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Sample records for intertidal sediments soil

  1. Biogeochemistry of Intertidal Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jickells, T. D.; Rae, J. E.

    2005-07-01

    This authoritative volume includes contributions from a wide range of researchers of intertidal sediments. Individual chapters explore the underlying biogeochemical processes controlling the behavior of carbon, the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, and contaminants such as toxic organics, trace metals and artificial radionuclides in intertidal environments. The biogeochemistry of these environments is critical to understanding their ecology and management. Each of the chapters includes a comprehensive review and the results of recent research. The contributors are active researchers in this diverse and ecologically important field. This text is mainly for researchers and managers working with intertidal sediments, but it will also serve as a valuable senior undergraduate and graduate reference text in environmental chemistry, environmental science, earth science, and oceanography.

  2. Redistribution of intertidal sediment contaminants by microphytobenthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Amani; Copplestone, David; Tyler, Andrew; Smith, Nick; Sneddon, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Microphytobenthos (MPB) is a mixed community of microscopic algae inhabiting the top few millimetres of bottom sediment in the intertidal zone. It is a key component of the estuarine ecosystem, interacting with the sediment and fauna to influence sediment distribution and resuspension and forming the base of the estuarine food chain. Estuarine sediments, with which the MPB is closely associated, are a significant sink for contaminants from both fluvial and marine sources. Algae are known to have the capacity to take up contaminants, and the phytoplankton has been well studied in this respect, however there has been little research involving MPB. The extent to which contaminant uptake by MPB occurs and under what conditions is therefore very poorly understood. It seems probable that the paucity of research in this area is due to the complexity of the bioavailability of contaminants in the intertidal zone coupled with difficulties in separating MPB from the sediment. A series of experiments are proposed in which we will investigate (at a range of spatial scales) contaminant partitioning in the presence of MPB; the effect of changing temperatures on contaminant uptake and toxicity to MPB; effects of sediment resuspension on contaminant availability and uptake to MPB; and the uptake of contaminants from MPB to molluscs. A mesocosm (or experimental enclosure) is being constructed to replicate the natural system and enable manipulation of conditions of interest. This will attain greater realism than laboratory toxicity tests, with more statistical power than can be achieved through field studies. By gaining a better understanding of processes governing contaminant bioavailability and mechanisms for uptake by MPB it will be possible to relate these to projected climate change effects and ascertain potential consequences for contaminant redistribution.

  3. Denitrification in San Francisco Bay intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Umberger, Cindy; Culbertson, Charles W.; Smith, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The acetylene block technique was employed to study denitrification in intertidal estuarine sediments. Addition of nitrate to sediment slurries stimulated denitrification. During the dry season, sediment-slurry denitrification rates displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and ambient NO3− + NO2− concentrations (≤26 μM) were below the apparent Km (50 μM) for nitrate. During the rainy season, when ambient NO3− + NO2− concentrations were higher (37 to 89 μM), an accurate estimate of the Km could not be obtained. Endogenous denitrification activity was confined to the upper 3 cm of the sediment column. However, the addition of nitrate to deeper sediments demonstrated immediate N2O production, and potential activity existed at all depths sampled (the deepest was 15 cm). Loss of N2O in the presence of C2H2 was sometimes observed during these short-term sediment incubations. Experiments with sediment slurries and washed cell suspensions of a marine pseudomonad confirmed that this N2O loss was caused by incomplete blockage of N2O reductase by C2H2 at low nitrate concentrations. Areal estimates of denitrification (in the absence of added nitrate) ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 μmol of N2 m−2 h−1 (for undisturbed sediments) to 17 to 280 μmol of N2 m−2 h−1 (for shaken sediment slurries).

  4. Denitrification in San Francisco Bay intertidal sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Oremland, R.S.; Umberger, C.; Culbertson, C.W.; Smith, R.L.

