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Sample records for intertidal assemblages honoring

  1. Coastal Upwelling Drives Intertidal Assemblage Structure and Trophic Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Reddin, Carl J.; Docmac, Felipe; O’Connor, Nessa E.; Bothwell, John H.; Harrod, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Similar environmental driving forces can produce similarity among geographically distant ecosystems. Coastal oceanic upwelling, for example, has been associated with elevated biomass and abundance patterns of certain functional groups, e.g., corticated macroalgae. In the upwelling system of Northern Chile, we examined measures of intertidal macrobenthic composition, structure and trophic ecology across eighteen shores varying in their proximity to two coastal upwelling centres, in a hierarchical sampling design (spatial scales of >1 and >10 km). The influence of coastal upwelling on intertidal communities was confirmed by the stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) of consumers, including a dominant suspension feeder, grazers, and their putative resources of POM, epilithic biofilm, and macroalgae. We highlight the utility of muscle δ15N from the suspension feeding mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, as a proxy for upwelling, supported by satellite data and previous studies. Where possible, we used corrections for broader-scale trends, spatial autocorrelation, ontogenetic dietary shifts and spatial baseline isotopic variation prior to analysis. Our results showed macroalgal assemblage composition, and benthic consumer assemblage structure, varied significantly with the intertidal influence of coastal upwelling, especially contrasting bays and coastal headlands. Coastal topography also separated differences in consumer resource use. This suggested that coastal upwelling, itself driven by coastline topography, influences intertidal communities by advecting nearshore phytoplankton populations offshore and cooling coastal water temperatures. We recommend the isotopic values of benthic organisms, specifically long-lived suspension feeders, as in situ alternatives to offshore measurements of upwelling influence. PMID:26214806

  2. Coastal Upwelling Drives Intertidal Assemblage Structure and Trophic Ecology.

    PubMed

    Reddin, Carl J; Docmac, Felipe; O'Connor, Nessa E; Bothwell, John H; Harrod, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Similar environmental driving forces can produce similarity among geographically distant ecosystems. Coastal oceanic upwelling, for example, has been associated with elevated biomass and abundance patterns of certain functional groups, e.g., corticated macroalgae. In the upwelling system of Northern Chile, we examined measures of intertidal macrobenthic composition, structure and trophic ecology across eighteen shores varying in their proximity to two coastal upwelling centres, in a hierarchical sampling design (spatial scales of >1 and >10 km). The influence of coastal upwelling on intertidal communities was confirmed by the stable isotope values (δ13C and δ15N) of consumers, including a dominant suspension feeder, grazers, and their putative resources of POM, epilithic biofilm, and macroalgae. We highlight the utility of muscle δ15N from the suspension feeding mussel, Perumytilus purpuratus, as a proxy for upwelling, supported by satellite data and previous studies. Where possible, we used corrections for broader-scale trends, spatial autocorrelation, ontogenetic dietary shifts and spatial baseline isotopic variation prior to analysis. Our results showed macroalgal assemblage composition, and benthic consumer assemblage structure, varied significantly with the intertidal influence of coastal upwelling, especially contrasting bays and coastal headlands. Coastal topography also separated differences in consumer resource use. This suggested that coastal upwelling, itself driven by coastline topography, influences intertidal communities by advecting nearshore phytoplankton populations offshore and cooling coastal water temperatures. We recommend the isotopic values of benthic organisms, specifically long-lived suspension feeders, as in situ alternatives to offshore measurements of upwelling influence.

  3. Intertidal assemblage variation across a subtropical estuarine gradient: How good conceptual and empirical models are?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morais, Gisele C.; Camargo, Maurício G.; Lana, Paulo

    2016-03-01

    Variation of intertidal macrobenthic structure at multiple spatial scales is still poorly known in tropical and subtropical estuaries. We have assessed the structural responses of intertidal benthic assemblages, expressed by variation in number of species, abundance and assemblage composition, to key environmental drivers in a subtropical estuary from southern Brazil. We have applied a hierarchical sampling design to assess benthic variation at each of several spatial scales, from meters to kilometers, along a marked estuarine gradient. The hypothesis that many benthic variables vary at the largest spatial scale, corresponding to the salinity gradient, was refuted for number of species but not for total abundance and species composition. However, physiological stress to salinity variation, an important environmental driver in estuaries, could not explain by itself macrobenthic distribution along local intertidal flats. Nutrient, organic matter, photosynthetic pigments contents, pH, grain size, silt-clay content and the redox discontinuity layer also varied at the largest spatial scale acting as confounding factors. Thus, overall distribution patterns of intertidal benthic assemblages resulted from a complex interaction among environmental drivers, including salinity.

  4. Patterns of spatial variation of assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Miloslavich, Patricia; Palomo, Gabriela; Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Pohle, Gerhard; Trott, Tom; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Herrera, César; Hernández, Alejandra; Sardi, Adriana; Bueno, Andrea; Castillo, Julio; Klein, Eduardo; Guerra-Castro, Edlin; Gobin, Judith; Gómez, Diana Isabel; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Mead, Angela; Bigatti, Gregorio; Knowlton, Ann; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-12-16

    Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs); however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample) was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index) were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution), we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses.

  5. Patterns of Spatial Variation of Assemblages Associated with Intertidal Rocky Shores: A Global Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Miloslavich, Patricia; Palomo, Gabriela; Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Pohle, Gerhard; Trott, Tom; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Herrera, César; Hernández, Alejandra; Sardi, Adriana; Bueno, Andrea; Castillo, Julio; Klein, Eduardo; Guerra-Castro, Edlin; Gobin, Judith; Gómez, Diana Isabel; Riosmena-Rodríguez, Rafael; Mead, Angela; Bigatti, Gregorio; Knowlton, Ann; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    Assemblages associated with intertidal rocky shores were examined for large scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends of species richness and taxonomic distinctiveness. Seventy-two sites distributed around the globe were evaluated following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). There were no clear patterns of standardized estimators of species richness along latitudinal gradients or among Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs); however, a strong latitudinal gradient in taxonomic composition (i.e., proportion of different taxonomic groups in a given sample) was observed. Environmental variables related to natural influences were strongly related to the distribution patterns of the assemblages on the LME scale, particularly photoperiod, sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall. In contrast, no environmental variables directly associated with human influences (with the exception of the inorganic pollution index) were related to assemblage patterns among LMEs. Correlations of the natural assemblages with either latitudinal gradients or environmental variables were equally strong suggesting that neither neutral models nor models based solely on environmental variables sufficiently explain spatial variation of these assemblages at a global scale. Despite the data shortcomings in this study (e.g., unbalanced sample distribution), we show the importance of generating biological global databases for the use in large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages to stimulate continued sampling and analyses. PMID:21179546

  6. Temporal distribution of intertidal macrozoobenthic assemblages in a Nanozostera noltii-dominated area (Lagoon of Venice).

    PubMed

    Tagliapietra, D; Pessa, G; Cornello, M; Zitelli, A; Magni, P

    2016-03-01

    We describe the temporal distribution of intertidal macrozoobenthic assemblages in a small marsh pond of the Lagoon of Venice colonized by the seagrass Nanozostera noltii (Hornemman) Tomlinson et Posluzny. Three stations ranging in the degree of N. noltii cover were selected about 100 m apart and sampled 9 times at regular intervals from March 1996 to March 1997. We applied the concepts of resistance and resilience to "natural stress" (e.g. extent of protection from seagrass meadows, exposure of macrozoobenthic assemblages to high temperatures in summer) with the aim to assess the stability of a community along a gradient of seagrass coverage. Results showed that the most structured and taxa-rich macrozoobenthic assemblage occurred at the station covered by a continuous stand of N. noltii, where permanent taxa (i.e. found in 100% of samples) were almost double than those found at the other stations. During the annual cycle, the macrozoobenthic assemblages showed a cyclical pattern, with temporal fluctuations increasing as they moved further away from the seagrass beds. We propose the role of N. noltii offering structural complexity and stability as the more probable explanation to the observed differences between stations in the intertidal assemblages.

  7. Patterns of benthic assemblages invaded and non-invaded by Grateloupia turuturu across rocky intertidal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Cristiano; Araújo, Rita; Bertocci, Iacopo

    2016-09-01

    Intertidal benthic assemblages invaded and non-invaded by the introduced Asian red alga Grateloupia turuturu were compared at a rocky shore along the NW coast of Portugal. The structure of whole assemblages, the total richness of taxa and the abundance of individual taxa were examined as response variables in two different habitats (rock pools and emergent rock), two shore levels (low and mid intertidal) and two dates of sampling (June 2013 and June 2014). Invaded and non-invaded assemblages differed consistently across habitats and shore levels. Such differences were driven by 13 (with the green alga genus Ulva, the red alga Chondrus crispus and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis driving the total dissimilarity) out of the total 37 taxa identified. Individual taxa revealed idiosyncratic patterns, in several cases (C. crispus, M. galloprovincialis, articulated coralline algae of the genus Corallina and the crustose sporophyte of the red alga Mastocarpus stellatus) there were differences in the abundance of a taxon between invaded and non-invaded assemblages varying with levels of some other experimental factors. The total number of taxa was higher in invaded compared to non-invaded assemblages for each combination of habitat and shore level. Patterns of invasion by G. turuturu along the Portuguese continental coast were recently described in terms of its temporal and spatial distribution, but never examined in terms of differences between invaded and non-invaded assemblages. Such information is very limited for other geographic areas where this species is recorded out of its native range of distribution. Therefore, the present study provides a new contribution to the understanding of modifications of native assemblages associated with the invasion of G. turuturu, opening avenues of research aimed at specifically examining the factors and processes likely responsible for the invasion dynamics and success of this species.

  8. Shore height and differentials between macrobenthic assemblages in vegetated and unvegetated areas of an intertidal sandflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. S. K.; Barnes, M. K. S.

    2012-06-01

    Intertidal macrobenthic faunal assemblages of a dual seagrass/callianassid-structured sandflat system were investigated in subtropical Moreton Bay, Queensland. Consistently across all 20 stations, the gastropod-dominated seagrass supported greater abundance (2.5×) and species richness (2×) than the amphipod-dominated sandflat. There was no evidence of along-shore or up-shore variation in the overall assemblage properties such as total abundance, species richness or diversity within either habitat type, except for variation in sandflat abundance between sites. But seagrass and sandflat assemblages both varied significantly in composition from site to site, and seagrass assemblage composition also varied with shore height. Shore height and site, however, only accounted for ≤41% of total variation. The two faunal assemblages showed a Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of 97.7% and within-habitat similarities of <20%. There was no consistency in distribution of greater diversity, dominance or evenness. No differential between any assemblage features in adjacent sandflat and seagrass samples changed with shore height, supporting hypotheses that such differentials are not maintained by predation. Macrofaunal species richness and diversity were closely coupled within sandflat stations but were uncoupled within seagrass ones, questioning the value of diversity as a comparative measure.

  9. Uniform functional structure across spatial scales in an intertidal benthic assemblage.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R S K; Hamylton, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the causes of the remarkable similarity of emergent assemblage properties that has been demonstrated across disparate intertidal seagrass sites and assemblages, this study examined whether their emergent functional-group metrics are scale related by testing the null hypothesis that functional diversity and the suite of dominant functional groups in seagrass-associated macrofauna are robust structural features of such assemblages and do not vary spatially across nested scales within a 0.4 ha area. This was carried out via a lattice of 64 spatially referenced stations. Although densities of individual components were patchily dispersed across the locality, rank orders of importance of the 14 functional groups present, their overall functional diversity and evenness, and the proportions of the total individuals contained within each showed, in contrast, statistically significant spatial uniformity, even at areal scales <2 m(2). Analysis of the proportional importance of the functional groups in their geospatial context also revealed weaker than expected levels of spatial autocorrelation, and then only at the smaller scales and amongst the most dominant groups, and only a small number of negative correlations occurred between the proportional importances of the individual groups. In effect, such patterning was a surface veneer overlying remarkable stability of assemblage functional composition across all spatial scales. Although assemblage species composition is known to be homogeneous in some soft-sediment marine systems over equivalent scales, this combination of patchy individual components yet basically constant functional-group structure seems as yet unreported.

  10. A review of the ecological and taphonomic controls on foraminiferal assemblage development in intertidal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkeley, A.; Perry, C. T.; Smithers, S. G.; Horton, B. P.; Taylor, K. G.

    2007-08-01

    Intertidal foraminifera from surface sediments are commonly used as a high-resolution indicator of sea-level change. The integrity of this approach is based upon the assumption that surface assemblages are similar in composition to their buried, fossil counterparts. This assumption may, in some cases, be inappropriate due to subsurface (or infaunal) production and taphonomic alteration. Here, we review the current understanding of foraminiferal production and taphonomic loss in intertidal environments, and examine the extent to which these processes can affect the development of foraminiferal assemblages in intertidal environments. As a sediment layer undergoes burial, dead tests are added at a rate proportionate to the standing crop at that depth. As a consequence, test accumulation within the layer is proportionate to the depth-integrated standing crop. Depending on the nature of its vertical living distribution, the upper 1 cm of sediment may therefore not adequately characterise a given species total input. Instead, a comparison of each species contribution to the entire, depth-integrated living community may offer a better a priori estimate of relative input to the sediment column. This provides an improved base-line for identifying 'true' taphonomic trends downcore. The potential for infauna to create discrepancies between surface and subsurface assemblages may be minimised however, where: (1) reproduction is concentrated near to the sediment surface, transforming an apparent infaunal standing crop into an effective epifaunal production; (2) the living fauna is composed similarly at all depths of production; and/or (3) intense bioturbation homogenises the upper sediment layers. The likely decline in the intensity of taphonomic processes with depth may mean that the foraminiferal production from different depths may not experience taphonomic processes uniformly. Consequently, in addition to their possible gradual enrichment due to subsurface production

  11. Variability of intertidal foraminferal assemblages in a salt marsh, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milker, Yvonne; Horton, Benjamin P.; Nelson, Alan R.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Witter, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 18 sampling stations along a transect to investigate the similarity between live (rose Bengal stained) foraminiferal populations and dead assemblages, their small-scale spatial variations and the distribution of infaunal foraminifera in a salt marsh (Toms Creek marsh) at the upper end of the South Slough arm of the Coos Bay estuary, Oregon, USA. We aimed to test to what extent taphonomic processes, small-scale variability and infaunal distribution influence the accuracy of sea-level reconstructions based on intertidal foraminifera. Cluster analyses have shown that dead assemblages occur in distinct zones with respect to elevation, a prerequisite for using foraminifera as sea-level indicators. Our nonparametric multivariate analysis of variance showed that small-scale spatial variability has only a small influence on live (rose Bengal stained) populations and dead assemblages. The dissimilarity was higher, however, between live (rose Bengal stained) populations in the middle marsh. We observed early diagenetic dissolution of calcareous tests in the dead assemblages. If comparable post-depositional processes and similar minor spatial variability also characterize fossil assemblages, then dead assemblage are the best modern analogs for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The Toms Creek tidal flat and low marsh vascular plant zones are dominated by Miliammina fusca, the middle marsh is dominated by Balticammina pseudomacrescens and Trochammina inflata, and the high marsh and upland–marsh transition zone are dominated by Trochamminita irregularis. Analysis of infaunal foraminifera showed that most living specimens are found in the surface sediments and the majority of live (rose Bengal stained) infaunal specimens are restricted to the upper 10 cm, but living individuals are found to depths of 50 cm. The dominant infaunal specimens are similar to those in the corresponding surface samples and no species have been found living solely infaunally. The

  12. Differences in Intertidal Microbial Assemblages on Urban Structures and Natural Rocky Reef

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Elisa L.-Y.; Mayer-Pinto, Mariana; Johnston, Emma L.; Dafforn, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Global seascapes are increasingly modified to support high levels of human activity in the coastal zone. Modifications include the addition of defense structures and boating infrastructure, such as seawalls and marinas that replace natural habitats. Artificial structures support different macrofaunal communities to those found on natural rocky shores; however, little is known about differences in microbial community structure or function in urban seascapes. Understanding how artificial constructions in marine environments influence microbial communities is important as these assemblages contribute to many basic ecological processes. In this study, the bacterial communities of intertidal biofilms were compared between artificial structures (seawalls) and natural habitats (rocky shores) within Sydney Harbour. Plots were cleared on each type of habitat at eight locations. After 3 weeks the newly formed biofilm was sampled and the 16S rRNA gene sequenced using the Illumina Miseq platform. To account for differences in orientation and substrate material between seawalls and rocky shores that might have influenced our survey, we also deployed recruitment blocks next to the habitats at all locations for 3 weeks and then sampled and sequenced their microbial communities. Intertidal bacterial community structure sampled from plots differed between seawalls and rocky shores, but when substrate material, age and orientation were kept constant (with recruitment blocks) then bacterial communities were similar in composition and structure among habitats. This suggests that changes in bacterial communities on seawalls are not related to environmental differences between locations, but may be related to other intrinsic factors that differ between the habitats such as orientation, complexity, or predation. This is one of the first comparisons of intertidal microbial communities on natural and artificial surfaces and illustrates substantial ecological differences with potential

  13. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-01-01

    Nine AGU members are among the 102 researchers that U.S. president Barack Obama announced on 23 December as recipients of the Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers, the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on science and engineering professionals in the early stages of their independent research careers.

  14. Fidelity of rocky intertidal mollusks in subtidal death assemblages to their counterpart life assemblages: a case study in San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.

    2016-04-01

    Rocky shores preserved in the geological record were rarely reported until a couple of decades ago. Even today, most of the literature focuses on bioerosional features in these high-energy environments due to their higher fossilization potential relative to shell material. Hard parts of taxa adapted to intertidal rocky shores may be preserved as allochthonous material in death assemblages (DAs) formed in adjacent shallow subtidal habitats due to lateral mixing. To test if life assemblages (LAs) of rocky intertidal mollusks (RIM) are faithfully recorded in shallow subtidal DAs, two ~30 m long transects across a proximal-distal gradient were studied on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. These transects encompass a proximal ripple field which grades into a facies dominated by green algae, and a distal ripple field. A total of 22 bulk samples, representing 155 liters of sediment, were wet-sieved with a 2-mm mesh. The samples yielded 528 RIM shells representing 15 species. Unexpectedly, abundance and compositional similarity of RIM shells to counterpart LAs sharply peaks along a belt of lag deposits of coarse sands fringing proximal ripple fields, in transition to green algae communities. These results suggest that, although a substantial transport of intertidal shells takes place in shallow subtidal environments, the signal is diluted in background sediment composition even in close proximity to the shore (30 m), and significant concentrations (loosely packed) of RIM shells in subtidal DAs might be used as a proxy to pinpoint past rocky intertidal environments.

  15. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-04-01

    Two AGU members were honored at the 2014 Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium in Perth, Australia. Bryson Bates, adjunct professor in the Department of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering at the University of Adelaide, in Australia, was selected as the Munro Orator. Bates, who was selected by Australia's National Committee on Water Engineering in conjunction with the symposium's organizers, delivered his keynote speech at the symposium on 25 February. Thomas Christopher Pagano, senior hydrologist with Australia's Bureau of Meteorology, received the G. N. Alexander medal. Pagano was honored for his involvement as coauthor of the paper "Evaluation of numerical weather prediction model precipitation forecasts for short-term streamflow forecasting purpose," which was published in Hydrology and Earth System Sciences.

  16. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    Several AGU members are among scientists recently honored by the Royal Society of Canada (RSC). Keith Hipel, with the Department of Systems Design Engineering at the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, received the Sir John William Dawson Medal in recognition of “important and sustained contributions in two domains of interest to RSC or in interdisciplinary research.” Andrew Weaver, with the School of Earth and Ocean Sciences at the University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, received the Miroslaw Romanowski Medal “for significant contributions to the resolution of scientific aspects of environmental problems or for important improvements to the quality of an ecosystem in all aspects—terrestrial, atmospheric and aqueous—brought about by scientific means.” In addition, the following AGU members were honored as new RSC fellows: Bernard Paul Boudreau, Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada; Dante Canil, School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria; Raymond Desjardins, Research Branch, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Keiko Hattori, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; and Danny Summers, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

  17. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Four AGU members are among the 18 individuals the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) will honor during its 150th annual meeting in April. William J. Borucki, space scientist at the NASA Ames Research Laboratory and science principal investigator for the Kepler Mission, is the recipient of the Henry Draper Medal "for his founding concept and visionary leadership of Kepler." John Gosling, senior research associate in the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and retired laboratory fellow at Los Alamos National Laboratory, will receive the Arctowski Medal. Gosling was selected for his work on the generation of energetic solar events, including distinguishing solar flares and coronal mass ejections. David Karl, professor of oceanography at the University of Hawai`i, Mānoa, is the recipient of the Alexander Agassiz Medal. NAS notes Karl's leadership in establishing multidisciplinary ocean-observing systems, detecting decadal regime shifts in pelagic ecosystems, and insights on biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. J. William Schopf, distinguished professor of paleobiology at the University of California, Los Angeles, is the recipient of the NAS Award in Early Earth and Life Sciences, presented in 2013 with the Charles Doolittle Walcott Medal. Schopf is being honored for his studies of microscopic fossils that represent the earliest forms of life on Earth and for leadership of large collaborative research groups.

  18. Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, Sabine M.; Albano, Paolo G.; Bentlage, Rudolf; Drummond, Hannah; García-Ramos, Diego A.; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Intensities of drilling predation of molluscan assemblages in intertidal and subtidal soft substrates in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf Sabine Maria Handler1, Paolo G. Albano1, Rudolf Bentlage2, Hannah Drummond2, D.A. García-Ramos1, Martin Zuschin1 1 Department of Paleontology, University of Vienna, Austria 2 St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York 13617, USA Trace fossils left by predators in the skeleton of their prey are arguably one of the most powerful sources of direct data on predator-prey interactions available in the fossil record. Drill holes, especially those attributed to naticid and muricid gastropods, are unambiguous marks of predation and allow discriminating between successful and unsuccessful predation attempts (complete and incomplete holes, respectively). Latitude and water depth influence drilling frequency. We inspected death assemblages of an intertidal flat and of two subtidal (water depth between 6 and 20 m) sandy sites in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf, off the coast of the United Arab Emirates, to determine the patterns of predation on shelled molluscs along the depth gradient. The study is based on ~7,000 and ~60,000 shells from the intertidal and subtidal, respectively. Drilling Frequency (DF, the number of drilled individuals), Incomplete Drilling Frequency (IDF, number of incomplete drill holes), and Prey Effectiveness (ratio between the number of incomplete drill holes and the total number of drilling attempts) were used as metrics of drilling intensity. We observed major differences between the intertidal and subtidal study areas. Drilling frequencies were generally remarkably low and intertidal flats showed a much lower drilling frequency than the subtidal (1.4% and 6.7%, respectively). In the subtidal, we observed significant differences of drilling intensity among bivalve species and between the two sites. However, predation metrics did not correlate with environmental factors such as substrate type and depth, nor with species life

  19. Structure and diversity of intertidal benthic diatom assemblages in contrasting shores: a case study from the Tagus estuary(1).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Lourenço; Brotas, Vanda; Rincé, Yves; Jesus, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    The structure of intertidal benthic diatoms assemblages in the Tagus estuary was investigated during a 2-year survey, carried out in six stations with different sediment texture. Nonparametric multivariate analyses were used to characterize spatial and temporal patterns of the assemblages and to link them to the measured environmental variables. In addition, diversity and other features related to community physiognomy, such as size-class or life-form distributions, were used to describe the diatom assemblages. A total of 183 diatom taxa were identified during cell counts and their biovolume was determined. Differences between stations (analysis of similarity (ANOSIM), R = 0.932) were more evident than temporal patterns (R = 0.308) and mud content alone was the environmental variable most correlated to the biotic data (BEST, ρ = 0.863). Mudflat stations were typically colonized by low diversity diatom assemblages (H' ~ 1.9), mainly composed of medium-sized motile epipelic species (250-1,000 μm(3) ), that showed species-specific seasonal blooms (e.g., Navicula gregaria Donkin). Sandy stations had more complex and diverse diatom assemblages (H' ~ 3.2). They were mostly composed by a large set of minute epipsammic species (<250 μm(3) ) that, generally, did not show temporal patterns. The structure of intertidal diatom assemblages was largely defined by the interplay between epipelon and epipsammon, and its diversity was explained within the framework of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. However, the spatial distribution of epipelic and epipsammic life-forms showed that the definition of both functional groups should not be over-simplified.

  20. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-10-01

    Three AGU members are among the 10 recipients of this year's Heinz Awards, announced on 13 September by Teresa Heinz and the Heinz Family Foundation. Richard Alley, Evan Pugh Professor of Geosciences at Pennsylvania State University, in University Park, was recognized for his polar ice discoveries that showed that abrupt climate change is possible and for engaging his students, policy makers, and the public. Joan Kleypas, a marine ecologist and geologist at the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration's National Center for Atmospheric Research, was honored for conducting seminal research on how changes in temperature and in seawater chemistry and acidity have affected coral reefs and for identifying ways to bolster coral reef health. Nancy Rabalais, executive director of the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, in Chauvin, was cited for her pioneering research of severe oxygen depletion in the Gulf of Mexico and her commitment to reducing water pollution through education and public policy. The awards program “recognizes individuals creating and implementing workable solutions to the problems the world faces through invention, research, and education while inspiring the next generation of modern thinkers,” according to the foundation. Each recipient receives an unrestricted cash prize of $100,000.

  1. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2011-10-01

    Three AGU members are among the 10 recipients of this year's Heinz Awards, announced on 13 September by Teresa Heinz and the Heinz Family Foundation. Richard Alley, Evan Pugh Professor of Geosciences at Pennsylvania State University, in University Park, was recognized for his polar ice discoveries that showed that abrupt climate change is possible and for engaging his students, policy makers, and the public.Joan Kleypas, a marine ecologist and geologist at the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration's National Center for Atmospheric Research, was honored for conducting seminal research on how changes in temperature and in seawater chemistry and acidity have affected coral reefs and for identifying ways to bolster coral reef health. Nancy Rabalais, executive director of the Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, in Chauvin, was cited for her pioneering research of severe oxygen depletion in the Gulf of Mexico and her commitment to reducing water pollution through education and public policy. The awards program "recognizes individuals creating and implementing workable solutions to the problems the world faces through invention, research, and education while inspiring the next generation of modern thinkers," according to the foundation. Each recipient receives an unrestricted cash prize of $100,000.

  2. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-10-01

    More than a dozen AGU members are among 94 researchers announced by U.S. president Barack Obama on 26 September as recipients of the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers. The award, which is coordinated by the Office of Science and Technology Policy within the Executive Office of the President, is considered the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on science and engineering professionals in the early stages of their independent research careers. This year's recipients include Jeffrey Book, Naval Research Laboratory; Jonathan Cirtain, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center; Fotini Katopodes Chow, University of California, Berkeley; Elizabeth Cochran, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); Ian Howat, Ohio State University; Christiane Jablonowski, University of Michigan; Justin Kasper, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; Elena Litchman, Michigan State University; James A. Morris Jr., National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); Erin M. Oleson, NOAA; Victoria Orphan, California Institute of Technology; Sasha Reed, USGS; David Shelly, USGS; and Feng Wang, University of California, Berkeley. Five AGU members are among 10 U.S. representatives recently selected for International Arctic Science Committee working groups. The AGU members, chosen as representatives through the U.S. National Academies review process, are Atmosphere Working Group member James Overland, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA; Cryosphere Working Group members Walter Meier, University of Colorado at Boulder, and Elizabeth Hunke, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marine Working Group member Mary-Louise Timmermans, Yale University; and Terrestrial Working Group member Vanessa Lougheed, University of Texas at El Paso.

  3. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    A number of AGU members were honored during the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held on 22-27 April in Vienna. EGU Union awards were presented to the following people: Vincent Courtillot, University of Paris Diderot, France, received the 2012 Arthur Holmes Medal and EGU honorary membership for seminal contributions to geomagnetism and the geodynamics of mantle hot spots. Michael Ghil, University of California, Los Angeles, and École Normale Supérieure, France, received the 2012 Alfred Wegener Medal and EGU honorary membership for his leading contributions to theoretical climate dynamics; his innovative observational studies involving model assimilation of satellite data in meteorology, oceanography, and space physics; the breadth of his interdisciplinary studies, including macroeconomics; and his extensive supervision and mentoring of scores of graduate and postdoctoral students. Robin Clarke, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, received the 2012 Alexander von Humboldt Medal for fundamental contributions in statistical analysis and modeling of hydrological processes. Angioletta Coradini, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofsica, Italy, received the 2012 Jean Dominique Cassini Medal and EGU honorary membership in recognition of her important and wide range of work in planetary sciences and solar system formation and for her leading role in the development of space infrared instrumentation for planetary exploration.

  4. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2012-05-01

    A number of AGU members were honored during the European Geosciences Union's (EGU) General Assembly, held on 22-27 April in Vienna. EGU Union awards were presented to the following people: Vincent Courtillot, University of Paris Diderot, France, received the 2012 Arthur Holmes Medal and EGU honorary membership for seminal contributions to geomagnetism and the geodynamics of mantle hot spots.Michael Ghil, University of California, Los Angeles, and École Normale Supérieure, France, received the 2012 Alfred Wegener Medal and EGU honorary membership for his leading contributions to theoretical climate dynamics; his innovative observational studies involving model assimilation of satellite data in meteorology, oceanography, and space physics; the breadth of his interdisciplinary studies, including macroeconomics; and his extensive supervision and mentoring of scores of graduate and postdoctoral students. Robin Clarke, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, received the 2012 Alexander von Humboldt Medal for fundamental contributions in statistical analysis and modeling of hydrological processes.Angioletta Coradini, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofsica, Italy, received the 2012 Jean Dominique Cassini Medal and EGU honorary membership in recognition of her important and wide range of work in planetary sciences and solar system formation and for her leading role in the development of space infrared instrumentation for planetary exploration.

  5. Are intertidal soft sediment assemblages affected by repeated oil spill events? A field-based experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César C; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of repeated diesel spills on the structure of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages of a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Repeated oil spills dramatically altered the overall structure of assemblages and reduced the total density of macrofauna and densities of dominant taxa. Increasing the frequency of oil spills negatively affected macrofauna. In general, frequent low-dosage oil spills were more deleterious than infrequent high-dosage ones. However, increases in densities of some taxa, mainly the gastropod Heleobia australis, were observed in response to infrequent spills. Our results highlight the importance of repeated exposure events in determining the extent of oil impacts.

  6. Quantitative distribution and functional groups of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Wang, Lu; Li, Shuai; Huo, Yuanzi; He, Peimin; Zhang, Zhinan

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate spatial distribution pattern of intertidal macrofauna, quantitative investigation was performed in January to February, 2013 around Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. A total of 34 species were identified, which were dominated by Mollusca, Annelida and Arthropoda. CLUSTER analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages at sand-bottom sites belonged to one group, which was dominated by Lumbricillus sp. and Kidderia subquadrata. Macrofaunal assemblages at gravel-bottom sites were divided into three groups while Nacella concinna was the dominant species at most sites. The highest values of biomass and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were found in gravel sediment and the highest value of abundance was in sand sediment of eastern coast. In terms of functional group, detritivorous and planktophagous groups had the highest values of abundance and biomass, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with contents of sediment chlorophyll a, phaeophorbide and organic matter.

  7. Short-term impact of bait digging on intertidal macrobenthic assemblages of two south Iberian Atlantic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Susana; Constantino, Rita; Cerqueira, Marco; Pereira, Fábio; Subida, Maria Dulce; Drake, Pilar; Gaspar, Miguel B.

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess short-term effects of intertidal bait digging on macrobenthic assemblages of two south Iberian Atlantic coastal systems: the Ria Formosa (RF) lagoon and the Bay of Cádiz (BC). Within each system, two different areas were selected. In each area, six plots were randomly located at least 1 m apart from each other. Half of the plots were left undisturbed (control) and the other three were dug (disturbed). Three macrobenthic core samples were taken from each plot, immediately before, one, four and seven days after digging. Samples for analyses of grain-size and organic matter content (OM) were also collected from the top 2 cm sediment layers in each sampling period. The effects of bait digging were site specific and were related to sediment and biological composition of the areas before disturbance. Macrobenthic assemblages from the area with proportionally less mud content (RF1), which presented the greatest infaunal diversity and evenness values before disturbance, showed minor effects of digging and assemblages generally recovered within 7 days. On the other hand, the areas located in the Bay of Cádiz, which before disturbance presented the greatest mud content and macrobenthic assemblages dominated by only a few species, were the most affected and did not show signs of total recovery within 7 days after digging. The abundance of sedentary polychaetes from families Spionidae, Capitellidae and Cirratulidae decreased after digging. In contrast, in some areas the abundance of the gastropods Bittium spp., Haminoea hydatis and Retusa truncatula increased after bait digging indicating that they are less affected by this activity. Differences were detected in the response of benthic assemblages to the same intensity, frequency and nature of disturbance between and within coastal systems. Therefore, generalizations of the effects of bait digging and in the recovery of macrobenthic assemblages in the south of Iberian Peninsula are not

  8. Spatial variability in the structure of intertidal crab and gastropod assemblages within the Seychelles Archipelago (Indian Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smale, Dan A.; Barnes, David K. A.; Barnes, Richard S. K.; Smith, David J.; Suggett, David J.

    2012-04-01

    Tropical nearshore ecosystems represent global hotspots of marine biodiversity and endemism but are often poorly understood and impacted by human activities. The Seychelles Archipelago (Western Indian Ocean) sustains a wealth of marine life, much of which is threatened by rapid development associated with tourism and climate change. Six marine parks exist within the Archipelago, but their biodiversity value and ecological health are poorly known, especially with regards to non-fish and coral species. Here we investigate spatial patterns of littoral biodiversity on 6 islands, 5 of which were granitic and within marine parks, including the first surveys of Curieuse and Ile Cocos. Our surveys formed a nested sampling design, to facilitate an examination of variability in species richness, faunal abundance, taxonomic distinctness and assemblage composition at multiple spatial scales, from islands (> 100 s km) to quadrats (metres). We identified (mostly to species) and enumerated two target taxa, brachyuran decapod crustaceans and gastropod molluscs, and recorded over 8300 individuals belonging to over 150 species. Crabs and gastropods exhibited different patterns of spatial variability, as crab assemblages were generally more distinct between islands, while gastropod assemblages were markedly variable at the smallest spatial scales of 'patch' and 'quadrat'. Intertidal biodiversity was greatest on Curieuse Island and least at Desroches, the latter was being the only coral atoll we surveyed and thereby differing in its geological and ecological context. We discuss likely drivers of these biodiversity patterns and highlight urgently-needed research directions. Our assessment of the status of poorly-known invertebrate assemblages across the Seychelles will complement more extensive surveys of coral and fish assemblages and, in doing so, provide a useful baseline for monitoring the effects of key stressors in the region, such as coastal development and climate change.

  9. Mangrove removal in the belize cays: effects on mangrove-associated fish assemblages in the intertidal and subtidal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, D.S.; Reyier, E.A.; Davis, W.P.; McIvor, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of mangrove cutting on fish assemblages in Twin Cays, Belize, in two habitat types. We conducted visual censuses at two sites in adjoining undisturbed/disturbed (30%–70% of shoreline fringe removed) sub-tidal fringing Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753. Observers recorded significantly more species and individuals in undisturbed sites, especially among smaller, schooling species (e.g., atherinids, clupeids), where densities were up to 200 times greater in undisturbed habitat. Multivariate analyses showed distinct species assemblages between habitats at both sites. In addition, extensive trapping with wire minnow traps within the intertidal zone in both undisturbed and disturbed fringing and transition (landward) mangrove forests was conducted. Catch rates were low: 638 individuals from 24 species over 563 trap-nights. Trap data, however, indicated that mangrove disturbance had minimal effect on species composition in either forest type (fringe/transition). Different results from the two methods (and habitat types) may be explained by two factors: (1) a larger and more detectable species pool in the subtidal habitat, with visual "access" to all species, and (2) the selective nature of trapping. Our data indicate that even partial clearing of shoreline and more landward mangroves can have a significant impact on local fish assemblages.

  10. Tidal, diel and semi-lunar changes in the faunal assemblage of an intertidal salt marsh creek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Henrietta; Cattrijsse, Andre; Vincx, Magda

    2003-03-01

    The utilisation of a brackish estuarine marsh by nekton was investigated over a semi-lunar cycle in August 1994. Nekton migrating in and out of the intertidal creeks of the marsh 'Het Verdronken Land van Saeftinghe' in the Westerschelde estuary, SW Netherlands, was sampled passively during seven complete tidal cycles. Sampling one tidal cycle yielded three consecutive flood samples and four consecutive ebb samples. Sampling occurred every 2-3 days, covering diel, tidal and semi-lunar situations, thus allowing comparison of tidal, diel and semi-lunar influences on the composition of the intertidal fauna. Two different tidal-migration modes were observed. The mysid shrimp, Mesopodopsis slabberi, showed maximum abundance around high tide. For the remaining common species, the mysid ( Neomysis integer), the shrimp ( Palaemonetes varians), the crab ( Carcinus maenas) and the goby ( Pomatoschistus microps) and the amphipod ( Corophium volutator), highest densities were recorded during lower water heights. The faunal assemblage shifts between the different tidal stages. On two occasions, consecutive day and night samples were taken. Total densities were higher during the night samples. During spring tide, difference in community composition was noticed between the night and the day samples. During neap tide, day-night differences were less clear. Recorded total densities were highest during spring tide and lowest during neap tide. At maximum water levels, a drop in total density was observed. A shift in community composition occurred between spring and neap tides.

  11. A diverse assemblage of reef corals thriving in a dynamic intertidal reef setting (Bonaparte Archipelago, Kimberley, Australia).

    PubMed

    Richards, Zoe T; Garcia, Rodrigo A; Wallace, Carden C; Rosser, Natalie L; Muir, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of reef-building corals to climatic anomalies is well documented and a cause of great concern for the future of coral reefs. Reef corals are normally considered to tolerate only a narrow range of climatic conditions with only a small number of species considered heat-tolerant. Occasionally however, corals can be seen thriving in unusually harsh reef settings and these are cause for some optimism about the future of coral reefs. Here we document for the first time a diverse assemblage of 225 species of hard corals occurring in the intertidal zone of the Bonaparte Archipelago, north western Australia. We compare the environmental conditions at our study site (tidal regime, SST and level of turbidity) with those experienced at four other more typical tropical reef locations with similar levels of diversity. Physical extremes in the Bonaparte Archipelago include tidal oscillations of up to 8 m, long subaerial exposure times (>3.5 hrs), prolonged exposure to high SST and fluctuating turbidity levels. We conclude the timing of low tide in the coolest parts of the day ameliorates the severity of subaerial exposure, and the combination of strong currents and a naturally high sediment regime helps to offset light and heat stress. The low level of anthropogenic impact and proximity to the Indo-west Pacific centre of diversity are likely to further promote resistance and resilience in this community. This assemblage provides an indication of what corals may have existed in other nearshore locations in the past prior to widespread coastal development, eutrophication, coral predator and disease outbreaks and coral bleaching events. Our results call for a re-evaluation of what conditions are optimal for coral survival, and the Bonaparte intertidal community presents an ideal model system for exploring how species resilience is conferred in the absence of confounding factors such as pollution.

  12. A Diverse Assemblage of Reef Corals Thriving in a Dynamic Intertidal Reef Setting (Bonaparte Archipelago, Kimberley, Australia)

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Zoe T.; Garcia, Rodrigo A.; Wallace, Carden C.; Rosser, Natalie L.; Muir, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    The susceptibility of reef-building corals to climatic anomalies is well documented and a cause of great concern for the future of coral reefs. Reef corals are normally considered to tolerate only a narrow range of climatic conditions with only a small number of species considered heat-tolerant. Occasionally however, corals can be seen thriving in unusually harsh reef settings and these are cause for some optimism about the future of coral reefs. Here we document for the first time a diverse assemblage of 225 species of hard corals occurring in the intertidal zone of the Bonaparte Archipelago, north western Australia. We compare the environmental conditions at our study site (tidal regime, SST and level of turbidity) with those experienced at four other more typical tropical reef locations with similar levels of diversity. Physical extremes in the Bonaparte Archipelago include tidal oscillations of up to 8 m, long subaerial exposure times (>3.5 hrs), prolonged exposure to high SST and fluctuating turbidity levels. We conclude the timing of low tide in the coolest parts of the day ameliorates the severity of subaerial exposure, and the combination of strong currents and a naturally high sediment regime helps to offset light and heat stress. The low level of anthropogenic impact and proximity to the Indo-west Pacific centre of diversity are likely to further promote resistance and resilience in this community. This assemblage provides an indication of what corals may have existed in other nearshore locations in the past prior to widespread coastal development, eutrophication, coral predator and disease outbreaks and coral bleaching events. Our results call for a re-evaluation of what conditions are optimal for coral survival, and the Bonaparte intertidal community presents an ideal model system for exploring how species resilience is conferred in the absence of confounding factors such as pollution. PMID:25714443

  13. Climate-related environmental stress in intertidal grazers: scaling-up biochemical responses to assemblage-level processes

    PubMed Central

    Cappiello, Mario; Del Corso, Antonella; Lenzarini, Francesca; Peroni, Eleonora; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Organisms are facing increasing levels of environmental stress under climate change that may severely affect the functioning of biological systems at different levels of organization. Growing evidence suggests that reduction in body size is a universal response of organisms to global warming. However, a clear understanding of whether extreme climate events will impose selection directly on phenotypic plastic responses and how these responses affect ecological interactions has remained elusive. Methods We experimentally investigated the effects of extreme desiccation events on antioxidant defense mechanisms of a rocky intertidal gastropod (Patella ulyssiponensis), and evaluated how these effects scaled-up at the population and assemblage levels. Results With increasing levels of desiccation stress, limpets showed significant lower levels of total glutathione, tended to grow less and had reduced per capita interaction strength on their resources. Discussion Results suggested that phenotypic plasticity (i.e., reduction in adults’ body size) allowed buffering biochemical responses to stress to scale-up at the assemblage level. Unveiling the linkages among different levels of biological organization is key to develop indicators that can anticipate large-scale ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:27781156

  14. Reddened seascapes: experimentally induced shifts in 1/f spectra of spatial variability in rocky intertidal assemblages.

    PubMed

    Tamburello, Laura; Bulleri, Fabio; Bertocci, Iacopo; Maggi, Elena; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro

    2013-05-01

    Ecological tests of 1/f-noise models have advanced our understanding of how environmental fluctuations affect population abundance and species distributions. Most empirical studies have been conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and have focused on individual drivers. We present the results of a four-year field experiment in which canopy presence/absence and the availability of primary space were manipulated as red-noise and white-noise spatial processes, respectively, to evaluate their separate and compounded effects on algal turf distribution in a rocky intertidal community. Algal turfs closely tracked spatial variation in canopy distribution, displaying a reddened spectrum of spatial variation. Surprisingly, white-noise clearings also induced a red-shift in turf distribution, a pattern that was related to a nonlinear relation between gap size and turf colonization. The two disturbances interacted antagonistically, dampening the red-shift of turf distribution. Our results provide evidence of experimentally induced shifts in the spectrum of a spatial variable under natural environmental conditions.

  15. The effects of storm-drains with periodic flows on intertidal algal assemblages in 'Ewa Beach (O'ahu), Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Cox, T E; Foster, M S

    2013-05-15

    Storm-water drainage systems have potential to collect and focus nutrient enriched runoff into coastal systems. Storm-drain effluent could support macroalgal production and result in altered communities. To test this hypothesis, we assessed species composition and percent cover of native and non-native benthic macroalgae at eight intertidal sites along 'Ewa Beach, Hawai'i. Three sites contain storm-drainage outlets (drain 16-52 acres) that deliver effluent into the intertidal zone whereas five sites were located ≥ 100 m away and served as comparisons to determine differences related to the presence of storm-water. Results revealed lush and diverse macroalgal assemblages, similar at all sites. Furthermore, the abundance of non-native species (Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis) was not related to presence of storm-drains. The finding that macroalgal assemblages are not related to storm-waters is contrary to an earlier investigation in the same location and underscores the importance of sampling design and habitat variation when assessing impacts.

  16. Colonization and/or mitochondrial selective sweeps across the North Atlantic intertidal assemblage revealed by multi-taxa approximate Bayesian computation.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Katriina L; Huang, Wen; Wares, John P; Hickerson, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Intertidal and subtidal communities of the western and eastern coasts of the North Atlantic Ocean were greatly affected by Pleistocene glaciations, with some taxa persisting on both coasts, and others recolonizing after being extirpated on one coast during the Last Glacial Maximum. In the original spirit of comparative phylogeography, we conducted a comparative analysis using mtDNA sequence data and a hierarchical approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach for testing these two scenarios across 12 intertidal and subtidal coastal invertebrates spanning the North Atlantic to determine the temporal dynamics of species membership of these two ephemeral communities. Conditioning on a low gene-flow model, our results suggested that a colonization or mitochondrial selective sweep history was predominant across all taxa, with only the bivalve mollusc Mytilus edulis showing a history of trans-Atlantic persistence. Conditioning on a high gene-flow model weakened the support for this assemblage-level demographic history. The predominance of a colonization-type history also highlights concerns about analyses based on single-locus data where genetic hitchhiking may be incorrectly inferred as colonization. In conclusion, driving factors in shifting species range distributions and membership of ephemeral coastal communities could be species-specific environmental tolerances, species interactions, and/or stochastic demographic extinction. Through a re-examination of a long-standing question of North Atlantic phylogeography, we highlight the flexibility and statistical honesty of using a model-based ABC approach.

  17. Honor Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Howard

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about "honor" and describes how the word has been taken for granted in schools. He explains that "honor" traditionally, has had two meanings, and that the National Honor Society (NHS) reflects the most ancient of them. Like Aristotle, who described honor in his "Nicomachean Ethics" as "the prize of virtue and the…

  18. Nontraditional Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinghorn, Janice Rye; Smith, Whitney Womack

    2013-01-01

    While honors programs and colleges often proclaim the importance of recruiting and retaining a diverse group of high-ability students, many are still exclusionary and predicated on assumptions about the student body that are no longer valid. The structure and programming of honors can thus prohibit the full participation of nontraditional students…

  19. Trophic relationships, feeding habits and seasonal dietary changes in an intertidal rockpool fish assemblage in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compaire, Jesus C.; Cabrera, Remedios; Gómez-Cama, Carmen; Soriguer, Milagrosa C.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the use of resources and diet of nine resident fish species in the rocky intertidal zone of the Gulf of Cadiz and examines whether their populations are affected by trophic competition. A stomach content analysis of the nine species revealed that only one was herbivorous (Parablennius sanguinolentus), while the rest were mainly carnivorous (Gobius bucchichi, Gobius cobitis, Gobius paganellus, Zebrus zebrus, Salaria pavo, Lepadogaster lepadogaster, Scorpaena porcus and Tripterygion tripteronotum). The most frequently consumed prey were amphipods, isopods, polychaetes, decapods, chironomids, tanaidaceans, gastropods, copepods, cumaceans and ostracods. In most species, the occurrence of polychaetes and molluscs was higher in the cold season, whereas that of isopods, decapods, chironomids and fish increased in the warm season. In general, larger specimens consumed larger prey, with an increase in the occurrence of isopods, decapods and fish. An analysis of trophic niche breadth defined G. cobitis as generalist, G. bucchichi as opportunist and S. porcus as specialist, whereas the values obtained for the other species did not indicate a clearly defined strategy. Low diet overlap values and the segregation observed in several analyses indicated an adequate distribution of resources.

  20. Housing Honors. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Linda, Ed.; Kay, Lisa W., Ed.; Poe, Rachael, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Honors administrators spend much of their time explaining and describing what honors is and does. When they talk about what honors looks like nationally, they should have answers to the following important questions: How pervasive is the model of separate honors facilities?; How pervasive are the legendary closets that honors programs have so…

  1. The Culture of Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article Chancellor Susan Koch considers the value of the honors program at her institute, the University of Illinois at Springfield. She begins by reflecting on her own under graduate experience at her alma mater, Dakota State University and explains how her experience there helped her to create the honors program at the University of…

  2. Can Faculty Afford Honors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzy, Annmarie

    2012-01-01

    In "Costs and Benefits in the Economy of Honors," Richard Badenhausen identifies several pressing issues regarding the economic status of honors in the current financial climate of higher education, including the role of faculty in addressing those issues. In her response to Badenhausen's essay, Annmarie Guzy, a faculty member at the…

  3. Honors Education and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Marca V. C.

    2012-01-01

    An issue of "Journal of the National Collegiate Honors Council" devoted to "Honors Around the Globe" is an important opportunity to consider the role of honors in creating international awareness and understanding. Honors faculty and administrators have become increasingly active in global cross-communication through, for…

  4. Honesty and Honor Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald; Trevino, Linda Klebe

    2002-01-01

    Explores the rise in student cheating and evidence that students cheat less often at schools with an honor code. Discusses effective use of such codes and creation of a peer culture that condemns dishonesty. (EV)

  5. Honoring our helpers

    PubMed Central

    Talanow, Roland; Giesel, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Radiology Case Reports honors the reviewers who donated their time and expertise throughout the year 2015 to the high quality and success of this journal. PMID:27200155

  6. Honoring our helpers

    PubMed Central

    Talanow, Roland; Giesel, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Radiology Case Reports honors the reviewers who donated their time and expertise throughout the year 2013 to the high quality and success of this journal. PMID:24967015

  7. Predicting habitat associations of five intertidal crab species among estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeiren, Peter; Sheaves, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Intertidal crab assemblages that are active on the sediment surface of tropical estuaries during tidal exposure play an important role in many fundamental ecosystem processes. Consequently, they are critical contributors to a wide range of estuarine goods and services. However, a lack of understanding of their spatial organization within a large landscape context prevents the inclusion of intertidal crabs into generally applicable ecological models and management applications. We investigated spatial distribution patterns of intertidal crabs within and among eight dry tropical estuaries spread across a 160 km stretch of coast in North East Queensland, Australia. Habitat associations were modelled for five species based on photographic sampling in 40-80 sites per estuarine up- and downstream component: Uca seismella occurred in sites with little structure, bordered by low intertidal vegetation; Macrophthalmus japonicus occupied flat muddy sites with no structure or vegetation; Metopograpsus frontalis and Metopograpsus latifrons occupied sites covered with structure in more than 10% and 25% respectively. Finally, both Metopograpsus spp. and Metopograpsus thukuhar occupied rock walls. Habitat associations were predictable among estuaries with moderate to high sensitivity and low percentages of false positives indicating that simple, physical factors were adequate to explain the spatial distribution pattern of intertidal crabs. Results provide a necessary first step in developing generally applicable understanding of the fundamental mechanisms driving spatial niche organization of intertidal crabs within a landscape context.

