 8.3 pH units, and 3.58 and 31.2psu. Shell weight varied independently of the co-varying acidity, salinity and calcium levels experienced. In contrast, shell length and a semi-quantitative variable based on shell sculpturing (shell erosion rank, SER) were significantly correlated with these water chemistry variables. This study brings attention to the potential use of estuarine organisms and systems in investigating current marine acidification questions.

  17. Protection mechanisms of the iron-plated armor of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Haimin; Dao, Ming; Imholt, Timothy; Huang, Jamie; Wheeler, Kevin; Bonilla, Alejandro; Suresh, Subra; Ortiz, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Biological exoskeletons, in particular those with unusually robust and multifunctional properties, hold enormous potential for the development of improved load-bearing and protective engineering materials. Here, we report new materials and mechanical design principles of the iron-plated multilayered structure of the natural armor of Crysomallon squamiferum, a recently discovered gastropod mollusc from the Kairei Indian hydrothermal vent field, which is unlike any other known natural or synthetic engineered armor. We have determined through nanoscale experiments and computational simulations of a predatory attack that the specific combination of different materials, microstructures, interfacial geometries, gradation, and layering are advantageous for penetration resistance, energy dissipation, mitigation of fracture and crack arrest, reduction of back deflections, and resistance to bending and tensile loads. The structure-property-performance relationships described are expected to be of technological interest for a variety of civilian and defense applications. PMID:20133823

  18. Gastropods from the Campanian-Maastrichtian Aruma Formation, Central Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameil, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.

    2015-03-01

    The gastropod fauna of the Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia comprises fifteen species belonging to fifteen genera, fourteen families, and five clades. The species are not abundant at any individual stratigraphic level but are equally and irregularly scattered in the formation. The studied species come mainly from the Hajajah Member of Upper Cretaceous Aruma Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Calliomphalus orientalis (Douvillé, 1916); Coelobolma corbarica Cossmann, 1918; Turritella (Torquesia) figarii Quaas, 1902; Neoptyxis olisiponensis (Sharpe, 1850) and Otostoma (Otostoma) divaricatum (d'Orbigny, 1847) are recorded from the Upper Cretaceous of central Arabia for the first time. The identified species have a close affinity to the Tethyan fauna known from other parts in Asia, Africa and Europe. Herbivores and predators are the dominant trophic groups which may indicate shallow marine lagoonal and relatively open marine environment.

  19. Ocean acidification disrupts induced defences in the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Bibby, Ruth; Cleall-Harding, Polly; Rundle, Simon; Widdicombe, Steve; Spicer, John

    2007-12-22

    Carbon dioxide-induced ocean acidification is predicted to have major implications for marine life, but the research focus to date has been on direct effects. We demonstrate that acidified seawater can have indirect biological effects by disrupting the capability of organisms to express induced defences, hence, increasing their vulnerability to predation. The intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea produced thicker shells in the presence of predation (crab) cues but this response was disrupted at low seawater pH. This response was accompanied by a marked depression in metabolic rate (hypometabolism) under the joint stress of high predation risk and reduced pH. However, snails in this treatment apparently compensated for a lack of morphological defence, by increasing their avoidance behaviour, which, in turn, could affect their interactions with other organisms. Together, these findings suggest that biological effects from ocean acidification may be complex and extend beyond simple direct effects. PMID:17939976

  20. Accumulation of Cu and Zn in discarded antifouling paint particles by the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammon, Melanie; Turner, Andrew; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-10-01

    The short-term (5 day) accumulation of Cu and Zn in different tissues of the marine gastropod, Littorina littorea, has been studied in the presence of ˜10 mg l -1 of antifouling paint particles and pre- or simultaneously contaminated algal food ( Ulva lactuca). Accumulation of Cu was observed in the head-foot, digestive gland-gonad complex and gills to extents dependent on how and when food was contaminated and administered. However, retention of Zn was only observed in the gills and only when L. littorea and U. lactuca were simultaneously exposed to paint particles. Relative to the alga, faecal material was highly enriched in Zn, suggesting that the animal is able to rapidly eliminate this metal, most likely through the formation and egestion of insoluble phosphate granules. Thus, L. littorea is a useful biomonitor of marine contamination by antifouling applications in respect of Cu but not Zn.

  1. New Gastropod Vectors and Tetrodotoxin Potential Expansion in Temperate Waters of the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marisa; Azevedo, Joana; Rodriguez, Paula; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vítor

    2012-01-01

    Tetrodotoxin is a potent low weight marine toxin found in warm waters, especially of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Intoxications are usually linked to the consumption of the puffer fish, although TTX was already detected in several different edible taxa. Benthic organisms such as mollusks and echinoderms, with different feeding habits, were collected monthly along the Portuguese coast from the summer of 2009 until the end of 2010. The extraction and analysis techniques were optimized and TTX and some analogues were detected for the first time in two intertidal gastropod species—Gibbula umbilicalis and Monodonta lineata by LC-MS/MS and UPLC-MS/MS. Although the levels are low, these findings suggest that monitoring of TTX and analogues in North Atlantic species should be implemented so as to detect potentially new toxin vectors and seasonal and/or geographical patterns. PMID:22690139

  2. Respiratory failure due to infliximab induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kakavas, Sotiris; Balis, Evangelos; Lazarou, Vasiliki; Kouvela, Marousa; Tatsis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Although poorly understood, interstitial lung disease has been reported as a possible complication of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. We report a case of interstitial lung disease in a 64-year-old man with psoriasis 3 weeks after the initiation of infliximab treatment. The patient had received two fortnightly infusions of infliximab following a short course of methotrexate. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral ground glass and interstitial infiltrates, while the results of microbiology and immunologic workup were negative. Likewise, bronchoalveolar lavage detected neither typical nor atypical pathogens. Infliximab-induced interstitial lung injury was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was administered which resulted in rapid clinical and radiological improvement. This is one of the few reported cases of interstitial lung disease due to infliximab in the psoriasis population. The patient had no pre-existing lung pathology, while his previous exposure to methotrexate was minimal and was not temporally associated with the induction of interstitial lung disease.

  3. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids gastropods

  4. 3D-ultrastructure, functions and stress responses of gastropod (Biomphalaria glabrata) rhogocytes.

    PubMed

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Güler, M Alptekin; Lieb, Bernhard; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Markl, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Rhogocytes are pore cells scattered among the connective tissue of different body parts of gastropods and other molluscs, with great variation in their number, shape and size. They are enveloped by a lamina of extracellular matrix. Their most characteristic feature is the "slit apparatus", local invaginations of the plasma membrane bridged by cytoplasmic bars, forming slits of ca. 20 nm width. A slit diaphragm creates a molecular sieve with permeation holes of 20×20 nm. In blue-blooded gastropods, rhogocytes synthesize and secrete the respiratory protein hemocyanin, and it has been proposed-though not proven-that in the rare red-blooded snail species they might synthesize and secrete the hemoglobin. However, the cellular secretion pathway for respiratory proteins, and the functional role(s) of the enigmatic rhogocyte slit apparatus are still unclear. Additional functions for rhogocytes have been proposed, notably a role in protein uptake and degradation, and in heavy metal detoxification. Here we provide new structural and functional information on the rhogocytes of the red-blooded freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. By in situ hybridization of mantle tissues, we prove that rhogocytes indeed synthesize hemoglobin. By electron tomography, the first three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the slit apparatus are provided, showing detail of highly dense material in the cytoplasmic bars close to the slits. By immunogold labelling, we collected evidence that a major component of this material is actin. By genome databank mining, the complete sequence of a B. glabrata nephrin was obtained, and localized to the rhogocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence of both proteins fit the ultrastructure-based hypothesis that rhogocytes are related to mammalian podocytes and insect nephrocytes. Reactions of the rhogocytes to deprivation of food and cadmium toxification are also documented, and a possible secretion pathway of newly synthesized respiratory proteins

  5. Native and introduced gastropods in laurel forests on Tenerife, Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappes, Heike; Delgado, Juan D.; Alonso, María R.; Ibáñez, Miguel

    2009-09-01

    The introduction of non-native gastropods on islands has repetitively been related to a decline of the endemic fauna. So far, no quantitative information is available even for the native gastropod fauna from the laurel forests (the so-called Laurisilva) of the Canary Islands. Much of the original laurel forest has been logged in recent centuries. Based on vegetation studies, we hypothesized that densities and the number of introduced species decline with the age of the regrowth forests. We sampled 27 sites from which we collected thirty native and seven introduced species. Two introduced species, Milax nigricans and Oxychilus alliarius, were previously not reported from the Canary Islands. Assemblage composition was mainly structured by disturbance history and altitude. Overall species richness was correlated with slope inclination, prevalence of rocky outcrops, amounts of woody debris and leaf litter depth. Densities were correlated with the depth of the litter layer and the extent of herb layer cover and laurel canopy cover. Introduced species occurred in 22 sites but were neither related to native species richness nor to the time that elapsed since forest regrowth. One introduced slug, Lehmannia valentiana, is already wide-spread, with densities strongly related to herb cover. Overall species richness seemed to be the outcome of invasibility, thus factors enhancing species richness likely also enhance invasibility. Although at present introduced species contribute to diversity, the potential competition between introduced slugs and the rich native semi-slug fauna, and the effects of introduced predatory snails ( Oxychilus spp. and Testacella maugei) warrant further monitoring.

  6. Comparative ontogenetic changes in enzyme activity during embryonic development of calyptraeid gastropods.

    PubMed

    Collin, Rachel; Starr, Matthew J

    2013-09-01

    A modification of a semi-quantitative color-based enzyme assay was used to quantify the activity of 19 enzymes (5 peptidases, 3 lipases, 3 phosphotases, and 8 carbohydrases) during five stages of development in eight species of calyptraeid gastropods. Sixteen of the 19 enzymes showed a significant effect of mode of development on the concentration of the reaction product after incubation of homogenates standardized for protein content. The overall pattern was that planktotrophs showed the highest activities, followed by adelphophages, and nonfeeding embryos, which had the lowest enzyme activities. Thirteen enzymes showed significant differences across developmental stages. Of these, eight showed a clear increase during development. Only one of the enzymes showed a sudden jump in activity between the unfed, pre-hatching stage and post-hatching stages that were fed Isochrysis galbana. In three cases, ANOVA identified two exclusive, significantly different groups of species. In naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, the measured absorbance of Crucibulum spinosum samples was significantly higher than in all of the other species. The activity of α-fucosidase in Crepipatella occulta was significantly greater than in the other seven species. Finally, the activity of β-galactosidase was significantly higher in C. occulta, Crucibulum spinosum, and Bostrycapulus calyptraeformis than in the four Crepidula species. This is the only enzyme for which there is an indication of a phylogenetic effect. Relative enzyme activities were similar to those reported for other herbivorous gastropods, with the three phosphohydrolases, four carbohydrases (β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, and α-fucosidase), and leucine arylamidase showing high activities.

  7. Non-Random Sibling Cannibalism in the Marine Gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis.

    PubMed

    Brante, Antonio; Fernández, Miriam; Viard, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Sibling cannibalism is commonly observed in marine species. For instance, intrabrood cannibalism has been documented in marine gastropods with direct development, suggesting a relationship between embryo behavior and the evolution of life history strategies. However, there has been little effort to document the factors driving sibling cannibalism in marine species. The kin selection theory suggests that the level of relatedness plays an important role in cannibalism patterns. We examined Crepidula coquimbensis, a marine gastropod that broods and encloses its brooded offspring in capsules. Encapsulated embryos show sibling cannibalism and high levels of intracapsular multiple paternity. Given these features, cannibalistic behavior may be driven by kin-relatedness. To test this hypothesis, we constructed artificial aggregations of embryos to mimic three levels of relatedness: high, medium and low. For each category of aggregation, the cannibalism rate and benefits (i.e. size at hatching of surviving offspring) were estimated. In addition, at the end of embryo development, we performed parentage analyses to determine if cannibalism was associated with the relatedness between cannibal and victim embryos. Our results show that the intensity of sibling cannibalism increased in aggregations characterized by the lowest level of relatedness. There were important benefits of cannibalism in terms of hatching cannibal size. In addition, cannibalism between embryos was not random: the variation in reproductive success between males increased over the course of the experiment and the effective number of fathers decreased. Altogether, these results suggest that polyandry may play an important role in the evolution of sibling cannibalism in C. coquimbensis and that kin selection may operate during early embryonic stages in this species. PMID:23805291

  8. Correlated evolution between mode of larval development and habitat in muricid gastropods.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids gastropods.

  9. Evolution and development of gastropod larval shell morphology: experimental evidence for mechanical defense and repair.

    PubMed

    Hickman, C S

    2001-01-01

    The structural diversity of gastropod veliger larvae offers an instructive counterpoint to the view of larval forms as conservative archetypes. Larval structure, function, and development are fine-tuned for survival in the plankton. Accordingly, the study of larval adaptation provides an important perspective for evolutionary-developmental biology as an integrated science. Patterns of breakage and repair in the field, as well as patterns of breakage in arranged encounters with zooplankton under laboratory conditions, are two powerful sources of data on the adaptive significance of morphological and microsculptural features of the gastropod larval shell. Shells of the planktonic veliger larvae of the caenogastropod Nassarius paupertus [GOULD] preserve multiple repaired breaks, attributed to unsuccessful zooplankton predators. In culture, larvae isolated from concentrated zooplankton samples rapidly repaired broken apertural margins and restored the "ideal" apertural form, in which an elaborate projection or "beak" covers the head of the swimming veliger. When individuals with repaired apertures were reintroduced to a concentrated mixture of potential zooplankton predators, the repaired margins were rapidly chipped and broken back. The projecting beak of the larval shell is the first line of mechanical defense, covering the larval head and mouth and potentially the most vulnerable part of the shell to breakage. Patterns of mechanical failure show that spiral ridges do reinforce the beak and retard breakage. The capacity for rapid shell repair and regeneration, and the evolution of features that resist or retard mechanical damage, may play a more prominent role than previously thought in enhancing the ability of larvae to survive in the plankton.

  10. Correlated Evolution between Mode of Larval Development and Habitat in Muricid Gastropods

    PubMed Central

    Pappalardo, Paula; Rodríguez-Serrano, Enrique; Fernández, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Larval modes of development affect evolutionary processes and influence the distribution of marine invertebrates in the ocean. The decrease in pelagic development toward higher latitudes is one of the patterns of distribution most frequently discussed in marine organisms (Thorson's rule), which has been related to increased larval mortality associated with long pelagic durations in colder waters. However, the type of substrate occupied by adults has been suggested to influence the generality of the latitudinal patterns in larval development. To help understand how the environment affects the evolution of larval types we evaluated the association between larval development and habitat using gastropods of the Muricidae family as a model group. To achieve this goal, we collected information on latitudinal distribution, sea water temperature, larval development and type of substrate occupied by adults. We constructed a molecular phylogeny for 45 species of muricids to estimate the ancestral character states and to assess the relationship between traits using comparative methods in a Bayesian framework. Our results showed high probability for a common ancestor of the muricids with nonpelagic (and nonfeeding) development, that lived in hard bottoms and cold temperatures. From this ancestor, a pelagic feeding larva evolved three times, and some species shifted to warmer temperatures or sand bottoms. The evolution of larval development was not independent of habitat; the most probable evolutionary route reconstructed in the analysis of correlated evolution showed that type of larval development may change in soft bottoms but in hard bottoms this change is highly unlikely. Lower sea water temperatures were associated with nonpelagic modes of development, supporting Thorson's rule. We show how environmental pressures can favor a particular mode of larval development or transitions between larval modes and discuss the reacquisition of feeding larva in muricids

  11. [Composition, abundance and distribution of populations of commercially important gastropods in La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Nieto-Bernal, Ramón; Luis, Chasqui; Rodriguez, Angélica María; Castro, Erick; Gil-Agudelo, Diego L

    2013-06-01

    In the continental Colombian Caribbean the conch resource exploitation and the status of snails populations has been poorly studied, which are reflected in the lack of fisheries management. This study assesses composition, population density and distribution of the gastropods species that make conch resource in La Guajira region. Underwater visual censuses for snails were performed between September-November 2009 in 145100x4m (400m2) transects, spanning a total area of 56920m2 between Riohacha and Cabo de la Vela. The study was complemented with the evaluation of composition, abundance and size of gastropods conch found in the discarded-by-fishermen shell mounds in 13 beaches. In October 2010 another 40 transects were evaluated (16 000 m2) from the Southern of Riohacha to the Camarones village (La Guajira). We found a total of 9911 snails belonging to 12 species, the most abundant being Strombus pugilis with 8 912 individuals and an average density of 1 538.4 +/- 3 662.6 ind./ha, followed by Vasum muricatum with 374 individuals and an average density of 51.8 +/- 91.2 ind./ha. Calculating the importance value index (IVI) for both living organisms as the empty shells on beaches, shows that Turbinella angulata is the most used species by artisanal fishermen in the region. Cassis madagascariensis and Cassis tuberosa are also important snail resources in the region (as suggested by the number of empty shells found in beaches), but its densities were low. Strombus gigas, with only three living organisms found in the area, presented the lowest abundance ever found in the Colombian Caribbean (0.52 +/- 3.6 ind./ha), showing that queen conch population in La Guajira cannot support commercial exploitation. The abundance of discarded S. gigas shells on beaches suggests resource exploitation in the recent past. Results remarks the urgency of implementing management plans for snail fisheries in the region.

  12. 3D-ultrastructure, functions and stress responses of gastropod (Biomphalaria glabrata) rhogocytes.

    PubMed

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Güler, M Alptekin; Lieb, Bernhard; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Markl, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Rhogocytes are pore cells scattered among the connective tissue of different body parts of gastropods and other molluscs, with great variation in their number, shape and size. They are enveloped by a lamina of extracellular matrix. Their most characteristic feature is the "slit apparatus", local invaginations of the plasma membrane bridged by cytoplasmic bars, forming slits of ca. 20 nm width. A slit diaphragm creates a molecular sieve with permeation holes of 20×20 nm. In blue-blooded gastropods, rhogocytes synthesize and secrete the respiratory protein hemocyanin, and it has been proposed-though not proven-that in the rare red-blooded snail species they might synthesize and secrete the hemoglobin. However, the cellular secretion pathway for respiratory proteins, and the functional role(s) of the enigmatic rhogocyte slit apparatus are still unclear. Additional functions for rhogocytes have been proposed, notably a role in protein uptake and degradation, and in heavy metal detoxification. Here we provide new structural and functional information on the rhogocytes of the red-blooded freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. By in situ hybridization of mantle tissues, we prove that rhogocytes indeed synthesize hemoglobin. By electron tomography, the first three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the slit apparatus are provided, showing detail of highly dense material in the cytoplasmic bars close to the slits. By immunogold labelling, we collected evidence that a major component of this material is actin. By genome databank mining, the complete sequence of a B. glabrata nephrin was obtained, and localized to the rhogocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence of both proteins fit the ultrastructure-based hypothesis that rhogocytes are related to mammalian podocytes and insect nephrocytes. Reactions of the rhogocytes to deprivation of food and cadmium toxification are also documented, and a possible secretion pathway of newly synthesized respiratory proteins

  13. Consumption rates and prey preference of the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savini, Dario; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2006-05-01

    The alien Asian gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes 1846) was first recorded in 1973 along the Italian coast of the Northern Adriatic Sea. Recently, this predator of bivalves has been spreading all around the world oceans, probably helped by ship traffic and aquaculture trade. A caging experiment in natural environment was performed during the summer of 2002 in Cesenatico (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) in order to estimate consumption rates and prey preference of R. venosa. The prey items chosen were the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck 1819), the introduced carpet clam Tapes philippinarum (Adams and Reeve 1850), both supporting the local fisheries, and the Indo-Pacific invasive clam Anadara (Scapharca) inaequivalvis (Bruguière 1789). Results showed an average consumption of about 1 bivalve prey per day (or 1.2 g wet weight per day). Predation was species and size selective towards small specimens of A. inaequivalvis; consumption of the two commercial species was lower. These results might reduce the concern about the economical impact on the local bivalve fishery due to the presence of the predatory gastropod. On the other hand, selective predation might probably alter local community structure, influencing competition amongst filter feeder/suspension feeder bivalve species and causing long-term ecological impact. The large availability of food resource and the habitat characteristics of the Emilia-Romagna littoral makes this area an important breeding ground for R. venosa in the Mediterranean Sea, thus worthy of consideration in order to understand the bioinvasion ecology of this species and to control its likely further dispersal.

  14. 3D-Ultrastructure, Functions and Stress Responses of Gastropod (Biomphalaria glabrata) Rhogocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinopoulou, Maria; Güler, M. Alptekin; Lieb, Bernhard; Barbeck, Mike; Ghanaati, Shahram; Markl, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Rhogocytes are pore cells scattered among the connective tissue of different body parts of gastropods and other molluscs, with great variation in their number, shape and size. They are enveloped by a lamina of extracellular matrix. Their most characteristic feature is the “slit apparatus”, local invaginations of the plasma membrane bridged by cytoplasmic bars, forming slits of ca. 20 nm width. A slit diaphragm creates a molecular sieve with permeation holes of 20×20 nm. In blue-blooded gastropods, rhogocytes synthesize and secrete the respiratory protein hemocyanin, and it has been proposed–though not proven–that in the rare red-blooded snail species they might synthesize and secrete the hemoglobin. However, the cellular secretion pathway for respiratory proteins, and the functional role(s) of the enigmatic rhogocyte slit apparatus are still unclear. Additional functions for rhogocytes have been proposed, notably a role in protein uptake and degradation, and in heavy metal detoxification. Here we provide new structural and functional information on the rhogocytes of the red-blooded freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata. By in situ hybridization of mantle tissues, we prove that rhogocytes indeed synthesize hemoglobin. By electron tomography, the first three dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the slit apparatus are provided, showing detail of highly dense material in the cytoplasmic bars close to the slits. By immunogold labelling, we collected evidence that a major component of this material is actin. By genome databank mining, the complete sequence of a B. glabrata nephrin was obtained, and localized to the rhogocytes by immunofluorescence microscopy. The presence of both proteins fit the ultrastructure-based hypothesis that rhogocytes are related to mammalian podocytes and insect nephrocytes. Reactions of the rhogocytes to deprivation of food and cadmium toxification are also documented, and a possible secretion pathway of newly synthesized respiratory

  15. [Composition, abundance and distribution of populations of commercially important gastropods in La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Nieto-Bernal, Ramón; Luis, Chasqui; Rodriguez, Angélica María; Castro, Erick; Gil-Agudelo, Diego L

    2013-06-01

    In the continental Colombian Caribbean the conch resource exploitation and the status of snails populations has been poorly studied, which are reflected in the lack of fisheries management. This study assesses composition, population density and distribution of the gastropods species that make conch resource in La Guajira region. Underwater visual censuses for snails were performed between September-November 2009 in 145100x4m (400m2) transects, spanning a total area of 56920m2 between Riohacha and Cabo de la Vela. The study was complemented with the evaluation of composition, abundance and size of gastropods conch found in the discarded-by-fishermen shell mounds in 13 beaches. In October 2010 another 40 transects were evaluated (16 000 m2) from the Southern of Riohacha to the Camarones village (La Guajira). We found a total of 9911 snails belonging to 12 species, the most abundant being Strombus pugilis with 8 912 individuals and an average density of 1 538.4 +/- 3 662.6 ind./ha, followed by Vasum muricatum with 374 individuals and an average density of 51.8 +/- 91.2 ind./ha. Calculating the importance value index (IVI) for both living organisms as the empty shells on beaches, shows that Turbinella angulata is the most used species by artisanal fishermen in the region. Cassis madagascariensis and Cassis tuberosa are also important snail resources in the region (as suggested by the number of empty shells found in beaches), but its densities were low. Strombus gigas, with only three living organisms found in the area, presented the lowest abundance ever found in the Colombian Caribbean (0.52 +/- 3.6 ind./ha), showing that queen conch population in La Guajira cannot support commercial exploitation. The abundance of discarded S. gigas shells on beaches suggests resource exploitation in the recent past. Results remarks the urgency of implementing management plans for snail fisheries in the region. PMID:23885583

  16. [Surgical therapy of interstitial pulmonary emphysema in a premature infant].

    PubMed

    Storm, W

    1986-07-01

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a frequent complication in the use of respirators in newborn infants suffering from respiratory insufficiency. If it is diffuse and bilateral, treatment often is without success; occasionally, interstitial emphysema may be localized in a lobe, in which case it may persist and lead to therapeutic difficulties. We report a successful surgical approach to a unilateral pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a premature infant.

  17. Macrophage polarization in interstitial lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mierzejewski, Michał; Osińska, Iwona; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The role of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) examination in differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) was established. Currently, functional polarization into M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) subpopulations is emphasized. The aim of our study was to compare the proportion of M1 and M2 in BALf of patients with different ILD. BALf samples were collected from 75 ILD patients: sarcoidosis (SA, 36), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP, 10), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, 8), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, 6) and other ILD (15). Phenotyping was performed by immunocytochemistry with anti-CD40 and CD163 antibodies (for M1 and M2, respectively). For both, CD40 and CD163, three populations of cells have been specified: small cells with strong (+++), large cells with weak (+) and cells with no (–) reaction. Due to lack of statistically significant differences between patients with HP, NSIP and IPF, they were classified into a common group and compared to the group of patients with sarcoidosis. The median proportion of macrophage population was as follows: for CD40: 61%, 35%, 2% in patients with SA and 49%, 47%, 3% in patients with other ILD and for CD163: 55%, 35%, 5% in SA and 53%, 43%, 1% in ILD patients, respectively. We found a significantly higher proportion of M1 in SA when compared with other ILD. Our study showed no evidence of defined polarization of alveolar macrophages in different types of interstitial lung diseases. However, we emphasized the role of CD40 positive cells in sarcoidosis and the role of CD163 positive cells in fibrotic diffuse lung diseases. PMID:27536201

  18. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26564810

  19. Diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema treated by lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Matta, Reva; Matta, Judy; Hage, Pierre; Nassif, Yolla; Mansour, Nabil; Diab, Nabil

    2011-10-01

    Persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema is a rare condition that occurs in preterm infants on mechanical ventilation, characterized by abnormal accumulation of air in the pulmonary interstitium, due to disruption of the basement membrane. Diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema is observed when small cysts are noted in all lobes of the lung. The management of infants suffering from diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema varies according to severity and stability of the patient, being either conservative treatment or aggressive surgical treatment by pneumonectomy. We report a case of an unstable patient with diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema successfully treated by lobectomy as a form of conservative surgical approach.

  20. Desquamative alveolar disease (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): case report 1

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Edgardo; Rodriguez, Jaime; Lisboa, Carmen; Ferretti, Ricardo

    1969-01-01

    Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a disease characterized by massive alveolar cell proliferation and desquamation with sparse interstitial involvement. The reported case shows an unusually widespread radiographic reticulo-nodular image and abundant alveolar cells in the sputum. Functional studies reveal the expected diffusion defect with practically normal mechanical properties of the lung, in contrast with interstitial fibrosing lung diseases. On the basis of the pathological findings, especially the behaviour of alveolar cells, the individuality of this disease is discussed. We think that it is different from other diseases classed as varieties of a single disease or as different entities under the names of primary interstitial fibrosis or chronic fibrosing alveolitis. Images PMID:5822250

  1. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  2. Interstitial microwave antennas for thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, J C; Wang, Y J

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a new microwave antenna design with improved heating at the tip for interstitial hyperthermia and thermocoagulation. Temperature distribution patterns surrounding a conventional insulated antenna and the new sleeved coaxial slot radiator are measured in a saline phantom under transient and steady-state conditions. The new design provides an improved steady-state temperature distribution over the active region of the radiator. In contrast to the cold zone at the tip of a conventional insulated antenna the new sleeved coaxial slot antenna provides maximal (sixfold greater) power deposition at its tip. PMID:3559297

  3. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy following ifosfamide therapy.

    PubMed

    Jayasurya, R; Srinivas, B H; Ponraj, M; Haridasan, S; Parameswaran, S; Priyamvada, P S

    2016-01-01

    Ifosfamide (IFO), an alkylating agent used for the management of solid organ tumors, can cause reversible Fanconi's syndrome and acute kidney injury. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy (KIN) is a rare form of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, initially described as a familial nephropathy in adults. So far, four cases of KIN have been reported in pediatric and adolescent population following treatment with IFO. We report a 22-year-old man who developed renal dysfunction following IFO therapy for relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma. Renal biopsy revealed chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with atypical tubular epithelial cells showing nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia, consistent with a diagnosis of KIN. The renal function improved following a short course of corticosteroids.

  4. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy following ifosfamide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jayasurya, R.; Srinivas, B. H.; Ponraj, M.; Haridasan, S.; Parameswaran, S.; Priyamvada, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Ifosfamide (IFO), an alkylating agent used for the management of solid organ tumors, can cause reversible Fanconi's syndrome and acute kidney injury. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy (KIN) is a rare form of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, initially described as a familial nephropathy in adults. So far, four cases of KIN have been reported in pediatric and adolescent population following treatment with IFO. We report a 22-year-old man who developed renal dysfunction following IFO therapy for relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma. Renal biopsy revealed chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with atypical tubular epithelial cells showing nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia, consistent with a diagnosis of KIN. The renal function improved following a short course of corticosteroids. PMID:27512305

  5. Azacitidine-associated acute interstitial pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Junya; Shimura, Yuji; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Nagoshi, Hisao; Kiyota, Miki; Chinen, Yoshiaki; Maegawa, Saori; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Horiike, Shigeo; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Azacitidine is the first-line therapeutic option for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). This report describes a case of MDS in a patient who developed fatal acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP) after the first seven-day course of intravenous azacitidine (75 mg/m(2)/day) treatment. A review of previous and present studies of azacitidine-associated AIP suggests that azacitidine may cause life-threatening AIP during or after the first seven-day course of treatment, with pyrexia commonly preceding AIP. Although the non-hematologic adverse events associated with azacitidine are generally relatively mild, further accumulation of evidence may help to make an earlier diagnosis of azacitidine-associated AIP.

  6. Interstitial gas effect on vibrated granular columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastenes, Javier C.; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection, and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are satisfactorily described by considering that the column, despite the observed dilation, behaves like a porous solid. In addition, direct observation of the column dynamics shows that the grains of the upper and lower surfaces are in free fall in the gravitational field and that the dilation is due to a small delay between their takeoff times.

  7. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-01

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value.

  8. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølholt, T. E.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Gislason, H. P.; Johnston, K.; Langouche, G.; Ólafsson, S.; Sielemann, R.; Weyer, G.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated 57Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of 57Mn decaying to 57Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  9. Interstitial therapy of perineal and gynecological malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Herstein, P.; Portnuff, J.

    1983-03-01

    Thirty-five patients, 38 to 88 years of age, were treated with 125-Iodine or 192-Iridium interstitial implants at Stanford University Medical Center between July 1974, and December, 1978. There were 25 primary epithelial malignancies, eight extensions from intrapelvic organs and two metastatic tumors (hypernephroma and Hodgkin's disease). The involved sites were: urethra (6 patients); vulva (9 patients); vagina (8 patients); anus (7 patients); cervix (5 patients). Implantation was usually performed to treat evident or microscopic disease in conjunction with external beam pelvic treatment with or without local excision. Computerized implant preplanning was used.125-Iodine seeds were inserted either directly or within absorbable suture Polyglactin 910; 192-Iridium in nylon carriers was placed by suture or transperineal template. Two patients were lost to follow-up leaving 33 patients, 27 of whom are alive and free of local disease from 37 to 76 months. The overall local control rate was 88%, or 29/33 patients. All four local recurrences appeared before 24 months. Minor complications included: 10 patients with transient mucositis, four with superficial ulcers, and one patient with infection at the implanted site. Two major complications occurred: a necrotic rectal ulcer requiring a colostomy and a contracted, painful bladder necessitating a urinary diversion. It is concluded that in selected cases interstitial irradiation provides good local control of perineal and gynecological malignancies with low morbidity in this elderly and quite often fragile group of patients.

  10. Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wells, Athol U

    2014-10-01

    Based on international collaborative data, interstitial lung disease is now the most frequent cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), having supplanted renal crisis in that regard. Despite detailed explorations of candidate mediators, no primary pathway in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) has been definitively identified and, therefore, treatment with current agents is only partially successful. However, as immunomodulatory agents do, on average, retard progression of lung disease, early identification of SSc-ILD, using thoracic high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), is highly desirable. The decision whether to introduce therapy immediately is often difficult as the balance of risk and benefit favours a strategy of careful observation when lung disease is very limited, especially in long-standing SSc. The threshold for initiating treatment is substantially reduced when lung disease is severe, systemic disease is short in duration or ongoing progression is evident, based on pulmonary function tests and symptoms. This review summarises epidemiology, pathogenesis, difficult clinical problems and management issues in SSc-ILD.

  11. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Mølholt, T. E. Gislason, H. P.; Ólafsson, S.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Weyer, G.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Johnston, K.; Sielemann, R.

    2014-01-14

    Isolated {sup 57}Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of {sup 57}Mn decaying to {sup 57}Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  12. Acute interstitial pneumonia: report of a series.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, A; Cancellieri, A; Chilosi, M; Trisolini, R; Boaron, M; Crimi, N; Poletti, V

    2003-01-01

    Four cases of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) are described with special emphasis on clinical background, lung imaging and bronchoalveolar lavage findings. A retrospective chart review of four patients with histologically-proven AIP, diagnosed between 1998 and 2000, was carried out. Clinical data, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and histological features were analysed. Three patients died and only one is in follow-up. HRCT showed areas of ground glass attenuation and alveolar consolidation in all patients. Histology, documented by open lung biopsy or autopsy specimens, was consistent with the organising form of diffuse alveolar damage pattern. BAL findings were characteristic, with a huge neutrophilia associated with scattered atypical type II pneumocytes collected in clusters with extracellular amorphous material (fragments of hyaline membranes) observed in two out of three cases. In this paper, four cases of acute interstitial pneumonia are reported in detail. The poor prognosis associated with this entity has been confirmed and the possible diagnostic role of the bronchoalveolar lavage is emphasised.

  13. Eosinophilic alveolitis in immunologic interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, D; Pesci, A; Bertorelli, G

    1990-01-01

    To analyze the role of eosinophils in alveolitis due to immunological interstitial lung disorders, 568 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 537 patients affected by 13 types of interstitial lung disease involving immunologic mechanisms were considered. An arbitrary cut-off of 4% of eosinophils in BAL was assumed. In five (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), amiodarone-induced pneumonitis (AIP), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS)) out of the thirteen groups we took into consideration, the level of eosinophils was greater than 4%. In CEP and CSS in particular, the arbitrary cut-off of 4% was greatly exceeded (28.9% +/- 27.4, p less than 0.01 and 33.6% +/- 14.5, p less than 0.01, respectively). In the same two groups the increase of eosinophils in BAL was isolated with a direct correlation to the number of eosinophils in blood. By contrast, the increase of eosinophils in BAL of IPF, AIP and ABPA was of lesser extent (4.7% +/- 5.7 p less than 0.01, 5.0% +/- 3.0 p less than 0.01 and 6.1% +/- 10.4 p less than 0.01, respectively) and was accompanied by an increase of neutrophils in IPF, of lymphocytes in AIP and both in ABPA. These patterns are generally defined as "mixed alveolitis." On the basis of these data we conclude that the term "eosinophilic alveolitis" should be reserved for CEP and CSS.

  14. Fire performance of interstitial space construction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, J. R.

    1985-05-01

    Two unique walk-on deck construction systems were exposed to the standard NFPA 251 time-temperature fire exposure in order to evaluate their fire performance. A large scale steel structure was used in the test program to simulate construction systems found in the field. The structure consisted of two large functional floors separate by an interstitial space in which a walk-on deck system was constructed from light-weight concrete, and the second was built with poured gypsum. Three complete two hour fire tests were conducted along with one shorter test. Critical areas evaluated were the top functional floor, unprotected steel work in the interstitial space, response of the walk-on deck systems, and protection for a heavy steel column located in the center of each test bay. Test data were compared with the fire endurance test requirements of NFPA 251. Computer predictions were also made using the FIRES-08 model to determine its ability to accurately predict the construction systems performance.

  15. Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed Central

    Biron, P; Dessureault, J; Napke, E

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical features of 4 unpublished cases and 26 published cases of acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). DATA SOURCES: The unpublished cases were found in the database of the Drug Adverse Reaction Program, Health Protection Branch, Department of National Health and Welfare, and the database of the Programme conjoint de pharmacovigilance, in Quebec. The published cases were retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: Reported cases were selected if they were sufficiently documented. All published cases were selected because a differential diagnosis had been made in each one. DATA SYNTHESIS: The onset was acute and dramatic; the average time to onset of symptoms was 44 minutes. Sex was a predominant risk factor, since 27 (90%) of the 30 patients were women. The average age was 56 years; thus, most of the women were postmenopausal. Over two-thirds of the patients had one to three positive prechallenges or rechallenges, 3 of the 52 documented adverse events occurred after a voluntary rechallenge, some were life-threatening and necessitated mechanical ventilation, and 1 was fatal. Treatment was supportive; avoidance of HCT was the only prevention. CONCLUSION: Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis due to HCT is extremely rare and potentially fatal. Such a reaction can be diagnosed only if the clinician suspects it when presented with a case of unexplained acute pulmonary edema. PMID:2049694

  16. Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    During δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

  17. Multigenerational interstitial growth of biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ricken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study formulates a theory for multigenerational interstitial growth of biological tissues whereby each generation has a distinct reference configuration determined at the time of its deposition. In this model, the solid matrix of a growing tissue consists of a multiplicity of intermingled porous permeable bodies, each of which represents a generation, all of which are constrained to move together in the current configuration. Each generation’s reference configuration has a one-to-one mapping with the master reference configuration, which is typically that of the first generation. This mapping is postulated based on a constitutive assumption with regard to that generations’ state of stress at the time of its deposition. For example, the newly deposited generation may be assumed to be in a stress-free state, even though the underlying tissue is in a loaded configuration. The mass content of each generation may vary over time as a result of growth or degradation, thereby altering the material properties of the tissue. A finite element implementation of this framework is used to provide several illustrative examples, including interstitial growth by cell division followed by matrix turnover. PMID:20238138

  18. [Distribution of acetylcholinesterase activity in the digestive system of the gastropod molluscs Littorina littorea and Achatina fulica].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V

    2008-01-01

    With the use of the histochemical procedure for the demonstration of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the distribution cholinergic regulatory elements was studied in the esophagus, the pharynx, the stomach, the liver (the digestive gland) and the intestine in sea and terrestrial gastropod molluscs that differed in their general organization level, lifestyle, habitat and feeding type. In both molluscs, all the parts of the digestive tract contained the significant amount of intraepithelial AchE-positive cells of the open type, single subepithelial neurons and the nervous fibers localized among the muscle cells of the wall of the organs. The basal processes of the AchE-positive intraepithelial cells were shown to form the intraepithelial nerve plexus and to pass under the epithelium. The peculiarities and common principles in the distribution of the nervous elements detected, their possible function and the regulatory role in the digestion in gastropod molluscs and other animals are discussed. PMID:19069417

  19. Ecosystem engineering potential of the gastropod Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767) in mangrove wastewater wetlands--a controlled mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Penha-Lopes, Gil; Bartolini, Fabrizio; Limbu, Samwel; Cannicci, Stefano; Mgaya, Yunus; Kristensen, Erik; Paula, José

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different sewage concentrations (0, 20, 60 and 100%), vegetation (Bare, Avicennia marina or Rhizophora mucronata) and immersion periods (immersion/emersion period of 12/12 h or 3/3 days just for 100%) conditions were studied for 6 months on survival and growth rates of Terebralia palustris (Linnaeus, 1767). Gastropods' activity and ecosystem engineering preformed at bare and A. marina planted cells and 3 sewage conditions (0, 20 and 60%) were determined. Survival rates were higher than 70% in all treatments. Growth rate decreased significantly with increasing sewage concentrations (mainly at unplanted conditions) and longer immersion periods. A complete shift (from immersion to emersion periods) and a significant decrease in mobility and consequently its engineer potential, due to sewage contamination, lead to a 3-4 fold decrease in the amount of sediment disturbed. Sewage contamination, primary producers' abundance and environmental conditions may have influenced the gastropods survival, growth and its ecosystem engineering potential.