    1984-05-01

    The acetylene block technique was employed to study denitrification in intertidal estuarine sediments. Addition of nitrate to sediment slurries stimulated denitrification. During the dry season, sediment-slurry denitrification rates displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and ambient NO/sub 3//sup -/ + NO/sub 2//sup -/ concentrations (less than or equal to26 ..mu..M) were below the apparent K/sub m/ (50 ..mu..M) for nitrate. During the rainy season, when ambient NO/sub 3//sup -/ + NO/sub 2//sup -/ concentrations were higher (37 to 89 ..mu..M), an accurate estimate of the K/sub m/ could not be obtained. Endogenous denitrification activity was confined to the upper 3 cm of the sediment column. However, the addition of nitrate to deeper sediments demonstrated immediate N/sub 2/O production, and potential activity existed at all depths sampled (the deepest was 15 cm). Loss of N/sub 2/O in the presence of C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ was sometimes observed during these short-term sediment incubations. Experiments with sediment slurries and washed cells suspensions of a marine pseudomonad confirmed that this N/sub 2/O loss was caused by incomplete blockage of N/sub 2/O reductase by C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ at low nitrate concentrations. Areal estimates of denitrification (in the absence of added nitrate) ranged from 0.8 to 1.2 ..mu..mol of N/sub 2/ m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ (for undisturbed sediments) to 17 to 280 ..mu..mol of N/sub 2/ m/sup -2/ h/sup -1/ (for shaken sediment slurries). 32 references

  5. Yaquina Bay, Oregon, Intertidal Sediment Temperature Database, 1998 - 2006.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed, long term sediment temperature records were obtained and compiled in a database to determine the influence of daily, monthly, seasonal and annual temperature variation on eelgrass distribution across the intertidal habitat in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Both currently and hi...

  6. Yaquina Bay, Oregon, Intertidal Sediment Temperature Database, 1998 - 2006.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detailed, long term sediment temperature records were obtained and compiled in a database to determine the influence of daily, monthly, seasonal and annual temperature variation on eelgrass distribution across the intertidal habitat in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. Both currently and hi...

  7. The fate of nitrate in intertidal permeable sediments.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Hannah K; Lavik, Gaute; Holtappels, Moritz; Kuypers, Marcel M M

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zones act as a sink for riverine and atmospheric nitrogen inputs and thereby buffer the open ocean from the effects of anthropogenic activity. Recently, microbial activity in sandy permeable sediments has been identified as a dominant source of N-loss in coastal zones, namely through denitrification. Some of the highest coastal denitrification rates measured so far occur within the intertidal permeable sediments of the eutrophied Wadden Sea. Still, denitrification alone can often account for only half of the substantial nitrate (NO3-) consumption. Therefore, to investigate alternative NO3- sinks such as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), intracellular nitrate storage by eukaryotes and isotope equilibration effects we carried out 15NO3- amendment experiments. By considering all of these sinks in combination, we could quantify the fate of the 15NO3- added to the sediment. Denitrification was the dominant nitrate sink (50-75%), while DNRA, which recycles N to the environment accounted for 10-20% of NO3- consumption. Intriguingly, we also observed that between 20 and 40% of 15NO3- added to the incubations entered an intracellular pool of NO3- and was subsequently respired when nitrate became limiting. Eukaryotes were responsible for a large proportion of intracellular nitrate storage, and it could be shown through inhibition experiments that at least a third of the stored nitrate was subsequently also respired by eukaryotes. The environmental significance of the intracellular nitrate pool was confirmed by in situ measurements which revealed that intracellular storage can accumulate nitrate at concentrations six fold higher than the surrounding porewater. This intracellular pool is so far not considered when modeling N-loss from intertidal permeable sediments; however it can act as a reservoir for nitrate during low tide. Consequently, nitrate respiration supported by intracellular nitrate storage can add an additional 20% to previous nitrate

  8. The Fate of Nitrate in Intertidal Permeable Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, Hannah K.; Lavik, Gaute; Holtappels, Moritz; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zones act as a sink for riverine and atmospheric nitrogen inputs and thereby buffer the open ocean from the effects of anthropogenic activity. Recently, microbial activity in sandy permeable sediments has been identified as a dominant source of N-loss in coastal zones, namely through denitrification. Some of the highest coastal denitrification rates measured so far occur within the intertidal permeable sediments of the eutrophied Wadden Sea. Still, denitrification alone can often account for only half of the substantial nitrate (NO3−) consumption. Therefore, to investigate alternative NO3− sinks such as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), intracellular nitrate storage by eukaryotes and isotope equilibration effects we carried out 15NO3− amendment experiments. By considering all of these sinks in combination, we could quantify the fate of the 15NO3− added to the sediment. Denitrification was the dominant nitrate sink (50–75%), while DNRA, which recycles N to the environment accounted for 10–20% of NO3− consumption. Intriguingly, we also observed that between 20 and 40% of 15NO3− added to the incubations entered an intracellular pool of NO3− and was subsequently respired when nitrate became limiting. Eukaryotes were responsible for a large proportion of intracellular nitrate storage, and it could be shown through inhibition experiments that at least a third of the stored nitrate was subsequently also respired by eukaryotes. The environmental significance of the intracellular nitrate pool was confirmed by in situ measurements which revealed that intracellular storage can accumulate nitrate at concentrations six fold higher than the surrounding porewater. This intracellular pool is so far not considered when modeling N-loss from intertidal permeable sediments; however it can act as a reservoir for nitrate during low tide. Consequently, nitrate respiration supported by intracellular nitrate storage can add an additional 20% to

  9. Sediment balance of intertidal mudflats in a macrotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    lafite, R.; Deloffre, J.; Lemoine, M.