  8. Demography of Honors: The National Landscape of Honors Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Richard I.; Smith, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    As the National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC) celebrates its fiftieth year, the organization has an excellent opportunity to reflect on how honors education has spread during its history. Tracking growth in the number of institutions delivering honors education outside of its membership has not been a priority for NCHC or for researchers in…

  9. The CHROME Honors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Eleanor

    2002-01-01

    The CHROME Honors Program was designed as a two-week residential program for 9th and 1Oth grade students participating in CHROME clubs. The curriculum focused on the health sciences with instruction from: (1) the science and health curriculum of the Dozoretz National Program for Minorities in Applied Sciences (DNIMAS) Program of Norfolk State University (NSU); (2) the humanities curriculum of the NSU Honors Program; (3) NASA-related curriculum in human physiology. An Advisory Committee was formed to work with the Project Coordinator in the design of the summer program.

  10. Biogeochemistry of Intertidal Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jickells, T. D.; Rae, J. E.

    2005-07-01

    This authoritative volume includes contributions from a wide range of researchers of intertidal sediments. Individual chapters explore the underlying biogeochemical processes controlling the behavior of carbon, the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, and contaminants such as toxic organics, trace metals and artificial radionuclides in intertidal environments. The biogeochemistry of these environments is critical to understanding their ecology and management. Each of the chapters includes a comprehensive review and the results of recent research. The contributors are active researchers in this diverse and ecologically important field. This text is mainly for researchers and managers working with intertidal sediments, but it will also serve as a valuable senior undergraduate and graduate reference text in environmental chemistry, environmental science, earth science, and oceanography.

  11. Civic Tolerance among Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Gordon; Shepherd, Gary

    2014-01-01

    As important as cognitive outcomes are in assessing the educational merits of honors programs, the authors ask whether honors programs affect the values and social attitudes of their students differently than other students: in particular, whether honors students are more or less tolerant than other students and, if so, in what ways and why. There…

  12. The Catalytic Impact of Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, discussion about the value of honors education focuses on the outcomes for students: enhancement of skill sets that are (a) academic, (b) social, (c) leadership-oriented, (d) personal, and (e) vocational or professional. These are all real outcomes, but they can also be achieved outside honors. What makes honors special is that it…

  13. Honors as Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dan R.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of honor societies and programs on a university campus is an important component of its reputation for excellence. While we may quibble with the methodologies employed by various rankings, reputation is one of the key drivers of choice when students and their families are making that all-important decision about which university to…

  14. Honors: Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, Sandra Y.

    This paper provides a description of the development of an honors program at Gulf Coast Community College (GCCC). The description is organized around three flow charts corresponding to different stages in the program's development, and which are followed by more detailed explanations. The first flow chart deals with program planning and…

  15. Funeral Honors Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-04-01

    Pentagram , 27 November, 1998. 2 Jim Halvorson, HQ USAF/ILVX, Bullet Background Paper on Base Honor Guard Support for Military Funerals. 23 September 1998. 3...general and funerals in specific have crucial roles in the military. Ceremony reinforces the truth that no one is alone in battle. At war, a unit’s

  16. Profit, Productivity, and Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuman, Sam

    2014-01-01

    In an ominously steady progression over the past decades, education in general, higher education in particular, and even honors education have increasingly been contextualized in the realm of the marketplace. Cost/benefit analyses of colleges and universities are examined; institutions in terms of their price to consumers (students and their…

  17. A Meaningful Honors System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Paul L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how traditional college honors systems, based upon competition among scholastically able full-time students, preclude large numbers of community college students from having their academic achievements recognized. Proposes that each student, in cooperation with his/her faculty advisor, determine a personal grade point average goal. (JP)

  18. Honors Scholar Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehner, Margaret

    A proposal is presented for an Honors Scholar Program at Moraine Valley Community College in response to the need to provide gifted students with the extra challenges they seek. After providing a rationale for the program, the membership of the steering committee and curriculum committees that would develop and guide the program is designated.…

  19. Mothers in Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killinger, Mimi; Binder-Hathaway, Rachel; Mitchell, Paige; Patrick, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the experiences of four honors mothers as they offer sage advice. They argue convincingly that they are motivated, focused students who bring rich diversity to college programs. They further report disturbing marginalization and isolation that could be ameliorated with support and increased sensitivity on the part of…

  20. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  1. Orchestral Stalls, Honore Daumier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero-Criswell, Amber

    2004-01-01

    Honore Daumier is probably best known as a politically motivated artist. Born in Marseilles in 1808, the French artist lived through one of the most turbulent eras of his country's history. With his artistic prowess and biting wit, he recorded the 1848 revolution, the rise and fall of the Second Empire, the Crimean and Franco-Prussian Wars, and…

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of subtidal and intertidal crabs excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. C. F.; Boaventura, D. M.; Thompson, R. C.; Hawkins, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly mobile predators such as fish and crabs are known to migrate from the subtidal zone to forage in the intertidal zone at high-tide. The extent and variation of these habitat linking movements along the vertical shore gradient have not been examined before for several species simultaneously, hence not accounting for species interactions. Here, the foraging excursions of Carcinus maenas (L.), Necora puber (Linnaeus, 1767) and Cancer pagurus (Linnaeus, 1758) were assessed in a one-year mark-recapture study on two replicated rocky shores in southwest U.K. A comparison between the abundance of individuals present on the shore at high-tide with those present in refuges exposed at low-tide indicated considerable intertidal migration by all species, showing strong linkage between subtidal and intertidal habitats. Estimates of population size based on recapture of marked individuals indicated that an average of ~ 4000 individuals combined for the three crab species, can be present on the shore during one tidal cycle. There was also a high fidelity of individuals and species to particular shore levels. Underlying mechanisms for these spatial patterns such as prey availability and agonistic interactions are discussed. Survival rates were estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model from multi-recapture analysis and found to be considerably high with a minimum of 30% for all species. Growth rates were found to vary intraspecifically with size and between seasons. Understanding the temporal and spatial variations in predation pressure by crabs on rocky shores is dependent on knowing who, when and how many of these commercially important crab species depend on intertidal foraging. Previous studies have shown that the diet of these species is strongly based on intertidal prey including key species such as limpets; hence intertidal crab migration could be associated with considerable impacts on intertidal assemblages.

  3. The Honors College Phenomenon. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sederberg, Peter C., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    One enduring, and perhaps endearing, characteristic of the National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC) is its commitment to pluralism. NCHC recognizes that excellent honors educational opportunities can be cultivated across the diverse settings of American higher education from two-year community colleges through large, comprehensive research…

  4. Patient safety: honoring advanced directives.

    PubMed

    Tice, Martha A

    2007-02-01

    Healthcare providers typically think of patient safety in the context of preventing iatrogenic injury. Prevention of falls and medication or treatment errors is the typical focus of adverse event analyses. If healthcare providers are committed to honoring the wishes of patients, then perhaps failures to honor advanced directives should be viewed as reportable medical errors.

  5. Study of the rocky Intertidal communities of central and northern California: Years 3 and 4. Volume 1 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.

    1990-08-01

    The study objectives are to describe seasonal and successional variation in rocky Intertidal community structure; determine the response of rocky Intertidal communities to natural and human-induced disturbances and correlate these responses with successional, seasonal, and latitudinal variation; and correlate life history information and oil toxicity data with data from this and other relevant studies. The Year III and IV report is for the third (1987) and fourth (1988) years of a five-year field experimental study investigating two biological assemblages, the Mytilus assemblage and the Endocladia/Mastocarpus papillatus assemblage, that are being studied at six sites along the California coast. Experimental treatments include clearing three plots in spring 1985 and three plots in fall 1985. Data from the program will be correlated with oil toxicity data and other studies to provide indications of the long term effects of an oil spill on rocky Intertidal communities. The report is volume 1 of a 5 volume set.

  6. Study of the rocky Intertidal communities of central and northern California: Years 3 and 4. Volume 5 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.

    1990-08-01

    The study objectives are to describe seasonal and successional variation in rocky Intertidal community structure; determine the response of rocky Intertidal communities to natural and human-induced disturbances and correlate these responses with successional, seasonal, and latitudinal variation; and correlate life history information and oil toxicity data with data from this and other relevant studies. The Year III and IV report is for the third (1987) and fourth (1988) years of a five-year field experimental study investigating two biological assemblages, the Mytilus assemblage and the Endocladia/Mastocarpus papillatus assemblage, that are being studied at six sites along the California coast. Experimental treatments include clearing three plots in spring 1985 and three plots in fall 1985. Data from the program will be correlated with oil toxicity data and other studies to provide indications of the long term effects of an oil spill on rocky Intertidal communities. The report is volume 5 of a 5 volume set.

  7. Study of the rocky Intertidal communities of central and northern California: Years 3 and 4. Volume 3 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.

    1990-08-01

    The study objectives are to describe seasonal and successional variation in rocky Intertidal community structure; determine the response of rocky Intertidal communities to natural and human-induced disturbances and correlate these responses with successional, seasonal, and latitudinal variation; and correlate life history information and oil toxicity data with data from this and other relevant studies. The Year III and IV report is for the third (1987) and fourth (1988) years of a five-year field experimental study investigating two biological assemblages, the Mytilus assemblage and the Endocladia/Mastocarpus papillatus assemblage, that are being studied at six sites along the California coast. Experimental treatments include clearing three plots in spring 1985 and three plots in fall 1985. Data from the program will be correlated with oil toxicity data and other studies to provide indications of the long term effects of an oil spill on rocky Intertidal communities. The report is volume 3 of a 5 volume set.

  8. Study of the rocky Intertidal communities of central and northern California: Years 3 and 4. Volume 2 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.

    1990-08-01

    The study objectives are to describe seasonal and successional variation in rocky Intertidal community structure; determine the response of rocky Intertidal communities to natural and human-induced disturbances and correlate these responses with successional, seasonal, and latitudinal variation; and correlate life history information and oil toxicity data with data from this and other relevant studies. The Year III and IV report is for the third (1987) and fourth (1988) years of a five-year field experimental study investigating two biological assemblages, the Mytilus assemblage and the Endocladia/Mastocarpus papillatus assemblage, that are being studied at six sites along the California coast. Experimental treatments include clearing three plots in spring 1985 and three plots in fall 1985. Data from the program will be correlated with oil toxicity data and other studies to provide indications of the long term effects of an oil spill on rocky Intertidal communities. The report is volume 2 of a 5 volume set.

  9. Study of the rocky Intertidal communities of central and northern California: Years 3 and 4. Volume 4 of 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, D.

    1990-08-01

    The study objectives are to describe seasonal and successional variation in rocky Intertidal community structure; determine the response of rocky Intertidal communities to natural and human-induced disturbances and correlate these responses with successional, seasonal, and latitudinal variation; and correlate life history information and oil toxicity data with data from this and other relevant studies. The Year III and IV report is for the third (1987) and fourth (1988) years of a five-year field experimental study investigating two biological assemblages, the Mytilus assemblage and the Endocladia/Mastocarpus papillatus assemblage, that are being studied at six sites along the California coast. Experimental treatments include clearing three plots in spring 1985 and three plots in fall 1985. Data from the program will be correlated with oil toxicity data and other studies to provide indications of the long term effects of an oil spill on rocky Intertidal communities. The report is volume 4 of a 5 volume set.

  10. Vertical differences in species turnover and diversity of amphipod assemblages associated with coralline mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, M.; Tanaka, M. O.; Flores, A. A. V.; Leite, F. P. P.

    2016-11-01

    Environmental gradients are common in rocky shore habitats and may determine species spatial distributions at different scales. In this study, we tested whether environmental filtering affects amphipod assemblages inhabiting coralline algal mats at different vertical heights in southeastern Brazil. Samples obtained from the upper and lower zones of the infralittoral fringe were used to estimate mat descriptors (algal mass, sediment retention, organic matter contents, grain size and sediment sorting) and describe amphipod assemblages (abundance, species richness and diversity indices). Coralline algal mats and amphipod assemblages were similar between intertidal zones in several aspects. However, a more variable retention of sediment (positively related to algal mass), together with the accumulation of larger grains lower on the shore, likely provide higher habitat heterogeneity that hosts generally more diverse (both α- and β-diversity, as well as higher species turnover) amphipod assemblages in the lower intertidal zone. Poorer assemblages in the upper intertidal zone are dominated by omnivores, while carnivorous species are more often found in richer assemblages in the lower intertidal zone, as predicted by traditional niche theory.

  11. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  12. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-03-19

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  13. VISIT BY CONGRESSIONAL REPRESENTATIVES - HONORABLE FRANK E HOOK MICHIGAN - HONORABLE THAD E WASIELEW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    VISIT BY CONGRESSIONAL REPRESENTATIVES - HONORABLE FRANK E HOOK MICHIGAN - HONORABLE THAD E WASIELEWSKI WISCONSIN - R SESSIONS NACA - HONORABLE MICHAEL A FEIGHAN OHIO - CAPTAIN VICTOR H HARDING CHIEF DEPUTY SARGEANT AT ARMS FOR THE

  14. Wave energy and intertidal productivity.

    PubMed

    Leigh, E G; Paine, R T; Quinn, J F; Suchanek, T H

    1987-03-01

    In the northeastern Pacific, intertidal zones of the most wave-beaten shores receive more energy from breaking waves than from the sun. Despite severe mortality from winter storms, communities at some wave-beaten sites produce an extraordinary quantity of dry matter per unit area of shore per year. At wave-beaten sites of Tatoosh Island, WA, sea palms, Postelsia palmaeformis, can produce > 10 kg of dry matter, or 1.5 x 10(8) J, per m(2) in a good year. Extraordinarily productive organisms such as Postelsia are restricted to wave-beaten sites. Intertidal organisms cannot transform wave energy into chemical energy, as photosynthetic plants transform solar energy, nor can intertidal organisms "harness" wave energy. Nonetheless, wave energy enhances the productivity of intertidal organisms. On exposed shores, waves increase the capacity of resident algae to acquire nutrients and use sunlight, augment the competitive ability of productive organisms, and protect intertidal residents by knocking away their enemies or preventing them from feeding.

  15. Wave energy and intertidal productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, E.G. Jr.; Paine, R.T.; Quinn, J.F.; Suchanek, T.H.

    1987-03-01

    In the northern Pacific, intertidal zones of the most wave-beaten shores receive more energy from breaking waves than from the sun. Despite severe mortality from winter storms, communities at some wave-beaten sites produce an extraordinary quantity of dry matter per unit area of shore per year. At wave-beaten sites of Tatoosh Island, WA, sea palms, Postelsia palmaeformis, can produce > 10 kg of dry matter, or 1.5 x 10/sup 8/ J, per m/sup 2/ in a good year. Extraordinarily productive organisms such as Postelsia are restricted to wave-beaten sites. Intertidal organisms cannot transform wave energy into chemical energy, as photosynthetic plants transform solar energy, nor can intertidal organisms harness wave energy. Nonetheless, wave energy enhances the productivity of intertidal organisms. On exposed shores, waves increase the capacity of resident algae to acquire nutrients and use sunlight, augment the competitive ability of productive organism, and protect intertidal residents by knocking away their enemies or preventing them from feeding.

  16. Wave energy and intertidal productivity

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Egbert G.; Paine, Robert T.; Quinn, James F.; Suchanek, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    In the northeastern Pacific, intertidal zones of the most wave-beaten shores receive more energy from breaking waves than from the sun. Despite severe mortality from winter storms, communities at some wave-beaten sites produce an extraordinary quantity of dry matter per unit area of shore per year. At wave-beaten sites of Tatoosh Island, WA, sea palms, Postelsia palmaeformis, can produce > 10 kg of dry matter, or 1.5 × 108 J, per m2 in a good year. Extraordinarily productive organisms such as Postelsia are restricted to wave-beaten sites. Intertidal organisms cannot transform wave energy into chemical energy, as photosynthetic plants transform solar energy, nor can intertidal organisms “harness” wave energy. Nonetheless, wave energy enhances the productivity of intertidal organisms. On exposed shores, waves increase the capacity of resident algae to acquire nutrients and use sunlight, augment the competitive ability of productive organisms, and protect intertidal residents by knocking away their enemies or preventing them from feeding. PMID:16593813

  17. Why Not Honors? Understanding Students' Decisions Not to Enroll and Persist in Honors Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Timothy; Ailts, Jacob; Chang, Kuo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    This study gathered, analyzed, and compared perspectives of students who were honors-eligible but never began the program, students who began in honors and discontinued their enrollment, and those who were persisting in honors. Broadly speaking (and not surprisingly), the responses of students persisting in honors reflected the most positive…

  18. Priorities for Quality Honors Education: A Delphi Study on Honors Program and College Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patricia Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Honors education has grown exponentially across the country, and a great deal of variation currently exists among programs. The National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC) has adopted lists of the Basic Characteristics of Fully Developed Honors Programs (Madden, 1994) and Honors Colleges (Sederberg, 2005) to guide new and developing programs, but no…

  19. Honoring Class: Working-Class Sensitivities in Honors Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin, William H.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of social class rarely injects itself into assignments in honors English composition courses. The students take few chances with structure, analysis, voice, or audience invocation. Clearly bright students, they seemed baffled when asked for complication in their thinking or to take a chance with an unconventional structure. It was time…

  20. Honors in the Master's: A New Perspective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ginkel, Stan; Van Eijl, Pierre; Pilot, Albert; Zubizarreta, John

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, there is a growing interest in honors education, not only in the bachelor's but also in the master's degree. The Dutch government, for instance, is actively promoting excellence in both bachelor's and master's degrees through honors programs (Siriusteam). Most Dutch universities have honors programs at the bachelor's level or are…

  1. Inking and Thinking: Honors Students and Tattoos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundes, Lauren; Francis, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether academically accelerated students in a college Honors program are as likely as other students to acquire a tattoo and to spend the same amount of time contemplating this decision. A convenience sample of 71 honors students and 135 non-honors students completed a survey at a small mid-Atlantic liberal arts college in…

  2. Eagle Feathers, the Highest Honor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaverhead, Pete

    Following his own advice that elders of the tribe share their knowledge so that "the way of the Indians would come back to the children of today," Pete Beaverhead (1899-1975) tells of the traditions of respect and honor surrounding the eagle feather in a booklet illustrated with black and white drawings. The eagle is an Indian symbol of…

  3. The Evolutionary Basis of Honor Cultures.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Andrzej; Gelfand, Michele J; Borkowski, Wojciech; Cohen, Dov; Hernandez, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Around the globe, people fight for their honor, even if it means sacrificing their lives. This is puzzling from an evolutionary perspective, and little is known about the conditions under which honor cultures evolve. We implemented an agent-based model of honor, and our simulations showed that the reliability of institutions and toughness of the environment are crucial conditions for the evolution of honor cultures. Honor cultures survive when the effectiveness of the authorities is low, even in very tough environments. Moreover, the results show that honor cultures and aggressive cultures are mutually dependent in what resembles a predator-prey relationship described in the renowned Lotka-Volterra model. Both cultures are eliminated when institutions are reliable. These results have implications for understanding conflict throughout the world, where Western-based strategies are exported, often unsuccessfully, to contexts of weak institutional authority wherein honor-based strategies have been critical for survival.

  4. If Honors Students Were People: Holistic Honors Education. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuman, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Although honors students are highly motivated and intellectually promising, they are not empty cognitive vessels ready to be filled with professorial knowledge. They are, instead, complex, multifaceted young people, sometimes troubled, often delighted and delightful. While at college they are learning how to live their lives not just as…

  5. No estuarine intertidal bathymetry? No worries! Estimating intertidal depth contours from readily available GIS data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of littoral elevation to the distribution of intertidal species has long been a cornerstone of estuarine ecology and its historical importance to navigation cannot be understated. However, historically, intertidal elevation measurements have been sparse likely due ...

  6. Multiscale patterns in the diversity and organization of benthic intertidal fauna among French Atlantic estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Hugues; Gouillieux, Benoît; Alizier, Sandrine; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Bachelet, Guy; Barillé, Anne-Laure; Dauvin, Jean-Claude; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Derolez, Valérie; Desroy, Nicolas; Grall, Jacques; Grémare, Antoine; Hacquebart, Pascal; Jourde, Jérôme; Labrune, Céline; Lavesque, Nicolas; Meirland, Alain; Nebout, Thiebaut; Olivier, Frédéric; Pelaprat, Corine; Ruellet, Thierry; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Thorin, Sébastien

    2014-07-01

    Based on a parallel sampling conducted during autumn 2008, a comparative study of the intertidal benthic macrofauna among 10 estuarine systems located along the Channel and Atlantic coasts of France was performed in order to assess the level of fauna similarity among these sites and to identify possible environmental factors involved in the observed pattern at both large (among sites) and smaller (benthic assemblages) scales. More precisely this study focused on unraveling the observed pattern of intertidal benthic fauna composition and diversity observed at among-site scale by exploring both biotic and abiotic factors acting at the among- and within-site scales. Results showed a limited level of similarity at the among-site level in terms of intertidal benthic fauna composition and diversity. The observed pattern did not fit with existing transitional water classification methods based on fish or benthic assemblages developed in the frame of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). More particularly, the coastal plain estuaries displayed higher among-site similarity compared to ria systems. These coastal plain estuaries were characterized by higher influence of river discharge, lower communication with the ocean and high suspended particulate matter levels. On the other hand, the ria-type systems were more dissimilar and different from the coastal plain estuaries. The level of similarity among estuaries was mainly linked to the relative extent of the intertidal "Scrobicularia plana-Cerastoderma edule" and "Tellina tenuis" or "Venus" communities as a possible consequence of salinity regime, suspended matter concentrations and fine particles supply with consequences on the trophic functioning, structure and organization of benthic fauna. Despite biogeographical patterns, the results also suggest that, in the context of the WFD, these estuaries should only be compared on the basis of the most common intertidal habitat occurring throughout all estuarine systems

  7. Abrupt transitions between macrobenthic faunal assemblages across seagrass bed margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. S. K.; Hamylton, S.

    2013-10-01

    The nature of the transition from one contrasting macrobenthic assemblage to another across interfaces between intertidal seagrass and unvegetated sand was investigated in the subtropical Moreton Bay Marine Park, eastern Australia, via six two-dimensional core lattices. The same pattern of transition was manifested in each lattice. Macrofaunal abundance, species density (both observed and estimated total) and assemblage composition did not vary with distance away from the interface within the 0.75 m wide marginal bands of each habitat type. Neither were there significant differences in assemblage metrics or composition between the marginal and non-edge regions of either habitat. There were, however, very marked differences in assemblage composition, abundance and species density across the 25 cm wide strip on either side of the actual interface, the interacting assemblages reacting symmetrically. All these differences therefore took place over an ecotone distance of only 0.5 m at most. Spatial trends in assemblage metrics across the boundary zone were captured accurately by second and third order polynomial regression models. It also appeared that edge effects on individual species within the seagrass were a variable local response not a consistent effect of closeness to the bare sand.

  8. Congress Honors Glenn, Apollo 11 Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Congress honored storied NASA astronauts John Glenn, Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin on Wednesday, with the Gold Medal, Congress' highest expression of national appreciation for dis...

  9. Honors Composition: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Practices. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzy, Annmarie

    2003-01-01

    Annmarie Guzy realized she had some concerns about teaching honors courses as she prepared to teach at the same University where she had been an honors student herself. She enrolled in a summer seminar on teaching basic writing in order to expand her teaching horizons beyond the honors student mentality, and to address some of her concerns and…

  10. Honors as a Transformative Experience: The Role of Liberal Arts Honors Programs in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    In the past, an honors program at a community college may have seemed like a contradiction in terms. After all, honors students at four-year colleges are thought to be the best of the best, while community college students are often considered "diamonds in the rough." Many community college honors students have intellectual abilities that may not…

  11. Honors Inquiry in Ireland: Developing a Research-Based Study Abroad Experience for Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Steven; Keeley, Howard

    2015-01-01

    As universities have made experiential learning opportunities available to more and more of their students, a question arises about what makes honors experiential learning distinctive (Donahue). In the university-wide honors program at Georgia Southern University, authors Steven Engel, and Howard Keeley asked this question about honors study…

  12. Fundrai$ing for Honor$: A Handbook. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Larry R.

    2009-01-01

    To many honors administrators, fundraising is alien and frightening. This monograph is directed primarily to honors deans and directors, who have widely varying experience with fundraising. It may also be useful reading for those staff members, faculty, and development officers who have some responsibility for honors fundraising. It focuses on…

  13. Honors Teachers and Academic Identity: What to Look for When Recruiting Honors Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Rocky

    2016-01-01

    To be a collegiate honors student implies a higher level of academic achievement than other students as well as the more challenging academic experience that comes with smaller class sizes. Collegiate honors teachers have a distinction of their own. Being an honors teacher implies a high level of teaching achievement, and it requires special…

  14. Temporal Assemblage Turnovers of Foraminiferal Communities from the Caribbean, United Kingdom and Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costelloe, Ashleigh; Wilson, Brent

    2016-04-01

    Temporal assemblage turnovers of intertidal foraminiferal communities were quantitatively determined using the assemblage turnover index (ATI), and contributing species were identified using the conditioned on-boundary index (CoBI). The live foraminiferal communities were examined as metacommunities (all stations) and assemblages (groups of stations defined by cluster analysis) over one and two year periods at Caroni Swamp, Claxton Bay (E Trinidad), Cowpen Marsh (NE England) and Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain). Major assemblage turnovers (when ATI > x + σ) of the Caroni Swamp metacommunity and assemblages coincided with seasonal changes from dry to wet conditions in 2011 and 2012. The abundant species (Ammonia tepida, Ammotium salsum, Arenoparella mexicana, Trochammina advena, Trochammina laevigata and Trochammina inflata) contributed the most to assemblage turnovers but showed no preference to either dry or wet conditions. At Claxton Bay major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity and mid assemblage coincided with seasonal change and calcareous species (A. tepida and Triloculina oblonga) increased during wet conditions and decreased during dry conditions, while agglutinated species (T. advena and A. salsum) fluctuated oppositely. At Cowpen Marsh major assemblage turnovers of the metacommunity coincided with the start of summer and winter. Assemblages at higher elevations (mainly Jadammina macrescens and Haplophragmoides spp.) were responsible for the summer turnover, while the winter turnover was led by the assemblage at lower elevations (mainly Haynesina germanica, Elphidium earlandi, Elphidium williamsoni, Elphidium excavatum and Quinqueloculina spp.). At Bay of Cádiz, the foraminiferal assemblage at a tidal height of 1.5 to 1.7 m above the hydrographic zero was examined within three separate plots, and the seasonal occurrence of assemblage turnovers differed between plots. Thus, replicate samples and multiple plots may be necessary to overcome spatial

  15. The Honors Thesis: A Handbook for Honors Directors, Deans, and Faculty Advisors. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mark; Lyons, Karen; Weiner, Norman

    2014-01-01

    This handbook is intended to help all those who design, administer, and implement honors thesis programs--honors directors, deans, staff, faculty, and advisors--evaluate their thesis programs, solve pressing problems, select more effective requirements or procedures, or introduce an entirely new thesis program. The authors' goal is to provide…

  16. Who Benefits from Honors: An Empirical Analysis of Honors and Non-Honors Students' Backgrounds, Academic Attitudes, and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimeyer, Ted M.; Schueths, April M.; Smith, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Supporters of university honors programs argue that these programs benefit the university and entire student body while critics argue that honors programs reproduce socioeconomic and racial privileges. In an attempt to address these issues, researchers used quantitative survey data to compare the background characteristics, behaviors, and…

  17. Honoring Jean-David Rochaix.

    PubMed

    Govindjee; Redding, Kevin

    2017-02-01

    We honor Jean-David Rochaix, an outstanding scholar of chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthesis, who received the prestigious Lifetime Achievement Award of the International Society of Photosynthesis Research at its 17th International Photosynthesis Congress held in Maastricht, The Netherlands (August 5-12, 2016). With this award he joins other major discoverers in the field of photosynthesis: Pierre Joliot (of France, 2013); Ulrich W. Heber* (of Germany, 2010) and Kenneth Sauer (of USA, 2010); Jan M. Anderson* (of Australia, 2007); and Horst T. Witt* (of Germany, 2004). See "Appendix 1" for the list of those who have received the ISPR Communication, Innovation, Calvin-Benson, and Hill awards.

  18. Low-Cost Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Mapping of Intertidal Rock Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, M.; Johnson-Roberson, M.; Murphy, R.

    2012-07-01

    Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time which could compliment field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging) provide data at relatively course, sub-meter resolutions or with limited temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecology studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric pipeline that was developed for constructing highresolution, 3D, photo-realistic terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing pipeline uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine colour and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an area of approximately 100m, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rock platform at Cape Banks, Sydney, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae) and animal (e.g. gastropods) assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Intertidal macroalgae and macroinvertebrates: Seasonal and spatial abundance patterns along an estuarine gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick-Witman, Morgan N.; Mathieson, Arthur C.

    1983-02-01

    Quantitative sampling of the dominant intertidal epibiota was conducted seasonally along an estuarine gradient within the Great Bay Estuary System, New Hampshire, U.S.A. The abundance and zonation of the dominant macroorganisms varied with distance into the estuary. Replacement of marine by estuarine species occurred, and overall abundance and species richness decreased along the estuarine gradient. Zonation patterns within the inner estuary were primarily allied with substrata. Maximum abundance of invertebrates occurred in the mid-intertidal zone where a dense fucoid canopy provided habitat heterogeneity. Densities of epibiotic organisms decreased toward low water, especially in the inner estuary where hard substratum was limiting. Settlement blocks, introduced into the low intertidal zone, were dominated by barnacles and fucoid algae; after 16 months, the species composition on the settlement blocks resembled the adjacent community. Semibalanus balanoides settled in the spring, while Fucus vesiculosus var. spiralis exhibited low but constant settlement. Despite the physical rigors of the estuarine environment, only Semibalanus balanoides, Ilyanassa obsoleta and Spartina alterniflora showed significant seasonal changes in density. Thus, there are predictable and persistent epibiotic species assemblages within the intertidal zone of the Great Bay Estuary System.

  20. Honors as Whole-Person Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William M.

    2015-01-01

    The Oral Roberts University Honors Program attracts a significant number of students each year, both as incoming freshmen and currently enrolled students, seeking a richer academic experience. While the honors program offers a higher-level academic challenge, its value lies beyond what is simply learned in the classroom. The program contributes to…

  1. 77 FR 16903 - National Day of Honor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... March 22, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8785--National Day of Honor #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8785 of March 19, 2012 National Day of... a National Day of Honor. I call upon all Americans to observe this day with appropriate...

  2. Honors in Honduras: Engaged Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folds-Bennett, Trisha; Twomey, Mary Pat

    2013-01-01

    A significant challenge in honors education is providing experiences through which students deeply engage ideas and content so that their analytical abilities and core beliefs and values are transformed. The College of Charleston Honors College aimed to stimulate critical thinking and examination of core values through a more holistic approach to…

  3. An Honors Approach to Remedial Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, L. Clark

    A rationale is presented for an honors approach to remedial algebra instruction. Beginning with questions to be considered in the initial placement of students, the paper suggests that remedial students be enrolled at a level low enough to provide them with a reasonable chance to be good, even honors, students. It goes on to identify and contrast…

  4. Research on Honors Composition, 2004-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzy, Annmarie

    2016-01-01

    This bibliography is intended to offer future honors composition researchers a comprehensive list of honors composition publications and disciplinary presentations to date. Guzy's intent was to provide a starting place for future researchers to begin their literature reviews and to decide which research agenda to pursue. Guzy focused on…

  5. Community: The Heart of Honors Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Craig

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that honors study flourishes most when rooted in a strong community, a community of learners (both students and faculty members) from different disciplines and levels of experience, who sustain a broad and ongoing conversation with one another. To him, it is the "heart" of honors study, whatever other goals a…

  6. Improving African American Achievement in Geometry Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Adrian B.

    2010-01-01

    This case study evaluated the significance of implementing an enrichment mathematics course during the summer to rising African American ninth graders entitled, "Geometry Honors Preview." In the past, 60 to 70 percent of African American students in this school district had withdrawn from Geometry Honors by the second academic quarter. This study…

  7. Antiplagiarism Software Takes on the Honor Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Among the 100-odd colleges with academic honor codes, plagiarism-detection services raise a knotty problem: Is software compatible with a system based on trust? The answer frequently devolves to the size and culture of the university. Colleges with traditional student-run honor codes tend to "forefront" trust, emphasizing it above all else. This…

  8. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    John Seinfeld is a recipient of the 2012 Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement. Seinfeld, who is the Louis E. Nohl Professor and a professor of chemical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, was cited for “his groundbreaking work leading to understanding of the origin, chemistry, and evolution of particles in the atmosphere. The fundamental understanding of the physics and chemistry of urban and regional air pollution that emerged from his research served as the basis for action to control the effects of air pollution on public health.” New members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences include Katharine Cashman , University of Oregon; Dennis Kent , Rutgers University and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University; and Ignacio Rodríguez-Iturbe , Prince ton University.

  9. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AGU Past-President Frank Press, who is stepping down on June 30 as president of the National Academy of Science, has been appointed the Cecil and Ida Green Senior Fellow at the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Press will join Carnegie in September and will serve in residence at the institution's Geophysical Laboratory and Department of Terrestrial Magnetism in Washington, D.C.

  10. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    Jonathan Harbor, professor in Purdue University's Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences and a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellow, European Union, was selected as an American Council on Education Fellow for 2014. The program "matches those with potential as administrators with successful presidents and others" and has launched many successful careers.

  11. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    Donald Boesch, president of the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, received the Maryland-Asia Environmental Partnership's 2011 Maryland Energy and Environmental Leadership Award on 7 December. The award recognized Boesch, an estuarine scientist, for providing state and national leadership on energy and environment issues. Russell Harmon has been appointed director of the International Research Office of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineer Research and Development Center in London, United Kingdom. Russell had been program manager for terrestrial sciences at the Army Research Office in Durham, N. C.

  12. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-05-01

    Lisa Tauxe, distinguished professor of geophysics in the Geosciences Research Division and department chair and deputy director for education at Scripps Institution of Oceanography of the University of California, San Diego, received the Franklin Institute's Benjamin Franklin Medal in Earth and Environmental Science "for the development of observational techniques and theoretical models providing an improved understanding of the behavior of, and variations in intensity of, the Earth's magnetic field through geologic time."

  13. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-04-01

    Sean Solomon, principal investigator for NASA's Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, has been appointed the new director of Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, the university announced on 4 April. Solomon, who served as AGU president from 1996 to 1998 and is director emeritus at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, begins his new position on 1 July.

  14. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Jacobo Bielak, university professor of civil and environmental engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, in Pittsburgh, Pa., has been recognized as a distinguished member of the American Society of Civil Engineers, the highest recognition the organization confers. Bielak was noted as “an internationally-known researcher in the area of structural responses to earthquakes, developing sophisticated numerical simulations to pinpoint earthquake effects.” Alan Strahler, professor of geography and environment at Boston University, Boston, Mass., received a 2011 William T. Pecora Award for his achievements in Earth remote sensing. The award, presented by NASA and the U.S. Department of the Interior on 15 November, recognized Strahler for “his contributions to remote-sensing science, leadership and education, which have improved the fundamental understanding of the remote-sensing process and its applications for observing land surface properties.” The Pecora award is named for the former director of the U.S. Geological Survey and undersecretary of the Interior department, who was influential in the establishment of the Landsat satellite program.

  15. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-05-01

    Among the new members elected to the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in May are five AGU members: Richard Edwards, George and Orpha Gibson Chair of Earth Systems Sciences and Distinguished McKnight University Professor, Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis; T. Mark Harrison, director, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, and professor of geology, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles; David Sandwell, professor of geophysics, Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla (president of the AGU Geodesy section); Benjamin Santer, physicist and atmospheric scientist, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, Calif.; and Steven Wofsy, Abbott Lawrence Rotch Professor of Atmospheric and Environmental Science, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Four AGU members are among the 2011 prizewinners announced by the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society on 19 May. The prizes will be presented at the joint meeting of DPS and the European Planetary Science Congress in October. William Ward of the Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Tex., is the recipient of the Gerard P. Kuiper Prize for outstanding contributions to the field of planetary science. DPS indicated that Ward originally proposed and evaluated “many dynamical processes that are now cornerstones of current theories of how planets form and evolve” and that his “visionary ideas form the foundation for a significant portion of current work in planetary formation and dynamics.”

  16. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-10-01

    Scott Doney, senior scientist and director of the Ocean and Climate Change Institute at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, has been awarded the 2013 A. G. Huntsman Award for Excellence in Marine Science, which the Royal Society of Canada grants to an oceanographer "who has made significant contributions in the fields of marine geosciences, physical or chemical oceanography, or biological and fisheries oceanography." The citation notes that the award is "in recognition of his fundamental contributions to our understanding of the role of ocean biology in global biochemical cycles; for his analysis of the vulnerability of ocean biological processes to global change, particularly ocean acidification; for his leadership in bringing the community's intellectual assets to bear on some of the most pressing scientific problems of our time; and for his tireless efforts to educate both students of oceanography and the general public on complex issues related to changes in the global ocean."

  17. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2012-10-01

    Many AGU members are among the American Meteorological Society's (AMS) 2013 honorary members, awardees, lecturers, and fellows. Among the AMS honorary members is Susan Solomon, the Ellen Swallow Richards Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dennis Hartmann, of the University of Washington, Seattle, is the recipient of AMS's Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal "for significant contributions to the synthesis of knowledge of radiative and dynamical processes leading to a deeper understanding of the climate system." R. Alan Plumb, professor of meteorology at MIT, receives the Jule G. Charney Award "for fundamental contributions to the understanding of geophysical fluid dynamics, stratospheric dynamics, chemical transport, and the general circulation of the atmosphere and oceans." The Verner E. Suomi Award has been given to Richard Johnson, professor of atmospheric science at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, "for exquisite design of rawinsonde networks in field campaigns and insightful analysis of interactions between convective clouds and the largescale atmospheric circulation." W. Kendall Melville, professor of oceanography at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, has been awarded the Sverdrup Gold Medal Award "for pioneering contributions in advancing knowledge on the role of surface wave breaking and related processes in air-sea interaction." AMS announced that Laurence Armi, also a professor of oceanography at Scripps, is recipient of the Henry Stommel Research Award "for his deeply insightful studies of stratified flow, his pioneering work on boundary mixing and other turbulent mechanisms."

  18. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-10-01

    Many AGU members are among the American Meteorological Society's (AMS) 2013 honorary members, awardees, lecturers, and fellows. Among the AMS honorary members is Susan Solomon, the Ellen Swallow Richards Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Dennis Hartmann, of the University of Washington, Seattle, is the recipient of AMS's Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal “for significant contributions to the synthesis of knowledge of radiative and dynamical processes leading to a deeper understanding of the climate system.” R. Alan Plumb, professor of meteorology at MIT, receives the Jule G. Charney Award “for fundamental contributions to the understanding of geophysical fluid dynamics, stratospheric dynamics, chemical transport, and the general circulation of the atmosphere and oceans.” The Verner E. Suomi Award has been given to Richard Johnson, professor of atmospheric science at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, “for exquisite design of rawinsonde networks in field campaigns and insightful analysis of interactions between convective clouds and the largescale atmospheric circulation.” W. Kendall Melville, professor of oceanography at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, has been awarded the Sverdrup Gold Medal Award “for pioneering contributions in advancing knowledge on the role of surface wave breaking and related processes in air-sea interaction.” AMS announced that Laurence Armi, also a professor of oceanography at Scripps, is recipient of the Henry Stommel Research Award “for his deeply insightful studies of stratified flow, his pioneering work on boundary mixing and other turbulent mechanisms.”

  19. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-07-01

    The Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) has announced that Joseph Veverka will receive the 2013 Gerard P. Kuiper Prize for outstanding contributions to the field of planetary science. Veverka, who has served on the science teams for many NASA missions, is professor emeritus and the former James A. Weeks Professor of Physical Sciences and Professor of Astronomy at Cornell University, N. Y. DPS noted that Veverka "has to his credit a lifetime of outstanding contributions, that, in sum, represent a monumental increase in our understanding of planets and, in particular, small bodies—the moons, asteroids, and cometary nuclei in our planetary system. As a planetary scientist, he has defined the field of quantitative study of small bodies in the solar system for a generation (a generation populated by his students and many associates)."

  20. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-01-01

    U.S. president Barack Obama recently announced his intent to appoint several people, four of whom are AGU members, to the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board, an independent agency of the U.S. federal government that provides independent scientific and technical oversight of the Department of Energy's program for managing and disposing of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The appointees include Jean Bahr, professor in the Department of Geoscience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison; Susan Brantley, distinguished professor of geosciences and director of the Earth and Environmental Systems Institute at The Pennsylvania State University; Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, professor of civil engineering and director of the National Center for Earth-Surface Dynamics at the University of Minnesota; and Mary Lou Zoback, consulting professor in the Environmental Earth System Science Department at Stanford University.

  1. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-04-01

    Holly Bamford has been appointed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's assistant administrator for the agency's National Ocean Service (NOS). She previously served as deputy assistant administrator for NOS.

  2. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    James Yoder, vice president for academic programs and dean at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass., has been selected as a fellow of the Oceanography Society (TOS) “for his innovative and visionary application of satellite ocean color technologies to interdisciplinary oceanography and his extraordinary service to oceanography.” TOS also has three new councilors. Blanche Meeson of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md., is TOS's education councilor; Janet Sprintall, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif., is TOS's councilor for physical biology; and Deborah Steinberg, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, Gloucester Point, is biological oceanography councilor.

  3. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-08-01

    Mario Molina has been selected to receive the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the White House announced on 8 August. Molina, who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1995 for discovering how chlorofluorocarbons deplete the ozone layer, is a professor at the University of California, San Diego; director of the Mario Molina Center for Energy and Environment in Mexico City, Mexico; and a member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology.

  4. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-01-01

    Peter Molnar, professor of geological sciences at the University of Colorado at Boulder, is the recipient of the 2014 Crafoord Prize in Geosciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (RAS) announced on 16 January. RAS noted that the award is being presented to Molnar "for his ground-breaking contribution to the understanding of global tectonics, in particular the deformation of continents and the structure and evolution of mountain ranges, as well as the impact of tectonic processes on ocean-atmosphere circulation and climate." The award, which comes with a prize of 4 million Swedish kronor (about US$600,000), was established in 1980 to promote international basic research in astronomy, mathematics, geosciences, biosciences, and rheumatoid arthritis. According to RAS, those disciplines were chosen to complement those for which the Nobel Prizes are awarded.

  5. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anonymous

    2013-07-01

    The Geological Society of America's (GSA) new class of medal and award recipients and fellows includes many AGU members. Medal and award recipients are Stephen G. Pollock, University of Southern Maine: GSA Distinguished Service Award; John R. Wheaton, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology: John C. Frye Award; Clifford A. Jacobs, National Science Foundation (NSF): Outstanding Contributions Award, Geoinformatics Division; Peter Bird, University of California, Los Angeles (emeritus): George P. Woollard Award, Geophysics Division; Chunmiao Zheng, University of Alabama: O. E. Meinzer Award, Hydrogeology Division; Gerhard Wörner, Georg August Universität Göttingen: Distinguished Geologic Career Award, Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Petrology, and Volcanology Division; Alan D. Howard, University of Virginia: G. K. Gilbert Award, Planetary Geology Division; Michael E. Perkins, University of Utah: Kirk Bryan Award for Research Excellence, Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology Division; and Peter J. Hudleston, University of Minnesota: Career Contribution Award, Structural Geology and Tectonics Division.

  6. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-three AGU members are among the newly elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, announced on 25 November 2013. They are Lance F. Bosart, University at Albany, State University of New York; William Henry Brune III, Pennsylvania State University; Robert H. Byrne, University of South Florida; Walter K. Dodds, Kansas State University; Sherilyn Claire Fritz, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Kevin P. Furlong, Pennsylvania State University; Arnold L. Gordon, Columbia University; Thomas A. Herring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Malcolm Hughes, University of Arizona; Thomas C. Johnson, University of Minnesota Duluth; Jack A. Kaye, NASA; Samuel P. Kounaves, Tufts University; Klaus S. Lackner, Columbia University; Yiqi Luo, University of Oklahoma; Jean-Bernard Minster, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (UCSD); Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California; Walter Clarkson Pitman III, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; James E. Quick, Southern Methodist University; Ross J. Salawitch, University of Maryland, College Park; Didier Sornette, ETH Zürich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology); Michael Stein, University of Chicago; Bradley M. Tebo, Oregon Health and Science University; and Mark H. Thiemens, UCSD.

  7. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-02-01

    Sallie Chisholm received the National Medal of Science from U.S. president Barack Obama during a 1 February ceremony at the White House. Chisholm, a biological oceanographer, was cited for her "contributions to the discovery and understanding of the dominant photosynthetic organisms in the ocean, promotion of the field of microbial oceanography and influence on marine policy and management." Chisholm is the Lee and Geraldine Martin Professor of Environmental Studies and a professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  8. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-11-01

    The recently released list of 2013-2014 Fulbright Scholars includes 9 AGU members working on diverse topics. They include Michael Coe, senior scientist/coordinator of the Amazon group at the Woods Hole Research Center, whose topic is "Agricultural expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado and consequences for the water cycle"; Benjamin Crosby, associate professor, Department of Geosciences, Idaho State University, on the topic "Taking the pulse of Chilean rivers: Enhancing educational and academic opportunities in a time of rapid change"; David Fitzjarrald, senior research associate, Atmospheric Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Albany, on the topic "Landscape heterogeneity and Amazonian mesoclimate: Fostering critical understanding of observations and model output"; and Syed Hasan, professor of geology, Department of Geosciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, who will be teaching courses in waste management.

  9. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    S. Bradley Moran has taken a post as assistant director, ocean sciences, for the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He will focus on implementing the U.S. Ocean Science Policy and assume responsibility for a broad range of ocean, coastal, and marine resource-related matters. Moran is on leave as a professor at the University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography. He most recently served as program director in the chemical oceanography program at the National Science Foundation.

  10. Rainfall Erosion of Intertidal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R.

    2007-05-01

    A poorly quantified and mechanistically overlooked material cycling process in estuarine landscapes is rainfall- driven erosion of intertidal salt marsh and mudflat surfaces. During low tide rainsplash erosion and runoff may entrain carbon-rich sediment that, due to high cohesion, ordinarily is not mobilized by tidal currents and shallow water waves (e.g., a deachment limited landscape). Consequently, low tide rainfall may affect tidal creek network structure, creek network extension and nutrient cycling. Field manipulations and passive observations show that low tide rainfall events preferentially entrain highly nutritious intramarsh particulate matter, and in some cases with high concentrations of adsorbed metals. Once mobilized, the subtle topographic variations of the salt marsh landscape route runoff and the suspended load to intertidal creeks, and the subtidal water column. Hence low tide rainfall-runoff processes may enhance the cycling of, for example, benthic microalgae and their products, a primary carbon source for estuarine food webs. Once in the subtidal zone the material may be exported to the coastal ocean or it may be redeposited on the marsh surface with the next high tide, depending on tidal phase. Taken together these observations reveal one facet of salt marsh interactions between landscape structure- biological processes-physical processes.

  11. Kite Aerial Photography for Low-Cost, Ultra-high Spatial Resolution Multi-Spectral Mapping of Intertidal Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Bryson, Mitch; Johnson-Roberson, Matthew; Murphy, Richard J.; Bongiorno, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time that could complement field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging) provide data at limited spatial and temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecologically-focussed studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric/mapping procedure that was developed for constructing high-resolution, three-dimensional, multi-spectral terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing procedure uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine imagery at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an intertidal shoreline 200 m long, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rocky shore at Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae) and animal (e.g. gastropods) assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales. PMID:24069206

  12. Kite aerial photography for low-cost, ultra-high spatial resolution multi-spectral mapping of intertidal landscapes.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Mitch; Johnson-Roberson, Matthew; Murphy, Richard J; Bongiorno, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal ecosystems have primarily been studied using field-based sampling; remote sensing offers the ability to collect data over large areas in a snapshot of time that could complement field-based sampling methods by extrapolating them into the wider spatial and temporal context. Conventional remote sensing tools (such as satellite and aircraft imaging) provide data at limited spatial and temporal resolutions and relatively high costs for small-scale environmental science and ecologically-focussed studies. In this paper, we describe a low-cost, kite-based imaging system and photogrammetric/mapping procedure that was developed for constructing high-resolution, three-dimensional, multi-spectral terrain models of intertidal rocky shores. The processing procedure uses automatic image feature detection and matching, structure-from-motion and photo-textured terrain surface reconstruction algorithms that require minimal human input and only a small number of ground control points and allow the use of cheap, consumer-grade digital cameras. The resulting maps combine imagery at visible and near-infrared wavelengths and topographic information at sub-centimeter resolutions over an intertidal shoreline 200 m long, thus enabling spatial properties of the intertidal environment to be determined across a hierarchy of spatial scales. Results of the system are presented for an intertidal rocky shore at Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Potential uses of this technique include mapping of plant (micro- and macro-algae) and animal (e.g. gastropods) assemblages at multiple spatial and temporal scales.

  13. Consider Your Man Card Reissued: Masculine Honor and Gun Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Amy Shuffelton addresses school shootings through an investigation of honor and masculinity. Drawing on recent scholarship on honor, including Bernard Williams's "Shame and Necessity" and Kwame Anthony Appiah's "The Honor Code," Shuffelton points out that honor has been misconstrued as exclusively a matter of…

  14. Honors Privatization: A Professor's and Three Students' Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Destenie; Plummer, Justice; Wilson, Ashleigh R.; Cundall, Michael K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Gary Bell's essay, "The Profit Motive in Honors Education," raises important questions about the future of honors education--questions that will have the greatest impact on honors students. The voices of those students are not typically included in discussions about the funding and administration of honors even though they have crucial…

  15. Indicators: Fish Assemblage

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fish assemblage refers to the variety and abundance of fish species in a given waterbody. Fish are sensitive indicators of physical and chemical habitat degradation, environmental contamination, migration barriers, and overall ecosystem productivity.