  20. Cold Work Embrittlement of Interstitial-Free Steels

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    Interstitial-free (IF) steels are defined by their low amounts of solute interstitial elements, such as carbon and nitrogen. During secondary forming, strain can be localized at the grain boundaries of these steels, resulting in secondary cold work embrittlement (CWE).

  1. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare association.

    PubMed

    Radha, S; Tameem, A; Rao, B S

    2014-03-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) is a rare form of, progressive chronic interstitial nephritis. We present a case of KIN in a child, who was also found to have nephrotic syndrome because of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of KIN associated with glomerulopathy.

  2. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare association

    PubMed Central

    Radha, S.; Tameem, A.; Rao, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) is a rare form of, progressive chronic interstitial nephritis. We present a case of KIN in a child, who was also found to have nephrotic syndrome because of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of KIN associated with glomerulopathy. PMID:24701046

  3. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Sevigny, Joseph L; Kirouac, Lauren E; Thomas, William Kelley; Ramsdell, Jordan S; Lawlor, Kayla E; Sharifi, Osman; Grewal, Simarvir; Baysdorfer, Christopher; Curr, Kenneth; Naimie, Amanda A; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Murray, James A; Newcomb, James M

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra), two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa). In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha

  4. Population Structure of an Invasive Parthenogenetic Gastropod in Coastal Lakes and Estuaries of Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo; Appleton, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS). In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH). All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m−2, displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20–30 mm SH) which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. Conclusion/Significance There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked “brood pouch ecology”), which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other parthenogenetic NIS

  5. Morphological and behavioral differences in the gastropod Trophon geversianus associated to distinct environmental conditions, as revealed by a multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Márquez, Federico; Nieto Vilela, Rocío Aimé; Lozada, Mariana; Bigatti, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The gastropod Trophon geversianus exhibits shell polymorphisms along its distribution in subtidal and intertidal habitats. Our hypothesis is that morphological and behavioral patterns of T. geversianus represent habitat-specific constrains; subsequently we expect an association between shell morphology, attachment behavior, and habitat. In order to test this hypothesis we compared individuals from intertidal and subtidal habitats, at three sites in Golfo Nuevo (Argentina). We analyzed shell morphology using classic morphometric variables, 3D geometric morphometrics and computing tomography scan. The results were complemented with field observations of attachment to substrate and turning time behavior, as well as of the number of shell scars produced by crab predation. Our results showed differences in shell size and shape between intertidal and subtidal-collected individuals. Centroid size, total weight and shell weight, as well as shell density and thickness were significantly lower in intertidal individuals than in subtidal ones. Gastropods from intertidal habitats presented a low-spired shell and an expanded aperture which might allow better attachment to the bottom substrate, while subtidal individuals presented a slender and narrower shell shape. The number of crab scars was significantly higher in shells from subtidal individuals. Observations of the behavior of gastropods placed at the intertidal splash zone showed 100% of attachment to the bottom in the intertidal individuals, while subtidal specimens only attached in average in 32% of the cases. These latter took 12 times longer to re-attach to the bottom when faced up. Phylogenetic analysis of COI gene fragments showed no consistent differences among individuals sampled in both habitats. All these results suggest that T. geversianus has developed two ecomorphs with distinct morphological and behavioral responses to physically stressful conditions registered in north Patagonian intertidals, as opposed to

  6. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Nudibranch Mollusks, Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea, and Their Impact on Gastropod Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Sevigny, Joseph L.; Kirouac, Lauren E.; Thomas, William Kelley; Ramsdell, Jordan S.; Lawlor, Kayla E.; Sharifi, Osman; Grewal, Simarvir; Baysdorfer, Christopher; Curr, Kenneth; Naimie, Amanda A.; Okamoto, Kazufusa; Murray, James A.; Newcomb, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among certain groups of gastropods have remained unresolved in recent studies, especially in the diverse subclass Opisthobranchia, where nudibranchs have been poorly represented. Here we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Melibe leonina and Tritonia diomedea (more recently named T. tetraquetra), two nudibranchs from the unrepresented Cladobranchia group, and report on the resulting phylogenetic analyses. Both genomes coded for the typical thirteen protein-coding genes, twenty-two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs seen in other species. The twelve-nucleotide deletion previously reported for the cytochrome oxidase 1 gene in several other Melibe species was further clarified as three separate deletion events. These deletions were not present in any opisthobranchs examined in our study, including the newly sequenced M. leonina or T. diomedea, suggesting that these previously reported deletions may represent more recently divergent taxa. Analysis of the secondary structures for all twenty-two tRNAs of both M. leonina and T. diomedea indicated truncated d arms for the two serine tRNAs, as seen in some other heterobranchs. In addition, the serine 1 tRNA in T. diomedea contained an anticodon not yet reported in any other gastropod. For phylogenetic analysis, we used the thirteen protein-coding genes from the mitochondrial genomes of M. leonina, T. diomedea, and seventy-one other gastropods. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for both the class Gastropoda and the subclass Opisthobranchia. Both Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses resulted in similar tree topologies. In the Opisthobranchia, the five orders represented in our study were monophyletic (Anaspidea, Cephalaspidea, Notaspidea, Nudibranchia, Sacoglossa). In Gastropoda, two of the three traditional subclasses, Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata, were not monophyletic. In contrast, four of the more recently named gastropod clades (Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha

  7. Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  8. Temporal dynamics of gastropod fauna on subtidal sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, J.; Aldea, C.; Troncoso, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    The temporal variation of the gastropod fauna inhabiting sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (Galicia, Spain) was studied at three subtidal sites from February 1996 to February 1997 by means of quantitative sampling. A total of 5,463 individuals representing 51 gastropod species and 22 families were found. The family Pyramidellidae was the most diverse in number of species (11 species), followed by Rissoidae and Trochidae (4 species each). The dogwhelk, Nassarius reticulatus, and the rissoid snail, Rissoa parva, were the numerically dominant species at the three studied sites; those and other abundant species showed their greatest densities by the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. In general, univariate measures of the assemblage (number of species, abundance, diversity and evenness) showed variations through time; greater values were recorded between summer and autumn depending on the site. Multivariate analyses done on abundance data showed certain seasonality in the evolution of the assemblage as expected for shallow subtidal sandy sediments at temperate latitudes; those seasonal changes were mostly related to variations in abundance of numerically dominant species. Although the measured sedimentary variables did not show significant correlations with faunal univariate parameters, sediment heterogeneity due to the presence of mats of Zostera marina L. and shells of dead bivalves might explain the differences in composition of the gastropod assemblage among sampling sites.

  9. Development of embryonic and larval cells containing serotonin, catecholamines, and FMRFamide-related peptides in the gastropod mollusc Phestilla sibogae.

    PubMed

    Croll, Roger P

    2006-12-01

    The present immunocytochemical study provides one of the first detailed descriptions of the development of cells containing a variety of neurotransmitters during much of the larval life of a nudibranch gastropod. Throughout much of early development, serotonergic cells were located only in the apical organ; as larvae approached metamorphosis, serotonergic cells were also detected in the cerebropleural and pedal ganglia. Cells exhibiting tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity (indicative of catecholamine synthesis) were first located near the mouth but by late embryonic stages were also located in the apical organ and near the velum and eyes. By late larval stages, numerous catecholaminergic cells were found in the foot, with concentrations in the propodium. Finally, the first cells exhibiting FMRFamide immunoreactivity were detected posterior to the neuropil of the cerebropleural ganglia in the early embryo. Fibers that presumably originated from these cells subsequently invaded the cerebral and pedal ganglia and the apical organ. By early larval stages, a second pair of peptidergic neurons was located near the first pair, and additional peptidergic neurons were located in the apical organ and peripheral positions in the foot and medial and dorsal to the eyes. In addition to providing a unique phyletic perspective to our understanding of gastropod neural development, the present study also sets the stage for future studies into changes in the nervous system as this gastropod undergoes metamorphosis. PMID:17179383

  10. A cellular and metabolic assessment of the thermal stress responses in the endemic gastropod Benedictia limnaeoides ongurensis from Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Bedulina, Daria S; Shatilina, Zhanna M; Lubyaga, Yulia A; Vereshchagina, Kseniya P; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if the Lake Baikal endemic gastropod Benedictia limnaeoides ongurensis, which inhabits in stable cold waters expresses a thermal stress response. We hypothesized that the evolution of this species in the stable cold waters of Lake Baikal resulted in a reduction of its thermal stress-response mechanisms at the biochemical and cellular levels. Contrary to our hypothesis, our results show that exposure to a thermal challenge activates the cellular and biochemical mechanisms of thermal resistance, such as heat shock proteins and antioxidative enzymes, and alters energetic metabolism in B. limnaeoides ongurensis. Thermal stress caused the elevation of heat shock protein 70 and the products of anaerobic glycolysis together with the depletion of glucose and phosphagens in the studied species. Thus, a temperature increase activates the complex biochemical system of stress response and alters the energetic metabolism in this endemic Baikal gastropod. It is concluded that the deepwater Lake Baikal endemic gastropod B. limnaeoides ongurensis retains the ability to activate well-developed biochemical stress-response mechanisms when exposed to a thermal challenge. PMID:24076104

  11. [Community structure of bivalves and gastropods in roots of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in isla Larga, Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta Balbas, Vanessa; Betancourt Tineo, Rafael; Prieto Arcas, Antulio

    2014-06-01

    The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, (Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean.

  12. Detection of spirorchiid trematodes in gastropod tissues by polymerase chain reaction: preliminary identification of an intermediate host of Learedius learedi.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Brian A; Frankovich, Thomas; Greiner, Ellis; Alleman, A Rick; Herbst, Lawrence H; Klein, Paul; Bolten, Alan; McIntosh, Antoinette; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2010-08-01

    Marine spirorchiid trematodes are associated with morbidity and mortality in sea turtles worldwide. The intermediate hosts remain unknown, and discovery efforts are hindered by the large number and great diversity of potential hosts within sea turtle habitats, as well the potential for low prevalence and overdispersion. A high-throughput DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction-based method was developed to detect the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the ribosomal gene of 2 spirorchiid genera, Learedius and Hapalotrema , within pooled samples of gastropod tissues. A model system consisting of freshwater snail ( Pomacea bridgesii ) tissues and DNA extracts spiked with adult Learedius learedi and known quantities of spirorchiid DNA was used to develop and test the technique. Threshold of detection was found to be equivalent to an early prepatent infection within 1.5 g of gastropod tissue. This technique was used to screen approximately 25 species of marine gastropods at a captive facility where green turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) become infected by L. learedi . The parasite was detected in a sample of knobby keyhole limpet ( Fissurella nodosa ), thus providing the first evidence of an intermediate host for a marine spirorchiid trematode. This technique has many potential applications in trematode life cycle discovery studies.

  13. [Community structure of bivalves and gastropods in roots of red mangrove Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) in isla Larga, Mochima Bay, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acosta Balbas, Vanessa; Betancourt Tineo, Rafael; Prieto Arcas, Antulio

    2014-06-01

    The Rhizophora mangle roots form a complex ecosystem where a wide range of organisms are permanently established, reproduce, and find refuge. In this study, we assessed the diversity of bivalves and gastropods that inhabit red mangrove roots, in isla Larga, Mochima, Venezuela Sucre state. Bimonthly collections were made from January 2007 to May 2008, in four study areas denominated: South, North, East and West. In each area, five mangrove roots were sampled, and the specimens were obtained. We analyzed a total of 180 roots and a total of 35 bivalve species and 25 gastropod species were found. The most abundant bivalves were: Isognomon alatus, Isognomon bicolor, Ostrea equestris, Crassostrea rhizophorae and Brachidontes exustus; among gastropods, the most common where: Littorina angulifera, (Cymatium pileare and Diodora cayenensis. The months with the highest abundances and number of individuals for both groups were January and July 2007, and March 2008. The mangrove ecosystem in isla Larga, presented a number of individuals and species higher than those reported for other regions in Venezuela and the Caribbean. PMID:25102639

  14. Genotoxicity of cadmium chloride in the marine gastropod Nerita chamaeleon using comet assay and alkaline unwinding assay.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Anupam; Bhagat, Jacky; Ingole, Baban S; Rao, Durga P; Markad, Vijaykumar L

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the genotoxic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) on marine gastropod, Nerita chamaeleon following the technique of comet assay and the DNA alkaline unwinding assay (DAUA). In this study, the extent of DNA damage in gill cells of N. chamaeleon was measured after in vivo exposure to four different concentrations (10, 25, 50, and 75 µg/L) of CdCl2 . In vitro exposure of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ; 1, 10, 25, and 50 µM) of the gill cells showed a significant increase in the percentage tail DNA, Olive tail moment, and tail length (TL). Significant changes in percentage tail DNA by CdCl2 exposure were observed in all exposed groups of snails with respect to those in control. Exposure to 75 µg/L of CdCl2 produced significant decrease in DNA integrity as measured by DAUA at all duration with respect to control. In vivo exposure to different concentrations of CdCl2 (10, 25, 50, and 75 µg/L) to N. chamaeleon showed considerable increase in DNA damage as observed by both alkaline comet assay and the DAUA. The extent of DNA damage in marine gastropods determined by the application of alkaline comet assay and DAUA clearly indicated the genotoxic responses of marine gastropod, N. chamaeleon to a wide range of cadmium concentration in the marine environment.

  15. Constant diversification rates of endemic gastropods in ancient Lake Ohrid: ecosystem resilience likely buffers environmental fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föller, K.; Stelbrink, B.; Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Wilke, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ancient lakes represent key ecosystems for endemic freshwater species. This high endemic biodiversity has been shown to be mainly the result of intra-lacustrine diversification. Whereas the principle role of this mode of diversification is generally acknowledged, actual diversification rates in ancient lakes remain little understood. At least four types are conceivable. Diversification rates may be constant over time, they may fluctuate, rates may be higher in the initial phase of diversification, or there may be a pronounced lag phase between colonization and subsequent diversification. As understanding the tempo of diversification in ancient lake environments may help reveal the underlying processes that drive speciation and extinction, we here use the Balkan Lake Ohrid as a model system and the largest species flock in the lake, the non-pyrgulinid Hydrobiidae, as a model taxon to study changes in diversification rates over time together with the respective drivers. Based on phylogenetic, molecular-clock, lineage-through-time plot, and diversification-rate analyses we found that this potentially monophyletic group is comparatively old and that it most likely evolved with a constant diversification rate. Preliminary data of the SCOPSCO (Scientific Collaboration On Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid) deep-drilling program do indicate signatures of severe environmental/climatic perturbations in Lake Ohrid. However, so far there is no evidence for the occurrence of catastrophic environmental events. We therefore propose that the constant diversification rate observed in endemic gastropods has been caused by two factors: (i) a potential lack of catastrophic environmental events in Lake Ohrid and/or (ii) a probably high ecosystem resilience, buffering environmental changes. Parameters potentially contributing to the lake's high ecosystem resilience are its distinct bathymetry, ongoing tectonic activities, and karst hydrology. The current study not only

  16. Constant diversification rates of endemic gastropods in ancient Lake Ohrid: ecosystem resilience likely buffers environmental fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föller, K.; Stelbrink, B.; Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Wilke, T.

    2015-08-01

    Ancient lakes represent key ecosystems for endemic freshwater species. This high endemic biodiversity has been shown to be mainly the result of intra-lacustrine diversification. Whereas the principle role of this mode of diversification is generally acknowledged, actual diversification rates in ancient lakes remain little understood. At least four modes are conceivable. Diversification rates may be constant over time, they may fluctuate, rates may be higher in the initial phase of diversification, or there may be a pronounced lag phase between colonization and subsequent diversification. As understanding the tempo of diversification in ancient lake environments may help unrevealing the underlying processes that drive speciation and extinction, we here use the Balkan Lake Ohrid as a model system and the largest species flock in the lake, the non-pyrgulinid Hydrobiidae, as a model taxon to study changes in diversification rates over time together with the respective drivers. Based on phylogenetic, molecular-clock, lineage-through-time plot and diversification-rate analyses we found that this monophyletic group is comparatively old and that it most likely evolved with a constant diversification rate. Preliminary data of the SCOPSCO deep-drilling program do indicate signatures of severe environmental/climatic perturbations in Lake Ohrid. However, so far there is no evidence for the occurrence of catastrophic environmental events. We therefore propose that the rate homogeneity observed in endemic gastropods has been caused by two factors: (i) a potential lack of catastrophic environmental events in Lake Ohrid and/or (ii) a high ecosystem resilience, buffering environmental changes. Parameters potentially contributing to the lake's high ecosystem resilience are its distinct bathymetry, ongoing tectonic activities, and karst hydrology. The current study not only contributes to one of the overall goals of the SCOPSCO deep-drilling program - inferring the driving forces for

  17. Freshwater gastropods diversity hotspots: three new species from the Uruguay River (South America)

    PubMed Central

    de Lucía, Micaela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Atlantic Forest is globally one of the priority ecoregions for biodiversity conservation. In Argentina, it is represented by the Paranense Forest, which covers a vast area of Misiones Province between the Paraná and Uruguay rivers. The Uruguay River is a global hotspot of freshwater gastropod diversity, here mainly represented by Tateidae (genus Potamolithus) and to a lesser extent Chilinidae. The family Chilinidae (Gastropoda, Hygrophila) includes 21 species currently recorded in Argentina, and three species in the Uruguay River. The species of Chilinidae occur in quite different types of habitats, but generally in clean oxygenated water recording variable temperature ranges. Highly oxygenated freshwater environments (waterfalls and rapids) are the most vulnerable continental environments. We provide here novel information on three new species of Chilinidae from environments containing waterfalls and rapids in the Uruguay River malacological province of Argentina. Materials and Methods: The specimens were collected in 2010. We analyzed shell, radula, and nervous and reproductive systems, and determined the molecular genetics. The genetic distance was calculated for two mitochondrial markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I–COI- and cytochrome b -Cyt b-) for these three new species and the species recorded from the Misionerean, Uruguay River and Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata malacological provinces. In addition, the COI data were analyzed phylogenetically by the neighbor-joining and Bayesian inference techniques. Results: The species described here are different in terms of shell, radula and nervous and reproductive systems, mostly based on the sculpture of the penis sheath. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the three new species with those present in the Lower Paraná-Río de la Plata and Uruguay River malacological provinces. Discussion: Phylogenetic analyses confirm the separation between the Uruguay River and the Misionerean malacological

  18. Population biology of the gastropod Olivella minuta (Gastropoda, Olividae) on two sheltered beaches in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petracco, Marcelo; Camargo, Rita Monteiro; Tardelli, Daniel Teixeira; Turra, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The structure, dynamics and production of two populations of the olivid gastropod Olivella minuta were analyzed through monthly sampling from November 2009 through October 2011 on two sandy beaches, Pernambuco (very sheltered) and Barequeçaba (sheltered) in São Paulo state (23°48'S), southeastern Brazil. On both beaches, samples were taken along five transects established perpendicular to the waterline. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function were estimated for both populations from monthly length-frequency distributions. The production and turnover ratios were determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. The population on the less-sheltered Barequeçaba Beach was less abundant (120.02 ± 22.60 ind m-1) than on Pernambuco Beach (3295.30 ± 504.86 ind m-1 (±SE)), which we attribute to the greater environmental stability of the latter. Conversely, the mean length, size of the largest individual, and body mass were higher at Barequeçaba than at Pernambuco. The significant differences in the growth of individuals and the mortality rate (Z) between the beaches suggest that density-dependent processes were operating at Pernambuco Beach. The production and P/B ratio at Pernambuco (12.12 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.91 year-1) were higher than at Barequeçaba (0.82 g AFDM m-1 year-1 and 1.06 year-1). The difference in production can be attributed to the higher abundance on Pernambuco, while the higher P/B ratio resulted from the scarcity of smaller individuals in the intertidal zone of Barequeçaba. The P/B ratio estimated for the Pernambuco population is the highest found so far for sandy-beach gastropods. This study reinforces the theory that biological interactions are important regulators of sheltered sandy-beach populations. Future studies with multi-beach sampling are needed to better understand the life-history variations of O. minuta along gradients of degree of exposure of sandy beaches.

  19. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. PMID:19420292

  20. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  1. Interstitial Lung Disease in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Ascherman, Dana P.; Cottin, Vincent; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Danoff, Sonye K.; Oddis, Chester V.

    2011-01-01

    The lung is one of the most common extra-muscular targets in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a prevalent and often devastating manifestation of IIM. IIM-associated ILD (IIM-ILD) contributes to nearly 80% of the mortality in IIM with a reported prevalence of 65% of newly diagnosed IIM cases. Although ILD frequently accompanies clinical and laboratory findings of myositis, overt signs of muscle disease may be absent in the setting of significant lung disease. Understanding the varied scope of presentation of these diseases is essential to providing optimal patient care. This review will provide an in depth examination of ILD in IIM both from a rheumatologic and pulmonary perspective and will discuss the scope of disease, presenting features, genetic associations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, radiographic and histopathologic findings, along with biomarker assessment and a rationale for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21941374

  2. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD.

  3. [Tubulo-interstitial renal complications of myeloma].

    PubMed

    Le Goas, F; Mougenot, B; Mignon, F; Ronco, P

    1993-02-01

    Tubulo-interstitial lesions are the main causes of renal failure in patients with myeloma, and they sometimes reveal this tumour. They are mainly found in large tumoral mass myelomas and are characterized by tubular lesions and specific casts of unexplained physiopathology. Symptomatic and aetiological treatments must be instituted at an early stage to obtain the recovery, at least partial, of renal function, as observed in more than 50% of the cases. The persistence of renal failure carries a sombre prognosis, which emphasizes the importance of a preventive treatment that is too often omitted. Functional tubular disorders are frequent but seldom result in Fanconi's syndrome. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the nephrotoxicity of monoclonal immunoglobulins should permit to reduce the incidence of tubular lesions in myelomas.

  4. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD. PMID:26059704

  5. Bortezomib-induced acute interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Leung, Nelson; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Cornell, Lynn D; Sethi, Sanjeev; Angioi, Andrea; Fervenza, Fernando C

    2015-07-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is one of the important causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from inflammatory tubulointerstitial injury induced by medications, infections and systemic diseases. Bortezomib has been increasingly used especially in renal related indications such as multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance. Severe allergic reactions from bortezomib treatment including AIN have not been described in the literature. We report a 47-year-old white man who developed biopsy-proven allergic AIN after treatment with bortezomib for his C3 glomerulonephritis. The patient's kidney function improved after treatment with glucocorticoid therapy and discontinuation of bortezomib, but worsened with recurrent AKI episode after re-initiation of bortezomib. His renal function improved after glucocorticoid therapy and discontinuation of bortezomib. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biopsy-proven AIN from bortezomib.

  6. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  7. Interstitial Photoacoustic Sensor for the Measurement of Tissue Temperature during Interstitial Laser Phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:25756865

  8. Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R

    2015-03-06

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment.

  9. Reduced boron diffusion under interstitial injection in fluorine implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kham, M. N.; Matko, I.; Chenevier, B.; Ashburn, P.

    2007-12-01

    Point defect injection studies are performed to investigate how fluorine implantation influences the diffusion of boron marker layers in both the vacancy-rich and interstitial-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. A 185 keV, 2.3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} F{sup +} implant is made into silicon samples containing multiple boron marker layers and rapid thermal annealing is performed at 1000 deg. C for times of 15-120 s. The boron and fluorine profiles are characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the defect structures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorine implanted samples surprisingly show less boron diffusion under interstitial injection than those under inert anneal. This effect is particularly noticeable for boron marker layers located in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile and for short anneal times (15 s). TEM images show a band of dislocation loops around the range of the fluorine implant and the density of dislocation loops is lower under interstitial injection than under inert anneal. It is proposed that interstitial injection accelerates the evolution of interstitial defects into dislocation loops, thereby giving transient enhanced boron diffusion over a shorter period of time. The effect of the fluorine implant on boron diffusion is found to be the opposite for boron marker layers in the interstitial-rich and vacancy-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. For marker layers in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, the boron diffusion coefficient decreases with anneal time, as is typically seen for transient enhanced diffusion. The boron diffusion under interstitial injection is enhanced by the fluorine implant at short anneal times but suppressed at longer anneal times. It is proposed that this behavior is due to trapping of interstitials at the dislocation loops introduced by the fluorine implant. For boron marker layers in the vacancy-rich region of the fluorine damage profile

  10. Amino acid racemization dating of Upper Pleistocene - Holocene terrestrial gastropods from a Mediterranean region (Murcia, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Ortiz, Jose E.; Torres, Trinidad; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Altolaguirre, Yul; Canales-Fernandez, Maria L.; Martin-Banda, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    The amino acid racemization method has become a widely used geochronological tool for dating Quaternary deposits. The method is based on the fact that living organisms contain only L-amino acids which gradually racemize into D-amino acids after death. Thus, the D/L ratio increases with time after death until it is equal to 1, that is, when equilibrium is reached. Gastropod shells are particularly useful for amino acid racemization dating. Because the amino acid racemization method is not a numerical dating method in isolation, it needs to be calibrated, mainly with radiometric dating methods. The racemization process is genus- and temperature-dependent. In this work we present a preliminary analysis that compares the radiometric age estimated from different dating methods of a number of gastropods recovered in localities from Murcia (Southeastern Spain), with the age obtained through the amino acid racemization method. Taking advantage of recent paleoseismological research in the Murcia region (SE Spain), 28 gastropods specimens were collected from different trenches dug in young Quaternary alluvial deposits. The specimens were subsequently classified and then analyzed according to the standards protocols of the Biomolecular Stratigraphy Laboratory (UPM, Madrid School of Mines). The species found were Otala lactea, Iberus gualterianus, Sphincterochila candidissima and Theba pisana. The D/L ratios of aspartic acid, leucine, phenylalanine and glutamic acid were determined, and the corresponding average age of each specimen was calculated introducing the D/L values in the age calculation algorithm of Torres et al. (1997) for gastropods of central and southern Spain. The racemization age for each locality was then compared to the radiometric age of the deposit where the specimens were collected. To this respect, the samples were classified in different groups considering the reliability on the age control method. The most reliable sample consists only on dates obtained

  11. The relationship between sex change and reproductive success in a protandric marine gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Brante, Antonio; Quiñones, Adriana; Silva, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Protandric species switch sex during their lifetime. According to theory, the time (body size) at which sex change occurs is determined by the reproductive success of individuals affected by social interactions as well as by post-copulatory factors. Experimental evidence is biased to few social systems making the exploration of general patterns difficult. We used the protandric marine gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis that partakes in intrabrood sibling cannibalism to test the following hypotheses: 1. Male-male competition for access to females and sibling cannibalism determine male reproductive success; 2. Males with greater access to females and with higher reproductive success will have reduced growth rates and will delay sex change. Artificial aggregations with different social structures were constructed and male reproductive success was estimated by paternity analysis. The results supported our expectations showing that male competitive ability for access to the female, time spent by males in the copulatory position, and sibling cannibalism affect reproductive success and influence time to sex change, with less successful males hastening sex change. Also, males that spent more time in the copulatory position had reduced growth rates. Comparing these results with those reported for other sequential hermaphrodites provides evidence supporting general patterns of sex change in nature. PMID:27385040

  12. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N; Nikitin, Mikhail A; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Belousova, Anna; Reimer, James D; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts. PMID:26840497

  13. The relationship between sex change and reproductive success in a protandric marine gastropod.

    PubMed

    Brante, Antonio; Quiñones, Adriana; Silva, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Protandric species switch sex during their lifetime. According to theory, the time (body size) at which sex change occurs is determined by the reproductive success of individuals affected by social interactions as well as by post-copulatory factors. Experimental evidence is biased to few social systems making the exploration of general patterns difficult. We used the protandric marine gastropod Crepidula coquimbensis that partakes in intrabrood sibling cannibalism to test the following hypotheses: 1. Male-male competition for access to females and sibling cannibalism determine male reproductive success; 2. Males with greater access to females and with higher reproductive success will have reduced growth rates and will delay sex change. Artificial aggregations with different social structures were constructed and male reproductive success was estimated by paternity analysis. The results supported our expectations showing that male competitive ability for access to the female, time spent by males in the copulatory position, and sibling cannibalism affect reproductive success and influence time to sex change, with less successful males hastening sex change. Also, males that spent more time in the copulatory position had reduced growth rates. Comparing these results with those reported for other sequential hermaphrodites provides evidence supporting general patterns of sex change in nature. PMID:27385040

  14. Investigating apical adverse effects of four endocrine active substances in the freshwater gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Arnaud; Lagadic, Laurent; Barsi, Alpar; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Joaquim-Justo, Célia; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-09-15

    The hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis is proposed as a candidate species for the development of OECD guidelines for testing of the reprotoxicity of chemicals, including endocrine active substances (EASs). Up to now, only a few putative EASs have been tested for their reproductive toxicity in this species. In this study, we investigate the effects of four EASs with different affinities to the vertebrate estrogen and androgen receptors (chlordecone as an estrogen; cyproterone acetate, fenitrothion and vinclozolin as anti-androgens) on the reproduction of L. stagnalis in a 21-day semi-static test. Testosterone and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) were used as the reference compounds. The tested EASs had no significant effect on growth and survival at the tested concentration ranges (ng to μg/L). Classical reproduction endpoints (i.e., oviposition and fecundity) were not responsive to the tested chemicals, except for chlordecone and 17α-ethinylestradiol, which hampered reproduction from 19.6 μg/L and 17.6 μg/L, respectively. The frequency of polyembryonic eggs, used as an additional endpoint, demonstrated the effects of all compounds except EE2. The molecular pathways, which are involved in such reproduction impairments, remain unknown. Our results suggest that egg quality is a more sensitive endpoint as compared to other reproductive endpoints commonly assessed in mollusk toxicity tests.

  15. Autonomous changes in the swimming direction of sperm in the gastropod Strombus luhuanus.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kogiku; Shibata, Daisuke; Inaba, Kazuo

    2014-03-15

    The sperm of the gastropod Strombus luhuanus show dimorphism. The eusperm have a nucleus and fertilize the egg, whereas the other type of sperm, parasperm, are anucleate and are thought to assist fertilization. Here we report the autonomous changes in the swimming pattern of S. luhuanus eusperm. In artificial seawater, the eusperm collected from S. luhuanus sperm ducts formed sperm bundles and initially swam backward with asymmetric flagellar waveforms to detach from the bundles. One hour later, the sperm began to swim forward and in a circle. After an additional 1 h incubation, the sperm swam straight, with a change in the flagellar waveforms from asymmetric to symmetric. Spontaneous backward swimming with symmetric waveforms was also observed. The eusperm stored in the female seminal receptacle were motile and showed forward symmetric swimming with spontaneous backward swimming, which appeared necessary for detachment from the wall of receptacle. All of these motility changes were observed in the absence of parasperm, suggesting that these changes autonomously occur in eusperm. Our waveform analysis of these swimming patterns revealed that only the swimming with symmetric waveform showed reverse propagation of the flagellar waveforms. Both types of backward swimming were diminished in Ca(2+)-free seawater and in seawater containing Ni(2+), indicating the regulation of swimming direction by Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction. PMID:24311809

  16. The adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity in two ecotypes of a marine gastropod

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Few surveys have concentrated on studying the adaptive value of phenotypic plasticity within genetically-distinct conspecific ecotypes. Here, we conduct a test to assess the adaptive value that partial phenotypic plasticity may have for survival in the marine gastropod Littorina saxatilis. This species has evolved canalized ecotypes but, nevertheless, the ecotypes show some phenotypic plasticity for the traits under divergent selection between wave-exposed and high-predation habitats. Results We exposed juveniles of each ecotype to several environmental treatments under laboratory conditions in order to produce shape variation associated with plasticity. The two ecotypes from different treatments were then transplanted to the wave-exposed habitat and the survival rate was monitored. Ecotype explained the largest distinction in survival rate while treatment caused variation in survival rate within the ecotype released into its parental habitat which was correlated with plastic changes in shell shape. Snails that had experienced a treatment mimicking the environment of the transplantation location survived with the highest rate, while individuals from the contrary experimental treatment had lower survivorship. Conclusions We conclude that the partial plastic response shown in Littorina saxatilis has a significant impact on fitness, although this remains small compared to the overall adaptive difference between ecotypes. PMID:21029403

  17. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N; Nikitin, Mikhail A; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Belousova, Anna; Reimer, James D; Berumen, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts.

  18. Standard use conditions of terrestrial gastropods in active biomonitoring of soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Viard, Bénédicte; Maul, Armand; Pihan, Jean-Claude

    2004-02-01

    The rehabilitation of contaminated sites is becoming a rising preoccupation which requires the knowledge of their past before realization of a suitable remediation. Physicochemical analysis must be realized jointly with the use of bioindicator organisms, which, owing to their bioaccumulation capacities, will reveal the bioavailability of metals in soils. Among terrestrial invertebrates, gastropods like Helix aspersa aspersa possess an important organotropism for metals in their digestive gland and they can be used in active biomonitoring. During in situ monitoring, two parameters are tested: growth and accumulation of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, and Cr in viscera of snails. Environmental conditions, like humidity or autochthonous vegetation, are able to modify growth or bioaccumulation. In order to remove the variation of these factors, microcosms previously used must be improved: they were equipped with porous candles, which continually humidify soil. Concerning vegetation, an experimental plan was realized to determine the combination of food with the best compromise between growth and bioaccumulation: the combination clover-snail feed was chosen. Thus, in situ, the experimental environment will be repeated in all investigated sites and used to allow follow up of their contamination levels and intercomparison between different sites. PMID:14760452

  19. AFLPs and Mitochondrial Haplotypes Reveal Local Adaptation to Extreme Thermal Environments in a Freshwater Gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Quintela, María; Johansson, Magnus P.; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K.; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Laurila, Anssi

    2014-01-01

    The way environmental variation shapes neutral and adaptive genetic variation in natural populations is a key issue in evolutionary biology. Genome scans allow the identification of the genetic basis of local adaptation without previous knowledge of genetic variation or traits under selection. Candidate loci for divergent adaptation are expected to show higher FST than neutral loci influenced solely by random genetic drift, migration and mutation. The comparison of spatial patterns of neutral markers and loci under selection may help disentangle the effects of gene flow, genetic drift and selection among populations living in contrasting environments. Using the gastropod Radix balthica as a system, we analyzed 376 AFLP markers and 25 mtDNA COI haplotypes for candidate loci and associations with local adaptation among contrasting thermal environments in Lake Mývatn, a volcanic lake in northern Iceland. We found that 2% of the analysed AFLP markers were under directional selection and 12% of the mitochondrial haplotypes correlated with differing thermal habitats. The genetic networks were concordant for AFLP markers and mitochondrial haplotypes, depicting distinct topologies at neutral and candidate loci. Neutral topologies were characterized by intense gene flow revealed by dense nets with edges connecting contrasting thermal habitats, whereas the connections at candidate loci were mostly restricted to populations within each thermal habitat and the number of edges decreased with temperature. Our results suggest microgeographic adaptation within Lake Mývatn and highlight the utility of genome scans in detecting adaptive divergence. PMID:25007329

  20. Species-specific and transgenerational responses to increasing salinity in sympatric freshwater gastropods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suski, Jamie G.; Salice, Christopher J.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater salinization is a global concern partly attributable to anthropogenic salt contamination. The authors examined the effects of increased salinity (as NaCl, 250-4,000 µS/cm, specific conductance) on two sympatric freshwater gastropods (Helisoma trivolvis and Physa pomillia). Life stage sensitivities were determined by exposing naive eggs or naive juveniles (through adulthood and reproduction). Additionally, progeny eggs from the juvenile-adult exposures were maintained at their respective parental salinities to examine transgenerational effects. Naive H. trivolvis eggs experienced delayed development at specific conductance > 250 µS/cm; reduced survivorship and reproduction were also seen in juvenile H. trivolvis at 4,000 µS/cm. Survival and growth of P. pomilia were not affected by increased salinity following egg or juvenile exposures. Interestingly, the progeny of H. trivolvis exposed to higher salinity may have gained tolerance to increased salinity whereas P. pomilia progeny may have experienced negative transgenerational effects. The present study demonstrates that freshwater snail species vary in their tolerance to salinization and also highlights the importance of multigenerational studies, as stressor impacts may not be readily apparent from shorter term exposures.

  1. Some ecological aspects and potential threats to an intertidal gastropod, Umbonium vestiarium.

    PubMed

    Sivadas, S; Ingole, B; Sen, A

    2012-11-01

    Kalbadevi Bay in Ratgnairi has been identified as potential site for placer mining along the west coast of India. Since, U. vestiarium is a keystone species of the region; study on some ecological aspect was carried. The paper also discusses the possible impact of beach sand mining and other threats to this ecologically important gastropod. Seasonal sampling was carried in 2004-2005 at 13 transects by quadrate method. U. vestiarium was restricted to mid and low tide zone of Station 1-3 and 8-10 located at the north and south ends of the beach. Abundance was highest at Station 10 MT (16 to 12488 ind m(-2)). Based on the size-frequency, it may be considered that U. vestiarium like other tropical fauna recruit during monsoon. Eleven different colour patterns of U. vestiarium were observed. However, average individual size was larger in the samples collected from the north (stn. 1-3) end of the beach. The fastidious nature and sporadic distribution of U. vestiarium make them vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic disturbance.

  2. Cochleicola gelatinilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov., Isolated from a Marine Gastropod, Reichia luteostoma.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Eunji; Choi, Sungmi; Yi, Hana

    2016-08-28

    A yellow, rod-shaped, non-motile, gram-negative, and strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated LPB0005(T), was isolated from a marine gastropod, Reichia luteostoma. Here the genome sequence was determined, which comprised 3,395,737 bp with 2,962 protein-coding genes. The DNA G+C content was 36.3 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolate represents a novel genus and species in the family Flavobacteriaceae, with relatively low sequence similarities to other closely related genera. The isolate showed chemotaxonomic properties within the range reported for the family Flavobacteriaceae, but possesses many physiological and biochemical characteristics that distinguished it from species in the closely related genera Ulvibacter, Jejudonia, and Aureitalea. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic, and genomic analyses, strain LPB0005(T) represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Cochleicola gelatinilyticus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPB0005(T) (= KACC 18693(T) = JCM 31218(T)). PMID:27197669

  3. Intertidal coarse woody debris: A spatial subsidy as shelter or feeding habitat for gastropods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storry, Kristin A.; Weldrick, Christine K.; Mews, Malte; Zimmer, Martin; Jelinski, Dennis E.