    2012-12-01

    Intertidal area contributes widely to fine-grained sediment balance in estuarine environments. Their sedimentary dynamics is controlled by several forcing parameters including tidal range, river flow and swell, affected by human activities such as dredging, construction or vessels traffic leading to modify sediment transport pattern. Although the estuarine hydrodynamics is well documented, the link between forcing parameters and these sedimentary processes is weakly understood. One of the main reasons is the difficulty to integrate spatial (from the fluvial to the estuary mouth) and temporal (from swell in seconds to pluriannual river flow variability) patterns. This study achieved on intertidal mudflats distributed along the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) aims (i) to quantify the impact of forcing parameters on each intertidal area respect to its longitudinal position in the estuarine system and (ii) to assess the fine-grained sediment budget at estuarine scale. The Seine estuary is a macrotidal estuary developed over 160 km up the upstream limit of tidal wave penetration. With an average river flow of 450m3.s-1, 80% of the Suspended Particles Matter (SPM) annual flux is discharged during the flood period. In the downstream part, the Seine estuary Turbidity Maximum (TM) is the SPM stock located near the mouth. During their transfer toward the sea, the fine particles can be trapped in (i) the intertidal mudflats; preferential areas characterized by low hydrodynamics and generally sheltered of the tidal dominant flow, the main tidal current the Seine River and (ii) the TM. The Seine estuary is an anthropic estuary in order to secure navigation: one consequence of these developments is the tidal bore disappearance. Along the macrotidal Seine estuary hydrodynamics features and sedimentary fluxes were followed during at least 1 year using respectively Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, Optical BackScatter and altimeter. Results in the fluvial estuary enhance the role of

  10. Sea to land transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides to the North Wales coast, Part I: external gamma radiation and radionuclide concentrations in intertidal sediments, soil and air.

    PubMed

    Bryan, S E; McDonald, P; Hill, R; Wilson, R C

    2008-01-01

    Previous projects specifically aimed at performing radiological assessments in the vicinity of North Wales, investigating the presence and transfer of radionuclides from sea to land, were in 1986 and 1989. Since then, changes have occurred in the radioactive discharges from the British Nuclear Group Sellafield site. Annual discharges of (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,340)Pu and (241)Am have decreased markedly whereas, up until recent years, discharges of (99)Tc have increased. It is therefore desirable to quantify current transfer processes of radionuclides in the North Wales region and thus provide an update on 15-year-old studies. A field campaign was conducted collecting soil samples from 10 inland transects and air particulates on air filters from three High Volume Air Samplers, along the northern coast of Wales at Amlwch, Bangor Pier and Flint. Complementary field data relating to external gamma dose rates were collected at the soil sites. The field data generated for (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,340)Pu and (241)Am were consistent with what had been reported 15 years previously. Therefore, there has been no increase in the supply of these Sellafield-derived radionuclides to the terrestrial environment of the North Wales coast. The (99)Tc data in sediments were consistent with reported values within annual monitoring programmes, however, a relatively high activity concentration was measured in one sediment sample. This site was further investigated to determine the reason why such a high value was found. At present there is no clear evidence as to why this elevated concentration should be present, but the role of seaweed and its capacity in accumulating (99)Tc and transferring it to sediment is of interest. The analysis of the field samples for (99)Tc, (137)Cs, (238)Pu, (239,240)Pu and (241)Am has provided a data set that can be used for the modelling of the transfer of anthropogenic radionuclides from sea to land and its subsequent radiological implications and is reported