  16. Natural disturbance shapes benthic intertidal macroinvertebrate communities of high latitude river deltas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchwell, Roy T.; Kendall, Steve J.; Blanchard, Amy L.; Dunton, Kenneth H.; Powell, Abby N.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike lower latitude coastlines, the estuarine nearshore zones of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea are icebound and frozen up to 9 months annually. This annual freezing event represents a dramatic physical disturbance to fauna living within intertidal sediments. The main objectives of this study were to describe the benthic communities of Beaufort Sea deltas, including temporal changes and trophic structure. Understanding benthic invertebrate communities provided a baseline for concurrent research on shorebird foraging ecology at these sites. We found that despite continuous year-to-year episodes of annual freezing, these estuarine deltas are populated by a range of invertebrates that represent both marine and freshwater assemblages. Freshwater organisms like Diptera and Oligochaeta not only survive this extreme event, but a marine invasion of infaunal organisms such as Amphipoda and Polychaeta rapidly recolonizes the delta mudflats following ice ablation. These delta sediments of sand, silt, and clay are fine in structure compared to sediments of other Beaufort Sea coastal intertidal habitats. The relatively depauperate invertebrate community that ultimately develops is composed of marine and freshwater benthic invertebrates. The composition of the infauna also reflects two strategies that make life on Beaufort Sea deltas possible: a migration of marine organisms from deeper lagoons to the intertidal and freshwater biota that survive the 9-month ice-covered period in frozen sediments. Stable isotopic analyses reveal that both infaunal assemblages assimilate marine and terrestrial sources of organic carbon. These results provide some of the first quantitative information on the infaunal food resources of shallow arctic estuarine systems and the long-term persistence of these invertebrate assemblages. Our data help explain the presence of large numbers of shorebirds in these habitats during the brief summer open-water period and their trophic importance to migrating

  17. Effects of the 'Prestige' oil spill on macroalgal assemblages: large-scale comparison.

    PubMed

    Lobón, Carla M; Fernández, Consolación; Arrontes, Julio; Rico, José M; Acuña, José L; Anadón, Ricardo; Monteoliva, José Augusto

    2008-06-01

    An assessment of the effects of the 'Prestige' oil spill on intertidal, macroalgal assemblages was carried out comparing abundance data obtained before and after the spill. Four zones in the North and Northwest coast of Spain were sampled, one of them located at the immediate vicinity of the spill, the zone most heavily oiled. Macroalgal assemblages had similar structure between years. Neither critical decrease in abundance of the dominant macroalgae, nor increase in opportunistic species were found. Some differences in abundance were observed, but they did not show any pattern, being more likely the result of the natural variability of the assemblage. Extensive, but not intense fuel deposition on the shores and a limited use of aggressive cleanup methods are suggested as possible causes for the lack of the effects in these assemblages after the 'Prestige' oil spill.

  18. EPA Honors Puerto Rico Environmental Champions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y. - April 24, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced that it has honored five individuals and organizations from across Puerto Rico with Environmental Champion Awards for their achievements in protecting public health

  19. Fred Haise Honored at Aerospace Appreciation Night

    NASA Video Gallery

    Retired NASA astronaut and test pilot Fred Haise was honored recently by the Lancaster, Calif., Jethawks baseball team at its Aerospace Appreciation Night. Best known as one of the Apollo 13 crew, ...

  20. Honoring Leslie A. Geddes - Farewell ...

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Honor thy father and thy mother, say the Holy Scriptures[1], for they at least gave thee this biological life, but honor thy teachers, too, for they gave thee knowledge and example. Leslie Alexander Geddes took off on a long, long trip, Sunday October 25, 2009, leaving his body for medical and research use. The departing station was West Lafayette, Indiana, where he set foot in 1974, at Purdue University, stamping there a unique deep imprint, similar and probably more profound than the one left at Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Houston, Texas, in the period 1955-1974. Memories came back as a flood the minute after a message broke the news to me: When I first met him visiting the Department of Physiology at BCM back in 1962, my first Classical Physiology with Modern Instrumentation Summer Course ... The versatile Physiograph was the main equipment, an electronic-mechanical three or four channel recorder that could pick up a variety of physiological variables. Les and his collaborators had introduced also the impedance pneumograph, which was a simplified version of previous developments made by others. It became a ubiquitous unit that trod many roads in the hands of eager and curious students. Ventricular fibrillation and especially its counterpart, defibrillation, stand out as subjects occupying his concern along the years. Many were the students recruited to such effort and long is the list of papers on the subject. Physiological signals attracted considerable part of his activities because one of his perennial mottos was measurement is essential in physiology. He has written thirteen books and over eight hundred scientific papers, receiving also several prizes and distinctions. Not only his interests stayed within the academic environment but an industrial hue was manifested in over 20 USA patents, all applied to medical use. History of science and technology was another area in which, often with Hebbel Hoff, he uncovered astounding and delightful information

  1. Honoring Leslie A. Geddes - farewell ...

    PubMed

    Valentinuzzi, Max E

    2010-01-05

    Honor thy father and thy mother, say the Holy Scriptures1, for they at least gave thee this biological life, but honor thy teachers, too, for they gave thee knowledge and example.Leslie Alexander Geddes took off on a long, long trip, Sunday October 25, 2009, leaving his body for medical and research use. The departing station was West Lafayette, Indiana, where he set foot in 1974, at Purdue University, stamping there a unique deep imprint, similar and probably more profound than the one left at Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), Houston, Texas, in the period 1955-1974. Memories came back as a flood the minute after a message broke the news to me: When I first met him visiting the Department of Physiology at BCM back in 1962, my first Classical Physiology with Modern Instrumentation Summer Course ... The versatile Physiograph was the main equipment, an electronic-mechanical three or four channel recorder that could pick up a variety of physiological variables. Les and his collaborators had introduced also the impedance pneumograph, which was a simplified version of previous developments made by others. It became a ubiquitous unit that trod many roads in the hands of eager and curious students. Ventricular fibrillation and especially its counterpart, defibrillation, stand out as subjects occupying his concern along the years. Many were the students recruited to such effort and long is the list of papers on the subject. Physiological signals attracted considerable part of his activities because one of his perennial mottos was measurement is essential in physiology. He has written thirteen books and over eight hundred scientific papers, receiving also several prizes and distinctions. Not only his interests stayed within the academic environment but an industrial hue was manifested in over 20 USA patents, all applied to medical use. History of science and technology was another area in which, often with Hebbel Hoff, he uncovered astounding and delightful information. It

  2. Honors and Non-Honors Student Engagement: A Model of Student, Curricular, and Institutional Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Ellen; Shores, Melanie; Sloane, Michael; Dantzler, John; Shields, Catherine; Shader, Karen; Newcomer, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply several measures of learning and engagement to a comparable cohort of honors and non-honors students in order to generate a preliminary model of student engagement. Specific purposes were the following: (1) to determine the feasibility for use of several measures of student characteristics that may affect…

  3. Honoring Controversy: Using Real-World Problems to Teach Critical Thinking in Honors Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargas, Sarita

    2016-01-01

    In this article Sarita Cargas suggests that getting honors students used to analyzing controversies will contribute to their developing a disposition toward critical thinking. She goes on to say that the value of teaching critical-thinking skills complements the movement of many honors programs toward teaching more than just disciplinary content.…

  4. Macrofaunal recovery following the intertidal recharge of dredged material: a comparison of structural and functional approaches.

    PubMed

    Bolam, S G

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing need to understand the functional implications of anthropogenic pressures, such as those following coastal disposal of dredged material. Current assessments, based on taxonomic structure of benthic organisms, only provide a limited capacity to determine functional impacts or recovery. This study assesses recovery of two intertidal dredged material recharge schemes, comparing results obtained based on taxonomic structure (univariate and multivariate approaches) and function (biological trait composition, functional diversity, secondary production) of the benthic assemblages. The assemblages recolonising both schemes were consistently less speciose, less densely-populated and exhibited multivariate community structures that differed from those of the reference areas. However, for both schemes metrics of functionality converged to those of reference areas, although some differences in trait composition persisted for up to 3 years. These data support the proposition that impacts of, and recovery from, anthropogenic disturbance should be assessed using a combination of both functional and taxonomic structural approaches.

  5. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  6. Long-term stability of tidal and diel-related patterns in mangrove creek fish assemblages in North Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos-Galindo, G. A.; Krumme, U.

    2014-08-01

    Intertidal fish assemblages are thought to respond to tidal and diel rhythms although the assumption that these patterns are stable over long time scales (>1 year) is largely untested. Testing the validity of this assumption is necessary to assess whether short-term temporal patterns, once established, can be extrapolated over time and give a better understanding of the temporal dynamics of fish assemblages in coastal habitats. Here, we compare the fish assemblage structure from two intertidal mangrove creeks in North Brazil (Bragança Peninsula, Caeté estuary) sampled with the same sampling methodology (block nets), effort (two lunar cycles) and design (accounting for the combination of tidal and diel cycle) in the rainy seasons of 1999 and 2012 to evaluate the persistence, stability and recurrence of short-term patterns in the fish community organization. The interaction of tidal and diel cycles (inundations at spring tide-night, spring tide-day, neap tide-night, neap tide-day), found to be stable after 13 years, resulted in recurrent and stable intertidal mangrove fish assemblage compositions. The intertidal mangrove creek fish assemblage consisted of a persistent number of dominant species (seven). However, there were notable changes in fish catch mass, abundance and species dominance between 1999 and 2012. The most severe drought in North Brazil in 30 years, linked to lower precipitation and river runoff in the rainy season of 2012, may have resulted in (1) lower abundance of small juveniles of several dominant species in this assemblage (especially Ariidae - Cathorops agassizii and Sciades herzbergii) and (2) increased dominance of large-sized specimens of the tetraodontid Colomesus psittacus. Our findings highlight: (1) the overriding importance and stability of the interactive pulse of the tidal and diel cycles in determining short-term temporal patterns in intertidal mangrove fish assemblages in neotropical macrotidal estuaries despite the occurrence of

  7. Clear regression of harvested intertidal mollusks. A 20-year (1994-2014) comparative study.

    PubMed

    Riera, Rodrigo; Pérez, Óscar; Álvarez, Omar; Simón, David; Díaz, Dácil; Monterroso, Óscar; Núñez, Jorge

    2016-02-01

    Intertidal mollusks are subjected to an intense environmental pressure, from human-induced stressors, mainly harvesting, to competition for food and space with other species. Here we used mollusk shell size as a measure of size distribution and reproductive potential of intertidal limpets. Two species of exploited limpets (Patella candei crenata and Patella aspera) were monitored throughout the littoral of Tenerife (Canary Islands, NE Atlantic Ocean), an overpopulated island with a high coastal pressure. The exploitation of these two limpet species is controlled by regional legislation, with seasonal closures and limits of harvest for professional (10 kg) and recreational harvesters (3-5 kg). A long-term comparison (1994-2014) of limpet size has been conducted as a surrogate of the state of conservation of these two limpets. Both species showed populations dominated largely by small-sized individuals (<30 mm) and a lack of large adults (>60 mm). The proximity to coastal settlements was not a factor to explain limpet assemblage structure. The temporal (1994-2014) comparative study showed a sharp decrease in the mean size of both limpet species (7 mm in P. aspera and 5 mm in P. candei crenata). These results might be indicative of overharvesting of both species in Tenerife. The conservation of the two studied species needs to be accomplished by the strict fulfillment of current protective strategies, as well as the creation of marine protected areas where intertidal harvesting is totally banned all over the year.

  8. Temporal patterns in the intertidal faunal community at the mouth of a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, C H F; Barletta, M; Dantas, D V

    2014-11-01

    The use of intertidal sandy beaches by fish and macrocrustaceans was studied at different temporal scales at the mouth of a tropical estuary. Samples were taken along the lunar and diel cycles in the late dry and rainy seasons. Fish assemblage (number of species, density and biomass), crustaceans and wrack biomass, showed significant interactions among all studied factors, and the combination of moon phase and diel cycle, resulting in different patterns of environmental variables (depth, water temperature and dissolved oxygen), affected habitat use by the different species. Variances in faunal community were detected between seasons, stimulated by salinity fluctuations from freshwater input during the rainy season. These differences suggest an important cycling of habitats and an increase in connectivity between adjacent habitats (estuary and coastal waters). Moreover, the results showed that this intertidal sandy beach also provides an alternative nursery and protected shallow-water area for the initial development phase of many marine and estuarine species. In addition, this intertidal habitat plays an important role in the maintenance of the ecological functioning of the estuarine-coastal ecosystem continuum.

  9. Proliferation of Purple Sulphur Bacteria at the Sediment Surface Affects Intertidal Mat Diversity and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Hubas, Cédric; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Paterson, David M.; Jeanthon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of studies dealing with mats of purple sulphur bacteria in the intertidal zone. These bacteria display an array of metabolic pathways that allow them to disperse and develop under a wide variety of conditions, making these mats important in terms of ecosystem processes and functions. Mass blooms of purple sulphur bacteria develop during summer on sediments in the intertidal zone especially on macroalgal deposits. The microbial composition of different types of mats differentially affected by the development of purple sulphur bacteria was examined, at low tide, using a set of biochemical markers (fatty acids, pigments) and composition was assessed against their influence on ecosystem functions (sediment cohesiveness, CO2 fixation). We demonstrated that proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria has a major impact on intertidal mats diversity and functions. Indeed, assemblages dominated by purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were efficient exopolymer producers and their biostabilisation potential was significant. In addition, the massive growth of purple sulphur bacteria resulted in a net CO2 degassing whereas diatom dominated biofilms represented a net CO2 sink. PMID:24340018

  10. Proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria at the sediment surface affects intertidal mat diversity and functionality.

    PubMed

    Hubas, Cédric; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Paterson, David M; Jeanthon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of studies dealing with mats of purple sulphur bacteria in the intertidal zone. These bacteria display an array of metabolic pathways that allow them to disperse and develop under a wide variety of conditions, making these mats important in terms of ecosystem processes and functions. Mass blooms of purple sulphur bacteria develop during summer on sediments in the intertidal zone especially on macroalgal deposits. The microbial composition of different types of mats differentially affected by the development of purple sulphur bacteria was examined, at low tide, using a set of biochemical markers (fatty acids, pigments) and composition was assessed against their influence on ecosystem functions (sediment cohesiveness, CO2 fixation). We demonstrated that proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria has a major impact on intertidal mats diversity and functions. Indeed, assemblages dominated by purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were efficient exopolymer producers and their biostabilisation potential was significant. In addition, the massive growth of purple sulphur bacteria resulted in a net CO2 degassing whereas diatom dominated biofilms represented a net CO2 sink.

  11. Is there any seasonal variation in marine nematodes within the sediments of the intertidal zone?

    PubMed

    Yodnarasri, Supaporn; Montani, Shigeru; Tada, Kuninao; Shibanuma, Seiichiro; Yamada, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    The sediment parameters and nematode assemblages in the intertidal zone of the Hichirippu shallow lagoon, Hokkaido, Japan, were investigated. The objectives of this study were to observe the seasonal variation in the nematodes in the sediment, and to investigate the relationships between the nematodes and environmental factors. Samples were collected bi-monthly from five stations on the tidal flat from April 2003 to February 2004. It was found that the sediment parameters (Chl a concentration, AVS, TOC and TN contents) varied throughout the 10-month study. Fifty-four species of nematodes were found in the study area. The density and biomass of the nematodes varied in accordance with the sediment temperature during the sampling period. In this study, there was a seasonal variation in the nematode assemblage found in the intertidal zone of this shallow lagoon. The important factors affecting this variation were sediment temperature, and food competition among the nematodes themselves. The seasonal variation of the nematode also showed a relationship with the Chl a concentration in the sediment during the sampling period.

  12. Decadal changes in the distribution of common intertidal seaweeds in Galicia (NW Iberia).

    PubMed

    Piñeiro-Corbeira, Cristina; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Cremades, Javier

    2016-02-01

    Seaweed assemblages in Atlantic Europe are been distorted by global change, but the intricate coastal profile of the area suggests that susceptibility may differ between regions. In particular, NW Iberia is an important omission because no study has systematically assessed long-term changes in a large number of species. Using intertidal surveys for 33 common perennial seaweeds, we show that the average number of species per site declined significantly from 1998-99 to 2014 in NW Iberia. The largest drops in site occupancy were detected in kelps, fucoids, and carrageenan-producing Rhodophyta. Parallel analyses revealed significant upward trends in SST, air temperature, and strong waves; meanwhile, nutrients decreased slightly except in areas affected by local inputs. Similar changes reported for subtidal assemblages in other parts of Atlantic Europe suggest that the drivers may be ubiquitous. Nonetheless, a more proper assessment of both global and local impacts, will require further surveys, and the regular monitoring of intertidal perennial seaweeds appears as a cost-effective alternative to discriminate genuine long-term trends from transitory fluctuations.

  13. Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Gail V.; Shelley, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ≤30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of “vertical” line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills.

  14. Sampling design for long-term regional trends in marine rocky intertidal communities.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Gail V; Shelly, Alice

    2013-08-01

    Probability-based designs reduce bias and allow inference of results to the pool of sites from which they were chosen. We developed and tested probability-based designs for monitoring marine rocky intertidal assemblages at Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA), Alaska. A multilevel design was used that varied in scale and inference. The levels included aerial surveys, extensive sampling of 25 sites, and more intensive sampling of 6 sites. Aerial surveys of a subset of intertidal habitat indicated that the original target habitat of bedrock-dominated sites with slope ≤30° was rare. This unexpected finding illustrated one value of probability-based surveys and led to a shift in the target habitat type to include steeper, more mixed rocky habitat. Subsequently, we evaluated the statistical power of different sampling methods and sampling strategies to detect changes in the abundances of the predominant sessile intertidal taxa: barnacles Balanomorpha, the mussel Mytilus trossulus, and the rockweed Fucus distichus subsp. evanescens. There was greatest power to detect trends in Mytilus and lesser power for barnacles and Fucus. Because of its greater power, the extensive, coarse-grained sampling scheme was adopted in subsequent years over the intensive, fine-grained scheme. The sampling attributes that had the largest effects on power included sampling of "vertical" line transects (vs. horizontal line transects or quadrats) and increasing the number of sites. We also evaluated the power of several management-set parameters. Given equal sampling effort, sampling more sites fewer times had greater power. The information gained through intertidal monitoring is likely to be useful in assessing changes due to climate, including ocean acidification; invasive species; trampling effects; and oil spills.

  15. Microbial biofilms in intertidal systems: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decho, Alan W.

    2000-07-01

    Intertidal marine systems are highly dynamic systems which are characterized by periodic fluctuations in environmental parameters. Microbial processes play critical roles in the remineralization of nutrients and primary production in intertidal systems. Many of the geochemical and biological processes which are mediated by microorganisms occur within microenvironments which can be measured over micrometer spatial scales. These processes are localized by cells within a matrix of extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS), collectively called a "microbial biofilm". Recent examinations of intertidal systems by a range of investigators using new approaches show an abundance of biofilm communities. The purpose of this overview is to examine recent information concerning the roles of microbial biofilms in intertidal systems. The microbial biofilm is a common adaptation of natural bacteria and other microorganisms. In the fluctuating environments of intertidal systems, biofilms form protective microenvironments and may structure a range of microbial processes. The EPS matrix of biofilm forms sticky coatings on individual sediment particles and detrital surfaces, which act as a stabilizing anchor to buffer cells and their extracellular processes during the frequent physical stresses (e.g., changes in salinity and temperature, UV irradiation, dessication). EPS is an operational definition designed to encompass a range of large microbially-secreted molecules having widely varying physical and chemical properties, and a range of biological roles. Examinations of EPS using Raman and Fourier-transform infared spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy suggest that some EPS gels possess physical and chemical properties which may hasten the development of sharp geochemical gradients, and contribute a protective effect to cells. Biofilm polymers act as a sorptive sponge which binds and concentrates organic molecules and ions close to cells. Concurrently, the EPS appear to localize

  16. The Influence of the College Environment on Honors Students' Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wawrzynski, Matthew R.; Madden, Katherine; Jensen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs at colleges and universities are one way to provide additional learning opportunities to enhance the undergraduate experience for students. Honors programs provide students academically enriching activities through small classes, research, internships, and community service (National Collegiate Honors Council, n.d.). To further the…

  17. Articulating the Distinctiveness of the Honors Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Angela M.

    2012-01-01

    As Director of the Honors Program at Indiana University Southeast, Angela Salas has been immersed in what Richard Badenhausen describes in his essay, "Costs and Benefits in the Economy of Honors," as the financial issues of which honors faculty and administrators may not, as a group, be sufficiently aware. Yet, despite wrestling on a…

  18. Re-Envisioning the Honors Senior Project: Experience as Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Kevin; Cureton, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    One of the National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC) Basic Characteristics of a Fully Developed Honors Program is that it creates opportunities for undergraduate research, opportunities that frequently culminate in a senior thesis or capstone project. This article describes how the University of Texas at Arlington Honors College integrated…

  19. Self as Text: Adaptations of Honors Practice in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michaela Ruppert

    2012-01-01

    City as Text™, the experiential learning program developed by the National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC) Honors Semesters Committee, has been adopted and adapted by hundreds if not thousands of educational institutions throughout the United States and beyond. This essay discusses how, having served on the Honors Semesters Committee, Michaela…

  20. Costs and Benefits in the Economy of Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badenhausen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    To be in honors is to be engaged in many different economic arrangements and exchanges. Honors educators work in concert with their admissions offices while recruiting high-achieving students whose decisions often hinge on how much money the institution can offer in the form of discounts to tuition and financial aid. Honors programs that tie…

  1. Assessing Social Justice as a Learning Outcome in Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klos, Naomi Yavneh; Eskine, Kendall; Pashkevich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Whether at public or private, secular or faith-based institutions, questions of social justice and civic engagement are an increasing focus of attention in honors education. The emphasis on modes of learning that are, in the terms of the National Collegiate Honors Council's 2014 "Definition of Honors Education," "measurably broader,…

  2. Exploring Relationships of Metacognition and University Honors Students' Academic Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Susan Denise

    2012-01-01

    University honors programs emerged in the 1920s, growing to over 1,000 programs in existence today. Honors programs provide enhanced educational opportunities to students who excel academically. University honors students are experts who effectively apply metacognitive knowledge, strategies, and experiences to enhance academic behavior. Although…

  3. Varying Formats for Two-Year-College Honors Seminars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenow, Ce; Morrison-Graham, Katie; Ozolins, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Honors programs at two-year colleges vary substantially in scope, size, and structure depending on an individual college's mission, campus culture, and budget. One common curricular feature, however, is the honors seminar. However, little information is available on creating honors seminars at two-year schools. Our essay responds to this deficit…

  4. Linking Intertidal and Subtidal Food Webs: Consumer-Mediated Transport of Intertidal Benthic Microalgal Carbon.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Keun; Park, Hyun Je; Choy, Eun Jung; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Hwang, Kangseok; Kim, Jong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for a large variety of consumers in intertidal and subtidal habitats, and their potential primary food sources [i.e., microphytobenthos (MPB), phytoplankton, and Phragmites australis] in a coastal bay system, Yeoja Bay of Korea, to test the hypothesis that the transfer of intertidal MPB-derived organic carbon to the subtidal food web can be mediated by motile consumers. Compared to a narrow δ13C range (-18 to -16‰) of offshore consumers, a broad δ13C range (-18 to -12‰) of both intertidal and subtidal consumers indicated that 13C-enriched sources of organic matter are an important trophic source to coastal consumers. In the intertidal areas, δ13C of most consumers overlapped with or was 13C-enriched relative to MPB. Despite the scarcity of MPB in the subtidal, highly motile consumers in subtidal habitat had nearly identical δ13C range with many intertidal foragers (including crustaceans and fish), overlapping with the range of MPB. In contrast, δ13C values of many sedentary benthic invertebrates in the subtidal areas were similar to those of offshore consumers and more 13C-depleted than motile foragers, indicating high dependence on phytoplankton-derived carbon. The isotopic mixing model calculation confirms that the majority of motile consumers and also some of subtidal sedentary ones depend on intertidal MPB for more than a half of their tissue carbon. Finally, although further quantitative estimates are needed, these results suggest that direct foraging by motile consumers on intertidal areas, and thereby biological transport of MPB-derived organic carbon to the subtidal areas, may provide important trophic connection between intertidal production and the nearshore shallow subtidal food webs.

  5. Linking Intertidal and Subtidal Food Webs: Consumer-Mediated Transport of Intertidal Benthic Microalgal Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Chang-Keun; Park, Hyun Je; Choy, Eun Jung; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Hwang, Kangseok; Kim, Jong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We examined stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for a large variety of consumers in intertidal and subtidal habitats, and their potential primary food sources [i.e., microphytobenthos (MPB), phytoplankton, and Phragmites australis] in a coastal bay system, Yeoja Bay of Korea, to test the hypothesis that the transfer of intertidal MPB-derived organic carbon to the subtidal food web can be mediated by motile consumers. Compared to a narrow δ13C range (−18 to −16‰) of offshore consumers, a broad δ13C range (−18 to −12‰) of both intertidal and subtidal consumers indicated that 13C-enriched sources of organic matter are an important trophic source to coastal consumers. In the intertidal areas, δ13C of most consumers overlapped with or was 13C-enriched relative to MPB. Despite the scarcity of MPB in the subtidal, highly motile consumers in subtidal habitat had nearly identical δ13C range with many intertidal foragers (including crustaceans and fish), overlapping with the range of MPB. In contrast, δ13C values of many sedentary benthic invertebrates in the subtidal areas were similar to those of offshore consumers and more 13C-depleted than motile foragers, indicating high dependence on phytoplankton-derived carbon. The isotopic mixing model calculation confirms that the majority of motile consumers and also some of subtidal sedentary ones depend on intertidal MPB for more than a half of their tissue carbon. Finally, although further quantitative estimates are needed, these results suggest that direct foraging by motile consumers on intertidal areas, and thereby biological transport of MPB-derived organic carbon to the subtidal areas, may provide important trophic connection between intertidal production and the nearshore shallow subtidal food webs. PMID:26448137

  6. An Honorable Seduction: Thematic Studies in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worby, Diana Z.

    By using a thematic approach and by drawing on other disciplines for breadth, English teachers can "honorably seduce" career-oriented students into a love affair with literature and draw them back into the English curriculum. For example, a teacher's conversation with a student focusing on fathers and sons led the teacher to suggest that the…

  7. Legal History Meets the Honors Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the "Law and Culture" course that he developed to teach in the Butler University Honors Program. The course looks at some landmark periods or events in legal history and explores how those events were the product of their culture, and how they affected their culture. Among the events or periods that the author…

  8. EPA Honors New Jersey Environmental Champions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y. - April 24, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced that it has honored six individuals and organizations from across New Jersey with Environmental Champion Awards for their achievements in protecting public health an

  9. Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willerton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive…

  10. The Profit Motive in Honors Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Honors has specifically and historically done a commendable job of tailoring education to the special needs and challenges of the most intellectually and academically capable young people, the future leaders and innovators of society, but the introduction of an imperative to make money threatens to corrupt the whole enterprise. For this reason,…

  11. Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolosi, Annie; O'Connell, Libby Haight; Rust, Mead

    2003-01-01

    The spring 2003 The Idea Book for Educators highlights television programming from the Arts and Entertainment Network (A&E), the History Channel, and the Biography Channel, with a focus on an A&E original movie premiere, "Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor." The booklet contains the following materials: "A&E Study…

  12. A Global Endeavor: Honors Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killinger, Mimi; Spies, Kate; Runyambo, Daniella

    2016-01-01

    Like many other universities of its kind, the University of Maine (UMaine) has a centralized body, the Center for Undergraduate Research (CUGR), charged with engaging motivated students in independent learning and in the creation of new knowledge. UMaine furthermore has an honors college that is likewise committed to fostering undergraduate…

  13. Teaching Honors Online at a Public College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nightingale, Barbra

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author contends that it is possible to offer online honors classes without sacrificing quality or giving up either group projects or service learning experiences. Students today are particularly savvy to all the possibilities for face time in a multitude of environments and see no obstacle to collaborating in an online class.…

  14. Understanding Scientific Ideas: An Honors Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Joan; Schueler, Paul

    At Raritan Valley Community College (RVCC) in New Jersey, an honors philosophy course was developed which taught mathematics and science concepts independent of computational skill. The course required that students complete a weekly writing assignment designed as a continuous refinement of logical reasoning development. This refinement was…

  15. Momument at Pad 14 honoring Project Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Momument at Pad 14 honoring Project Mercury. The Arabic number 7 represents the seven original astronauts. The other figure is the astronomical symbol of the Planet Mercury. In background is the Gemini 12 Agena Target Docking Vehicle atop its Atlas launch vehicle at Cape Kennedy, Florida.

  16. History of Tri-M Honor Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Frances M.

    1984-01-01

    The Modern Music Masters Society had its origins during the Great Depression in the Maine Music Masters, formed to honor high school students who performed at school and on local church and civic programs. Incorporated in 1952, the society today has chapters in all states and in foreign countries. (RM)

  17. To Honor the Net in Invitational Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, William B.

    2003-01-01

    Honoring the net is a concept presented by Purkey in his discussion of the four-corner press. In a counseling setting this concept relates to the perceptions of the counselor and the client as they encounter one another in the counseling relationship, as well as the relationship itself. This manuscript attempts to examine the dynamic of the net…

  18. Innovation Labs: A Professional Approach to Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bormans, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Honors education at Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences (RUAS) focuses on students who are willing to invest more in their study than the average student. Selection criteria are the students' willingness to develop beyond what is offered in the regular curriculum and are not based on previous accomplishments. The additional challenge of the…

  19. Honors and Advanced Placement Chemistry Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes papers and minipapers on honors and advanced placement (AP) chemistry courses presented at the Seventh Biennial Conference on Chemical Education (Stillwater, Oklahoma 1982). Advantages/disadvantages of AP chemistry, high school/college courses, and grouping all chemistry students in one class were among the topics discussed. (JN)

  20. Assessing a quick monitoring method using rocky intertidal communities as a bioindicator: a multivariate approach in Algeciras Bay.

    PubMed

    Guerra-García, J M; Maestre, M J; González, A R; García-Gómez, J C

    2006-05-01

    A multivariate approach was used to test the value of intertidal communities as a bioindicator of environmental conditions at Algeciras Bay, southern Spain. The study area is located in the Strait of Gibraltar and it is subjected to a variety of anthropic impacts. Eight localities (5 inside and 3 outside the bay) were selected, and four transects were undertaken in each locality to characterise the fauna and flora. The spatial distribution of the intertidal species reflected the physico-chemical conditions of Algeciras Bay. The stations located outside the bay, characterised by high hydrodynamism and dissolved oxygen and low sedimentation and turbidity, had a higher diversity and species richness than the inner stations. According to the BIO-ENV procedure and CCA, water turbidity was the factor which best correlated with the intertidal assemblages. SIMPER showed that the molluscs Chtamalus stellatus, Mytilus cf edulis, Littorina neritoides and Balanus perforatus, and the algae Gelidium pusillum, Corallina elongata, Asparagopsis armata, Colpomenia sinuosa and Fucus spiralis were the species that most contributed to the dissimilarity between internal and external sites. The present study, based on the spatial distribution of intertidal taxa, yielded similar results to those previously obtained in the area with costly physico-chemical analysis based on complex matrices of subtidal epifaunal communities. Consequently, the intertidal sampling method proposed in this study is presented here as a quick, effective alternative strategy, and can be useful in environmental monitoring programs, since these communities are easily accessible and amenable to sample, and the sessile nature of the majority of the species makes future, long-term monitoring relatively simple.

  1. Annual and seasonal distribution of intertidal foraminifera and stable carbon isotope geochemistry, Bandon Marsh, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milker, Yvonne; Horton, Benjamin; Vane, Christopher; Engelhart, Simon; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.; Khan, Nicole S.; Bridgeland, William

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the influence of inter-annual and seasonal differences on the distribution of live and dead foraminifera, and the inter-annual variability of stable carbon isotopes (d13C), total organic carbon (TOC) values and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios in bulk sediments from intertidal environments of Bandon Marsh (Oregon, USA). Living and dead foraminiferal species from 10 stations were analyzed over two successive years in the summer (dry) and fall (wet) seasons. There were insignificant inter-annual and seasonal variations in the distribution of live and dead species. But there was a noticeable decrease in calcareous assemblages (Haynesina sp.) between live populations and dead assemblages, indicating that most of the calcareous tests were dissolved after burial; the agglutinated assemblages were comparable between constituents. The live populations and dead assemblages were dominated by Miliammina fusca in the tidal flat and low marsh, Jadammina macrescens, Trochammina inflata and M. fusca in the high marsh, and Trochamminita irregularis and Balticammina pseudomacrescens in the highest marsh to upland. Geochemical analyses (d13C, TOC and C/N of bulk sedimentary organic matter) show no significant influence of inter-annual variations but a significant correlation of d13C values (R = 20.820, p , 0.001), TOC values (R = 0.849, p , 0.001) and C/N ratios (R = 0.885, p , 0.001) to elevation with respect to the tidal frame. Our results suggest that foraminiferal assemblages and d13C and TOC values, as well as C/N ratios, in Bandon Marsh are useful in reconstructing paleosea-levels on the North American Pacific coast.

  2. Biological clocks and rhythms in intertidal crustaceans.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Hsu, Yun-Wei A

    2010-06-01

    Animals with habitats within the intertidal zone are exposed to environmental cycles that include the ebb and flow of tidal waters, changes in tidal levels associated with the lunar month, the light-dark cycle and the alternation of seasons. This intricate temporal environment results in the selection of biological timing systems with endogenous clocks that can oscillate with this wide range of periodicities. Whereas great progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular and neural bases of circadian rhythms, that is, endogenous rhythms synchronized to the solar day, there is little understanding on how circatidal rhythms, namely endogenous rhythms synchronized to tides, are generated. Intertidal crustaceans have been a pivotal group for the demonstration of the endogenous nature of circatidal rhythms and their mechanisms of entrainment. We review here some of the classic work using intertidal crustaceans to unmask basic properties of circatidal systems, as well as work from our laboratory that aims to identify putative chemical signals that could be involved in the circatidal systems of decapod crustaceans.

  3. Molluscan life and death assemblages of a sheltered lagoon in the northern Red Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuschin, Martin; Gützer, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). Most case studies on LD agreement were performed in temperate environments. We studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) of a sheltered lagoon in the northern Red Sea, which is under increasing anthropogenic pressure from tourism. A total of 3,566 molluscs from nine tidal flat and nine sublittoral stations were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 97 recorded species, one potamidid gastropod dominated strongly and another 4 species were numerically abundant. There were many more dead (70.3%) than living individuals, with large differences between gastropods (57.5% dead) and bivalves (95.5% dead), and between the intertidal (49.3% dead) and the subtidal (96.2% dead). The mean number of species per sample is lower in the intertidal than in the subtidal, and this difference is much higher in the death assemblage than in the life assemblage. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, however, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. More samples would be necessary to account for the diversity of living molluscs in the study area, which is, however, well recorded in the death assemblages. There is no indication of a major environmental change over the last decades in this area.

  4. Behavioral and physiological photoresponses to light intensity by intertidal microphytobenthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guoying; Yan, Hongmei; Liu, Chunrong; Mao, Yunxiang

    2017-03-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses to light are the two major mechanisms by which natural microphytobenthic assemblages adapt to the intertidal environment and protect themselves from light stress. The present study investigated these photoresponses with different light intensities over 8 h of illumination, and used a specific inhibitor (Latrunculin A, Lat A) for migration to compare migratory and non-migratory microphytobenthos (MPB). Photosynthetic activity was detected using rapid light curves and induction curves by chlorophyll fluorescence. It showed distinct variation in migratory responses to different light intensities; high light induced downward migration to avoid photoinhibition, and low and medium light (50-250 μmol/(m2·s)) promoted upward migration followed by downward migration after certain period of light exposure. No significant difference in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) or PSII maximal quantum yield (Fv/Fm) was detected between low and medium light irradiance, possibly indicating that only high light influences the photosynthetic capability of MPB. Decreased photosynthetic activity, indicated by three parameters, the maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax), minimum saturating irradiance (E k) and light utilization coefficient (α), was observed in MPB after exposure to prolonged illumination under low and medium light. Lat A effectively inhibited the migration of MPB in all light treatments and induced lower Fv/Fmunder high light (500 and 100 μmol/(m2·s)) and prolonged illumination at 250 μmol/(m2·s), but did not significantly influence Fv/Fmunder low light (0-100 μmol/(m2·s)) or NPQ. The increase of NPQ in Lat A treatments with time implied that the MPB assemblages can recover their physiological photoprotection capacity to adapt to light stress. Non-migratory MPB exhibited lower light use efficiency (lower α) and lower maximum photosynthetic capacity (lower rETRmax) than migratory MPB under light intensities above

  5. Macroalgal Composition Determines the Structure of Benthic Assemblages Colonizing Fragmented Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Miguel G.; Arenas, Francisco; Rubal, Marcos; Pinto, Isabel S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the consequences of fragmentation of coastal habitats is an important topic of discussion in marine ecology. Research on the effects of fragmentation has revealed complex and context-dependent biotic responses, which prevent generalizations across different habitats or study organisms. The effects of fragmentation in marine environments have been rarely investigated across heterogeneous habitats, since most studies have focused on a single type of habitat or patch. In this study, we assessed the effects of different levels of fragmentation (i.e. decreasing size of patches without overall habitat loss). We measured these effects using assemblages of macro-invertebrates colonizing representative morphological groups of intertidal macroalgae (e.g. encrusting, turf and canopy-forming algae). For this purpose, we constructed artificial assemblages with different combinations of morphological groups and increasing levels of fragmentation by manipulating the amount of bare rock or the spatial arrangement of different species in mixed assemblages. In general, our results showed that 1) fragmentation did not significantly affect the assemblages of macroinvertebrates; 2) at greater levels of fragmentation, there were greater numbers of species in mixed algal assemblages, suggesting that higher habitat complexity promotes species colonization. Our results suggest that predicting the consequences of fragmentation in heterogeneous habitats is dependent on the type and diversity of morphological groups making up those habitats. PMID:26554924

  6. Effects of laughing gull and shorebird predation on the intertidal fauna at Cape May, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botton, M. L.

    1984-02-01

    The intertidal flats of the Cape May, New Jersey shore of Delaware Bay are populated by large numbers of laughing gulls and migrating shorebirds during the spring and early summer. Exclusion of birds from a shallow slough and a sand bar had only minor effects on the infaunal benthic invertebrate assemblage at either site. The Cape May beaches provide a rich source of food in the form of horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) eggs; foraging on this item may be more profitable than probing the sediment for infauna. Gemma gemma, a small, thick-shelled bivalve, composed over 98% of the benthic infauna at both sites in 1980, and this species may be resistant to predation by certain shorebirds, as suggested by Schneider (1978).

  7. Climate change impact on seaweed meadow distribution in the North Atlantic rocky intertidal

    PubMed Central

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Tyberghein, Lennert; Verbruggen, Heroen; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Hoarau, Galice

    2013-01-01

    The North-Atlantic has warmed faster than all other ocean basins and climate change scenarios predict sea surface temperature isotherms to shift up to 600 km northwards by the end of the 21st century. The pole-ward shift has already begun for many temperate seaweed species that are important intertidal foundation species. We asked the question: Where will climate change have the greatest impact on three foundational, macroalgal species that occur along North-Atlantic shores: Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, and Ascophyllum nodosum? To predict distributional changes of these key species under three IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) climate change scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) over the coming two centuries, we generated Ecological Niche Models with the program MAXENT. Model predictions suggest that these three species will shift northwards as an assemblage or “unit” and that phytogeographic changes will be most pronounced in the southern Arctic and the southern temperate provinces. Our models predict that Arctic shores in Canada, Greenland, and Spitsbergen will become suitable for all three species by 2100. Shores south of 45° North will become unsuitable for at least two of the three focal species on both the Northwest- and Northeast-Atlantic coasts by 2200. If these foundational species are unable to adapt to the rising temperatures, they will lose their centers of genetic diversity and their loss will trigger an unpredictable shift in the North-Atlantic intertidal ecosystem. PMID:23762521

  8. Climate change impact on seaweed meadow distribution in the North Atlantic rocky intertidal.

    PubMed

    Jueterbock, Alexander; Tyberghein, Lennert; Verbruggen, Heroen; Coyer, James A; Olsen, Jeanine L; Hoarau, Galice

    2013-05-01

    The North-Atlantic has warmed faster than all other ocean basins and climate change scenarios predict sea surface temperature isotherms to shift up to 600 km northwards by the end of the 21st century. The pole-ward shift has already begun for many temperate seaweed species that are important intertidal foundation species. We asked the question: Where will climate change have the greatest impact on three foundational, macroalgal species that occur along North-Atlantic shores: Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus, and Ascophyllum nodosum? To predict distributional changes of these key species under three IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) climate change scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) over the coming two centuries, we generated Ecological Niche Models with the program MAXENT. Model predictions suggest that these three species will shift northwards as an assemblage or "unit" and that phytogeographic changes will be most pronounced in the southern Arctic and the southern temperate provinces. Our models predict that Arctic shores in Canada, Greenland, and Spitsbergen will become suitable for all three species by 2100. Shores south of 45° North will become unsuitable for at least two of the three focal species on both the Northwest- and Northeast-Atlantic coasts by 2200. If these foundational species are unable to adapt to the rising temperatures, they will lose their centers of genetic diversity and their loss will trigger an unpredictable shift in the North-Atlantic intertidal ecosystem.

  9. Use of different intertidal habitats by faunal communities in a temperate coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Cheila; Coelho, Rui; Silva, Marco; Bentes, Luís; Monteiro, Pedro; Ribeiro, Joaquim; Erzini, Karim; Gonçalves, Jorge M. S.

    2008-11-01

    The faunal communities of four intertidal habitats namely sand, mud, seagrass ( Zostera noltii) and seagrass patches (mixSM) of a temperate coastal lagoon, Ria Formosa (southern Portugal), were sampled. A total of 47 species were taken in 428 bottomless drop sampler samples, with the highest number of species and the more commonly occurring species belonging to the Mollusca phylum. The dominance of these gastropod species underlines the importance of the grazing food chain in these habitats. Bittium reticulatum was the most abundant species, being especially abundant in the seagrass habitat. The most frequent and highest biomass species in the community was Carcinus maenas, a predator that makes use of the available resources and that is adapted to the highly variable intertidal environment. Pomatoschistus microps was the most abundant fish species, with highest densities in the mud habitat, which demonstrates an ability to occupy a low depth area. The seagrass habitat had the highest diversity, abundance and biomass, followed by the mixSM habitat and was different from all the others. Assemblages were highly influenced by the presence of vegetation, providing forage and refuge from predation. A well defined summer group was identified in all habitats. These results highlight the importance of seagrass beds and the idea that their decrease implies the decrease of lagoon production through the impoverishment of the trophic structure of the lagoon.

  10. Photo-regulation in microphytobenthos from intertidal mudflats and non-tidal coastal shallows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pniewski, Filip F.; Biskup, Paulina; Bubak, Iwona; Richard, Pierre; Latała, Adam; Blanchard, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated seasonal changes in the photo-regulatory mechanisms of microphytobenthos found in intertidal mudflats (Aiguillon Bay, the Atlantic, France) and non-tidal sandy coastal shallows (Puck Bay, the Baltic, Poland) based on photosynthetic pigment characteristics and the estimates of photosynthetic parameters obtained through oxygen evolution measurements. The intertidal communities consisted of motile diatom species typical of epipelon. The non-tidal microphytobenthos was composed of epipsammic species mostly belonging to four taxonomic groups chiefly contributing to the assemblage biomass, namely cyanobacteria, euglenophytes, green algae and diatoms (comprising mainly small-sized species). The epipelon was low light acclimated as shown by the lower values of photoprotective/photosynthetic (PPC/PSC) carotenoids and diatoxanthin/diadinoxanthin (Dt/Dd) ratios. In contrast, the epipsammon exhibited features of high light acclimation (high PPC/PSC and Dt/Dd ratios). In both microphytobenthos types, the photosynthetic capacity (Pm) showed the same seasonal variation pattern and there were no statistically significant differences between the investigated sites in corresponding seasons (P > 0.05). In both assemblage types, the photosynthetic efficiency at limiting irradiance (α) decreased over time. The epipelon had higher α compared to the epipsammon. Seasonal changes of the photoacclimation index (Ek) estimated for the epipelic communities reflected variations observed in Pm, whereas in the epipsammon an increasing trend in Ek values was observed. Ek was always higher for the epipsammon when comparing analogous seasons, which further corroborated low and high light acclimation in the epipelic and epipsammic communities, respectively. The presence of the photoinhibition parameter (β) in the epipelon and the lack of it in the epipsammon suggested that the latter was resistant to high irradiance and the physiological mechanisms were sufficient to protect

  11. Honor as Cultural Mindset: Activated Honor Mindset Affects Subsequent Judgment and Attention in Mindset-Congruent Ways.

    PubMed

    Novin, Sheida; Oyserman, Daphna

    2016-01-01

    Honor values articulate gender roles, the importance of reputation in maintaining one's place in society, and maintaining respect for the groups one belongs to. In that sense honor provides a template for organizing social interactions and hence may be functional even among people and societies that do not report valuing and endorsing honor. We test the prediction that honor influences judgment and attention when activated in two experiments (N = 538). Using a culture-as-situated cognition perspective, we predicted that activating one aspect of honor would activate other aspects, even among individuals who do not much endorse honor values. We tested these predictions among European Americans, a group that is not typically associated with honor values. In each study, participants were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups, which differed in one way: the experimental group read statements about honor values as a first step and the control group did not. Participants then judged stick-figure pairs (judging which is male; Study 1, n = 130) or made lexical decisions (judging whether a letter-string formed a correctly spelled word; Study 2, n = 408). In Study 1, experimental group participants were more likely to choose the visually agentic figure as male. In Study 2, experimental group participants were more accurate at noticing that the letter-string formed a word if the word was an honor-relevant word (e.g., noble), but they did not differ from the control group if the word was irrelevant to honor (e.g., happy). Participants in both studies were just above the neutral point in their endorsement of honor values. Individual differences in honor values endorsement did not moderate the effects of activating an honor mindset. Though honor is often described as if it is located in space, we did not find clear effects of where our letter strings were located on the computer screen. Our findings suggest a new way to consider how honor functions, even in

  12. Honor as Cultural Mindset: Activated Honor Mindset Affects Subsequent Judgment and Attention in Mindset-Congruent Ways

    PubMed Central

    Novin, Sheida; Oyserman, Daphna

    2016-01-01

    Honor values articulate gender roles, the importance of reputation in maintaining one’s place in society, and maintaining respect for the groups one belongs to. In that sense honor provides a template for organizing social interactions and hence may be functional even among people and societies that do not report valuing and endorsing honor. We test the prediction that honor influences judgment and attention when activated in two experiments (N = 538). Using a culture-as-situated cognition perspective, we predicted that activating one aspect of honor would activate other aspects, even among individuals who do not much endorse honor values. We tested these predictions among European Americans, a group that is not typically associated with honor values. In each study, participants were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups, which differed in one way: the experimental group read statements about honor values as a first step and the control group did not. Participants then judged stick-figure pairs (judging which is male; Study 1, n = 130) or made lexical decisions (judging whether a letter-string formed a correctly spelled word; Study 2, n = 408). In Study 1, experimental group participants were more likely to choose the visually agentic figure as male. In Study 2, experimental group participants were more accurate at noticing that the letter-string formed a word if the word was an honor-relevant word (e.g., noble), but they did not differ from the control group if the word was irrelevant to honor (e.g., happy). Participants in both studies were just above the neutral point in their endorsement of honor values. Individual differences in honor values endorsement did not moderate the effects of activating an honor mindset. Though honor is often described as if it is located in space, we did not find clear effects of where our letter strings were located on the computer screen. Our findings suggest a new way to consider how honor functions, even in

  13. Honoring Progress: An Update on the NGA Center Honor States. Volume 1, Issue 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartney, Michael, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This bimonthly newsletter provides information about the progress of the Honor States Grant Program, a governor-led effort to improve college--and work-ready graduation rates. This issue spotlights the "supply-side" of high school redesign, exploring how state policymakers are working to expand the supply of high-quality high schools.…

  14. Honoring Progress: An Update on the NGA Center Honor States. Volume 1, Issue 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartney, Michael, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This bimonthly newsletter provides information about the progress of the Honor States Grant Program, a governor-led effort to improve college- and work-ready graduation rates. This issue explores strategies that governors and state policymakers are using to define and assess college and work readiness, Progress of three states in assessment is…

  15. Honoring Progress: An Update on the NGA Center Honor States. Volume 1, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawe, Torrey, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This bimonthly newsletter provides information about the progress of the Honor States Grant Program, a governor-led effort to improve college- and work-ready graduation rates. This issue explores science, technology, engineering, and math education (STEM), a priority for governors as they try to enhance workforce competitiveness in a global…

  16. The Other Culture: Science and Mathematics Education in Honors. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Ellen B., Ed.; Garbutt, Keith, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This monograph addresses the current needs for science education at all levels of higher education. It proceeds from assumptions that the national debate for scientific understanding matters. It explores science in society and strategies for curricular integration in honors. The hope is that this monograph will further the discussion of science…

  17. Honoring Progress: An Update on the NGA Center Honor States. Volume 1, Issue 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartney, Michael, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This bimonthly newsletter provides information about the progress of the Honor States Grant Program, a governor-led effort to improve college--and work-ready graduation rates. This issue explores how effective education governance can support innovative state policy development, successful policy implementation, and a redesigned high school…

  18. Faculty and Academic Integrity: The Influence of Current Honor Codes and Past Honor Code Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald L.; Butterfield, Kenneth D.; Trevino, Linda Klebe

    2003-01-01

    Found that faculty at honor-code schools have more positive attitudes toward their schools' academic integrity policies and allow the system to take care of monitoring and disciplinary activities. Faculty in noncode institutions have less positive attitudes and are more likely to take personal actions designed to deal with cheaters. Faculty in…

  19. Honoring Progress: An Update on the NGA Center Honor States. Volume 1, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartney, Michael, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This bimonthly newsletter provides information about the progress of the Honor States Grant Program, a governor-led effort to improve college--and work-ready graduation rates. This issue explores efforts by governors and state policymakers to experiment with alternative compensation policies that can improve teacher quality. Compensation…

  20. Honoring Progress: An Update on the NGA Center Honor States. Volume 1, Issue 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alex, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This bimonthly newsletter provides information about the progress of the Honor States Grant Program, a governor-led effort to improve college- and work-ready graduation rates. This issue explores strategies for dropout prevention and recovery. Progress of three states is highlighted. Suggested resources for policymakers are provided. Contents…

  1. Preparing Tomorrow's Global Leaders: Honors International Education. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvaney, Mary Kay, Ed.; Klein, Kim, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In our diverse and interconnected world, expanding students' horizons beyond the classrooms and laboratories of home campuses is increasingly important. Even some of the brightest honors students remain naïve to the causes and ramifications of current world events and lack the necessary intercultural skills to become effective ethical leaders with…

  2. Decency, honor, integrity, and the law.

    PubMed

    Rozmaryn, Leo M

    2011-08-01

    In its guidelines for hand care professionals, the American Society for Surgery of the Hand has set the following criteria as guidelines for the ethical hand surgeon in the 21st century: decency, honor, and integrity. This article reviews these criteria in detail, relates how they apply in practice, and describes how they interact with state and federal law in both legislative and judicial aspects. Matters pertaining to informed consent, privacy issues, patient autonomy, shared decision making, and conflict of interest are described, and recent developments in this area are examined. Are hand surgeons ready for an enforceable system of ethics to be handed down by the ASSH or by the government?

  3. Recent Ph.D.s; Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Recent Ph.D.s. Atmospheric Sciences. A study of atmospheric ammonia in coastal ecosystems utilizing relaxed eddy accumulation techniques and ion mobility spectrometry, LaToya Myles, Florida A&M University, December 2004, Advisor: Larry Robinson. Honors. Rana A. Fine has been awarded the 2005 Provost Award for Scholarly Activity, presented by the University of Miami. The award ``recognizes faculty for extraordinary research and scholarly pursuits.'' Charles David Keeling and Lonnie G. Thompson will receive the 2005 Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement. The prize is given to individuals whose accomplishments in environmental science, policy, energy, and medicine confer great benefit upon mankind.