    2006-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) in the intertidal region of rocky shores serves as a potential source of nutrients as well as habitat or refugia from predation, ecologically linking the adjacent marine and terrestrial habitats. In a series of field and laboratory experiments, the affinity of slow-moving motile intertidal gastropods to CWD either as food source or as shelter that increases habitat complexity was tested. In intertidal pools, CWD did not increase colonization by Littorina spp., while it did so in supratidal pools. Habitat complexity, brought about by algal cover and barnacles, was apparently sufficient in intertidal pools without woody debris, while the increase in habitat complexity by CWD increased the attractiveness of supratidal pools with little natural complexity to Littorina spp. Overall, however, comparison of pools containing woody debris and those containing artificial shelter provided evidence for CWD, and/or its biofilm, serving as food source rather than refugium per se. Similarly, Tegula funebralis chose CWD as food source rather than as shelter as indicated by comparison of autoclaved and unmanipulated woody debris. Further, both unfed and fed snails from a site where CWD was present significantly preferred CWD over macroalgae. Among snails from a site without woody debris, fed individuals showed no preference, while unfed snails significantly preferred macroalgae. From this, experience appears to be a factor that mediates the role of CWD. Overall, however, CWD appears to provide supplementary food to snails in the inter- and supratidal zone.

  4. Larval settlement and metamorphosis in a marine gastropod in response to multiple conspecific cues.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Abigail E; Koury, Spencer A

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata must complete a transition from the plankton, where they are highly dispersed, to an aggregated group of benthic adults. Previous research has shown that selective settlement of larvae on conspecific adults is mediated by a water-borne chemical cue. However, variable experimental conditions have been used to study this cue, and standardization is needed in order to investigate factors that may have weak effects on settlement. In this study, we developed a time-course bioassay based on a full-factorial design with temporal blocking and statistical analysis of larval settlement rates in the lab. We tested this bioassay by examining settlement in the presence of an abiotic cue (KCl), and biotic cues (water conditioned with adult conspecifics and conspecific pedal mucus). Results confirmed settlement in the presence of both KCl and adult-conditioned water, and discovered the induction of settlement by pedal mucus. This optimized, standardized bioassay will be used in future experiments to characterize the complex process of larval settlement in C. fornicata, particularly to measure components of potentially small effect. PMID:27547586

  5. Correlation and path analysis of morphological and weight traits in marine gastropod Glossaulax reiniana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liqiang; He, Yangyang; Yang, Feng; Nie, Hongtao; Yan, Xiwu

    2014-07-01

    Using correlation and path analysis, the genetic correlation between weight traits and morphological traits was determined in the marine gastropod Glossaulax reiniana. A total of 100 G. reiniana individuals from a wild population were used. Shell width ( X 1), shell height ( X 2), umbo-callus height ( X 3), body width ( X 4), operculum length ( X 5), operculum width ( X 6), body weight ( Y 1) and soft-tissue weight ( Y 2) were measured, and the correlation coefficient matrix calculated. Morphological traits were used as independent variables and weight traits as dependent variables for path coefficient analysis. Path coefficients, correlation indices and determination coefficients were also determined. Results indicate that the correlation coefficients associated with each morphological and weight trait were all highly significant ( P <0.01). After deleting redundant independent variables, the following optimum multiple regression equations were obtained using stepwise multiple regression analysis: Y 1 = - 29.317+0.362 X 2 +0.349 X 4 + 1.190 X 5 for body weight; and Y 2 = - 17.292+0.166 X 1 +0.171 X 2 +0.703 X 5, for soft-tissue weight. Operculum height had the highest positive direct correlation with both body weight and soft-tissue weight, which was in accordance with the test results obtained from determinate coefficient analysis. The indication of high genetic correlations between weight traits and morphological traits will provide valuable information for G. reiniana breeding programs.

  6. Green Fluorescence of Cytaeis Hydroids Living in Association with Nassarius Gastropods in the Red Sea

    PubMed Central

    Prudkovsky, Andrey A.; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Nikitin, Mikhail A.; Lukyanov, Konstantin A.; Belousova, Anna; Reimer, James D.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) have been reported from a wide diversity of medusae, but only a few observations of green fluorescence have been reported for hydroid colonies. In this study, we report on fluorescence displayed by hydroid polyps of the genus Cytaeis Eschscholtz, 1829 (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata: Filifera) found at night time in the southern Red Sea (Saudi Arabia) living on shells of the gastropod Nassarius margaritifer (Dunker, 1847) (Neogastropoda: Buccinoidea: Nassariidae). We examined the fluorescence of these polyps and compare with previously reported data. Intensive green fluorescence with a spectral peak at 518 nm was detected in the hypostome of the Cytaeis polyps, unlike in previous reports that reported fluorescence either in the basal parts of polyps or in other locations on hydroid colonies. These results suggest that fluorescence may be widespread not only in medusae, but also in polyps, and also suggests that the patterns of fluorescence localization can vary in closely related species. The fluorescence of polyps may be potentially useful for field identification of cryptic species and study of geographical distributions of such hydroids and their hosts. PMID:26840497

  7. [NADPH-diaphorase activity in digestive system of gastropod molluscs Achatina fulica and Littorina littorea].

    PubMed

    Zaĭtseva, O V; Kuznetsova, T V; Markosova, T G

    2009-01-01

    Localization and peculiarities of NO-ergic elements were studied for he first time throughout the entire length of digestive tract of the marine gastropod mollusc Achatina fulica (Prosobranchia) and the terrestrial molusc Littorina littorea (Pulmonata) by using histochemical method of detection of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPHd). NO-ergic cells and fibers were revealed in all parts of the mollusc digestive tract beginning from pharynx. An intensive NADPHd activity was found in many intraepithelial cells of the open type and in their processes in intra- and subepithelial nerve plexuses, single subepithelial neurons, granular connective tissue cells, and numerous nerve fibers among muscle elements of he digestive tract wall as well as in nerves innervating the tract. NADPHd was also present in receptor cells of he oral area and in the central A. fulica ganglia participating in innervation of the digestive tract. The digestive tract NO-ergic system ofA. fulica has a more complex organization that that of L. littorea. In the A. fulica pharynx, stomach, and midgut, directly beneath epithelium, there is revealed a complex system of glomerular structures formed by thin NADPHd-positive nerve fibers coming from the side of epithelium. More superficially under the main groups of muscle elements, small agglomerations of NADPHd-positive neurons are seen, which could be considered as primitive, non-formed microganglia. Peculiarities of distribution and a possible functional role of NO-ergic elements in the digestive tract of molluscs are discussed as compared with other invertebrate and vertebrate animals. PMID:19370997

  8. Cadmium and metallothionein turnover in different tissues of the gastropod Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Bebianno, M J; Langston, W J

    1998-06-01

    This paper attempts to link the kinetics of Cd and metallothionein turnover in the intertidal marine snail Littorina littorea. The results demonstrate that the turnover of metallothionein is tissue dependent. Metallothionein has an estimated half-life of 69 and 160 days in the gills and kidney, respectively. The half-life could not be calculated for metallothionein in the digestive gland and is probably much longer than the other two tissues. Cadmium elimination from the gill and kidney is considerably slower than the respective metallothioneins (half-life in excess of 300 days) indicating closed cycling of the metal in these tissues. In contrast, cadmium levels in the digestive gland continue to increase during the detoxification period reflecting some remobilization from other tissues. Metallothionein turnover is extremely slow in Littorina when compared with mammals and other bivalve molluscs: even though metallothionein degradation is measurable in some gastropod tissues, the released cadmium may induce de novo metallothionein synthesis to which cadmium becomes resequestered. The slow metallothionein turnover rates and the lack of significant cadmium excretion testify to the relatively stable nature of the cadmium-metallothionein complex in this invertebrate. PMID:18967152

  9. Metabolic mechanisms for anoxia tolerance and freezing survival in the intertidal gastropod, Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kenneth B; Lant, Benjamin; Anozie, Obiajulu O; Storey, Janet M

    2013-08-01

    The gastropod mollusk, Littorina littorea L., is a common inhabitant of the intertidal zone along rocky coastlines of the north Atlantic. This species has well-developed anoxia tolerance and freeze tolerance and is extensively used as a model for exploring the biochemical adaptations that support these tolerances as well as for toxicological studies aimed at identifying effective biomarkers of aquatic pollution. This article highlights our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anaerobiosis and freezing survival of periwinkles, particularly with respect to anoxia-induced metabolic rate depression. Analysis of foot muscle and hepatopancreas metabolism includes anoxia-responsive changes in enzyme regulation, signal transduction, gene expression, post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA, control of translation, and cytoprotective strategies including chaperones and antioxidant defenses. New studies describe the regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by reversible protein phosphorylation, the role of microRNAs in suppressing mRNA translation in the hypometabolic state, modulation of glutathione S-transferase isozyme patterns, and the regulation of the unfolded protein response. PMID:23507570

  10. Heavy-tailed distributions in the intermittent motion behaviour of the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuront, Laurent; Duponchel, Anne-Charlotte; Chapperon, Coraline

    2007-11-01

    The two-dimensional motion behaviour of the common intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea is investigated as a function of the immersion time from three sampling sites on an exposed rocky shore. A total of 90 individuals have been individually marked and tracked over 14 consecutive daylight low tide. Successive displacements show very intermittent behaviour, with a few localised large displacements over a wide range of small displacements. We show that successive displacements are described by flight length l d heavy-tailed distributions with P(ld)∼ld-μ. The very low values of the exponent μ ( μ≈2.22, 2.43 and 2.67) indicate that L. littorea flights fall into the category of super-diffusive processes. These exponents were significantly higher than the special value μ≈2 analytically and theoretically predicted to be the most advantageous in optimising long-term encounter statistics, especially for low-prey-density scenario. As natural selection should favour flexible behaviour, leading to different optimum searching statistics, under different conditions, our results support the idea that the differences in food concentration and distribution encountered at the different sites by L. littorea led to different heavy-tailed distributions observed for the most extreme displacements.

  11. Global change and the dynamics of ecological systems: Cretaceous through Oligocene naticid gastropods and their prey

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, P.H. . Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering); Hansen, T.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Most studies of global change, particularly events that produced mass extinctions, document extinction and survivorship within taxonomic groups or trophic levels. Studies that consider effects of such events on ecological systems are less common. Global events nevertheless affect interaction of species; to predict the consequences of future global change, one must consider interactions within ecological systems. Vermeij has suggested that escalation involving adaptation to enemies has been a major theme of Phanerozoic life, but that such escalation has proceeded at highly variable rates depending on extrinsic events. He has predicted that escalation should be fostered by climatic warming, marine transgression, and high primary productivity. Mass extinctions involving global cooling, regression, or reduction in productivity should temporarily halt escalation, but rapid rebound may occur because post-crisis assemblages provide the raw material for escalation. A comprehensive survey (40,000 specimens) of naticid gastropod predation in the Coastal Plain Cretaceous through Oligocene supports this hypothesis. Drilling frequencies dropped at the K/T and E/O boundaries, which were marked by decreases in productivity and/or cooling. Drilling recovered very rapidly after these events, and in the Paleocene far exceeded Cretaceous drilling, reaching modern levels. This suggests the K/T extinction produced a major reorganization of the ecosystem. Other indicators of escalation (frequency of incomplete and multiple drillholes), however, do not correspond as neatly to global change. Nevertheless, results suggest that global change may be a major determinant of long-term evolutionary patterns, such as escalation.

  12. Brefeldin A or monensin inhibits the 3D organizer in gastropod, polyplacophoran, and scaphopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Eric E; van der Zee, Maurijn; Dictus, Wim J A G; van den Biggelaar, Jo

    2007-02-01

    In molluscs, the 3D vegetal blastomere acts as a developmental signaling center, or organizer, and is required to establish bilateral symmetry in the embryo. 3D is similar to organizing centers in other metazoans, but detailed comparisons are difficult, in part because its organizing function is poorly understood. To elucidate 3D function in a standardized fashion, we used monensin and brefeldin A (BFA) to rapidly and reversibly interfere with protein processing and secretion, thereby inhibiting the signaling interactions that underlie its specification and patterning. In the gastropods, Patella vulgata and Lymnaea stagnalis, the polyplacophoran, Mopalia muscosa, and the scaphopod, Antalis entalis, treatments initiated before the organizer-dependent onset of bilateral cleavage resulted in radialization of subsequent development. In radialized P. vulgata, L. stagnalis, and M. muscosa, organizer specification was blocked, and embryos failed to make the transition to bilateral cleavage. In all four species, the subsequent body plan was radially symmetric and was similarly organized about a novel aboral-oral axis. Our results demonstrate that brefeldin A (BFA) and monensin can be used to inhibit 3D's organizing function in a comparative fashion and that, at least in M. muscosa, the organizer-dependent developmental architecture of the embryo predicts subsequent patterns of morphogenetic movements in gastrulation and, ultimately, the layout of the adult body plan.

  13. Chemoattraction and host preference of the gastropod parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita.

    PubMed

    Rae, Robbie G; Robertson, Jamie F; Wilson, Michael J

    2009-06-01

    Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a parasitic nematode that has been formulated into a biological control agent for slugs. The nematode responds to slug-associated cues such as mucus and feces in order to locate potential hosts. We assessed the olfactory response of P. hermaphrodita to mucus from 9 species of slugs, 2 snails, and 2 earthworms (non-hosts). We then examined the susceptibility of each invertebrate test species to high doses of P. hermaphrodita to determine whether susceptible species are more attractive than non-susceptible species to the nematode. We also studied the numbers of infective juveniles produced in each test species, as well as infectivity. Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita showed strong attraction to mucus from the non-susceptible slug Arion subfuscus, the snail Helix aspersa, and the highly susceptible slug Deroceras reticulatum. In reproduction experiments, P. hermaphrodita produced the highest number of infective juveniles in D. reticulatum and Deroceras panormitanum; however, there was no significant relationship with attraction. Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita caused significant mortality in 5-11 gastropod species tested (and showed no chemotactic preference for susceptible or non-susceptible species). There was a significant positive relationship between numbers of P. hermaphrodita penetrating into non-susceptible species and chemotaxis response. These necromenic species represent ideal hosts for P. hermaphrodita in terms of providing protection against abiotic and biotic factors as well as transport to many diverse areas.

  14. Selectivity of terrestrial gastropod extinctions on an oceanic archipelago and insights into the anthropogenic extinction process.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Satoshi; Roy, Kaustuv

    2011-06-01

    Anthropogenic impacts have led to widespread extinctions of species on oceanic islands but the nature of many of these extinctions remains poorly known. Here we investigate extinction selectivities of terrestrial gastropods from the Ogasawara archipelago in the northwest Pacific, where anthropogenic threats have changed over time, shifting primarily from the effects of habitat loss to predation by a variety of different predators. Across all of the islands, extinct species had significantly smaller geographic ranges compared with species that are still alive, but among the surviving species, ranges of those that are currently declining due to human impacts do not differ significantly from those that are not threatened. Extinctions were selective with respect to spire index (SI) of shells, a trait of potential functional importance, but the relationship between body size and extinction vulnerability varied among extinction agents, some of which were strongly size selective, whereas others were not. Overall, whereas anthropogenic impacts have resulted in nonrandom losses of phenotypic diversity, the patterns of selectivity are complex, vary among islands, and with the type of threat. As extinction agents have changed historically, so has the pattern of loss. Because of the changing nature of anthropogenic impacts, resiliency to one type of threat does not guarantee long-term survival of species and future patterns of biodiversity loss on these islands are likely to be different from those in the past.

  15. Upper Miocene endemic lacustrine gastropod fauna of the Turiec Basin: addressing taxonomic, paleobiogeographic and stratigraphic issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Pipík, Radovan

    2015-04-01

    The present work displays the first detailed taxonomic study on the freshwater gastropod fauna of the Upper Miocene Lake Turiec. Apart from several mentions of species and genus names in the literature, the mollusc fauna has been poorly studied up to now. Some of the cited genera implied peculiar paleobiogeographic relationships, urging a taxonomic investigation to either prove or revise such arising claims. Variable degrees of preservation, however, limited the possibility to identify all the fossils at species level. The fauna includes at least ten species, of which five turned out to be new to science. Four of those were sufficiently well preserved to be described as new species, namely Viviparus pipiki Neubauer & Harzhauser nov. sp., Melanopsis glaubrechti Neubauer & Harzhauser nov. sp., Tournouerina turiecensis Neubauer & Harzhauser nov. sp., and Radix kovaci Neubauer & Harzhauser nov. sp. Additionally, the new genus Popovicia Neubauer & Harzhauser nov. gen. is introduced for the primary homonym Metohia Popović, 1964 non Absolon, 1927. Most importantly, this taxonomic study revises many of the names cited in the literature and proves most of the alleged paleobiogeographic relationships wrong. The only biogeographic and stratigraphic surprise is the record of Popovicia cf. compressa, a species described from lower Pliocene deposits of the Metohia Basin in Kosovo. The majority of the fauna, however, has only been documented for the Turiec Basin, once more confirming the high degree of its endemicity. The faunal relationships indicate a latest Middle to early Late Pannonian (Middle to Late Tortonian) age, which is in agreement with available age models.

  16. Immunohistochemical localization of hepatopancreatic phospholipase in gastropods mollusc, Littorina littorea and Buccinum undatum digestive cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Among the digestive enzymes, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes the essential dietary phospholipids in marine fish and shellfish. However, we know little about the organs that produce PLA2, and the ontogeny of the PLA2-cells. Accordingly, accurate localization of PLA2 in marine snails might afford a better understanding permitting the control of the quality and composition of diets and the mode of digestion of lipid food. Results We have previously producted an antiserum reacting specifically with mSDPLA2. It labeled zymogen granules of the hepatopancreatic acinar cells and the secretory materials of certain epithelial cells in the depths of epithelial crypts in the hepatopancreas of snail. To confirm this localization a laser capture microdissection was performed targeting stained cells of hepatopancreas tissue sections. A Western blot analysis revealed a strong signal at the expected size (30 kDa), probably corresponding to the PLA2. Conclusions The present results support the presence of two hepatopancreatic intracellular and extracellular PLA2 in the prosobranchs gastropods molluscs, Littorina littorea and Buccinum undatum and bring insights on their localizations. PMID:22114916

  17. Tetrodotoxin Poisoning Due to Pufferfish and Gastropods, and Their Intoxication Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Tamao; Onuki, Kazue; Arakawa, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Marine pufferfish generally contain a large amount of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their skin and viscera, and have caused many incidences of food poisoning, especially in Japan. Edible species and body tissues of pufferfish, as well as their allowable fishing areas, are therefore clearly stipulated in Japan, but still 2 to 3 people die every year due to pufferfish poisoning. TTX is originally produced by marine bacteria, and pufferfish are intoxicated through the food chain that starts with the bacteria. Pufferfish become nontoxic when fed TTX-free diets in a closed environment in which there is no possible invasion of TTX-bearing organisms. On the other hand, TTX poisoning due to marine snails has recently spread through Japan, China, Taiwan, and Europe. In addition, TTX poisoning of dogs due to the ingestion of sea slugs was recently reported in New Zealand. TTX in these gastropods also seems to be exogenous; carnivorous large snails are intoxicated by eating toxic starfish, and necrophagous small-to-medium snails, the viscera of dead pufferfish after spawning. Close attention must be paid to the geographic expansion and/or diversification of TTX-bearing organisms, and to the sudden occurrence of other forms of TTX poisoning due to their ingestion. PMID:23724281

  18. Brefeldin A or monensin inhibits the 3D organizer in gastropod, polyplacophoran, and scaphopod molluscs.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Eric E; van der Zee, Maurijn; Dictus, Wim J A G; van den Biggelaar, Jo

    2007-02-01

    In molluscs, the 3D vegetal blastomere acts as a developmental signaling center, or organizer, and is required to establish bilateral symmetry in the embryo. 3D is similar to organizing centers in other metazoans, but detailed comparisons are difficult, in part because its organizing function is poorly understood. To elucidate 3D function in a standardized fashion, we used monensin and brefeldin A (BFA) to rapidly and reversibly interfere with protein processing and secretion, thereby inhibiting the signaling interactions that underlie its specification and patterning. In the gastropods, Patella vulgata and Lymnaea stagnalis, the polyplacophoran, Mopalia muscosa, and the scaphopod, Antalis entalis, treatments initiated before the organizer-dependent onset of bilateral cleavage resulted in radialization of subsequent development. In radialized P. vulgata, L. stagnalis, and M. muscosa, organizer specification was blocked, and embryos failed to make the transition to bilateral cleavage. In all four species, the subsequent body plan was radially symmetric and was similarly organized about a novel aboral-oral axis. Our results demonstrate that brefeldin A (BFA) and monensin can be used to inhibit 3D's organizing function in a comparative fashion and that, at least in M. muscosa, the organizer-dependent developmental architecture of the embryo predicts subsequent patterns of morphogenetic movements in gastrulation and, ultimately, the layout of the adult body plan. PMID:17120024

  19. Intracapsular development and dispersal polymorphism in the predatory gastropod Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus 1758)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Kathryn E.; Reed, Adam J.; Thatje, Sven

    2015-09-01

    Intraspecific polymorphism during development, such as poecilogony or dispersal polymorphism, has rarely been observed in the marine environment. The ecological advantages of this bet-hedging strategy, whereby the offspring from one species exhibit multiple developmental modes, include the potential for rapid colonization of new habitats while simultaneously achieving a degree of gene flow between populations. The muricid gastropod, Ocenebra erinaceus, is a common, shallow-water marine predator found across England and France. Historically, O. erinaceus caused significant damage to shellfisheries, but more recently it has been impacted by TBT-induced imposex. Despite the previous attention given to this species, little is known about its encapsulated development. Studying O. erinaceus egg capsules from the Solent, UK, we describe intracapsular development at 15 °C, the in situ temperature at time of oviposition. Within each capsule, all embryos developed; no nurse eggs were present. Development was categorized into eight ontogenetic stages, although not all individuals displayed every stage; embryos hatched as either swimming late-pediveliger larvae or crawling juveniles after 59-69 days, indicating dispersal polymorphism to occur in this species. Swimming late-pediveliger larvae completed metamorphosis within 72 h of hatching. As O. erinaceus continues to recover from TBT pollution, dispersal polymorphism may facilitate a rapid expansion in both population size and range. If this occurs, O. erinaceus has the potential to, once again, become a serious problem for shellfisheries around Europe.

  20. Selectivity of terrestrial gastropod extinctions on an oceanic archipelago and insights into the anthropogenic extinction process.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Satoshi; Roy, Kaustuv

    2011-06-01

    Anthropogenic impacts have led to widespread extinctions of species on oceanic islands but the nature of many of these extinctions remains poorly known. Here we investigate extinction selectivities of terrestrial gastropods from the Ogasawara archipelago in the northwest Pacific, where anthropogenic threats have changed over time, shifting primarily from the effects of habitat loss to predation by a variety of different predators. Across all of the islands, extinct species had significantly smaller geographic ranges compared with species that are still alive, but among the surviving species, ranges of those that are currently declining due to human impacts do not differ significantly from those that are not threatened. Extinctions were selective with respect to spire index (SI) of shells, a trait of potential functional importance, but the relationship between body size and extinction vulnerability varied among extinction agents, some of which were strongly size selective, whereas others were not. Overall, whereas anthropogenic impacts have resulted in nonrandom losses of phenotypic diversity, the patterns of selectivity are complex, vary among islands, and with the type of threat. As extinction agents have changed historically, so has the pattern of loss. Because of the changing nature of anthropogenic impacts, resiliency to one type of threat does not guarantee long-term survival of species and future patterns of biodiversity loss on these islands are likely to be different from those in the past. PMID:21606352

  1. Larval settlement and metamorphosis in a marine gastropod in response to multiple conspecific cues

    PubMed Central

    Koury, Spencer A.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata must complete a transition from the plankton, where they are highly dispersed, to an aggregated group of benthic adults. Previous research has shown that selective settlement of larvae on conspecific adults is mediated by a water-borne chemical cue. However, variable experimental conditions have been used to study this cue, and standardization is needed in order to investigate factors that may have weak effects on settlement. In this study, we developed a time-course bioassay based on a full-factorial design with temporal blocking and statistical analysis of larval settlement rates in the lab. We tested this bioassay by examining settlement in the presence of an abiotic cue (KCl), and biotic cues (water conditioned with adult conspecifics and conspecific pedal mucus). Results confirmed settlement in the presence of both KCl and adult-conditioned water, and discovered the induction of settlement by pedal mucus. This optimized, standardized bioassay will be used in future experiments to characterize the complex process of larval settlement in C. fornicata, particularly to measure components of potentially small effect. PMID:27547586

  2. Expression of Pax258 in the gastropod statocyst: insights into the antiquity of metazoan geosensory organs.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Degnan, Bernard M

    2003-01-01

    Most animals have sensory systems that allow them to balance and orient relative to the pull of gravity. Structures responsible for these functions range from very simple statocysts found in many aquatic invertebrates to the complex inner ear of mammals. Previous studies suggest that the specialized mechanosensory structures responsible for balance in vertebrates and insects may be homologous based on the requirement and expression of group II Pax genes (i.e., Pax-2/5/8 genes). Here we report the expression of a Pax-258 gene in the statocysts and other chemosensory and mechanosensory cells during the development of the gastropod mollusk Haliotis asinina, a member of the Lophotrochozoa. Based on the phylogenetic distribution of geosensory systems and the consistent expression of Pax-258 in the cells that form these systems, we propose that Pax-258, along with POU-III and -IV genes, has an ancient and conserved role in the formation of structures responsible for balance and geotaxis in eumetazoans.

  3. Ultrastructure of the mantle of the gastropod Haliotis asinina and mechanisms of shell regionalization.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Carmel; Green, Kathryn; Jackson, Daniel J; Degnan, Bernard M

    2011-01-01

    The ability of a biological system to drive the formation of a microstructure as complex and ordered as the molluscan shell is of immense interest to the fields of nanotechnology and biomedicine. Although recent studies have greatly expanded our knowledge of the genes involved in shell formation, the mechanism by which matrix proteins are regulated and directed to the appropriate region of the shell, a process critical for microstructure control, is still obscure. The formation of microstructure-specific compartments within the extrapallial cavity may be the outcome of precise regulation of the vesicle trafficking of shell components within secretory cells at the mineralization front and/or the overall organization and morphology of the mantle itself. Here, we investigate the ultrastructure of the mantle of the gastropod Haliotis asinina as current models put forward to describe molluscan shell formation are primarily based on observations from bivalves despite crystallographic and molecular studies indicating large differences between molluscan classes. We find that the H. asinina mantle is structurally complex and comprised of novel cells packed with a diversity of vesicle types consistent with a complex system to control the secretion of the shell matrix and associated factors.

  4. Biological strategy for the fabrication of highly ordered aragonite helices: the microstructure of the cavolinioidean gastropods

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Antonio G.; Macías-Sánchez, Elena; Ramírez-Rico, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The Cavolinioidea are planktonic gastropods which construct their shells with the so-called aragonitic helical fibrous microstructure, consisting of a highly ordered arrangement of helically coiled interlocking continuous crystalline aragonite fibres. Our study reveals that, despite the high and continuous degree of interlocking between fibres, every fibre has a differentiated organic-rich thin external band, which is never invaded by neighbouring fibres. In this way, fibres avoid extinction. These intra-fibre organic-rich bands appear on the growth surface of the shell as minuscule elevations, which have to be secreted differentially by the outer mantle cells. We propose that, as the shell thickens during mineralization, fibre secretion proceeds by a mechanism of contact recognition and displacement of the tips along circular trajectories by the cells of the outer mantle surface. Given the sizes of the tips, this mechanism has to operate at the subcellular level. Accordingly, the fabrication of the helical microstructure is under strict biological control. This mechanism of fibre-by-fibre fabrication by the mantle cells is unlike that any other shell microstructure. PMID:27181457

  5. Biokinetics of different-shaped copper oxide nanoparticles in the freshwater gastropod, Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramskov, Tina; Croteau, Marie-Noele; Forbes, Valery E.; Selck, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Sediment is recognized as a major environmental sink for contaminants, including engineered nanoparticles (NPs). Consequently, sediment-living organisms are likely to be exposed to NPs. There is evidence that both accumulation and toxicity of metal NPs to sediment-dwellers increase with decreasing particle size, although NP size does not always predict effects. In contrast, not much is known about the influence of particle shape on bioaccumulation and toxicity. Here, we examined the influence of copper oxide (CuO) NP shape (rods, spheres, and platelets) on their bioaccumulation kinetics and toxicity to the sediment-dwelling gastropod, Potamopyrgus antipodarum. The influence of Cu added as CuCl2 (i.e., aqueous Cu treatment) was also examined. Exposure to sediment mixed with aqueous Cu or with different-shaped CuO NPs at an average measured exposure concentration of 207 μg Cu per g dry weight sediment for 14 days did not significantly affect snail mortality. However, growth decreased for snails exposed to sediment amended with CuO NP spheres and platelets. P. antipodarum accumulated Cu from all Cu forms/shapes in significant amounts compared to control snails. In addition, once accumulated, Cu was efficiently retained (i.e., elimination rate constants were generally not significantly different from zero). Consequently, snails are likely to concentrate Cu over time, from both aqueous and NP sources, resulting in a high potential for toxicity.

  6. Predator release of the gastropod Cyphoma gibbosum increases predation on gorgonian corals.

    PubMed

    Burkepile, Deron E; Hay, Mark E

    2007-11-01

    When large, predatory fishes and invertebrates were excluded from areas of a coral reef in the Florida Keys, USA, densities of the normally rare gastropod Cyphoma gibbosum, a principal predator of gorgonian corals, increased 19-fold. Gorgonians in predator exclosures were grazed more frequently and extensively by C. gibbosum than were gorgonians in uncaged areas. In exclosures, 14% of all gorgonians showed recent predation by C. gibbosum, with 62% of the entire colony surface being removed from these attacked individuals. In areas where predators of C. gibbosum were not excluded, only 5% of gorgonians exhibited recent damage, with only 26% of the colony surface being removed from these few damaged individuals. Thus, the increases in both frequency and extent of attack combined to produce an 8x increase in gorgonian damage following removal of large predators. These patterns suggest that predators typically suppress C. gibbosum populations, that overfishing of these predators could release C. gibbosum from top-down control, and that this release will allow increased damage to gorgonian corals.

  7. Baseline trace metals in gastropod mollusks from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego (Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Stripeikis, Jorge; Finoia, Maria Grazia; Tudino, Mabel Beatriz

    2012-05-01

    With the aim to evaluate the mollusk Nacella (P)magellanica as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of the Beagle Channel, more than one hundred individuals of the gastropod were sampled, separated in viscera and muscle, and then examined with respect to the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Collection was performed in seven strategic locations along 170 km of the coastal area of the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) in two campaigns during 2005 and 2007. Samples of surrounding seawater in the different sites were obtained and tested for the same metals as well. The accumulation capacity of Nacella (P)magellanica and thus its aptitude as biomonitor, was evaluated through the calculus of the preconcentration factors of the metals assayed. A discussion involving the comparison with other mollusks previously tested will be given. Several statistical approaches able to analyze data with environmental purposes were applied. Non parametric univariate tests such as Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney were carried out to assess the changes of the metal concentrations with time (2005 and 2007) in each location. Multivariate methods (linear discriminant analysis on PCA factors) were also applied to obtain a more reliable site classification. Johnson's probabilistic method was carried out for comparison between different geographical areas. The possibility of employing these results as heavy metals' background levels of seawater from the Beagle Channel will be debated.

  8. Species-specific and transgenerational responses to increasing salinity in sympatric freshwater gastropods.

    PubMed

    Suski, Jamie G; Salice, Christopher J; Patiño, Reynaldo

    2012-11-01

    Freshwater salinization is a global concern partly attributable to anthropogenic salt contamination. The authors examined the effects of increased salinity (as NaCl, 250-4,000 µS/cm, specific conductance) on two sympatric freshwater gastropods (Helisoma trivolvis and Physa pomillia). Life stage sensitivities were determined by exposing naive eggs or naive juveniles (through adulthood and reproduction). Additionally, progeny eggs from the juvenile-adult exposures were maintained at their respective parental salinities to examine transgenerational effects. Naive H. trivolvis eggs experienced delayed development at specific conductance > 250 µS/cm; reduced survivorship and reproduction were also seen in juvenile H. trivolvis at 4,000 µS/cm. Survival and growth of P. pomilia were not affected by increased salinity following egg or juvenile exposures. Interestingly, the progeny of H. trivolvis exposed to higher salinity may have gained tolerance to increased salinity whereas P. pomilia progeny may have experienced negative transgenerational effects. The present study demonstrates that freshwater snail species vary in their tolerance to salinization and also highlights the importance of multigenerational studies, as stressor impacts may not be readily apparent from shorter term exposures. PMID:22865709

  9. Stable Isotope Evidence for Dietary Overlap between Alien and Native Gastropods in Coastal Lakes of Northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Nelson A. F.; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) is originally from South-East Asia, but has been introduced and become invasive in many tropical and subtropical parts of the world. In South Africa, T. granifera is rapidly invading an increasing number of coastal lakes and estuaries, often reaching very high population densities and dominating shallow water benthic invertebrate assemblages. An assessment of the feeding dynamics of T. granifera has raised questions about potential ecological impacts, specifically in terms of its dietary overlap with native gastropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A stable isotope mixing model was used together with gut content analysis to estimate the diet of T. granifera and native gastropod populations in three different coastal lakes. Population density, available biomass of food and salinity were measured along transects placed over T. granifera patches. An index of isotopic (stable isotopes) dietary overlap (IDO, %) aided in interpreting interactions between gastropods. The diet of T. granifera was variable, including contributions from microphytobenthos, filamentous algae (Cladophora sp.), detritus and sedimentary organic matter. IDO was significant (>60%) between T. granifera and each of the following gastropods: Haminoea natalensis (Krauss, 1848), Bulinus natalensis (Küster, 1841) and Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774). However, food did not appear to be limiting. Salinity influenced gastropod spatial overlap. Tarebia granifera may only displace native gastropods, such as Assiminea cf. ovata (Krauss, 1848), under salinity conditions below 20. Ecosystem-level impacts are also discussed. Conclusion/Significance The generalist diet of T. granifera may certainly contribute to its successful establishment. However, although competition for resources may take place under certain salinity conditions and if food is limiting, there appear to be other mechanisms at work, through which T. granifera displaces native gastropods

  10. Abnormal urothelial HLA-DR expression in interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J; Bottazzo, G F

    1992-03-01

    Interstitial cystitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the urinary bladder that predominantly afflicts middle-age women. The end stage of the disease is ulceration of the urothelium, the so-called Hunner's ulcer. The aetiology of interstitial cystitis remains obscure. We have studied bladder biopsies from 22 cases of interstitial cystitis and control groups consisting of six cases of bacterial cystitis and eight healthy women. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed on the biopsies using murine MoAbs to human HLA class I molecules, and class II molecules, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ and HLA-DR. In interstitial cystitis, bacterial cystitis and normal controls most cells expressed HLA class I products. In six cases of interstitial cystitis and one case of bacterial cystitis there was evidence of HLA class I hyperexpression. In normal bladder and bacterial cystitis HLA class II expression was restricted to submucosal dendritic cells, Langerhans cells macrophages, vascular endothelial cells and activated lymphocytes. All but two cases of interstitial cystitis showed surface expression of HLA-DR (but not HLA-DP or DQ). In all cases of interstitial cystitis there was an increase in the numbers of macrophages, activated lymphocytes and vascular endothelial cells expressing HLA class II molecules within the submucosa. These findings provide further evidence for the importance of inappropriate HLA molecule expression in a disease suspected of having an autoimmune pathogenesis and where cellular autoimmune mechanisms play a decisive role in the destruction of the target cells--the bladder urothelium.

  11. Gallium interstitial contributions to diffusion in gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Joseph T.; Morgan, Caroline G.

    2011-09-01

    A new diffusion path is identified for gallium interstitials, which involves lower barriers than the barriers for previously identified diffusion paths [K. Levasseur-Smith and N. Mousseau, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113502 (2008), P. A. Schultz and O. A. von Lilienfeld, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 17, 084007 (2009)] for the charge states which dominate diffusion over most of the available range of Fermi energies. This path passes through the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration, and has a particularly low diffusion barrier of 0.35 eV for diffusion in the neutral charge state. As a part of this work, the character of the charge states for the gallium interstitials which are most important for diffusion is investigated, and it is shown that the last electron bound to the neutral interstitial occupies a shallow hydrogenic bound state composed of conduction band states for the hexagonal interstitial and both tetrahedral interstitials. How to properly account for the contributions of such interstitials is discussed for density-functional calculations with a k-point mesh not including the conduction band edge point. Diffusion barriers for gallium interstitials are calculated in all the charge states which can be important for a Fermi level anywhere in the gap, q = 0, +1, +2, and +3, for diffusion via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration and via the hexagonal interstitial configuration. The lowest activation enthalpies over most of the available range of Fermi energies are found to correspond to diffusion in the neutral or singly positive state via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration. It is shown that several different charge states and diffusion paths contribute significantly for Fermi levels within 0.2 eV above the valence band edge, which may help to explain some of the difficulties [H. Bracht and S. Brotzmann, Phys. Rev. B 71, 115216 (2005)] which have been

  12. Interstitial lung disease in infancy: A general approach.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erica J; Walsh, Mark; Armes, Jane E; Douglas, Tonia; Chawla, Jasneek

    2016-04-01

    Childhood Interstitial lung disease (chILD) is an umbrella term used to define a broad range of rare, diffuse pulmonary disorders with altered interstitial structure that leads to abnormal gas exchange. Presentation of chILD in infancy can be difficult to differentiate from other common causes of diffuse lung disease. This article aimed at paediatricians provides an overview of interstitial lung disease presenting in infancy and includes key clinical features, a suggested approach to investigation and a summary of management. An overview of three clinical cases has been included to demonstrate the diagnostic approach, characteristic investigation findings and varied clinical outcomes.

  13. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Quentin E. Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq{sup 153}Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D{sub 98%}), I-RSBT reduced urethral D{sub 0.1cc} below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq {sup 153}Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed{sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29

  14. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.

    1985-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT change in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease.

  15. Interstitial deletion of distal 13q associated with Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, M A; Fitchett, M; Dennis, N R

    1989-01-01

    Three cases of interstitial deletion of chromosome 13 involving the common segment 13q22.1----q32.1 are reported. In addition to the recognised clinical features of this deletion, two had Hirschsprung's disease. Images PMID:2918536

  16. View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Phenotypic characterization of rare interstitial deletion of chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Samira; Helmy, Nivine A.; Mahmoud, Wael M.; El-Ruby, Mona O.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 is rare. Patients with interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 differ from those with terminal deletions. Phenotypes may be variable, depending upon the specific length and location of the deleted portion. Here, we report on a boy exhibiting most of the congenital malformations encountered in terminal 4q syndrome. The conventional karyotyping and Fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed a de novo interstitial del (4)(q31q32). The current report is a further document highlighting that deletion of segment q31 could be contributing to the expression of most of the phenotype of 4q deletion syndrome. Using array comparative genome hybridization methodology is recommended for investigating further cases with similar segmental interstitial deletions to support and delineate findings and to define genes implicated in the pathogenesis of the disorder.