  11. Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate in marine intertidal sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Visscher, P.T.; Kiene, R.P.; Taylor, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    Demethylation and cleavage of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was measured in three different types of,intertidal marine sediments: a cyanobacterial mat, a diatom-covered tidal flat and a carbonate sediment. Consumption rates of added DMSP were highest in cyanobacterial mat slurries (59 ?? mol DMSP l-1 slurry h-1) and lower in slurries from a diatom mat and a carbonate tidal sediment (24 and 9 ??mol DMSP l-1 h-1, respectively). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and 3-mercaptopropionate (MPA) were produced simultaneously during DMSP consumption, indicating that cleavage and demethylation occurred at the same time. Viable counts of DMSP-utilizing bacteria revealed a population of 2 x 107 cells cm-3 sediment (90% of these cleaved DMSP to DMS, 10% demethylated DMSP to MPA) in the cyanobacterial mat, 7 x 105 cells cm-3 in the diatom mat (23% cleavers, 77% demethylators), and 9 x 104 cells cm-3 (20% cleavers and 80% demethylators) in the carbonate sediment. In slurries of the diatom mat, the rate of MPA production from added 3-methiolpropionate (MMPA) was 50% of the rate of MPA formation from DMSP. The presence of a large population of demethylating bacteria and the production of MPA from DMSP suggest that the demethylation pathway, in addition to cleavage, contributes significantly to DMSP consumption in coastal sediments.

  12. DNRA in intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Guoyu; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Li, Xiaofei; Zheng, Yanling; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen; Wang, Rong; Yu, Chendi; Lin, Xianbiao

    2017-08-01

    Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) plays an important role in regulating the fate of reactive nitrogen in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. In this work, intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary were collected in January and August 2015. Potential rates of DNRA and associated functional gene were investigated with nitrogen isotope-tracing and molecular techniques. The measured DNRA rates ranged from 0.14 to 5.57 μmol 15N kg-1 h-1 in the intertidal sediments. DNRA rates were tightly related to abundance of nrfA gene (p < 0.001), demonstrating that fermentation reaction may be the dominant pathway of DNRA in the study area. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed a relationship between DNRA and organic matter and NO2-, suggesting that these substrates stimulated the metabolism of DNRA microorganisms. On the other hand, the correlation between abundances of nrfA gene and Fe2+ and sulfide in the RDA analysis implied that oxidation of both Fe2+ and sulfide can enhance fermentative DNRA by providing extra free energy. DNRA converted approximately 2.29 × 105 t of nitrate to ammonia annually in the sampling area of the Yangtze Estuary, and most of the converted ammonium was retained in the estuarine ecosystem. DNRA may further contribute to eutrophication in the Yangtze Estuary and also in the other hypereutrophic estuaries.

  13. Influence of introduced Sonneratia apetala on nutrients and heavy metals in intertidal sediments, South China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruili; Chai, Minwei; Li, Rongyu; Xu, Hualin; He, Bei; Qiu, Guo Yu

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the influence of Sonneratia apetala on nutrients and heavy metals in intertidal sediments, sediment cores of S. apetala marsh and mudflat in Shenzhen Bay, China were analyzed. The results showed that S. apetala improved sediment nutrient properties due to increased total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), and total sulfur (TS). The levels of heavy metals were higher in S. apetala site than in mudflat, including chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg). In S. apetala site, TC, TN, and TS were not positively correlated with Cr, Ni, As, Cd, and Pb, indicating their less important roles in trapping heavy metals. There were positive correlations among Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd in both sites, suggesting similar anthropogenic source. Levels of As were higher than the probable effect level at both sites, indicating their toxicological importance. The geo-accumulation index and potential ecological risk index revealed higher metal contaminations in S. apetala site, especially for Cd, Hg, and As. Multivariate analysis implied that S. apetala alter the biogeochemical cycle of Cd and Cr to a certain extent. These findings indicate that S. apetala may improve soil nutrient properties and facilitate heavy metal accumulation in intertidal sediments.

  14. Effect of salinity on heavy metal mobility and availability in intertidal sediments of the Scheldt estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Laing, G.; De Vos, R.; Vandecasteele, B.; Lesage, E.; Tack, F. M. G.; Verloo, M. G.

    2008-05-01

    The effect of the flood water salinity on the mobility of heavy metals was studied for intertidal sediments of the Scheldt estuary (Belgium). Soils and sediments of 4 sampling sites were flooded with water of different salinities (0.5, 2.5, and 5 g NaCl L -1). Metal concentrations were monitored in pore water and surface water. To study the potential effects of flood water salinity on metal bioavailability, duckweed ( Lemna minor) was grown in the surface water. The salinity was found to primarily enhance the mobility of Cd and its uptake by duckweed. Cadmium concentrations in pore water of soils and sediments and surrounding surface waters significantly exceeded sanitation thresholds and quality standards during flooding of initially oxidized sediments. Moreover, the effect was observed already at lower salinities of 0.5 g NaCl L -1. This implies that risks related to Cd uptake by organisms and Cd leaching to ground water are relevant when constructing flooding areas in the brackish zones of estuaries. These risks can be reduced by inducing sulphide precipitation because Cd is then immobilised as sulphide and its mobility becomes independent of flood water salinity. This could be achieved by permanently flooding the polluted sediments, because sulphates are sufficiently available in the river water of the brackish part of the estuary.