  4. Phosphorous dynamics in a temperate intertidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillebø, A. I.; Neto, J. M.; Flindt, M. R.; Marques, J. C.; Pardal, M. A.

    2004-09-01

    Conservation and management of aquatic systems require detailed information of the processes that affect their functioning and development. The objectives of the present work were to describe the phosphorus dynamics during a complete tidal cycle and to quantify the relative contribution of the most common estuarine areas (e.g. seagrass beds, salt marshes, mud- and sand-flats without vegetation) to phosphorus net internal loading in a temperate intertidal estuary. Results show that phosphate efflux rates were higher during the first hours of tidal flood, and that phosphate concentrations were lowest at high tide. During tidal ebbing, ephemeral tide pools may cover a considerable percentage of the intertidal area. In these tide pools, water shallowness combined with enhanced temperatures stimulate the occurrence of high phosphate effluxes. The effluxes to the main water body during high tide contributed 57% of dissolved inorganic phosphorus and efflux during low tide contributed 43% to the net internal loading. Calculations of the phosphate net effluxes (kg P) indicate a strong contribution of the bare bottom mud-flats to the whole system internal phosphate loading, especially during the warmer periods. As a consequence of eutrophication, perennial benthic macrophytes are commonly replaced by fast-growing epiphytic macroalgae. Calculations showed that for a hypothetical intertidal estuary in a temperate region, management programs considering an eventual re-colonization of mud-flats by seagrasses or salt marsh plants may reduce the P-efflux by 13-16 kg ha -1. For example, in the small Mondego estuary, eutrophication has contributed to a reduction of the Zostera noltii meadows, leading to an increase in 190 kg of phosphorus net internal loading.

  5. The Confidence Game in Honors Admissions and Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzy, Annmarie

    2013-01-01

    Annmarie Guzy, an expert with almost three decades of experience in post-secondary honors education, responds to Jerry Herron's essay, "Notes toward an Excellent Marxist-Elitist Honors Admissions Policy," which argues that "a well-conceived admissions policy tells us much more than whom to recruit; it becomes the basis for a…

  6. Honors Dissertation Abstracts: A Bounded Qualitative Meta-Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Debra K.; Banning, James H.

    2012-01-01

    A potential source of useful information about undergraduate honors education can be found in doctoral dissertation abstracts that focus on honors. Debra Holman and James Banning of Colorado State University sought to explore this resource by undertaking a bounded qualitative meta-study of such abstracts using document analysis. Three…

  7. Moral Decision Making and Nontoleration of Honor Code Offenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roffey, Arthur E.; Porter, David B.

    1992-01-01

    Explored differences in moral development and attitudes toward nontoleration clause of Honor Code of U.S. Air Force Academy between cadets who were convicted honor violators (n=24) and control group of nonviolators (n=162). Found that, as cadet moral development increased from year to year, acceptance and internalization of principle of…

  8. The Problematics of Postmodernism: The Double-Voiced Honors Canon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Tim

    Honors education is not immune from the current controversy concerning the role of the literary canon. Indeed, the problem seems especially crucial for honors programs, for their curriculums are often multi-disciplinary in their approaches to culture and history. The solution may lie in what Linda Hutcheon calls the "poetics of the…

  9. Protecting and Expanding the Honors Budget in Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railsback, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In difficult budget times, especially at state colleges and universities, honors programs might seem too easy for budget-cutters to reduce, cut, or lose in the shuffle of administrative reorganization. Recent years have been financially perilous and hardly an easy time for honors programs or colleges to increase budgets. Using Western Carolina…

  10. Building a Vibrant Honors Community among Commuter Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Ginkel, Stan; van Eijl, Pierre; Pilot, Albert; Zubizarreta, John

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that honors programs often provide active networks of students that contribute to the development of the students' talents (De Boer & van Eijl; van Eijl, Pilot & Wolfensberger). These contact networks are also described as "learning communities" (Wilson et al.) and "honors communities" (van Eijl,…

  11. Building Bridges between Science Courses Using Honors Organic Chemistry Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Timothy; Pontrello, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Introductory undergraduate science courses are traditionally offered as distinct units without formalized student interaction between classes. To bridge science courses, the authors used three Honors Organic Chemistry projects paired with other science courses. The honors students delivered presentations to mainstream organic course students and…

  12. An Augustinian Culture of Learning for Interdisciplinary Honors Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ste. Antoine, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Any attempt to discern the purpose of honors education and to integrate it with the unique ethos of a Christian institution can prove to be difficult. Yet, describing and articulating a sense of purpose is essential for an honors program to justify itself. This essay contends that a philosophy of education based on Augustine's…

  13. Student Attitudes toward a Medical School Honor Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, C. Michael; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A survey to determine medical student perceptions of an honor code and the attitudes of medical students toward personal adherence to the provisions of an honor code at the University of Alabama School of Medicine is presented. Support was compromised by the reluctance of students to report suspected violations. (MLW)

  14. Education and Employment among Alumni Academic Honor Society Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Athey, Robert B.; Moriarty, Meghan O.; Appleby, Drew C.

    2006-01-01

    Academic honor society alumni in two samples reported their undergraduate and post-baccalaureate education and employment experiences. In Study 1 of 108 honor society alumni leaders at an urban, private, faith-based liberal arts college, more men graduated cum laude yet attended top-tier graduate institutions and earned doctoral degrees than women…

  15. Creating Opportunities for Peer Leadership in Honors Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichliter, Marie E.

    2013-01-01

    Honors educators are privileged to work with exceptional students who are also some of the most engaged and motivated students on campus. These students often seek opportunities within their honors experience to study abroad, join community service organizations, conduct research, participate in internships, and develop their leadership skills.…

  16. A Quality Instrument for Effective Honors Program Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Patricia Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of honors programs and colleges has grown dramatically over the last twenty years to over a thousand programs nationally, little has been done to develop consistency of standards in honors. In the interest of seeking consistency, the author designed a research study to provide initial insights into assessable measures that a…

  17. Meeting the Aims of Honors in the Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Melissa L.

    2013-01-01

    While little data-based research is available on the use of technology in the honors classroom, data on the nature of online honors courses are even rarer. In undergraduate education generally, enrollment in online courses has been increasing annually, outpacing enrollment in traditional, face-to-face environments. During fall 2011, more than 6.7…

  18. Public-Private Honors Success at Community Colleges of Spokane

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the steep budget cuts in recent years, and how this has affected the number of honors students that can be served at community colleges in the United States. This was true in Spokane, Washington, where, prior to working with "American Honors," community colleges had struggled for many years to provide…

  19. Survey of Honors Programs: A Resource Inventory and Directory, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeague, Patricia M., Comp.; And Others

    Drawing from a 1984 survey conducted by Moraine Valley Community College, this report provides composite and individual descriptions of 19 community college honors programs. Section I provides an overview of the survey on community college honors programs, which sought information on the organization of the program; the curriculum; and honors…

  20. The Minority Honors Program in Energy-Related Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Evelyn Rubio; Santa Rita, Emilio

    In 1984, Bronx Community College (BCC) established the Minority Honors Program in Energy Related Curricula, a partnership between their academic honors program and the U.S. Department of Energy. The program's goal is to increase the participation of minorities in the fields of Computer Science, Electrical Technology, Engineering Science, Data…

  1. Turning Points: Improving Honors Student Preparation for Thesis Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patino, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is an action research study that had as its primary goal to increase retention of honors college students at Arizona State University by implementing an additional advising session during the fifth semester of their academic career. Introducing additional, strategically-timed support for the honors thesis and demystifying the…

  2. Significance of nearshore trace-fossil assemblages of the cambro-ordovician deadwood formation and Aladdin Sandstone, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, T.M.; Feldmann, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Cambro-Ordovician Deadwood Formation and Aladdin Sandstone represent intertidal and subtidal, nearshore deposystems that contain few well-preserved body fossils, but contain abundant trace fossils. The present study uses the much neglected trace-fossil fauna to describe the diverse paleoenvironments represented in the Deadwood-Aladdin deposystems, and to better understand the environmental conditions that controlled benthic life in the Early Paleozoic. The Deadwood-Aladdin ichnotaxa can be separated into three distinct assemblages based on the changing sedimentologic and hydrodynamic conditions that existed across the Cambro-Ordovician shelf. Trace-fossil assemblages and corresponding lithofacies characteristics indicate that the Deadwood-Aladdin deposystems formed within an intertidal-flat and subtidal-shelf environment. Based on the distribution and numbers of preserved ichnotaxa, the intertidal flat can be subdivided further into an ecologically stressful inner sand-flat environment, and a more normal marine outer sand-flat environment, both of which belong to a mixed, Skolithos-Cruziana softground ichnofacies. The inner sand flat is characterized by low diversity, low numbers, and a general lack of complexly constructed ichnotaxa. Trace fossils common to both assemblages tend to be smaller in the inner flat compared to the outer sand flat. Taphonomic effects, such as substrate type and sediment heterogeneity, also aid in differentiating between the inner and outer sand-flat assemblages. The subtidal shelf environment is categorized in the Cruziana Ichnofacies. Ichnological evidence of periodic tempestite deposition and hardground development within this subtidal regime is manifested by high diversity and low abundance of ichnogenera.

  3. Fear of the Loss of Honor: Implications of Honor-Based Violence for the Development of Youth and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedem, Mina; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Violence committed against young women, and in some cases young men, who are considered to have violated honor-based norms are reported in several countries, making honor-based violence (HBV) a global concern. This article is an overview of research in this area and summarizes key findings from a Swedish program of research dedicated…

  4. Honor Codes and Other Contextual Influences on Academic Integrity: A Replication and Extension to Modified Honor Code Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Donald L.; Trevino, Linda Klebe; Butterfield, Kenneth D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the influence of modified honor codes, an alternative to traditional codes that is gaining popularity on larger campuses. Also tested the model of student academic dishonesty previously suggested by McCabe and Trevino. Found that modified honor codes are associated with lower levels of student dishonesty and that the McCabe Trevino…

  5. Influence of hydro-sedimentary factors on mollusc death assemblages in a temperate mixed tide-and-wave dominated coastal environment: Implications for the fossil record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Clément; Sauriau, Pierre-Guy; Chaumillon, Eric; Bertin, Xavier

    2010-10-01

    Mollusc death assemblages were recovered in 98 subtidal sampling stations on the seafloor of the shallow Pertuis Charentais Sea (Atlantic coast of France). Taxonomic composition and spatial distribution of death assemblages were investigated, as well as their response to sediment grain size (field data), bottom shear stress (coupled tide and wave hydrodynamic modelling), and sediment budget (bathymetric difference map). Results showed that molluscs are likely to be reliable paleoenvironmental indicators since death assemblages were able to acquire ecological changes within years (decadal-scale taphonomic inertia), and live-dead agreement inferred from existing data on living benthic communities was high, except close to river mouths and intertidal mudflats that provide terrestrial and intertidal species to subtidal death assemblages, respectively. Taxonomic composition of these within-habitat death assemblages strongly depended on sediment grain size and bottom shear stress, similarly to living subtidal communities. Post-mortem dispersal of shells, owing to relatively low bottom shear stress in the area, was only of a few 10s to 100s of meters, which shows that death assemblages preserved environmental gradients even at a fine spatial scale. Sediment budget had also a significant influence on death assemblages. Thick-shelled epifaunal species were correlated with erosion areas on one side, and thin-shelled infaunal species with deposition on the other, showing that mollusc fossil assemblages could be used as indicators of paleo-sedimentation rate. This new proxy was successfully tested on a previously published Holocene mollusc fossil record from the same area. It was possible to refine the paleoenvironmental interpretation already proposed, in accordance with existing stratigraphic and sedimentological data.

  6. Spiral-shaped graphoglyptids from an Early Permian intertidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minter, Nicholas J.; Buatois, Luis A.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Braddy, Simon J.; Smith, Joshua A.

    2006-12-01

    Spiral-shaped foraging trace fossils, assigned to the grapho glyptid cf. Spirorhaphe azteca, are reported from an Early Permian intertidal flat in the Robledo Mountains of southern New Mexico, USA. Remarkably similar spiral-shaped structures are produced in modern intertidal flats by the paraonid polychaete Paraonis fulgens, and function as traps to capture mobile microorganisms migrating in the sediment in response to tides. We envisage a similar function for the Early Permian trace fossils. Previous studies have suggested that the lack of P. fulgens type traces from ancient intertidal deposits indicates that such behavior only evolved geologically recently in such settings. However, this report demonstrates that such specialized foraging behavior was present in intertidal settings by at least the Early Permian. Graphoglyptids are typical of deep-marine settings, and characteristic of the Nereites ichnofacies. This represents their first undoubted occurrence in intertidal facies in the geological record. We postulate that the occurrence of graphoglyptids in deep-marine and intertidal settings is related to the predictability of resources. The scarcity of intertidal graphoglyptids in the geological record is most likely a preservational effect.

  7. Integrating Ecosystem Engineering and Food Web Ecology: Testing the Effect of Biogenic Reefs on the Food Web of a Soft-Bottom Intertidal Area.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Bart; Fournier, Jérôme; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The potential of ecosystem engineers to modify the structure and dynamics of food webs has recently been hypothesised from a conceptual point of view. Empirical data on the integration of ecosystem engineers and food webs is however largely lacking. This paper investigates the hypothesised link based on a field sampling approach of intertidal biogenic aggregations created by the ecosystem engineer Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta, Terebellidae). The aggregations are known to have a considerable impact on the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of their environment and subsequently on the abundance and biomass of primary food sources and the macrofaunal (i.e. the macro-, hyper- and epibenthos) community. Therefore, we hypothesise that L. conchilega aggregations affect the structure, stability and isotopic niche of the consumer assemblage of a soft-bottom intertidal food web. Primary food sources and the bentho-pelagic consumer assemblage of a L. conchilega aggregation and a control area were sampled on two soft-bottom intertidal areas along the French coast and analysed for their stable isotopes. Despite the structural impacts of the ecosystem engineer on the associated macrofaunal community, the presence of L. conchilega aggregations only has a minor effect on the food web structure of soft-bottom intertidal areas. The isotopic niche width of the consumer communities of the L. conchilega aggregations and control areas are highly similar, implying that consumer taxa do not shift their diet when feeding in a L. conchilega aggregation. Besides, species packing and hence trophic redundancy were not affected, pointing to an unaltered stability of the food web in the presence of L. conchilega.

  8. Integrating Ecosystem Engineering and Food Web Ecology: Testing the Effect of Biogenic Reefs on the Food Web of a Soft-Bottom Intertidal Area

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Bart; Fournier, Jérôme; De Troch, Marleen; Vincx, Magda; Vanaverbeke, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The potential of ecosystem engineers to modify the structure and dynamics of food webs has recently been hypothesised from a conceptual point of view. Empirical data on the integration of ecosystem engineers and food webs is however largely lacking. This paper investigates the hypothesised link based on a field sampling approach of intertidal biogenic aggregations created by the ecosystem engineer Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta, Terebellidae). The aggregations are known to have a considerable impact on the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of their environment and subsequently on the abundance and biomass of primary food sources and the macrofaunal (i.e. the macro-, hyper- and epibenthos) community. Therefore, we hypothesise that L. conchilega aggregations affect the structure, stability and isotopic niche of the consumer assemblage of a soft-bottom intertidal food web. Primary food sources and the bentho-pelagic consumer assemblage of a L. conchilega aggregation and a control area were sampled on two soft-bottom intertidal areas along the French coast and analysed for their stable isotopes. Despite the structural impacts of the ecosystem engineer on the associated macrofaunal community, the presence of L. conchilega aggregations only has a minor effect on the food web structure of soft-bottom intertidal areas. The isotopic niche width of the consumer communities of the L. conchilega aggregations and control areas are highly similar, implying that consumer taxa do not shift their diet when feeding in a L. conchilega aggregation. Besides, species packing and hence trophic redundancy were not affected, pointing to an unaltered stability of the food web in the presence of L. conchilega. PMID:26496349

  9. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Green, Dannielle Senga; Boots, Bas; Blockley, David James; Rocha, Carlos; Thompson, Richard

    2015-05-05

    The accumulation of plastic debris is a global environmental problem due to its durability, persistence, and abundance. Although effects of plastic debris on individual marine organisms, particularly mammals and birds, have been extensively documented (e.g., entanglement and choking), very little is known about effects on assemblages and consequences for ecosystem functioning. In Europe, around 40% of the plastic items produced are utilized as single-use packaging, which rapidly accumulate in waste management facilities and as litter in the environment. A range of biodegradable plastics have been developed with the aspiration of reducing the persistence of litter; however, their impacts on marine assemblages or ecosystem functioning have never been evaluated. A field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of conventional and biodegradable plastic carrier bags as litter on benthic macro- and meio-faunal assemblages and biogeochemical processes (primary productivity, redox condition, organic matter content, and pore-water nutrients) on an intertidal shore near Dublin, Ireland. After 9 weeks, the presence of either type of bag created anoxic conditions within the sediment along with reduced primary productivity and organic matter and significantly lower abundances of infaunal invertebrates. This indicates that both conventional and biodegradable bags can rapidly alter marine assemblages and the ecosystem services they provide.

  10. Propensity Score Analysis of an Honors Program's Contribution to Students' Retention and Graduation Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Robert R.; Lacy, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Honors directors and deans know or presume that retention and graduation rates of honors students substantially exceed those of non-honors students. In our research, we have attempted to better determine what portion of this success is attributable to the academic and other benefits of honors programs as opposed to the background characteristics…

  11. A Tradition Unlike Any Other: Research on the Value of an Honors Senior Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, H. Kay

    2016-01-01

    An honors senior thesis introduces students into a world of scholarship and professional activity in a way that no single course, either semester- or year-long, can do (Anderson, Lyons, and Weiner). Many honors educators consider honors thesis work to be the defining honors experience. For graduate schools, employers, and the students themselves,…

  12. Mission, Performance Indicators, and Assessment in U.S. Honors: A View from the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartelds, Vladimir; Drayer, Lyndsay; Wolfensberger, Marca V. C.

    2012-01-01

    A mission statement that identifies the goals and aims of an honors program is a key step in program development. The National Collegiate Honors Council's Basic Characteristics of a Fully Developed Honors Program states unequivocally that a successful honors program "has a clear mandate from the institution's administration in the form of a…

  13. Intertidal meiofauna of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, the structure of the meiobenthos community and marine nematodes in particular was investigated in the different intertidal zones of Jeju Island (South Sea of Korea). A relationship was found between the density of meiobenthic communities and the type of the bottom sediment. In addition, in the silty sediments, nematodes were dominant, while in the sandy sediments harpacticoids and ostracods were dominant groups. Sixty eight species belonging to 60 genera and 19 families of nematodes were found in the whole area. Four different nematode taxocenosis were distinguished using a cluster analysis. Dominant feeding groups were omnivores (2B) and epistratum-feeders (2A). The highest number of non-selective deposit-feeders (1B) was detected in the lagoon with the bottom silty sediments.

  14. Redistribution of intertidal sediment contaminants by microphytobenthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Amani; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Nick; Sneddon, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Microphytobenthos (MPB) is a mixed community of microscopic algae inhabiting the top few millimetres of bottom sediment in the intertidal zone. It is a key component of the estuarine ecosystem, interacting with the sediment and fauna to influence sediment distribution and resuspension and forming the base of the estuarine food chain. Estuarine sediments, with which the MPB is closely associated, are a significant sink for contaminants from both fluvial and marine sources. Algae are known to have the capacity to take up contaminants, and the phytoplankton has been well studied in this respect, however there has been little research involving MPB. The extent to which contaminant uptake by MPB occurs and under what conditions is therefore very poorly understood. It seems probable that the paucity of research in this area is due to the complexity of the bioavailability of contaminants in the intertidal zone coupled with difficulties in separating MPB from the sediment. A series of experiments are proposed in which we will investigate (at a range of spatial scales) contaminant partitioning in the presence of MPB; the effect of changing temperatures on contaminant uptake and toxicity to MPB; effects of sediment resuspension on contaminant availability and uptake to MPB; and the uptake of contaminants from MPB to molluscs. A mesocosm (or experimental enclosure) is being constructed to replicate the natural system and enable manipulation of conditions of interest. This will attain greater realism than laboratory toxicity tests, with more statistical power than can be achieved through field studies. By gaining a better understanding of processes governing contaminant bioavailability and mechanisms for uptake by MPB it will be possible to relate these to projected climate change effects and ascertain potential consequences for contaminant redistribution.

  15. Yaquina Bay, Oregon, Intertidal Sediment Temperature Database, 1998 - 2006.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed, long term sediment temperature records were obtained and compiled in a database to determine the influence of daily, monthly, seasonal and annual temperature variation on eelgrass distribution across the intertidal habitat in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Both currently and hi...

  16. Theme and variations: amphibious air-breathing intertidal fishes.

    PubMed

    Martin, K L

    2014-03-01

    Over 70 species of intertidal fishes from 12 families breathe air while emerging from water. Amphibious intertidal fishes generally have no specialized air-breathing organ but rely on vascularized mucosae and cutaneous surfaces in air to exchange both oxygen and carbon dioxide. They differ from air-breathing freshwater fishes in morphology, physiology, ecology and behaviour. Air breathing and terrestrial activity are present to varying degrees in intertidal fish species, correlated with the tidal height of their habitat. The gradient of amphibious lifestyle includes passive remainers that stay in the intertidal zone as tides ebb, active emergers that deliberately leave water in response to poor aquatic conditions and highly mobile amphibious skipper fishes that may spend more time out of water than in it. Normal terrestrial activity is usually aerobic and metabolic rates in air and water are similar. Anaerobic metabolism may be employed during forced exercise or when exposed to aquatic hypoxia. Adaptations for amphibious life include reductions in gill surface area, increased reliance on the skin for respiration and ion exchange, high affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen and adjustments to ventilation and metabolism while in air. Intertidal fishes remain close to water and do not travel far terrestrially, and are unlikely to migrate or colonize new habitats at present, although in the past this may have happened. Many fish species spawn in the intertidal zone, including some that do not breathe air, as eggs and embryos that develop in the intertidal zone benefit from tidal air emergence. With air breathing, amphibious intertidal fishes survive in a variable habitat with minimal adjustments to existing structures. Closely related species in different microhabitats provide unique opportunities for comparative studies.

  17. VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. MEMORIAL WITH BRONZE PLAQUE IN HONOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO THE SOUTHEAST. MEMORIAL WITH BRONZE PLAQUE IN HONOR OF KELLER, MARKS THE CENTER OF THE BRIDGE. - Keller Memorial Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River at U.S. Highway 31, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  18. Exemplary Clean Air and Climate Initiatives Win EPA Honors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - This week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is honoring seven projects for their work on clean air and climate initiatives, including investment in alternative fuel vehicle fleets, business partnerships to reduce pollutant

  19. EPA Honors SWEPCO2015 Energy Star Partner of Year

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (April 6, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring AEP Southwestern Electric Power Company (SWEPCO) for its commitment to saving energy and protecting the environment through

  20. And the Top Honor Goes to Voc Ed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettinger, James

    1998-01-01

    Ray Chelewski is the first vocational-technical educator to win Walt Disney's top teaching honor. Chelewski is an agriculture teacher at the Presque Isle Regional Technology Center in northeast Maine. (JOW)

  1. [Temporal comparison of the composition and zonation of rocky intertidal organisms at Cocos Island National Park, Pacific, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A; Cortés, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Several biological and physical factors change the rocky shore communities. The desiccation time and the tolerance of the intertidal species produce the vertical zonation. In many studies around the world, a temporal change in this zonation is presented.In Costa Rica, only studies that include temporal trends were carried out in Punta Mala and Montezuma, Pacific coast in 80's. The rocky intertidal of the Cocos Island National Park, Costa Rica were surveyed photographically. The Chatham bay was sampled in three expeditions (January 2007, October 2007 and April 2008). Photos corresponding to 25x25cm quadrats were taken with the goal to determine diversity and composition differences in rocky shore organisms between sampling dates. The Wafer bay was sampled in January and October 2007. The intertidal of Chatham consists of basaltic rock, while Wafer has basaltic and ignimbrite boulders. The main difference between sites were the higher algae cover (erect-frondose forms) and number of organism bands at Chatham bay. Temporal change was not found in the total cover of sessile fauna and autotrophs. The barnacle Tetraclita stalactifera, that occurs above the algal fringe (lower intertidal), was the invertebrate with the highest coverage. The mobile fauna biodiversity presented no significant trend between sampled months. However, the identity of species, their cover and their abundance showed a moderate temporal change. In October 2007, when the sea surface temperature was 23 degrees C the infralittoral zone had an increase in green algae cover. The red algae (crust and erect-frondose forms) were dominant in January and April. The pulmonate limpet, Siphonaria gigas and a bacterial biofilm at mid littoral showed a negative association. The snails of the high littoral and the supralittoral zone showed a temporal change in their abundance, but with contrasting patterns between sites. The temporal variation in the assemblages increased from the supralittoral to the

  2. Heat transport dynamics at a sandy intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Erler, Dirk V.; Santos, Isaac R.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2013-06-01

    Intertidal zones are spatially complex and temporally dynamic environments. Coastal groundwater discharge, including submarine groundwater discharge, may provide stabilizing conditions for intertidal zone permeable sediments. In this study, we integrated detailed time series temperature observations, porewater pressure measurements, and two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography profiles to understand the coupled hydraulic-thermal regime of a tropical sandy intertidal zone in a fringing coral reef lagoon (Rarotonga, Cook Islands). We found three heating patterns across the 15 m study transect over tidal and diel periods: (1) a highly variable thermal regime dominated by swash infiltration and changes in saturation state in the upper foreshore with net heat import into the sediment, (2) a groundwater-supported underground stable, cool region just seaward of the intertidal slope break also importing heat into the subsurface, and (3) a zone of seawater recirculation that sustained consistently warm subsurface temperatures that exported heat across the sediment-water interface. Simple calculations suggested thermal conduction as the main heat transport mechanism for the shallow intertidal sediment, but deeper and/or multidimensional groundwater flow was required to explain temperature patterns beyond 20 cm depth. Temperature differences between the distinct hydrodynamic zones of the foreshore site resulted in significant thermal gradients that persisted beyond tidal and diel periods. The thermal buffering of intertidal zones by coastal groundwater systems, both at surface seeps and in the shallow subsurface, can be responsible for thermal refugia for some coastal organisms and hotspots for biogeochemical reactions.

  3. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Moisés A.; Valdivia, Nelson; Broitman, Bernardo R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S), the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape. PMID:26360294

  4. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Valdivia, Nelson; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2015-01-01

    There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S), the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape.

  5. Local distribution and thermal ecology of two intertidal fishes.

    PubMed

    Pulgar, Jose M; Bozinovic, Francisco; Ojeda, F Patricio

    2005-02-01

    Geographic variability in the physiological attributes of widely distributed species can be a result of phenotypic plasticity or can reflect evolutionary responses to a particular habitat. In the field, we assessed thermal variability in low and high intertidal pools and the distribution of resident fish species Scartichthys viridis and transitory Girella laevifrons along this vertical intertidal gradient at three localities along the Chilean coast: Antofagasta (the northernmost and warmest habitat), Carrizal Bajo (central coast) and Las Cruces (the southernmost and coldest habitat). In the laboratory, we evaluated the thermal sensitivity of fish captured from each locality. The response to temperature was estimated as the frequency of opercular movements and as thermal selectivity in a gradient; the former being a indirect indicator of energy costs in a particular environment and the latter revealing differential occupation of habitat. Seawater temperature in intertidal pools was greatest at Antofagasta, and within each site was greatest in high intertidal pools. The two intertidal fish species showed opposite patterns of local distribution, with S. viridis primarily inhabiting the lower sectors of the intertidal zone, and G. laevifrons occupying the higher sectors of the intertidal zone. This pattern was consistent for all three localities. Locality was found to be a very important factor determining the frequency of opercular movement and thermal selectivity of both S. viridis and G. laevifrons. Our results suggest that S. viridis and G. laevifrons respond according to: (1) the thermal history of the habitat from which they came, and (2) the immediate physical conditions of their habitat. These results suggest local adaptation rather than plasticity in thermoregulatory and energetic mechanisms.

  6. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Klein, Eduardo; Iken, Katrin; Weinberger, Vanessa; Konar, Brenda; Trott, Tom; Pohle, Gerhard; Bigatti, Gregorio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Mead, Angela; Palomo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Manuel; Gobin, Judith; Sardi, Adriana; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Knowlton, Ann; Wong, Melisa; Peralta, Ana C

    2013-01-01

    Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1) describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2) identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3) identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME) following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas) standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org). A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2%) appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs) followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs). In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska). No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05). Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  7. Large-Scale Spatial Distribution Patterns of Gastropod Assemblages in Rocky Shores

    PubMed Central

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Klein, Eduardo; Iken, Katrin; Weinberger, Vanessa; Konar, Brenda; Trott, Tom; Pohle, Gerhard; Bigatti, Gregorio; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Mead, Angela; Palomo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Manuel; Gobin, Judith; Sardi, Adriana; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Knowlton, Ann; Wong, Melisa; Peralta, Ana C.

    2013-01-01

    Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1) describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2) identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3) identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME) following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas) standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org). A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2%) appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs) followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs). In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska). No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05). Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages. PMID

  8. Herbivores, tidal elevation, and species richness simultaneously mediate nitrate uptake by seaweed assemblages.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Matthew E S; Jones, Emily; Williams, Susan L

    2011-05-01

    In order for research into the consequences of biodiversity changes to be more applicable to real-world ecosystems, experiments must be conducted in the field, where a variety of factors other than diversity can affect the rates of key biogeochemical and physiological processes. Here, we experimentally evaluate the effects of two factors known to affect the diversity and composition of intertidal seaweed assemblages--tidal elevation and herbivory--on nitrate uptake by those assemblages. Based on surveys of community composition at the end of a 1.5-year press experiment, we found that both tide height and herbivores affected seaweed community structure. Not surprisingly, seaweed species richness was greater at lower tidal elevations. Herbivores did not affect richness, but they altered the types of species that were present; seaweed species characterized by higher rates of nitrate uptake were more abundant in herbivore-removal plots. Both tide height and herbivores affected nitrate uptake by seaweed assemblages. Individual seaweed species, as well as entire seaweed assemblages, living higher on the shore had greater rates of biomass-specific nitrate uptake, particularly at high ambient nitrate concentrations. Grazed seaweed assemblages exhibited reduced nitrate uptake, but only at low nitrate concentrations. We evaluated the effect of seaweed richness on nitrate uptake, both alone and after accounting for effects of tidal elevation and herbivores. When only richness was considered, we found no effect on uptake. However, when simultaneous effects of richness, tide height, and herbivores on uptake were evaluated, we found that all three had relatively large and comparable effects on nitrate uptake coefficients and that there was a negative relationship between seaweed richness and nitrate uptake. Particularly because effects of richness on uptake were not apparent unless the effects of tide height and herbivory were also considered, these results highlight the

  9. Spatial variability in community composition on a granite breakwater versus natural rocky shores: lack of microhabitats suppresses intertidal biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Broitman, Bernardo R; Thiel, Martin

    2014-10-15

    Strong differences have been observed between the assemblages on artificial reefs and on natural hard-bottom habitats worldwide, but little is known about the mechanisms that cause contrasting biodiversity patterns. We examined the influence of spatial attributes in relation to both biogenic and topographic microhabitats, in the distribution and composition of intertidal species on both artificial and natural reefs. We found higher small-scale spatial heterogeneity on the natural reef compared with the study breakwater. Species richness and diversity were associated with a higher availability of crevices, rock pools and mussels in natural habitats. Spatial distribution of certain grazers corresponded well with the spatial structure of microhabitats. In contrast, the lack of microhabitats on the breakwater resulted in the absence of several grazers reflected in lower species richness. Biogenic and topographic microhabitats can have interactive effects providing niche opportunities for multiple species, explaining differences in species diversity between artificial versus natural reefs.

  10. Nonlinear forecasting of intertidal shoreface evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, D. J.; Cortale, N.; Baker, K.; McNamara, D. E.

    2015-10-01

    Natural systems dominated by sediment transport are notoriously difficult to forecast. This is particularly true along the ocean coastline, a region that draws considerable human attention as economic investment and infrastructure are threatened by both persistent, long-term and acute, event driven processes (i.e., sea level rise and storm damage, respectively). Forecasting the coastline's evolution over intermediate time (daily) and space (tens of meters) scales is hindered by the complexity of sediment transport and hydrodynamics, and limited access to the detailed local forcing that drives fast scale processes. Modern remote sensing systems provide an efficient, economical means to collect data within these regions. A solar-powered digital camera installation is used to capture the coast's evolution, and machine learning algorithms are implemented to extract the shoreline and estimate the daily mean intertidal coastal profile. Methods in nonlinear time series forecasting and genetic programming applied to these data corroborate that coastal morphology at these scales is predominately driven by nonlinear internal dynamics, which partially mask external forcing signatures. Results indicate that these forecasting techniques achieve nontrivial predictive skill for spatiotemporal forecast of the upper coastline profile (as much as 43% of variance in data explained for one day predictions). This analysis provides evidence that societally relevant coastline forecasts can be achieved without knowing the forcing environment or the underlying dynamical equations that govern coastline evolution.

  11. Biomechanical consequences of epiphytism in intertidal macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura M; Martone, Patrick T

    2014-04-01

    Epiphytic algae grow on other algae rather than hard substrata, perhaps circumventing competition for space in marine ecosystems. Aquatic epiphytes are widely thought to negatively affect host fitness; it is also possible that epiphytes benefit from associating with hosts. This study explored the biomechanical costs and benefits of the epiphytic association between the intertidal brown algal epiphyte Soranthera ulvoidea and its red algal host Odonthalia floccosa. Drag on epiphytized and unepiphytized hosts was measured in a recirculating water flume. A typical epiphyte load increased drag on hosts by ~50%, increasing dislodgment risk of epiphytized hosts compared with hosts that did not have epiphytes. However, epiphytes were more likely to dislodge from hosts than hosts were to dislodge from the substratum, suggesting that drag added by epiphytes may not be mechanically harmful to hosts if epiphytes break first. Concomitantly, epiphytes experienced reduced flow when attached to hosts, perhaps allowing them to grow larger or live in more wave-exposed areas. Biomechanical interactions between algal epiphytes and hosts are complex and not necessarily negative, which may partially explain the evolution and persistence of epiphytic relationships.

  12. Nonlinear forecasting of intertidal shoreface evolution.

    PubMed

    Grimes, D J; Cortale, N; Baker, K; McNamara, D E

    2015-10-01

    Natural systems dominated by sediment transport are notoriously difficult to forecast. This is particularly true along the ocean coastline, a region that draws considerable human attention as economic investment and infrastructure are threatened by both persistent, long-term and acute, event driven processes (i.e., sea level rise and storm damage, respectively). Forecasting the coastline's evolution over intermediate time (daily) and space (tens of meters) scales is hindered by the complexity of sediment transport and hydrodynamics, and limited access to the detailed local forcing that drives fast scale processes. Modern remote sensing systems provide an efficient, economical means to collect data within these regions. A solar-powered digital camera installation is used to capture the coast's evolution, and machine learning algorithms are implemented to extract the shoreline and estimate the daily mean intertidal coastal profile. Methods in nonlinear time series forecasting and genetic programming applied to these data corroborate that coastal morphology at these scales is predominately driven by nonlinear internal dynamics, which partially mask external forcing signatures. Results indicate that these forecasting techniques achieve nontrivial predictive skill for spatiotemporal forecast of the upper coastline profile (as much as 43% of variance in data explained for one day predictions). This analysis provides evidence that societally relevant coastline forecasts can be achieved without knowing the forcing environment or the underlying dynamical equations that govern coastline evolution.

  13. Impacts of Climate-Change-Driven Sea Level Rise on Intertidal Rocky Reef Habitats Will Be Variable and Site Specific

    PubMed Central

    Thorner, Jaqueline; Kumar, Lalit; Smith, Stephen D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Intertidal rocky reefs are complex and rich ecosystems that are vulnerable to even the smallest fluctuations in sea level. We modelled habitat loss associated with sea level rise for intertidal rocky reefs using GIS, high-resolution digital imagery, and LIDAR technology at fine-scale resolution (0.1 m per pixel). We used projected sea levels of +0.3 m, +0.5 m and +1.0 m above current Mean Low Tide Level (0.4 m). Habitat loss and changes were analysed for each scenario for five headlands in the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. The results indicate that changes to habitat extent will be variable across different shores and will not necessarily result in net loss of area for some habitats. In addition, habitat modification will not follow a regular pattern over the projected sea levels. Two of the headlands included in the study currently have the maximum level of protection within the SIMP. However, these headlands are likely to lose much of the habitat known to support biodiverse assemblages and may not continue to be suitable sanctuaries into the future. The fine-scale approach taken in this study thus provides a protocol not only for modelling habitat modification but also for future proofing conservation measures under a scenario of changing sea levels. PMID:24465915

  14. Impacts of climate-change-driven sea level rise on intertidal rocky reef habitats will be variable and site specific.

    PubMed

    Thorner, Jaqueline; Kumar, Lalit; Smith, Stephen D A

    2014-01-01

    Intertidal rocky reefs are complex and rich ecosystems that are vulnerable to even the smallest fluctuations in sea level. We modelled habitat loss associated with sea level rise for intertidal rocky reefs using GIS, high-resolution digital imagery, and LIDAR technology at fine-scale resolution (0.1 m per pixel). We used projected sea levels of +0.3 m, +0.5 m and +1.0 m above current Mean Low Tide Level (0.4 m). Habitat loss and changes were analysed for each scenario for five headlands in the Solitary Islands Marine Park (SIMP), Australia. The results indicate that changes to habitat extent will be variable across different shores and will not necessarily result in net loss of area for some habitats. In addition, habitat modification will not follow a regular pattern over the projected sea levels. Two of the headlands included in the study currently have the maximum level of protection within the SIMP. However, these headlands are likely to lose much of the habitat known to support biodiverse assemblages and may not continue to be suitable sanctuaries into the future. The fine-scale approach taken in this study thus provides a protocol not only for modelling habitat modification but also for future proofing conservation measures under a scenario of changing sea levels.

  15. Reconstructing Grazer Assemblages for Protected Area Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Venter, Jan A.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Balfour, David A.; Slotow, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Protected area management agencies often struggle to reliably reconstruct grazer assemblages due to a lack of historical distribution data for their regions. Wrong predictions of grazing assemblages could potentially affect biodiversity negatively. The objective of the study was to determine how well grazing herbivores have become established since introduction to the Mkambati Nature Reserve, South Africa, how this was influenced by facilitation and competition, and how indigenous grazer assemblages can best be predicted for effective ecological restoration. Population trends of several grazing species were investigated in in order to determine how well they have become established since introduction. Five different conceivable grazing assemblages reflecting a range of approaches that are commonly encountered during conservation planning and management decision making were assessed. Species packing was used to predict whether facilitation, competition or co-existence were more likely to occur, and the species packing of the different assemblages were assessed using ANCOVA. Reconstructing a species assemblage using biogeographic and biological information provides the opportunity for a grazer assemblage that allows for facilitatory effects, which in turn leads to an ecosystem that is able to maintain its grazer assemblage structure. The strength of this approach lies in the ability to overcome the problem of depauperate grazer assemblages, resulting from a lack of historical data, by using biogeographical and biological processes, to assist in more effectively reconstructing grazer assemblages. Adaptive management of grazer assemblage restoration through reintroduction, using this approach would further mitigate management risks. PMID:24603663

  16. Recolonization of intertidal Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) following experimental shoot removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recovery of eelgrass (Zostera marina) from physical disturbances is understudied and no attention has been given to the likely differences in damage recovery rates between the continuous lower intertidal perennial meadows and higher intertidal eelgrass patches. In the present...

  17. A GUIDE TO MAPPING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS AND NONVEGETATED HABITATS IN ESTUARIES OF THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides technical guidance for planning and implementing the production of aerial photomaps of intertidal vegetative habitats in coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest USA (PNW). The focus is on methods of documenting the intertidal distribution of the seagras...

  18. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  19. Consistent patterns of variation in macrobenthic assemblages and environmental variables over multiple spatial scales using taxonomic and functional approaches.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Puri; Torres, Ana Catarina; Aneiros, Fernando; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Troncoso, Jesús S; Rubal, Marcos

    2016-09-01

    Spatial variability of environmental factors and macrobenthos, using species and functional groups, was examined over the same scales (100s of cm to >100 km) in intertidal sediments of two transitional water systems. The objectives were to test if functional groups were a good species surrogate and explore the relationship between environmental variables and macrobenthos. Environmental variables, diversity and the multivariate assemblage structure showed the highest variability at the scale of 10s of km. However, abundance was more variable at 10s of m. Consistent patterns were achieved using species and functional groups therefore, these may be a good species surrogate. Total carbon, salinity and silt/clay were the strongest correlated with macrobenthic assemblages. Results are valuable for design and interpretation of future monitoring programs including detection of anthropogenic disturbances in transitional systems and propose improvements in environmental variable sampling to refine the assessment of their relationship with biological data across spatial scales.

  20. Honor your father and your mother.

    PubMed

    Schuiling, G A

    2001-12-01

    While on the one hand there is much mutual love and care in the relationship between parents and their offspring, there may, on the other hand, be also much mutual 'sound and fury', which sometimes is far from 'signifying nothing' (William Shakespeare, Macbeth). Indeed, from conception on, individuals are confronted with parent-offspring conflicts of all kinds. Initially these conflicts concern physiological matters (implantation, nutrition, weaning, etc.), but later in life the accent is on psychological ('you must this', 'you must that', 'don't do that' etc.) and social affairs, and phenomena such as child abuse, infanticide and incest may occur. It is, therefore, certainly not self-evident that children honor their parents. To reinforce their position, parents (societies) may appeal to a 'divine' commandment which helps them make their children suppress any tendency to conflict toward them (and hence to their culture), so that children conform to their parents' norms and values. When such psychological and sociological parent-offspring conflicts are not resolved satisfactorily, it can be suggested, children may (consciously or unconsciously) have aggressive feelings toward their parents: Freud's 'Oedipus complex'. This complex, it is argued, can also be seen as a parent-offspring conflict. Given their biological basis, parent-offspring conflicts can hardly be considered as abnormal. Conflicts between adults and their offspring have always existed and will always exist, simply because it is inherent in our genetic make-up: parents and offspring of sexually reproducing species--humans included--are only about 50% genetically related and hence have different interests at all levels of being. Indeed, parent-offspring conflicts are such stuff as we are made on, and our little life is rounded with its consequences (adapted from William Shakespeare, The Tempest).

  1. Spatio-temporal variability in faunal assemblages surrounding the discharge of secondary treated sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wear, R. J.; Tanner, J. E.

    2007-07-01

    Macrofaunal assemblages inhabiting the intertidal zone surrounding an input of secondary treated effluent were sampled in order to determine how the pollution impact varied temporally and spatially. Assemblages varied along the pollution gradient formed by the Bolivar Wastewater Treatment Plant outfall in Gulf St Vincent, South Australia. While the abundance of some species did not vary, the abundance of juvenile western king prawns ( Melicertus latisulcatus) and blue crabs ( Portunus pelagicus) progressively decreased with proximity to the outfall. Species richness and diversity also decreased towards the outfall. An increase in nutrient content in the water adjacent to the outfall is likely to explain these changes. At distances of 4 and 5 km away, species diversity increased and the abundance of M. latisulcatus decreased, possibly due to a change in habitat from sand to seagrass. The occurrence of a storm prior to sampling on one occasion masked the effects of pollution and habitat changes. The results of this study suggest that the disposal of treated effluent into Gulf St Vincent is having a localised effect on the faunal assemblages surrounding the discharge point.

  2. Increased anthropogenic pressure decreases species richness in tropical intertidal reefs.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Adriana Brizon; Carvalho, Fabrício Lopes; de Macedo Carneiro, Pedro Bastos; Rossi, Sergio; de Oliveira Soares, Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    Multiple human stressors affect tropical intertidal sandstone reefs, but little is known about their biodiversity and the environmental impacts of these stressors. In the present study, multiple anthropogenic pressures were integrated using the relative environmental pressure index (REPI) and related to benthic community structure across an intertidal gradient in five sandstone reefs in the tropical South Atlantic coast. Greater species richness and diversity were noted in the low intertidal zones. There was a negative relationship between REPI and species richness, suggesting that increasing anthropogenic pressure has decreased benthic richness. The factors associated with the loss of richness were jetties built to control erosion, urban areas, beachfront kiosks and restaurants, fish markets, and storm sewers with illegal sewage connections. Our results highlight the need for better infrastructure planning and rigorous monitoring of coastal urban areas, since the large influence of multiple human pressures in these reefs leads to biodiversity losses.

  3. Feeding behaviour of an intertidal snail: Does past environmental stress affect predator choices and prey vulnerability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestoso, Ignacio; Arenas, Francisco; Olabarria, Celia

    2015-03-01

    Predation is one of the most important factors in determining structure and dynamics of communities on intertidal rocky shores. Such regulatory role may be of special relevance in novel communities resulting from biological invasions. Non-indigenous species frequently escape natural predators that limit their distribution and abundance in the native range. However, biological interactions also can limit the establishment and spread of non-native populations. There is a growing concern that climate change might affect predator-prey interactions exacerbating the ecological impacts of non-indigenous species. However, mechanisms underlying such interactions are poorly understood in marine ecosystems. Here, we explored if past environmental stress, i.e., increasing temperature and decreasing pH, could affect the vulnerability of two mussel prey, the native Mytilus galloprovincialis and the non-indigenous Xenostrobus securis, to predation by the native dogwhelk Nucella lapillus. In addition, we evaluated the consequences on the feeding behaviour of N. lapillus. First, we exposed monospecific assemblages of each mussel species to combined experimental conditions of increasing temperature and decreasing pH in mesocosms for 3 weeks. Then assemblages were placed on a rocky shore and were enclosed in cages with dogwhelks where they remained for 3 weeks. Despite the lack of preference, consumption was much greater on the native than on the invasive mussels, which barely were consumed by dogwhelks. However, this trend was diverted when temperature increased. Thus, under a coastal warming scenario shifts in dogwhelks feeding behaviour may help to contain invader's populations, especially in estuarine areas where these predators are abundant.

  4. Denitrification in San Francisco Bay intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Umberger, Cindy; Culbertson, Charles W.; Smith, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The acetylene block technique was employed to study denitrification in intertidal estuarine sediments. Addition of nitrate to sediment slurries stimulated denitrification. During the dry season, sediment-slurry denitrification rates displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and ambient NO3− + NO2− concentrations (≤26 μM) were below the apparent Km (50 μM) for nitrate. During the rainy season, when ambient NO3− + NO2− concentrations were higher (37 to 89 μM), an accurate estimate of the Km could not be obtained. Endogenous denitrification activity was confined to the upper 3 cm of the sediment column. However, the addition of nitrate to deeper sediments demonstrated immediate N2O production, and potential activity existed at all depths sampled (the deepest was 15 cm). Loss of N2O in the presence of C2H2 was sometimes observed during these short-term sediment incubations. Experiments with sediment slurries and washed cell suspensions of a marine pseudomonad confirmed that this N2O loss was caused by incomplete blockage of N2O reductase by C2H2 at low nitrate concentrations. Areal estimates of denitrification (in the absence of added nitrate) ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 μmol of N2 m−2 h−1 (for undisturbed sediments) to 17 to 280 μmol of N2 m−2 h−1 (for shaken sediment slurries).

  5. Denitrification in San Francisco Bay intertidal sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Oremland, R.S.; Umberger, C.; Culbertson, C.W.; Smith, R.L.

    1984-05-01

    The acetylene block technique was employed to study denitrification in intertidal estuarine sediments. Addition of nitrate to sediment slurries stimulated denitrification. During the dry season, sediment-slurry denitrification rates displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and ambient NO/sub 3//sup -/ + NO/sub 2//sup -/ concentrations (less than or equal to26 ..mu..M) were below the apparent K/sub m/ (50 ..mu..M) for nitrate. During the rainy season, when ambient NO/sub 3//sup -/ + NO/sub 2//sup -/ concentrations were higher (37 to 89 ..mu..M), an accurate estimate of the K/sub m/ could not be obtained. Endogenous denitrification activity was confined to the upper 3 cm of the sediment column. However, the addition of nitrate to deeper sediments demonstrated immediate N/sub 2/O production, and potential activity existed at all depths sampled (the deepest was 15 cm). Loss of N/sub 2/O in the presence of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ was sometimes observed during these short-term sediment incubations. Experiments with sediment slurries and washed cells suspensions of a marine pseudomonad confirmed that this N/sub 2/O loss was caused by incomplete blockage of N/sub 2/O reductase by C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ at low nitrate concentrations. Areal estimates of denitrification (in the absence of added nitrate) ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 ..mu..mol of N/sub 2/ m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ (for undisturbed sediments) to 17 to 280 ..mu..mol of N/sub 2/ m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ (for shaken sediment slurries). 32 references

  6. Climate change, parasitism and the structure of intertidal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Poulin, R; Mouritsen, K N

    2006-06-01

    Evidence is accumulating rapidly showing that temperature and other climatic variables are driving many ecological processes. At the same time, recent research has highlighted the role of parasitism in the dynamics of animal populations and the structure of animal communities. Here, the likely interactions between climate change and parasitism are discussed in the context of intertidal ecosystems. Firstly, using the soft-sediment intertidal communities of Otago Harbour, New Zealand, as a case study, parasites are shown to be ubiquitous components of intertidal communities, found in practically all major animal species in the system. With the help of specific examples from Otago Harbour, it is demonstrated that parasites can regulate host population density, influence the diversity of the entire benthic community, and affect the structure of the intertidal food web. Secondly, we document the extreme sensitivity of cercarial production in parasitic trematodes to increases in temperature, and discuss how global warming could lead to enhanced trematode infections. Thirdly, the results of a simulation model are used to argue that parasite-mediated local extinctions of intertidal animals are a likely outcome of global warming. Specifically, the model predicts that following a temperature increase of less than 4 degrees C, populations of the amphipod Corophium volutator, a hugely abundant tube-building amphipod on the mudflats of the Danish Wadden Sea, are likely to crash repeatedly due to mortality induced by microphallid trematodes. The available evidence indicates that climate-mediated changes in local parasite abundance will have significant repercussions for intertidal ecosystems. On the bright side, the marked effects of even slight increases in temperature on cercarial production in trematodes could form the basis for monitoring programmes, with these sensitive parasites providing early warning signals of the environmental impacts of global warming.

  7. Honors biomedical instrumentation--a course model for accelerated design.

    PubMed

    Madhok, Jai; Smith, Ryan J; Thakor, Nitish V

    2009-01-01

    A model for a 16-week Biomedical Instrumentation course is outlined. The course is modeled in such a way that students learn about medical devices and instrumentation through lecture and laboratory sessions while also learning basic design principles. Course material covers a broad range of topics from fundamentals of sensors and instrumentation, guided laboratory design experiments, design projects, and eventual protection of intellectual property, regulatory considerations, and entry into the commercial market. Students eventually complete two design projects in the form of a 'Challenge' design project as well as an 'Honors' design project. Sample problems students solve during the Challenge project and examples of past Honors projects from the course are highlighted.