  18. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ∼80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup −1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180–240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup −1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  19. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  20. Pulmonary interstitial compliance and microvascular filtration coefficient.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, H S

    1980-08-01

    Static and dynamic properties governing the fluid movement into the pulmonary interstitium were examined in isolated canine lobes. The system was driven by altering intravascular presure (Piv) when the lobe was isogravimetric (change in weight (W) = 0) and allowing the lobe to become isogravimetric again. By making use of an analogy to charging a capacitor across a resistor, calculation of the filtration coefficient for transvascular fluid movement (KF) and determination of the pressure-volume relationship of the pulmonary interstitial space (Pis-Vis), with a minimum of untested assumptions, was possible. KF was found to be the same for fluid moving out of or into the intravascular space, and when the relationship between Piv and alveolar pressure (PAlv) was constant, KF was independent of transpulmonary pressure (PL). When PAlv exceeded Piv, changes in Piv did not influence KF, suggesting no significant change in either surface area available for fluid transudation or vascular permeability. The Pis-Vis curve for increasing values of Vis and Pis is best described by an exponential relationhip and is independent of PL. However, the Pis-Vis curve with decreasing values of Vis and Pis is dependent on PL.

  1. Interstitial laser photocoagulation of breast tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, David C. O.; Bown, Stephen G.; Briggs, Gavin M.; Hall-Craggs, Margret A.

    2001-10-01

    Interstitial Laser Photocoagulation (ILP) is a method of destroying lesions in the center of solid organs without the need for open surgery. Under image guidance, up to four needles are inserted percutaneously into the tumor through which thin optic fibers are passed into the target lesion. Low power laser light from a semiconductor laser is delivered to gently coagulate the tissue. This dead tissue is subsequently resorbed by the body's normal healing processes. Follow up is achieved with ultrasound imaging. One study is described for assessing ILP for benign fibroadenomas. Fibroadenomas were treated to assess how laser treated breast tissue healed in the long term and we have shown that the necrosed tissue is resorbed without complications over a period of months. Nevertheless, by following treated fibroadenomas (up to 35mm diameter) with ultrasound measurement at 3, 6 and 12 months, in 14 patients, only one lesion was still detectable 12 months after ILP. In appropriate cases, ILP could be an attractive option, as it leaves no scars and should not change the shape or size of the breast. If the present studies are successful, the plan is for a multi-center trial of minimally invasive, thermal ablation of breast cancers.

  2. Interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ascherman, Dana P

    2010-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common systemic autoimmune disease in the United States, affecting 1% to 2% of the adult population. Although joints and synovium are the primary targets in this disorder, extra-articular manifestations involving the lungs can lead to significant morbidity and excess mortality. Among the various pulmonary complications that occur in RA, interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most damaging, with effects ranging from subclinical inflammation/scarring to end-stage pulmonary fibrosis. New insights during the past several years have underscored the epidemiologic impact of clinically/functionally significant RA-associated ILD (RA-ILD) and have begun to identify factors contributing to the pathogenesis of this potentially devastating complication of RA. Despite these advancements, the complexity of RA-ILD and the lack of reliable predictors for disease progression highlight the need for improved biomarker development. Establishing such detailed molecular signatures will ultimately guide the application and timing of therapeutic agents that include immunomodulators as well as newly studied antifibrotic agents.

  3. [Acute interstitial pneumonia: diagnostic approach and management].

    PubMed

    Feuillet, S; Tazi, A

    2011-06-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) encompasses a spectrum of pulmonary disorders characterized by involvement of the lung interstitium and distal airways (bronchioles and alveoli). The onset of respiratory symptoms is acute, most often within two weeks. Most AIP take place de novo, but sometimes represent an acute exacerbation of chronic lung disease. The clinical presentation of AIP comprises rapidly progressive dyspnoea, associated sometimes with cough, fever, myalgia and asthenia. Chest radiography shows diffuse pulmonary opacities. The associated hypoxemia may be severe enough to cause acute respiratory failure. Underlying aetiologies are numerous and variable, particularly in relation to the underlying immune status of the host. Various histopathological entities may be responsible for AIP although diffuse alveolar damage is the predominant pattern. The diagnostic approach to a patient presenting with AIP is to try to determine the most likely underlying histopathological pattern and to search for a precise aetiology. It relies mainly on a meticulous clinical evaluation and accurate biological investigation, essentially guided by the results of bronchoalveolar lavage performed in an area identified by abnormalities on high resolution computed tomography of the lungs. Initial therapeutic management includes symptomatic measures, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment adapted to the clinical context, frequently combined with systemic corticosteroid therapy.

  4. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole.

  5. Renaissance of laser interstitial thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon; Barnett, Gene H

    2015-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique for treating intracranial tumors, originally introduced in 1983. Its use in neurosurgical procedures was historically limited by early technical difficulties related to the monitoring and control of the extent of thermal damage. The development of magnetic resonance thermography and its application to LITT have allowed for real-time thermal imaging and feedback control during laser energy delivery, allowing for precise and accurate provision of tissue hyperthermia. Improvements in laser probe design, surgical stereotactic targeting hardware, and computer monitoring software have accelerated acceptance and clinical utilization of LITT as a neurosurgical treatment alternative. Current commercially available LITT systems have been used for the treatment of neurosurgical soft-tissue lesions, including difficult to access brain tumors, malignant gliomas, and radiosurgery-resistant metastases, as well as for the ablation of such lesions as epileptogenic foci and radiation necrosis. In this review, the authors aim to critically analyze the literature to describe the advent of LITT as a neurosurgical, laser excision tool, including its development, use, indications, and efficacy as it relates to neurosurgical applications. PMID:25727222

  6. Standardising Responsibility? The Significance of Interstitial Spaces.

    PubMed

    Wickson, Fern; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Modern society is characterised by rapid technological development that is often socially controversial and plagued by extensive scientific uncertainty concerning its socio-ecological impacts. Within this context, the concept of 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) is currently rising to prominence in international discourse concerning science and technology governance. As this emerging concept of RRI begins to be enacted through instruments, approaches, and initiatives, it is valuable to explore what it is coming to mean for and in practice. In this paper we draw attention to a realm that is often backgrounded in the current discussions of RRI but which has a highly significant impact on scientific research, innovation and policy-namely, the interstitial space of international standardization. Drawing on the case of nanoscale sciences and technologies to make our argument, we present examples of how international standards are already entangled in the development of RRI and yet, how the process of international standardization itself largely fails to embody the norms proposed as characterizing RRI. We suggest that although current models for RRI provide a promising attempt to make research and innovation more responsive to societal needs, ethical values and environmental challenges, such approaches will need to encompass and address a greater diversity of innovation system agents and spaces if they are to prove successful in their aims. PMID:25344842

  7. Interstitial laser photocoagulation of uterine leimyoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Alastair D.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Patel, Bipin L.; Broadbent, Jeff J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Bown, Stephen G.

    1996-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are common benign tumors which may cause heavy or painful periods, may present as a pelvic mass and are associated with infertility. Local excision of symptomatic lesions can be difficult and hazardous, and the alternative is hysterectomy. We are investigating interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) as a less invasive alternative. Initial experiments were undertaken on 40 fibroids after surgical removal. One or two bare tipped, precharred fibers from a 25 W semiconductor laser (805 nm) were inserted into the center of the fibroid and treatment delivered with 2 - 10 W for 100 - 1000 sec. Specimens were subsequently sectioned perpendicular to the fiber track. Fibroids are very pale and apart from occasional charred tracts there was little evidence of thermal coagulation macroscopically or after haematoxylon and eosin staining. However, using a diaphorase stain technique we were able to demonstrate ellipsoid zones of devitalized tissue up to 20 mm across (15 mm for single fibers). These results suggest that ILP is producing gentle, uniform coagulation which could lead to resorption of treated areas. With appropriate numbers of treatment sites, this could permit minimally invasive management of clinically significant lesions. Clinical studies have commenced treating fibroids with ILP at the time of surgical excision by myomectomy or hysterectomy.

  8. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Caminati, Antonella; Cassandro, Roberto; Harari, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), particularly in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and ILD associated with connective tissue disease. However, other lung diseases, such as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, may also include PH in their clinical manifestations. In all of these diseases, PH is associated with reduced exercise capacity and poor prognosis. The degree of PH in ILDs is typically mild-to-moderate. However, some of these patients may develop a disproportionate increase in PH that cannot be justified solely by hypoxia and parenchymal injury: this condition has been termed "out-of-proportion" PH. The pathogenesis of PH in these diseases is various, incompletely understood and may be multifactorial. The clinical suspicion (i.e. increased dyspnoea, low diffusion capacity) and echocardiographic assessment are the first steps towards proper diagnosis of PH; however, right heart catheterisation remains the current gold standard for diagnosis of PH. At present, no specific therapies have been approved for the treatment of PH in patients with ILDs. PMID:23997057

  9. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, M.R.; Tulip, J.; Chetner, M.; McPhee, M.S. )

    1989-07-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which were placed in a 0.94 X 0.94 cm grid pattern within excised Dunning R3327-AT rat prostate tumors. A cylindrical diffusing fiber tip, illuminated by 630 nm dye laser light was placed within one needle and a miniature light detector was placed within another. The average penetration depth in the tumor region between the two needles was calculated from the optical power measured by the detector, using a modified diffusion theory. Repeating the procedure for each pair of needles revealed significant variations in penetration depth within individual tumors. Average values of penetration depth, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and mean scattering cosine were 0.282 cm, 0.469 cm-1, 250 cm-1 and 0.964, respectively. Calculated light distributions from four cylindrical sources in tumors gave reasonable agreement with direct light measurements using fiber optic probes.

  10. Nilotinib-induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Myung Hee; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hoon-Gu

    2013-09-01

    Nilotinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor active in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resistant to imatinib, and has been recently approved for newly diagnosed patients. We present a case of nilotinib-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD). A 67-year-old female patient was initially treated with imatinib for chronic-phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML. Imatinib was replaced by nilotinib because of hematological toxicity. The patient had received nilotinib for about 3 years without significant adverse effects. She visited the clinic due to chronic cough; chest X-ray revealed consolidations in both lung fields. Nilotinib-induced ILD was diagnosed based on intensive workup, including lung biopsy. She responded dramatically to corticosteroid therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nilotinib-induced ILD in a patient with Ph(+) CML. We emphasize that if unexplained lung abnormalities progress in patients receiving nilotinib, physicians should consider this potentially fatal complication in their differential diagnoses.

  11. Reconstruction of Regional Environments in the Caribbean During the Neogene Using Gastropod Stable Isotope Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, J. A.; Grossman, E. L.; O'Dea, A.; Tao, K.

    2011-12-01

    The closure of the Central American Isthmus (CAI) ca. 3.8-3.6 Ma triggered changes in nearshore environments in the Caribbean, causing changes in marine annual range of temperature (MART), carbonate deposition, and the benthic ecosystem. The associated extinction event began ca. 3-2 Ma, peaking between 2-1 Ma. More than two dozen "faunules", discreet packages of fauna which lived under similar environmental conditions, represent time just prior to, during, and after the uplift of the CAI. Multiple parameters including the amount and types of fauna present in each faunule have been used to estimate factors such as paleodepth, MART, extinction rates, and changes in ecological structure over time. Oxygen and carbon isotope analyses (δ18O and δ13C) of gastropod shells serially-sampled about the spire provide records of seasonal environmental conditions. In the tropics, gastropods that live under conditions of strong seasonal upwelling and freshwater input have a greater range of δ18O values in their profiles compared to those animals that live in non-upwelling waters with little freshwater input. Low δ13C values often represent the isotopically low terrestrial carbon found in river runoff, and may be coupled with low δ18O values during seasonal freshening of marine waters. Preliminary data from Strombus shells representing four faunules ranging in age from before the rise of the isthmus through its completion demonstrate the effectiveness of using these mollusks to study ancient tropical environments. Rio Limoncito (~3 Ma), which is believed to represent water depths of 20-40m based on foraminiferal assemblage, yielded the lowest δ18O values (-0.6±0.4%, representing the warmest temperatures/lowest salinities). The samples from Pueblo Nuevo (~1.6 Ma), with an estimated paleodepth between 50 and 100m, had an average value of 0.4±0.3% and therefore represent cooler waters/higher salinity. A shell from NE Escudo de Veraguas (~3.55 Ma) shows a shift from essentially

  12. Connective tissue disease-associated interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: similarity and difference.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Thomas; Sundaram, Baskaran; Khanna, Dinesh; Kazerooni, Ella A

    2014-02-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are increasingly recognized in patients with systemic diseases. Patients with early ILD changes may be asymptomatic. Features of ILD overlap among systemic diseases and with idiopathic variety. High-resolution computed tomography plays a central role in diagnosing ILDs. Imaging features are often nonspecific. Therapy- and complication-related lung changes would pose difficulty in diagnosing and classifying an ILD. Biology and prognosis of secondary ILDs may differ between different disease-related ILDs and idiopathic variety. Combination of clinical features, serological tests, pulmonary and extrapulmonary imaging findings, and pathology findings may help to diagnose ILDs. PMID:24480141

  13. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thaís Helena; Cunha, Thaís do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Deborah; Lee, Joyce S; King, Talmadge E

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease affecting about 1% of the population. Interstitial lung disease is a serious and frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is characterized by several histopathologic subtypes. This article reviews the proposed pathogenesis and risk factors for RA-ILD. We also outline the important steps involved in the work-up of RA-ILD and review the evidence for treatment and prognosis.

  15. Calcium channel antagonists in the treatment of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, J

    1994-02-01

    The calcium channel antagonist nifedipine has shown efficacy in the treatment of interstitial cystitis and the urethral syndrome. The optimal daily dose of nifedipine can be determined with the use of a nifedipine titration test. To complete the repair of damaged bladder and/or urethral mucosa, nifedipine therapy should be used for a minimum of 3 months. Patients who do not respond well to nifedipine are those with the pelvic floor muscle spasm syndrome variant of interstitial cystitis.

  16. Symbiotic association between symbiodinium and the gastropod Strombus gigas: larval acquisition of symbionts.

    PubMed

    García Ramos, Maribel; Banaszak, Anastazia T

    2014-04-01

    The importance of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. was studied in the early life stages of the gastropod Strombus gigas. This dinoflagellate was not found in the eggs or the gelatinous mass surrounding the eggs of the mollusk; therefore, Symbiodinium is not inherited directly. To determine whether the planktonic veligers can acquire these algae from the environment, they were exposed to freshly isolated Symbiodinium from adult S. gigas (homologous). The optimal stage for Symbiodinium inoculation was found at 48 h post-hatching. Survival and growth rates of veligers and juveniles were higher when inoculated with freshly isolated Symbiodinium in conjunction with daily feeding of Isochrysis spp. Veligers inoculated with Symbiodinium freshly isolated from three host species elicited distinct responses: (1) veligers did not take up Symbiodinium isolated from the hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis suggesting that there is discrimination on contact prior to ingestion, (2) veligers did take up Symbiodinium isolated from the anemone Bartholomea annulata, but the algae did not persist in the host tissue suggesting that selection against this type took place after ingestion or that the algae did not divide in the host, and (3) veligers did take up Symbiodinium isolated from Pterogorgia anceps where it persisted and was associated with metamorphosis of the larvae. In contrast, the Symbiodinium freshly isolated from S. gigas were not associated with metamorphosis and required an inducer such as the red alga Laurencia poitei. These data present a significant advancement for the establishment of a new approach in the aquaculture of this important but declining Caribbean species. PMID:24037186

  17. Development of cardiovascular function in the marine gastropod Littorina obtusata (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Bitterli, Tabitha S; Rundle, Simon D; Spicer, John I

    2012-07-01

    The molluscan cardiovascular system typically incorporates a transient extracardiac structure, the larval heart, early in development, but the functional importance of this structure is unclear. We documented the ontogeny and regulatory ability of the larval heart in relation to two other circulatory structures, the true heart and the velum, in the intertidal gastropod Littorina obtusata. There was a mismatch between the appearance of the larval heart and the velum. Velar lobes appeared early in development (day 4), but the larval heart did not begin beating until day 13. The beating of the larval heart reached a maximum on day 17 and then decreased until the structure itself disappeared (day 24). The true heart began to beat on day 17. Its rate of beating increased as that of the larval heart decreased, possibly suggesting a gradual shift from a larval heart-driven to a true heart-driven circulation. The true heart was not sensitive to acutely declining P(O(2)) shortly after it began to beat, but increased in activity in response to acutely declining P(O(2)) by day 21. Larval heart responses were similar to those of the true heart, with early insensitivity to declining P(O(2)) (day 13) followed by a response by day 15. Increased velum-driven rotational activity under acutely declining P(O(2)) was greatest in early developmental stages. Together, these findings point to cardiovascular function in L. obtusata larvae being the result of a complex interaction between velum, larval and true heart activities, with the functions of the three structures coinciding but their relative importance changing throughout larval development. PMID:22675194

  18. Microsatellite Evidence for High Frequency of Multiple Paternity in the Marine Gastropod Rapana venosa

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Background Inferring of parentage in natural populations is important in understanding the mating systems of a species, which have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. Muricidae, a large group (approximately 1,600 species) of marine gastropods, are poorly investigated in patterns of multiple paternity and sperm competition based on molecular techniques. The veined Rapa whelk, Rapana venosa, a commercially important muricid species with internal fertilization, is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to facilitate understanding of their reproductive strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed five highly polymorphic microsatellites in R. venosa and applied them to identify multiple paternity in 19 broods (1381 embryos) collected from Dandong, China. Multiple paternity was detected in 17 (89.5%) of 19 broods. The number of sires per brood ranged from 1 to 7 (4.3 on average). Of the 17 multiply sired broods, 16 (94.1%) were significantly skewed from equal paternal contributions, and had a dominant sire which was also dominant in each assayed capsule. Conclusions Our results indicate that a high level of multiple paternity occurs in the wild population of R. venosa. Similar patterns of multiple paternity in the 2–6 assayed capsules from each brood imply that fertilization events within the body of a female occur mostly (but not entirely) as random draws from a “well-but-not-perfectly blended sperm pool” of her several mates. Strongly skewed distributions of fertilization success among sires also suggest that sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice might be important for post-copulatory paternity biasing in this species. PMID:24466127

  19. Effect of tidal regime on the thermal tolerance of the marine gastropod Lunella smaragda (Gmelin 1791).

    PubMed

    Mortensen, B J D; Dunphy, B J

    2016-08-01

    The tidal cycle around New Zealand results in spring low tides consistently occurring during the hottest part of the day (mid-afternoon) in north-eastern New Zealand, and during the cooler dawn/dusk periods in the north-west of the country. We hypothesised that due to mid-afternoon spring low tides, intertidal populations residing at north-eastern sites would show greater thermotolerance than their north-west conspecifics. To test this we used the marine gastropod, Lunella smaragda, which were collected from sites on both the East and West coasts of the Auckland region and exposed to an acute heat shock. Thermotolerance was measured as survivorship (LT50), drop down time (time to heat coma) and thermal stability of the anaerobic energy producing enzyme Tauropine dehydrogenase. Furthermore, temperature loggers were deployed at each site so as to record and compare thermal regimes among sites. A strong temperature spike associated with spring low tide was found at all sites, and maximal temperatures of all East coast sites were higher than West coast sites (in some case by up to 10°C). In terms of thermotolerance, mortality of L. smaragda occurred at 42°C leading to 100% mortality at 45°C. However, comparison of LT50 showed snails were equally thermotolerant regardless of site of collection. Similar results were found in TDH thermal stability with animals from all sites showing an approximately 80% decrease in enzyme activity after 10min exposure to 42°C. Whilst drop down times were different among sites these were correlated with animal size as opposed to site of collection. Thus, East coast populations of L. smaragda appear no more thermotolerant than their West coast counterparts. Such a result is concerning as maximal temperatures at East coast sites already exceed the LT50 values of L. smaragda recorded in the lab suggesting these populations have less of a thermal safety margin.

  20. Population Genetics of a Trochid Gastropod Broadens Picture of Caribbean Sea Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Haney, Robert; Wares, John; Silliman, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Background Regional genetic connectivity models are critical for successful conservation and management of marine species. Even though rocky shore invertebrates have been used as model systems to understand genetic structure in some marine environments, our understanding of connectivity in Caribbean communities is based overwhelmingly on studies of tropical fishes and corals. In this study, we investigate population connectivity and diversity of Cittarium pica, an abundant rocky shore trochid gastropod that is commercially harvested across its natural range, from the Bahamas to Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested for genetic structure using DNA sequence variation at the mitochondrial COI and 16S loci, AMOVA and distance-based methods. We found substantial differentiation among Caribbean sites. Yet, genetic differentiation was associated only with larger geographic scales within the Caribbean, and the pattern of differentiation only partially matched previous assessments of Caribbean connectivity, including those based on larval dispersal from hydrodynamic models. For instance, the Bahamas, considered an independent region by previous hydrodynamic studies, showed strong association with Eastern Caribbean sites in our study. Further, Bonaire (located in the east and close to the meridional division of the Caribbean basin) seems to be isolated from other Eastern sites. Conclusions/Significance The significant genetic structure and observed in C. pica has some commonalities in pattern with more commonly sampled taxa, but presents features, such as the differentiation of Bonaire, that appear unique. Further, the level of differentiation, together with regional patterns of diversity, has important implications for the application of conservation and management strategies in this commercially harvested species. PMID:20844767

  1. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies.

    PubMed

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  2. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  3. Gastropod diversification and community structuring processes in ancient Lake Ohrid: a metacommunity speciation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauffe, T.; Albrecht, C.; Wilke, T.

    2015-09-01

    The Balkan Lake Ohrid is the oldest and most speciose freshwater lacustrine system in Europe. However, it remains unclear whether the diversification of its endemic taxa is mainly driven by neutral processes, environmental factors, or species interactions. This calls for a holistic perspective involving both evolutionary processes and ecological dynamics. Such a unifying framework - the metacommunity speciation model - considers how community assembly affects diversification and vice versa by assessing the relative contribution of the three main community assembly processes, dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, and species interaction. The current study therefore used the species-rich model taxon Gastropoda to assess how extant communities in Lake Ohrid are structured by performing process based metacommunity analyses. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) identifying the relative importance of the three community assembly processes and (ii) to test whether the importance of these individual processes changes gradually with lake depth or whether they are distinctively related to eco-zones. Based on specific simulation steps for each of the three processes, it could be demonstrated that dispersal limitation had the strongest influence on gastropod community structures in Lake Ohrid. However, it was not the exclusive assembly process but acted together with the other two processes - environmental filtering, and species interaction. In fact, the relative importance of the three community assembly processes varied both with lake depth and eco-zones, though the processes were better predicted by the latter. The study thus corroborated the high importance of dispersal limitation for both maintaining species richness in Lake Ohrid (through its impact on community structure) and generating endemic biodiversity (via its influence on diversification processes). However, according to the metacommunity speciation model, the inferred importance of environmental

  4. Phylogeography and biogeography concordance in the marine gastropod Crepipatella dilatata (Calyptraeidae) along the southeastern Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Brante, Antonio; Fernández, Miriam; Viard, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    The biogeography and phylogeography concordance hypothesis suggests that the same factors, for instance physical barriers or environmental gradients, shape both species assemblages and intraspecific genetic structure. In the marine realm, previous studies have however suggested that phylogeographic patterns are also explained by the life-history strategy of the species. However, evidence is contradictory and comes mainly from the northern hemisphere, which is characterized by specific environmental conditions and evolutionary histories of species. In this work, we evaluated the concordance hypothesis in the southern Pacific using the marine gastropod Crepipatella dilatata as a case study. This intertidal species with direct development exhibited a restricted dispersal potential, a feature that contrasts with previous species studied in the same area. Using the gene cytochrome oxidase I, we analyzed 253 individuals sampled at 10 locations covering 543 km of the coast of Chile. The study sites also incorporated 2 biogeographic regions separated by a well-studied biogeographic break (at 30°S). Populations of C. dilatata displayed a high degree of genetic structure and a perfect match between phylogeographic and biogeographic breaks at 30°S. When comparing our data with previous research over the same geographic range, life history traits related to dispersal ability seem to be a good proxy for explaining the concordance between biogeography and phylogeography along the southeastern pacific coast. In addition, in this and other marine invertebrate species, gene flow limitations across both sides of the 30°S break may act as a driver of the speciation process. PMID:22573790

  5. Phenotypic differentiation of the Red Sea gastropods in response to the environmental deterioration: Geometric morphometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelhady, Ahmed Awad

    2016-03-01

    The negative impacts of degradation in the coastal zone of the Red Sea are becoming well known in upper portions of the trophic web (e.g., humans and fish), but are less well known among the benthic primary consumers. In addition, the degree to which heavy metals are entering the trophic web can be better-quantified using macrobenthos. Two-gastropod genera encompassing Echinolittorina subnodosa and Planaxis sulcatus from three different localities on the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea were examined in order to deduce the impact of environmental deterioration on the morphology of shells. The examined sites include clean pristine, slightly polluted, and markedly polluted rocky shores. Phosphate/lead industry is the main source of pollution in this zone. Because landmarks on the rugose Echinolittorina are difficult to define and to ensure finer resolution of the analyses, a newly 'grid-based' landmarks was implemented. Both Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) were particularly capable to capture and terrace the minor morphological variations accurately. Two phenotypes portioned among the environmentally different populations were recognized and interpreted as ecotypes with many intermediate forms. The first ecotype has a higher spire and smaller aperture and dominating the pristine site North of Marsa Alam, whereas the second ecotype has a globular shell shape with big aperture and dominating the markedly polluted site. The intermediate forms dominating the slightly polluted site. The shape differences are interpreted as an adaptive differentiation to different metal concentrations. As the morphological variation between the two-ecotypes of both taxa is still minors, and both ecotypes occur together with many intermediate forms, the phenotypic divergence stage has not yet accomplished. The gradational shape change among the investigated populations was positively correlated with index of Pollution (IP). As the human activities were the main

  6. Molluscs for Sale: Assessment of Freshwater Gastropods and Bivalves in the Ornamental Pet Trade

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Siong Kiat; Wong, Wing Hing; Meier, Rudolf; Chan, Sow-Yan; Tan, Heok Hui; Yeo, Darren C. J.

    2016-01-01

    The ornamental pet trade is often considered a key culprit for conservation problems such as the introduction of invasive species (including infectious diseases) and overharvesting of rare species. Here, we present the first assessment of the biodiversity of freshwater molluscs in the ornamental pet trade in Singapore, one of the most important global hubs of the ornamental aquarium trade, and discuss associated conservation concerns. We recorded freshwater molluscs from ornamental pet shops and major exporters including non-ornamental species (e.g., hitchhikers, molluscs sold as fish feed). We recorded an unexpectedly high diversity—59 species—of freshwater bivalves and gastropods, with the majority (38 species or 64%) being from the Oriental region. In addition to morphological examination, we sequenced the DNA barcode region of mitochondrial CO1 and 16S genes to provide molecular data for the confirmation of the identification and for future re-identification. DNA barcodes were obtained for 50 species, and all but four were separated by > 3% uncorrected pairwise distances. The trade has been considered a main introduction pathway for non-native species to Singapore, and we found that out of 15 species in the trade as well as in the wild in Singapore, 12 are either introduced or of unknown origin, representing almost half of the known non-native freshwater molluscs in Singapore. Particularly prevalent are non-ornamental species: six hitchhikers on aquarium plants and six species sold as fish feed. We found that a quarter of the trade species have a history of introduction, which includes 11 known or potentially invasive species. We conclude that potential overharvesting is difficult to assess because only half of the trade species have been treated by IUCN. Of these, 21 species are of Least Concern and three are Data Deficient. Our checklist, with accompanying DNA barcodes, images, and museum vouchers, provides an important reference library for future

  7. Ecophenotypic plasticity leads to extraordinary gastropod shells found on the “Roof of the World”

    PubMed Central

    Clewing, Catharina; Riedel, Frank; Wilke, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The often extraordinary shell forms and shapes of gastropods found in palaeolakes, such as the highly diverse Gyraulus fauna of the famous Steinheim Basin, have been puzzling evolutionary biologists for centuries, and there is an ongoing debate whether these aberrant shell forms are indicative of true species (or subspecies) or ecophenotypic morphs. Interestingly, one of the Steinheim Gyraulus morphs – a corkscrew-like open-coiled shell – has a recent analogue in the Lake Bangong drainage system on the western Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, a combination of morphological, molecular, palaeolimnological, and ecological analyses was used in this study to assess whether the extraordinary shell shape in Gyraulus sp. from this drainage system represents a (young) ecophenotypic phenomenon or if it has been genetically fixed over an extended period of time. Our morphological, ecological, and palaeolimnological data suggest that the corkscrew-like specimens remain restricted to a small pond near Lake Bangong with an elevated pH value and that the colonization may have occurred recently. The phylogenetic reconstruction based on two gene fragments shows that these nonplanispiral specimens cluster within the previous described Tibetan Plateau Gyraulus clade N2. A network analysis indicates that some haplotypes are even shared by planispiral and nonplanispiral specimens. Given the ephemerality of the phenomenon, the compact network patterns inferred, the likely young phylogenetic age of the aberrant Gyraulus shells studied, and the ecological peculiarities of the study site, we suggest that the evolution of the aberrant shell forms on the Tibetan Plateau could likely be considered as a rapid ecophenotypic response, possibly induced by ecological stress. This finding may thus have implications for the ongoing debate about the processes that have caused the extraordinary shell diversity in palaeolakes such as the Steinheim Basin. PMID:26306180

  8. Molluscs for Sale: Assessment of Freshwater Gastropods and Bivalves in the Ornamental Pet Trade.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ting Hui; Tan, Siong Kiat; Wong, Wing Hing; Meier, Rudolf; Chan, Sow-Yan; Tan, Heok Hui; Yeo, Darren C J

    2016-01-01

    The ornamental pet trade is often considered a key culprit for conservation problems such as the introduction of invasive species (including infectious diseases) and overharvesting of rare species. Here, we present the first assessment of the biodiversity of freshwater molluscs in the ornamental pet trade in Singapore, one of the most important global hubs of the ornamental aquarium trade, and discuss associated conservation concerns. We recorded freshwater molluscs from ornamental pet shops and major exporters including non-ornamental species (e.g., hitchhikers, molluscs sold as fish feed). We recorded an unexpectedly high diversity-59 species-of freshwater bivalves and gastropods, with the majority (38 species or 64%) being from the Oriental region. In addition to morphological examination, we sequenced the DNA barcode region of mitochondrial CO1 and 16S genes to provide molecular data for the confirmation of the identification and for future re-identification. DNA barcodes were obtained for 50 species, and all but four were separated by > 3% uncorrected pairwise distances. The trade has been considered a main introduction pathway for non-native species to Singapore, and we found that out of 15 species in the trade as well as in the wild in Singapore, 12 are either introduced or of unknown origin, representing almost half of the known non-native freshwater molluscs in Singapore. Particularly prevalent are non-ornamental species: six hitchhikers on aquarium plants and six species sold as fish feed. We found that a quarter of the trade species have a history of introduction, which includes 11 known or potentially invasive species. We conclude that potential overharvesting is difficult to assess because only half of the trade species have been treated by IUCN. Of these, 21 species are of Least Concern and three are Data Deficient. Our checklist, with accompanying DNA barcodes, images, and museum vouchers, provides an important reference library for future monitoring

  9. Surveys of arthropod and gastropod diversity in the geothermal resource subzones, Puna, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.; Bruegmann, M.

    1995-04-01

    The invertebrate surveys reported here were carried out as part of ecological studies funded by the Department of Energy in support of their environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Currently, preparation of the EIS has been suspended, and all supporting information is being archived and made available to the public. The invertebrate surveys reported here assessed diversity and abundance of the arthropod and gastropod fauna in forested habitat and lava tubes in or near the three geothermal resource subzones. Recommendations for conservation of these organisms are given in this report. Surveys were conducted along three 100-m transect lines at each of the six forested locations. Malaise traps, baited pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, baited sponge lures, and visual examination of vegetation were used to assess invertebrate diversity along each transect line. Three of these locations were adjacent to roads, and three were adjacent to lava flows. Two of these lava-forest locations (Keauohana Forest Reserve and Pu`u O`o) were relatively remote from direct human impacts. The third location (Southeast Kula) was near a low-density residential area. Two lava tubes were surveyed. The forest over one of these tubes (Keokea tube) had recently been burned away. This tube was used to assess the effects of loss of forest habitat on the subterranean fauna. An undisturbed tube (Pahoa tube) was used as a control. Recommendations offered in this report direct geothermal development away from areas of high endemic diversity and abundance, and toward areas where natural Hawaiian biotic communities have already been greatly disturbed. These disturbed areas are mainly found in the lower half of the Kamaili (middle) geothermal subzone and throughout most of the Kapoho (lower) geothermal subzone. These recommendation may also generally apply to other development projects in the Puna District.

  10. Gastropod grazers and nutrients, but not light, interact in determining periphytic algal diversity.

    PubMed

    Liess, Antonia; Kahlert, Maria

    2007-05-01

    The potential interactions of grazing, nutrients and light in influencing autotroph species diversity have not previously been considered. Earlier studies have shown that grazing and nutrients interact in determining autotroph species diversity, since grazing decreases species diversity when nutrients (i.e. N or P) limit autotroph growth, but increases it when nutrients are replete. We hypothesized that increased light intensities would intensify the interactions between grazing and nutrients on algal species diversity, resulting in even stronger reductions in algal species diversity through grazing under nutrient-poor conditions, and to even stronger increases of algal species diversity through grazing under nutrient-rich conditions. We studied the effects of grazing (absent, present), nutrients (ambient, N + P enriched) and light (low light, high light) on benthic algal diversity and periphyton C:nutrient ratios (which can indicate algal nutrient limitation) in a factorial laboratory experiment, using the gastropod grazer Viviparus viviparus. Grazing decreased algal biomass and algal diversity, but increased C:P and N:P ratios of periphyton. Grazing also affected periphyton species composition, by decreasing the proportion of Spirogyra sp. and increasing the proportion of species in the Chaetophorales. Grazing effects on diversity as well as on periphyton N:P ratios were weakened when nutrients were added (interaction between grazing and nutrients). Chlorophyll a (Chl a) per area increased with nutrient addition and decreased with high light intensities. Light did not increase the strength of the interaction between grazing and nutrients on periphytic algal diversity. This study shows that nutrient addition substantially reduced the negative effects of grazing on periphytic algal diversity, whereas light did not interact with grazing or nutrient enrichment in determining periphytic algal diversity. PMID:17285319

  11. Conus: First Comprehensive Conservation Red List Assessment of a Marine Gastropod Mollusc Genus

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Howard; O'Leary, Bethan C.; Hawkins, Julie P.; Carpenter, Kent E.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine molluscs represent an estimated 23% of all extant marine taxa, but research into their conservation status has so far failed to reflect this importance, with minimal inclusion on the authoritative Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). We assessed the status of all 632 valid species of the tropical marine gastropod mollusc, Conus (cone snails), using Red List standards and procedures to lay the groundwork for future decadal monitoring, one of the first fully comprehensive global assessments of a marine taxon. Three-quarters (75.6%) of species were not currently considered at risk of extinction owing to their wide distribution and perceived abundance. However, 6.5% were considered threatened with extinction with a further 4.1% near threatened. Data deficiency prevented 13.8% of species from being categorised although they also possess characteristics that signal concern. Where hotspots of endemism occur, most notably in the Eastern Atlantic, 42.9% of the 98 species from that biogeographical region were classified as threatened or near threatened with extinction. All 14 species included in the highest categories of Critically Endangered and Endangered are endemic to either Cape Verde or Senegal, with each of the three Critically Endangered species restricted to single islands in Cape Verde. Threats to all these species are driven by habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, in particular from urban pollution, tourism and coastal development. Our findings show that levels of extinction risk to which cone snails are exposed are of a similar magnitude to those seen in many fully assessed terrestrial taxa. The widely held view that marine species are less at risk is not upheld. PMID:24376693

  12. Haematopoiesis in molluscs: A review of haemocyte development and function in gastropods, cephalopods and bivalves.

    PubMed

    Pila, E A; Sullivan, J T; Wu, X Z; Fang, J; Rudko, S P; Gordy, M A; Hanington, P C

    2016-05-01

    Haematopoiesis is a process that is responsible for generating sufficient numbers of blood cells in the circulation and in tissues. It is central to maintenance of homeostasis within an animal, and is critical for defense against infection. While haematopoiesis is common to all animals possessing a circulatory system, the specific mechanisms and ultimate products of haematopoietic events vary greatly. Our understanding of this process in non-vertebrate organisms is primarily derived from those species that serve as developmental and immunological models, with sparse investigations having been carried out in other organisms spanning the metazoa. As research into the regulation of immune and blood cell development advances, we have begun to gain insight into haematopoietic events in a wider array of animals, including the molluscs. What began in the early 1900's as observational studies on the morphological characteristics of circulating immune cells has now advanced to mechanistic investigations of the cytokines, growth factors, receptors, signalling pathways, and patterns of gene expression that regulate molluscan haemocyte development. Emerging is a picture of an incredible diversity of developmental processes and outcomes that parallels the biological diversity observed within the different classes of the phylum Mollusca. However, our understanding of haematopoiesis in molluscs stems primarily from the three most-studied classes, the Gastropoda, Cephalopoda and Bivalvia. While these represent perhaps the molluscs of greatest economic and medical importance, the fact that our information is limited to only 3 of the 9 extant classes in the phylum highlights the need for further investigation in this area. In this review, we summarize the existing literature that defines haematopoiesis and its products in gastropods, cephalopods and bivalves.

  13. Effect of tidal regime on the thermal tolerance of the marine gastropod Lunella smaragda (Gmelin 1791).

    PubMed

    Mortensen, B J D; Dunphy, B J

    2016-08-01

    The tidal cycle around New Zealand results in spring low tides consistently occurring during the hottest part of the day (mid-afternoon) in north-eastern New Zealand, and during the cooler dawn/dusk periods in the north-west of the country. We hypothesised that due to mid-afternoon spring low tides, intertidal populations residing at north-eastern sites would show greater thermotolerance than their north-west conspecifics. To test this we used the marine gastropod, Lunella smaragda, which were collected from sites on both the East and West coasts of the Auckland region and exposed to an acute heat shock. Thermotolerance was measured as survivorship (LT50), drop down time (time to heat coma) and thermal stability of the anaerobic energy producing enzyme Tauropine dehydrogenase. Furthermore, temperature loggers were deployed at each site so as to record and compare thermal regimes among sites. A strong temperature spike associated with spring low tide was found at all sites, and maximal temperatures of all East coast sites were higher than West coast sites (in some case by up to 10°C). In terms of thermotolerance, mortality of L. smaragda occurred at 42°C leading to 100% mortality at 45°C. However, comparison of LT50 showed snails were equally thermotolerant regardless of site of collection. Similar results were found in TDH thermal stability with animals from all sites showing an approximately 80% decrease in enzyme activity after 10min exposure to 42°C. Whilst drop down times were different among sites these were correlated with animal size as opposed to site of collection. Thus, East coast populations of L. smaragda appear no more thermotolerant than their West coast counterparts. Such a result is concerning as maximal temperatures at East coast sites already exceed the LT50 values of L. smaragda recorded in the lab suggesting these populations have less of a thermal safety margin. PMID:27503732

  14. Conus: first comprehensive conservation red list assessment of a marine gastropod mollusc genus.

    PubMed

    Peters, Howard; O'Leary, Bethan C; Hawkins, Julie P; Carpenter, Kent E; Roberts, Callum M

    2013-01-01

    Marine molluscs represent an estimated 23% of all extant marine taxa, but research into their conservation status has so far failed to reflect this importance, with minimal inclusion on the authoritative Red List of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). We assessed the status of all 632 valid species of the tropical marine gastropod mollusc, Conus (cone snails), using Red List standards and procedures to lay the groundwork for future decadal monitoring, one of the first fully comprehensive global assessments of a marine taxon. Three-quarters (75.6%) of species were not currently considered at risk of extinction owing to their wide distribution and perceived abundance. However, 6.5% were considered threatened with extinction with a further 4.1% near threatened. Data deficiency prevented 13.8% of species from being categorised although they also possess characteristics that signal concern. Where hotspots of endemism occur, most notably in the Eastern Atlantic, 42.9% of the 98 species from that biogeographical region were classified as threatened or near threatened with extinction. All 14 species included in the highest categories of Critically Endangered and Endangered are endemic to either Cape Verde or Senegal, with each of the three Critically Endangered species restricted to single islands in Cape Verde. Threats to all these species are driven by habitat loss and anthropogenic disturbance, in particular from urban pollution, tourism and coastal development. Our findings show that levels of extinction risk to which cone snails are exposed are of a similar magnitude to those seen in many fully assessed terrestrial taxa. The widely held view that marine species are less at risk is not upheld. PMID:24376693

  15. Molluscs for Sale: Assessment of Freshwater Gastropods and Bivalves in the Ornamental Pet Trade.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ting Hui; Tan, Siong Kiat; Wong, Wing Hing; Meier, Rudolf; Chan, Sow-Yan; Tan, Heok Hui; Yeo, Darren C J

    2016-01-01

    The ornamental pet trade is often considered a key culprit for conservation problems such as the introduction of invasive species (including infectious diseases) and overharvesting of rare species. Here, we present the first assessment of the biodiversity of freshwater molluscs in the ornamental pet trade in Singapore, one of the most important global hubs of the ornamental aquarium trade, and discuss associated conservation concerns. We recorded freshwater molluscs from ornamental pet shops and major exporters including non-ornamental species (e.g., hitchhikers, molluscs sold as fish feed). We recorded an unexpectedly high diversity-59 species-of freshwater bivalves and gastropods, with the majority (38 species or 64%) being from the Oriental region. In addition to morphological examination, we sequenced the DNA barcode region of mitochondrial CO1 and 16S genes to provide molecular data for the confirmation of the identification and for future re-identification. DNA barcodes were obtained for 50 species, and all but four were separated by > 3% uncorrected pairwise distances. The trade has been considered a main introduction pathway for non-native species to Singapore, and we found that out of 15 species in the trade as well as in the wild in Singapore, 12 are either introduced or of unknown origin, representing almost half of the known non-native freshwater molluscs in Singapore. Particularly prevalent are non-ornamental species: six hitchhikers on aquarium plants and six species sold as fish feed. We found that a quarter of the trade species have a history of introduction, which includes 11 known or potentially invasive species. We conclude that potential overharvesting is difficult to assess because only half of the trade species have been treated by IUCN. Of these, 21 species are of Least Concern and three are Data Deficient. Our checklist, with accompanying DNA barcodes, images, and museum vouchers, provides an important reference library for future monitoring

  16. Interstitial and substitutional Zr in SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, John; van Ginhoven, Renee; Jiang, Weilin

    2011-03-01

    We investigate Zr in SrTi O3 (STO) as an electronic dopant and as a model for nuclear waste forms in which radioactive Sr decays to Y and then to stable Zr through beta emission. Density functional theory (DFT) within the supercell model is used to predict the thermodynamic stability and electronic states of interstitial and Sr- or Ti-substituted Zr atoms in the STO lattice. Native point defects such as vacancies and antisites are also considered. When Zr replaces Sr, its most stable configuration is to simply occupy the Sr site (instead of, for example, replacing a Ti and displacing the Ti to the Sr site.) For Zr added to the lattice, its most stable configuration is to replace a Ti, making a Zr Ti impurity plus a Ti interstitial (as opposed to the Zr just remaining as an interstitial atom.) Zr Sr is predicted to be a double electron donor, Zr Ti is electrically inactive and interstitial Zr and Ti are predicted to be quadruple donors, with all donor levels in the conduction band. Zr Sr and the tetravalent interstitials are all predicted to increase the crystal volume, and the interstitials also are predicted to lead to a tetragonal distortion of the lattice. Experiments with injection of Zr atoms into STO qualitatively confirm these predictions of crystal structural changes. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Form Campaign.

  17. Interstitial fluid flow of alveolar primary septa after pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mishima, Michiaki; Mentzer, Steve J; Tsuda, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Neoalveolation is known to occur in the remaining lung after pneumonectomy. While compensatory lung growth is a complex process, stretching of the lung tissue appears to be crucial for tissue remodeling. Even a minute shear stress exerted on fibroblasts in the interstitial space is known to trigger cell differentiation into myofibroblast that are essential to building new tissues. We hypothesize that the non-uniform motion of the primary septa due to their heterogeneous mechanical properties under tidal breathing induces a spatially unique interstitial flow and shear stress distribution in the interstitial space. This may in turn trigger pulmonary fibroblast differentiation and neoalveolation. In this study, we developed a theoretical basis for how cyclic motion of the primary septal walls with heterogeneous mechanical properties affects the interstitial flow and shear stress distribution. The velocity field of the interstitial flow was expressed by a Fourier (complex) series and its leading term was considered to induce the basic structure of stress distribution as long as the dominant length scale of heterogeneity is the size of collapsed alveoli. We conclude that the alteration of mechanical properties of the primary septa caused by pneumonectomy can develop a new interstitial flow field, which alters the shear stress distribution. This may trigger the differentiation of resident fibroblasts, which may in turn induce spatially unique neoalveolation in the remaining lung. Our example illustrates that the initial forming of new alveoli about half the size of the original ones.

  18. The Contribution of B Cells to Renal Interstitial Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Florian; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Cohen, Clemens D.; Brandt, Ulrike; Draganovici, Dan; Fischereder, Michael; Kretzler, Matthias; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Sitter, Thomas; Mosberger, Isabella; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Regele, Heinz; Schlöndorff, Detlef; Segerer, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Local B-cell infiltrates play a role in tissue fibrosis, neolymphangiogenesis, and renal allograft survival. We sought to characterize the B-cell infiltrates, factors involved in B-cell recruitment, and lymphangiogenesis in renal interstitial injury (ie, acute and chronic interstitial nephritis and chronic IgA nephropathy). CD20-positive B cells formed a prominent part of the interstitial infiltrating cells. Together with CD3-positive T cells, the CD20-positive B cells formed larger nodular structures. CD10-positive pre-B cells were rare, and the majority were mature CD27-positive B cells. Proliferating B cells were detected within nodular infiltrates. The level of mRNA expression of the chemokine CXCL13 was increased and correlated with CD20 mRNA in the tubulointerstitial space. CXCL13 protein was predominantly found at sites of nodular infiltrates, in association with CXCR5-positive B cells. Furthermore, sites of chronic interstitial inflammation were associated with a high number of lymphatic vessels. B-cell infiltrates form a prominent part of the interstitial infiltrates both in primary interstitial lesions and in IgA nephropathy. CXCR5-positive B cells might be recruited via the chemokine CXCL13 and seem to contribute to the formation of intrarenal lymphoid follicle-like structures. These might represent an intrarenal immune system. PMID:17255314

  19. Interstitial fluid flow of alveolar primary septa after pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mishima, Michiaki; Mentzer, Steve J; Tsuda, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Neoalveolation is known to occur in the remaining lung after pneumonectomy. While compensatory lung growth is a complex process, stretching of the lung tissue appears to be crucial for tissue remodeling. Even a minute shear stress exerted on fibroblasts in the interstitial space is known to trigger cell differentiation into myofibroblast that are essential to building new tissues. We hypothesize that the non-uniform motion of the primary septa due to their heterogeneous mechanical properties under tidal breathing induces a spatially unique interstitial flow and shear stress distribution in the interstitial space. This may in turn trigger pulmonary fibroblast differentiation and neoalveolation. In this study, we developed a theoretical basis for how cyclic motion of the primary septal walls with heterogeneous mechanical properties affects the interstitial flow and shear stress distribution. The velocity field of the interstitial flow was expressed by a Fourier (complex) series and its leading term was considered to induce the basic structure of stress distribution as long as the dominant length scale of heterogeneity is the size of collapsed alveoli. We conclude that the alteration of mechanical properties of the primary septa caused by pneumonectomy can develop a new interstitial flow field, which alters the shear stress distribution. This may trigger the differentiation of resident fibroblasts, which may in turn induce spatially unique neoalveolation in the remaining lung. Our example illustrates that the initial forming of new alveoli about half the size of the original ones. PMID:27049045

  20. [Intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema in ventilatorsy supported infants (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Coradello, H; Fodor, M; Simbruner, G

    1980-09-01

    Development of intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema together with other forms of extraalveolar air collections following alveolar rupture was investigated retrospectively in 46 term and preterm newborn infants with respect to gestational age severity of pulmonary disease and mode of ventilatory assistance. Intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema was found in 31 of these 46 infants (67%). Development depended on the severity of pulmonary disease, mode of ventilatory assistance and level of inspiratory pressure. Intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema was found at an average age of 1 day (1-6 days) in 2 out of 23 infants (9%) during unassisted spontaneous breathing, in 8 out of 24 infants (33%) during CPAP and in 21 out of 26 infants (81%) during controlled ventilation. 18 out of these 31 infants (58%) additionally developed other forms of extraalveolar air collections but only in 9 from these interstitial emphysema has been found prior to other forms of extraalveolar air. Mortality rate of infants with intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema alone (10 out of 13; 77%) and infants who additionally developed other forms of extraalveolar air collections (16 out of 18; 89%) did not differ significantly. Development of intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema even in he absence of other forms of extraalveolar air collections has therefore to be judged as a severe complication in infants undergoing different forms of ventilatory assistance.

  1. Beginning of a new age: How did freshwater gastropods respond to the Quaternary climate change in Europe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Strona, Giovanni; Kroh, Andreas; Mandic, Oleg; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2016-10-01

    The well documented fossil record of European Quaternary freshwater gastropods offers a unique resource for continental-scale biogeographical analyses. Here, we assembled a dataset including 338 freshwater gastropod taxa from 1058 localities across Europe, which we used to explore how freshwater gastropod communities varied in space and time across six distinct time intervals of the Quaternary, i.e. Gelasian, Calabrian, Middle Pleistocene, Last Interglacial, Last Glacial and Holocene. We took into consideration both species richness and qualitative structural patterns, comparing turnover rates between time intervals and examining variations in community nestedness-segregation patterns. Species richness differed significantly between time intervals. The Early Pleistocene showed the highest diversity, likely because of the contribution of long-lived aquatic systems like the lakes Bresse and Tiberino that promoted speciation and endemism. The rich Middle to Late Pleistocene and Holocene assemblages were mostly linked to fluvial and/or lacustrine systems with short temporal durations. We identified a major turnover event at the Plio-Pleistocene boundary, related to the demise of long-lived lakes and of their rich, endemic faunas at the end of the Pliocene. In the subsequent intervals, little or no turnover was observed. We also observed a pattern of high segregation in Early Pleistocene communities, associated with the abundance of endemic species with small distribution ranges, and reflecting the provincial character of the aquatic freshwater systems at that time. This structured pattern disintegrated gradually towards the Middle Pleistocene and remained unstructured up to present. In particular, spatial patterns of community nestedness-segregation in the Last Interglacial and Holocene suggest a random recolonization of freshwater habitats mostly by generalist species following deglaciation.

  2. Spatial variability in the structure of intertidal crab and gastropod assemblages within the Seychelles Archipelago (Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, Dan A.; Barnes, David K. A.; Barnes, Richard S. K.; Smith, David J.; Suggett, David J.

    2012-04-01

    Tropical nearshore ecosystems represent global hotspots of marine biodiversity and endemism but are often poorly understood and impacted by human activities. The Seychelles Archipelago (Western Indian Ocean) sustains a wealth of marine life, much of which is threatened by rapid development associated with tourism and climate change. Six marine parks exist within the Archipelago, but their biodiversity value and ecological health are poorly known, especially with regards to non-fish and coral species. Here we investigate spatial patterns of littoral biodiversity on 6 islands, 5 of which were granitic and within marine parks, including the first surveys of Curieuse and Ile Cocos. Our surveys formed a nested sampling design, to facilitate an examination of variability in species richness, faunal abundance, taxonomic distinctness and assemblage composition at multiple spatial scales, from islands (> 100 s km) to quadrats (metres). We identified (mostly to species) and enumerated two target taxa, brachyuran decapod crustaceans and gastropod molluscs, and recorded over 8300 individuals belonging to over 150 species. Crabs and gastropods exhibited different patterns of spatial variability, as crab assemblages were generally more distinct between islands, while gastropod assemblages were markedly variable at the smallest spatial scales of 'patch' and 'quadrat'. Intertidal biodiversity was greatest on Curieuse Island and least at Desroches, the latter was being the only coral atoll we surveyed and thereby differing in its geological and ecological context. We discuss likely drivers of these biodiversity patterns and highlight urgently-needed research directions. Our assessment of the status of poorly-known invertebrate assemblages across the Seychelles will complement more extensive surveys of coral and fish assemblages and, in doing so, provide a useful baseline for monitoring the effects of key stressors in the region, such as coastal development and climate change.

  3. Cenozoic climate change and diversification on the continental shelf and slope: evolution of gastropod diversity in the family Solariellidae (Trochoidea).

    PubMed

    Williams, S T; Smith, L M; Herbert, D G; Marshall, B A; Warén, A; Kiel, S; Dyal, P; Linse, K; Vilvens, C; Kano, Y

    2013-04-01

    Recent expeditions have revealed high levels of biodiversity in the tropical deep-sea, yet little is known about the age or origin of this biodiversity, and large-scale molecular studies are still few in number. In this study, we had access to the largest number of solariellid gastropods ever collected for molecular studies, including many rare and unusual taxa. We used a Bayesian chronogram of these deep-sea gastropods (1) to test the hypothesis that deep-water communities arose onshore, (2) to determine whether Antarctica acted as a source of diversity for deep-water communities elsewhere and (3) to determine how factors like global climate change have affected evolution on the continental slope. We show that although fossil data suggest that solariellid gastropods likely arose in a shallow, tropical environment, interpretation of the molecular data is equivocal with respect to the origin of the group. On the other hand, the molecular data clearly show that Antarctic species sampled represent a recent invasion, rather than a relictual ancestral lineage. We also show that an abrupt period of global warming during the Palaeocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) leaves no molecular record of change in diversification rate in solariellids and that the group radiated before the PETM. Conversely, there is a substantial, although not significant increase in the rate of diversification of a major clade approximately 33.7 Mya, coinciding with a period of global cooling at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Increased nutrients made available by contemporaneous changes to erosion, ocean circulation, tectonic events and upwelling may explain increased diversification, suggesting that food availability may have been a factor limiting exploitation of deep-sea habitats. Tectonic events that shaped diversification in reef-associated taxa and deep-water squat lobsters in central Indo-West Pacific were also probably important in the evolution of solariellids during the Oligo-Miocene.

  4. Cenozoic climate change and diversification on the continental shelf and slope: evolution of gastropod diversity in the family Solariellidae (Trochoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, S T; Smith, L M; Herbert, D G; Marshall, B A; Warén, A; Kiel, S; Dyal, P; Linse, K; Vilvens, C; Kano, Y

    2013-01-01

    Recent expeditions have revealed high levels of biodiversity in the tropical deep-sea, yet little is known about the age or origin of this biodiversity, and large-scale molecular studies are still few in number. In this study, we had access to the largest number of solariellid gastropods ever collected for molecular studies, including many rare and unusual taxa. We used a Bayesian chronogram of these deep-sea gastropods (1) to test the hypothesis that deep-water communities arose onshore, (2) to determine whether Antarctica acted as a source of diversity for deep-water communities elsewhere and (3) to determine how factors like global climate change have affected evolution on the continental slope. We show that although fossil data suggest that solariellid gastropods likely arose in a shallow, tropical environment, interpretation of the molecular data is equivocal with respect to the origin of the group. On the other hand, the molecular data clearly show that Antarctic species sampled represent a recent invasion, rather than a relictual ancestral lineage. We also show that an abrupt period of global warming during the Palaeocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) leaves no molecular record of change in diversification rate in solariellids and that the group radiated before the PETM. Conversely, there is a substantial, although not significant increase in the rate of diversification of a major clade approximately 33.7 Mya, coinciding with a period of global cooling at the Eocene–Oligocene transition. Increased nutrients made available by contemporaneous changes to erosion, ocean circulation, tectonic events and upwelling may explain increased diversification, suggesting that food availability may have been a factor limiting exploitation of deep-sea habitats. Tectonic events that shaped diversification in reef-associated taxa and deep-water squat lobsters in central Indo-West Pacific were also probably important in the evolution of solariellids during the Oligo

  5. The Accuracy of Paleoenvironmental Reconstructions Based on Spring and Wetland Gastropod 18O Values: A Field Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, S. E.; Forester, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Paired live gastropods and water samples were collected monthly for over two years from two localities near Reno, Nevada: a relatively stable cold, low-flow spring and a highly-variable wetland. Shell samples from gastropods (Gyraulus, Physella, Planorbella, Stagnicola) were crushed to a homogeneous powder and analyzed for stable isotopes (n=115). Annual δ18O water values varied between -15.6 and - 14.8‰ (SMOW) and water temperature varied between 12 and 23° C at the spring locality. Shell δ18O values at the spring locality ranged from 15.5 to 19.9‰ (SMOW). The gastropod δ18O values exhibited the general pattern of seasonal variability (lower values in warm months and higher values in cold months) although they were offset from the expected equilibrium fractionation value, possibly reflecting a vital effect, calcification in a microhabitat, or error in estimating the timing (e.g., month) of calcification. The offset averaged 0.8‰ for Physella and 2.8‰ for Stagnicola. In contrast to the spring, the wetland annual δ18O water varied between -13.0 and -2.4‰, while water temperature varied between 4 and 26° C. Shell δ18O values ranged from 20.7 to 30.2‰ reflecting seasonal extremes of hydrologic input (springflow and runoff) to output (evaporation) in the wetland and possibly diurnal and monthly variability in the system and differential seasonal or diurnal shell growth. Different hydrologic systems have characteristic isotope systematics. This study shows that δ18O gastropod shell values are useful to infer seasonal changes and annual variability in hydrologic settings. Settings with limited seasonal variability host mollusks with relatively limited shell δ18O variability and vice versa. Life strategies (e.g., mobility, behavior, reproduction, and longevity) and possibly physiology (e.g., gills, lungs, or pseudobranch) of different genera, however, can affect isotopic values in the same setting and therefore, may be of critical importance when

  6. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  7. Paternity and gregariousness in the sex-changing sessile marine gastropod Crepidula convexa: comparison with other protandrous Crepidula species.

    PubMed

    Le Cam, Sabrina; Riquet, Florentine; Pechenik, Jan A; Viard, Frédérique

    2014-01-01

    In sex-changing animals with internal fertilization, gregarious behavior may increase mating opportunities and the frequency of multiple paternity, thus increasing maternal reproductive success. Crepidula convexa is a direct-developing protandrous gastropod characterized by only modest gregarious behavior compared with previously studied members of the genus: females are frequently found isolated. Using 6 microsatellite markers, we analyzed paternity profiles in 10 broods (25 embryos per mother). The number of assigned fathers varied among families from 1 to 4 fathers per brood. Interestingly, polyandry was not detected in solitary females but only in females grouped with conspecific individuals. Overall, we found an average of 1.8 fathers per brood, but this increased to 2.6 fathers per brood when considering only the nonisolated females. Among 18 unambiguously identified fathers, only 5 were collected in our samples, suggesting substantial male mobility. Comparison with previous paternity analyses in Crepidula fornicata and Crepidula coquimbensis revealed that polyandry appears as a common trait of these sex-changing gastropods despite their different grouping behaviors and life histories. As expected, the level of polyandry was nevertheless lower in the modestly gregarious C. convexa. PMID:24489076

  8. Trophic plasticity of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae within an intertidal bay (Roscoff, France): A stable isotope evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, P.

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the trophic ecology of the gastropod Hydrobia ulvae in different habitat types within an intertidal bay. The results point out two major trophic pathways involving H.ulvae in this bay. On the one hand, in sandy/muddy sediments Hydrobia derives most of its energy from allochtonous detritus derived from Enteromorpha sp and the total SOM pool. In addition, in these sediments, the phototrophic purple bacteria mats played a substantial trophic role in the diet of Hydrobia. On the other hand, in a Spartina maritima marsh, the gastropod appears firstly dependent of autochtonous detritus derived from this plant. The minor contribution of microphytobenthos to the diet of Hydrobia is consistent with a relatively low presence of epipelic diatoms at the sampling sites. These results provide evidence that the trophic ecology of H.ulvae inhabiting intertidal sediments is quite plastic and does not necessarily rely primarly on microphytobenthos. Consequently, in a single bay, the small spatial scale variability in the origin and availability of detritus have direct implications on the food incorporation by H.ulvae.

  9. The action of RFamide neuropeptides on molluscs, with special reference to the gastropods Buccinum undatum and Busycon canaliculatum.

    PubMed

    Moulis, Alexander

    2006-05-01

    The ever-growing RFamide neuropeptide superfamily has members in all animal phyla. Their effects in molluscs, on both smooth and cardiac muscle as well as on neurons, has been studied in detail. These neuropeptides exert a variety of functions: excitatory, inhibitory or even biphasic. Firstly, the literature on the excitatory effect of the RFamide neuropeptides on molluscan muscle and neurons has been reviewed, with greater emphasis and examples from the gastropods Buccinum undatum and Busycon canaliculatum. The peptides seem to be potent activators of contraction, sometimes generating slow tonic force and other times twitch activity. Secondly, the literature on the inhibitory effect of the superfamily has been reviewed. These peptides can exert an inhibitory effect, hyperpolarizing the cells rather than depolarizing them. Thirdly, the neuropeptides may play a variety of other roles, such as contributing to the regulation or maturation process of the animals. There have been cases recorded of RFamide neuropeptides acting as potent venoms in members of the Conus sp. The pathway of action of these multiple roles, their interaction with the parent neurotransmitters acetylcholine and serotonin, as well as the calcium dependency of the RFamide neuropeptides has been discussed, again with special reference to the above mentioned gastropods. A better understanding of the mode of action, the effects, and the importance of the RFamide neuropeptides on molluscan physiology and pharmacology has been attempted by reviewing the existing literature, recognizing the importance of the RFamide neuropeptide actions on molluscs.

  10. Expression of prohormone convertase 2 and the generation of neuropeptides in the developing nervous system of the gastropod Haliotis.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Scott F; York, Patrick S; Hanna, Peter H; Degnan, Bernard M; Croll, Roger P

    2009-01-01

    Prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) belongs to a family of enzymes involved in the proteolytic maturation of neuropeptide precursors into mature peptides that act as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators or neurohormones. Here we show that a gene encoding a PC2-like enzyme (HasPC2) is expressed during larval development and in the adult ganglia of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina. HasPC2 exhibits high sequence identity to other gastropod PC2s and thus is likely to function in peptide processing. Analysis of HasPC2 expression indicates that it is activated early in nervous system development. During trochophore and early veliger larval stages, HasPC2 is expressed in the vicinity of the forming ganglia of the central nervous system and parts of the putative peripheral nervous system. Later in larval development, at the time the veliger becomes competent to interact with the external environment and initiate metamorphosis, HasPC2 expression largely restricts to cells of the major ganglia and their commissures. Profiling of veliger larvae by bioinformatic approaches suggests the expression of a variety of peptides. Direct MALDI-MS-based peptide profiling of juvenile Haliotis cerebral ganglia (brain) reveals an abundance of neuropeptides, including FMRFamide-related peptides and APGWamide, compatible with PC2 functioning in neuropeptide processing in these regions. These results are consistent with PC2 regulating neuropeptide generation in the earliest functioning of the gastropod nervous system.

  11. Environmental and developmental controls of morphological diversity in a thermal spring gastropod from Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopnarine, P. D.; Tang, C. M.

    2001-12-01

    Isolated thermal springs and associated aquatic environments near Cuatro Ciénegas, in north-central Mexico provide an opportunity to study patterns of evolutionary diversification under extreme conditions. Significant differences in temperature, seasonality, pH, and salinities among other variables may allow for high levels of differentiation and endemism. Biological studies of the unique faunas in this type of environment may serve as analogues for extreme and/or evaporitic environments as targeted by astrobiological research. The endemic hydrobiid gastropod \\textit{Mexipyrgus} is widely distributed in a variety of aquatic environments within the Cuatro Cienégas basin. Original description of this genus by Taylor listed six distinct species reflecting shell and anatomical features. Later revision by Hershler suggests that this diversity be reduced to one single, highly-variable species, based mainly on the morphology of reproductive structures. The systematic conflict emphasizes the need to understand the bases of morphological variation at small scales and in environmentally unusual settings. Shells of \\textit{Mexipyrgus} were collected from six localities and the following species were identified based on Taylor's classification: \\textit{M. carranzae}, \\textit{M. escobedae}, \\textit{M. multilineatus}, and specimens intermediate in character between \\textit{M. carranzae}, \\textit{M. lugoi} and \\textit{M. mojarralis}. All specimens consisted of 4-6 whorls. Shell shape was archived by the digitization of geometrically homologous landmarks on the spire (apex, whorl sutures in apertural view) and aperture. Shell size was calculated as Centroid Size. Data were analyzed using uniform and principal warp analysis of raw landmark coordinates, followed by relative warp analysis of uniform and partial warp scores. Three separate analyses were performed for 4, 5 and 6 whorled specimens. Results indicate two different levels of variation based on individual age

  12. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa): Gastropod molluscs.

    PubMed

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Miranda, Nelson A F; Raw, Jacqueline L; Peer, Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as "A." aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the system that have remained

  13. Geometric morphometric character suites as phylogenetic data: extracting phylogenetic signal from gastropod shells.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ursula E; Hendricks, Jonathan R

    2013-05-01

    Despite being the objects of numerous macroevolutionary studies, many of the best represented constituents of the fossil record-including diverse examples such as foraminifera, brachiopods, and mollusks-have mineralized skeletons with limited discrete characteristics, making morphological phylogenies difficult to construct. In contrast to their paucity of phylogenetic characters, the mineralized structures (tests and shells) of these fossil groups frequently have distinctive shapes that have long proved useful for their classification. The recent introduction of methodologies for including continuous data directly in a phylogenetic analysis has increased the number of available characters, making it possible to produce phylogenies based, in whole or part, on continuous character data collected from such taxa. Geometric morphometric methods provide tools for accurately characterizing shape variation and can produce quantitative data that can therefore now be included in a phylogenetic matrix in a nonarbitrary manner. Here, the marine gastropod genus Conus is used to evaluate the ability of continuous characters-generated from a geometric morphometric analysis of shell shape-to contribute to a total evidence phylogenetic hypothesis constructed using molecular and morphological data. Furthermore, the ability of continuous characters derived from geometric morphometric analyses to place fossil taxa with limited discrete characters into a phylogeny with their extant relatives was tested by simulating the inclusion of fossil taxa. This was done by removing the molecular partition of individual extant species to produce a "cladistic pseudofossil" with only the geometric morphometric derived characters coded. The phylogenetic position of each cladistic pseudofossil taxon was then compared with its placement in the total evidence tree and a symmetric resampling tree to evaluate the degree to which morphometric characters alone can correctly place simulated fossil species

  14. Marked changes in neuropeptide expression accompany broadcast spawnings in the gastropod Haliotis asinina

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A huge diversity of marine species reproduce by synchronously spawning their gametes into the water column. Although this species-specific event typically occurs in a particular season, the precise time and day of spawning often can not be predicted. There is little understanding of how the environment (e.g. water temperature, day length, tidal and lunar cycle) regulates a population’s reproductive physiology to synchronise a spawning event. The Indo-Pacific tropical abalone, Haliotis asinina, has a highly predictable spawning cycle, where individuals release gametes on the evenings of spring high tides on new and full moons during the warmer half of the year. These calculable spawning events uniquely allow for the analysis of the molecular and cellular processes underlying reproduction. Here we characterise neuropeptides produced in H. asinina ganglia that are known in egg-laying molluscs to control vital aspects of reproduction. Results We demonstrate that genes encoding APGWamide, myomodulin, the putative proctolin homologue whitnin, FMRFamide, a schistosomin-like peptide (SLP), a molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP) and a haliotid growth-associated peptide (HGAP) all are differentially expressed in the anterior ganglia during the two week spawning cycle in both male and female abalone. Each gene has a unique and sex-specific expression profile. Despite these differences, expression levels in most of the genes peak at or within 12 h of the spawning event. In contrast, lowest levels of transcript abundance typically occurs 36 h before and 24 h after spawning, with differences in peak and low expression levels being most pronounced in genes orthologous to known molluscan reproduction neuromodulators. Conclusions Exploiting the predictable semi-lunar spawning cycle of the gastropod H. asinina, we have identified a suite of evolutionarily-conserved, mollusc-specific and rapidly-evolving neuropeptides that appear to contribute to the

  15. Biodiversity census of Lake St Lucia, iSimangaliso Wetland Park (South Africa): Gastropod molluscs

    PubMed Central

    Perissinotto, Renzo; Miranda, Nelson A.F.; Raw, Jacqueline L.; Peer, Nasreen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The recent dry phase experienced by the St Lucia estuarine system has led to unprecedented desiccation and hypersaline conditions through most of its surface area. This has changed only recently, at the end of 2011, with the onset of a new wet phase that has already caused a major shift to oligo- and mesohaline conditions. The estuary mouth, however, remains closed to the ocean, making the weak connection recently established between the St Lucia and the Mfolozi estuaries the only conveyance for marine recruitment. As a result, only 10 indigenous and two alien aquatic gastropod species are currently found living in the St Lucia estuarine lake. This is out of a total of 37 species recorded within the system since the earliest survey undertaken in 1924, half of which have not been reported in the literature before. The tick shell, Nassarius kraussianus, which was consistently found in large abundance prior to the recent dry phase, appears to have temporarily disappeared from the system, probably as a result of the extinction of Zostera marine grasses inside the lake. Population explosions of the bubble shell Haminoea natalensis, with its distinct egg masses, were recorded seasonally until 2009, but the species has subsequently not been observed again. A molecular DNA analysis of the various populations previously reported as belonging to the same assimineid species, variably referred to as Assiminea capensis, A. ovata, or A. bifasciata, has revealed that the St Lucia assemblage actually comprises two very distinct taxa, A. cf. capensis and a species provisionally referred to here as “A.” aff. capensis or simply Assimineidae sp. In the mangroves, the climbing whelk Cerithidea decollata is still found in numbers, while ellobiids such as Cassidula labrella, Melampus semiaratus and M. parvulus are present in low abundances and all previously recorded littorinids have disappeared. A number of alien freshwater species have colonized areas of the system that

  16. Detection of interstitial lung disease in PA chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loog, Marco; van Ginneken, Bram; Nielsen, Mads

    2004-05-01

    A computer-aided diagnosis scheme for the detection of interstitial disease in standard digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs is presented. The detection technique is supervised-manually labelled data should be provided for training the algorithm-and fully automatic, and can be used as part of a computerized analysis scheme for X-ray lung images. Prior to the detection, a segmentation should be performed which delineates the lung field boundaries. Subsequently, a quadratic decision rule is employed for every pixel within the lung fields to associate with each pixel a probabilistic measure indicating interstitial disease. The locally obtained per-pixel probabilities are fused to a single global probability indicating to what extent there is interstitial disease present in the image. Finally, a threshold on this quantity classifies the image as containing interstitial disease or not. The probability combination scheme presented utilizes the quantiles of the local posterior probabilities to fuse the local probability into a global one. Using this nonparametric technique, reasonable results are obtained on the interstitial disease detection task. The area under the receiver operating characteristic equals 0.92 for the optimal setting.

  17. Lymphangiogenesis and Lesion Heterogeneity in Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system has several physiological roles, including fluid homeostasis and the activation of adaptive immunity by fluid drainage and cell transport. Lymphangiogenesis occurs in adult tissues during various pathologic conditions. In addition, lymphangiogenesis is closely linked to capillary angiogenesis, and the balanced interrelationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is essential for maintaining homeostasis in tissues. Recently, an increasing body of information regarding the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells has allowed us to immunohistochemically characterize lymphangiogenesis in several lung diseases. Particular interest has been given to the interstitial lung diseases. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are characterized by heterogeneity in pathologic changes and lesions, as typified by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia. In IIPs, lymphangiogenesis is likely to have different types of localized functions within each disorder, corresponding to the heterogeneity of lesions in terms of inflammation and fibrosis. These functions include inhibitory absorption of interstitial fluid and small molecules and maturation of fibrosis by excessive interstitial fluid drainage, caused by an unbalanced relationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and induction of fibrogenesis via CCL21 and CCR7 signals. Better understanding for regional functions of lymphangiogenesis might provide new treatment strategies tailored to lesion heterogeneity in these complicated diseases. PMID:26823655

  18. Modest hyperglycemia prevents interstitial dispersion of insulin in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kolka, Cathryn M.; Castro, Ana Valeria B.; Kirkman, Erlinda L.; Bergman, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin injected directly into skeletal muscle diffuses rapidly through the interstitial space to cause glucose uptake, but this is blocked in insulin resistance. As glucotoxicity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, the observed hyperglycemia in diet-induced obese dogs may inhibit insulin access to muscle cells, and exacerbate insulin resistance. Here we asked whether interstitial insulin diffusion is reduced in modest hyperglycemia, similar to that induced by a high fat diet. METHODS During normoglycemic (100mg/dl) and moderately hyperglycemic (120mg/dl) clamps in anesthetized canines, sequential doses of insulin were injected into the vastus medialis of one hindlimb; the contra-lateral limb served as a control. Plasma samples were collected and analyzed for insulin content. Lymph vessels of the hind leg were also catheterized, and lymph samples were analyzed as an indicator of interstitial insulin concentration. RESULTS Insulin injection increased lymph insulin in normoglycemic animals, but not in hyperglycemic animals. Muscle glucose uptake was elevated in response to hyperglycemia, however the insulin-mediated glucose uptake in normoglycemic controls was not observed in hyperglycemia. Modest hyperglycemia prevented intra-muscularly injected insulin from diffusing through the interstitial space reduced insulin-mediated glucose uptake. CONCLUSION Hyperglycemia prevents the appearance of injected insulin in the interstitial space, thus reducing insulin action on skeletal muscle cells. PMID:25468139

  19. Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides: A Clinicopathologic Study of 21 Patients.

    PubMed

    Reggiani, Camilla; Massone, Cesare; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cota, Carlo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    Interstitial mycosis fungoides (IMF) is a rare histopathologic variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) that may mimic other inflammatory dermatoses, mainly interstitial granuloma annulare, inflammatory morphea, and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Only small series and sporadic case reports of IMF have been described in the literature. We reviewed 27 specimens from 21 patients with IMF (M:F=11:10, median age 60) to better characterize clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features of this disease. Most patients presented clinically with patches and/or plaques. Conventional MF was documented before, concomitant with, or after IMF in 12 patients, whereas only in 2 patients different biopsies showed exclusive features of IMF over a period of 4 and 191 months, respectively. Histology revealed in all cases variably long, linear aggregates of dermal lymphocytes splaying the collagen fibers, involving predominantly the superficial and mid-dermis (6 cases) or the entire dermis (21 cases). Immunohistochemical stainings revealed a cytotoxic phenotype in 9/18 tested cases. Variable amounts of histiocytes/macrophages were found interstitially in all tested biopsies but never represented a population larger than that of T lymphocytes. Our study shows that IMF is a peculiar variant of MF with frequent cytotoxic phenotype. This histopathologic variant in most cases represents a transient pattern in otherwise conventional MF. Accurate clinicopathologic correlation and phenotypic studies of atypical dermal interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates allow to make a correct diagnosis.

  20. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran

    2014-01-01

    Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume) and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity). Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT) of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy.

  1. Stability of Si-Interstitial Defects: From Point to Extended Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeongnim; Kirchhoff, Florian; Wilkins, John W.; Khan, Furrukh S.

    2000-01-17

    Trends in the growth of extended interstitial defects are extracted from extensive tight-binding and ab inito local density approximation simulations. With an increasing number of interstitials, the stable defect shape evolves from compact to chainlike to rodlike. The rodlike {l_brace}311{r_brace} defect, formed from (011) interstitial chains, is stabilized as it grows, elongating in the chain direction. Accurate parametrization of the defect-formation energy on the number of interstitials and interstitial chains, together with the anisotropy of the interstitial capture radius, enables macroscopic defect-growth simulations. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  2. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-08-15

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set.

  3. Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Balestra, D.J.; Balestra, S.T.; Wasson, J.H.

    1988-07-01

    The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later.

  4. Interstitial carbon formation in irradiated copper-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Yarykin, N. A.; Weber, J.

    2015-06-15

    The influence of a copper impurity on the spectrum of defects induced in p-Si crystals containing a low oxygen concentration by irradiation with electrons with an energy of 5 MeV at room temperature is studied by deep-level transient spectroscopy. It is found that interstitial carbon atoms (C{sub i}) which are the dominant defects in irradiated samples free of copper are unobservable immediately after irradiation, if the concentration of mobile interstitial copper atoms (Cu{sub i}) is higher than the concentration of radiation defects. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of (Cu{sub i}, C{sub i}) complexes, which do not introduce levels into the lower half of the band gap. It is shown that these complexes dissociate upon annealing at temperatures of 300–340 K and, thus, bring about the appearance of interstitial carbon.

  5. The lipid geochemistry of interstitial waters of recent marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Saliot, A.; Brault, M.; Boussuge, C. )

    1988-04-01

    To elucidate the nature of biogeochemical processes occurring at the water-sediment interface, the authors have analyzed fatty acids, n-alkanes and sterols contained in interstitial waters collected from oxic and anoxic marine sediments in the eastern and western intertropical Atlantic Ocean and in the Arabian Sea. Lipid concentrations in interstitial waters vary widely and are generally much higher than concentrations encountered in the overlying sea water. Higher concentrations in interstitial water are observed in environments favorable for organic input and preservation of the organic matter in the water column and in the surficial sediment. The analysis of biogeochemical markers in the various media of occurrence of the organic matter such as sea water, suspended particles, settling particles and sediment is discussed in terms of differences existing between these media and bio-transformations of the organic matter at the water-sediment interface.