  8. Microhabitat resource use, activity patterns, and episodic catastrophe: Conus on tropical intertidal reef rock benches

    SciTech Connect

    Leviten, P.J.; Kohn, A.J.

    1980-03-01

    Low species richness (five to nine species) and high population density (means of 0.2-8.6 individuals per square metre) characterize Conus assemblages on intertidal benches throughout the tropical Indo-West Pacific region. Data from 16 such habitats in Hawaii, Marshall Islands, Australia, Maldives, and Seychelles indicate that similarity of microhabitats between species is equal to or greater than random expectation. Significant between-species differences in zonation pattern occur across benches at a given time and place. The peak of C. ebraeus abundance typically occurs closest to shore; C. chaldaeus and C. sponsalis are usually most distant from shore. However, we found about as many significant within-species differences between censuses made at different times on the same bench as between-species differences within censuses. Co-occurring species thus tend not to use microhabitat resources differentially. Physical environmental variables including tide level, strength of water flow and time of day determine refuging and foraging activity patterns, and all species apear to respond similarly to these factors. The data thus do not support the hypothesis of temporal resource partitioning. We found evidence neither for homing, as mark-recapture results suggested that individuals occupy any convenient refuge after foraging, nor for interference competition for protected sites among Conus. Conus species diversity is significantly correlated with (1) substrate topographic diversity measured either independently or as the diversity of microhabitats utilized by all species together, and (2) the proportion of individuals occupying protected sites.

  9. Temperate bioerosion: ichnodiversity and biodiversity from intertidal to bathyal depths (Azores).

    PubMed

    Wisshak, M; Tribollet, A; Golubic, S; Jakobsen, J; Freiwald, A

    2011-11-01

    In the temperate Azores carbonate factory, a substantial fraction of the calcareous skeletal components is recycled by a remarkable biodiversity of biota producing bioerosion traces (incipient trace fossils). To study this biodiversity, experimental carbonate substrates were exposed to colonisation by epilithic and endolithic organisms along a bathymetrical gradient from 0 to 500 m depth, during 1 and 2 years of exposure. The overall bioerosion ichnodiversity is very high and comprises 56 ichnotaxa and ichnoforms attributed to cyanobacteria, chlorophytes, fungi, other micro-chemotrophs, macroborers, grazers and epilithic attachment scars. In the intertidal, hydrodynamic force, partial emersion and strong temperature fluctuations lead to the lowest ichnospecies richness. This contrasts with the highest ichnodiversity found at 15 m under the most favourable environmental conditions. Towards aphotic depths, a gradual depletion in ichnodiversity is observed, most probably because of the restricted light availability and a slowdown in ichnocoenosis development. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM), in combination with non-metrical multidimensional scaling (NMDS), was used to highlight variability in the relative abundance of traces among depths, substrate orientations and exposure times. Ichnodiversity and abundance of traces decrease significantly with depth and are higher on up-facing versus down-facing substrates, whereas differences between years were not as pronounced. This study demonstrates that statistical methods of biodiversity analysis are not per se restricted to biotaxa but may well be applied also to ichnotaxa. In the analysis of trace fossil assemblages, this approach supports the recognition of diversity patterns and their relation to environmental gradients.

  10. Temporal windows of reproductive opportunity reinforce species barriers in a marine broadcast spawning assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Carla A.; Paulino, Cristina; Jacinto, Rita; Serrão, Ester A.; Pearson, Gareth A.

    2016-01-01

    Prezygotic isolating mechanisms act to limit hybridization and maintain the genetic identity of closely-related species. While synchronous intraspecific spawning is a common phenomenon amongst marine organisms and plays an important role in reproductive success, asynchronous spawning between potentially hybridizing lineages may also be important in maintaining species boundaries. We tested this hypothesis by comparing reproductive synchrony over daily to hourly timescales in a sympatric assemblage of intertidal fucoid algae containing selfing hermaphroditic (Fucus spiralis and Fucus guiryi) and dioecious (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus) species. Our results confirm that gametes are released on semi-lunar cycles in all species. However, sister species with different mating systems showed asynchronous spawning at finer circadian timescales, thus providing evidence for a partial reproductive barrier between hermaphroditic and dioecious species. Finally, our data also emphasize the ecological, developmental, and/or physiological constraints that operate to restrict reproduction to narrow temporal windows of opportunity in the intertidal zone and more generally the role of ecological factors in marine speciation. PMID:27373816

  11. 34 CFR 654.1 - What is the Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ROBERT C. BYRD HONORS SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM General § 654.1 What is the Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program? Under the Robert C. Byrd...

  12. 34 CFR 654.1 - What is the Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ROBERT C. BYRD HONORS SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM General § 654.1 What is the Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program? Under the Robert C. Byrd...

  13. 34 CFR 654.1 - What is the Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ROBERT C. BYRD HONORS SCHOLARSHIP PROGRAM General § 654.1 What is the Robert C. Byrd Honors Scholarship Program? Under the Robert C. Byrd...

  14. Committed to the Honor Code: An Investment Model Analysis of Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Emily L.; Emery, Lydia F.; Le, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Educators worldwide face challenges surrounding academic integrity. The development of honor codes can promote academic integrity, but understanding how and why honor codes affect behavior is critical to their successful implementation. To date, research has not examined how students' "relationship" to an honor code predicts…

  15. Variability and Similarity in Honors Curricula across Institution Size and Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cognard-Black, Andrew J.; Savage, Hallie

    2016-01-01

    When a well-developed honors curriculum is paired with co-curricular opportunities, it serves to distinguish an institution's honors education. Together, these curricular and co-curricular experiences are described as best practices in the National Collegiate Honors Council's (NCHC's) "Basic Characteristics of a Fully Developed Honors…

  16. Tidal flat molluscan life and death assemblages from the Persian (Arabian) Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.; Albano, Paolo G.; Harzhauser, Mathias; Piller, Werner E.; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The comparison of life assemblages (LAs) and death assemblages (DAs) of marine invertebrate fauna is of great importance to analyze how accurately fossil assemblages provide information on the original living communities. Furthermore, since death assemblages are originated by accumulation and preservation of dead shells subjected to time averaging, they can also be used to describe the biodiversity of an area with less sampling effort than that required in surveys focused exclusively on LAs. The current note presents an overview of our study on molluscan LAs and DAs from the Persian Gulf, a shallow sea situated in the northwestern part of the tropical Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province. The study of a subtropical fauna is especially interesting, because most of the research on this subject has been conducted in temperate regions. In particular, our samples were retrieved from tidal flat settings, which undergo high temporal variations as regards salinity, oxygen content and temperature. Samples were collected from two localities in Dubai. Seven samples were taken from stations which cover different sub-environments: upper intertidal (close to the algal mat zone), tidal flat in the proximity of a major channel, tidal channel, outer tidal flat, "beachrock" surface in the upper intertidal, and a tidal flat close to Avicennia shrubs (mangrove). Environmental parameters such as salinity, pH, and temperature of air and water, have been recorded. The samples consist of bulks of the uppermost 1-3 cm of sediment at the interface with sea water to avoid subfossil material as far as possible. The shell fraction > 1 mm has been sorted and segregated into morphospecies, and identified to species level whenever possible. Over 1000 specimens have been counted per sample. We found, as in many other studies that most of the specimens belong to the DA. In this sample, however, there is still a good match between the DA and the LA. The most important taxa are the gastropods

  17. Impacts of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on macrobenthic assemblages on sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Richardson, Darren; McLean, Ian

    2008-06-01

    Sandy beaches are the prime sites for human recreation and underpin many coastal economies and developments. In many coastal areas worldwide, beach recreation relies on the use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) driven on the shore. Yet, the use of ORVs is not universally embraced due to social conflicts with other beach user groups and putative environmental consequences of vehicle traffic on sandy shores. Such ecological impacts of ORVs are, however, poorly understood for endobenthic invertebrates of the intertidal zone seawards of the dunes. Consequently, this study quantified the degree to which assemblages of intertidal beach invertebrates are affected by traffic. The study design comprised a series of temporally replicated spatial contrasts between two reference sites (no ORVs) and two beaches with heavy ORV traffic (in excess of 250,000 vehicles per year) located in SouthEast Queensland, Australia. Macrobenthic assemblages on ORV-impacted beaches had significantly fewer species at substantially reduced densities, resulting in marked shifts in community composition and structure. These shifts were particularly strong on the middle and upper shore where vehicle traffic was concentrated. Strong effects of ORVs were detectable in all seasons, but increased towards the summer months as a result of heavier traffic volumes. This study provides clear evidence that ORVs can have substantial impacts on sandy beach invertebrates that are manifested throughout the whole community. Demonstrating such an ecological impact caused by a single type of human use poses a formidable challenge to management, which needs to develop multi-faceted approaches to balance environmental, social, cultural, and economic arguments in the use of sandy shores, including management of "beach traffic."

  18. Adaptation of intertidal biofilm communities is driven by metal ion and oxidative stresses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Tian, Renmao; Cao, Huiluo; Gao, Zhaoming; Li, Yongxin; Yu, Li; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Marine organisms in intertidal zones are subjected to periodical fluctuations and wave activities. To understand how microbes in intertidal biofilms adapt to the stresses, the microbial metagenomes of biofilms from intertidal and subtidal zones were compared. The genes responsible for resistance to metal ion and oxidative stresses were enriched in both 6-day and 12-day intertidal biofilms, including genes associated with secondary metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, signal transduction and extracellular polymeric substance metabolism. In addition, these genes were more enriched in 12-day than 6-day intertidal biofilms. We hypothesize that a complex signaling network is used for stress tolerance and propose a model illustrating the relationships between these functions and environmental metal ion concentrations and oxidative stresses. These findings show that bacteria use diverse mechanisms to adapt to intertidal zones and indicate that the community structures of intertidal biofilms are modulated by metal ion and oxidative stresses. PMID:24212283

  19. Adaptation of intertidal biofilm communities is driven by metal ion and oxidative stresses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weipeng; Wang, Yong; Lee, On On; Tian, Renmao; Cao, Huiluo; Gao, Zhaoming; Li, Yongxin; Yu, Li; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-11-11

    Marine organisms in intertidal zones are subjected to periodical fluctuations and wave activities. To understand how microbes in intertidal biofilms adapt to the stresses, the microbial metagenomes of biofilms from intertidal and subtidal zones were compared. The genes responsible for resistance to metal ion and oxidative stresses were enriched in both 6-day and 12-day intertidal biofilms, including genes associated with secondary metabolism, inorganic ion transport and metabolism, signal transduction and extracellular polymeric substance metabolism. In addition, these genes were more enriched in 12-day than 6-day intertidal biofilms. We hypothesize that a complex signaling network is used for stress tolerance and propose a model illustrating the relationships between these functions and environmental metal ion concentrations and oxidative stresses. These findings show that bacteria use diverse mechanisms to adapt to intertidal zones and indicate that the community structures of intertidal biofilms are modulated by metal ion and oxidative stresses.

  20. [Spatial and biogeographic characterization of macroalgal assemblages from Bahía del Rincón, Baja California Sur, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Riosmena-Rodríguez, R; Hinojosa-Arango, G; López-Vivas, J M; León-Cisneros, K; Holguin-Acosta, E

    2005-01-01

    Macroalgal studies in Baja California Sur have dealt mainly with occurrence and seasonality, but some areas are poorly known even for these basic data. Bahia del Rincón-La Rivera is an important high-productivity fisheries area where coastal infrastructure development is under way. A spatial characterization of the marine flora from Bahia del Rincón-La Rivera was done by intensive sampling at different depths and localities with skin and SCUBA diving. At least 500 m2 were surveyed in each site. Additionally. quantitative sampling was done in ten random 25 cm2 quadrates per site. In the intertidal section, density and cover estimates were used. We also investigated the historical records and geographical affinities. A total of 72 species were identified (most were red algae: 62%). We found no general trend in the biogeographical affinities, which varied with each taxonomic group. Most brown algae species were tropical-endemic; red algae temperate-cosmopolite and green algae tropical-cosmopolite. In the spatial assemblage structure we found a high similarity between the intertidal areas, but a low similarity in shallow or deeper areas (3-5 m). This pattern was the same when we compared the abundance of the main species. We suggest that there are significant spatial differences in recruitment and development of the assemblages in relation to vertical distribution (depth) and position along the shore. There is a clear-cut Gelidium-Jania belt in the intertidal zone and a Padina-Dictyota belt below the low tide. Sporadic and year-round species occur in the intertidal zone, annual and perennial species below the low tide line. Sites differ in recruitment and this affects the abundance of other species (such as coraline and Caulerpa species). Temperature and sedimentation affect seasonality, but community structure is relatively constant throughout the year.

  1. Tidal pumping facilitates dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal marshes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Liu, Zhanfei; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-01-01

    Intertidal marshes are alternately exposed and submerged due to periodic ebb and flood tides. The tidal cycle is important in controlling the biogeochemical processes of these ecosystems. Intertidal sediments are important hotspots of dissimilatory nitrate reduction and interacting nitrogen cycling microorganisms, but the effect of tides on dissimilatory nitrate reduction, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, remains unexplored in these habitats. Here, we use isotope-tracing and molecular approaches simultaneously to show that both nitrate-reduction activities and associated functional bacterial abundances are enhanced at the sediment-tidal water interface and at the tide-induced groundwater fluctuating layer. This pattern suggests that tidal pumping may sustain dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal zones. The tidal effect is supported further by nutrient profiles, fluctuations in nitrogen components over flood-ebb tidal cycles, and tidal simulation experiments. This study demonstrates the importance of tides in regulating the dynamics of dissimilatory nitrate-reducing pathways and thus provides new insights into the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and other elements in intertidal marshes. PMID:26883983

  2. Numerical study on inter-tidal transports in coastal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xinyan; Jiang, Wensheng; Zhang, Ping; Feng, Shizuo

    2016-06-01

    Inter-tidal (subtidal) transport processes in coastal sea depend on the residual motion, turbulent dispersion and relevant sources/sinks. In Feng et al. (2008), an updated Lagrangian inter-tidal transport equation, as well as new concept of Lagrangian inter-tidal concentration (LIC), has been proposed for a general nonlinear shallow water system. In the present study, the LIC is numerically applied for the first time to passive tracers in idealized settings and salinity in the Bohai Sea, China. Circulation and tracer motion in the three idealized model seas with different topography or coastline, termed as `flat-bottom', `stairs' and `cape' case, respectively, are simulated. The dependence of the LIC on initial tidal phase suggests that the nonlinearities in the stairs and cape cases are stronger than that in the flat-bottom case. Therefore, the `flat-bottom' case still meets the convectively weakly nonlinear condition. For the Bohai Sea, the simulation results show that most parts of it still meet the weakly nonlinear condition. However, the dependence of the LIS (Lagrangian inter-tidal salinity) on initial tidal phase is significant around the southern headland of the Liaodong Peninsula and near the mouth of the Yellow River. The nonlinearity in the former region is mainly related to the complicated coastlines, and that in the latter region is due to the presence of the estuarine salinity front.

  3. Phylogeography and historical ecology of the North Atlantic intertidal.

    PubMed

    Wares, J P; Cunningham, C W

    2001-12-01

    Recent glaciation covered the full extent of rocky intertidal habitat along the coasts of New England and the Canadian Maritimes. To test whether this glaciation in fact caused wholesale extinction of obligate rocky intertidal invertebrates, and thus required a recolonization from Europe, we compared American and European populations using allelic diversity and techniques adapted from coalescent theory. Mitochondrial DNA sequences were collected from amphi-Atlantic populations of three cold-temperate obligate rocky intertidal species (a barnacle, Semibalanus balanoides, and two gastropods, Nucella lapillus and Littorina obtusata) and three cold-temperate habitat generalist species (a seastar, Asterias rubens; a mussel, Mytilus edulis, and an isopod, Idotea balthica). For many of these species we were able to estimate the lineage-specific mutation rate based on trans-Arctic divergences between Pacific and Atlantic taxa. These data indicate that some obligate rocky intertidal taxa have colonized New England from European populations. However, the patterns of persistence in North America indicate that other life-history traits, including mech anisms of dispersal, may be more important for surviving dramatic environmental and climatic change.

  4. Tidal pumping facilitates dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Liu, Zhanfei; Li, Xiaofei; Lin, Xianbiao; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong; Jiang, Xiaofen

    2016-02-01

    Intertidal marshes are alternately exposed and submerged due to periodic ebb and flood tides. The tidal cycle is important in controlling the biogeochemical processes of these ecosystems. Intertidal sediments are important hotspots of dissimilatory nitrate reduction and interacting nitrogen cycling microorganisms, but the effect of tides on dissimilatory nitrate reduction, including denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, remains unexplored in these habitats. Here, we use isotope-tracing and molecular approaches simultaneously to show that both nitrate-reduction activities and associated functional bacterial abundances are enhanced at the sediment-tidal water interface and at the tide-induced groundwater fluctuating layer. This pattern suggests that tidal pumping may sustain dissimilatory nitrate reduction in intertidal zones. The tidal effect is supported further by nutrient profiles, fluctuations in nitrogen components over flood-ebb tidal cycles, and tidal simulation experiments. This study demonstrates the importance of tides in regulating the dynamics of dissimilatory nitrate-reducing pathways and thus provides new insights into the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and other elements in intertidal marshes.

  5. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast GIS data repository to estimate percent change in the area of rocky intertidal habitat in 10 cm increments with eustatic sea level rise. The analysis was conducted at the scale of the four Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) ecoregions located along the continental west coast of the United States (CONUS). Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map data were used to identify rocky shoreline. Such stretches of shoreline were extracted for each of the four ecoregions and buffered by 100 m to include the intertidal and evaluate the potential area for upland habitat migration. All available LiDAR topobathy DEMs from Digital Coast were extracted using the resulting polygons and two rasters were synthesized from the results, a 10 cm increment zone raster and a non-planimetric surface area raster for zonal summation. Current rocky intertidal non-planimetric surface areas for each ecoregion were computed between Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) and Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) levels established from published datum sheets for tidal stations central to each MEOW ecoregion. Percent change in non-planimetric surface area for the same relative ranges were calculated in 10 cm incremental steps of eustatic S

  6. EPA Honors U.S. Virgin Islands Environmental Champions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (New York, N.Y. - April 24, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced that it has honored three individuals and organizations from across the U.S. Virgin Islands with Environmental Champion Awards for their achievements in protecting p

  7. Benjamin Banneker Honors College: Gateway to Scientific and Technical Doctorates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Elaine P.

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates the prominent role that historically Black institutions, such as Prairie View A & M University, play in Black progress in higher education. Programs like the Banneker Honors College of Prairie View can expand Black participation as researchers and practitioners in a highly technical society while also increasing the Black…

  8. Nontraditional Honors and the Hopefulness of Summer Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Angela M.

    2013-01-01

    Having read the essay on "Nontraditional Honors" by Janice Rye Kinghorn and Whitney Womack Smith, author Angela Salas writes that it offered her reminders about the fears and insecurities students carry with them. It also offered Salas the opportunity to reconsider the behaviors she was seeing in her class. She grew to see student…

  9. An Honors Interdisciplinary Community-Based Research Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, David; Terlecki, Melissa; Watterson, Nancy; Ratmansky, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how two faculty members at Cabrini College--one from biology and the other from psychology--incorporated interdisciplinary community-based research in an honors course on environmental watershed issues. The course, Environmental Psychology, was team-taught in partnership with a local watershed organization, the Valley Creek…

  10. An Honors Koan: Selling Water by the River

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portnoy, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Since Jerry Herron begins his forum essay, "Notes toward an Excellent Marxist-Elitist Honors Admissions Policy," with his anecdotal True Genealogical Confessions, Jeffery Portnoy, writes here that he feels feel obligated to begin in a similar mode. One side of Portnoy's family was in the real estate business in St. Louis, and the other…

  11. DPyC Medal Award in Honor of Matias Moreno

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Manuel

    2009-04-20

    The 2008 DPyC Medal Award has been granted jointly to Matias Moreno and Miguel Angel Perez Angon. It is an honor for me to give here a brief account of Matias' achievements in the field of high energy physics.

  12. Education Assessment: Honoring Ways of Knowing. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. WEEA Equity Resource Center.

    The March 2000 WEEA Digest contains two articles. The first, "Honoring Ways of Knowing" (A. Lin Goodwin) mentions that notions of "educational excellence" or "education for all" are too seldom actualized because such conversations often sidestep the reality of inequitable educational practices. Voluminous data exist that articulate how schools…

  13. Effective Teaching Strategies for Open Enrollment Honors and AP Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winebrenner, Susan

    2006-01-01

    A trend is emerging to open enrollment for honors and AP classes to all students who wish to take them. Teachers of these open enrollment classes may be facing several dilemmas. How can the high standards and academic rigor of the course be maintained? How can students who struggle to learn be supported in their endeavors to keep up with the…

  14. Japan Honors America. Six Librarians Cited for Meritorious Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Theodore F.

    This report profiles American librarians who have been honored by the Japanese government for their contributions to Japanese well-being, in line with a century-old program of recognition of its own citizenry, i.e., the conferring of medals, or kunsho, by the government on foreigners who have rendered illustrious, eminent, and distinguished…

  15. Hommage a Rene Jeanneret (Festschrift in Honor of Rene Jeanneret).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travaux Neuchatelois de Linguistique (TRANEL), 1992

    1992-01-01

    This festschrift in honor of Rene Jeanneret, administrator of the Center for Applied Linguistics at Neuchatel University (Switzerland), contains the following papers (all papers are written in French with two exceptions): "A Walk with Rene Jeanneret Through the Garden of Applied Linguistics"; "--Thank You.--No Thank You!";…

  16. Laboratories for Educational Innovation: Honors Programs in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Marca V. C.; Van Eijl, Pierre; Pilot, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In Dutch universities, honors programs are a fast growing development. The first such programs started in 1993. Twenty years later a large number of programs are implemented at nearly all research universities and also at many universities of applied sciences in the Netherlands. Recent data have revealed significant diversity in the types and…

  17. Honors and the Humanities: Necessary as Air and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salas, Angela Marie

    2015-01-01

    In a cultural environment that maintains that post-secondary education ought to produce job ready graduates, the importance of the liberal arts and the competencies they teach, along with the questions they engage, often comes up for debate. In such a culture, honors may appear frivolous, elitist, and rear-guard. Angela Marie Salas defends both…

  18. Expanding an Honors Program in the Midst of Institution Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Bonita C.

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of higher learning have been facing budget constrictions throughout the country, leading to consolidations and cutbacks. Administrators often have to make hard choices about what programs to eliminate or cut back, but one program that is not on the table at the University of North Georgia is the honors program. The university is…

  19. Against Teleology in an Honors Great Books Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlan-Haughey, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Chronologically presented courses that span centuries often catalyze unwitting buy-in to unexamined narratives of progress. While useful for helping students make connections between the human past, present, and future, Great Books honors curricula like the one used at the University of Maine have a few inherent problems that require careful…

  20. Codes, Ciphers, and Cryptography--An Honors Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    At the suggestion of a colleague, I read "The Code Book", [32], by Simon Singh to get a basic introduction to the RSA encryption scheme. Inspired by Singh's book, I designed a Ball State University Honors Colloquium in Mathematics for both majors and non-majors, with material coming from "The Code Book" and many other sources. This course became…

  1. Why Honors Is a Hard Sell in the Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelen-Eigles, Deborah; Milner, Janice Levinsohn

    2014-01-01

    At the college president's request and after attending the 2013 NCHC conference in New Orleans, the authors developed a comprehensive honors program framework and spent the spring semester of 2014 sharing it with units across the college for discussion and feedback. The response was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the many benefits of this…

  2. 38 CFR 3.802 - Medal of Honor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Medal of Honor. 3.802 Section 3.802 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... Secretary of the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Air Force, or...

  3. 38 CFR 3.802 - Medal of Honor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medal of Honor. 3.802 Section 3.802 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... Secretary of the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Air Force, or...

  4. 38 CFR 3.802 - Medal of Honor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Medal of Honor. 3.802 Section 3.802 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... Secretary of the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Air Force, or...

  5. 38 CFR 3.802 - Medal of Honor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Medal of Honor. 3.802 Section 3.802 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... Secretary of the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Air Force, or...

  6. 38 CFR 3.802 - Medal of Honor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Medal of Honor. 3.802 Section 3.802 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension... Secretary of the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Air Force, or...

  7. The Impact of Honors on the Campus Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Larry

    2015-01-01

    The development of an honors program at Rogers State University a decade ago brought about significant positive changes to the campus, where more than three-quarters of the students are the first in their families to attend college. Throughout the years, these young scholars have elevated academic discourse across campus and delivered an impact…

  8. Exploratory Honors Students: Academic Major and Career Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carduner, Jessie; Padak, Gary M.; Reynolds, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we investigated the academic major and career decision-making processes of honors college students who were declared as "exploratory" students in their freshman year at a large, public, midwestern university. We used semistandardized interviews and document analysis as primary data collection methods to answer…

  9. 5 CFR 582.305 - Honoring legal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Honoring legal process. 582.305 Section 582.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL... automatic stay provision, section 362(a) of title 11. Upon filing a petition in bankruptcy or upon...

  10. Teaching a Non-Traditional, Honors Anthropology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Sharlotte

    An undergraduate "Anthropology Through Science Fiction" honors course is described. Participation in the course was by invitation only and included both anthropology and non-anthropology majors. By using science fiction, non-anthropology students quickly became familiar with weekly topics and anthropology majors found the readings a new way to…

  11. Thinking and Rethinking: The Practical Value of an Honors Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, James

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how James Herbert's career transition to working on the Educational EQuality Project for the College Board and the National Endowment for the Humanities confirmed his belief that a liberal education in honors was good preparation for life. He proposes that his work experience may be illuminating to those who are now…

  12. Mentors, Muses, and Mutuality: Honoring Barbara Snell Dohrenwend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Anne

    2012-01-01

    I describe feminist community psychology principles that have the potential to expand and enrich mentoring and that honor Barbara Snell Dohrenwend, a leader who contributed to the research, theory, and profession of community psychology. I reflect on the affect that Barbara Dohrenwend had on life and on the development of feminist community…

  13. Celebrating and Honoring Teachers and the Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Karen

    2008-01-01

    On April 30, 2008, at the White House Rose Garden, President Bush announced that Michael Geisen, a middle school 7th-grade science teacher from Prineville, Oregon, would be the recipient of the 2008 National Teacher of the Year honor. The National Teacher of the Year is selected by a National Selection Committee, which consists of 15 major…

  14. Honors Futures Course: Orwell's "1984"--Myth or Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Barbara

    An overview is provided of an honors futures course offered at Isothermal Community College and entitled "Orwell's '1984': Myth or Reality." The paper traces the sequence of class activities, discussion topics, and student assignments for the 11-week course. The following issues are discussed, both within and outside of the context of…

  15. An American Honors Program in the Arab Gulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yyelland, Byrad

    2012-01-01

    The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…

  16. AASA Honors Leaders in Staff Development, Educational Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Administrator, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The 1990-91 AASA/National Staff Development Council Award for Outstanding Achievement in Professional Development went to Hattiesburg (Mississippi) Public Schools. Top educational research honors went to graduate student Dianne E. Ashby, for an HIV project at Illinois State University, and educational psychologist Lou Ann S. Dickson, for a project…

  17. Honors in Chile: New Engagements in the Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…

  18. Community Building at Honors Programs in Continental Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkel, Nico; van Rees, Floris; Ruis, Margit; Sloots, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Many universities in the United States and Europe offer honors programs to meet the demands of gifted and intelligent students. One of the standard goals of these programs is to build an intellectual learning community. Establishing a community can be difficult because it requires that students show an active attitude and initiative. Many…

  19. Communicating about Sexuality: An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Honors Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rozema, Hazel J.

    A course in the honors program (a sophomore level social science seminar) at Millikin University offers an interdisciplinary approach to communication and sexuality, functions as a course in the Gender Studies Minor curriculum, and provides a needed source of sex education for the campus. The purpose of the course is to facilitate communication…

  20. Honors Workshop for Middle School Science Teachers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisner, Gerald W.; Lee, Ernest W.

    The Honors Workshop for Middle School Science Teachers was designed to address teachers' conceptual understanding of basic scientific principles, student misconceptions and how to deal with them, and observation and measurement techniques. For 4 weeks in summer and on 6 Saturdays during 2 academic years, 30 leaders among science teachers from the…

  1. SIMULATING FISH ASSEMBLAGE DYNAMICS IN RIVER NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    My recently retired colleague, Joan Baker, and I have developed a prototype computer simulation model for studying the effects of human and non-human alterations of habitats and species availability on fish assemblage populations. The fish assemblage model, written in R, is a sp...

  2. To Participate or Not to Participate: The Perceptions of Gifted Students regarding an Honors Program at a Private Southeastern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Gerri Ann

    2010-01-01

    The number of students who become completers of an honors program on college campuses is low. A mixed methods approach was utilized to determine the perceptions of gifted students regarding an honors program at a private, Southeastern university. Students who were honors program participants, honors program drop-outs, and qualified…

  3. American Astronomical Society Honors NRAO Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    The American Astronomical Society (AAS) has awarded its prestigious George Van Biesbroeck Prize to Dr. Eric Greisen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico. The society cited Greisen's quarter-century as "principal architect and tireless custodian" of the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), a massive software package used by astronomers around the world, as "an invaluable service to astronomy." Dr. Eric Greisen Dr. Eric Greisen CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version) The Van Biesbroeck Prize "honors a living individual for long-term extraordinary or unselfish service to astronomy, often beyond the requirements of his or her paid position." The AAS, with about 7,000 members, is the major organization of professional astronomers in North America. " The Very Large Array (VLA) is the most productive ground-based telescope in the history of astronomy, and most of the more than 10,000 observing projects on the VLA have depended upon the AIPS software to produce their scientific results," said Dr. James Ulvestad, NRAO's Director of New Mexico Operations. "This same software package also has been the principal tool for scientists using the Very Long Baseline Array and numerous other radio telescopes around the world," Ulvestad added. Greisen, who received a Ph.D in astronomy from the California Institute of Technology, joined the NRAO in 1972. He moved from the observatory's headquarters in Charlottesville, Virginia, to its Array Operations Center in Socorro in 2000. Greisen, who learned of the award in a telephone call from the AAS President, Dr. Robert Kirschner of Harvard University, said, "I'm pleased for the recognition of AIPS and also for the recognition of the contributions of radio astronomy to astronomy as a whole." He added that "it wasn't just me who did AIPS. There were many others." The AIPS software package grew out of the need for an efficient tool for producing images with the VLA, which was being

  4. Research Center Renaming Will Honor Senator Domenici

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    New Mexico Tech and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) will rename the observatory's research center on the New Mexico Tech campus to honor retiring U.S. Senator Pete V. Domenici in a ceremony on May 30. The building that serves as the scientific, technical, and administrative center for the Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescopes will be named the "Pete V. Domenici Science Operations Center." The building previously was known simply as the "Array Operations Center." Sen. Pete V. Domenici Sen. Pete V. Domenici "The new name recognizes the strong and effective support for science that has been a hallmark of Senator Domenici's long career in public service," said Dr. Fred Lo, NRAO Director. New Mexico Tech President Daniel H. Lopez said Sen. Domenici has always been a supporter of science and research in Socorro and throughout the state. "He's been a statesman for New Mexico, the nation -- and without exaggeration -- for the world," Lopez said. "Anyone with that track record deserves this recognition." Van Romero, Tech vice president of research and economic development, has served as the university's main lobbyist in Washington, D.C., for more than a decade. He said Sen. Domenici has always been receptive to new ideas and willing to take risks. "Over the years, Sen. Domenici has always had time to listen to our needs and goals," Romero said. "He has served as a champion of New Mexico Tech's causes and we owe him a debt of gratitude for all his efforts over the decades." Originally dedicated in 1988, the center houses offices and laboratories that support VLA and VLBA operations. The center also supports work on the VLA modernization project and on the international Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project. Work on ALMA at the Socorro center and at the ALMA Test Facility at the VLA site west of Socorro has focused on developing and testing equipment to be deployed at the ALMA site in Chile's Atacama

  5. Molluscan assemblage from a tropical intertidal estuarine sand-mud flat, Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific, Costa Rica (1984-1987).

    PubMed

    Vargas-Zamora, José A; Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A

    2011-09-01

    The availability of data sets covering more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the identification of hidden data patterns. From February 1984 to April 1987 (49 sampling dates), core samples (17.7cm2, 15cm deep) were collected at low tide at a sand-mud flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific, Costa Rica. Predator exclusion experiments (cages 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2m, galvanized wire, mesh size 5mm), were conducted at the site in 1985 (dry and rainy seasons sets). Samples were preserved with 5% buffered formalin in sea water stained with Rose Bengal, and washed after 24 hours on a 500 micron mesh sieve. The 1 120 cores yielded a total of 112 morphological species of which the mollusks were represented by 23 species, and included the bivalves Tellina rubescens, Tagelus bourgeoisae, Dosinia dunkeri and Leukoma asperrima, and the gastropods, Natica unifasciata, Nassarius luteostomus, Costoanachis rugosa and Turbonilla sp. The 23 species are indicative of a relatively rich sedimentary molluscan fauna. T. bourgeoisae had a seasonal oscillation, with higher abundances during the rainy seasons. T. rubescens was not seasonal, but presented an oscillation with peaks at about 1.5 year intervals. Many empty shells of Cosmioconcha modesta, lower number of N. luteostomus and a few of T. rubescens were found with boreholes by the predatory snail N. unifasciata. T. rubescens was not significantly more abundant inside or outside cages. T. bourgeoisae showed a significant increase within the caged areas. The numerical fluctuations of the mollusks became more important during the rainy season of 1985. Red tide outbreaks in the Gulf of Nicoya in 1985 may have had an impact on the molluscan populations.

  6. The Value of SAT Scores and High School Grades in the Selection of Honors Program Candidates from the Perspective of Honors Students and Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roszkowski, Michael J.; Nigro, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Admission to honors programs is competitive and typically relies heavily on the applicant's high school grades and SAT scores. Research shows that of the two criteria, the stronger predictor of performance in an honors curriculum is the high school record, which would imply that grades should receive the greater emphasis. We surveyed current…

  7. Intertidal resource use over millennia enhances forest productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trant, Andrew J.; Nijland, Wiebe; Hoffman, Kira M.; Mathews, Darcy L.; McLaren, Duncan; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Starzomski, Brian M.

    2016-08-01

    Human occupation is usually associated with degraded landscapes but 13,000 years of repeated occupation by British Columbia's coastal First Nations has had the opposite effect, enhancing temperate rainforest productivity. This is particularly the case over the last 6,000 years when intensified intertidal shellfish usage resulted in the accumulation of substantial shell middens. We show that soils at habitation sites are higher in calcium and phosphorous. Both of these are limiting factors in coastal temperate rainforests. Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) trees growing on the middens were found to be taller, have higher wood calcium, greater radial growth and exhibit less top die-back. Coastal British Columbia is the first known example of long-term intertidal resource use enhancing forest productivity and we expect this pattern to occur at archaeological sites along coastlines globally.

  8. Marine biology, intertidal ecology, and a new place for biology.

    PubMed

    Benson, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    At the present time, there is considerable interest for the physical setting of science, that is, its actual 'place' of practice. Among historians of biology, place has been considered to be a crucial component for the study of ecology. Other historians have noted the 'built' environments (laboratories) for the study of biology along the seashore, even referring to these places in terms more applicable to vacation sites. In this paper, I examine the place of intertidal ecology investigations, both in terms of the physical space and the built space. Part of the examination will investigate the aesthetic aspect of the Pacific Coast, part will evaluate the unique character of the intertidal zone, and part will consider the construction of natural laboratories and built laboratories as characteristic places for biology.

  9. Intertidal resource use over millennia enhances forest productivity

    PubMed Central

    Trant, Andrew J.; Nijland, Wiebe; Hoffman, Kira M.; Mathews, Darcy L.; McLaren, Duncan; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Starzomski, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Human occupation is usually associated with degraded landscapes but 13,000 years of repeated occupation by British Columbia's coastal First Nations has had the opposite effect, enhancing temperate rainforest productivity. This is particularly the case over the last 6,000 years when intensified intertidal shellfish usage resulted in the accumulation of substantial shell middens. We show that soils at habitation sites are higher in calcium and phosphorous. Both of these are limiting factors in coastal temperate rainforests. Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) trees growing on the middens were found to be taller, have higher wood calcium, greater radial growth and exhibit less top die-back. Coastal British Columbia is the first known example of long-term intertidal resource use enhancing forest productivity and we expect this pattern to occur at archaeological sites along coastlines globally. PMID:27572157

  10. Career and Technology Center Honors Julie Hartman | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer On May 7, Julie Hartman was honored by the Frederick County Career and Technology Center (CTC) for her support of the CTC’s Biomedical Sciences Program. As an education program specialist for Outreach and Special Programs at NCI at Frederick, Hartman is responsible for NCI at Frederick’s participation in the program, which is designed to offer Frederick County high school students hands-on, practical laboratory experience beyond the typical classroom setting. 

  11. NASA honors Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Apollo 13 astronaut and Biloxi native Fred Haise Jr. was honored for a lifetime of achievement with NASA's Ambassador of Exploration Award during a Dec. 2 ceremony at Gorenflo Elementary School in Biloxi. Haise subsequently presented the moon rock award to Gorenflo for display at the school. Participating in the ceremony were (l to r): Gorenflo Principal Tina Thompson, NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, Haise, Biloxi Public School District Superintendent Paul Tisdale and Stennis Director Gene Goldman.

  12. Archean geotherms and supracrustal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, Kent C.

    1984-06-01

    Metamorphic mineral assemblages suggest the existence of variable geotherms and lithospheric thicknesses beneath late Archean continental crust. Archean granite-greenstone terranes reflect steep geotherms (50-70°C/km) while high-grade terranes reflect moderate geotherms similar to present continental crust with high heat flow (25-40°C/km). Corresponding lithosphere thicknesses for each terrane during the late Archean are 35-50 km and 50-75 km, respectively. Early Archean (⩾ 3.0 b.y.) greenstones differ from late Archean (˜ 2.7 b.y.) greenstones by the rarity or absence of andesite and graywacke and the relative abundance of pelite, quartzite, and komatiite. Mature clastic sediments in early greenstones reflect shallow-water, stable-basin deposition. Such rocks, together with granite-bearing conglomerate and felsic volcanics imply the existence of still older granitic source terranes. The absence or rarity of andesite in early greenstones reflects the absence of tectonic conditions in which basaltic and tonalitic magmas are modified to produce andesite. A model is presented in which early Archean greenstones form at the interface between tonalite islands and oceanic lithosphere, over convective downcurrents; high-grade supracrustals form on stable continental edges or interiors; and late Archean greenstones form in intracontinental rifts over mantle plumes.

  13. Delta-associated molluscan life and death assemblages in the northern Adriatic Sea: Implications for paleoecology, regional diversity and conservation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kristina; Zuschin, Martin

    2013-01-15

    Life-death (LD) studies of shelly macrofauna are important to evaluate how well a fossil assemblage can reflect the original living community, but can also serve as a proxy for recent ecological shifts in marine habitats and in practice this has to be distinguished using taphonomic preservation pattern and estimates of time-averaging. It remains to be rigorously evaluated, however, how to distinguish between sources of LD disagreement. In addition, death assemblages (DAs) also preserve important information on regional diversity which is not available from single censuses of the life assemblages (LAs). The northern Adriatic Sea is an ecosystem under anthropogenic pressure, and we studied the distribution and abundance of living and dead bivalve and gastropod species in the physically stressful environments (tidal flat and shallow sublittoral soft bottoms) associated with the delta of the Isonzo River (Gulf of Trieste). Specifically we evaluated the fidelity of richness, evenness, abundance, habitat discrimination and beta diversity. A total of 10,740 molluscs from fifteen tidal flat and fourteen sublittoral sites were analyzed for species composition and distribution of living and dead molluscs. Of 78 recorded species, only eleven were numerically abundant. There were many more dead than living individuals and rarefied species richness in the DA was higher at all spatial scales, but the differences are lower in habitats and in the region than at individual stations. Evenness was always higher in death assemblages, and probably due to temporally more variable LAs the differences are stronger in the sublittoral habitats. Distinct assemblages characterized intertidal and sublittoral habitats, and the distribution and abundance of empty shells generally corresponded to that of the living species. Death assemblages have lower beta diversity than life assemblages, but empty shells capture compositional differences between habitats to a higher degree than living shells

  14. Variable intertidal temperature explains why disease endangers black abalone.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water temperatures. We measured abalone body temperatures in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean temperature and daily temperature variability on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily temperature variability increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water temperatures and was independent of temperature variability. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water temperatures periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors.

  15. Variable intertidal temperature explains why disease endangers black abalone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological theory suggests that pathogens will not cause host extinctions because agents of disease should fade out when the host population is driven below a threshold density. Nevertheless, infectious diseases have threatened species with extinction on local scales by maintaining high incidence and the ability to spread efficiently even as host populations decline. Intertidal black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii), but not other abalone species, went extinct locally throughout much of southern California following the emergence of a Rickettsiales-like pathogen in the mid-1980s. The rickettsial disease, a condition known as withering syndrome (WS), and associated mortality occur at elevated water temperatures. We measured abalone body temperatures in the field and experimentally manipulated intertidal environmental conditions in the laboratory, testing the influence of mean temperature and daily temperature variability on key epizootiological processes of WS. Daily temperature variability increased the susceptibility of black abalone to infection, but disease expression occurred only at warm water temperatures and was independent of temperature variability. These results imply that high thermal variation of the marine intertidal zone allows the pathogen to readily infect black abalone, but infected individuals remain asymptomatic until water temperatures periodically exceed thresholds modulating WS. Mass mortalities can therefore occur before pathogen transmission is limited by density-dependent factors.

  16. Intertidal population genetic dynamics at a microgeographic seascape scale.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zi-Min

    2013-06-01

    The intertidal community is among the most physically harsh niches on earth, with highly heterogeneous environmental and biological factors that impose strong habitat selection on population abundance, genetic connectivity and ecological adaptation of organisms in nature. However, most genetic studies to date have concentrated on the influence of basin-wide or regional marine environments (e.g. habitat discontinuities, oceanic currents and fronts, and geographic barriers) on spatiotemporal distribution and composition of intertidal invertebrates having planktonic stages or long-distance dispersal capability. Little is known about sessile marine organisms (e.g. seaweeds) in the context of topographic tidal gradients and reproductive traits at the microgeographic scale. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Krueger-Hadfield et al. () implemented an elaborate sampling strategy with red seaweed (Chondrus crispus) from a 90-m transect stand near Roscoff and comprehensively detected genome-scale genetic differentiation and biases in ploidy level. This study not only revealed that tidal height resulted in genetic differentiation between high- and low-shore stands and restricted the genetic exchange within the high-shore habitat, but also demonstrated that intergametophytic nonrandom fertilization in C. crispus can cause significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Such new genetic insights highlight the importance of microgeographic genetic dynamics and life history characteristics for better understanding the evolutionary processes of speciation and diversification of intertidal marine organisms.

  17. An Examination of Intertidal Temperatures Through Remotely Sensed Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi, V.

    2010-12-01

    MODIS Aqua and Terra satellites produce both land surface temperatures and sea surface temperatures using calibrated algorithms. In this study, the land surface temperatures were retrieved during clear-sky (non-cloudy) conditions at a 1 km2 resolution (overpass time at 10:30 am) whereas the sea surface temperatures are also retrieved during clear-sky conditions at approximately 4 km resolution (overpass time at 1:30 pm). The purpose of this research was to examine remotely sensed sea surface (SST), intertidal (IST), and land surface temperatures (LST), in conjunction with observed in situ mussel body temperatures, as well as associated weather and tidal data. In Strawberry Hill, Oregon, it was determined that intertidal surface temperatures are similar to but distinctly different from land surface temperatures although influenced by sea surface temperatures. The air temperature and differential heating throughout the day, as well as location in relation to the shore, can greatly influence the remotely sensed surface temperatures. Therefore, remotely sensed satellite data is a very useful tool in examining intertidal temperatures for regional climatic changes over long time periods and may eventually help researchers forecast expected climate changes and help determine associated biological implications.

  18. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    PubMed Central

    Heyworth, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H). Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only) G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin. PMID:26984116

  19. Grazer diversity interacts with biogenic habitat heterogeneity to accelerate intertidal algal succession.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Matthew A; Aquilino, Kristin M; Stachowicz, John J

    2016-08-01

    Environmental heterogeneity contributes to coexistence by allowing species with different traits to persist when different species perform best at different times or places. This interaction between niche differences and environmental variability may also help explain relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but few data are available to rigorously evaluate this hypothesis. We assessed how a biologically relevant aspect of environmental heterogeneity interacts with species diversity to determine ecosystem processes in a natural rocky intertidal community. We used field removals to factorially manipulate biogenic habitat heterogeneity (barnacles, bare rock, and plots that were 50/50 mixes of the two habitat types) and gastropod grazer species richness and then tracked algal community succession and recovery over the course of 1 yr. We found that herbivore diversity, substrate heterogeneity, and their interaction played unique roles in the peak abundance and timing of occurrence of different algal functional groups. Early successional microalgae were most heavily grazed in diverse herbivore assemblages and those with barnacles present, which was likely due to complementary feeding strategies among all three grazers. In contrast, late successional macroalgae were strongly influenced by the presence of a habitat generalist limpet. In this herbivore's absence, heterogeneous habitats (i.e., mixtures of bare rock and barnacles) experienced the greatest algal accumulation, which was partly a result of complementary habitat use by the remaining herbivores. The complex way habitat identity and heterogeneity altered grazer-algal interactions in our study suggests species' differences and environmental heterogeneity both separately and interactively contribute to the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functions.

  20. Life history, code of honor, and emotional responses to inequality in an economic game.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Eric J; Forster, Daniel E; McCullough, Michael E

    2014-10-01

    The code of honor, which is characterized by a preoccupation with reputation and willingness to take retaliatory action, has been used extensively to explain individual and cultural differences in peoples' tendencies to behave aggressively. However, research on the relationship between the code of honor and emotional responses to social interactions has been limited in scope, focusing primarily on anger in response to insults and reputational threats. Here we broaden this scope by examining the relationship between code of honor and emotional reactions in response to an unfair economic exchange that resulted in unequal monetary earnings among 3 laboratory participants. We found that endorsement of the code of honor was related to anger and envy in response to unfair monetary distributions. Interestingly, code of honor predicted envy above and beyond what could be accounted for by anger, but the converse was not the case. This suggests that the code of honor influenced perceptions of how subjects viewed their own earnings relative to those of others, which consequently was responsible for their apparent anger as a result of the economic transaction. Furthermore, the unique relationship between code of honor and envy was present only for subjects who received unfair treatment and not for subjects who merely witnessed unfair treatment. Additionally, we replicated previous findings that harsh childhood environmental conditions are associated with endorsement of the code of honor, highlighting the potential value of incorporating a life history theoretical approach to investigating individual differences in endorsement of the code of honor.

  1. A price to pay: Turkish and Northern American retaliation for threats to personal and family honor.

    PubMed

    Uskul, Ayse K; Cross, Susan E; Günsoy, Ceren; Gerçek-Swing, Berna; Alözkan, Cansu; Ataca, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    Two studies investigated retaliatory responses to actual honor threats among members of an honor culture (Turkey) and a dignity culture (northern United States). The honor threat in these studies was based on previous research which has shown that honesty is a key element of the conception of honor and that accusations of dishonesty are threatening to one's honor. In both studies, participants wrote an essay describing the role of honesty in their lives and received feedback on their essay accusing them of being dishonest (vs. neutral feedback). Turkish participants retaliated more strongly than did northern U.S. participants against the person who challenged their honesty by assigning him/her to solve more difficult tangrams over easy ones (Study 1) and by choosing sensory tasks of a higher level of intensity to complete (Study 2). Study 2 added a relational honor condition, in which participants wrote about honesty in their parents' lives and examined the role of individual differences in honor values in retaliation. Endorsement of honor values significantly predicted retaliation among Turkish participants in the relational honor attack condition, but not among northern U.S. participants.

  2. Photoacclimatory Responses of Zostera marina in the Intertidal and Subtidal Zones

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Rul; Kim, Sangil; Kim, Young Kyun; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Kun-Seop

    2016-01-01

    Photoacclimatory responses of the seagrass Zostera marina in the intertidal and subtidal zones were investigated by measuring chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photosynthetic pigments, leaf δ13C values, and shoot morphology in two bay systems. Intertidal plants had higher carotenoid concentrations than subtidal plants to avoid photodamage under excess light conditions during the day. The maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) and minimum saturation irradiance (Ek) of the intertidal plants were higher than those of the subtidal plants, whereas photosynthetic efficiency (α) and maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) were higher in subtidal plants. The intertidal plants also had significantly greater Stern–Volmer non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) than that of the subtidal plants. These results suggest that the subtidal plants photoacclimated to use limited light more efficiently, and the intertidal plants exhibited photosynthetic responses to minimize photodamage at excess irradiance. The δ13C values of leaf tissues were more negative in the intertidal plants than those in the subtidal plants, suggesting that the intertidal plants used atmospheric or dissolved CO2 for photosynthesis during emersion. Effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm´) in the intertidal plants decreased more slowly after emersion than that in the subtidal plants, indicating higher desiccation tolerance of the intertidal plants. The intertidal plants also recovered more rapidly from desiccation damage than the subtidal plants, suggesting photosynthetic adaptation to desiccation stress. The photosynthetic plasticity of Z. marina in response to variable environmental conditions most likely allows this species to occur in the intertidal and subtidal zones. PMID:27227327

  3. Responses of estuarine circulation and salinity to the loss of intertidal flats - A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2015-12-01

    Intertidal flats in estuaries are coastal wetlands that provide critical marine habitats to support wide ranges of marine species. Over the last century many estuarine systems have experienced significant loss of intertidal flats due to anthropogenic impacts. This paper presents a modeling study conducted to investigate the responses of estuarine hydrodynamics to the loss of intertidal flats in Whidbey Basin of Puget Sound on the northwest coast of North America. Changes in salinity intrusion limits in the estuaries, salinity stratification, and circulation in intertidal flats and estuaries were evaluated by comparing model results under the existing baseline condition and the no-flat condition. Model results showed that loss of intertidal flats results in an increase in salinity intrusion, stronger mixing, and a phase shift in salinity and velocity fields in the bay front areas. Model results also indicated that loss of intertidal flats enhances two-layer circulation, especially the bottom water intrusion. Loss of intertidal flats increases the mean salinity but reduces the salinity range in the subtidal flats over a tidal cycle because of increased mixing. Salinity intrusion limits extend upstream in all three major rivers discharging into Whidbey Basin when no intertidal flats are present. Changes in salinity intrusion and estuarine circulation patterns due to loss of intertidal flats affect the nearshore habitat and water quality in estuaries and potentially increase risk of coastal hazards, such as storm surge and coastal flooding. Lastly, model results suggested the importance of including intertidal flats and the wetting-and-drying process in hydrodynamic simulations when intertidal flats are present in the model domain.