  6. Successful alectinib treatment after crizotinib-induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Fujiuchi, Satoru; Fujita, Yuka; Sasaki, Takaaki; Ohsaki, Yoshinobu

    2016-05-01

    A 70-year-old woman with lung adenocarcinoma, harbouring anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement, was treated with crizotinib as third-line chemotherapy. After 2 months, crizotinib was discontinued because of the development of crizotinib-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD). Steroid treatment was then introduced and tapered off. Following complete resolution of the interstitial shadow, cytotoxic chemotherapy was initiated, and continued for over 2 years, until new intrapulmonary lesions developed. Although there was a risk of drug-induced interstitial pneumonia, alectinib was initiated as the fifth-line therapy, without steroid supplementation, as there was no alternative treatment. No recurrence of ILD was noted at 10 months. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful alectinib treatment after the development of crizotinib-induced ILD without the use of prednisolone. PMID:27516885

  7. Bathymetric zonation and diversity gradient of gastropods and bivalves in West Antarctica from the South Shetland Islands to the Bellingshausen Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldea, Cristian; Olabarria, Celia; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2008-03-01

    Depth-related zonation and diversity patterns are important topics in the study of deep-sea fauna, at both species and assemblage levels. These patterns may be attributed to complex and combined physical and/or biological factors. The lack of information about the West Antarctic deep sea is an important handicap to understanding the global-scale benthic diversity patterns. Detailed studies of the bathymetric distributions and diversity of deep-sea species in the Antarctic are needed to elucidate the factors contributing to global-scale benthic patterns. This study, based on a large data set, examined the bathymetric distribution, patterns of zonation and diversity-depth trends of gastropods and bivalves in West Antarctica, from the South Shetland Islands to the Bellingshausen Sea, a very poorly known area. A total of 647 individuals of gastropods belonging to 82 species and a total of 2934 individuals of bivalves belonging to 52 species were collected. Most gastropods showed discrete depth distributions, whereas most bivalves showed broader depth ranges. Replacement of species with depth was more gradual for bivalves than gastropods. Nevertheless, three bathymetric boundaries could be recognized: (1) a continental shelf zone from 0 to 400 m with a gradual rate of succession, (2) an upper slope zone from 400 to 800 m and (3) a lower slope zone from 800 to 2000 m, extending to 3300 m for bivalves. Diversity patterns were complex for both groups with no significant trends with depth.

  8. The late Silurian-Middle Devonian long-term eustatic cycle as a possible control on the global generic diversity dynamics of bivalves and gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2013-09-01

    A long-term eustatic cycle (fall and subsequent rise of the global sea level) embraced the late Silurian-Middle Devonian time interval. Potentially, these sea-level changes could drive global biodiversity. The stratigraphic ranges of 204 bivalve genera and 279 gastropod genera included into the famous Sepkoski database allow reconstructing changes in the total diversity and the number of originations and extinctions of these important groups of marine benthic macro- -invertebrates during this interval. None of the recorded parameters coincided with the long-term global sea-level cycle. It cannot be not excluded, however, that the global sea-level changes did not affect the regions favourable for bivalve and gastropod radiation because of regional tectonic mechanisms; neither can it be excluded that the eustatic control persisted together with many other extrinsic and intrinsic controls. Interestingly, the generic diversity of gastropods increased together with a cooling trend, and vice versa. Additionally, the Ludlow, Eifelian, and Givetian biotic crises affected, probably, both fossil groups under study. There was also a coincidence of the relatively high bivalve generic diversity, initial radiation of gastropods and the entire biota, and the diversification of brachiopods with the Early Devonian global sea-level lowstand, and this may be interpreted as evidence of a certain eustatic control on the marine biodiversity.

  9. Interstitial lung disease in the connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Antin-Ozerkis, Danielle; Rubinowitz, Ami; Evans, Janine; Homer, Robert J; Matthay, Richard A

    2012-03-01

    The connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are inflammatory, immune-mediated disorders in which interstitial lung disease (ILD) is common and clinically important. Interstitial lung disease may be the first manifestation of a CTD in a previously healthy patient. CTD-associated ILD frequently presents with the gradual onset of cough and dyspnea, although rarely may present with fulminant respiratory failure. Infection and drug reaction should always be ruled out. A diagnosis of idiopathic ILD should never be made without a careful search for subtle evidence of underlying CTD. Treatment of CTD-ILD typically includes corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents.

  10. Kinetics of interstitial segregation in Cottrell atmospheres and grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, J.; Zickler, G. A.; Kozeschnik, E.; Fischer, F. D.

    2015-09-01

    Trapping of interstitial (e.g. carbon) atoms is driven by the reduction in energy in the system. Diffusion of interstitials, together with their trapping in dislocation cores and/or grain boundaries, is studied by the thermodynamic extremal principle. In addition to the total Gibbs energy, a well-established formulation of the total dissipation is applied. Dimension-free evolution equations are derived, whose solution is well approximated by an easy to handle kinetic equation. Cottrell's power law can be verified in the initial stage.

  11. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-30

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report.

  12. [Subclinical interstitial lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Bestaev, D V

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is its extra-articular manifestation. At the same time, ILD considerably worsens the prognosis of the disease. Mortality rates for interstitial pulmonary fibrosis are 6% of all-cause mortality in RA patients. ILD can be identified by clinical examination only in 2-6% of cases, by plain chest X-ray in 1-6%, and by high-resolution computed tomography in 50-60%. The paper deals with subclinical ILD and discusses the state-of-the-art of investigations in this area.

  13. Ectrodactyly and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletion 7q

    SciTech Connect

    McElveen, C.; Carvajal, M.V.; Moscatello, D.

    1995-03-13

    We report on an individual with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, unusual face, scoliosis, and cleft feet and cleft right hand. The chromosomal study showed a proximal interstitial deletion 7q (q11.23q22). From our review of the literature, 11 patients have been reported with ectrodactyly (split hand/split foot malformation) and proximal/intermediate interstitial deletions or rearrangements of 7q. The critical segment for ectrodactyly seems to be located between 7q21.2 and 7q22.1. This malformation is present in 41% of the patients whose deletion involves the critical segment. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Association Between Interstitial Lung Abnormalities and All-Cause Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Rachel K.; Hatabu, Hiroto; Araki, Tetsuro; Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Gao, Wei; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Dupuis, Josée; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Cho, Michael H.; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Coxson, Harvey O.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Ross, James C.; Harmouche, Rola; Estépar, Raúl San José; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gudmundsson, Elías F.; Eiríksdottír, Gudny; Aspelund, Thor; Budoff, Matthew J.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Hokanson, John E.; Williams, Michelle C; Murchison, John T.; MacNee, William; Hoffmann, Udo; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Harrris, Tamara B.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Silverman, Edwin K.; O’Connor, George T.; Washko, George R.; Rosas, Ivan O.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interstitial lung abnormalities have been associated with decreased six-minute walk distance, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and total lung capacity; however to our knowledge, an association with mortality has not been previously investigated. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality. DESIGN, SETTING, POPULATION Prospective cohort studies of 2633 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (CT scans obtained 9/08–3/11), 5320 from the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik (recruited 1/02–2/06), 2068 from COPDGene (recruited 11/07–4/10), and 1670 from the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) (between 12/05–12/06). EXPOSURES Interstitial lung abnormality status as determined by chest CT evaluation. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES All cause mortality over approximately 3 to 9 year median follow up time. Cause-of-death information was also examined in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort. RESULTS Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 177 (7%) of the participants from FHS, 378 (7%) from AGES-Reykjavik, 156 (8%) from COPDGene, and in 157 (9%) from ECLIPSE. Over median follow-up times of ~3–9 years there were more deaths (and a greater absolute rate of mortality) among those with interstitial lung abnormalities compared to those without interstitial lung abnormalities in each cohort; 7% compared to 1% in FHS (6% difference, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2%, 10%), 56% compared to 33% in AGES-Reykjavik (23% difference, 95% CI 18%, 28%), 16% compared to 11% in COPDGene (5% difference, 95% CI −1%, 11%) and 11% compared to 5% in ECLIPSE (6% difference, 95% CI 1%, 11%). After adjustment for covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with an increase in the risk of death in the FHS (HR=2.7, 95% CI, 1.1–65, P=0.030), AGES-Reykjavik (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.4, P<0.001), COPDGene (HR=1.8, 95% CI, 1.1, 2

  15. Empirical potential simulations of interstitial dislocation loops in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Prioux, Arno; Fossati, Paul; Maillard, Serge; Jourdan, Thomas; Maugis, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Stoichiometric circular shaped interstitial dislocation loop energies are calculated in stoichiometric UO2 by empirical potential simulation. The Burgers vector directions studied are <110> and <111>. The main structural properties of each type of interstitial dislocation loop are determined, including stacking fault energy. Defect energies are compared and a maximum size for stable <111> dislocation loops before transition to <110> dislocation loops is given. A model of dislocation loop energy based on elasticity theory is then fitted on the basis of these simulation results.

  16. Granular Materials Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, M. L.; Brennen, C. E.; Campbell, C. S.

    2002-11-01

    In 1954, R.A. Bagnold published his seminal findings on the rheological properties of liquid-solid flows. We recently completed an extensive reevaluation of Bagnold's work, and our analysis and simulations indicate that the rheological measurements of Bagnold were affected significantly by secondary flows within the experimental apparatus. The concentric cylinder rheometer was designed by Bagnold to measure simultaneously the shear and normal forces for a wide range for solid concentrations, fluid viscosities and shear rates. As presented by Bagnold, the shear and normal forces depended linearly on the shear rate in the 'macroviscous' regime. As the grain-to-grain interactions increased in the 'grain inertia' regime, the stresses depended on the square of the shear rate and were independent of the fluid viscosity. These results, however, appear to be dictated by the design of the experimental facility. In Bagnold's experiments, the height (h) of the rheometer was relatively short compared to the spacing (t) between the rotating outer and stationary inner cylinder (h/t=4.6). Since the top and bottom end plates rotated with the outer cylinder, the flow contained two axisymmetric counter-rotating cells in which flow moved outward along the end plates and inward at the midheight of the annulus. These cells contribute significantly to the measured torque, and obscured any accurate measurements of the shear or normal stresses. Before doing the reevaluation of Bagnold's work, our research objective was to examine the effects of the interstitial fluid for flows in which the densities of the two phases were different. After reevaluating Bagnold's work, we redesigned our experimental facility to minimize secondary flow effects. Like Bagnold's facility, we use a concentric cylinder rheometer with a rotating outer wall. The inner cylinder also is able to rotate slightly but will also be restrained by flexible supports; the torque is measured from the deformation of the

  17. A Baseline Measure of Tree and Gastropod Biodiversity in Replanted and Natural Mangrove Stands in Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok

    PubMed Central

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-01-01

    The diversities of mangrove trees and of their associated gastropods were assessed for two mangrove regions on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m2 (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H’) and Evenness Index (J’) were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H’ and J’ values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H’ and J’ values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H’ = 0.44±0.17 and J’ = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H’ = 0.96±0.41 and J’ = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H’ = 0.22±0.39 and J’ = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H’ = 1.23±0.63 and J’ = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts. PMID:25210584

  18. A baseline measure of tree and gastropod biodiversity in replanted and natural mangrove stands in malaysia: langkawi island and sungai merbok.

    PubMed

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-08-01

    THE DIVERSITIES OF MANGROVE TREES AND OF THEIR ASSOCIATED GASTROPODS WERE ASSESSED FOR TWO MANGROVE REGIONS ON THE WEST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m(2) (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H') and Evenness Index (J') were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H' and J' values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H' and J' values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H' = 0.44±0.17 and J' = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H' = 0.96±0.41 and J' = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H' = 0.22±0.39 and J' = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H' = 1.23±0.63 and J' = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts.

  19. Mechanism of a plastic phenotypic response: predator-induced shell thickening in the intertidal gastropod Littorina obtusata.

    PubMed

    Brookes, J I; Rochette, Rémy

    2007-05-01

    Phenotypic plasticity has been the object of considerable interest over the past several decades, but in few cases are mechanisms underlying plastic responses well understood. For example, it is unclear whether predator-induced changes in gastropod shell morphology represent an active physiological response or a by-product of reduced feeding. We address this question by manipulating feeding and growth of intertidal snails, Littorina obtusata, using two approaches: (i) exposure to predation cues from green crabs Carcinus maenas and (ii) reduced food availability, and quantifying growth in shell length, shell mass, and body mass, as well as production of faecal material and shell micro-structural characteristics (mineralogy and organic fraction) after 96 days. We demonstrate that L. obtusata actively increases calcification rate in response to predation threat, and that this response entails energetic and developmental costs. That this induced response is not strictly tied to the animal's behaviour should enhance its evolutionary potential. PMID:17465912

  20. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in intertidal gastropod and bivalve shells from central Arabian Gulf coastline, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Youssef, Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    In order to assess pollutants and impact of environmental changes along the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast, forty specimens of gastropod and bivalve shells belonging to Diodora funiculata, Lunella coronata, Cerithium caeruleum, Barbatia parva, Pinctada margaritifera, Amiantis umbonella, Acrosterigma assimile and Asaphis violascens from five localities are selected for Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cd, Se, As, Co, B, Cr, Hg, Mo analysis. The analysis indicated that heavy metal values (except Fe) were less than those recorded in molluscan shells from Gulf of Oman, Red Sea and Indian Ocean. D. funiculate, L. coronata, B. parva and P. margaritifera are good accumulators of Cu, As, Cr. The other species gave a nearly constant concentration in all the studied areas. Al Jubail coast recorded the highest heavy metal concentrations (except Mn at Ras Al-Ghar and Se at Al Jubail industrial city). Heavy metal contamination is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources, especially effluents from petrochemical industries, sewage and desalination plants.

  1. [SPECTRAL AND ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF HEMOLYMPH PLASMA AND ITS FRACTIONS FROM GASTROPOD PULMONATE MOLLUSC ACHATINA FULICA].

    PubMed

    Petrova, T A; Lianguzov, A Yu; Malygina, N M

    2016-01-01

    The set of normal biochemical indicators of the hemolymph plasma of gastropod pulmonate mollusc Achatinafulica is described. Comparative analysis of the whole plasma and its subfractions enriched and depleted of oxygen-carrying protein hemocyanin was performed by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry methods. Individual features of the absorption spectra were analyzed using fourth derivatives. The optimum method for estimating protein concentration was chosen. To characterize acid-base properties of plasma hemolymph and its sub-fractions we calculated buffer capacity, equivalence points and pK values of dominant buffer groups. It is shown that the major role in maintaining the buffer capacity of hemolymph belongs to the bicarbonate system. These results are compared with data for Helix pomatia available in literature. In the future the indicators studied in this work will be used to develop ecotoxicological criteria for the environmental assessment.

  2. [Composition and content of carotenoids in body of the Black Sea gastropod mollusc Rapana venosa (Valenciennes, 1846)].

    PubMed

    Borodina, A V; Maoka, T; Soldatov, A A

    2013-01-01

    There were studied content and composition of carotenoids in body of the Black Sea gastropod mollusc Rapana venosa. To separate and identify this group of compounds, methods of thin layer and high performance liquid chromatography, mass-spectra and spectra in UV-VIS range were used. There were identified 84-87% of carotenoids. The main proportion belonged to mytiloxanthine--28-30%. The rest--pectenolon, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin--accounted for 10-15% of the total content except for beta-carotene--3-4%. The fraction is also isolated which contains complex esters of pectenolon, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and mytiloxanthin. It amounts to 17-20 % of pigments of carotenoid line. Minor components were not determined. Pathways of metabolic transformation of carotenoids in tissues of R. venosa are considered on the basis of study of the trophic system "mollusc-filtrator--mollusc-predator" by the example of Mytilus galloprovincialis and R. venosa.

  3. [SPECTRAL AND ACID-BASE PROPERTIES OF HEMOLYMPH PLASMA AND ITS FRACTIONS FROM GASTROPOD PULMONATE MOLLUSC ACHATINA FULICA].

    PubMed

    Petrova, T A; Lianguzov, A Yu; Malygina, N M

    2016-01-01

    The set of normal biochemical indicators of the hemolymph plasma of gastropod pulmonate mollusc Achatinafulica is described. Comparative analysis of the whole plasma and its subfractions enriched and depleted of oxygen-carrying protein hemocyanin was performed by spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry methods. Individual features of the absorption spectra were analyzed using fourth derivatives. The optimum method for estimating protein concentration was chosen. To characterize acid-base properties of plasma hemolymph and its sub-fractions we calculated buffer capacity, equivalence points and pK values of dominant buffer groups. It is shown that the major role in maintaining the buffer capacity of hemolymph belongs to the bicarbonate system. These results are compared with data for Helix pomatia available in literature. In the future the indicators studied in this work will be used to develop ecotoxicological criteria for the environmental assessment. PMID:27220238

  4. Mox homeobox expression in muscle lineage of the gastropod Haliotis asinina: evidence for a conserved role in bilaterian myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hinman, V F; Degnan, B M

    2002-04-01

    Mox homeobox genes are expressed during early vertebrate somitogenesis. Here we describe the expression of Has-Mox, a Mox gene from the gastropod Haliotis asinina. Has-Moxis expressed in the trochophore larva in paraxial mesodermal bands. During larval development, Has-Mox expression remains restricted to mesodermal cells destined to form adult muscle in the foot. This restricted expression of Has-Mox in Haliotis is similar to that observed for vertebrate Mox genes, suggesting a conserved role in myogenesis in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. In contrast, Mox is not expressed in muscle lineages in the ecdysozoan representatives Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila; the C. elegansgenome has lost Mox altogether. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-002-0223-6.

  5. Pleiotropic developmental expression of HasPOU-III, a class III POU gene, in the gastropod Haliotis asinina.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Degnan, Bernard M

    2002-06-01

    HasPOU-III is expressed in multiple cell types during the first 3 days of development of the gastropod Haliotis asinina. HasPOU-III expression begins in two bilaterally symmetrical sets of cells on the ventral ectodermal surface of the trochophore larva; one set are putative foot mucous cells. After torsion, HasPOU-III transcripts transiently appear in the developing ganglia of the central nervous system. At the end of larval morphogenesis, HasPOU-III expression is initiated in dorsoposterior cells of the visceral mass, in the posterior cells of the statocyst and in the developing radular sac. These expression patterns in Haliotis, a spiralian lophotrochozoan, are similar to POU Class III genes in other bilaterians where expression occurs in secretory cells and the developing nervous system.

  6. Ribosomal protein L7 as a suitable reference gene for quantifying gene expression in gastropod Bellamya aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Lei, Kun; Ma, Qingqing; Qiao, Fei; Li, Zi-Cheng; An, Li-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Expression levels of eight candidate reference genes were quantified in tissues of gastropod Bellamya aeruginosa exposed for 10 d to various stressors, including fasting, 17β-estradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, and Cd(2+). The results showed that 18s rRNA was the most highly expressed of the candidate reference genes, while H2A was the least expressed. There were no significant changes (p>0.05) in the expression of the eight genes in tissues among the different treatments. Using RefFinder to evaluate the expression stabilities of the eight candidate reference genes, ribosomal protein was shown to be the most stable reference gene, and no effects were observed among the different stressor treatments. These results indicate that RPL 7 is the most suitable reference gene for quantifying gene expression in B. aeruginosa under environmental stress, which was verified in B. aeruginosa exposed to high doses of E2 for 24 and 72h. PMID:26991845

  7. Evaluation of anelastic evidence for interstitial solute binding in bcc metals

    SciTech Connect

    Cost, J.R.; Stanley, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A Direct Spectrum Analysis (DSA) technique has been applied to key internal friction and elastic after-effect data which are involved in the controversy over the existance of interstitial clustering in the refractory metals. It is found that at relatively high interstitial solute concentrations some of the Snoek peak broadening is due to relaxations that are distinct from the main relaxation. This finding supports the view that interstitial solutes have an interaction that produces clusters of interstitials.

  8. [DIP (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): as a tobacco-associated disease -- case report].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Vitor; Carvalho, Lina

    2004-01-01

    DIP (desquamative interstitial pneumonia) is an interstitial lung disease with diffuse and uniform accumulation of alveolar macrophages. There is a strong association with tobacco since 90% of the patients are smokers. The interstitial lung diseases related to tobacco are diverse and include tumours, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, RBILD (Respiratory Bronchilites associated Interstitial Lung Disease), DIP and Langerhans Cell Histiocitosis. The authors present a case of DIP. A brief theorycal revision and discussion of a case is made facing the association with tobacco.

  9. Interstitial pulmonary disorders in indium-processing workers.

    PubMed

    Chonan, T; Taguchi, O; Omae, K

    2007-02-01

    The production of indium-tin oxide has increased, owing to the increased manufacture of liquid-crystal panels. It has been reported that interstitial pneumonia occurred in two indium-processing workers; therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate whether interstitial pulmonary disorders were prevalent among indium workers. The study was carried out in 108 male workers in the indium plant where the two interstitial pneumonia patients mentioned above were employed, and included high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs, pulmonary function tests and analysis of serum sialylated carbohydrate antigen KL-6 and the serum indium concentration. Significant interstitial changes were observed in 23 indium workers on HRCT and serum KL-6 was abnormally high (>500 U x mL(-1)) in 40 workers. Workers with serum indium concentrations in the highest quartile had significantly longer exposure periods, greater HRCT changes, lower diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and higher KL-6 levels compared with those in the lowest quartile. The serum indium concentration was positively correlated with the KL-6 level and with the degree of HRCT changes. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that serum KL-6 and high-resolution computed tomography abnormalities were prevalent among indium workers and that these abnormalities increased with the indium burden, suggesting that inhaled indium could be a potential cause of occupational lung disease.

  10. Parasitic infestation of lung: An unusual cause of interstitial pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Parth; Kate, Arvind H; Nester, Nora; Patole, Kamlakar; Leuppi, Joerg D; Chhajed, Prashant N

    2016-01-01

    Parasite infections are increasing worldwide due to increasing migration and traveling. Parasitic infections can affect lungs and present as a focal or diffuse lung diseases. High index of suspicion and detailed history are most important. We present a case of interstitial pneumonitis caused by parasite infestation, which was diagnosed on transbronchial lung biopsy. PMID:27051117

  11. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema complicating pneumonia in an unventilated term infant.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Seung; Im, Soo Ah

    2010-09-01

    A case of pulmonary interstitial emphysema with pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum complicating pneumonia in a 6-week-old infant is reported. The patient had no history of resuscitation, bag and mask ventilation, nasal continuous positive airway pressure or mechanical ventilation. PMID:20799076

  12. Trapping of interstitials during ion implantation in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Culbertson, R.J.; Pennycook, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The solid phase epitaxial regrowth of silicon implanted with a group V dopant, such as antimony, results in excellent incorporation of the dopant atoms into silicon lattice sites. However, annealing at higher temperatures or longer times results in transient dopant precipitation with a diffusion coefficient up to five orders of magnitude above that of tracer diffusion and with a reduced activation energy. This precipitation is accompanied by the nucleation of dislocation loops that are interstitial in nature, and the transient ceases as the dislocation loops develop. It is believed that Si interstitials are trapped in a stable defect complex during the implantation process. Although they survive SPE these complexes dissolve at higher temperatures and release a large supply of interstitials which serve to promote dopant migration via an interstitialcy mechanism until they condense to form the observed dislocation loops. By following the Sb implantation with an implantation of B to an equivalent concentration profile the loop formation is efficiently suppressed. For higher B concentrations the Sb precipitation is no longer observed. Results for As implantation are similar to Sb except that As precipitates cannot be directly observed. Calculations of the dopant and interstitial concentration depth distributions were also performed.

  13. A recombinant human enzyme for enhanced interstitial transport of therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bookbinder, L H; Hofer, A; Haller, M F; Zepeda, M L; Keller, G-A; Lim, J E; Edgington, T S; Shepard, H M; Patton, J S; Frost, G I

    2006-08-28

    Subcutaneously injected therapeutics must pass through the interstitial matrix of the skin in order to reach their intended targets. This complex, three-dimensional structure limits the type and quantity of drugs that can be administered by local injection. Here we found that depolymerization of the viscoelastic component of the interstitial matrix in animal models with a highly purified recombinant human hyaluronidase enzyme (rHuPH20) increased the dispersion of locally injected drugs, across a broad range of molecular weights without tissue distortion. rHuPH20 increased infusion rates and the pattern and extent of appearance of locally injected drugs in systemic blood. In particular, rHuPH20 changed the pharmacokinetic profiles and significantly augmented the absolute bioavailability of locally injected large protein therapeutics. Importantly, within 24 h of injection, the interstitial viscoelastic barriers were restored without histologic alterations or signs of inflammation. rHuPH20 may function as an interstitial delivery enhancing agent capable of increasing the dispersion and bioavailability of coinjected drugs that may enable subcutaneous administration of therapeutics and replace intravenous delivery.

  14. Iodine 125 interstitial irradiation for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. P.; Good, R. R.; Bartone, F. F.

    1990-01-01

    We present the technique, complications, and 5-year results of transperineal percutaneous template permanent interstitial iodine 125 endocurietherapy of localized prostate cancer in 85 treated patients. The 5-year outcome appears similar to that of external beam radiation therapy or radical surgery, but the iatrogenic mortality, morbidity, treatment time, and hospitalization are significantly reduced. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2319613

  15. Improved laser applicators for interstitial thermotherapy of brain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzmaier, Hans-Joachim; Goldbach, Thomas; Ulrich, Frank; Schober, Ralf; Kahn, Thomas; Kaufmann, Raimund; Wolbarsht, Myron L.

    1994-05-01

    Interstitial thermotherapy is a new treatment for deep seated brain tumors. To destroy large tissue volumes without adverse effects (vaporization, carbonization) a new laser catheter was developed. The device combines the radiative heating of distant tissue volumes with the conductive cooling of areas close to the optical fiber tip.

  16. Near-infrared fiber delivery systems for interstitial photothermal therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slatkine, Michael; Mead, Douglass S.; Konwitz, Eli; Rosenberg, Zvi

    1995-05-01

    Interstitial photothermal coagulation has long been recognized as a potential important, minimally invasive modality for treating a variety of pathologic conditions. We present two different technologies for interstitial photothermal coagulation of tissue with infrared lasers: An optical fiber with a radially symmetric diffusing tip for deep coagulation, and a flat bare fiber for the coagulation of thin and long lesions by longitudinally moving the fiber while lasing in concert. Urology and Gynecology Fibers: The fibers are 600 microns diameter with 20 - 40 mm frosted distal tips protected by a smooth transparent cover. When used with a Neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser, the active fiber surface diffuses optical radiation in a radial pattern, delivering up to 40 W power, and thus providing consistent and uniform interstitial photothermal therapy. Coagulation depth ranges from 4 to 15 mm. Animal studies in the United States and clinical studies in Europe have demonstrated the feasibility of using these fibers to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and endometrial coagulation. Rhinology Fiber: The fiber is an 800 micron diameter flat fiber operated at 8 W power level while being interstitially pushed and pulled along its axis. A long and thin coagulated zone is produced. The fiber is routinely used for the shrinking of hypertrophic turbinates without surrounding and bone mucusal damage in ambulatory environments.

  17. Adenocarcinoma of Lung Presenting as Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Prasanta R; Aggarwal, Deepak; Punia, Rajpal S; Janmeja, Ashok K

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) presenting as lung cancer have been reported rarely from India. The present case describes a possibly primary lung cancer in a non-smoker who presented radiologically as a case of ILD. The possible mechanisms available in the literature are discussed.

  18. Assembly processes of gastropod community change with horizontal and vertical zonation in ancient Lake Ohrid: a metacommunity speciation perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauffe, Torsten; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The Balkan Lake Ohrid is the oldest and most diverse freshwater lacustrine system in Europe. However, it remains unclear whether species community composition, as well as the diversification of its endemic taxa, is mainly driven by dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, or species interaction. This calls for a holistic perspective involving both evolutionary processes and ecological dynamics, as provided by the unifying framework of the "metacommunity speciation model".The current study used the species-rich model taxon Gastropoda to assess how extant communities in Lake Ohrid are structured by performing process-based metacommunity analyses. Specifically, the study aimed (1) to identifying the relative importance of the three community assembly processes and (2) to test whether the importance of these individual processes changes gradually with lake depth or discontinuously with eco-zone shifts.Based on automated eco-zone detection and process-specific simulation steps, we demonstrated that dispersal limitation had the strongest influence on gastropod community composition. However, it was not the exclusive assembly process, but acted together with the other two processes - environmental filtering and species interaction. The relative importance of the community assembly processes varied both with lake depth and eco-zones, though the processes were better predicted by the latter.This suggests that environmental characteristics have a pronounced effect on shaping gastropod communities via assembly processes. Moreover, the study corroborated the high importance of dispersal limitation for both maintaining species richness in Lake Ohrid (through its impact on community composition) and generating endemic biodiversity (via its influence on diversification processes). However, according to the metacommunity speciation model, the inferred importance of environmental filtering and biotic interaction also suggests a small but significant influence of ecological

  19. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake

    PubMed Central

    Malaquias, Manuel António E.

    2016-01-01

    The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt), a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny). Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown. PMID:27248835

  20. Immunocytochemical distribution of neuropeptide F (NPF) in the gastropod mollusc, Helix aspersa, and in several other invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Leung, P S; Shaw, C; Johnston, C F; Irvine, G B

    1994-02-01

    The distribution of neuropeptide F (NPF) immunoreactivity in the snail, Helix aspersa, has been demonstrated by immunocytochemistry using 2 region-specific antisera. One, designated NPF3, was raised against a synthetic N-terminal fragment of Helix aspersa NPF; the other, designated PP221, was raised against the C-terminal hexapeptide amide of mammalian pancreatic polypeptide (PP) but cross-reacts fully with the analogous C-terminal region of Helix aspersa NPF. The distribution of NPF immunoreactivity has also been compared with that of FMRFamide using alternate serial sections of Helix aspersa ganglia. Results showed that NPF immunoreactivity was abundant and widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the pattern of immunostaining obtained using both region-specific antisera was similar. Likewise, immunocytochemistry of neural tissues of a congeneric species, Helix pomatia, and 2 prosobranch gastropods, Buccinum undatum and Littorina littorea, produced similar staining patterns with both antisera. However, in the cephalopod mollusc, Loligo vulgaris, and the cestode, Moniezia expansa, positive immunostaining was only obtained with the C-terminal PP antiserum. Immunostaining of alternate serial sections of Helix aspersa ganglia with NPF3, and an antiserum raised to FMRFamide, showed that while a few neurones were immunoreactive with one antiserum only, in the majority, both immunoreactivities were co-localised. NPF thus appears to be an important neuropeptide of widespread distribution in Helix aspersa and the differential immunocytochemical staining obtained using the 2 region-specific antisera would suggest a high degree of primary structural conservation within the gastropod molluscs, but lack of conservation of the N-terminal region of the peptide in other invertebrate groups.

  1. Ecosystem Alterations and Species Range Shifts: An Atlantic-Mediterranean Cephalaspidean Gastropod in an Inland Egyptian Lake.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Rivera, Edwin; Malaquias, Manuel António E

    2016-01-01

    The eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean marine Cephalaspidea gastropod Haminoea orbignyana was collected from Lake Qarun (Fayoum, Egypt), a landlocked lake that has undergone a shift from freshwater to estuarine conditions in the past 100 years. Species identity was confirmed by both morphological (anatomical dissection and scanning electron microscopy) and molecular methods (COI gene phylogeny). Observations suggested a robust population of H. orbignyana in the lake with a density of ca. 64 individuals/m2 and ca. 105 egg masses/m2 during surveys conducted in the summer of 2013. The vast majority of snails and egg masses were found under rocks. Observations of egg masses in the lab showed a gradual change from whitish to yellow-green as the eggs matured and the release of veliger larvae alone after about a week. Although adult cephalaspideans readily consumed filamentous red and green algae, and cyanobacteria, laboratory trials showed that they consumed significantly more of the red alga Ceramium sp., than of the green alga Cladophora glomerata, with consumption of Oscillatoria margaritifera being similar to those on the two algae. When grown on these resources for 16 days, H. orbignyana maintained their mass on the rhodophyte and cyanobacterium, but not in starvation controls. No cephalaspideans grew over the course of this experiment. Lake Qarun has been periodically restocked with Mediterranean fishes and prawns since the 1920s to maintain local fisheries, which represents a possible route of colonization for H. orbignyana. Yet, based on literature records, it seems more likely that invasion of the lake by this gastropod species has occurred only within the last 20 years. As human activities redistribute species through direct and indirect means, the structure of the community of this inland lake has become unpredictable and the long-term effects of these recent introductions are unknown. PMID:27248835

  2. Evolutionary dynamics in the southwest Indian ocean marine biodiversity hotspot: a perspective from the rocky shore gastropod genus Nerita.

    PubMed

    Postaire, Bautisse; Bruggemann, J Henrich; Magalon, Hélène; Faure, Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    The Southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) is a striking marine biodiversity hotspot. Coral reefs in this region host a high proportion of endemics compared to total species richness and they are particularly threatened by human activities. The island archipelagos with their diverse marine habitats constitute a natural laboratory for studying diversification processes. Rocky shores in the SWIO region have remained understudied. This habitat presents a high diversity of molluscs, in particular gastropods. To explore the role of climatic and geological factors in lineage diversification within the genus Nerita, we constructed a new phylogeny with an associated chronogram from two mitochondrial genes [cytochrome oxidase sub-unit 1 and 16S rRNA], combining previously published and new data from eight species sampled throughout the region. All species from the SWIO originated less than 20 Ma ago, their closest extant relatives living in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA). Furthermore, the SWIO clades within species with Indo-Pacific distribution ranges are quite recent, less than 5 Ma. These results suggest that the regional diversification of Nerita is closely linked to tectonic events in the SWIO region. The Reunion mantle plume head reached Earth's surface 67 Ma and has been stable and active since then, generating island archipelagos, some of which are partly below sea level today. Since the Miocene, sea-level fluctuations have intermittently created new rocky shore habitats. These represent ephemeral stepping-stones, which have likely facilitated repeated colonization by intertidal gastropods, like Nerita populations from the IAA, leading to allopatric speciation. This highlights the importance of taking into account past climatic and geological factors when studying diversification of highly dispersive tropical marine species. It also underlines the unique history of the marine biodiversity of the SWIO region. PMID:24736639

  3. The role of vermetid gastropods in the development of the Florida Middle Ground, northeast Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reich, Christopher D.; Poore, Richard Z.; Hickey, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    The Florida Middle Ground is a complex of north to northwest trending ridges that lie approximately 180 km northwest of Tampa Bay, Florida. The irregular ridges appear on the otherwise gently sloping West Florida shelf and exhibit between 10-15 m of relief. Modern studies interpret the ridges as remnants of a Holocene coral-reef buildup that today provide a hard substrate for growth of a variety of benthic organisms including hydrocorals, scleractinians, alcyonarians, and algae. Recent rotary coring reveals that the core of the eastern ridge of the Florida Middle Ground complex consists of unconsolidated marine calcareous muddy sand that is capped by a boundstone composed primarily of the sessile vermetid gastropod Petaloconchus sp., and overlays a weathered, fossiliferous limestone. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon ages (uncalibrated) on the 3.6-m thick vermetid worm rock indicate that it developed during a sea-level stillstand in the early Holocene (8,225 ±30-8,910 ± 25 yr B.P.). Our observations suggest that the Florida Middle Ground is a remnant of a series of shore parallel bars that formed in the early Holocene and were capped by a 3.6-m thick unit of vermetid gastropods. During a rapid sea-level rise that began ~8,000 yr B.P. the vermetids growth ceased and the worm rock preserved the ridges structure. Diver observations document that the edges of the ridges are currently being eroded and undermined by biological activity and current action, leading to calving of large capstone blocks.

  4. The use of the marine gastropod, Cellana tramoserica, as a biomonitor of metal contamination in near shore environments.

    PubMed

    Maher, W; Maher, N; Taylor, A; Krikowa, F; Ubrihien, R; Mikac, K M

    2016-07-01

    The use of the marine gastropod, Cellana tramoserica, as a biomonitor of metal exposure was investigated. The factors influencing metal concentrations, such as mass, gender, substrate, shoreline position and temporal variation were examined. Tissue metal concentrations were mostly found to be independent of mass and gender. When metal concentrations were significantly correlated with mass, correlations were low and explained little variability. The underlying substrate and position in the littoral zone had only a small influence on metal concentrations. Variation between individuals, inherent variability due to genetic variability, was the most significant contribution to the overall variation in metal concentrations, resulting in positive skewing of population distributions. The mean metal concentrations varied temporally; metal masses were relatively constant with fluctuations in metal concentrations related to fluctuations in metal body burdens. The populations from a metal-contaminated site had significantly higher tissue Cu, Zn, As and Pb concentrations than the populations from relatively uncontaminated locations. C. tramoserica therefore can be considered to be a net accumulator of metals. A sample number of >10 is required to detect changes of 25 % from the mean concentrations at uncontaminated locations. This species meets the requirements of a suitable biomonitor for metal contaminants in the environment i.e. hardy, sessile, widespread, sufficient tissue mass and a metal accumulator. As the measurement of metal concentrations in C. tramesoria were influenced by substrate and shore position and, sometimes, mass, sites with similar substrates and organisms of similar mass and shoreline position should be chosen for comparison. When comparing metal concentrations in gastropods from different locations, they should be collected over the same period to minimise variability due to mass differences, spawning and other seasonal/temporal effects.

  5. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

  6. Lymphatic fluctuation in the parenchymal remodeling stage of acute interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Parra, E R; Araujo, C A L; Lombardi, J G; Ab'Saber, A M; Carvalho, C R R; Kairalla, R A; Capelozzi, V L

    2012-05-01

    Because the superficial lymphatics in the lungs are distributed in the subpleural, interlobular and peribroncovascular interstitium, lymphatic impairment may occur in the lungs of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) and increase their severity. We investigated the distribution of lymphatics in different remodeling stages of IIPs by immunohistochemistry using the D2-40 antibody. Pulmonary tissue was obtained from 69 patients with acute interstitial pneumonia/diffuse alveolar damage (AIP/DAD, N = 24), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia/organizing pneumonia (COP/OP, N = 6), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP/NSIP, N = 20), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia (IPF/UIP, N = 19). D2-40+ lymphatic in the lesions was quantitatively determined and associated with remodeling stage score. We observed an increase in the D2-40+ percent from DAD (6.66 ± 1.11) to UIP (23.45 ± 5.24, P = 0.008) with the advanced process of remodeling stage of the lesions. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed a better survival for patients with higher lymphatic D2-40+ expression than 9.3%. Lymphatic impairment occurs in the lungs of IIPs and its severity increases according to remodeling stage. The results suggest that disruption of the superficial lymphatics may impair alveolar clearance, delay organ repair and cause severe disease progress mainly in patients with AIP/DAD. Therefore, lymphatic distribution may serve as a surrogate marker for the identification of patients at greatest risk for death due to IIPs.