  4. Do Large Carnivores and Mesocarnivores Have Redundant Impacts on Intertidal Prey?

    PubMed

    Suraci, Justin P; Clinchy, Michael; Zanette, Liana Y

    2017-01-01

    The presence of large carnivores can affect lower trophic levels by suppressing mesocarnivores and reducing their impacts on prey. The mesopredator release hypothesis therefore predicts prey abundance will be higher where large carnivores are present, but this prediction assumes limited dietary overlap between large and mesocarnivores. Where dietary overlap is high, e.g., among omnivorous carnivore species, or where prey are relatively easily accessible, the potential exists for large and mesocarnivores to have redundant impacts on prey, though this possibility has not been explored. The intertidal community represents a potentially important but poorly studied resource for coastal carnivore populations, and one for which dietary overlap between carnivores may be high. To evaluate usage of the intertidal community by coastal carnivores and the potential for redundancy between large and mesocarnivores, we surveyed (i) intertidal prey abundance (crabs and fish) and (ii) the abundance and activity of large carnivores (predominantly black bears) and mesocarnivores (raccoons and mink) in an area with an intact carnivore community in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Overall carnivore activity was strongly related to intertidal prey availability. Notably, this relationship was not contingent on carnivore species identity, suggestive of redundancy-high intertidal prey availability was associated with either greater large carnivore activity or greater mesocarnivore activity. We then compared intertidal prey abundances in this intact system, in which bears dominate, with those in a nearby system where bears and other large carnivores have been extirpated, and raccoons are the primary intertidal predator. We found significant similarities in intertidal species abundances, providing additional evidence for redundancy between large (bear) and mesocarnivore (raccoon) impacts on intertidal prey. Taken together, our results indicate that intertidal prey shape habitat use and

  5. Do Large Carnivores and Mesocarnivores Have Redundant Impacts on Intertidal Prey?

    PubMed Central

    Clinchy, Michael; Zanette, Liana Y.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of large carnivores can affect lower trophic levels by suppressing mesocarnivores and reducing their impacts on prey. The mesopredator release hypothesis therefore predicts prey abundance will be higher where large carnivores are present, but this prediction assumes limited dietary overlap between large and mesocarnivores. Where dietary overlap is high, e.g., among omnivorous carnivore species, or where prey are relatively easily accessible, the potential exists for large and mesocarnivores to have redundant impacts on prey, though this possibility has not been explored. The intertidal community represents a potentially important but poorly studied resource for coastal carnivore populations, and one for which dietary overlap between carnivores may be high. To evaluate usage of the intertidal community by coastal carnivores and the potential for redundancy between large and mesocarnivores, we surveyed (i) intertidal prey abundance (crabs and fish) and (ii) the abundance and activity of large carnivores (predominantly black bears) and mesocarnivores (raccoons and mink) in an area with an intact carnivore community in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Overall carnivore activity was strongly related to intertidal prey availability. Notably, this relationship was not contingent on carnivore species identity, suggestive of redundancy–high intertidal prey availability was associated with either greater large carnivore activity or greater mesocarnivore activity. We then compared intertidal prey abundances in this intact system, in which bears dominate, with those in a nearby system where bears and other large carnivores have been extirpated, and raccoons are the primary intertidal predator. We found significant similarities in intertidal species abundances, providing additional evidence for redundancy between large (bear) and mesocarnivore (raccoon) impacts on intertidal prey. Taken together, our results indicate that intertidal prey shape habitat use and

  6. Responses of estuarine circulation and salinity to the loss of intertidal flats – A modeling study

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2015-08-25

    Intertidal flats in estuaries are coastal wetlands that provide critical marine habitats to support wide ranges of marine species. Over the last century many estuarine systems have experienced significant loss of intertidal flats due to anthropogenic impacts. This paper presents a modeling study conducted to investigate the responses of estuarine hydrodynamics to the loss of intertidal flats caused by anthropogenic actions in Whidbey Basin of Puget Sound on the northwest coast of North America. Changes in salinity intrusion limits in the estuaries, salinity stratification, and circulation in intertidal flats and estuaries were evaluated by comparing model results under the existingmore » baseline condition and the no-flat condition. Model results showed that loss of intertidal flats results in an increase in salinity intrusion, stronger mixing, and a phase shift in salinity and velocity fields in the bay front areas. Model results also indicated that loss of intertidal flats enhances two-layer circulation, especially the bottom water intrusion. Loss of intertidal flats increases the mean salinity but reduces the salinity range in the subtidal flats over a tidal cycle because of increased mixing. Salinity intrusion limits extend upstream in all three major rivers discharging into Whidbey Basin when no intertidal flats are present. Changes in salinity intrusion and estuarine circulation patterns due to loss of intertidal flats affect the nearshore habitat and water quality in estuaries and potentially increase risk of coastal hazards, such as storm surge and coastal flooding. Furthermore, model results suggested the importance of including intertidal flats and the wetting-and-drying process in hydrodynamic simulations when intertidal flats are present in the model domain.« less

  7. Responses of estuarine circulation and salinity to the loss of intertidal flats – A modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2015-08-25

    Intertidal flats in estuaries are coastal wetlands that provide critical marine habitats to support wide ranges of marine species. Over the last century many estuarine systems have experienced significant loss of intertidal flats due to anthropogenic impacts. This paper presents a modeling study conducted to investigate the responses of estuarine hydrodynamics to the loss of intertidal flats caused by anthropogenic actions in Whidbey Basin of Puget Sound on the northwest coast of North America. Changes in salinity intrusion limits in the estuaries, salinity stratification, and circulation in intertidal flats and estuaries were evaluated by comparing model results under the existing baseline condition and the no-flat condition. Model results showed that loss of intertidal flats results in an increase in salinity intrusion, stronger mixing, and a phase shift in salinity and velocity fields in the bay front areas. Model results also indicated that loss of intertidal flats enhances two-layer circulation, especially the bottom water intrusion. Loss of intertidal flats increases the mean salinity but reduces the salinity range in the subtidal flats over a tidal cycle because of increased mixing. Salinity intrusion limits extend upstream in all three major rivers discharging into Whidbey Basin when no intertidal flats are present. Changes in salinity intrusion and estuarine circulation patterns due to loss of intertidal flats affect the nearshore habitat and water quality in estuaries and potentially increase risk of coastal hazards, such as storm surge and coastal flooding. Furthermore, model results suggested the importance of including intertidal flats and the wetting-and-drying process in hydrodynamic simulations when intertidal flats are present in the model domain.

  8. Phytoplankton assemblage characteristics in recurrently fluctuating environments.

    PubMed

    Roelke, Daniel L; Spatharis, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Annual variations in biogeochemical and physical processes can lead to nutrient variability and seasonal patterns in phytoplankton productivity and assemblage structure. In many coastal systems river inflow and water exchange with the ocean varies seasonally, and alternating periods can arise where the nutrient most limiting to phytoplankton growth switches. Transitions between these alternating periods can be sudden or gradual and this depends on human activities, such as reservoir construction and interbasin water transfers. How such activities might influence phytoplankton assemblages is largely unknown. Here, we employed a multispecies, multi-nutrient model to explore how nutrient loading switching mode might affect characteristics of phytoplankton assemblages. The model is based on the Monod-relationship, predicting an instantaneous growth rate from ambient inorganic nutrient concentrations whereas the limiting nutrient at any given time was determined by Liebig's Law of the Minimum. Our simulated phytoplankton assemblages self-organized from species rich pools over a 15-year period, and only the surviving species were considered as assemblage members. Using the model, we explored the interactive effects of complementarity level in trait trade-offs within phytoplankton assemblages and the amount of noise in the resource supply concentrations. We found that the effect of shift from a sudden resource supply transition to a gradual one, as observed in systems impacted by watershed development, was dependent on the level of complementarity. In the extremes, phytoplankton species richness and relative overyielding increased when complementarity was lowest, and phytoplankton biomass increased greatly when complementarity was highest. For low-complementarity simulations, the persistence of poorer-performing phytoplankton species of intermediate R*s led to higher richness and relative overyielding. For high-complementarity simulations, the formation of phytoplankton

  9. Phytoplankton Assemblage Characteristics in Recurrently Fluctuating Environments

    PubMed Central

    Roelke, Daniel L.; Spatharis, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Annual variations in biogeochemical and physical processes can lead to nutrient variability and seasonal patterns in phytoplankton productivity and assemblage structure. In many coastal systems river inflow and water exchange with the ocean varies seasonally, and alternating periods can arise where the nutrient most limiting to phytoplankton growth switches. Transitions between these alternating periods can be sudden or gradual and this depends on human activities, such as reservoir construction and interbasin water transfers. How such activities might influence phytoplankton assemblages is largely unknown. Here, we employed a multispecies, multi-nutrient model to explore how nutrient loading switching mode might affect characteristics of phytoplankton assemblages. The model is based on the Monod-relationship, predicting an instantaneous growth rate from ambient inorganic nutrient concentrations whereas the limiting nutrient at any given time was determined by Liebig’s Law of the Minimum. Our simulated phytoplankton assemblages self-organized from species rich pools over a 15-year period, and only the surviving species were considered as assemblage members. Using the model, we explored the interactive effects of complementarity level in trait trade-offs within phytoplankton assemblages and the amount of noise in the resource supply concentrations. We found that the effect of shift from a sudden resource supply transition to a gradual one, as observed in systems impacted by watershed development, was dependent on the level of complementarity. In the extremes, phytoplankton species richness and relative overyielding increased when complementarity was lowest, and phytoplankton biomass increased greatly when complementarity was highest. For low-complementarity simulations, the persistence of poorer-performing phytoplankton species of intermediate R*s led to higher richness and relative overyielding. For high-complementarity simulations, the formation of phytoplankton

  10. Community composition of the rocky intertidal at Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Katharina; Buchholz, Friedrich; Giménez, Luis

    2008-12-01

    At the rocky island of Helgoland (North Sea), the distribution and abundances of intertidal communities were assessed and the effects of wave exposure and tidal height on the spatial distribution patterns of the communities were evaluated. Macroalgae and invertebrates were sampled quantitatively along line transects in three intertidal locations, a semi-exposed, an exposed and a sheltered one. The semi-exposed location was characterised by (1) Ulva spp. at the high intertidal ( Ulva-community), (2) mussels and periwinkles at the mid intertidal ( Mytilus-community) and (3) Corallina officinalis and mainly the large brown alga Fucus serratus at the low intertidal ( Fucus-community). The exposed location encompassed the mid and low intertidal; at both zones the Fucus-community occurred. The sheltered location was characterised by (1) barnacles ( Balanus-community) and (2) bryozoans, hydrozoans and mainly the large brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum ( Ascophyllum-community). At the semi-exposed, but not at the exposed location the communities changed with the intertidal position. A relationship between wave exposure and the occurrence of specific communities was shown for the sheltered location; in contrast, communities of the semi-exposed and the exposed location appear to be little influenced by wave exposure directly. The community concept and the potential causes of distribution patterns of the defined communities are discussed and suggestions for a future monitoring are given. Variations in the communities at different spatial scales speak in favour of a multiple scale sampling design to monitor changes in the intertidal communities at Helgoland.

  11. DESICCATION AND OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPPER INTERTIDAL DISTRIBUTION OF EELGRASS IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in Pacific Northwest is primarily intertidal, yet little research has been done on what factors control its upper intertidal growth boundary. In July 2000 a two year study was initiated in Yaquina Bay (Newport, OR) to evaluate the effects of four factor...

  12. NATURAL FACTORS CONTROLLING INTERTIDAL EELGRASS: IS T17THHIS AS HIGH AS WE CAN GET?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in many open-coast Pacific Northwest estuaries is primarily intertidal, yet little research has been done on the natural factors which control its upper intertidal growth boundary. In Dec. 2002 a two year study was completed in Yaquina Bay (Newport, OR)...

  13. EFFECTS OF EROSION AND MACROALGAE ON INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) IN A NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC ESTUARY (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in open-coast northeastern Pacific estuaries is primarily intertidal, yet little research has been done on the natural factors controlling its upper intertidal growth limits. This two-year study in the Yaquina Estuary (Newport, Oregon, USA) evaluated the...

  14. OCCURRENCE AND ORIENTATION OF PARALICHTHID FLOUNDERS (BOTHIDAE: PARALICHTYS) ON AN INTERTIDAL BEACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Middaugh, Douglas P. and Charles L. McKenney, Jr. 2003. Occurrence and Orientation of Flounders (Bothidae: Paralichthys) on an Intertidal Beach. J. North Carol. Acad. Sci. 119(4):157-171. (ERL,GB 1172).

    The intertidal movement and burying pattern of paralichthid flounders...

  15. Initial effects of a moderate-sized oil spill on benthic assemblage structure of a subtropical rocky shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Tim; Boden, Anna; Arthur, James Michael; Schlacher, Thomas Alfred; Rissik, David; Atkinson, Sally

    2012-08-01

    The environmental impacts of very large oil spills are well documented across a range of settings. However, there is a dearth of information about the immediate effects, and post-spill trajectories, of small to moderate (<1000 t) oil spills on intertidal biota. The published studies are from very different environments, and are contradictory in terms of the severity of initial impacts. This study reports on the effects of a 270 t spill of bunker fuel oil on 11 March 2009, approximately 13 km east of Cape Moreton, eastern Australia. We examined the initial effects of this moderate sized spill on the rocky shore biota of Cape Moreton, and quantified the trajectory of oil removal and change in assemblage structure over the next 5 months. Compared to adjacent reference sites, the initial effects were very marked, especially on the upper shore. Oiling was heavier and more persistent on the upper shore than the mid-shore, and biological effects were more pronounced higher in the intertidal. At both levels, however, there was little evidence of recovery up to 5 months after oiling, and visible oil residues were still apparent. The effect size was larger than previously reported for spills of this magnitude, comparable to that of larger spills, although over a smaller stretch of coastline.

  16. Analysis of self-directed mastery learning of honors physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athens, Wendy

    Self-directed learning (SDL) is an important life skill in a knowledge-based society and prepares students to persist, manage their time and resources, use logic to construct their knowledge, argue their views, and collaborate. The purpose of this study was to facilitate mastery of physics concepts through self-directedness in formative testing with feedback, a choice of learning activities, and multiple forms of support. This study was conducted within two sections of honors physics at a private high school (N=24). Students' learning activity choices, time investments, and perceptions (assessed through a post survey) were tracked and analyzed. SDL readiness was linked to success in mastering physics concepts. The three research questions pursued in this study were: What SDL activities did honors physics students choose in their self-directed mastery learning environment? How many students achieved concept mastery and how did they spend their time? Did successful and unsuccessful students perceive the self-directed mastery learning environment differently? Only seven of 24 students were successful in passing the similar concept-based unit tests within four tries, and these seven students were separated into a "successful" group and the other 17 into an "unsuccessful" group. Differences between the two groups were analyzed. A profile of a self-directed secondary honors physics student emerged. A successful self-directed student invested more time learning from activities rather than simply completing them, focused on learning concepts more than rote operations, intentionally selected activities to fill in gaps of knowledge and practice concepts, actively constructed knowledge into a cognitive framework, engaged in academic discourse with instructor and peers as they made repeated attempts to master content and pass the test given constructive feedback, used a wide variety of learning resources, and managed their workload to meet deadlines. This capstone study found

  17. Property and the body: Applying Honoré

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Muireann

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the new commercial and quasi‐commercial activities of medicine, scientists, pharmaceutical companies and industry with regard to human tissue has given rise to a whole new way of valuing our bodies. It is argued that a property framework may be an effective and constructive method of exploring issues arising from this. The paper refers to A M Honoré's theory of ownership and aims to show that we have full liberal ownership of our own bodies and as such can be considered to be self‐owners. PMID:17971463

  18. DCEG Symposium to Honor Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr. | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer On May 6, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) will sponsor a symposium to honor 50 years of leadership from its founding director, Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., M.D., who stepped down from the position in July 2012. The conference, entitled “Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations,” will highlight critical findings in cancer epidemiology from the last 50 years, as well as opportunities for future research directions. Long History of Leadership and Discovery

  19. Microbial interactions in marine water amended by eroded benthic biofilm: A case study from an intertidal mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanié, Hélène; Ory, Pascaline; Orvain, Francis; Delmas, Daniel; Dupuy, Christine; Hartmann, Hans J.

    2014-09-01

    In shallow macrotidal ecosystems with large intertidal mudflats, the sediment-water coupling plays a crucial role in structuring the pelagic microbial food web functioning, since inorganic and organic matter and microbial components (viruses and microbes) of the microphytobenthic biofilm can be suspended toward the water column. Two experimental bioassays were conducted in March and July 2008 to investigate the importance of biofilm input for the pelagic microbial and viral loops. Pelagic inocula (< 0.6 μ- and < 10 μ filtrates) were diluted either with < 30 kDa-ultrafiltered seawater or with this ultrafiltrate enriched with the respective size-fractionated benthic biofilm or with < 30 kDa-benthic compounds (BC). The kinetics of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF), bacteria and viruses were assessed together with bacterial and viral genomic fingerprints, bacterial enzymatic activities and viral life strategies. The experimental design allowed us to evaluate the effect of BC modulated by those of benthic size-fractionated microorganisms (virus + bacteria, + HNF). BC presented (1) in March, a positive effect on viruses and bacteria weakened by pelagic HNF. Benthic microorganisms consolidated this negative effect and sustained the viral production together with a relatively diverse and uneven bacterial assemblage structure; (2) in July, no direct impact on viruses but a positive effect on bacteria modulated by HNF, which indirectly enhanced viral multiplication. Both effects were intensified by benthic microorganisms and bacterial assemblage structure became more even. HNF indirectly profited from BC more in March than in July. The microbial loop would be stimulated by biofilm during periods of high resources (March) and the viral loop during periods of depleted resources (July).

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF ALGAL EPIPHYTES ACROSS ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS AT DIFFERENT SCALES: INTERTIDAL ELEVATION, HOST CANOPIES, AND HOST FRONDS(1).

    PubMed

    Longtin, Caroline M; Scrosati, Ricardo A; Whalen, Gillian B; Garbary, David J

    2009-08-01

    Understanding epiphyte distribution in coastal communities is important because these organisms affect many others directly or indirectly. Yet, their distribution has been considerably less studied than that of their hosts and other primary-space holders. Identifying major sources of variation in epiphyte abundance is thus still a need. Environmental gradients help predict species distribution and are pervasive on marine shores. In this study, we test the notion that environmental gradients across intertidal elevation, throughout host canopies, and along host fronds explain a large variation in the abundance of sympatric epiphytes. Our model system was the assemblage of Ascophyllum nodosum (L.) Le Jol. and its epiphytes Vertebrata lanosa (L.) T. A. Chr. [= Polysiphonia lanosa (L.) Tandy], Elachista fucicola (Velley) Aresch., and Pylaiella littoralis (L.) Kjellm. On the coast of Nova Scotia (Canada), we found evidence of a spatial segregation among these species at almost all scales. While the red epiphyte V. lanosa was more common at high- and midintertidal elevations (peaking at midelevations) and on middle segments of host fronds, the brown epiphytes E. fucicola and P. littoralis were more common at low elevations and restricted to distal segments of host fronds. Canopy habitat affected abundance only for V. lanosa, which was more common within the host canopy than on its periphery at midelevations. Since the studied gradients are related to predictable changes in abiotic factors, the identification of likely causes behind the observed patterns was facilitated. Our study ends by proposing abiotic and biotic factors that deserve priority in the experimental testing of the forces structuring this assemblage.

  1. The fate of nitrate in intertidal permeable sediments.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Hannah K; Lavik, Gaute; Holtappels, Moritz; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zones act as a sink for riverine and atmospheric nitrogen inputs and thereby buffer the open ocean from the effects of anthropogenic activity. Recently, microbial activity in sandy permeable sediments has been identified as a dominant source of N-loss in coastal zones, namely through denitrification. Some of the highest coastal denitrification rates measured so far occur within the intertidal permeable sediments of the eutrophied Wadden Sea. Still, denitrification alone can often account for only half of the substantial nitrate (NO3-) consumption. Therefore, to investigate alternative NO3- sinks such as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), intracellular nitrate storage by eukaryotes and isotope equilibration effects we carried out 15NO3- amendment experiments. By considering all of these sinks in combination, we could quantify the fate of the 15NO3- added to the sediment. Denitrification was the dominant nitrate sink (50-75%), while DNRA, which recycles N to the environment accounted for 10-20% of NO3- consumption. Intriguingly, we also observed that between 20 and 40% of 15NO3- added to the incubations entered an intracellular pool of NO3- and was subsequently respired when nitrate became limiting. Eukaryotes were responsible for a large proportion of intracellular nitrate storage, and it could be shown through inhibition experiments that at least a third of the stored nitrate was subsequently also respired by eukaryotes. The environmental significance of the intracellular nitrate pool was confirmed by in situ measurements which revealed that intracellular storage can accumulate nitrate at concentrations six fold higher than the surrounding porewater. This intracellular pool is so far not considered when modeling N-loss from intertidal permeable sediments; however it can act as a reservoir for nitrate during low tide. Consequently, nitrate respiration supported by intracellular nitrate storage can add an additional 20% to previous nitrate

  2. The Fate of Nitrate in Intertidal Permeable Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Hannah K.; Lavik, Gaute; Holtappels, Moritz; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zones act as a sink for riverine and atmospheric nitrogen inputs and thereby buffer the open ocean from the effects of anthropogenic activity. Recently, microbial activity in sandy permeable sediments has been identified as a dominant source of N-loss in coastal zones, namely through denitrification. Some of the highest coastal denitrification rates measured so far occur within the intertidal permeable sediments of the eutrophied Wadden Sea. Still, denitrification alone can often account for only half of the substantial nitrate (NO3−) consumption. Therefore, to investigate alternative NO3− sinks such as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), intracellular nitrate storage by eukaryotes and isotope equilibration effects we carried out 15NO3− amendment experiments. By considering all of these sinks in combination, we could quantify the fate of the 15NO3− added to the sediment. Denitrification was the dominant nitrate sink (50–75%), while DNRA, which recycles N to the environment accounted for 10–20% of NO3− consumption. Intriguingly, we also observed that between 20 and 40% of 15NO3− added to the incubations entered an intracellular pool of NO3− and was subsequently respired when nitrate became limiting. Eukaryotes were responsible for a large proportion of intracellular nitrate storage, and it could be shown through inhibition experiments that at least a third of the stored nitrate was subsequently also respired by eukaryotes. The environmental significance of the intracellular nitrate pool was confirmed by in situ measurements which revealed that intracellular storage can accumulate nitrate at concentrations six fold higher than the surrounding porewater. This intracellular pool is so far not considered when modeling N-loss from intertidal permeable sediments; however it can act as a reservoir for nitrate during low tide. Consequently, nitrate respiration supported by intracellular nitrate storage can add an additional 20% to

  3. Intertidal stromatolites in a fringing Holocene reef complex, Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, R. Pamela; Browne, Kathleen M.

    1991-01-01

    Intertidal stromatolites are major components of a fringing Holocene reef complex at Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas. Trapping and binding of fine-grained carbonate sand by microorganisms, primarily filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms, and differential lithification of sediment have produced layered structures with up to 0.5 m of relief. Formation of these stromatolites in an environment of normal marine salinity is attributed to reduced competition from crustose red algae, availability of a stable substrate, and rapid cementation. Destruction of lamination in Stocking Island stromatolites by molluscs, sponges, and worms suggests that boring invertebrates play a key role in stromatolite preservation.

  4. Dynamics of intertidal flats in the Loire estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, Stephane; Sottolichio, Aldo; Bertier, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Tidal flats form at the edges of many tidal estuaries, and are found in broad climatic regions. Their evolution plays a fundamental role in maintaining the morphodynamic equilibrium of an estuary. The Loire estuary is one of the largest macrotidal systems of the french atlantic coast. Since 200 years, its geometry has been drastically modified through channeling, deepening, embanking, infilling of secondary channels, etc. These works altered many intertidal areas. In the recent years, efforts for the rectification of the morphology have been made in order to restore the ecology of the estuary. In this context, it is crucial to better understand the dynamics of intertidal flats, still poorly understood in this estuary. The aim of this work is to analyse a series of original observations conducted for the first time in two intertidal flats of the central Lore estuary between 2008 and 2010. The tidal flats are situated in the northern bank, at 12 and 17 km upstream from the mouth respectively. Six Altus altimeters were deployed at two cross shore transects, measuring continuously and at a high-frequency bed altimetry and water level, providing information on tide and waves. At the semi-diurnal tidal scale, the surficial sediment of intertidal flats is permanently mobilized. Altimetry variations are low, and their amplitude varies as a function of tides and river flow. At the scale of several months, the sedimentation is controlled by the position of the turbidity maximum (and therefore by the river flow) and also by the tidal amplitude. During low river flow periods, altimetry variations are only due to tidal cycles. During decaying tides, suspended sediment settle mainly on the lower part of the tidal flats, forming fluid mud layers of several cm thick, which can consolidate rapidly; under rising tides, the increasing of tidal currents promotes erosion. During periods of high river flow, the turbidity maximum shifts to the lower estuary. The higher suspended sediment

  5. Effects of Participation in a Post-Secondary Honors Program with Covariate Adjustment Using Propensity Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtwengler, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to determine the extent to which participation in a post-secondary honors program affected academic achievement. Archival data were collected on three cohorts of high-achieving students at a large public university. Propensity scores were calculated on factors predicting participation in honors and used as the covariate.…

  6. A Guide to Newbery Medal Winners and Honor Books, 1977-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinman, Judith R.; Henderson, Darwin L.

    Intended for use by teachers, librarians, and parents, this guide analyzes Newbery Award Medal and honor winning books (1977 through 1984) for sexism. Following a statement of criteria, established by the American Library Association concerning the type of book that should receive the medal and honor citations, and the guidelines used to determine…

  7. The Unique Role of Two-Year Honors Colleges and Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, J. David, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    As President of Broward College, the author is proud of the honors education that has been offered to students since 1982. Two-year colleges play a crucial role in higher education, having experienced extensive growth in the past few decades and with honors as an important part of that growth. Broward College was founded in 1960 to support the…

  8. The Cultural Encounters Model: Incorporating Campus Events into the Honors Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfrehm, James; Sullivan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Honors students are, almost by definition, committed to excellence. As a result, they tend to be overextended (Guzy). They also "tend to be more eager, exploratory, and experienced than their non-honors counterparts" (Achterberg 77). They typically take a full load of coursework while at the same time juggling clubs, learning…

  9. Setting Them Free: Students as Co-Producers of Honors Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gorp, Bouke; Wolfensberger, Marca V. C.; de Jong, Nelleke

    2012-01-01

    While the attractions and advantages of freedom that differentiates honors education from regular teaching are both theoretically and practically significant, the authors' experience at Utrecht University in the Netherlands has demonstrated drawbacks that need to be addressed and resolved in creating effective honors education. Freedom poses…

  10. I Want Some Freedom for My People: Baptists, Great Texts, and Honors Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Thomas Hebert and Matthew T. McBee's (2007) recent study of gifted university students examines how an honors program can function as a community for social, intellectual, and psychological growth. In particular, they find that honors programs offer advantageous support for gifted students in navigating social isolation, in questioning traditional…

  11. How Effective Is Honor Code Reporting over Instructor- Implemented Measures? A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Schmidt, Marcelo; Wei, Tianlan

    2013-01-01

    Honor codes have become increasingly popular at institutions of higher education as a means of reducing violations of academic integrity such as cheating and other academically dishonest acts. Previous research on honor code effectiveness has been limited to correlational research designs that preclude the examination of cause-and-effect…

  12. A College Honors Seminar on Evolution and Intelligent Design: Successes and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    College honors courses provide an opportunity to tackle controversial topics in an atmosphere that encourages active learning, critical thinking, and open discussion. This venue is particularly appropriate for examining the debate about teaching intelligent design (ID) in public school science classes. A one-credit honors enrichment seminar taught…

  13. The Role of the Honors Program in the Community College Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeague, Patricia M.

    Drawing from a literature review and experiences at Moraine Valley Community College, this paper examines the role of the community college honors program in meeting the special needs of superior students; analyzes the characteristics of effective and innovative programs and curricula; and discusses how an honors program can become…

  14. The Challenge of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Honors Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Students with autism are increasingly present on college campuses, and because many young adults with autism are cognitively gifted, it follows that honors programs and colleges are obliged to be aware of this "invisible" disability and be ready to accommodate, and educate, honors students on the autism spectrum. Susan Yager describes…

  15. An Examination of Student Engagement and Retention in an Honors Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Jessica A.; Chasek, Christine L.; Falconer, John

    2016-01-01

    Honors programs at colleges and universities provide academic and developmental opportunities for high-ability students. Learning communities, defined as a group of students who live together, are connected through membership in a common organization, and take classes together, are often a component of honors programs. Most research on learning…

  16. Striving for Our Best and Brightest Selves: Making Honors Central to the Campus Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The fall 2014 entering honors class as Westminster College was drawn from the largest applicant pool in the program's almost three-decade history. Far from focusing on perks, 68% of these entering students claimed it was the interesting honors curriculum that caused them to submit an application. As for the larger applicant pool itself, the top…

  17. The Southwest Atlantic intertidal burrowing crab Neohelice granulata modifies nutrient loads of phreatic waters entering coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul, Eugenia; Grela, María A.; Canepuccia, Alejandro; Iribarne, Oscar

    2008-08-01

    Along the coastal areas of the Southwest Atlantic estuaries and embayments, phreatic water often circulates through very extended areas (up to several hundred meters perpendicular to the coast), dominated by dense assemblages of deep burrows of the crab Neohelice granulata (formerly Chasmagnathus granulatus). This crab inhabits the intertidal area, from mudflats to marshes vegetated by species of Spartina, Sarcocornia and Juncus, generating extensive burrowing beds where burrow density may reach up to 60 burrows m -2. Since the lower limit of the crab burrows is usually the water table, we investigated through field experiments the effect of N. granulata and their burrows on the chemical characteristics of this phreatic water. Water analysis from experimental (1) occupied burrows (with crabs), (2) unoccupied burrows (where crabs were excluded), and (3) sediment pore water show remarkable differences. Water oxygenation, and nitrate, ammonium and sulphate concentrations inside occupied burrows were higher than in the water inside unoccupied burrows or pore waters. Moreover, directed sampling of phreatic water entering and leaving the crab bed, shows that dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentration is enhanced as the water crosses the crab bed. These results may be ascribed to the fact that in the salt marsh the crabs spend most of their time within burrows, where presumably they store food (plants) and defecate. These activities generate an area of accumulation of excrements and nutrients in different decomposition states. The present work shows a novel way by which bioturbating organisms can affect nutrients exportation from salt marshes to the open waters.

  18. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended.

  19. Potential intertidal habitat restoration sites in the Duwamish River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, C.D.

    1991-12-01

    Restoration of wetland habitats in highly urbanized areas is generally constrained by scarcity of opportunity, adverse impacts of surrounding land use, and cost. Although areal wetland losses approach 98% in Seattle's Duwamish River estuary, the system continues to support important salmonid runs, as well as a variety of bird and mammal species. Estuarine-dependent organisms are likely limited by quality and quantity of intertidal habitat in the system. Because the long-range, estuary-wide benefit of site-specific mitigation and restoration projects is limited, it is imperative to develop estuary-wide restoration plans. Towards this end, an inventory and analysis of potential intertidal habitat restoration sites has been completed for the Duwamish River estuary. Twenty-four sites, ranging in size from 0.8 to 25 acres were identified and comparative functional potential assessed. The majority of these sites (18) occur in the upper estuary. Two sites are located in Elliott Bay, and four are located near the historic mouth of the river in the vicinity of Harbor Island. Spatial data have been developed in geographic information system (GIS) format. Other site-specific data relative to habitat restoration has also been assembled.

  20. Halotaxis of cyanobacteria in an intertidal hypersaline microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Kohls, Katharina; Abed, Raeid M M; Polerecky, Lubos; Weber, Miriam; de Beer, Dirk

    2010-03-01

    An intertidal hypersaline cyanobacterial mat from Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) exhibited a reversible change in its surface colour within several hours upon changes in salinity of the overlying water. The mat surface was orange-reddish at salinities above 15% and turned dark green at lower salinities. We investigated this phenomenon using a polyphasic approach that included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral imaging, absorption spectroscopy, oxygen microsensor measurements and modelling of salinity dynamics. Filaments of Microcoleus chthonoplastes, identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing and morphology, were found to migrate up and down when salinity was decreased below or increased above 15%, respectively, causing the colour change of the mat uppermost layer. Migration occurred in light and in the dark, and could be induced by different salts, not only NaCl. The influence of salinity-dependent and independent physico-chemical parameters, such as water activity, oxygen solubility, H2S, gravity and light, was excluded, indicating that the observed migration was due to a direct response to salt stress. We propose to term this salinity-driven cyanobacterial migration as 'halotaxis', a process that might play a vital role in the survival of cyanobacteria in environments exposed to continuous salinity fluctuations such as intertidal flats.

  1. Host partitioning by parasites in an intertidal crustacean community.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Anson V; Poulin, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Patterns of host use by parasites throughout a guild community of intermediate hosts can depend on several biological and ecological factors, including physiology, morphology, immunology, and behavior. We looked at parasite transmission in the intertidal crustacean community of Lower Portobello Bay, Dunedin, New Zealand, with the intent of: (1) mapping the flow of parasites throughout the major crustacean species, (2) identifying hosts that play the most important transmission role for each parasite, and (3) assessing the impact of parasitism on host populations. The most prevalent parasites found in 14 species of crustaceans (635 specimens) examined were the trematodes Maritrema novaezealandensis and Microphallus sp., the acanthocephalans Profilicollis spp., the nematode Ascarophis sp., and an acuariid nematode. Decapods were compatible hosts for M. novaezealandensis, while other crustaceans demonstrated lower host suitability as shown by high levels of melanized and immature parasite stages. Carapace thickness, gill morphology, and breathing style may contribute to the differential infection success of M. novaezealandensis and Microphallus sp. in the decapod species. Parasite-induced host mortality appears likely with M. novaezealandensis in the crabs Austrohelice crassa, Halicarcinus varius, Hemigrapsus sexdentatus, and Macrophthalmus hirtipes, and also with Microphallus sp. in A. crassa. Overall, the different parasite species make different use of available crustacean intermediate hosts and possibly contribute to intertidal community structure.

  2. The Pursuit of Excellence: An Analysis of the Honors College Application and Enrollment Decision for a Large Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singell, Larry D., Jr.; Tang, Hui-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Honors colleges housed in public universities began only in the last half century, but have become nearly ubiquitous over the last 20 years. This paper, using recent data from the oldest stand-alone honors college in the country, is the first to study how the application and enrollment decisions of honors college students differ from the general…

  3. Ubiquitous Laptop Usage in Higher Education: Effects on Student Achievement, Student Satisfaction, and Constructivist Measures in Honors and Traditional Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurst, Christian; Smarkola, Claudia; Gaffney, Mary Anne

    2008-01-01

    Three years of graduating business honors cohorts in a large urban university were sampled to determine whether the introduction of ubiquitous laptop computers into the honors program contributed to student achievement, student satisfaction and constructivist teaching activities. The first year cohort consisted of honors students who did not have…

  4. The Impact of Involvement in Mortar Board Senior Honor Society on Lifelong Views of Civic Engagement and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Daniel James

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact that involvement in Mortar Board National Senior Honor Society has on lifelong views of civic engagement and leadership. Mortar Board Senior Honor Society is a collegiate honor society established in 1918 that recognizes students for their outstanding contributions to their college or university community in the…

  5. An Exploration of the Value of Service-Learning: Characteristics of Traditional and Honor Service-Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Lori; Williams, Elizabeth; Russell, Brittany

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the value of service for undergraduate students enrolled in an Honors and a non-Honors section of a service-learning course. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to identify if students who participated in an Honors (n = 18) section of a service-learning course show greater gains in attitudes and skills associated with…

  6. Machinic Assemblages: Women, Art Education and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamboukou, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore connections between women, art education and spatial relations drawing on the Deleuzo-Guattarian concept of "machinic assemblage" as a useful analytical tool for making sense of the heterogeneity and meshwork of life narratives and their social milieus. In focusing on Mary Bradish Titcomb, a fin-de-siecle Bostonian woman…

  7. Simulating fish assemblages in riverine networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    We describe a modeling approach for simulating assemblages of fish in riverine landscapes. The approach allows a user to determine the grain and extent of river networks within which fish populations reproduce, move, and survive in response to both environmental drivers and assem...

  8. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project at Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broad, C.; Soave, K.; Ericson, W.; Raabe, B.; Glazer, R.; Ahuatzi, A.; Pereira, M.; Rainsford, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of this student-run project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and the requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program & Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects and, using randomly determined points, within two permanent 100 m2 areas, three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring). Using the data collected since 2004, we will once again compare population densities, seasonal abundance and long-term population trends of key algal and invertebrate species, including Tegula funebralis, Anthopluera elegantissima and Fucus spp. We will continue to closely monitor algal population densities in within our site in light of the November 2007 San Francisco Bay oil spill that leaked heavy bunker fuel into intertidal habitats around the SF Bay. Future analyses and investigations will include intertidal abiotic factors (including water temperature and human foot-traffic) to enhance insights into the workings of the Duxbury Reef

  9. Can upwelling signals be detected in intertidal fishes of different trophic levels?

    PubMed

    Pulgar, J; Poblete, E; Alvarez, M; Morales, J P; Aranda, B; Aldana, M; Pulgar, V M

    2013-11-01

    For intertidal fishes belonging to three species, the herbivore Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae), the omnivore Girella laevifrons (Kyphosidae) and the carnivore Graus nigra (Kyphosidae), mass and body size relationships were higher in individuals from an upwelling zone compared with those from a non-upwelling zone. RNA:DNA were higher in the herbivores and omnivores from the upwelling zone. Higher biomass and RNA:DNA in the upwelling intertidal fishes may be a consequence of an increased exposure to higher nutrient availability, suggesting that increased physiological conditioning in vertebrates from upwelling areas can be detected and measured using intertidal fishes of different trophic levels.

  10. NASA honors Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Apollo 13 astronaut and Biloxi native Fred Haise Jr. smiles during a Dec. 2 ceremony at Gorenflo Elementary School in Biloxi honoring his space career. During the ceremony, Haise was presented with NASA's Ambassador of Exploration Award (an encased moon rock). He subsequently presented the moon rock to Gorenflo officials for display at the school. Haise is best known as one of three astronauts who nursed a crippled Apollo 13 spacecraft back to Earth during a perilous 1970 mission. Although he was unable to walk on the moon as planned for that mission, Haise ended his astronaut career having logged 142 hours and 54 minutes in space. During the ceremony, he praised all those who contributed to the space program.

  11. Substrate size mediates thermal stress in the rocky intertidal.

    PubMed

    Gedan, Keryn B; Bernhardt, Joanna; Bertness, Mark D; Leslie, Heather M

    2011-03-01

    Variation in physical factors, such as slope, orientation, and wind exposure, shapes thermal conditions. Variation in substrate size is common in many habitats, but its thermal consequences for organisms are not well characterized. Larger substrates should remain more thermally stable and act as thermal refuges for associated organisms during short, thermally stressful periods such as midday temperature peaks or tidal exposure. In observations and a transplant and thermal integration experiment, we found that larger rock substrates stayed cooler and facilitated greater survival of the barnacle Semibalanus balanoides in the high intertidal relative to small substrates during the hot summer months in southern New England, USA. However, in thermally benign northern New England, rock substrate size had no effect on barnacle distributions, indicating that the thermal effects of substrate size are mediated by regional climate.

  12. Influence of macrofaunal assemblages and environmental heterogeneity on microphytobenthic production in experimental systems

    PubMed Central

    Dyson, Kirstie E; Bulling, Mark T; Solan, Martin; Hernandez-Milian, Gema; Raffaelli, David G; White, Piran C.L; Paterson, David M

    2007-01-01

    Despite the complexity of natural systems, heterogeneity caused by the fragmentation of habitats has seldom been considered when investigating ecosystem processes. Empirical approaches that have included the influence of heterogeneity tend to be biased towards terrestrial habitats; yet marine systems offer opportunities by virtue of their relative ease of manipulation, rapid response times and the well-understood effects of macrofauna on sediment processes. Here, the influence of heterogeneity on microphytobenthic production in synthetic estuarine assemblages is examined. Heterogeneity was created by enriching patches of sediment with detrital algae (Enteromorpha intestinalis) to provide a source of allochthonous organic matter. A gradient of species density for four numerically dominant intertidal macrofauna (Hediste diversicolor, Hydrobia ulvae, Corophium volutator, Macoma balthica) was constructed, and microphytobenthic biomass at the sediment surface was measured. Statistical analysis using generalized least squares regression indicated that heterogeneity within our system was a significant driving factor that interacted with macrofaunal density and species identity. Microphytobenthic biomass was highest in enriched patches, suggesting that nutrients were obtained locally from the sediment–water interface and not from the water column. Our findings demonstrate that organic enrichment can cause the development of heterogeneity which influences infaunal bioturbation and consequent nutrient generation, a driver of microphytobenthic production. PMID:17698480

  13. Influence of macrofaunal assemblages and environmental heterogeneity on microphytobenthic production in experimental systems.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Kirstie E; Bulling, Mark T; Solan, Martin; Hernandez-Milian, Gema; Raffaelli, David G; White, Piran C L; Paterson, David M

    2007-10-22

    Despite the complexity of natural systems, heterogeneity caused by the fragmentation of habitats has seldom been considered when investigating ecosystem processes. Empirical approaches that have included the influence of heterogeneity tend to be biased towards terrestrial habitats; yet marine systems offer opportunities by virtue of their relative ease of manipulation, rapid response times and the well-understood effects of macrofauna on sediment processes. Here, the influence of heterogeneity on microphytobenthic production in synthetic estuarine assemblages is examined. Heterogeneity was created by enriching patches of sediment with detrital algae (Enteromorpha intestinalis) to provide a source of allochthonous organic matter. A gradient of species density for four numerically dominant intertidal macrofauna (Hediste diversicolor, Hydrobia ulvae, Corophium volutator, Macoma balthica) was constructed, and microphytobenthic biomass at the sediment surface was measured. Statistical analysis using generalized least squares regression indicated that heterogeneity within our system was a significant driving factor that interacted with macrofaunal density and species identity. Microphytobenthic biomass was highest in enriched patches, suggesting that nutrients were obtained locally from the sediment-water interface and not from the water column. Our findings demonstrate that organic enrichment can cause the development of heterogeneity which influences infaunal bioturbation and consequent nutrient generation, a driver of microphytobenthic production.

  14. Benthic ciliate and meiofaunal communities in two contrasting habitats of an intertidal estuarine wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yongfen; Xu, Kuidong; Warren, Alan; Lei, Yanli; Dai, Renhai

    2012-05-01

    Annual variations in benthic meiofaunal and ciliated protozoan communities were investigated using monthly samplings from June 2006 to May 2007 in two habitats characterized by different vegetal coverage in an estuarine intertidal wetland of Qingdao Jiaozhou Bay, China. The sediment composition was stable at each site: sediments densely covered with seagrass (Suaeda glauca) in the lower estuarine site (Station S) were finer, with higher content of organic matter, phaeopigments and water than sediments at the upper estuarine site (Station S-P) which was unvegetated other than for patches of S. glauca and common reed (Phragmites australis). Chlorophyll a exhibited a similar distribution in the two habitats. A total of 14 meiofaunal groups, and 249 species of ciliates belonging to 37 genera, 28 families and 16 orders, were isolated from the two sites. Univariate and multivariate measures of the communities were significantly different between the two habitats. There were higher abundances of ciliates and meiofauna, and a greater diversity of ciliates, at Station S than Station S-P (223 vs. 61 species). Herbivorous ciliates were numerically predominant in ciliate communities at both sites. The representative ciliates at Station S-P belonged to the Cyrtophorida and appeared to be a reduced subset of the assemblage at Station S, which was characterized by members of the Prostomatida, Cyrtophorida, Hypotrichida and Scuticociliatida. More than 96% of the total meiofauna were nematodes, accounting for 93% of the differences in the abundance compositions of the meiofaunal communities between habitats. The average individual weights of nematodes were nearly 3 times greater at Station S than Station S-P, indicating a distinctive species composition at each site. Temperature, salinity and food availability were key factors that regulated the ciliate and meiofaunal community structure. Nematodes were the dominant group in terms of the combined abundance, biomass and benthic

  15. Photosynthetic activity, photoprotection and photoinhibition in intertidal microphytobenthos as studied in situ using variable chlorophyll fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serôdio, João; Vieira, Sónia; Cruz, Sónia

    2008-06-01

    The photosynthetic activity of microphytobenthos biofilms was studied in situ on an intertidal mudflat of the Ria de Aveiro, Portugal. Time series of physical variables characterizing the microenvironment at the sediment photic zone (incident solar irradiance, temperature, salinity), photophysiological parameters and productive biomass of undisturbed microalgal assemblages were measured during daytime low-tide periods along one spring-neap tidal cycle, with the objective of (1) characterizing the short-term variability in photosynthetic activity in situ, (2) relating it with the changing environmental conditions and (3) with the operation of physiologically (xanthophyll cycle) and behaviorally (vertical migration) based photoprotective processes, and (4) assessing the occurrence of photoinhibition. Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry was applied to measure photosynthetic activity (the effective and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II, Δ F/ Fm' and Fv/ Fm; the photosynthesis index EFY; rapid light-response curves (RLC)), the photoprotective operation of the xanthophyll cycle and photoinhibition (non-photochemical quenching, NPQ; quantum efficiency of open RCs, Fv'/ Fm'), and vertical migration (productive biomass, Fo). The photosynthetic activity was found to be strongly affected by the cumulative light dose received during the morning low-tide periods. The fluorescence indices Δ F/ Fm', EFY, Fv'/ Fm' and RLC parameters were more depressed under high irradiances when clear sky was present during the morning low tide than when foggy conditions reduced the light dose received during a comparable period. Productive biomass exhibited maximum values in the first hours of the morning, followed by a steep decrease when irradiance reached moderate levels, due to the downward migration of the microalgae. This photophobic migratory response appeared to display a photoprotective role, allowing Δ F/ Fm' to remain near optimum values until irradiance reached

  16. Characterisation of estuarine intertidal macroalgae by laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameiro, Carla; Utkin, Andrei B.; Cartaxana, Paulo

    2015-12-01

    The article reports the application of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for the assessment of macroalgae communities of estuarine intertidal areas. The method was applied for the characterisation of fifteen intertidal macroalgae species of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, and adjacent coastal area. Three bands characterised the LIF spectra of red macroalgae with emission maxima in the ranges 577-583 nm, 621-642 nm and 705-731 nm. Green and brown macroalgae showed one emission maximum in the red region (687-690 nm) and/or one in the far-red region (726-732 nm). Characteristics of LIF emission spectra were determined by differences in the main fluorescing pigments: phycoerythrin, phycocyanin and chlorophyll a (Chl a). In the green and brown macroalgae groups, the relative significance of the two emission maxima seems to be related to the thickness of the photosynthetic layer. In thick macroalgae, like Codium tomentosum or Fucus vesiculosus, the contribution of the far-red emission fluorescence peak was more significant, most probably due to re-absorption of the emitted red Chl a fluorescence within the dense photosynthetic layer. Similarly, an increase in the number of layers of the thin-blade green macroalgae Ulva rigida caused a shift to longer wavelengths of the red emission maximum and the development of a fluorescence peak at the far-red region. Water loss from Ulva's algal tissue also led to a decrease in the red/far-red Chl fluorescence ratio (F685/F735), indicating an increase in the density of chloroplasts in the shrinking macroalgal tissue during low tide exposure.

  17. Predation on barnacles of intertidal and subtidal mussel beds in the Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbaum, Christian

    2002-04-01

    Balanids are the numerically dominant epibionts on mussel beds in the Wadden Sea. Near the island of Sylt (German Bight, North Sea), Semibalanus balanoides dominated intertidally and Balanus crenatus subtidally. Field experiments were conducted to test the effects of predation on the density of barnacle recruits. Subtidally, predator exclusion resulted in significantly increased abundances of B. crenatus, while predator exclusion had no significant effects on the density of S. balanoides intertidally. It is suggested that recruitment of B. crenatus to subtidal mussel beds is strongly affected by adult shore crabs ( Carcinus maenas) and juvenile starfish ( Asterias rubens), whereas recruits of S. balanoides in the intertidal zone are mainly influenced by grazing and bulldozing of the very abundant periwinkle Littorina littorea, which is rare subtidally. Thus, not only do the barnacle species differ between intertidal and subtidal mussel beds, but the biotic control factors do so as well.

  18. Estuarine intertidal sediment temperature variability in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...

  19. Distribution of intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) with bathymetry in three Pacific Northwest estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native intertidal eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) and non-vegetated substrates in three coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW) were determined using color infrared (CIR) aerial orthophotography during daylight low tides. Comparison of the digital classif...

  20. The bathymetric distribution of intertidal eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three coastal estuaries of Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distributions of native eelgrass Zostera marina L. within the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones of three Oregon coastal estuaries (Tillamook, Yaquina, and Alsea) were determined by digital classification of aerial color infrared (CIR) orthophotographs. Stratified random surv...

  1. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  2. Inter-Tidal Flats Segmentation Of SAR Images Using A Waterfall Hierarchical Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, F.; Catalao, J.; Nico, G.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we describe a scheme to identify 1D structures in SAR images and applied it to a dataset consisting of two TerraSAR-X images acquired over the region of Lisbon with a temporal baseline of 22 days. The aim of this application it to identify the inter-tidal flats along the south bank of the Tagus river. First results show that a proper recognition of the inter-tidal zone is achieved.

  3. Macroalgal fouling on the intertidal mole crab Emerita analoga facilitates bird predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Firstater, Fausto N.; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Gallegos, Percy; Gamero, Patricia; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we studied the effects of predation by birds on the intertidal mole crab Emerita analoga fouled by macroalgae in a sandy beach of central Peru (11° S). The epibiosis affected mostly the larger animals, especially adult females. Epibiosis prevalence for the entire intertidal population was relatively low (1-2%), however, within the size range affected by epibiosis in the intertidal zone (18-23 mm in carapace length), 20-38% of the animals were fouled. Focal observations of birds showed that fouled animals are preferred over those non-fouled of the same size class and hence the same sex, being consumed at a higher rate than their proportion in the intertidal (Chesson’s alpha index of prey selection >0.96), and estimations of mortality rates indicated that more than 35% of the intertidal fouled animals are removed everyday by birds. The effect of epibiosis may be mainly attributed to a higher burrowing time or an increased visual attractive effect of the algae, which make fouled animals more conspicuous to predatory birds, or because of fouling enhances profitability of the animals. The results show that epibiosis has negative effects on E. analoga through increasing predation by birds, which in turn restricts the distribution and abundance of fouled E. analoga in the intertidal zone.

  4. EPA Honors New Englands 2015 Energy Star Partners of the Year

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring 130 organizations nationwide for their commitment to protecting the environment through superior energy efficiency.

  5. 12 New England Organizations Honored for Outstanding Achievements in Energy Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring 12 New England businesses and organizations for their commitment to saving energy, saving money, and protecting the environment through superior energy efficiency achievements.

  6. EPA Honors Soltex for Innovative Approaches to Reduce Wastewater and Fight Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (July 13, 2015) Saving water is becoming more and more important in our growing and changing world. Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency honored Synthetic Oils and Lubricants (SOLTEX) for inventing a new process that eliminates t

  7. Michael F. Vaccaro Honors Attorney Fellowship Program in our Philadelphia (Region 3) Office

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Michael F. Vaccaro Honors Attorney Fellowship provides a unique opportunity to practice law in a major governmental environmental organization, and to receive extensive training in and exposure to environmental law and policy work in the public sector.

  8. U.S. EPA Honors Southern Calif. Government Partners for Helping to Fight Climate Change

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is honoring Western Riverside Council of Governments, San Bernardino Associated Governments, and County of Los Angeles with a 2016 Innovative Partnerships Certificate for their leadership in addressing

  9. EPA Honors Outstanding Environmental Educators: 2015 Applications Sought, 2014 Central Washington Teacher Recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Seattle, WA -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the White House Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) want to honor, support and encourage educators who incorporate environmental education in their classrooms and teaching methods. Applic

  10. Incorporating a research apprenticeship model in a Canadian nursing Honors Program.

    PubMed

    Reutter, Linda; Paul, Pauline; Sales, Anne; Jerke, Hannah; Lee, Anra; McColl, Meighan; Stafford, Erin; Visram, Alysha

    2010-08-01

    In this article, we describe the development of a BScN (Honors) Program in a large Canadian university. We describe the elements of the program, including the application of a research apprenticeship model as the core of the program. We provide examples of student learning experiences culminating in the Honors project. Recruitment, balancing clinical and research interests, financial support, and manageability of the Honors project emerged as key challenges in our first offerings of the program. Overall, students perceived that experiential research learning enhanced their research skills, increased appreciation of the process and outcomes of nursing research, and inspired confidence to pursue graduate education. We conclude that an apprenticeship model providing students with experiential research learning with established faculty researchers is an effective and efficient way to deliver the Honors Program in the context of a research-intensive nursing faculty.

  11. EPAs SmartWay Honors Green Leaders in the Freight Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced the 2015 winners of the coveted SmartWay Excellence Awards for retailers, manufacturers and logistics companies. The awards honors the top performing SmartWay partner compan

  12. EPA Honors Ten Texas Organizations for 2015 Energy Star Partners of Year

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (April 6, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are honoring ten Texas organizations for its commitment to saving energy and protecting the environment through superior energy efficienc

  13. 77 FR 43703 - Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Aurora, Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8842 of July 20, 2012 Honoring the Victims of the Tragedy in Aurora, Colorado... of the senseless acts of violence perpetrated on July 20, 2012, in Aurora, Colorado, by the...

  14. North Carolina Student Among Those Honored Today by White House, EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the White House Council on Environmental Quality together with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recognized the winners and honorable mentions of the annual President's Environmental Youth Awards (PEYA) and Presidential

  15. EPA Honors Pa. Environmental Resources Consortium For Food Recovery Challenge Achievement

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    LANCASTER, Pa. (April 23, 2015) -- The U.S Environmental Protection Agency today honored the Pennsylvania Environmental Resources Consortium (PERC) for recruiting 22 Pennsylvania colleges and universities to participate in EPA's Food Recovery Challe

  16. Fish Assemblage Structure of the Shallow Ocean Surf-Zone on the Eastern Shore of Virginia Barrier Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layman, C. A.

    2000-08-01

    This study provides an in-depth description of the fishes in the shallow surf-zone (<0·4 m), a little-studied micro-habitat of the ocean surf. Fish assemblages were examined with respect to three temporal cycles (seasonal, diel and tidal) and at both large and small spatial scales. Sampling was conducted at the Virginia barrier islands using an 8 m bag seine dragged parallel to the beach in water with an average depth of 0·2 m. The fish assemblage was relatively species poor, in fact, there were only two year-round residents, Membras martinica (rough silverside) and Mugil curema (white mullet). Three species, M. martinica, Trachinotus carolinus (Florida pompano) and Menticirrhus littoralis (gulf kingfish), comprised 94% of all species captured. Both fish species richness and total abundance peaked in the late summer and were lowest in the winter. Multidimensional scaling analysis failed to identify a distinct nighttime fish assemblage. However, univariate analyses found there was a significant increase in species richness at night, due to an influx of predatory adult fishes. Further, significantly more species were collected at high than low tide. Higher species richness and total fish abundance occurred in the shallow water (<0·4 m) of runnels, low wave energy habitats on the backside of small sand bars. The increased richness and abundance suggests a small-scale movement of fishes parallel to the beach face as fishes seek sheltered runnel habitats. This study quantifies the observation that many fishes do utilize the shallow surf-zone, perhaps to minimize predator encounters and/or take advantage of an under-utilized intertidal food source.

  17. Information Technology Strategies for Honor Society and Organization Membership Retention in Online Nursing Programs.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Emily E; Wasco, Jennifer J

    2016-12-30

    Membership retention in an honor society or organization is of utmost importance for sustainability. However, retaining members in organizations that serve online education nursing students can be a challenging task. Understanding the importance of creating a sense of community to promote retention within an honor society chapter, nursing faculty at a small private university implemented different online approaches. This article highlights successful information technology strategies to promote membership retention in organizations for online nursing students.

  18. Honoring silence and valuing community: living leadership in 21st century teaching-learning.

    PubMed

    Backer Condon, Barbara; Hegge, Margaret

    2014-04-01

    Leadership is a very personal concept. The methods implemented by leaders often reflect philosophical beliefs and theoretical underpinnings. This column, while recognizing that leadership styles are indeed personal, proffers living leadership in nursing education through two key leadership attitudes. These attitudes are honoring silence and valuing community. Honoring silence is discussed as recognizing the multiple dimensions of silence, and valuing community is presented in light of the humanbecoming community models change concepts: moving-initiating, anchoring-shifting, and pondering-shaping.

  19. Mortality, behavior and the effects of predators on the intertidal distribution of littorinid gastropods.

    PubMed

    Rochette; Dill

    2000-10-25

    Predators can affect the vertical distribution of mobile intertidal invertebrates in two ways: they can (1) cause greater mortality of prey at certain intertidal levels, and (2) induce prey to seek safer intertidal areas. In this study, we investigate whether low-intertidal and subtidal predators affect the intertidal distribution of two congeneric species of small herbivorous gastropods of northeastern Pacific shores, Littorina sitkana Philippi 1846, and L. scutulata Gould 1849. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that predators affect the distribution of these snails by inducing them to seek higher and safer intertidal areas. On a wave-sheltered shore in Barkley Sound, British Columbia, L. sitkana and L. scutulata were both killed by predatory crabs (e.g., Cancer productus) more frequently when tethered near the lower limit of their intertidal distribution ( approximately 1 m) than when tethered where they were most common ( approximately 2.5 m), suggesting that high mortality rates are partly responsible for the lower-limit of these snails' intertidal distribution. However, two field mark-recapture experiments indicated that the snails' behavioral response to predation risk also influences their distribution. In the first experiment, snails from the 2.5-m level (low risk) transplanted to the 1.0-m level (high risk) displayed a strong and consistent tendency to move shoreward, especially L. sitkana, some traveling 10-15 m in 2-3 days to regain their original level. These shoreward movements were especially precise in the northern part of the study area, where predation rates on tethered snails were greatest. Furthermore, larger more vulnerable snails were more strongly oriented shoreward than smaller individuals, indicating that antipredator behavior might also contribute to intertidal size gradients in these species. In the second mark-recapture experiment, we manipulated predation risk using small cages and found that snails exposed to the odors of C

  20. Seasonal changes in mollusc abundance in a tropical intertidal ecosystem, Banc d'Arguin (Mauritania): Testing the ‘depletion by shorebirds' hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Vall; van der Geest, Matthijs; Piersma, Theunis; Saoud, Younès; van Gils, Jan A.

    2014-01-01

    At temperate latitudes densities and biomass of intertidal molluscs tend to be strongly seasonal. Here we provide a comparative study on seasonality of bivalves and gastropods in the tropical intertidal seagrass-covered soft sediment environment of Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania (20°N, 16°W). In this system, benthivorous shorebirds exert considerable predation pressure with strong seasonal variations. It has been proposed that during the period when (adult) shorebirds are absent (May-August) benthic biomass would be able to recover, but a first test was inconclusive. Over a full year (March 2011-February 2012), each month we sampled benthic invertebrates at sixteen permanent sites. The total of 3763 specimens comprised 20 species, representing eight orders and 19 families. Bivalves were much more common than gastropods. The bivalve Loripes lucinalis dominated the assemblage throughout the year (58% of total number), followed by Dosinia isocardia (10%), Senilia senilis (8%) and the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis (6%). Average biomass amounted to 32 g AFDM/m2, of which the large West-African bloody cockle Senilia made up three-quarter, Loripes 16%, Gibbula 2% and Dosinia 1%. Across the 20 species, lowest densities were reached in late spring (May) and summer (Aug.), whereas highest densities occurred in autumn (Oct.). The lowest overall density of 676 specimens/m² in August more than doubled to a peak density of 1538 specimens/m² in October, most of the increase being due to strong recruitment in both Loripes (densities increasing from 322 specimens/m² in Sept. to 785 specimens/m² in Oct.) and Dosinia (densities increasing from 18 specimens/m² in Aug. to 265 specimens/m² in Sept.). Our results suggest that by the time the feathered molluscivore predators returned in high numbers to Banc d'Arguin (after their summer breeding season in the Arctic), benthic animals were at a peak. In order to quantitatively understand the seasonal changes in mollusc abundance, we

  1. On Einstein's Path, essays in honor of Engelbert Schucking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Alex

    This collection of essays in honor of Engelbert Schucking spans the gamut of research in general relativity and presents a lively and personal account of current work in the field. Contributions include: E.L. Schucking: Jordan, Pauli, Politics, Brecht... and a Variable Gravitational Constant J.L. Anderson: Thomson Scattering in an Expanding Universe A. Ashtekar & T.A. Schilling: Geometrical Formulation of Quantum Mechanics J. Baugh, D.R. Finkelstein, H. Saller, and Zhong Tang: General Covariance is Bose-Einstein Statistics S.L. Bazanski: The Split and Propagation of Light Rays in Relativity L. Bel: How to Define a Unique Vacuum in Cosmology P.G. Bergmann: EIH Theory and Noether's Theorem W.B. Bonnor: The Static Cylinder in General Relativity C.H. Brahns: Gravity and the Tenacious Scalar Field D. Brill: The Cavendish Experiment in General Relativity Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Wave Maps in General Relativity T. Damour: General Relativty and Experiment J. Ehlers: Some Developments in Newtonian Cosmology G.F.R. Ellis & H. van Elst: Deviation of Geodesics in FLRW Spacetime Geometries S. Frittelli & E.T. Newman: Poincar Pseudo-symmetries in Asymptotically Flat Spacetimes E.N. Glass: Taub Numbers and Asymptotic Invariants J.N. Goldberg: Second Class Constraints F.W. Hehl, A. Macias, E.W. Mielke, & Yu.N. Obukhov: On the Structure of the Energy-momentum and the Spin Currents in Dirac's Electron

  2. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    PubMed

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P; Telfer, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that: 1. There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3. There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4. Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues.

  3. Fish Assemblages of Mediterranean Marine Caves

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning. PMID:25875504

  4. Intertidal oysters reach their physiological limit in a future high-CO2 world.

    PubMed

    Scanes, Elliot; Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Stapp, Laura S; Ross, Pauline M

    2017-03-01

    Sessile marine molluscs living in the intertidal zone experience periods of internal acidosis when exposed to air (emersion) during low tide. Relative to other marine organisms, molluscs have been identified as vulnerable to future ocean acidification; however, paradoxically it has also been shown that molluscs exposed to high CO2 environments are more resilient compared with those molluscs naive to CO2 exposure. Two competing hypotheses were tested using a novel experimental design incorporating tidal simulations to predict the future intertidal limit of oysters in a high-CO2 world; either high-shore oysters will be more tolerant of elevated PCO2 because of their regular acidosis, or elevated PCO2  will cause high-shore oysters to reach their limit. Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, were collected from the high-intertidal and subtidal areas of the shore and exposed in an orthogonal design to either an intertidal or a subtidal treatment at ambient or elevated PCO2 , and physiological variables were measured. The combined treatment of tidal emersion and elevated PCO2  interacted synergistically to reduce the haemolymph pH (pHe) of oysters, and increase the PCO2  in the haemolymph (Pe,CO2 ) and standard metabolic rate. Oysters in the intertidal treatment also had lower condition and growth. Oysters showed a high degree of plasticity, and little evidence was found that intertidal oysters were more resilient than subtidal oysters. It is concluded that in a high-CO2 world the upper vertical limit of oyster distribution on the shore may be reduced. These results suggest that previous studies on intertidal organisms that lacked tidal simulations may have underestimated the effects of elevated PCO2.

  5. Mussel beds — amensalism or amelioration for intertidal fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, Sabine

    1990-09-01

    The faunal assemblages of a mussel bed ( Mytilus edulis L.) and ambient sandflat were compared to study how a bioherm of suspension feeding organisms affects benthic communities in a tidal flat. During a survey of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea at the island of Sylt (North Sea), a total of 52 macrofaunal species and 44 meiobenthic plathelminth species were detected. They occupied different microhabitats in the mussel bed. 56% of the macrofauna species were dwelling in the sediment beneath the mussels and 42% were epibenthic or epiphytic. The latter were restricted in their occurrence to the mussel bed. Along a transect from the sandflat to the mussel bed the mean species densities of macrofauna did not differ significantly, while abundances were significantly lower in the mussel bed than in the sandflat. The composition of the assemblages shifted from a dominance of Polychaeta in the sandflat to Oligochaeta in the mussel bed. Surface filter-feeding polychaetes of the sandflat ( Tharyx marioni) were displaced by deposit feeding polychaetes under the mussel cover ( Capitella capitata, Heteromastus filiformis). The total meiobenthic density was lower and single taxa (Ostracoda, Plathelminthes, Nematoda) were significantly less abundant in the mud of the mussel bed. The plathelminth assemblage was dominated by grazing species ( Archaphanostoma agile), and differed in community structure from a sandflat aseemblage. An amensalistic relationship was found between the suspension-feeding mussels and suspension-feeding infauna, while deposit-feeders were enhanced. The presence of epibenthic microhabitats results in a variety of trophic groups co-occurring in a mussel bed. This is hypothesized as trophic group amelioration and described as an attribute of heterotrophic reefs.

  6. Understanding Student Academic Performance Differences in College Based on Advanced Placement College Credits Earned in High School: A Comparison between Honors and Non-Honors Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Aquino, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    Since their development in the early twentieth century Honors Programs and Colleges within Higher Education serve a variety of functions; from attracting academically talented students to an institution for the purposes of increasing the institutional profile to providing an opportunity for those students to achieve their potential. However, the…

  7. Inspiring Exemplary Teaching and Learning: Perspectives on Teaching Academically Talented College Students--A Companion Piece to "Teaching and Learning in Honors." National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Larry, Ed.; Zubizarreta, John, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This monograph is a companion piece to "Teaching and Learning in Honors." The authors in this monograph are dedicated to exploring the sometimes magical, sometimes ordinary, sometimes rewarding, sometimes challenging connections between good teaching and deep, lasting learning. Questions regarding students' learning, pedagogical…

  8. Differential responses of emergent intertidal coral reef fauna to a large-scale El-Niño southern oscillation event: sponge and coral resilience.

    PubMed

    Kelmo, Francisco; Bell, James J; Moraes, Simone Souza; Gomes, Rilza da Costa Tourinho; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Attrill, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of information on the impacts of the 1997-8 El Niño event and subsequent climatic episodes on emergent intertidal coral reef assemblages. Given the environmental variability intertidal reefs experience, such reefs may potentially be more resilient to climatic events and provide important insights into the adaptation of reef fauna to future ocean warming. Here we report the results of a 17-year (1995-2011) biodiversity survey of four emergent coral reef ecosystems in Bahia, Brazil, to assess the impact of a major El Niño event on the reef fauna, and determine any subsequent recovery. The densities of two species of coral, Favia gravida and Siderastrea stellata, did not vary significantly across the survey period, indicating a high degree of tolerance to the El Niño associated stress. However, there were marked decreases in the diversity of other taxa. Molluscs, bryozoans and ascidians suffered severe declines in diversity and abundance and had not recovered to pre-El Niño levels by the end of the study. Echinoderms were reduced to a single species in 1999, Echinometra lucunter, although diversity levels had recovered by 2002. Sponge assemblages were not impacted by the 1997-8 event and their densities had increased by the study end. Multivariate analysis indicated that a stable invertebrate community had re-established on the reefs after the El Niño event, but it has a different overall composition to the pre-El Niño community. It is unclear if community recovery will continue given more time, but our study highlights that any increase in the frequency of large-scale climatic events to more than one a decade is likely to result in a persistent lower-diversity state. Our results also suggest some coral and sponge species are particularly resilient to the El Niño-associated stress and therefore represent suitable models to investigate temperature adaptation in reef organisms.

  9. Daily activity rhythms in the intertidal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae (Pennant)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. S. K.

    1986-03-01

    The intertidal gastropod Hydrobia ulvae was subjected experimentally in undisturbed core samples to different combinations of the presence or absence of light and of cover by seawater. As displayed in the field, a greater proportion of snails were active in the dark than in the light, and when covered by water as opposed to being provided only with a damp sediment surface. A slight, but significant, rhythmic change in activity levels, with a period averaging 24·5 h, was shownby animals maintained under conditions of constant darkness and of damp sediment surface. Peak activity in this rhythm, which is equivalent to only 1·3-1·6 times minimum levels, did not coincide with the peaks of activity displayed during the more marked rhythmic response of H. ulvae to natural fluctuations in light intensity and tidal water cover, however, and this presumed endogenous rhythm does not appear to contribute to such rhythmic activity in the field. Increased proportional activity in nature is suggested to be most likely a direct response to changes in ambient light intensity and to the presence or absence of water cover.

  10. Behavioral reactions to novel food odors by intertidal hermit crabs.

    PubMed

    Tran, Mark V

    2015-04-01

    Novel food items represent important food resources for generalist scavengers, such as intertidal hermit crabs. For animals that rely heavily on olfaction to mediate foraging, their first encounters with novel food items come from the detection of novel food odors. Although crustaceans have been shown to possess sensory mechanisms for processing novel odors, little is known about the level of stimulus reinforcement needed to maintain behavioral responses to novel food odors upon subsequent exposures. In the context of foraging, reinforcement of a novel food odor comes from feeding on the novel food item after sensory detection of the food item. This study tested the behavioral responses of hermit crabs to a novel food odor over repeated exposures both with and without stimulus reinforcement. The results show that stimulus reinforcement is needed for the animals to maintain their baseline level of behavioral responses to the novel food odors. Animals that were allowed to feed on the novel food item after first exposure (reinforced treatment) maintained strong behavioral reactions to the novel food odor during subsequent exposures. The behavioral reactions of animals that were not allowed to feed on the novel food item after first exposure (unreinforced treatment) rapidly declined.

  11. Multiple predator effects in an intertidal food web.

    PubMed

    Van Son, Thijs Christiaan; Thiel, Martin

    2006-01-01

    1. We examined the effects of multiple predators from an intertidal boulder food web to test whether and how three different predator species affected the survival of a small amphipod species. 2. Predators were chosen because they differ in their foraging mode, two feeding at the bottom and in benthic refuges (nemertean and shrimp) and one in the water-column (juveniles of a fish). 3. Mortality of amphipods was not affected by nemerteans, but was high in the presence of shrimp or fish. Highest mortalities were observed in predator-combinations that contained both shrimp and fish. Amphipods responded to shrimp by escaping into the water column, while they avoided fish by remaining in the refuge. We conclude that predator-specific defence causes conflicts for prey when both shrimp and fish are present. 4. Comparing observed effects of multiple predators with expected effects revealed risk enhancement for the shrimp + fish combination. A comparison of different predictive models revealed that the multiplicative model was most appropriate, although additive models may work well under certain conditions. 5. Based on known consumption-ranges of the predators used, we conclude that nemerteans were saturated with prey while fish were far from their saturation point. A predator's functional response curve (prey consumption in relation to prey abundance) determines its impact on prey populations. This knowledge appears essential in order to predict whether prey organisms face risk enhancement, risk reduction or additive effects of multiple predators.

  12. Single cell visualization of sulfur cycling in intertidal microbial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, K.; Green, A.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    Chemoautrophic microbial mats form in shallow intertidal pools adjacent to sulfidic hydrothermal vents in San Pedro, CA. Sulfide is primarily geologically derived. However, microscopy revealed deltaproteobacteria closely associated with Beggiatoa -like filaments, indicating an additional biogenic sulfide source, derived from sulfate reduction or sulfur disproportionation. At small scales the intercellular interaction of sulfide producing and sulfide consuming bacteria may play a important role in biogeochemical sulfur cycling. We explored the intracellular transfer of biologically derived sulfide in this system with triple and quadruple stable isotope labeling experiments: 13C, 15N, 33S, and 34S. Silicon wafers colonized by microbial mats in situ, were then incubated with 34SO42- or 34SO42- and 33S0 as well as 13C-acetate and 15NH4+and analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) coupled to nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). We observed enrichment of 34S and 33S in both deltaproteobacteria and sulfide oxidizing gammaproteobacteria. Greater enrichment relative to killed controls occurred in deltaproteobacteria than the sulfide oxidizers during both sulfate reducing (Δ34Sdelta-killed = 240‰, Δ34Sgamma-killed = 40‰) and sulfur disproportionating incubations (Δ33Sdelta-killed = 1730‰, Δ33Sgamma-killed = 1050‰). These results provide a direct visualization of interspecies sulfur transfer and indicate that biogenic sulfide derived from either sulfate or intermediate oxidation state sulfur species plays a role in sulfur cycling in this system.

  13. Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in marine intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visscher, P.T.; Kiene, R.P.; Taylor, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was measured in three different types of,intertidal marine sediments: a cyanobacterial mat, a diatom-covered tidal flat and a carbonate sediment. Consumption rates of added DMSP were highest in cyanobacterial mat slurries (59 ?? mol DMSP l-1 slurry h-1) and lower in slurries from a diatom mat and a carbonate tidal sediment (24 and 9 ??mol DMSP l-1 h-1, respectively). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA) were produced simultaneously during DMSP consumption, indicating that cleavage and demethylation occurred at the same time. Viable counts of DMSP-utilizing bacteria revealed a population of 2 x 107 cells cm-3 sediment (90% of these cleaved DMSP to DMS, 10% demethylated DMSP to MPA) in the cyanobacterial mat, 7 x 105 cells cm-3 in the diatom mat (23% cleavers, 77% demethylators), and 9 x 104 cells cm-3 (20% cleavers and 80% demethylators) in the carbonate sediment. In slurries of the diatom mat, the rate of MPA production from added 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) was 50% of the rate of MPA formation from DMSP. The presence of a large population of demethylating bacteria and the production of MPA from DMSP suggest that the demethylation pathway, in addition to cleavage, contributes significantly to DMSP consumption in coastal sediments.

  14. Metals in Ulva lactuca in Hong Kong intertidal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Y.B. )

    1990-07-01

    The levels of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in Ulva lactuca collected from 24 intertidal sites around the Island of Hong Kong were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Twelve of the sites are in the rural southern parts of the island where the coastal waters are relatively clean. The remaining 12 sites are located in the north and within Victoria Harbor which receives, apart from industrial effluents, untreated domestic sewage from a population of some 3.5 million. The mean levels of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in Ulva from the urban sites were respectively 4.0, 4.6, 1.8, 2.3, 2.4, and 4.6 times those from the rural sites. However, somewhat similar levels of Cd were found in the alga among all the sites. Some locations of high levels of metal contamination have been identified in Victoria Harbor. Preliminary findings indicated that Ulva is a good indicator of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb contamination due to its cosmopolitan distribution, simple morphology leading to ease of growth assessment, and its graded tolerance and response to pollutants. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. DESICCATION INDEX: A MEASURE OF DAMAGE CAUSED BY ADVERSE AERIAL EXPOSURE ON INTERTIDAL EELGRASS (ZOSTERA MARINA) IN AN OREGON (USA) ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) blade necrosis resulting from intertidal aerial exposure is describe. A desiccation index was developed to quantitatively assess this damage. This index was then used to evaluate the extent of desiccation damage across intertidal bathymetric slopes (st...

  16. Fish Assemblages on Estuarine Artificial Reefs: Natural Rocky-Reef Mimics or Discrete Assemblages?

    PubMed Central

    Folpp, Heath; Lowry, Michael; Gregson, Marcus; Suthers, Iain M.

    2013-01-01

    If the primary goal of artificial reef construction is the creation of additional reef habitat that is comparable to adjacent natural rocky-reef, then performance should be evaluated using simultaneous comparisons with adjacent natural habitats. Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV) fish assemblages on purpose-built estuarine artificial reefs and adjacent natural rocky-reef and sand-flat were assessed 18 months post-deployment in three south-east Australian estuaries. Fish abundance, species richness and diversity were found to be greater on the artificial reefs than on either naturally occurring reef or sand-flat in all estuaries. Comparisons within each estuary identified significant differences in the species composition between the artificial and natural rocky-reefs. The artificial reef assemblage was dominated by sparid species including Acanthopagrus australis and Rhabdosargus sarba. The preference for a range of habitats by theses sparid species is evident by their detection on sand-flat, natural rocky reef and artificial reef habitats. The fish assemblage identified on the artificial reefs remained distinct from the adjacent rocky-reef, comprising a range of species drawn from naturally occurring rocky-reef and sand-flat. In addition, some mid-water schooling species including Trachurus novaezelandiae and Pseudocaranx georgianus were only identified on the artificial reef community; presumably as result of the reef's isolated location in open-water. We concluded that estuarine artificial reef assemblages are likely to differ significantly from adjacent rocky-reef, potentially as a result of physical factors such as reef isolation, coupled with species specific behavioural traits such as the ability of some species to traverse large sand flats in order to locate reef structure, and feeding preferences. Artificial reefs should not be viewed as direct surrogates for natural reef. The assemblages are likely to remain distinct from naturally occurring

  17. Fish assemblages on estuarine artificial reefs: natural rocky-reef mimics or discrete assemblages?

    PubMed

    Folpp, Heath; Lowry, Michael; Gregson, Marcus; Suthers, Iain M

    2014-01-01

    If the primary goal of artificial reef construction is the creation of additional reef habitat that is comparable to adjacent natural rocky-reef, then performance should be evaluated using simultaneous comparisons with adjacent natural habitats. Using baited remote underwater video (BRUV) fish assemblages on purpose-built estuarine artificial reefs and adjacent natural rocky-reef and sand-flat were assessed 18 months post-deployment in three south-east Australian estuaries. Fish abundance, species richness and diversity were found to be greater on the artificial reefs than on either naturally occurring reef or sand-flat in all estuaries. Comparisons within each estuary identified significant differences in the species composition between the artificial and natural rocky-reefs. The artificial reef assemblage was dominated by sparid species including Acanthopagrus australis and Rhabdosargus sarba. The preference for a range of habitats by theses sparid species is evident by their detection on sand-flat, natural rocky reef and artificial reef habitats. The fish assemblage identified on the artificial reefs remained distinct from the adjacent rocky-reef, comprising a range of species drawn from naturally occurring rocky-reef and sand-flat. In addition, some mid-water schooling species including Trachurus novaezelandiae and Pseudocaranx georgianus were only identified on the artificial reef community; presumably as result of the reef's isolated location in open-water. We concluded that estuarine artificial reef assemblages are likely to differ significantly from adjacent rocky-reef, potentially as a result of physical factors such as reef isolation, coupled with species specific behavioural traits such as the ability of some species to traverse large sand flats in order to locate reef structure, and feeding preferences. Artificial reefs should not be viewed as direct surrogates for natural reef. The assemblages are likely to remain distinct from naturally occurring

  18. Reservoir floodplains support distinct fish assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Wigen, S. L.; Dagel, Jonah D.

    2014-01-01

    Reservoirs constructed on floodplain rivers are unique because the upper reaches of the impoundment may include extensive floodplain environments. Moreover, reservoirs that experience large periodic water level fluctuations as part of their operational objectives seasonally inundate and dewater floodplains in their upper reaches, partly mimicking natural inundations of river floodplains. In four flood control reservoirs in Mississippi, USA, we explored the dynamics of connectivity between reservoirs and adjacent floodplains and the characteristics of fish assemblages that develop in reservoir floodplains relative to those that develop in reservoir bays. Although fish species richness in floodplains and bays were similar, species composition differed. Floodplains emphasized fish species largely associated with backwater shallow environments, often resistant to harsh environmental conditions. Conversely, dominant species in bays represented mainly generalists that benefit from the continuous connectivity between the bay and the main reservoir. Floodplains in the study reservoirs provided desirable vegetated habitats at lower water level elevations, earlier in the year, and more frequently than in bays. Inundating dense vegetation in bays requires raising reservoir water levels above the levels required to reach floodplains. Therefore, aside from promoting distinct fish assemblages within reservoirs and helping promote diversity in regulated rivers, reservoir floodplains are valued because they can provide suitable vegetated habitats for fish species at elevations below the normal pool, precluding the need to annually flood upland vegetation that would inevitably be impaired by regular flooding. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. A Community-based Education Project: Intertidal Surveys With Student and Adult Volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller-Parker, G.; Bingham, B. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Fidalgo Learning about the Intertidal Project (FLIP) brought together scientists, educators, students and adult volunteers (20-30 total individuals) to conduct studies of the intertidal zone of a section of Fidalgo Island, Wa. in 2003 and 2004. The project goals were to: 1) obtain basic data on diversity and abundance of intertidal species in different habitats, 2) promote public awareness and appreciation of the intertidal zone, and 3) develop a model program for volunteer participation in scientific surveys. The 2-week program began with 2 days of workshops on local intertidal organisms to teach the FLIP participants how to classify and identify the different organisms and substrates they were likely to encounter in the surveys. We provided general lectures on intertidal habitats and on the importance of the intertidal zone to coastal resources. The FLIP participants worked together on identifying organisms, practicing the use of quadrats and data collection before the surveys began. Following 4 days of field surveys, the participants signed up for workshops that included compilation and analysis of the data, photography, nature writing and algae pressing. The final activity was a public tour of the intertidal day held at a local park. 50-60 people of all ages participated. The goal was to educate the public in plant and animal identification and habitat variability as well as "beach etiquette." Successful model program elements included self-selected volunteers and attention to the composition of each survey team, with one scientist/leader per team and one adult and two students or two adults and one student per team (4-5 teams, each completing one transect per site). Program flexibility was also crucial; FLIP volunteers were not required to attend every single day and post-survey workshops were optional. Volunteers participated to different extents and for different lengths of time depending on their abilities and interests. Project ownership was important

  20. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project at Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soave, K.; Dean, A.; Darakananda, K.; Ball, O.; Butti, C.; Yang, G.; Vetter, M.; Grimaldi, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project at Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA Kathy Soave, Amy Dean, Olivia Ball, Karin Darakananda, Matt Vetter, Grant Yang, Charlotte Butti, Zoe Grimaldi The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of the project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and the requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program & Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects (A and B) and using randomly determined points within a permanent 100 m2 area, three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring). Using the data collected since 2004, we will analyze the population densities, seasonal abundance and long-term population trends of key algal and invertebrate species. Future analyses and investigations will include intertidal abiotic factors (including water temperature and human foot-traffic) to enhance insights into the workings of the Duxbury Reef ecosystem, in particular, the high intertidal zone which experiences the greatest amount of human

  1. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project at Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, A.; Soave, K.; Dean, A.; Salmi, I.; Tillapaugh, J.; Broad, C.; Raabe, B.; Ericson, W.

    2012-12-01

    Kathy Soave, Amy Dean, Andrew Buie, Isabella Salmi, Joey Tillapaugh, Cory Broad, Brooke Raabe, Whitney Ericson The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of this student-run project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and the requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program & Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects and, using randomly determined points, within two permanent 100 m2 areas, three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring). Using the data collected since 2004, we will once again compare population densities, seasonal abundance and long-term population trends of key algal and invertebrate species, including Tegula funebralis, Anthopluera elegantissima and Fucus spp.. We will continue to closely monitor algal population densities in within our site in light of the November 2007 San Francisco Bay oil spill that leaked heavy bunker fuel into intertidal habitats around the SF Bay. Future analyses and investigations will include intertidal abiotic

  2. Effects of Intertidal Harvest Practices on Levels of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus Bacteria in Oysters

    PubMed Central

    Kinsey, T. P.; Johnson, L. W.; Porso, R.; Friedman, B.; Curtis, M.; Wesighan, P.; Schuster, R.; Bowers, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus can grow rapidly in shellfish subjected to ambient air conditions, such as during intertidal exposure. In this study, levels of total and pathogenic (tdh+ and/or trh+) V. parahaemolyticus and total V. vulnificus were determined in oysters collected from two study locations where intertidal harvest practices are common. Samples were collected directly off intertidal flats, after exposure (ambient air [Washington State] or refrigerated [New Jersey]), and after reimmersion by natural tidal cycles. Samples were processed using a most-probable-number (MPN) real-time PCR method for total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus. In Washington State, the mean levels of V. parahaemolyticus increased 1.38 log MPN/g following intertidal exposure and dropped 1.41 log MPN/g after reimmersion for 1 day, but the levels were dependent upon the container type utilized. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus levels followed a similar trend. However, V. vulnificus levels increased 0.10 log MPN/g during intertidal exposure in Washington but decreased by >1 log MPN/g after reimmersion. In New Jersey, initial levels of all vibrios studied were not significantly altered during the refrigerated sorting and containerizing process. However, there was an increase in levels after the first day of reimmersion by 0.79, 0.72, 0.92, and 0.71 log MPN/g for total, tdh+ and trh+ V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus, respectively. The levels of all targets decreased to those similar to background after a second day of reimmersion. These data indicate that the intertidal harvest and handling practices for oysters that were studied in Washington and New Jersey do not increase the risk of illness from V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus. IMPORTANCE Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the leading causes of seafood-associated infectious morbidity and mortality in the United States. Vibrio spp. can grow rapidly in shellfish

  3. Introduced rats indirectly change marine rocky intertidal communities from algae- to invertebrate-dominated.

    PubMed

    Kurle, Carolyn M; Croll, Donald A; Tershy, Bernie R

    2008-03-11

    It is widely recognized that trophic interactions structure ecological communities, but their effects are usually only demonstrated on a small scale. As a result, landscape-level documentations of trophic cascades that alter entire communities are scarce. Islands invaded by animals provide natural experiment opportunities both to measure general trophic effects across large spatial scales and to determine the trophic roles of invasive species within native ecosystems. Studies addressing the trophic interactions of invasive species most often focus on their direct effects. To investigate both the presence of a landscape-level trophic cascade and the direct and indirect effects of an invasive species, we examined the impacts of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) introduced to the Aleutian Islands on marine bird densities and marine rocky intertidal community structures through surveys conducted on invaded and rat-free islands throughout the entire 1,900-km archipelago. Densities of birds that forage in the intertidal were higher on islands without rats. Marine intertidal invertebrates were more abundant on islands with rats, whereas fleshy algal cover was reduced. Our results demonstrate that invasive rats directly reduce bird densities through predation and significantly affect invertebrate and marine algal abundance in the rocky intertidal indirectly via a cross-community trophic cascade, unexpectedly changing the intertidal community structure from an algae- to an invertebrate-dominated system.

  4. Intertidal mudflat and saltmarsh conservation and sustainable use in the UK: a review.

    PubMed

    Foster, Natalie M; Hudson, Malcolm D; Bray, Simon; Nicholls, Robert J

    2013-09-15

    The adoption of the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance in Ramsar, Iran in 1971 committed the UK to conserve and sustainably use intertidal mudflats and saltmarshes for the benefit of present and future generations. Through consideration of their importance and value, current status, the characteristics, causes and consequences of their loss, and the associated responses to loss, this paper reviews the UK progress towards the conservation and sustainable use of intertidal mudflats and saltmarshes. Uncertainties in their current status and trends make it difficult to assess the overall net change in extent across the UK. However, it is apparent that losses due to erosion continue to exceed gains from intertidal mudflat and saltmarsh reparation (IMSR) schemes in south-east and southern England. IMSR schemes in the UK have been generally limited to relatively small-scale trials in comparison to elsewhere in Europe and in the USA. No research to date has unequivocally identified the causes of erosion. Regardless of the cause, the loss of intertidal mudflats and saltmarshes has adverse impacts on the provision of ecosystem services upon which humans and other species depend. The evidence presented in this paper suggests that alongside further science-based research, there is a need to develop a decision-making process capable of accommodating complexity, uncertainty and multiple diverse perspectives, through which more informed, timely decisions and more effective, concerted actions to conserve and sustainably use intertidal mudflats and saltmarshes can be taken.

  5. Immediate Ecological Impacts of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on Intertidal Flat Communities

    PubMed Central

    Urabe, Jotaro; Suzuki, Takao; Nishita, Tatsuki; Makino, Wataru

    2013-01-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, a large tsunami developed and struck the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. To assess the immediate impacts of the tsunami on coastal communities, changes in taxon composition and richness of macrobenthic animals before and after the tsunami were examined at nine intertidal flats in Sendai Bay and the Sanriku Ria coast. The results showed that 30–80% of taxa indigenously inhabiting intertidal flats disappeared after the tsunami. Among animal types, endobenthic and sessile epibenthic animals were more vulnerable to the tsunami than mobile epibenthic animals like shore crabs and snails. For all the intertidal flats examined, animals that were originally dwellers in lower tidal zones and not recorded before the tsunami were also found right after the tsunami, indicating that the tsunami not only took away many benthic taxa from the intertidal flats but also brought in some taxa from elsewhere. However, overall changes in taxon community composition were greater for intertidal flats that experienced larger inundation heights. These results showed that the ecological impacts of the tsunami were proportional to the physical impacts as gauged by wave height and that mobile epibenthic animals were less vulnerable to the tsunami. PMID:23650529

  6. Immediate ecological impacts of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami on intertidal flat communities.

    PubMed

    Urabe, Jotaro; Suzuki, Takao; Nishita, Tatsuki; Makino, Wataru

    2013-01-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, a large tsunami developed and struck the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. To assess the immediate impacts of the tsunami on coastal communities, changes in taxon composition and richness of macrobenthic animals before and after the tsunami were examined at nine intertidal flats in Sendai Bay and the Sanriku Ria coast. The results showed that 30-80% of taxa indigenously inhabiting intertidal flats disappeared after the tsunami. Among animal types, endobenthic and sessile epibenthic animals were more vulnerable to the tsunami than mobile epibenthic animals like shore crabs and snails. For all the intertidal flats examined, animals that were originally dwellers in lower tidal zones and not recorded before the tsunami were also found right after the tsunami, indicating that the tsunami not only took away many benthic taxa from the intertidal flats but also brought in some taxa from elsewhere. However, overall changes in taxon community composition were greater for intertidal flats that experienced larger inundation heights. These results showed that the ecological impacts of the tsunami were proportional to the physical impacts as gauged by wave height and that mobile epibenthic animals were less vulnerable to the tsunami.

  7. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in symptomatic patients from Damascus city and its suburbs.

    PubMed

    Skhal, Dania; Aboualchamat, Ghalia; Al Mariri, Ayman; Al Nahhas, Samar

    2017-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important human enteric parasites worldwide and is endemic throughout the world with a vast range of mammalian hosts. However, there is limited information on the prevalent genetic variability of G. duodenalis in Syria. This study aimed to evaluate the predominance of G. duodenalis assemblages/sub-assemblages causing humans infection in the city of Damascus and its suburbs. 40 symptomatic giardiasis patients were recruited in this study. Fecal samples were genotyped using PCR/RFLP assay targeting the β-giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. HaeIII, BspL1 and RsaI restriction enzymes were used to differentiate between G. duodenalis assemblages/sub-assemblages. Our data showed that 65% of isolates were of assemblage A; 45% belonged to sub-assemblage AII and 20% to sub-assemblage AI. Assemblage B was detected in 27.5% of isolates; 12.5% fit in sub-assemblage BIV, 5% fit in sub-assemblage BIII and 10.5% fit in Discordant genotype BIII/BIV. Mixed genotypes (AII+BIII and AI+BIV) were identified in 3 isolates (7.5%). Significant correlation was found between Giardia AII sub-assemblage and weight loss symptom (P-value=0.05) as well as between contact with domestic animals (cats, P-value=0.027). Moreover, a significant correlation was found between sub-assemblage AI and livestock breeding (P-value=0.000). In conclusion genotyping of human Giardia duodenalis isolates suggests anthroponotic transmission for the route of infection in Damascus and its suburbs. Further studies are needed to screen a wide geographic areas in Syria and to estimate the prevalence of G. duodenalis infection in our population.

  8. Framing Honors Physical Geology around Critical Thinking and Communication Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The honors section of freshman geology at LSU has 20-35 highly motivated students with ACT scores above 30. They are usually non-majors and have had no exposure to geosciences in high school. Teaching geology in Louisiana is challenging because there are virtually no rocks exposed at the surface and students with creationist beliefs are common. In addition to exams, this course requires a series of projects: plate reconstruction, minerals in the home, a metaphor for geologic time, volcano research paper, group project on volcanoes, water resources, and a comparison essay on Hurricane Katrina and the 1927 flood of the Mississippi river. The purpose of the projects is to promote critical thinking and communication skills as well as allow students to explore in greater depth topics relevant to their every day lives such as hurricanes. Critical thinking skills emphasized are interrelated processes and systems, variable temporal/spatial scales, and analysis of controversial topics such as the age of the Earth. This course is certified by LSU's Communication across the Curriculum (CxC) program as communication intensive in written and visual communication. CxC certification requires that 40% of grading depend on communication activities. Written communication exercises focus on organization, audience, incorporation and coordination of visual elements, and proper citation of sources. Visual communication exercises include working with maps, charts and graphs, and a group project where they create a poster and/or stand alone slide presentation on volcanoes geared to a middle school audience. Topics such as origin and quality of tap water, how much copper ore is used to build their home, and local geoharzards such as the Baton Rouge Fault generate a higher interest level and higher retention of information. Preliminary assessment is positive including improved exam results, higher student evaluations, recruitment of geology majors, and anecdotal evidence of long term

  9. Positive correlation of HIV infection with Giardia intestinalis assemblage B but not with assemblage A in asymptomatic Kenyan children.

    PubMed

    Matey, Elizabeth J; Tokoro, Masaharu; Mizuno, Tetsushi; Matsumura, Takahiro; Nagamoto, Takehiro; Bi, Xiuqiong; Oyombra, Jane A; Sang, Willie K; Songok, Elijah M; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2016-09-24

    A cross-sectional molecular epidemiological study of Giardia intestinalis infection was conducted among asymptomatic Kenyan children with (n = 123) and without (n = 111) HIV infection. G. intestinalis assemblage B infection was positively correlated with HIV infection [HIV (+), 18.7% vs. HIV (-), 11.7%; P = 0.013], whereas assemblage A infection was not [HIV (+), 4.1% vs. HIV (-), 6.3%; P = 0.510]. Thus, HIV infection is a risk factor for G. intestinalis assemblage B infection but not for assemblage A infection.

  10. Computational simulations of frictional losses in pipe networks confirmed in experimental apparatusses designed by honors students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohlman, Nicholas A.; Hynes, Eric; Kutz, April

    2015-11-01

    Lectures in introductory fluid mechanics at NIU are a combination of students with standard enrollment and students seeking honors credit for an enriching experience. Most honors students dread the additional homework problems or an extra paper assigned by the instructor. During the past three years, honors students of my class have instead collaborated to design wet-lab experiments for their peers to predict variable volume flow rates of open reservoirs driven by gravity. Rather than learn extra, the honors students learn the Bernoulli head-loss equation earlier to design appropriate systems for an experimental wet lab. Prior designs incorporated minor loss features such as sudden contraction or multiple unions and valves. The honors students from Spring 2015 expanded the repertoire of available options by developing large scale set-ups with multiple pipe networks that could be combined together to test the flexibility of the student team's computational programs. The engagement of bridging the theory with practice was appreciated by all of the students such that multiple teams were able to predict performance within 4% accuracy. The challenges, schedules, and cost estimates of incorporating the experimental lab into an introductory fluid mechanics course will be reported.

  11. Dissonance and the honor system: extending the severity of threat phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Gire, James T; Williams, Tyson D

    2007-10-01

    In this field experiment, the authors extended the severe threat of punishment paradigm to the honor system. Participants (N = 80) came from two small colleges that differ in the severity of threats of punishment for honor code violations. The authors placed participants in situations in which they came upon money that did not belong to them, in both public and private settings. Using the framework of insufficient justification, the authors hypothesized that participants from the military school, who face a severe threat of punishment for honor code violations, would be less likely to pick up the money in the public setting than in the private setting. The authors predicted that, in contrast, at the nonmilitary college, where students face only a mild threat of punishment for honor code violations, there would be no difference in how participants behaved across the two settings. The results supported both hypotheses. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for understanding and improving the nature of the punishment structure for honor systems.

  12. Population dynamics of intertidal oribatid mites (Acari: Cryptostigmata) from the subtropical archipelago of Bermuda.

    PubMed

    Pfingstl, Tobias

    2013-10-01

    The population dynamics of the three intertidal oribatid species, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, have been studied on the archipelago of Bermuda over the course of a year. All three species are univoltine, showing a clear seasonal demographic pattern, with reproduction from spring to late autumn and a complete standstill of egg production in winter. A seasonal shift in sex ratio could also be observed in all three species and is supposed to be based on sex-dependent mortality. The subtropical climate of Bermuda allows longer reproductive periods than shown in other intertidal or edaphic temperate species and temperature is supposed to be the main factor influencing the demography of these intertidal dwelling mites. Although all three Bermudian species exhibit the same basic seasonal demographic pattern, there are slight temporal shifts in population dynamics, presumably caused by local microclimatic differences among the populations. Larviparity, shown in other littoral oribatid mites, is clearly absent in the present species.

  13. On the morphodynamic stability of intertidal environments and the role of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakeh, Nabil; Coco, Giovanni; Marani, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We describe the coupled biotic and abiotic dynamics in intertidal environments using a point model that includes suspended sediment deposition, wave- and current-driven erosion, biofilm sediment stabilization, and sediment production and stabilization by vegetation. We explore the effects of two widely different types of vegetation: salt-marsh vegetation and mangroves. These two types of vegetation, which colonize distinct geographical areas, are characterized by different biomass productivities and stabilization mechanisms. We show that changing vegetation and biofilm properties result in differing stable states, both in their type and number. The presence of the biofilm exerts a dominant control on the tidal flat (lower intertidal) equilibrium elevation and stability. Vegetation controls the elevation of the marsh platform (i.e., the upper intertidal equilibrium). The two types of vegetation considered lead to similar effects on the stability of the system despite their distinct biophysical interactions.

  14. Differential recolonization of Atlantic intertidal habitats after disturbance reveals potential bottom-up community regulation

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Willy; Scrosati, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, abundant sea ice that drifted out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence caused extensive disturbance in rocky intertidal habitats on the northern Atlantic coast of mainland Nova Scotia, Canada. To monitor recovery of intertidal communities, we surveyed two wave-exposed locations in the early summer of 2014. Barnacle recruitment and the abundance of predatory dogwhelks were low at one location (Tor Bay Provincial Park) but more than 20 times higher at the other location (Whitehead). Satellite data indicated that the abundance of coastal phytoplankton (the main food source for barnacle larvae) was consistently higher at Whitehead just before the barnacle recruitment season, when barnacle larvae were in the water column. These observations suggest bottom-up forcing of intertidal communities. The underlying mechanisms and their intensity along the NW Atlantic coast could be investigated through studies done at local and regional scales. PMID:26213609

  15. Macrobenthic diversity in protected, disturbed, and newly formed intertidal wetlands of a subtropical estuary in China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Weiwei; Ma, Chang-an; Huang, Youhui; Yang, Yang; Yu, Ji; Zhang, Mingqing; Zhao, Yunlong

    2014-12-15

    In this study, intertidal macrobenthic diversity in protected, disturbed, and newly formed wetlands of Yangtze estuary was assessed using PRIMER 5.2 based on species diversity and species relatedness. We observed high diversity in nature reserves and low diversity in adjacent disturbed and newly formed wetlands. These diversity data were then integrated with historical data to detect the variation in macrobenthic diversity over the past two decades. The integrated data indicated that the intertidal macrobenthic diversity sharply decreased in heavy reclamation tidal flats whereas markedly increased in non-disturbed nature reserve and newly formed wetland. Benthic health was observed with the departure degree of average taxonomic distinctness (Δ(+)) and variation in taxonomic distinctness (Λ(+)) from the simulated 95% confidence funnel. All the habitats were subjected to different levels of human interference, except Jiuduansha and Beigangbeisha. The degradation of intertidal wetland in Yangtze estuary was mainly attributed to land reclamation, overgrazing, and overfishing.

  16. High-Resolution Characterization of Intertidal Geomorphology by TLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, A.; Vettore, A.; Marani, M.