  7. Fossil gastropods from the Indian Upper Siwaliks and their stable carbon and oxygen isotope values indicate presence of cold climatic conditions in the Early Pleistocene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Kotla, Simran

    2016-04-01

    The Early Pleistocene in general is characterized by widespread glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere. Early to Middle Pleistocene freshwater Pinjor Formation (Upper Siwalik) exposed all along the Himalayan Foothills preserves a diverse faunal and floral assemblage. We carried out paleontological (gastropods) and stable isotope (carbon and oxygen isotope) studies of a 6 m thick swamp/pond deposit (that represents ~ 12,000 yrs) of Pinjor Formation, exposed near the Village Nadah, Panchkula (Haryana) and dated to ~ 1.8 Ma (Azzaroli and Napoleon,1982). We have identified four gastropod species in the assemblage, Lymnae sp., Gyraulus sp., Viviparous bengalensis and Hippeutis complantus. The first two are widespread throughout the globe. Lymnae can exist in temperature range of 19 to 24 ° C and occur in Palearctic and Neoartic regions (animalbase.org). Gyraulus occur in Holoarctic region with temperature ranging from 17.8 to 30 ° C (animalbase.org, theaquariumwiki.com), whereas Viviparous bengalensis typically exists in the Oriental region suggesting an overall warm and humid condition (Moore,1997). Hippeutis complantus on the other hand exists in palearctic regions upto 63 ° N (Aplinarska and Cisewka 2006) under cold (6 ° to 23.3 ° C) and dry climatic conditions (Spyra., 2014).The powdered gastropod shell samples were analyzed using Continues Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS) at the Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India. The δ13C values of gastropod shells fall between -2.56‰ and 6.14‰ VPDB and suggest the dominance of C4 vegetation. The δ18O value of gastropod shell fall between -0.64‰ and -7.80‰ VPDB, suggesting fluctuation of climate between warm and cold conditions . Presence of Hippeutis complantus may suggest the extension of palearctic region up to Panchkula (Haryana, India) in the Early Pleistocene which presently lies in the Oriental Province. Therefore, our results indicate that the overall climatic condition

  8. Interstitial nephritis caused by HIV infection by itself: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Asako; Iwata, Kentaro; Hara, Shigeo; Imai, Yukihiro; Hasuike, Toshikazu; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common cause of renal dysfunction. It is primarily caused by drugs, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can develop interstitial nephritis, although it typically occurs because of the aforementioned etiologies and not as a direct consequence of HIV infection. Interstitial lesions may occur in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). However, interstitial nephritis without the glomerular injuries characteristic of HIVAN, and without the risk factors described earlier, is very rare. Here, we describe a rare case of interstitial nephritis that was likely caused directly by HIV infection and not by other etiologies. PMID:27621665

  9. Key Role of the Cation Interstitial Structure in the Radiation Resistance of Pyrochlores

    SciTech Connect

    Chartier, Alain; Catillon, Gilles; Crocombette, Jean-Paul

    2009-04-17

    The annealing of the B cation interstitial is shown to drive the thermokinetic of the response to irradiations of A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlores. Molecular dynamics simulations evidenced that the annealing of interstitials created by irradiations depends upon the nature of B. As the coordination number of B decreases, the dumbbell interstitial is stabilized at the expense of the isolated interstitial. Unlike the isolated interstitials, the recombination of the dumbbells is thermally activated and hindered at low temperatures. The occurrence of dumbbells drives the structure towards the amorphous state.

  10. Interstitial nephritis caused by HIV infection by itself: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Asako; Iwata, Kentaro; Hara, Shigeo; Imai, Yukihiro; Hasuike, Toshikazu; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common cause of renal dysfunction. It is primarily caused by drugs, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can develop interstitial nephritis, although it typically occurs because of the aforementioned etiologies and not as a direct consequence of HIV infection. Interstitial lesions may occur in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). However, interstitial nephritis without the glomerular injuries characteristic of HIVAN, and without the risk factors described earlier, is very rare. Here, we describe a rare case of interstitial nephritis that was likely caused directly by HIV infection and not by other etiologies.

  11. Interstitial nephritis caused by HIV infection by itself: a case report.

    PubMed

    Doi, Asako; Iwata, Kentaro; Hara, Shigeo; Imai, Yukihiro; Hasuike, Toshikazu; Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common cause of renal dysfunction. It is primarily caused by drugs, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can develop interstitial nephritis, although it typically occurs because of the aforementioned etiologies and not as a direct consequence of HIV infection. Interstitial lesions may occur in patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). However, interstitial nephritis without the glomerular injuries characteristic of HIVAN, and without the risk factors described earlier, is very rare. Here, we describe a rare case of interstitial nephritis that was likely caused directly by HIV infection and not by other etiologies. PMID:27621665

  12. Paclitaxel attenuates renal interstitial fibroblast activation and interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting STAT3 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Xuan; Yang, Ruhao; Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Shixuan; Yang, Junqin; Xiang, Xudong; He, Zhibiao; Zhao, Yu; Dong, Zheng; Zhang, Dongshan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that paclitaxel might inhibit renal fibrosis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we hypothesized that low-dose paclitaxel may block the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) signaling to attenuate fibrosis in a mouse model with unilateral ureteral obstruction. Both NRK-49F cells and mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction were treated with paclitaxel. The results showed that paclitaxel treatment resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3, and inhibited the expression of fibronectin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen I in cultured NRK-49F cells. S3I-201, an STAT3 inhibitor, also suppressed the expression of fibronectin, α-SMA, and collagen I in cultured NRK-49F cells. Mechanistically, paclitaxel treatment blocked the STAT3 activity by disrupting the association of STAT3 with tubulin and inhibiting STAT3 nucleus translocation. Furthermore, paclitaxel also ameliorated renal fibrosis by down-regulating the expression of fibronectin, α-SMA, and collagen I, and suppressed the infiltration of macrophages and production of TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β, and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) by inhibition of STAT3 activity in obstructive nephropathy. These results suggest that paclitaxel may block the STAT3 activity by disrupting the association of STAT3 with tubulin and inhibiting STAT3 nucleus translocation, consequently leading to the suppression of renal interstitial fibroblast activation and the development of renal fibrosis, and inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:25931810

  13. Differential fitness of allelic isozymes in the marine gastropods Littorina punctata and Littorina neritoides, exposed to the environmental stress of the combined effects of cadmium and mercury pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavie, Batia; Nevo, Eviatar

    1987-07-01

    The present study tested the separate and the interactive pollution effects of cadmium and mercury on the electrophoretically detected allelic isozyme frequencies of the enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase for two species of littoral marine gastropods — Littorina punctata and L. neritoides — and the enzyme amino peptidase for L. neritoides. Our results indicate differential survivorship of allelic isozyme genotypes specific for each type of pollutant and for their interaction, as well as trends common to all pollutants. Theoretically the results reflect the adaptive nature of at least some allozymic genotypes in these marine gastropods and seem inconsistent with the neutral theory of allozyme polymorphisms. Practically, the results reinforce earlier conclusions that changes in the frequency of allelic isozymes may be used as a genetic monitor of pollution.

  14. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Leg 22

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Waterman, Lee S.; Sayles, Frederick L.

    1974-01-01

    Interstitial waters from Leg 22 in the Indian Ocean revealed two unique results: Site 214, on the Ninetyeast Ridge, penetrated through a 30-meter sequence of fine-grained basalt and reentered hard, silty clay containing carbonate skeletal debris. Such a basalt layer may well have been impervious and extensive enough to seal off underlying (fossil) seawater of Paleocene age. However, except for a marked increase in calcium and a slight increase in chloride, no appreciable changes in pore fluid chemistry could be confirmed. Site 217, at the northernmost end of the Ninetyeast Ridge, demonstrated record concentrations of interstitial calcium in clayey nannofossil oozes and a relatively small but significant increment in chloride with depth. Presumably, these increments signal the existence of evaporitic sediments or evaporite-influenced brines at considerably greater depth than penetrated.

  15. Phenomenological model of interstitial fluid pressure in a solid tumor.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Brown, S L; Ewing, J R; Schlesinger, M

    2011-08-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) has the potential to predict tumor response to nonsurgical cancer treatments, including radiation therapy. At present the only quantitative measures available are of limited use, since they are invasive and yield only point measurements. We present the mathematical framework for a quantitative, noninvasive measure of TIFP. The model describes the distribution of interstitial fluid pressure in three distinct tumor regions: vascularized tumor rim, central tumor region, and normal tissue. A relationship between the TIFP and the fluid flow velocity at the periphery of a tumor is presented. This model suggests that a measure of fluid flow rate from a tumor into normal tissue reflects TIFP. We demonstrate that the acquisition of serial images of a tumor after the injection of a contrast agent can provide a noninvasive and potentially quantitative measure of TIFP.

  16. Clinical spectrum of chronic interstitial lung disease in children.

    PubMed

    Fan, L L; Mullen, A L; Brugman, S M; Inscore, S C; Parks, D P; White, C W

    1992-12-01

    To describe the clinical spectrum of interstitial lung disease in children, we reviewed our experience with 48 patients during a 12-year period. Most patients initially had typical findings of restrictive lung disease and hypoxemia. Growth failure or pulmonary hypertension or both were found in more than one third. Specific diagnosis, made in 35 patients (70%), most often required invasive studies, particularly open lung biopsy. Although the diagnostic yield from open lung biopsy was high, the diagnosis of many patients remained uncertain. Many different disorders were encountered. The response to corticosteroids, bronchodilators, and chloroquine was inconsistent. Six patients died, five within 1 year after the initial evaluation. The spectrum of pediatric interstitial lung disease includes a large, heterogeneous group of rare disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

  17. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Schweitzer, K.A.; McKinney, R.A.; Phelps, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial waters did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  18. Contaminated marine sediments: Water column and interstitial toxic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; McKinney, R.A. ); Schweitzer, K.A. ); Phelps, D.K. )

    1993-01-01

    The toxicity that contaminated sediments may introduce into the water column has not been measured extensively. In order to quantify this potential toxicity, the seawater overlying two uncontaminated and three contaminated marine sediments was evaluated in the laboratory with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata fertilization test. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and copper, as representative contaminants, were also measured. To characterize sources of toxicity, samples were chemically manipulated using reversed-phase chromatography, cation exchange, and chelation. Water column toxicity and contaminant concentrations were higher in the suspended exposures than in bedded exposures. Interstitial water toxicity and contaminant concentrations were generally greater than either bedded or suspended exposures. Chemical manipulation indicated that the observed toxicity in water column exposures was probably caused by metallic and/or nonionic organic contaminants. Conversely, manipulation of interstitial water did not result in significantly reduced toxicity, suggesting that other toxicants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may be active.

  19. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    PubMed

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue.

  20. Acute interstitial nephritis due to proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sampathkumar, K; Ramalingam, R; Prabakar, A; Abraham, A

    2013-07-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are commonly prescribed for dyspepsia and acid peptic disease. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an uncommon though important side-effect of these classes of drugs. We describe four cases: three females and one male. PPIs implicated were pantoprazole in two, omeprazole and esomeprazole in one each. AIN developed after an average period of 4 weeks of drug therapy. The symptoms were vomiting, loin pain, and oliguria. Minimal proteinuria with pyuria were seen and the mean serum creatinine was 4.95 ± 4 mg/dl. Two patients required hemodialysis. Renal biopsy showed interstitial mononuclear, plasma cell and eosinophilic infiltrates in all cases. PPI was stopped and steroids were started in all. Renal recovery was total in two and partial in two. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose PPI induced AIN. Renal biopsy for confirmation followed up by prompt steroid therapy results in renal functional improvement. PMID:23960351

  1. Acute interstitial nephritis due to proton pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sampathkumar, K.; Ramalingam, R.; Prabakar, A.; Abraham, A.

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are commonly prescribed for dyspepsia and acid peptic disease. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is an uncommon though important side-effect of these classes of drugs. We describe four cases: three females and one male. PPIs implicated were pantoprazole in two, omeprazole and esomeprazole in one each. AIN developed after an average period of 4 weeks of drug therapy. The symptoms were vomiting, loin pain, and oliguria. Minimal proteinuria with pyuria were seen and the mean serum creatinine was 4.95 ± 4 mg/dl. Two patients required hemodialysis. Renal biopsy showed interstitial mononuclear, plasma cell and eosinophilic infiltrates in all cases. PPI was stopped and steroids were started in all. Renal recovery was total in two and partial in two. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose PPI induced AIN. Renal biopsy for confirmation followed up by prompt steroid therapy results in renal functional improvement. PMID:23960351

  2. Drug-Induced Acute Interstitial Nephritis with Nifedipine

    PubMed Central

    Golbin, Léonard; Dolley-Hitze, Thibault; Lorcy, Nolwenn; Rioux-Leclercq, Nathalie; Vigneau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a frequent cause of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Drug hypersensitivity is the most common etiology and the list of drugs that can induce AIN is not exhaustive yet. Case Report. Here, we describe the case of a 43-year-old man who was treated with nifedipine (Adalate®) for Raynaud's syndrome. After nifedipine introduction, serum creatininemia progressively increased from 91 to 188 μmol/L in a few months and AKI was diagnosed. Laboratory work-up results indicated the presence of tubular proteinuria and nonspecific inflammatory syndrome. Histological analysis found granulomatous interstitial nephropathy without necrosis in 20% of the kidney biopsy without immunofluorescent deposit. Nifedipine was stopped and corticosteroid treatment was started with a rapid but incomplete reduction of serum creatininemia level to 106 μmol/L. Conclusion. This is the first case of AIN caused by nifedipine. PMID:26955492

  3. Sleep disordered breathing in interstitial lung disease: A review

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Lauren K; Corte, Tamera J

    2014-01-01

    Patients with interstitial lung disease commonly exhibit abnormal sleep architecture and increased sleep fragmentation on polysomnography. Fatigue is a frequent complaint, and it is likely that poor sleep quality is a significant contributor. A number of studies have shown that sleep disordered breathing is prevalent in this population, particularly in the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis subgroup. The factors that predispose these patients to obstructive sleep apnoea are not well understood, however it is believed that reduced caudal traction on the upper airway can enhance collapsibility. Ventilatory control system instability may also be an important factor, particularly in those with increased chemo-responsiveness, and in hypoxic conditions. Transient, repetitive nocturnal oxygen desaturation is frequently observed in interstitial lung disease, both with and without associated obstructive apnoeas. There is increasing evidence that sleep-desaturation is associated with increased mortality, and may be important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in this population. PMID:25516856

  4. Sleep disordered breathing in interstitial lung disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Troy, Lauren K; Corte, Tamera J

    2014-12-16

    Patients with interstitial lung disease commonly exhibit abnormal sleep architecture and increased sleep fragmentation on polysomnography. Fatigue is a frequent complaint, and it is likely that poor sleep quality is a significant contributor. A number of studies have shown that sleep disordered breathing is prevalent in this population, particularly in the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis subgroup. The factors that predispose these patients to obstructive sleep apnoea are not well understood, however it is believed that reduced caudal traction on the upper airway can enhance collapsibility. Ventilatory control system instability may also be an important factor, particularly in those with increased chemo-responsiveness, and in hypoxic conditions. Transient, repetitive nocturnal oxygen desaturation is frequently observed in interstitial lung disease, both with and without associated obstructive apnoeas. There is increasing evidence that sleep-desaturation is associated with increased mortality, and may be important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in this population. PMID:25516856

  5. Increased bladder permeability in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Wisniewski, Amy B.; VanGordon, Samuel; Lin, HsuehKung; Kropp, Bradley P.; Towner, Rheal A.

    2015-01-01

    The definition of interstitial cystitis (IC) has evolved over the years from being a well-defined entity characterized by diagnostic lesion (Hunner’s ulcer) in the urothelium to a clinical diagnosis by exclusion [painful bladder syndrome (PBS)]. Although the etiology is unknown, a central theme has been an association with increased permeability of the bladder. This article reviews the evidence for increased permeability being important to the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and in treating the disorder. Recent work showing cross-communication among visceral organs is also reviewed to provide a basis for understanding IC/PBS as a systemic disorder of a complex, interconnected system consisting of the bladder, bowel and other organs, nerves, cytokine-responding cells and the nervous system. PMID:26751576

  6. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    PubMed

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue. PMID:27665563

  7. Intraoperative interstitial microwave-induced hyperthermia and brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, C T; Wong, T Z; Strohbehn, J W; Colacchio, T A; Sutton, J E; Belch, R Z; Douple, E B

    1985-09-01

    Intra-operative placement of 11-gauge nylon catheters into deep-seated unresectable tumors for interstitial brachytherapy permits localized heating of tumors (hyperthermia) using microwave (915 MHz) antennas which are inserted into these catheters. Four preliminary cases are described where epithelial tumors at various sites were implanted with an antenna array and heated for 1 hour, both before and after the iridium-192 brachytherapy. Temperatures were monitored in catheters required for the appropriate radiation dosimetry but not required for the interstitial microwave antenna array hyperthermia (IMAAH) system. Additional thermometry was obtained using nonperturbed fiberoptic thermometry probes inserted into the catheters' housing antennas. No significant complications, such as bleeding or infection, were observed. This approach to cancer therapy is shown to be feasible and it produces controlled, localized hyperthermia, with temperatures of 50 degrees C or more in tumors. This technique may offer a therapeutic option for pelvic, intra-abdominal and head and neck tumors.

  8. DFT STUDY REVISES INTERSTITIAL CONFIGURATIONS IN HCP Zr

    SciTech Connect

    Samolyuk, German D; Golubov, Stanislav I; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of experimental result on microstructure evolution in irradiated Zr and alloys has demonstrated that available knowledge on self-interstitial defects in Zr is in contradiction. We therefore have initiated an extensive theoretical and modeling program to clarify this issue. In this report we present first ab initio calculations results of single SIA configurations in Zr. We demonstrate importance of simulations cell size, applied exchange-correlation functional and simulated c/a ratio. The results obtained demonstrate clearly that the most stable configurations are in basal plane and provide some evidences for enhanced interstitial transport along basal planes. The results obtained will be used in generation a new interatomic potential for Zr to be used in large-scale atomistic modeling of mechanisms relevant for radiation-induced microstructure evolution.

  9. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant.

  10. Trace elements in shells of common gastropods in the near vicinity of a natural CO2 vent: no evidence of pH-dependent contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, J. B.; Amsler, C. D.; Amsler, M. O.; Duquette, A.; Angus, R. A.; Hall-Spencer, J. M.; Milazzo, M.

    2014-04-01

    There is concern that the use of natural volcanic CO2 vents as analogs for studies of the impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms are biased due to physiochemical influences other than seawater pH alone. One issue that has been raised is whether potentially harmful trace elements in sediments that are rendered more soluble and labile in low pH environments are made more bioavailable, and sequestered in the local flora and fauna at harmful levels. In order to evaluate this hypothesis, we analyzed the concentrations of trace elements in shells (an established proxy for tissues) of four species of gastropods (two limpets, a topshell and a whelk) collected from three sites in Levante Bay, Vulcano Island. Each sampling site increased in distance from the primary CO2 vent and thus represented low, moderate, and ambient seawater pH conditions. Concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, and V measured in shells using ICP-OES were below detection thresholds for all four gastropod species at all three sites. However, there were measurable concentrations of Sr, Mn, and U in the shells of the limpets Patella caerulea, P. rustica, and the snail Osilinus turbinatus, and similarly, Sr, Mn, U, and also Zn in the shells of the whelk Hexaplex trunculus. Levels of these elements were within the ranges measured in gastropod shells in non-polluted environments, and with the exception of U in the shells of P. caerulea, where the concentration was significantly lower at the collecting site closest to the vent (low pH site), there were no site-specific spatial differences in concentrations for any of the trace elements in shells. Thus trace element enhancement in sediments in low-pH environments was not reflected in greater bioaccumulations of potentially harmful elements in the shells of common gastropods.

  11. An evaluation of Mesodon and other larger terrestrial gastropod shells for dating late Holocene and historic alluvium in the Midwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rakovan, Monica T.; Rech, Jason A.; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Nekola, Jeffery C.; Wiles, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the history of stream erosion and changes in channel morphology is important for managing and restoring unstable streams. One of the significant challenges in this type of research is establishing accurate dating of late Holocene and historic alluvium. Here we evaluate the potential of using 14C dating and amino acid racemization (AAR) to date large terrestrial gastropod shells that are often preserved within alluvial sediments. Many terrestrial gastropods incorporate old carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks into their shells and therefore are unsuitable for radiocarbon dating. Recent studies, however, have shown that some taxa avoid this ‘limestone problem’ and can yield reliable 14C ages. In this study, we measured the 14C activity of specimens for the genera Mesodon, Ventridens, and Allogona collected live and from alluvial sequences dated independently by dendrochronology, 14C dating of wood, and/or 137Cs analyses. Mesodon zaletus contained old carbon in similar concentrations (up to ~ 30%) found in previous studies of other large taxa and should be avoided for 14C dating when possible. In contrast, shells of Ventridens ligera and Allogona profunda showed minimal limestone effects and therefore may be suitable for dating late Holocene alluvium. These results highlight the importance of taxonomic identification of gastropod taxa prior to their use for 14C dating and demonstrate that shell fragments that are not identifiable should be avoided. We also measured d/l ratios (n = 17) of aspartic and glutamic acid from eight different taxa of terrestrial gastropods recovered from four late Holocene and historic stratigraphic sequences. Average d/l ratios of aspartic and glutamic acid from historic sediments < 300 years old are lower in shells from younger stratigraphic units, indicating that AAR can be used to differentiate between multiple historic stratigraphic units.

  12. A case of systemic karyomegaly associated with interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Vadiaka, M; Sotsiou, F; Koufos, C

    1998-09-01

    A case of systemic karyomegaly is described for the first time in Greece. This rare disease entity was first described in 1979 by Mihatsh and so far only nine cases have been reported. Typical clinical features are progressive renal failure in the third decade of life and recurrent infections, mostly of the upper respiratory tract. Typical histologic findings are markedly enlarged and hyperchromic nuclei in tubular cells of the nephron and interstitial fibrosis surrounding the atrophic tubules.

  13. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population. PMID:27068927

  14. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias with connective tissue diseases features: A review.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    A systematic approach is recommended to search for clinical and biological features of connective tissue disease (CTD) in any patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD). In the diagnostic approach to ILD, a diagnosis of CTD should be considered particularly in women and subjects younger than 50 years, and in those with an imaging and/or pathological pattern of non-specific interstitial pneumonia. However, the diagnosis of CTD may be difficult when ILD is the presenting or the dominant manifestation of CTD. A proportion of patients with ILD present symptoms that belong to the spectrum of CTD and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given CTD. Some imaging and histopathological patterns may also suggest the presence of an underlying CTD. Although studies published to date used heterogeneous definitions and terminology for this condition, evidence is accumulating that even limited CTD features are relevant regarding symptoms, imaging features, pathological pattern and possibly evolution to overt CTD, whereas the impact on prognosis needs confirmation. Conversely, autoantibodies alone do not seem to impact the prognosis or management in patients with otherwise typical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and no extra-pulmonary manifestation. A collective international multidisciplinary effort has proposed a uniform definition and criteria for 'interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features', a condition characterized by limited CTD features occurring in the setting of ILD, with the aim of fostering future clinical studies. Referral of ILD patients suspect to have CTD to a rheumatologist and possibly multidisciplinary discussion may contribute to a better management.

  15. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF TESTICULAR INTERSTITIAL CELLS IN GUINEA PIGS

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, A. Kent

    1965-01-01

    In guinea pig testes perfused with either glutaraldehyde or osmium tetroxide fixative, the cytoplasm of the interstitial cells contains an exceptionally abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum. The reticulum in central regions of the cell is a network of interconnected tubules, but in extensive peripheral areas the reticulum is commonly organized into closely packed, flattened cisternae which are fenestrated. Occasional small patches of the granular reticulum occur in the cytoplasm and connect freely with the agranular reticulum. The mitochondria have a dense matrix and contain cristae and some tubules. The Golgi complex is disperse and shows no evidence of secretory material. The cytoplasm also contains lipid droplets. Lipofuscin pigment granules are probably polymorphic residual bodies and contain three components: (1) a dense material which at high magnification shows a 75-A periodicity; (2) a medium-sized lipid droplet; and (3) a cap-like structure. In glutaraldehyde-perfused testis the interstitial cell cytoplasm appears to have the same density from cell to cell, and the agranular reticulum is tubular or cisternal but not in the form of empty vesicles. Thus the "dark" and "light" cells and the vesicular agranular reticulum sometimes encountered in other fixations may be artifacts. Biochemical results from other laboratories, correlated with the present findings, indicate that the membranes of the agranular endoplasmic reticulum in guinea pig interstitial cells are the site of at least two enzymes of androgen biosynthesis, the 17-hydroxylase and the 17-desmolase. PMID:19866687

  16. Interstitial trapped hydrogen molecules in PECVD amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Borzi, R.; Mascarenhas, F.; Fedders, P.A.; Leopold, D.J.; Norberg, R.E.; Wickboldt, P.; Paul, W.

    1999-07-01

    New NMR measurements show that interstitial T site-trapped molecular hydrogen can amount to more than one third of the contained hydrogen in high quality PECVD amorphous silicon. Microvoid-contained dense molecular hydrogen is negligible in these good films. Experiments on a sequence of hydrogenated and/or deuterated a-Si films have characterized individually-trapped molecular HD and D{sub 2} in films deposited from SiD{sub 4}, and from SiH{sub 4}+D{sub 2}. The T site-trapped molecular hydrogen fraction observed here is larger than previously reported because of recent efforts to measure very slowly relaxing molecular components and the employment of radiofrequency pulse sequences to detect ortho-D{sub 2} with nuclear spin I = 2. The population of interstitially trapped molecular hydrogen increases with increasing photovoltaic quality over a range of an order of magnitude in photoresponse product {eta}{mu}{tau}. Above 200 K, hopping transport of molecular hydrogen among the amorphous equivalent of interstitial T sites occurs with an activation energy near 50 meV.

  17. Neural network approach for differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asada, Naoki; Doi, Kunio; MacMahon, Heber; Montner, Steven M.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Abe, Chihiro; Wu, Chris Y.

    1990-07-01

    A neural network approach was applied for the differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. The neural network was designed for distinguishing between 9 types of interstitial lung diseases based on 20 items of clinical and radiographic information. A database for training and testing the neural network was created with 10 hypothetical cases for each of the 9 diseases. The performance of the neural network was evaluated by ROC analysis. The optimal parameters for the current neural network were determined by selecting those yielding the highest ROC curves. In this case the neural network consisted of one hidden layer including 6 units and was trained with 200 learning iterations. When the decision performances of the neural network chest radiologists and senior radiology residents were compared the neural network indicated high performance comparable to that of chest radiologists and superior to that of senior radiology residents. Our preliminary results suggested strongly that the neural network approach had potential utility in the computer-aided differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases. 1_

  18. Relationship of jute dust to interstitial fibrosis in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xiaobin; Lou, Jiezhi; Liu, Zhenlin

    2003-03-01

    The relationship between jute dust and lung interstitial fibrosis was studied by instilling groups of rats, via trachea, with jute dust and comparing the results with those for positive (quartz) and negative (saline) controls. The rats were sacrificed at regular intervals and their lungs and hilar lymph nodes were analyzed for collagen content and morphologic changes. The earliest changes consisted of alveolar edema, increased numbers of intraalveolar macrophages, and marked thickening of the interalveolar septa, with mixed cellular infiltrates. Moderate thickening of the alveolar walls and the zones around the peribronchioles was seen in the test groups at 6 mo. After 12 mo, some fibrosis of the alveoli walls and peribronchiole zones occurred. Interstitial cellular nodules were observed occasionally, composed mainly of dust particles, fibroblasts, reticular fibers, and collagen fibers. The collagen content in the lungs of the jute dust groups was significantly higher than for the saline control group for all test periods. The authors conclude that jute dust may induce lung interstitial fibrosis.

  19. The Multifaceted Aspects of Interstitial Lung Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Vittorio; Scorletti, Eva; Crepaldi, Gloria; Caporali, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a relevant extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may occur either in early stages or as a complication of long-standing disease. RA related ILD (RA-ILD) significantly influences the quoad vitam prognosis of these patients. Several histopathological patterns of RA-ILD have been described: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most frequent one, followed by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP); other patterns are less commonly observed. Several factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing RA-ILD. The genetic background plays a fundamental but not sufficient role; smoking is an independent predictor of ILD, and a correlation with the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies has also been reported. Moreover, both exnovo occurrence and progression of ILD have been related to drug therapies that are commonly prescribed in RA, such as methotrexate, leflunomide, anti-TNF alpha agents, and rituximab. A greater understanding of the disease process is necessary in order to improve the therapeutic approach to ILD and RA itself and to reduce the burden of this severe extra-articular manifestation. PMID:24205507

  20. Immunosuppressive agents and interstitial lung disease: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2014-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is unlikely to respond to immunosuppressive therapies, and patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis may be harmed by such therapy. In contrast, some forms of interstitial lung disease can respond well to treatment with immunosuppressive drug therapies. Such agents can, however, be associated with significant risk of adverse effects such as infection, diabetes, osteoporosis, myopathy, bone marrow suppression, hepatitis, urinary tract injury, and drug-induced pneumonitis. Treating clinicians must be aware of potential adverse reactions to any immunosuppressive drug that they prescribe for their patients, and they should implement appropriate pre-therapy screening (e.g., tuberculosis, hepatitis, renal insufficiency) and monitoring that is recommended to avoid/minimize risk during the treatment period. Some disorders (e.g., cellular non-specific interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, or sarcoidosis) may respond very well to immunosuppressive therapies including corticosteroids as monotherapy, and the use of steroid-sparing agents can minimize corticosteroid side effects and may enhance treatment efficacy for disorders such as sarcoidosis or connective tissue disease-associated forms of interstitial lung disease.

  1. The multifaceted aspects of interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Lorenzo; Monti, Sara; Grosso, Vittorio; Boffini, Nicola; Scorletti, Eva; Crepaldi, Gloria; Caporali, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a relevant extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that may occur either in early stages or as a complication of long-standing disease. RA related ILD (RA-ILD) significantly influences the quoad vitam prognosis of these patients. Several histopathological patterns of RA-ILD have been described: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most frequent one, followed by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP); other patterns are less commonly observed. Several factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing RA-ILD. The genetic background plays a fundamental but not sufficient role; smoking is an independent predictor of ILD, and a correlation with the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies has also been reported. Moreover, both exnovo occurrence and progression of ILD have been related to drug therapies that are commonly prescribed in RA, such as methotrexate, leflunomide, anti-TNF alpha agents, and rituximab. A greater understanding of the disease process is necessary in order to improve the therapeutic approach to ILD and RA itself and to reduce the burden of this severe extra-articular manifestation.

  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, David N; Armstrong, Michelle E; Cooke, Gordon; Dodd, Jonathan D; Veale, Douglas J; Donnelly, Seamas C

    2013-10-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) and represents an increasing burden on global health resources. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades. New studies have underscored a significant lifetime risk of ILD development in RA. Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA-UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA-ILD and the prognostic implications of same. We emphasise the need for translational research in this area given the growing burden of RA-ILD. We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA-ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. We also discuss some of the more challenging and novel aspects of therapy for RA-ILD.

  3. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis: report of 10 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Handa, S P

    1986-01-01

    Between January 1979 and June 1985, 10 patients with acute allergic interstitial nephritis were seen in a clinical nephrology service at a large regional hospital. The onset of renal failure was temporally related to the use of a drug: a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) (in four patients), cimetidine (in three), antibiotics (in two) or allopurinol (in one). The onset of renal failure was acute in three patients and insidious in seven. Two patients also exhibited marked proteinuria. Clinical features such as fever, rash, hematuria, pyuria with or without eosinophiluria, and mild to marked proteinuria had led to suspicion of the disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by renal biopsy findings of inflammatory cells, predominantly lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. Three patients required hemodialysis; two of them received steroids as well. Steroid therapy was also used in two patients with NSAID-induced proteinuria. Renal function improved in nine patients by 35 days, but one patient continued to have slow but progressive deterioration of renal function. Acute interstitial nephritis can be distinguished from other forms of acute renal failure by heavy renal uptake of gallium 67, maximal 48 hours or more after injection. The improvement in renal function after discontinuation of the implicated drug, the characteristic histopathological findings of allergic interstitial nephritis, and the presence of eosinophils and sometimes IgE in the blood suggest a hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:3779558

  4. Ultrasound interstitial thermal therapy (USITT) in the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nau, William H.; Diederich, Chris J.; Deardorff, Dana L.

    1999-05-01

    This research represents an experimental investigation of the use of interstitial catheter-cooled ultrasound applicators in various treatment strategies for the management of localized prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The anticipated clinical approaches under consideration were: (1) Ultrasound Interstitial Thermal therapy (USITT) alone for treatment of the whole gland, (2) high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy with USITT to treat local recurrences or extracapsular extensions of the disease, and (3) sequence HDR brachytherapy and hyperthermia. Directional multielement catheter-cooled ultrasound applicators were fabricated using cylindrical piezoceramic transducers which can be inserted into 13 or 14 gage catheters. The applicators were characterized through measurements of acoustic power output, and beam profile distributions in degassed water. Thermal lesion formation studies were performed in an in vitro setup using fresh beef muscle. Various implant strategies were evaluated for the ability to control the temperature distribution within a pre-determined volume of tissue. Lesions extending more than 15 mm from the applicator surface were generated within 5 minutes of heating. Preliminary results from this study demonstrate the versatility of catheter-cooled interstitial ultrasound applicators, and their potential to provide controlled thermal therapy in the prostate.

  5. Interstitial deletion of 13q associated with polymicrogyria.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Jillene M; Egelhoff, John C; Saal, Howard M

    2008-04-01

    Interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 13 is a rare condition characterized by multiple clinical findings. We report a male dizygotic twin with an interstitial deletion of 13q and failure to thrive, hypotonia, polymicrogyria, bilateral foci of retinoblastoma, hearing loss, bilateral inguinal hernias, submucous cleft palate, and dysmorphic features including a triangular shaped face, broad forehead, small chin, prominent eyes, downslanting palpebral fissures, and a downturned mouth. Chromosome analysis showed an interstitial deletion of chromosome 13 which was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to include the Rb locus, but spare the 13q subtelomeric region. The karyotype was 46,XY,del(13)(q14.1q31.2).ish del(13)(RB1-,D13S327+) de novo. Breakpoints were further characterized by SNP-based microarray. Retinoblastoma tumors are a well-known complication of deletion of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene, located at chromosome 13q14.2. Growth retardation is another common feature that has been described in other patients with a deletion of 13q. Additionally, this patient had brain findings on MRI consistent with bilateral polymicrogyria with predominance of the frontal lobes, as well as prominent infratentorial and supratentorial vasculature. There are a variety of polymicrogyria syndromes that are distinguished by the cortical location of the abnormal folding. Several of the subtypes have known genetic loci associated with them. To our knowledge, this is the only report of polymicrogyria in association with a deletion of chromosome 13.

  6. Mg and 18O Variations in the Shell of the Chilean Gastropod Concholepas concholepas Reflect SST and Growth Rate variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, N.; Lazareth, C. E.; Poitrasson, F.; Cuif, J.; Ortlieb, L.

    2004-12-01

    To validate the use of fossil mollusc shells as recorders of environmental conditions, a primary calibration study was carried out on modern shells of the Chilean gastropod Concholepas concholepas, the so-called southern hemisphere abalone which is particularly abundant in Holocene archaeological sites. Organisms were maintained in culture tanks and feed with live mytilids. The sea water temperature in the tank was recorded every half-an-hour by an automatic device. The experiment lasted several months. Periodical marking with calcein provided a precise chronological control of the shell growth. Thus, well-dated high resolution chemical profiles could be directly compared with temperatures during shell formation. Geochemical analyses of the calcite layers include Mg, Sr and 16O/18O composition. Trace elements were analysed using Laser Ablation ICP-MS and Electron Microprobe while stable isotopes were measured on a Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry (SIMS). The shell growth rate during two months of formation varied between 30 and 140 µm/day which allows us to reach a temporal resolution for chemical profiles between a few hours and three days. The growth rate variations do not seem to be related to temperature fluctuations. Only Mg content was analytically reproducible and showed significant variations across the shells. The Mg high-resolution profiles display a grossly sinusoidal shape. Shells from different sites along the coasts of Chile showed mean Mg contents of 300 ppm and 500 ppm for mean temperatures of 17 and 20° C, respectively. This suggests a gross correlation between Mg and temperature. However, high resolution Mg results do not show an exact fitting neither with temperature nor with growth rates. Other parameters, like shell ageing as suggested by an amplitude increase observed near the edge of one of the shells, or other complex biological factors, may influence Mg incorporation into the shell. \\delta 18O values of the calcite vary between -1,5 and 2

  7. Gas seep induced interstitial water circulation: observations and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, S. C. M.; Dando, P. R.; Schuster, U.; Bennis, A.; Boyle, J. D.; Chui, F. T. W.; Hatherell, T. V. J.; Niven, S. J.; Taylor, L. J.

    1995-07-01

    An interstitial water circulation, generated by gas flow through a permeable sediment, was observed at an intertidal site on the Kattegat coast of Denmark. Concentrations of methane dissolved in the interstitial water of the near-surface sediment decreased sharply only centimetres away from gas seeps venting almost pure methane (≈99% methane). Water was driven out of the sediment by the rising bubbles of gas at the seep and was replaced by an equivalent draw-down of overlying, oxygenated water into the surrounding sediment. This process steepened the chemical gradients close to the gas flow channel, with the effects progressively diminishing with increasing distance from the seep. The position of the redox potential discontinuity (RPD) moved by as much as 7 cm deeper into the sediment close to the seep: this effect was less marked, but still detectable, 50 cm away. The degree of displacement from the "normal" sediment profiles depended on the magnitude of the interstitial flow rate. The distribution of pore water pH and sulphate: sodium ratios were also dependent on the flow rate of the circulating water. The concentrations of sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphite in the interstitial water from the top 10 cm of sediment, were high at a seep, decreased to a minimum at 20-30 cm distance, then increased again at 40-50 cm distance. Laboratory experiments confirmed that gas bubbling through a fluid filled permeable matrix generated a flow, out of the sediment at the gas exit and into the sediment over the peripheral surfaces surrounding the outlet. Experimentally determined rates of dispersion, for gas flow rates of 3-20 ml min -1, for a 40 g l -1 sodium chloride solution, were 62.5 × 10 -9 to 540 × 10 -9 m 2 s -1, 40-400 times the molecular diffusion coefficient. Linear interstitial fluid velocities of 3-12 mm min -1, were recorded at 14-3 cm from the seep axis respectively, with a gas flow rate of 5 ml min -1. Two-dimensional modelling of the experimental system

  8. Acute interstitial pneumonitis. Case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vourlekis, J S; Brown, K K; Cool, C D; Young, D A; Cherniack, R M; King, T E; Schwarz, M I

    2000-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP) is an acute, idiopathic interstitial lung disease characterized by rapidly progressive diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia requiring hospitalization. The case-fatality ratio is high. Previous reports suggested that survivors of the acute event have a favorable outcome. We undertook this study to examine the natural history of survivors. We had observed several patients who experienced recurrent episodes of AIP and chronic progressive interstitial lung disease. We sought to determine longitudinal survival in these patients and to compare our experience with that in the medical literature. Overall, we identified 13 biopsy-proven cases of AIP. The mean patient age was 54 years in our review, which is identical to previous reports. Twelve patients were hospitalized and all 12 required mechanical ventilation. Overall hospital survival was 67%. All patients demonstrated abnormalities in gas exchange at presentation. Radiographs typically demonstrated bilateral patchy densities that progressed to a diffuse alveolar filling pattern in nearly all cases. All biopsy specimens showed organizing diffuse alveolar damage. Longitudinal data were available for 7 patients. Two died of AIP recurrences. A third died of complications of heart failure shortly after hospital discharge. One patient progressed to end-stage lung disease and required lung transplantation. Two patients experienced persistent pulmonary symptoms, accompanied in 1 by progressive lung fibrosis. One patient had nearly complete recovery of lung function 2 years following AIP. (Follow-up information was unavailable for 2 survivors.) In our literature review, 5 of 7 patients reported experienced some recovery of lung function. One case of progressive interstitial lung disease requiring lung transplantation was reported. The reported mortality was much higher than in our experience (74% versus 33%). The mean time from symptom onset to death was 26 days, compared with 34

  9. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowlton, William Barthelemy

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Lisp+) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Lisp+ drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Lisp+ drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Lisp+ drifting. The Osb i concentration was measured ({˜}2× 10sp{15}\\ cmsp{-3}) by local vibrational mode Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and did not vary radially across the wafer. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Lisp+ drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Lisp+ drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Lisp+ drift process. The precipitates were characterized using selected area diffraction (SAD) and image contrast analysis. The results suggested that the precipitates may cause stacking faults and their identity may be lithium silicides such as Lisb{21}Sisb5\\ and\\ Lisb{13}Sisb4. TEM revealed a decreasing distribution of Li precipitates as a function of Lisp+ drift depth along the growth direction. A preliminary model is presented that simulates Lisp+ drifting. The objective of the model is to incorporate the Li precipitate density distribution and Lisp+ drift depth to extract the size and capture cross-section of the D-defects. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. However, Lisp+ drifting has shown that D-defects are indeed still present. Lisp+ drifting is able to detect D-defects at concentrations lower than conventional techniques. Lisp+ drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the

  10. Lattice site specific diffusion properties for substitutional and interstitial impurity atoms in ZnO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqoob, Faisal; Huang, Mengbing

    2016-09-01

    Fundamental understanding of impurity diffusion in crystals remains a challenge due to lack of experimental capabilities for measuring the diffusion properties of atoms according to their substitutional and interstitial lattice locations. With examples of indium and silver in ZnO crystals, we demonstrate an ion beam based method to experimentally determine the energetics and entropy changes in diffusion of substitutional and interstitial impurity atoms. While the interstitial Ag diffuses much faster than the substitutional Ag, as normally expected, the interstitial In migrates slower than the substitutional In, which is attributed to a large negative entropy change (˜-10 kB), possibly caused by the large atomic size of In. The activation energy and the diffusivity pre-exponential factor for the interstitial Ag are significantly enhanced, being more than a factor of two and ˜13 orders of magnitude, respectively, relative to the case for the interstitial In. This implies two different diffusion mechanisms between these two types of interstitial atoms in ZnO crystals: the direct interstitial diffusion mechanism for the interstitial In and the kick-out diffusion mechanism for the interstitial Ag. In addition, the activation energies and the diffusivity prefactors follow the Meyer-Neldel relationship with an excitation energy of ˜92 meV.

  11. Clinical Features of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis-Related Autoantibody in Comparison with Interstitial Pneumonia with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Hideaki; Hagiwara, Eri; Kitamura, Hideya; Yamanaka, Yumie; Ikeda, Satoshi; Sekine, Akimasa; Baba, Tomohisa; Iso, Shinichiro; Okudela, Koji; Iwasawa, Tae; Takemura, Tamiko; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Ogura, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias sometimes have a few features of connective tissue disease (CTD) and yet do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for any specific CTD. Objective This study was conducted to elucidate the characteristics, prognosis, and disease behavior in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related autoantibodies. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 72 ILD patients: 40 patients with SSc (SSc-ILD) and 32 patients with SSc-related autoantibody-positive ILD but not with CTD (ScAb-ILD), indicating lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody. Results Patients with SSc-ILD were predominantly females and non-smokers, and most had nonspecific interstitial pneumonia confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pathological analysis. However, about half of the patients with ScAb-ILD were male and current or ex-smokers. On HRCT analysis, honeycombing was more predominant in patients with ScAb-ILD than with SSc-ILD. Pathological analysis showed the severity of vascular intimal or medial thickening in the SSc-ILD patients to be significantly higher than that in the ScAb-ILD patients. Survival curves showed that the patients with ScAb-ILD had a significantly poorer outcome than those with SSc-ILD. Conclusion Data from this study suggest that lung-dominant CTD with SSc-related autoantibody is a different disease entity from SSc-ILD. PMID:27564852

  12. Rare idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: LIP and PPFE and rare histologic patterns of interstitial pneumonias: AFOP and BPIP.

    PubMed

    Kokosi, Maria A; Nicholson, Andrew G; Hansell, David M; Wells, Athol U

    2016-05-01

    In the 2013 reclassification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), two rare IIPs (idiopathic lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP), idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE)) and two rare histologic patterns (acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP), bronchiolocentric pattern of interstitial pneumonia (BPIP)) are described. All these entities are rare with small series published to date, mostly containing primary and secondary forms of disease. LIP is histologically characterized by diffuse polyclonal lymphoid cell infiltrate surrounding the airways and expanding the interstitium. Thin-walled cysts and diffuse ground glass are considered the typical radiologic features. The clinical course is highly variable with corticosteroid responsiveness evident in approximately half of cases. IPPFE is defined histologically by coexisting upper lobe pleural and intra-alveolar fibrosis with elastosis. Dense subpleural irregular fibrosis and consolidation are the cardinal radiologic features. A history of recurrent lower respiratory tract infection is frequent. Responses to immunomodulation have not been reported and the rate of progression appears to be highly variable. AFOP is a rare histologic pattern lying within the spectrum of acute/subacute lung injury, characterized by organizing pneumonia and intra-alveolar fibrin deposition without hyaline membranes. BPIP is characterized histologically by fibrosis and/or inflammation confined to the alveolar interstitium around bronchovascular bundles, overlapping with peribronchial metaplasia and fibrosis in some series. Currently, AFOP and BPIP are both best viewed as histological entities rather than true clinical disorders, in the absence of characteristic associated imaging patterns and clinical features. PMID:26627191

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Shared Mechanistic and Phenotypic Traits Suggest Overlapping Disease Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.

  14. A molecular phylogeny of aquatic gastropods provides a new perspective on biogeographic history of the Snake River Region.

    PubMed

    Hershler, Robert; Liu, Hsiu-Ping

    2004-09-01

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences of aquatic gastropods of the subgenus Pyrgulopsis (Natricola) were analyzed to test a commonly accepted hypothesis concerning the early history of the Snake River in the northwestern US. Distributions of Natricola and other regional biota were previously used to infer that the Snake River flowed to the Pacific through southeastern Oregon and northern California during the Neogene prior to its capture by the Columbia River in the late Pliocene (2 Ma). A molecular phylogeny based on partial sequences of COI and NDI (1149 bp) indicates that the Natricola clade is restricted to the modern Snake-Columbia River Basin and the Oregon Lakes region whereas northern California populations previously assigned to this subgenus belong to other lineages. The Natricola clade is not deeply subdivided into Oregon Lakes and Snake River Basin units consistent with late Pliocene fragmentation of the hypothesized paleodrainage, but instead is shallowly structured and contains multiple transitions among these two geographic areas. The strongly supported sister relationship between Natricola and a species from northwest Nevada (P. imperialis) is consistent with a recent proposal that the ancestral Snake River did not flow through southeast Oregon but instead flowed south to the Humboldt River. Within the context of this hypothesis, the multiple transitions between the Snake River Basin and the Oregon Lakes region that occurred within Natricola may be attributed to a late Pleistocene connection between these areas that was unrelated to the early course of the Snake River.

  15. Effects of Low Salinity on Adult Behavior and Larval Performance in the Intertidal Gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montory, Jaime A.; Pechenik, Jan A.; Diederich, Casey M.; Chaparro, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae). Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control), 25, 20 or 15), to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR), oxygen consumption (OCR), and mortality (LC50); we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities <24 clearly affect survival, physiology and behavior in early larval life, which will substantially affect the fitness of the species under declining ambient salinities. PMID:25077484

  16. The structure of a functional unit from the wall of a gastropod hemocyanin offers a possible mechanism for cooperativity.

    PubMed

    Perbandt, Markus; Guthöhrlein, Eckhart W; Rypniewski, Wojciech; Idakieva, Krassimira; Stoeva, Stanka; Voelter, Wolfgang; Genov, Nicolay; Betzel, Christian

    2003-06-01

    Structure-function relationships in a molluscan hemocyanin have been investigated by determining the crystal structure of the Rapana thomasiana (gastropod) hemocyanin functional unit RtH2e in deoxygenated form at 3.38 A resolution. This is the first X-ray structure of an unit from the wall of the molluscan hemocyanin cylinder. The crystal structure of RtH2e demonstrates molecular self-assembly of six identical molecules forming a regular hexameric cylinder. This suggests how the functional units are ordered in the wall of the native molluscan hemocyanins. The molecular arrangement is stabilized by specific protomer-to-protomer interactions, which are probably typical for the functional units building the wall of the cylinders. A molecular mechanism for cooperative dioxygen binding in molluscan hemocyanins is proposed on the basis of the molecular interactions between the protomers. In particular, the deoxygenated RtH2e structure reveals a tunnel leading from two opposite sides of the molecule to the active site. The tunnel represents a possible entrance pathway for dioxygen molecules. No such tunnels have been observed in the crystal structure of the oxy-Odg, a functional unit from the Octopus dofleini (cephalopod) hemocyanin in oxygenated form. PMID:12767214

  17. Amino acid sequence and glycosylation of functional unit RtH2-e from Rapana thomasiana (gastropod) hemocyanin.

    PubMed

    Stoeva, Stanka; Idakieva, Krasimira; Betzel, Christian; Genov, Nicolay; Voelter, Wolfgang

    2002-03-15

    The complete amino acid sequence of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin functional unit RtH2-e was determined by direct sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry of peptides obtained by cleavage with EndoLysC proteinase, chymotrypsin, and trypsin. The single-polypeptide chain of RtH2-e consists of 413 amino acid residues and contains two consensus sequences NXS/T (positions 11-19 and 127-129), potential sites for N-glycosylation. Monosaccharide analysis of RtH2-e revealed a carbohydrate content of about 1.1% and the presence of xylose, fucose, mannose, and N-acetylglucosamine, demonstrating that only N-linked carbohydrate chains of high-mannose type seem to be present. On basis of the monosaccharide composition and MALDI-MS analysis of native and PNGase-F-treated chymotryptic glycopeptide fragment of RtH2-e the oligosaccharide Man(5)GlcNAc(2), attached to Asn(127), is suggested. Multiple sequence alignments with other molluscan hemocyanin e functional units revealed an identity of 63% to the cephalopod Octopus dofleini and of 69% to the gastropod Haliotis tuberculata. The present results are discussed in view of the recently determined X-ray structure of the functional unit g of the O. dofleini hemocyanin. PMID:11888200

  18. Differences in the timing of cardio-respiratory development determine whether marine gastropod embryos survive or die in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rudin-Bitterli, Tabitha S; Spicer, John I; Rundle, Simon D

    2016-04-01

    Physiological plasticity of early developmental stages is a key way by which organisms can survive and adapt to environmental change. We investigated developmental plasticity of aspects of the cardio-respiratory physiology of encapsulated embryos of a marine gastropod, Littorina obtusata, surviving exposure to moderate hypoxia (PO2 =8 kPa) and compared the development of these survivors with that of individuals that died before hatching. Individuals surviving hypoxia exhibited a slower rate of development and altered ontogeny of cardio-respiratory structure and function compared with normoxic controls (PO2 >20 kPa). The onset and development of the larval and adult hearts were delayed in chronological time in hypoxia, but both organs appeared earlier in developmental time and cardiac activity rates were greater. The velum, a transient, 'larval' organ thought to play a role in gas exchange, was larger in hypoxia but developed more slowly (in chronological time), and velar cilia-driven, rotational activity was lower. Despite these effects of hypoxia, 38% of individuals survived to hatching. Compared with those embryos that died during development, these surviving embryos had advanced expression of adult structures, i.e. a significantly earlier occurrence and greater activity of their adult heart and larger shells. In contrast, embryos that died retained larval cardio-respiratory features (the velum and larval heart) for longer in chronological time. Surviving embryos came from eggs with significantly higher albumen provisioning than those that died, suggesting an energetic component for advanced development of adult traits. PMID:26896537

  19. Major adaptive radiation in neritopsine gastropods estimated from 28S rRNA sequences and fossil records.

    PubMed

    Kano, Yasunori; Chiba, Satoshi; Kase, Tomoki

    2002-12-01

    A well-supported phylogeny of the Neritopsina, a gastropod superorder archaic in origin, radiated ecologically and diverse in morphology, is reconstructed based on partial 28S rRNA sequences. The result (Neritopsidae (Hydrocenidae (Helicinidae + Neritiliidae) (Neritidae + Phenacolepadidae))) is highly congruent with the fossil records and the character distribution of reproductive tracts in extant taxa. We suggest that the Neritopsina originated in subtidal shallow waters, invaded the land and became fully terrestrial at least three times in different clades, by the extinct Dawsonellidae in the Late Palaeozoic and by the Helicinidae and Hydrocenidae in the Mesozoic. Invasion of fresh- and brackish waters is prevalent among the Neritopsina as the Jurassic and freshwater ancestory is most probable for helicinids. The Phenacolepadidae, a group exclusively inhabiting dysoxic environments, colonized deep-sea hydrothermal vents and seeps in the Late Cretaceous or Early Cenozoic. Submarine caves have served as refuges for the archaic Neritopsidae since the Early to Middle Cenozoic, and the marine neritopsine slug Titiscania represents a highly specialized but relatively recent offshoot of this family. The Neritiliidae is another clade to be found utilizing submarine caves as shelter by the Oligocene; once adapted to the completely dark environment, but some neritiliids have immigrated to surface freshwater habitats. PMID:12495489

  20. The spatial scale of genetic subdivision in populations of Ifremeria nautilei, a hydrothermal-vent gastropod from the southwest Pacific

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Deep-sea hydrothermal vents provide patchy, ephemeral habitats for specialized communities of animals that depend on chemoautotrophic primary production. Unlike eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents, where population structure has been studied at large (thousands of kilometres) and small (hundreds of meters) spatial scales, population structure of western Pacific vents has received limited attention. This study addresses the scale at which genetic differentiation occurs among populations of a western Pacific vent-restricted gastropod, Ifremeria nautilei. Results We used mitochondrial and DNA microsatellite markers to infer patterns of gene flow and population subdivision. A nested sampling strategy was employed to compare genetic diversity in discrete patches of Ifremeria nautilei separated by a few meters within a single vent field to distances as great as several thousand kilometres between back-arc basins that encompass the known range of the species. No genetic subdivisions were detected among patches, mounds, or sites within Manus Basin. Although I. nautilei from Lau and North Fiji Basins (~1000 km apart) also exhibited no evidence for genetic subdivision, these populations were genetically distinct from the Manus Basin population. Conclusions An unknown process that restricts contemporary gene flow isolates the Manus Basin population of Ifremeria nautilei from widespread populations that occupy the North Fiji and Lau Basins. A robust understanding of the genetic structure of hydrothermal vent populations at multiple spatial scales defines natural conservation units and can help minimize loss of genetic diversity in situations where human activities are proposed and managed. PMID:22192622

  1. Spiral cleavages determine the left-right body plan by regulating Nodal pathway in monomorphic gastropods, Physa acuta.

    PubMed

    Abe, Masanori; Takahashi, Hiromi; Kuroda, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    The handedness of gastropods is genetically determined, but the molecular nature of the gene responsible and the associated mechanisms remain unknown. In order to characterize the chiromorphogenesis pathway starting from the gene to the left-right asymmetric body plan, we have closely analyzed the cytoskeletal dynamics of the Physa (P.) acuta embryo, a fresh water non-dimorphic sinistral snail, during the early developmental stage by mechanically altering the handedness of the embryos at the critical spiral third cleavage. A fertile situs inversus was created and the nodal-Pitx gene expression patterns were completely mirror imaged to the wild type at the trochophore stage. Together with our previous work on Lymnaea (L.) stagnalis, we could show that chirality is established at the third cleavage, as dictated by the single handedness-determining gene locus, and then chirality information is transferred via subsequent spiral fourth and fifth cleavages to the later developmental stage, dictating the nodal-Pitx expression pathway. The cytoskeletal dynamics of manipulated and non-manipulated embryos of sinistral P. acuta and dextral dominant L. stagnalis are compared. PMID:25690966

  2. Influences of population density on polyandry and patterns of sperm usage in the marine gastropod Rapana venosa.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-03-21

    Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, with potential for sexual selection to continue post-copulation through sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice. Few studies have investigated the influences of population density on polyandry and sperm usage, and paternity distribution in successive broods of marine invertebrates. The marine gastropod Rapana venosa is ideal for investigating how population density influences the frequency of polyandry and elucidating patterns of sperm usage. Two different population density (12 ind/m(3) and 36 ind/m(3)) treatments with two replications were set to observe reproductive behaviors. Five microsatellite markers were used to identify the frequency of multiple paternity and determine paternal contributions to progeny arrays in 120 egg masses. All of the mean mating frequency, mean number of sires and mean egg-laying frequency were higher at high population density treatment relative to low population density treatment, indicating population density is an important factor affecting polyandry. The last sperm donors achieved high proportions of paternity in 74.77% of egg masses, which supported the "last male sperm precedence" hypothesis. In addition, high variance in reproductive success among R. venosa males were detected, which might have an important influence on effective population size.

  3. Population structure and range expansion: the case of the invasive gastropod Cyclope neritea in northwest Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Couceiro, Lucía; López, Lúa; Ruiz, José Miguel; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2012-09-01

    Biotic invasions have a reputation for unpredictable behavior. Here, we report how slight changes in human activity responsible for the introduction and range expansion of a non-native mollusk have led to detectable differences in the genetics of the invasion. Cyclope neritea is a non-predatory gastropod introduced to 2 areas of the European Atlantic: the northwest Iberian Peninsula (NWIP) and the French Atlantic coast (FAC). Shellfish seabed farming is intense in both areas but focuses on different commercial species. Using mitochondrial gene sequences, the lower genetic diversity recorded along the NWIP suggests a more homogeneous range of source populations than in the FAC. Unlike FAC, genetic diversity and haplotype composition in the NWIP correlate with the date of first occurrence of C. neritea at each site rather than with geographical location. Although this pattern evokes the genetic signature expected under a serial-founder colonization model from a single initial enclave, a comparison with samples from potential source populations suggests that the NWIP probably experienced several independent reintroductions. The jump dispersal pattern of C. neritea in the NWIP, together with the observation that populations established in the same year are genetically undifferentiated, point to human transport as the most plausible explanation for the current range expansion. Despite evidence for human-mediated dispersal, C. neritea managed to develop a seemingly non-random genetic pattern in the NWIP. It is suggested that caution must be exerted when interpreting genetic patterns in invaders.

  4. Gregariousness and protandry promote reproductive insurance in the invasive gastropod Crepidula fornicata: evidence from assignment of larval paternity.

    PubMed

    Dupont, L; Richard, J; Paulet, Y-M; Thouzeau, G; Viard, F

    2006-09-01

    According to the size-advantage hypothesis, protandric sequential hermaphroditism is expected when the increase in reproductive success with age or size is small for males but large for females. Interestingly, some protandrous molluscs have developed gregarious strategies that might enhance male reproductive success but at the cost of intraspecific competition. The gastropod Crepidula fornicata, a European invading species, is ideal for investigating mating patterns in a sequential hermaphrodite in relation to grouping behaviour because individuals of different size (age) live in perennial stacks, fertilization is internal and embryos are brooded. Paternity analyses were undertaken in stacks sampled in three close and recently invaded sites in Brittany, France. Paternity assignment of 239 larvae, sampled from a set of 18 brooding females and carried out using five microsatellite loci, revealed that 92% of the crosses occurred between individuals located in the same stack. These stacks thus function as independent mating groups in which individuals may reproduce consecutively as male and female over a short time period, a pattern explained by sperm storage capacity. Gregariousness and sex reversal are promoting reproductive insurance in this species. In addition, females are usually fertilized by several males (78% of the broods were multiply sired) occupying any position within the stack, a result reinforcing the hypothesis of sperm competition. Our study pointed out that mating behaviours and patterns of gender allocation varied in concert across sites suggesting that multiple paternities might enhance sex reversal depending on sperm competition intensity.

  5. Effect of parasitism by the pyramidellid gastropod Boonea impressa on the net productivity of oysters ( Crassostrea virginica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. E.; Powell, E. N.; Ray, S. M.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of an ectoparasitic gastropod, Boonea (= Odostomia) impressa, on the energy bidget of its host, the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, was examined. A model was developed from laboratory and field data, as well as from equations developed by Powell and Stanton (1985). The model predicted that net productivity by large (7 cm length) oysters parasitized by 10 and 30 large (6 mm length) snails would be reduced by 21% and 63%, respectively. In contrast, net productivity in small (3 cm length) oysters would be reduced 25% by only 3 snails. Small oysters would have a negative energy balance when parasitized by 10 snails. The predicted reduction in growth was compared with measured growth in small and large oysters parasitized at abundances typical of Texas oyster reefs. Control oysters (no parasites) gained more shell weight than parasitized oysters. In four-week experiments conducted during the spring and fall, small control oysters gained 86% and 75% more weight than highly parasitized oysters. Large control oysters had 29% and 88% more shell deposition. Snail parasitism produced 75% mortality in small, highly parasitized oysters in the summer. In typical field populations in Texas bays, a minimal estimate of 4-12% of the energy otherwise available to the oyster for growth and reproduction is consumed by Boonea impressa.

  6. Freezing and anoxia stresses induce expression of metallothionein in the foot muscle and hepatopancreas of the marine gastropod Littorina littorea.

    PubMed

    English, Tamara E; Storey, Kenneth B

    2003-07-01

    Differential screening of cDNA libraries constructed from the foot muscle of marine snails Littorina littorea revealed several cDNAs that are upregulated during anoxia or freezing exposures, environmental stresses that are naturally endured by this species. One full-length clone of 1196 nucleotides (GenBank accession number AY034179) hybridized with a 1200-nucleotide band on northern blots and encoded a 100-amino-acid protein that was identified as belonging to the metallothionein (MT) family. L. littorea MT shared 45% and 56% identity with the copper- and cadmium-binding MT isoforms, respectively, from another gastropod, Helix pomatia and 43-47% identity with marine bivalve MTs. The L. littorea sequence included the mollusc-specific C-terminal motif Cys-X-Cys-X(3)-Cys-Thr-Gly-X(3)-Cys-X-Cys-X(3)-Cys-X-Cys-Lys that identifies it as a family 2 (mollusc) MT. Northern blot analysis showed that L. littorea MT was upregulated in both foot muscle and hepatopancreas in response to both freezing and anoxia stresses; within 1 h of the beginning of the stress transcript levels rose 2.5- to sixfold of control levels, reaching maximal levels at 12 or 24 h. After 24 h recovery from either stress, transcript levels were reduced again in three cases but remained elevated in hepatopancreas from anoxia-treated snails. Upregulation of MT during environmental stress could serve one or more possible roles, including a function in antioxidant defense. PMID:12796465

  7. Oceanography in northwestern Europe during the last interglacial from intrashell δ 18O ranges in Littorina littorea gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, Johan; Påsse, Tore

    2008-07-01

    Coastal sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-surface salinity (SSS), including seasonality, in northwest (NW) Europe during the early phase of the Eemian interglacial ca. 125 ka ago were reconstructed from Littorina littorea (common periwinkle) gastropods. The results were based on intra-annual δ 18O analyses in recent and fossil shells, mainly originating from the sea of Kattegat (Sweden) and the English Channel (United Kingdom), and confined to intertidal settings. The Eemian L. littorea shells indicated annual SSTs in the range 8-18°C for the English Channel and 8-26°C for Kattegat. All specimens from the Eemian sites experienced summer SSTs of ca. 1-3°C above recent conditions. The estimated winter SST in the English Channel during the Eemian was comparable to modern measurements of ca. 8°C. However, the Kattegat region displayed Eemian winter SST approximately 8°C warmer than today, and similar to conditions in the western English Channel. The recent-fossil isotope analogue approach indicated high SSS above 35 practical salinity units (psu) for a channel south of England in full contact with the North Atlantic Ocean during the last interglacial. In addition, the Kattegat shells indicated a SSS of ca. 29 psu, which points out a North Sea affinity for this region during the Eemian.

  8. Identification of a granulin-like transcript expressed during anoxic exposure and translated during aerobic recovery in a marine gastropod.

    PubMed

    Larade, Kevin; Storey, Kenneth B

    2008-02-29

    A novel transcript encoding a cysteine-rich granulin-like peptide (l-grn) was identified in the hepatopancreas of the marine intertidal gastropod, Littorina littorea, an anoxia-tolerant species. Experimental exposure of snails to anoxia induced a gradual accumulation of l-grn transcripts over time, with expression regulated in vitro through elements responsive to second messengers of protein kinases A, C and G. Translation of this transcript was analyzed by examining l-grn association with ribosomes during normoxia, anoxia, and aerobic recovery. Transcripts of l-grn were associated with polysomes during normoxia, moved into the monosome fractions under anoxia, but shifted back to the polysomal fractions during aerobic recovery. Western blotting confirmed this with a granulin-like protein detected under normoxic conditions, but not during anoxia exposure. A significant increase in the precursor protein and peptide (L-GRN) was observed during the aerobic recovery period. The accumulation of l-grn transcripts during anoxic exposure and subsequent translation following the return to aerobic conditions may be a response to oxidant damage that occurs during re-oxygenation. Overall, the data show that the l-grn gene is anoxia-responsive in this species and may have pro-survival functions during the recovery period. PMID:18187271

  9. Mid-Holocene paleoceanographic conditions in the Limfjord region from gastropod (Littorina littorea) oxygen and carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burman, J.; Schmitz, B.

    2003-04-01

    Stable oxygen and carbon isotope intrashell transects of common intertidal gastropods Littorina littorea have been used to reconstruct environmental conditions in the Limfjord region during the mid-Holocene (late Atlantic time). The subfossil specimens studied are from the excavated Stone Age Kitchenmidden in Ertebølle, northern Denmark, dated between 5970±95 to 5070±90 B.P. In addition recent specimens were studied from different coastal localities within the Limfjord, along a salinity gradient from the west to east. These modern shells were used as control samples, in order to construct an oceanographic model for the Limfjord, in which the seasonal isotopic range from the Littorina subfossils could be interpreted. The coastal marine climate in the Ertebølle region during the mid-Holocene indicates summer-SST close to 22^oC and 4-5 ppm reduced salinity compared to fully marine conditions. The mid-Holocene central Limfjord can be described as a coastal area, which experienced similar salinity conditions (c. 30.5 PSU) that prevail in the western part (Odden area) today. In terms of summer-SST as compared with a 10-year average (1989-1998) for the Limfjord region, temperatures were 2-3^oC above recent climatic settings. These results point towards a mid-Holocene Limfjord in contact with the North Sea/Skagerrak with possibly more pronounced water exchange with the North Sea than today.

  10. Effects of heavy metals on the survival and feeding behaviour of the sandy shore scavenging gastropod Nassarius festivus (Powys).

    PubMed

    Cheung, S G; Tai, K K; Leung, C K; Siu, Y M

    2002-01-01

    The effects of Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr on the survival and feeding behaviour of the sandy shore scavenging gastropod Nassarius festivus were compared. The 96-h LC50 for Cu, Cd, Zn and Cr were 0.36, 1.52, 1.76 and 36.9 mg l(-1), respectively. Four sublethal concentrations of each metal plus a control were prepared and the snails were exposed to experimental solutions for 96 h. Feeding behaviour was studied after the snails were starved for five days. As compared with the control, the number of individuals feeding was significantly reduced by exposure to 0.05 mg l(-1) Cu, 0.2 mg l(-1) Zn, 0.5 mg l(-1) Cd and 5 mg l(-1) Cr. The time spent feeding was greater for individuals exposed to greater concentrations of Zn and Cd but no effect was found for Cu and Cr. Chemoreception of food was studied by placing the snails at a fixed distance of 15 cm from the bait. The success rate of reaching the bait was less for individuals exposed to Cr but no effect was found for Zn, Cu or Cd. The time required for an individual to reach the bait decreased as the concentration of Zn increased. In contrast, a longer time was required for individuals exposed to Cr whereas the effect of Cd and Cu was insignificant. The potential of using feeding behaviour and chemoreception in contaminant evaluations is discussed.

  11. Effects of low salinity on adult behavior and larval performance in the intertidal gastropod Crepipatella peruviana (Calyptraeidae).

    PubMed

    Montory, Jaime A; Pechenik, Jan A; Diederich, Casey M; Chaparro, Oscar R

    2014-01-01

    Shallow-water coastal areas suffer frequent reductions in salinity due to heavy rains, potentially stressing the organisms found there, particularly the early stages of development (including pelagic larvae). Individual adults and newly hatched larvae of the gastropod Crepipatella peruviana were exposed to different levels of salinity stress (32(control), 25, 20 or 15), to quantify the immediate effects of exposure to low salinities on adult and larval behavior and on the physiological performance of the larvae. For adults we recorded the threshold salinity that initiates brood chamber isolation. For larvae, we measured the impact of reduced salinity on velar surface area, velum activity, swimming velocity, clearance rate (CR), oxygen consumption (OCR), and mortality (LC50); we also documented the impact of salinity discontinuities on the vertical distribution of veliger larvae in the water column. The results indicate that adults will completely isolate themselves from the external environment by clamping firmly against the substrate at salinities ≤24. Moreover, the newly hatched larvae showed increased mortality at lower salinities, while survivors showed decreased velum activity, decreased exposed velum surface area, and decreased mean swimming velocity. The clearance rates and oxygen consumption rates of stressed larvae were significantly lower than those of control individuals. Finally, salinity discontinuities affected the vertical distribution of larvae in the water column. Although adults can protect their embryos from low salinity stress until hatching, salinities <24 clearly affect survival, physiology and behavior in early larval life, which will substantially affect the fitness of the species under declining ambient salinities.

  12. The larvae of congeneric gastropods showed differential responses to the combined effects of ocean acidification, temperature and salinity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoyu; Cheung, S G; Shin, Paul K S

    2014-02-15

    The tolerance and physiological responses of the larvae of two congeneric gastropods, the intertidal Nassarius festivus and subtidal Nassarius conoidalis, to the combined effects of ocean acidification (pCO2 at 380, 950, 1250 ppm), temperature (15, 30°C) and salinity (10, 30 psu) were compared. Results of three-way ANOVA on cumulative mortality after 72-h exposure showed significant interactive effects in which mortality increased with pCO2 and temperature, but reduced at higher salinity for both species, with higher mortality being obtained for N. conoidalis. Similarly, respiration rate of the larvae increased with temperature and pCO2 level for both species, with a larger percentage increase for N. conoidalis. Larval swimming speed increased with temperature and salinity for both species whereas higher pCO2 reduced swimming speed in N. conoidalis but not N. festivus. The present findings indicated that subtidal congeneric species are more sensitive than their intertidal counterparts to the combined effects of these stressors.

  13. Influences of population density on polyandry and patterns of sperm usage in the marine gastropod Rapana venosa

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Dong-Xiu; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is a common mating strategy in animals, with potential for sexual selection to continue post-copulation through sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice. Few studies have investigated the influences of population density on polyandry and sperm usage, and paternity distribution in successive broods of marine invertebrates. The marine gastropod Rapana venosa is ideal for investigating how population density influences the frequency of polyandry and elucidating patterns of sperm usage. Two different population density (12 ind/m3 and 36 ind/m3) treatments with two replications were set to observe reproductive behaviors. Five microsatellite markers were used to identify the frequency of multiple paternity and determine paternal contributions to progeny arrays in 120 egg masses. All of the mean mating frequency, mean number of sires and mean egg-laying frequency were higher at high population density treatment relative to low population density treatment, indicating population density is an important factor affecting polyandry. The last sperm donors achieved high proportions of paternity in 74.77% of egg masses, which supported the “last male sperm precedence” hypothesis. In addition, high variance in reproductive success among R. venosa males were detected, which might have an important influence on effective population size. PMID:26996441

  14. Clinical experience with pirfenidone in five patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yukiko; Saito, Takefumi; Fujita, Kazutaka; Tsunoda, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Toru; Takoi, Hiroyuki; Yatagai, Yohei; Rin, Shigen; Sekine, Akimasa; Hayashihara, Kenji; Nei, Takahito; Azuma, Arata

    2014-10-20

    Interstitial lung disease is the most common complication and cause of death among patients with scleroderma. Scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease has usually been treated with cyclophosphamide; however, its effect was evaluated to be modest and long-term administration of this drug is associated with adverse effects. Herein, we report our clinical experience of administering pirfenidone, which is an antifibrotic agent, in five patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease. All patients demonstrated an increase in vital capacity.

  15. Histopathologic variability in usual and nonspecific interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, K R; Travis, W D; Colby, T V; Toews, G B; Kazerooni, E A; Gross, B H; Jain, A; Strawderman, R L; Flint, A; Lynch, J P; Martinez, F J

    2001-11-01

    Findings of surgical lung biopsy (SLB) are important in categorizing patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). We investigated whether histologic variability would be evident in SLB specimens from multiple lobes in patients with IIP. SLBs from 168 patients, 109 of whom had multiple lobes biopsied, were reviewed by three pathologists. A diagnosis was assigned to each lobe. A different diagnosis was found between lobes in 26% of the patients. Patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in all lobes were categorized as concordant for UIP (n = 51) and those with UIP in at least one lobe were categorized as discordant for UIP (n = 28). Patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) in all lobes were categorized as having fibrotic (n = 25) or cellular NSIP (n = 5). No consistent distribution of lobar histology was noted. Patients concordant for UIP were older (63 +/- 9 [mean +/- SD] yr; p < 0.05 as compared with all other groups) than those discordant for UIP (57 +/- 12 yr) or with fibrotic NSIP (56 +/- 11 yr) or cellular NSIP (50 +/- 9 yr). Semiquantitative high-resolution computed tomography demonstrated a varied profusion of fibrosis (p < 0.05 for all group comparisons), with more fibrosis in concordant UIP (2.13 +/- 0.62) than in discordant UIP (1.42 +/- 0.73), fibrotic NSIP (0.83 +/- 0.58), or cellular NSIP (0.44 +/- 0.42). Survival was better for patients with NSIP than for those in both UIP groups (p < 0.001), although survival in the two UIP groups was comparable (p = 0.16). Lobar histologic variability is frequent in patients with IIP, patients with a histologic pattern of UIP in any lobe should be classified as having UIP.

  16. Severe pulmonary hypertension in idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Robert W.; Reed, Robert M.; Fraig, Mostafa; Horton, Maureen R.; Girgis, Reda E.

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of interstitial lung disease (ILD), particularly in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and ILD associated with connective tissue disease, where the underlying pathology is often a nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) pattern. The degree of PH in ILD is typically mild to moderate and radiographic changes of ILD are usually prominent. We describe four patients with idiopathic NSIP and severe PH (mPAP > 40 mmHg). The average mean pulmonary artery pressure was 51±7 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance was 13±4 Wood's units. Pulmonary function was characterized by mild restriction (total lung capacity 63–94% predicted) and profound reductions in DLCO (19–53% predicted). Computed tomographic imaging revealed minimal to moderate interstitial thickening without honeycombing. In two of the cases, an initial clinical diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension was made. Both were treated with intravenous epoprostenol, which was associated with worsening of hypoxemia. All four patients died or underwent lung transplant within 4 years of PH diagnonsis. Lung pathology in all four demonstrated fibrotic NSIP with medial thickening of the small and medium pulmonary arteries, and proliferative intimal lesions that stained negative for endothelial markers (CD31 and CD34) and positive for smooth muscle actin. There were no plexiform lesions. Severe pulmonary hypertension can therefore occur in idiopathic NSIP, even in the absence of advanced radiographic changes. Clinicians should suspect underlying ILD as the basis for PH when DLCO is severely reduced or gas exchange deteriorates with pulmonary vasodilator therapy. PMID:22558525

  17. On the Origin of Large Interstitial Clusters in Displacement Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, Calder F; Barashev, Aleksandr; Bacon, David J; Osetskiy, Yury N

    2010-01-01

    Displacement cascades with wide ranges of primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy and mass in iron were simulated using molecular dynamics. New visualisation techniques are introduced to show how the shock-front dynamics and internal structure of a cascade develop over time. These reveal that the nature of the final damage is determined early on in the cascade process. We define a zone (termed 'spaghetti') in which atoms are moved to new lattice sites and show how it is created by a supersonic shock-front expanding from the primary recoil event. A large cluster of self-interstitial atoms can form on the periphery of the spaghetti if a hypersonic recoil creates damage with a supersonic shock ahead of the main supersonic front. When the two fronts meet, the main one injects atoms into the low-density core of the other: these become interstitial atoms during the rapid recovery of the surrounding crystal. The hypersonic recoil occurs in less than 0.1 ps after the primary recoil and the interstitial cluster is formed before the onset of the thermal spike phase of the cascade process. The corresponding number of vacancies is then formed in the spaghetti core as the crystal cools, i.e. at times one to two orders of magnitude longer. By using the spaghetti zone to define cascade volume, the energy density of a cascade is shown to be almost independent of the PKA mass. This throws into doubt the conventional energy-density interpretation of an increased defect yield with increasing PKA mass in ion irradiation.

  18. On the origin of large interstitial clusters in displacement cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, A. F.; Bacon, D. J.; Barashev, A. V.; Osetsky, Yu. N.

    2010-03-01

    Displacement cascades with wide ranges of primary knock-on atom (PKA) energy and mass in iron were simulated using molecular dynamics. New visualisation techniques are introduced to show how the shock-front dynamics and internal structure of a cascade develop over time. These reveal that the nature of the final damage is determined early on in the cascade process. We define a zone (termed 'spaghetti') in which atoms are moved to new lattice sites and show how it is created by a supersonic shock-front expanding from the primary recoil event. A large cluster of self-interstitial atoms can form on the periphery of the spaghetti if a hypersonic recoil creates damage with a supersonic shock ahead of the main supersonic front. When the two fronts meet, the main one injects atoms into the low-density core of the other: these become interstitial atoms during the rapid recovery of the surrounding crystal. The hypersonic recoil occurs in less than 0.1 ps after the primary recoil and the interstitial cluster is formed before the onset of the thermal spike phase of the cascade process. The corresponding number of vacancies is then formed in the spaghetti core as the crystal cools, i.e. at times one to two orders of magnitude longer. By using the spaghetti zone to define cascade volume, the energy density of a cascade is shown to be almost independent of the PKA mass. This throws into doubt the conventional energy-density interpretation of an increased defect yield with increasing PKA mass in ion irradiation.

  19. Restraint Stress Intensifies Interstitial K+ Accumulation during Severe Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Christian; Janc, Oliwia A.; Kempkes, Belinda; Callis, Carolina Araya; Flügge, Gabriele; Hülsmann, Swen; Müller, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for 3 weeks (6 h/day). In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance, and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain. PMID:22470344

  20. Substitutional and interstitial carbon in wurtzite GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. F.

    2002-09-01

    First-principles theoretical results are presented for substitutional and interstitial carbon in wurtzite GaN. Carbon is found to be a shallow acceptor when substituted for nitrogen (CN) and a shallow donor when substituted for gallium (CGa). Interstitial carbon (CI) is found to assume different configurations depending on the Fermi level: A site at the center of the c-axis channel is favored when the Fermi level is below 0.9 eV (relative to the valence band maximum) and a split-interstitial configuration is favored otherwise. Both configurations produce partly filled energy levels near the middle of the gap, and CI should therefore exhibit deep donor behavior in p-type GaN and deep acceptor behavior in n-type GaN. Formation energies for CN, CGa, and CI are similar, making it likely that CN acceptors will be compensated by other carbon species. CGa is predicted to be the primary compensating species when growth occurs under N-rich conditions while channel CI is predicted to be the primary compensating species under Ga-rich growth conditions. Self-compensation is predicted to be more significant under Ga-rich growth conditions than under N-rich conditions. Experimental evidence for self-compensation is discussed. Four carbon complexes are discussed. CN-VGa is found to be unstable when the Fermi level is above the middle of the gap due to the high stability of gallium vacancies (VGa). The CN-VGa complex was previously suggested as a source of the broad 2.2 eV luminescence peak often observed in n-type GaN. The present results indicate that this is unlikely. The CI-CN complex is capable of forming in carbon doped GaN grown under Ga-rich conditions if the mobility of the constituents is high enough. Experimental evidence for its existence is discussed.