    2007-12-01

    Observational fluvial geomorphology has greatly benefited in the last decades from the wide availability of digital terrain data obtained by orthophotos and by means of accurate airborne laser scanner data (LiDAR). On the contrary, the spatially-distributed study of the geomorphology of intertidal areas, such as tidal flats and marshes, remains problematic owing to the small relief characterizing such environments, often of the order of a few tens of centimetres, i.e. comparable to the accuracy of state-of-the-art LiDAR data. Here we present the results of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) acquisitions performed within a tidal marsh in the Venice lagoon. The survey was performed using a Leica HDS 3000 TLS, characterized by a large Field of View (360 deg H x 270 deg V), a low beam divergence (< 6 mm at 50 m) and a nominal accuracy of 6 mm at 50 m. The acquisition was performed at low tide to avoid interferences due to water on the marsh surface and, to minimize shadowing effects due to the tilting of the laser beam (especially in the channel network), the scanner was mounted on a custom-built tripod 3 m above the marsh surface. The area of the marsh, about 100m x 150m, was fully surveyed by just 2 scans. A total amount of about 3 million points was acquired, with an average measurement density of 200 points/m2. In order to reconstruct the geometry of the marsh, the two scans were co-registered using 8 reflective targets as matching points. Such targets were placed within the area of interest and surveyed with high accuracy (2 mm), while their position in the Italian national grid was determined with a double-frequency GPS receiver, in order to georeference the point clouds within an absolute framework. Post-processing of the very high resolution data obtained shows that the laser returns coming from the low vegetation present (about 0.5-1.0 m high) can be satisfactorily separated from those coming from the marsh surface, allowing the construction of a DSM and a DTM

  17. Impact of boat-generated waves on intertidal estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanpain, O.; Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Gomit, G.; Calluaud, D.; David, L.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrodynamics in the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) are controlled by the semi-diurnal tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on sediment transport (through wind waves and swell) is observed at the mouth of the estuary. Over the last century, authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity. These developments led to allow and secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary (from its mouth to the port of Rouen, 125 km upstream) but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. A riversides restoration policy has been recently started by port authorities. In this context, the objective of the field-based study presented is to connect vessel characteristics (i.e. speed, draft...), boat-generated waves and their sedimentary impacts. Such information will be used by stakeholders to manage riverside. The natural intertidal site of interest is located in the fluvial freshwater part of the Seine estuary characterized by a 4.5 m maximum tidal range. The foreshore slope is gently decreasing and surface sediments are composed of fine to coarse sand with occasional mud drapes. In order to decipher boat-generated events, the sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV measurements coupled with a turbidimeter and an altimeter to study sediment dynamics. These instruments are settled in the lower part of the foreshore (i) to obtain a significant dataset (i.e. oceanic instruments are not measuring in air) on a zone statically affected by boat waves and (ii) because most of boat traffic occurs during early flood or late ebb period. Spatial variations are assessed along a cross-section through grain-size analysis of surface sediments and topography measurements using pole technique. Results enhance hydrodynamic and sedimentary impacts of boat-generated waves compared respectively to tidal and wind effects. Long

  18. Marine vertebrates from the Santonian coastal carbonates of northwestern Germany - a tool for the reconstruction of a Proto- North Sea Basin intertidal dinosaur-exchange bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.; Scheer, Udo

    2015-09-01

    A diverse vertebrate fauna, dominated by shark teeth, is recorded from conglomerates within the limestones of the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Burgsteinfurt Formation of northwestern Germany. The conglomerate beds comprise carbonatic, glauconitic and phosphate nodules, as well as Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous extraclasts. The Burgsteinfurt Formation conglomerates contain fining-upwards parasequences 2-20 cm in thickness, interpreted as tempestite layers within a unit formed by larger-scale Milankovitch Cycles. The presence of the inoceramid Sphenoceramus patootensis and belemnite Gonioteuthis granulata indicate a late Santonian age for the unit. The studied vertebrate fauna from the Weiner Esch locality consists of 20 selachian species (14 macroselachians and 6 microselachians), a few teleosts, rare marine mosasaur remains, and one tooth from a theropod dinosaur. 95% of the vertebrates in the assemblage are depositionally autochthonous, with the remaining material reworked from older underlying Cenomanian-Coniacian (lower Upper Cretaceous) limestones. On the basis of observed sedimentary structures, the scarcity of deep-sea selachians, and the dominance of the Mitsukurinidae (59% of the preserved shark fauna) in the fossil assemblage, the unit is interpreted as a shallow (0-3 metres deep), subtidal, nearshore environment, or even subaerial carbonate-sand islands, located on the southern margin of a submarine swell. The presence of a Santonian theropod in this deposit, and other dinosaur records in northern Germany, together support the interpretation of a short-lived uplift event with strong upwelling influence for the Northwestphalian-Lippe submarine swell north of the Rhenish Massif in the southern Proto- North Sea Basin. A new migration model for dinosaurs moving along carbonate coasts or intertidal zones of shallow carbonate-sand islands in Central Europe is presented, which may explain the scattered distribution of dinosaur remains across Europe in the

  19. Nekton use of intertidal creek edges in low salinity salt marshes of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Binsong; Qin, Haiming; Xu, Wang; Wu, Jihua; Zhong, Junsheng; Lei, Guangchun; Chen, Jiakuan; Fu, Cuizhang

    2010-07-01

    Non-vegetated creek edges were investigated to explore spatial nekton use patterns in a low salinity intertidal salt marsh creek network of the Yangtze River estuary along a stream-order gradient with four creek orders. Non-vegetated creek edges were arbitrarily defined as the approximately 3 m extending from the creek bank (the marsh-creek interface) into open water. Nekton was sampled using seine nets during daytime high slack water during spring tides for two or three days each in May through July 2008. Twenty-three nekton species (16 fishes and 7 crustaceans) were caught during the study. Fishes were dominated by gobies ( Mugilogobius abei, Periophthalmus magnuspinnatus, Periophthalmus modestus, Synechogobius ommaturus), mullets ( Chelon haematocheilus, Liza affinis) and Chinese sea bass ( Lateolabrax maculatus). Crustaceans were dominated by mud crab ( Helice tientsinensis) and white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda). Rank abundance curves revealed higher evenness of nekton assemblages in lower-order creeks compared to higher-order creeks. Fish abundance tended to increase with increasing creek order. Crustacean abundance was higher in the first-third order creeks than in the fourth-order creek. Dominant nekton species displayed various trends in abundance and length-frequency distributions along the stream-order gradient. The spatial separation of nekton assemblages between the first-third order creeks and the fourth-order creek could be attributed to geomorphological factors (distance to mouth and cross-sectional area). These findings indicate that both lower- and higher-order creek edges play important yet different roles for nekton species and life history stages in salt marshes.

  20. Alkalinity production in intertidal sands intensified by lugworm bioirrigation

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Alexandra M.F.; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Montserrat, Francesc; Meysman, Filip J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Porewater profiles and sediment-water fluxes of oxygen, nutrients, pH, calcium, alkalinity, and sulfide were measured in intertidal sandflat sediments from the Oosterschelde mesotidal lagoon (The Netherlands). The influence of bioturbation and bioirrigation by the deep-burrowing polychaete Arenicola marina on the rates and sources of benthic alkalinity generation was examined by comparing measurements in intact and defaunated sediment cores before and after the addition of A. marina in summer and fall 2011. Higher organic matter remineralization rates, shallower O2 penetration, and greater sediment-water solute fluxes were observed in summer, consistent with higher sediment community metabolic rates at a higher temperature. Lugworm activity stimulated porewater exchange (5.1 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), organic matter remineralization (6.2 × in summer, 1.9 × in fall), aerobic respiration (2.4 × in summer, 2.1 × in fall), alkalinity release (4.7 × in summer, 4.0 × in fall), nutrient regeneration, and iron cycling. The effects of lugworm activity on net sediment-water fluxes were similar but more pronounced in summer than in fall. Alkalinity release in fall was entirely driven by metabolic carbonate dissolution, while this process explained between 22 and 69% of total alkalinity production in summer, indicating the importance of other processes in this season. By enhancing organic matter remineralization and the reoxidation of reduced metabolites by the sediment microbial community, lugworm activity stimulated the production of dissolved inorganic carbon and metabolic acidity, which in turn enhanced metabolic CaCO3 dissolution efficiency. In summer, evidence of microbial long distance electron transport (LDET) was observed in defaunated sediment. Thus, alkalinity production by net carbonate dissolution was likely supplemented by anaerobic respiration and LDET in summer. PMID:25431515

  1. Organisms as cooperative ecosystem engineers in intertidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passarelli, Claire; Olivier, Frédéric; Paterson, David M.; Meziane, Tarik; Hubas, Cédric

    2014-09-01

    The importance of facilitative interactions and organismal ecosystem engineering for establishing the structure of communities is increasingly being recognised for many different ecosystems. For example, soft-bottom tidal flats host a wide range of ecosystem engineers, probably because the harsh physico-chemical environmental conditions render these species of particular importance for community structure and function. These environments are therefore interesting when focusing on how ecosystem engineers interact and the consequences of these interactions on community dynamics. In this review, we initially detail the influence on benthic systems of two kinds of ecosystem engineers that are particularly common in tidal flats. Firstly, we examine species providing biogenic structures, which are often the only source of habitat complexity in these environments. Secondly, we focus on species whose activities alter sediment stability, which is a crucial feature structuring the dynamics of communities in tidal flats. The impacts of these engineers on both environment and communities were assessed but in addition the interaction between ecosystem engineers was examined. Habitat cascades occur when one engineer favours the development of another, which in turn creates or modifies and improves habitat for other species. Non-hierarchical interactions have often been shown to display non-additive effects, so that the effects of the association cannot be predicted from the effects of individual organisms. Here we propose the term of “cooperative ecosystem engineering” when two species interact in a way which enhances habitat suitability as a result of a combined engineering effect. Finally, we conclude by describing the potential threats for ecosystem engineers in intertidal areas, potential effects on their interactions and their influence on communities and ecosystem function.

  2. Physiological, behavioral and biochemical adaptations of intertidal fishes to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeffrey G

    2011-01-15

    Hypoxia survival in fish requires a well-coordinated response to either secure more O(2) from the hypoxic environment or to limit the metabolic consequences of an O(2) restriction at the mitochondria. Although there is a considerable amount of information available on the physiological, behavioral, biochemical and molecular responses of fish to hypoxia, very little research has attempted to determine the adaptive value of these responses. This article will review current attempts to use the phylogenetically corrected comparative method to define physiological and behavioral adaptations to hypoxia in intertidal fish and further identify putatively adaptive biochemical traits that should be investigated in the future. In a group of marine fishes known as sculpins, from the family Cottidae, variation in hypoxia tolerance, measured as a critical O(2) tension (P(crit)), is primarily explained by variation in mass-specific gill surface area, red blood cell hemoglobin-O(2) binding affinity, and to a lesser extent variation in routine O(2) consumption rate (M(O(2))). The most hypoxia-tolerant sculpins consistently show aquatic surface respiration (ASR) and aerial emergence behavior during hypoxia exposure, but no phylogenetically independent relationship has been found between the thresholds for initiating these behaviors and P(crit). At O(2) levels below P(crit), hypoxia survival requires a rapid reorganization of cellular metabolism to suppress ATP consumption to match the limited capacity for O(2)-independent ATP production. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that the degree of metabolic rate suppression and the quantity of stored fermentable fuel is strongly selected for in hypoxia-tolerant fishes; however, these assertions have not been tested in a phylogenetic comparative model.

  3. Subsaxibacter arcticus sp. nov., isolated from Arctic intertidal sand.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Liu, Chang; Shi, Mei; Su, Hai-Nan; Qin, Qi-Long; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-negative, orange-pigmented, aerobic, non-flagellated, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain SM1214T, was isolated from Arctic intertidal sand collected from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard. The strain grew at 10-30 °C and with 0.5-5 % (w/v) NaCl. It hydrolysed casein and aesculin but did not reduce nitrate to nitrite. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SM1214T was affiliated with the genus Subsaxibacter in the family Flavobacteriaceae, exhibiting 96.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strain of Subsaxibacter broadyi, the only recognized species of the genus. The major cellular fatty acids of strain SM1214T were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 1 G, C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C17 : 0 2-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content of the strain was 35.4 mol%. On the basis of the polyphasic analysis performed in this study, strain SM1214T represents a novel species of the genus Subsaxibacter, for which the name Subsaxibacter arcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SM1214T ( = JCM 30334T = CCTCC AB 2014245T).

  4. Here Comes the Sun ... and I Say, "It' an Assemblage"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how she combines science lesson with a hands-on art project. She used the wonderfully creative suns shown on the Sunday edition of "The CBS Morning Show" to give the students fodder for thought. She describes how to create an assemblage. An assemblage is like a collage, but it moves past the two-dimensional…

  5. Conserving intertidal habitats: What is the potential of ecological engineering to mitigate impacts of coastal structures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Matthew J.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Dudgeon, David; Bonebrake, Timothy C.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, coastlines are under pressure as coastal human population growth and urbanization continues, while climatic change leads to stormier seas and rising tides. These trends create a strong and sustained demand for land reclamation and infrastructure protection in coastal areas, requiring engineered coastal defence structures such as sea walls. Here, we review the nature of ecological impacts of coastal structures on intertidal ecosystems, seek to understand the extent to which ecological engineering can mitigate these impacts, and evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation as a tool to contribute to conservation of intertidal habitats. By so doing, we identify critical knowledge gaps to inform future research. Coastal structures alter important physical, chemical and biological processes of intertidal habitats, and strongly impact community structure, inter-habitat linkages and ecosystem services while also driving habitat loss. Such impacts occur diffusely across localised sites but scale to significant regional and global levels. Recent advances in ecological engineering have focused on developing habitat complexity on coastal structures to increase biodiversity. 'Soft' engineering options maximise habitat complexity through inclusion of natural materials, species and processes, while simultaneously delivering engineering objectives such as coastal protection. Soft options additionally sustain multiple services, providing greater economic benefits for society, and resilience to climatic change. Currently however, a lack of inclusion and economic undervaluation of intertidal ecosystem services may undermine best practice in coastline management. Importantly, reviewed evidence shows mitigation and even restoration do not support intertidal communities or processes equivalent to pre-disturbance conditions. Crucially, an absence of comprehensive empirical baseline biodiversity data, or data comprising additional ecological parameters such as ecosystem functions

  6. Nitrate uptake varies with tide height and nutrient availability in the intertidal seaweed Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Benes, Kylla M; Bracken, Matthew E S

    2016-10-01

    Intertidal seaweeds must cope with a suite of stressors imposed by aerial exposure at low tide, including nutrient limitation due to emersion. Seaweeds can access nutrients only when submerged, so individuals living higher compared to lower on the shore may have adaptations allowing them to acquire sufficient amounts of nutrients to survive and maintain growth. Using a combination of observations and experiments, we aimed to identify intraspecific variation in nitrate uptake rates across the intertidal distribution of F. vesiculosus, as well as test for acclimation in response to a change in tide height. We replicated our study at sites spanning nearly the entire Gulf of Maine coastline, to examine how local environmental variability may alter intraspecific variation in nitrate uptake. We found that average nitrate uptake rates were ~18% higher in upper compared to lower intertidal Fucus vesiculosus. Furthermore, we found evidence for both acclimation and adaptation to tide height during a transplant experiment. F. vesiculosus transplanted from the lower to the upper intertidal zone was characterized by increased nitrate uptake, but individuals transplanted from the upper to the lower intertidal zone retained high uptake rates. Our observations differed among Gulf of Maine regions and among time points of our study. Importantly, these differences may reflect associations between nitrate uptake rates and abiotic environmental conditions and seaweed nutrient status. Our study highlights the importance of long-term variation in ambient nutrient supply in driving intraspecific variation of seaweeds across the intertidal gradient and local and seasonal variation in ambient nutrient levels in mediating intraspecific differences.

  7. Factors limiting the intertidal distribution of the mangrove species Xylocarpus granatum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Krauss, K.W.; Hauff, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    The tree species Xylocarpus granatum is commonly described as occurring in the upper intertidal zone of mangrove forests, but mature trees are occasionally found at lower elevations. In the Utwe River basin, on the Pacific island of Kosrae, we investigated the relative importance of several biotic and abiotic factors that may control the intertidal distribution of X. granatum. Factors we evaluated included differential seed predation across the lower, mid, and upper intertidal zones and seedling responses to salinity, tidal flooding, and shade. Seed predation was 22.4% over the first 34 days and varied little among zones or in gaps versus under the forest canopy. By day 161, there were still no differences in seed mortality, but a significant difference was found in seedling establishment, with much greater establishment in the upper intertidal plots. X. granatum seedlings in a greenhouse experiment exhibited greater growth in freshwater than seedlings in 23 ppt salinity, which is typical of salinity levels found in the mid intertidal zone in our field study sites in Micronesia, where mature X. granatum trees are generally absent. Seedlings grown in 23 ppt salinity, however, exhibited few visible signs of stress associated with patterns in growth. Seedlings grown in a simulated tidal flooding treatment (with 23 ppt salinity) also showed few signs of stress. Growth declined dramatically under 80% shade cloths, but there were few interactions of shading with either 23 ppt salinity or simulated tidal flooding. Differential seed predation is not likely to be the primary factor responsible for the intertidal distribution of X. granatum on Kosrae. However, seedling tolerance of flooding or salinity may be more important, especially relative to a potential contribution to secondary stress mortality. Other factors may ultimately prove to be more critical, such as physiological effects of salinity on seed germination, effects of tides on seed dispersal and rooting, or

  8. Factors limiting the intertidal distribution of the mangrove species Xylocarpus granatum.

    PubMed

    Allen, James A; Krauss, Ken W; Hauff, Robert D

    2003-03-01

    The tree species Xylocarpus granatum is commonly described as occurring in the upper intertidal zone of mangrove forests, but mature trees are occasionally found at lower elevations. In the Utwe River basin, on the Pacific island of Kosrae, we investigated the relative importance of several biotic and abiotic factors that may control the intertidal distribution of X. granatum. Factors we evaluated included differential seed predation across the lower, mid, and upper intertidal zones and seedling responses to salinity, tidal flooding, and shade. Seed predation was 22.4% over the first 34 days and varied little among zones or in gaps versus under the forest canopy. By day 161, there were still no differences in seed mortality, but a significant difference was found in seedling establishment, with much greater establishment in the upper intertidal plots. X. granatum seedlings in a greenhouse experiment exhibited greater growth in freshwater than seedlings in 23 ppt salinity, which is typical of salinity levels found in the mid intertidal zone in our field study sites in Micronesia, where mature X. granatum trees are generally absent. Seedlings grown in 23 ppt salinity, however, exhibited few visible signs of stress associated with patterns in growth. Seedlings grown in a simulated tidal flooding treatment (with 23 ppt salinity) also showed few signs of stress. Growth declined dramatically under 80% shade cloths, but there were few interactions of shading with either 23 ppt salinity or simulated tidal flooding. Differential seed predation is not likely to be the primary factor responsible for the intertidal distribution of X. granatum on Kosrae. However, seedling tolerance of flooding or salinity may be more important, especially relative to a potential contribution to secondary stress mortality. Other factors may ultimately prove to be more critical, such as physiological effects of salinity on seed germination, effects of tides on seed dispersal and rooting, or

  9. RNA assemblages orchestrate complex cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Heidi Theil

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs are monocistronic, and therefore mechanisms exist that coordinate the synthesis of multiprotein complexes in order to obtain proper stoichiometry at the appropriate intracellular locations. RNA‐binding proteins containing low‐complexity sequences are prone to generate liquid droplets via liquid‐liquid phase separation, and in this way create cytoplasmic assemblages of functionally related mRNAs. In a recent iCLIP study, we showed that the Drosophila RNA‐binding protein Imp, which exhibits a C‐terminal low‐complexity sequence, increases the formation of F‐actin by binding to 3′ untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding components participating in F‐actin biogenesis. We hypothesize that phase transition is a mechanism the cell employs to increase the local mRNA concentration considerably, and in this way synchronize protein production in cytoplasmic territories, as discussed in the present review. PMID:27172226

  10. Phylogenetic and functional diversity in large carnivore assemblages.

    PubMed

    Dalerum, F

    2013-06-07

    Large terrestrial carnivores are important ecological components and prominent flagship species, but are often extinction prone owing to a combination of biological traits and high levels of human persecution. This study combines phylogenetic and functional diversity evaluations of global and continental large carnivore assemblages to provide a framework for conservation prioritization both between and within assemblages. Species-rich assemblages of large carnivores simultaneously had high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but species contributions to phylogenetic and functional diversity components were not positively correlated. The results further provide ecological justification for the largest carnivore species as a focus for conservation action, and suggests that range contraction is a likely cause of diminishing carnivore ecosystem function. This study highlights that preserving species-rich carnivore assemblages will capture both high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but that prioritizing species within assemblages will involve trade-offs between optimizing contemporary ecosystem function versus the evolutionary potential for future ecosystem performance.

  11. Meiofaunal assemblages associated with native and non-indigenous macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, Puri; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Rubal, Marcos

    2016-07-01

    Meiofauna is a useful tool to detect effects of different disturbances; however, its relevance in the frame of biological invasions has been almost fully neglected. Meiofaunal assemblages associated with the invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum were studied and compared with those associated with two native macroalgae (Bifurcaria bifurcata and Chondrus crispus). We used a linear mixed model to determine the influence of habitat size (i.e. macroalgal biomass) in shaping meiofaunal assemblages. Results showed that habitat size (i.e. macroalgal biomass) shaped meiofaunal assemblages influencing its abundance, richness and structure. However, the identity of macroalga (i.e. species) appears also to play a significant role, particularly the differences of complexity among the studied species may shape their meiofaunal assemblages. Finally, the invasive macroalga appears to influence positively species richness. Our results highlight the need of including different faunal components to achieve a comprehensive knowledge on effects of invasive macroalgae and that meiofaunal assemblages may be a valuable tool to examine them.

  12. Giardiasis: a review on assemblage distribution and epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Laishram, Shakti; Kang, Gagandeep; Ajjampur, Sitara Swarna Rao

    2012-01-01

    Giardiasis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease and associated morbidity in children and adults worldwide. In addition to diarrhea, it can also lead to malnutrition and cognitive deficits in children from developing countries. Giardia duodenalis is considered to be a species complex of several assemblages, of which assemblage A and B are predominantly associated with human infections. Assemblage type has been associated with risk of occurrence of symptoms and duration of illness. Hence genotyping of giardial isolates may help understand better the epidemiology and transmission ecology of the disease in a particular setting or area. In India, prevalence rates of Giardia infection in patients with diarrhea range from 0.4% to 70%, and asymptomatic cyst passage has been found to be as high as 50% in rural southern India. In this review, the global distribution of giardial assemblage, zoonotic transmission and the association of assemblage with disease have been discussed, followed by epidemiology of giardiasis in India.

  13. Effects of an oil spill and freeze event on Intertidal community structure in Washington. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dethier, M.N.

    1991-03-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to characterize the biotic communities of some of the lesser-known habitat types impacted (or potentially impacted) by oil on the coast of Washington; (2) to document the effects of the Nestucca oil spill on intertidal communities in a variety of habitats; (3) to document normal year-to-year, season-to-season, and site-to-site variation in abundances of plants and animals in unoiled habitats, this providing background information for future studies; and (4) to monitor recovery of intertidal plants and animals from the oil spill and from the subsequent freeze event.

  14. The Gladstone (Australia) oil spill - impacts on intertidal areas: baseline and six months post-spill.

    PubMed

    Melville, Felicity; Andersen, Leonie E; Jolley, Dianne F

    2009-02-01

    In January 2006, 25 tonnes of heavy fuel oil spilled into the Port of Gladstone in Queensland, Australia, from the breached hull of a bulk carrier ship. While approximately 18 tonnes of the oil was recovered, a certain amount of oil was deposited in the intertidal areas of Port Curtis leaving a highly visible, viscous residue. The objectives of this research were to assess the short-term (one month post-spill) and medium-term (six months post-spill) impacts on the intertidal habitat. Sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal concentrations, mangrove communities and intertidal macroinvertebrates were assessed at oil impacted sites, adjacent sites which were not visibly impacted and reference sites which were located outside the recorded distribution of the oil spill. At one month post-spill, highest PAH concentrations were found at the impacted sites, with concentrations of some PAHs exceeding Australian and New Zealand sediment quality guidelines (SQG) [ANZECC/ARMCANZ, 2000. Sediment Quality Guidelines. Australia and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand]. However, by six months post-spill PAH concentrations had significantly decreased. PAH concentrations tended to be higher in the back (upper) intertidal zone than at the front of the mangrove stand, and sediment cores indicated that PAH contaminants had remained in the top 4cm of the sediment. These results indicate that the overall decreased PAH concentrations are likely to be due to evaporation, photoxidation and tidal flushing of the residual oil in these impacted sites. During the initial survey, the impact site contained very few or no crabholes in the high intertidal area, indicating a low crab density in comparison to reference sites. However, at six months post-spill mangrove crab communities appeared to be fully recovered with crabhole densities in impact sites similar to reference sites. While little

  15. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project at Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boesel, A.; Soave, K.; Dean, A.; Grimaldi, Z.; Buie, A.; Dattels, C.; Steiger, C.; Wallace, K.; Salmi, I.; Tillapaugh, J.

    2011-12-01

    Kathy Soave, Amy Dean, Alexa Boesel, Andrew Buie, Celia Dattels, Zoe Grimaldi, Isabella Salmi, Cameryn Steiger, Joey Tillapaugh, Kathleen Wallace The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of this student-run project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and the requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program & Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students identify and count key invertebrate and algae species along two permanent transects and, using randomly determined points, within a permanent 100 m2 area, three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring). Using the data collected since 2004, we will once again compare population densities, seasonal abundance and long-term population trends of key algal and invertebrate species, including Tegula funebralis and Anthopluera elegantissima. Future analyses and investigations will include intertidal abiotic factors (including water temperature and human foot-traffic) to enhance insights into the workings of the Duxbury Reef ecosystem, in particular, the high and mid-intertidal zones experiencing the

  16. 33 CFR 187.313 - Must a State honor a prior State title, Coast Guard documentation, and foreign registry?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... title, Coast Guard documentation, and foreign registry? 187.313 Section 187.313 Navigation and Navigable..., Coast Guard documentation, and foreign registry? (a) A State must honor a title issued by another State.... (c) A State must honor an authenticated copy of a foreign registry, or evidence of deletion from...

  17. 32 CFR 887.7 - Persons separated under other than honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Persons separated under other than honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or dishonorable discharge. 887.7 Section 887.7 National Defense... honorable conditions (undesirable or bad conduct) or dishonorable discharge. Those persons whose...

  18. A Team Approach to Enhance Scholarship Among Honors Students in Nursing.

    PubMed

    Jukkala, Angela M; Miltner, Rebecca S; Morrison, Shannon L; Gisiger-Camata, Sylvia; Todd, Allison; Moneyham, Linda D; Meneses, Karen M

    2016-01-01

    Honors programs within schools of nursing have the potential to enhance young nurses' interest in developing programs of research early in their careers and can thus contribute to the successful development of nursing knowledge. Such programs also provide opportunities to enhance knowledge and skill in leadership and teamwork at a critical time during the development of their professional nurse identity. This article presents the successful approach one organization took when revising its honors program to meet the current needs of students, society, and the profession.

  19. Medal of Honor Award Process Review: U.S. Army Noncommissioned Officer Nominee (Redacted)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-04

    surrounding the recommendation to award the Medal ofHonor (MOH) to a U.S. Army Noncommissioned Officer for his valorous actions in combat while deployed...authority for awards below the Medal ofHonor. We found no evidence that the Secretary of the Army relied on the CID investigation in his decision to...award the nominee the Silver Star. We determined Secretary McHugh acted within his authority when he decided to award the SS. We found no evidence

  20. Dinner honoring John Herrington, the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Seminole Native American Veterans Color Guard (Seminole Flag, U.S. Flag, and State of Florida Flag) enter the Debus Conference Center in the KSC Visitor Complex during a dinner honoring astronaut John B. Herrington, the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113. In addition to the dinner at KSC, several hundred Native Americans from around the country attended a symposium in Orlando commemorating the launch event. The Native Americans, many of them Chickasaw, were here to honor John, who is a Chickasaw from Oklahoma.

  1. Dinner honoring John Herrington, the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- -- The Seminole Native American Veterans Color Guard (Seminole Flag, U.S. Flag, and State of Florida Flag) present colors during a dinner at the Debus Conference Center in the KSC Visitor Complex. The dinner honored John B. Herrington, the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113. In addition to the dinner at KSC, several hundred Native Americans from around the country attended a symposium in Orlando commemorating the launch event. The Native Americans, many of them Chickasaw, were here to honor John, who is a Chickasaw from Oklahoma.

  2. Polychaetes and oligochaetes associated with intertidal rocky shores in a semi-enclosed industrial and urban embayment, with the description of two new species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parapar, Julio; Martínez-Ansemil, Enrique; Caramelo, Carlos; Collado, Rut; Schmelz, Rüdiger

    2009-12-01

    The species composition and relative abundance of the annelid benthic macrofauna (Polychaeta and Oligochaeta) inhabiting the rocky intertidal zone of the ria of Ferrol (Galicia, NW Spain) were studied during field collections, from 2000 to 2002. A total of 14,619 specimens (11,585 polychaetes belonging to 76 species and 24 families and 3,034 oligochaetes belonging to 18 species and two families) were collected from 98 quantitative samples taken from 13 sampling sites. The general spatial distribution of the annelid fauna reflects an increase of the diversity from the inner to the outer part of the ria. The general patterns found in the annelid composition suggest that the assemblages were dominated by oligochaetes in the inner sheltered sampling sites and polychaetes in the outer more exposed sites. Several faunistical and taxonomical remarks on selected species are presented. Two new species of oligochaetes are described: Coralliodrilus artabrensis sp. n. and Pirodrilus fungithecatus sp. n. (Naididae, Phallodrilinae). A new biological index, based on the oligochaete/polychaete ratio (O/P), is proposed as tool to evaluate environmental quality and to monitor future changes in the environment.

  3. Intertidal benthic resources of the Copper River Delta, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Sean P.; Bishop, Mary Anne; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2002-02-01

    The Copper River Delta, Alaska is the largest contiguous coastal wetland system along the West Coast of North America. Vast expanses of tidal mud flats formed by sediments carried by the suspended load of the Copper River serve as a connection between the Gulf of Alaska and the extensive network of wetlands, rivers and sloughs of the delta system. In addition to providing habitat for resident fish, shrimp and crabs, these tidal flats serve as critical feeding grounds for up to 5 million migratory shorebirds as well as an entry and exit corridor for three species of commercially fished salmonids. Here we report the first description of the benthic community of these intertidal flats. Between April and September 2000, we conducted three samplings on the Copper River Delta in which we quantified benthic macro-invertebrates inhabiting silt-clay sediments, the dominant substrate in the system, over a range of tidal inundation. Specifically, sampling was performed in two areas on the delta: near the outflows of the Eyak River and Pete Dahl Slough. Pore-water salinity of surficial sediment ranged from 4 psu during peak summer flow of the Copper River to 14 psu in April prior to increased riverine input. Sediment temperatures corresponded to ambient air temperatures with lowest temperatures during the April-September observation period recorded in April (4°C) and warmest in August (16°C). The benthic community of the delta's tidal flats was characterised by low species diversity and was dominated by the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica, which reached densities greater than 4000 m -2. Age-length relationship of M. balthica indicated slow growth and longevity of up to 8 years. Polychaete densities, primarily the phyllodocid Eteone longa, were low throughout the study period, reaching a maximum of only 700 m -2 in August. Amphipod densities, primarily the corophid amphipod Corophium salmonis, were high (up to 7000 m -2) only during the August sampling. Spatial patterns of

  4. Unstable Pore-Water Flow in Intertidal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Shen, C.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes are important intertidal wetlands strongly influenced by interactions between surface water and groundwater. Bordered by coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur over vastly different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil condition, particularly aeration, which influences the marsh plant growth. Numerous studies have been carried out to examine the pore-water flow process in the marsh soil driven by tides, focusing on stable flow with the assumption of homogeneity in soil and fluid properties. This assumption, however, is questionable given the actual inhomogeneous conditions in the field. For example, the salinity of surface water in the tidal creek varies temporally and spatially due to the influence of rainfall and evapotranspiration as well as the freshwater input from upland areas to the estuary, creating density gradients across the marsh surface and within the marsh soil. Many marshes possess soil stratigraphy with low-permeability mud typically overlying high-permeability sandy deposits. Macropores such as crab burrows are commonly distributed in salt marsh sediments. All these conditions are prone to the development of non-uniform, unstable preferential pore-water flow in the marsh soil, for example, funnelling and fingering. Here we present results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to explore such unstable flow. In particular, the analysis aims to address how the unstable flow modifies patterns of local pore-water movement and solute transport, as well as the overall exchange between the marsh soil and

  5. Bedform migration and bedload transport on an intertidal shoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, Piet; Bell, Paul; van Santen, Pim; Roode, Niels; Levoy, Franck; Whitehouse, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The main objectives of the present study are to determine the time-dependent character of bedform dimensions and to assess the feasibility and reliability of dune-tracking techniques to estimate bedload transport in estuarine-marine conditions. A third additional aim is to evaluate the application of the Ribberink bedload transport formula for field conditions with a rippled bed. Field experiments were carried out on Spratt Sand, an intertidal shoal in the mouth of the Teign estuary, Devon, UK. In the framework of the COAST3D project, data of hydrodynamics, bedform development and sediment transport were collected over a period of a month. The presence of sediment on Spratt Sand turns out to be an important factor in the development of bedforms. As soon as sufficient sediment is available—a layer with a thickness of at least 0.20-0.30 m—ripples start to grow and develop into dunes. In general, an increase in bedform height is anticipated to result in an increase in bedload transport. However, the present study demonstrates that the development of dunes instead of ripples may lead to a reduction in migration rates, which, at the end, in reality causes a reduction in bedload transport. The presence of waves appears to be a critical factor to the applicability of the dune tracking technique. Dunes only start to migrate when wave orbital velocities exceed 0.3 m/s. Bedload transport by migrating dunes is generally in the order of 0-1.5 m 2/s when orbital velocities remain below 0.7 m/s. Bedload transport increases by a factor 2 when wave orbital velocities reach values of 0.8-0.9 m/s. The increase in bedload transport is partly caused by the additional bed shear in the presence of waves. A second wave-generated mechanism is that stronger wave action reduces the effect of hiding which, under low wave-strong current conditions, suppresses sediment pick-up in the sand-gravel mixture. Application of the Ribberink bedload transport formula for conditions with a rippled

  6. Past equable climates, mixed assemblages, and the regression fallacy

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, K.L. )

    1994-06-01

    Equable climates are often invoked to account for Pleistocene mixed (disharmonious) assemblages of plants or animals. However, mixed assemblages are defined by comparison with only modern distributions. Many modern assemblages, such as the western ponderosa pine and the northern hardwoods forests, are mixed assemblages when compared to Pleistocene distributions. Thus, explaining past assemblages with no modern analog by invoking a past equable climate ignores the fact that many modern assemblages have no past analog, yet the modern climate is not considered equable. This logical error is analogous to the regression fallacy in statistics. A change in the variability within assemblages through time cannot be detected if only the presence (and not the absence) of extreme species are considered. Because species also respond to historical and other non-climatic variables, interpretations will inevitably be biased toward equable paleoclimates. A more direct approach is to count those species that presently reside in equable climatic zones. If the species typical of modern equable zones are absent, then the proposed equable paleoclimate becomes tenuous.

  7. Changes in the structure and dynamics of marine assemblages dominated by Bifurcaria bifurcata and Cystoseira species over three decades (1977-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Sandín, Miguel; Fernández, Consolación

    2016-06-01

    Two low intertidal assemblages dominated in 1977 by Bifurcaria bifurcata and Cystoseira baccata-Saccorhiza polyschides in the North coast of Spain show changes in the structure and dynamics after 30 years. A re-survey in 2007 detected phenological changes affecting the annual cycle of dominant canopy species. B. bifurcata has shortened its growth period and undergone a decrease in biomass, while C. baccata lengthened its period of growth and increased its biomass. Also important were the disappearance of Saccorhiza polyschides and the increase of Cystoseira tamariscifolia. These changes affect the rest of the species of the assemblages, with a shift in the main understory species and an increase in crustose coralline algae although the overall biomass of the subcanopy was similar. The species richness shows a sharp increase, at the expense of increasing epiphytes and simpler functional and morphological groups. These biological changes agree with the general trends of increasing sea surface temperature and the relaxation of the summer upwelling affecting the North coast of Spain, but the results were unexpected in the case of Bifurcaria bifurcata.

  8. Temporal and spatial dynamics of a lower-intertidal lancelet population in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hidetoshi; Mimura, Keisuke; Kawai, Koichiro; Lmabayashi, Hiromichi

    2009-08-01

    The population dynamics of Branchiostoma japonicum, formerly known as B. belcheri, were Investigated from September 2003 to August 2005 in the intertidal zone at Takehara (Hiroshima Prefecture), Seto Inland Sea, Japan. The intertidal population appeared from spring to autumn and disappeared during winter. A laboratory experiment showed that exposure to temperatures below 1 degree C for 2 hours resulted in severe mortality. This low temperature corresponds to the minimum temperature in sediments in the study area. This result suggested either that the intertidal population collapses in winter because of low temperature, or that the lancelets escape from the intertidal to the subtidal zone. Throughout the research period, no lancelets smaller than 10 mm in body length were found, indicating that no larvae settled in the intertidal zone. The intertidal population is probably maintained by the influx of individuals from the neighboring subtidal population. The mean annual density of the lancelets was greatest (10.6 individuals/m(2)) at station 1 nearest the low water mark, and lowest (0.3 Individuals/m(2)) at station 3 furthest from the low water mark. In summer, the water content of the sediments was remarkably lower at station 3 (20.2%) than at station 1 (25.8%). Another laboratory experiment showed that higher mortality occurred from exposure to sediments with a water content less than 25% for 2 hours, comparable to the water content at station 3, suggesting that the spatial distribution of the lancelets upward in the intertidal is restricted by sediment dryness.

  9. Impact of toxicant exposure on the proteomic response to intertidal condition in Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Letendre, Julie; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Hanquet, Anne-Caroline; Durand, Fabrice; Budzinski, Hélène; Chan, Philippe; Vaudry, David; Rocher, Béatrice

    2011-12-01

    Intertidal blue mussels display physiological adaptations to emersion-submersion cycle that can be impacted by response to chemicals. In order to study the interference of cellular response to pollutants on intertidal physiology, we analysed proteomic (2-DE) responses in gills of mussels exposed for 14 days to regular emersion (intertidal condition) or continuous submersion (subtidal condition) and to a mixture (B[a]P/phenantrene) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Antioxidant activities were measured as general stress markers. In clean context, emersion generated several over-expressions of proteins mainly involved in cytoskeleton, chaperoning, energetic metabolism and transcription regulation. Mussels exposed to PAHs showed equivalent accumulation levels of contaminants in both physiological conditions but an increased GST activity specifically in intertidal context, highlighting the high degree of stress underwent in this group, as well as over-expressions of Cu/Zn SOD and stress proteins in subtidal context. Presence of contaminants partly impacted the response to emersion: cytoskeletal rearrangements and energetic adjustments were mostly maintained whereas stress response was dramatically altered. These findings highlight the potential adverse effects of toxicants on physiological adjustments linked to air-exposure, thus suggesting to take into account in the evaluation of environmental risk the multiplicity of stresses that wild animals are likely to encounter.

  10. A comparative study on intertidal faunal biodiversity of selected beaches of Mumbai coast.

    PubMed

    Datta, S N; Chakraborty, S K; Jaiswar, A K; Ziauddin, G

    2010-11-01

    Comparative study has been done to examine the biodiversity and ecological status of the intertidal region of Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Bandstand and National Centre for Performing Arts (NCPA) rocky beaches in Mumbai, West coast of India. A total of 50 species of intertidal organisms were recorded from these shores. Shannon and Simpson's diversity index, Margalefs richness index and Pielou's evenness index indicated different level of ecological state of the shore in different months. Dendrograms and 2-D non metric MDS ordination from Bray-Curtis similarity matrix of occurrence of intertidal organisms from these sites showed highest similarity and combination pattern of occurrence between Nerita oryzarum and Planaxis sulcatus in TIFR and Bandstand shore. Nerita oryzarum and Tactarius malaccanus at NCPA shore. Abundance/biomass comparison (ABC) method of determining level of disturbance also pointed towards the polluted status of these shores. Study concludes that though these beaches are highly disturbed due to anthropogenic activities, they still support a rich intertidal biodiversity which need immediate attention for protection and conservation.

  11. Flexibility of Physiological Traits Underlying Inter-Individual Growth Differences in Intertidal and Subtidal Mussels Mytilusgalloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Reiriz, María José; Irisarri, Jade; Labarta, Uxio

    2016-01-01

    Mussel seed (Mytilusgalloprovincialis) gathered from the intertidal and subtidal environments of a Galician embayment (NW, Spain) were maintained in the laboratory during five months to select fast (F) and slow (S) growing mussels. The physiological basis underlying inter-individual growth variations were compared for F and S mussels from both origins. Fast growing seemed to be a consequence of greater energy intake (20% higher clearance and ingestion rate) and higher food absorption rate coupled with low metabolic costs. The enhanced energy absorption (around 65% higher) resulted in 3 times higher Scope for Growth in F mussels (20.5±4.9 J h(-1)) than S individuals (7.3±1.1 J h(-1)). The higher clearance rate of F mussels appears to be linked with larger gill filtration surface compared to S mussels. Intertidal mussels showed higher food acquisition and absorption per mg of organic weight (i.e. mass-specific standardization) than subtidal mussels under the optimal feeding conditions of the laboratory. However, the enhanced feeding and digestive rates were not enough to compensate for the initial differences in tissue weight between mussels of similar shell length collected from the intertidal and subtidal environments. At the end of the experiment, subtidal individuals had higher gill efficiency, which probably lead to higher total feeding and absorption rates relative to intertidal individuals.

  12. Breeding biology and microhabitat utilization of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa Rathke, in the Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salemaa, Heikki

    1986-03-01

    The life history and distribution of the intertidal isopod Idotea granulosa were investigated at five rocky shore biotopes in the Isle of Man. I. granulosa breeds throughout the year in the Irish Sea. The breeding activity is highest in the early summer after the sexual maturation of the overwintered animals. At that period about 4% of the females were infested by Clypeoniscus sp. (Isopoda) which destroys the brood. A small proportion of the juveniles released in the early summer mature and breed in the autumn. In the winter Idotea populations consisted of juveniles, immature adults and old individuals which produce another brood. These large sized animals die off before the summer. Consequently, the age and size of the breeding I. granulosa fluctuates seasonally. The number of eggs is linearly related to the female length. The fecundity is highest in the spring and lowest in the autumn in all female size classes. I. granulosa inhabits an array of structurally different intertidal algae including the filamentous Cladophora rupestris, understory turfs Gigartina stellata, Laurencia pinnatifida and Corallina officinalis and the fucoids Fucus serratus and Ascophyllum nodosum. The distribution pattern of I. granulosa in examined intertidal communities is modified by the physiognomy of the algal microhabitats, by seasonal and spatial variation in wave agitation and by the breeding cycle of the population itself. Both the life history characteristics and distribution patterns are explained as adaptations to the spatially and temporally heterogeneous intertidal shores.

  13. [Macrobenthic community structure of intertidal zone of Rushan Bay in spring].

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying-lu; Zhao, Ning; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Ji, Xiang-xing; Yang, Chuan-ping; Yu, Zi-shan

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative study on macrobenthos was carried out in 8 transects along intertidal zone of Rushan Bay in May, 2011. In total, 116 macrobenthic species were identified, among which 58 were polychaetes, 15 were mollusks, 27 were crustaceans, 3 were echinoderms and 13 were other groups. The average abundance and biomass of macrobenthos were 872.6 ind · m(-2) and 9.37 g · M(-2), respectively. By IRI index, Mediomastus sp., Helice sheni, Nemertinea and Neanthes sp. were ranked as the top 4 dominant species in the study area. Average Margalef's species richness diversity (d), Shannon diversity (H) and Pielou's evenness index (J) of macrobenthos were 2.119, 2.384 and 0.608, respectively, indicating slight pollution in the study area. Based on 30% similarity level, 8 transects could be grouped into 3 different communities. Compared with other intertidal zones in similar latitude, macrobenthos of Rushan Bay intertidal zone were characterized by higher species number, smaller body size and higher abundance. Besides the macrobenthic community structure and diversities, more exhaustive studies were needed to reveal the possible influence of shellfish culture on intertidal macrobenthic community.

  14. Intertidal coarse woody debris: A spatial subsidy as shelter or feeding habitat for gastropods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storry, Kristin A.; Weldrick, Christine K.; Mews, Malte; Zimmer, Martin; Jelinski, Dennis E.

    2006-01-01

    Coarse woody debris (CWD) in the intertidal region of rocky shores serves as a potential source of nutrients as well as habitat or refugia from predation, ecologically linking the adjacent marine and terrestrial habitats. In a series of field and laboratory experiments, the affinity of slow-moving motile intertidal gastropods to CWD either as food source or as shelter that increases habitat complexity was tested. In intertidal pools, CWD did not increase colonization by Littorina spp., while it did so in supratidal pools. Habitat complexity, brought about by algal cover and barnacles, was apparently sufficient in intertidal pools without woody debris, while the increase in habitat complexity by CWD increased the attractiveness of supratidal pools with little natural complexity to Littorina spp. Overall, however, comparison of pools containing woody debris and those containing artificial shelter provided evidence for CWD, and/or its biofilm, serving as food source rather than refugium per se. Similarly, Tegula funebralis chose CWD as food source rather than as shelter as indicated by comparison of autoclaved and unmanipulated woody debris. Further, both unfed and fed snails from a site where CWD was present significantly preferred CWD over macroalgae. Among snails from a site without woody debris, fed individuals showed no preference, while unfed snails significantly preferred macroalgae. From this, experience appears to be a factor that mediates the role of CWD. Overall, however, CWD appears to provide supplementary food to snails in the inter- and supratidal zone.

  15. Morphology and sedimentation on open-coast intertidal flats of the Changjiang Delta, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fan, D.; Li, C.; Wang, D.; Wang, P.; Archer, A.W.; Greb, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    On many intertidal flats, lateral aggradation and reworking by large tidal channels is the dominant sedimentary process. On the open-coast intertidal flats of the Changjiang Delta large laterally migrating tidal channels are absent. Instead, numerous shallow tidal creeks cut across the intertidal flats. On these flats, vertical rather than lateral migration dominates sedimentation. Observations over semidiurnal tidal cycles show that both flood and ebb tides have the potential to deposit their own mud-sand couplets, but four couplets per day are rarely preserved. Reworking by tidal currents and/or weak waves results in loss of tidal couplets or amalgamation of two or more thin couplets into a single thick couplet. Measurements of preserved couplets show that they can represent a single flooding or ebbing event (half day) to a period of several neap-spring cycles. Diastems within amalgamated couplets are generally not distinguishable. The key agent for reworking open-coast intertidal flat deposits is not tidal creek migration but seasonal storm waves. Seasonal storm deposits consist of a basal scour and sand-dominant laminae with mud pebbles, grading upward to mud-dominated layers of fair-weather deposits. Sand-dominated layers are also reworked.

  16. Grazing effects of the periwinkle Echinolittorina peruviana at a central Peruvian high rocky intertidal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Firstater, Fausto N.; Fanjul, Eugenia; Bazterrica, M. Cielo; Lomovasky, Betina J.; Tarazona, Juan; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2008-03-01

    Echinolittorina peruviana is the most common gastropod in the high intertidal zone of Peru, representing more than 80% of the individuals present at that zone. Experimental removal of snails was used to evaluate their effects on (a) abundance of epilithic biofilm, (b) barnacle recruitment, and (c) abundance of macroalgae under “normal” conditions of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Experiments were carried out from October 2005 to April 2007 at two intertidal levels of a semi-protected rocky shore of central Peru. Results demonstrated that E. peruviana is able to control biofilm abundance and barnacle recruitment at both heights investigated, with marked effects in the lower zone. Erect macroalgae ( Ulva spp. and Gelidium spp.) were less affected by grazing; but negative effects were observed on macroalgal crusts. Season and physical stress seem to play a more important role in the abundance of macroalgae in the high intertidal. Our results are similar to those reported elsewhere for high shore littorinids and represent baseline data to understand how the role of intertidal consumers will vary under the cold (La Niña) and warm (El Niño) phases of ENSO on these shores.

  17. Evidence of salt accumulation in beach intertidal zone due to evaporation.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C; Jackson, Nancy L

    2016-08-11

    In coastal environments, evaporation is an important driver of subsurface salinity gradients in marsh systems. However, it has not been addressed in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches. Here, we used field data on an estuarine beach foreshore with numerical simulations to show that evaporation causes upper intertidal zone pore-water salinity to be double that of seawater. We found the increase in pore-water salinity mainly depends on air temperature and relative humidity, and tide and wave actions dilute a fraction of the high salinity plume, resulting in a complex process. This is in contrast to previous studies that consider seawater as the most saline source to a coastal aquifer system, thereby concluding that seawater infiltration always increases pore-water salinity by seawater-groundwater mixing dynamics. Our results demonstrate the combined effects of evaporation and tide and waves on subsurface salinity distribution on a beach face. We anticipate our quantitative investigation will shed light on the studies of salt-affected biological activities in the intertidal zone. It also impacts our understanding of the impact of global warming; in particular, the increase in temperature does not only shift the saltwater landward, but creates a different salinity distribution that would have implications on intertidal biological zonation.

  18. Evidence of salt accumulation in beach intertidal zone due to evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2016-08-01

    In coastal environments, evaporation is an important driver of subsurface salinity gradients in marsh systems. However, it has not been addressed in the intertidal zone of sandy beaches. Here, we used field data on an estuarine beach foreshore with numerical simulations to show that evaporation causes upper intertidal zone pore-water salinity to be double that of seawater. We found the increase in pore-water salinity mainly depends on air temperature and relative humidity, and tide and wave actions dilute a fraction of the high salinity plume, resulting in a complex process. This is in contrast to previous studies that consider seawater as the most saline source to a coastal aquifer system, thereby concluding that seawater infiltration always increases pore-water salinity by seawater-groundwater mixing dynamics. Our results demonstrate the combined effects of evaporation and tide and waves on subsurface salinity distribution on a beach face. We anticipate our quantitative investigation will shed light on the studies of salt-affected biological activities in the intertidal zone. It also impacts our understanding of the impact of global warming; in particular, the increase in temperature does not only shift the saltwater landward, but creates a different salinity distribution that would have implications on intertidal biological zonation.

  19. Influence of static habitat attributes on local and regional Rocky intertidal community structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konar, B.; Iken, K.; Coletti, H.; Monson, Daniel H.; Weitzman, Ben P.

    2016-01-01

    Rocky intertidal communities are structured by local environmental drivers, which can be dynamic, fluctuating on various temporal scales, or static and not greatly varying across years. We examined the role of six static drivers (distance to freshwater, tidewater glacial presence, wave exposure, fetch, beach slope, and substrate composition) on intertidal community structure across the northern Gulf of Alaska. We hypothesized that community structure is less similar at the local scale compared with the regional scale, coinciding with static drivers being less similar on smaller than larger scales. We also hypothesized that static attributes mainly drive local biological community structure. For this, we surveyed five to six sites in each of the six regions in the mid and low intertidal strata. Across regions, static attributes were not consistently different and only small clusters of sites had similar attributes. Additionally, intertidal communities were less similar on the site compared with the region level. These results suggest that these biological communities are not strongly influenced by the local static attributes measured in this study. An alternative explanation is that static attributes among our regions are not different enough to influence the biological communities. This lack of evidence for a strong static driver may be a result of our site selection, which targeted rocky sheltered communities. This suggests that this habitat may be ideal to examine the influence of dynamic drivers. We recommend that future analyses of dynamic attributes may best be performed after analyses have demonstrated that sites do not differ in static attributes.

  20. DOCUMENTING THE INTERTIDAL COMPONENT OF EELGRASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ESTUARIES USING COLOR INFRARED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to develop and test a rapid, cost-effective method of mapping the intertidal (and surface-visible subtidal) distribution of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) meadows and patches in the turbid coastal estuaries of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Initial co...