  15. Estuarine intertidal sediment temperature variability in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...

  16. Estuarine intertidal sediment temperature variability in Zoster marina and Z. japonica habitats in Yaquina Bay, Oregon

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical characterization of intertidal estuarine plant habitats over time may reveal distribution-limiting thresholds. Temperature data from loggers embedded in sediment in transects crossing Zostera marina and Z. japonica habitats in lower Yaquina Bay, Oregon display signific...

  17. Impact of boat-generated waves on intertidal estuarine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanpain, O.; Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Gomit, G.; Calluaud, D.; David, L.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrodynamics in the macrotidal Seine estuary (France) are controlled by the semi-diurnal tidal regime modulated seasonally by the fluvial discharge. Wind effect on sediment transport (through wind waves and swell) is observed at the mouth of the estuary. Over the last century, authorities have put emphasis on facilitating economic exchanges by means of embankment building and increased dredging activity. These developments led to allow and secure sea vessel traffic in the Seine estuary (from its mouth to the port of Rouen, 125 km upstream) but they also resulted in a change of estuarine hydrodynamics and sediment transport features. A riversides restoration policy has been recently started by port authorities. In this context, the objective of the field-based study presented is to connect vessel characteristics (i.e. speed, draft...), boat-generated waves and their sedimentary impacts. Such information will be used by stakeholders to manage riverside. The natural intertidal site of interest is located in the fluvial freshwater part of the Seine estuary characterized by a 4.5 m maximum tidal range. The foreshore slope is gently decreasing and surface sediments are composed of fine to coarse sand with occasional mud drapes. In order to decipher boat-generated events, the sampling strategy is based on continuous ADV measurements coupled with a turbidimeter and an altimeter to study sediment dynamics. These instruments are settled in the lower part of the foreshore (i) to obtain a significant dataset (i.e. oceanic instruments are not measuring in air) on a zone statically affected by boat waves and (ii) because most of boat traffic occurs during early flood or late ebb period. Spatial variations are assessed along a cross-section through grain-size analysis of surface sediments and topography measurements using pole technique. Results enhance hydrodynamic and sedimentary impacts of boat-generated waves compared respectively to tidal and wind effects. Long

  18. Dissolved gaseous mercury formation and mercury volatilization in intertidal sediments.

    PubMed

    Cesário, Rute; Poissant, Laurier; Pilote, Martin; O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Mota, Ana M; Canário, João

    2017-12-15

    Intertidal sediments of Tagus estuary regularly experiences complex redistribution due to tidal forcing, which affects the cycling of mercury (Hg) between sediments and the water column. This study quantifies total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) concentrations and fluxes in a flooded mudflat as well as the effects on water-level fluctuations on the air-surface exchange of mercury. A fast increase in dissolved Hg and MMHg concentrations was observed in overlying water in the first 10min of inundation and corresponded to a decrease in pore waters, suggesting a rapid export of Hg and MMHg from sediments to the water column. Estimations of daily advective transport exceeded the predicted diffusive fluxes by 5 orders of magnitude. A fast increase in dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentration was also observed in the first 20-30min of inundation (maximum of 40pg L(-1)). Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations were inversely correlated with DGM concentrations. Dissolved Hg variation suggested that biotic DGM production in pore waters is a significant factor in addition to the photochemical reduction of Hg. Mercury volatilization (ranged from 1.1 to 3.3ngm(-2)h(-1); average of 2.1ngm(-2)h(-1)) and DGM production exhibited the same pattern with no significant time-lag suggesting a fast release of the produced DGM. These results indicate that Hg sediment/water exchanges in the physical dominated estuaries can be underestimated when the tidal effect is not considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A numerical investigation of fine sediment transport at intertidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Chen, S.; Ogston, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    of 0.001; settling velocity of 0.5 mm/s; critical shear stress 0.4 Pa), both turbid water edge and settling lag effects are predicted. Preliminary analysis on the tidal-residual sediment flux suggests the landward transport is mainly due to enhanced erosion at the water edge during flood while the settling lag effect is of minor contribution. Additionally, preliminary model results for tidal flow over an idealized channel-flat system predict a strong sediment-laden ebbing flow plunging into the channel during late ebb. This strong ebbing turbid flow may cause significant offshore delivery of sediment. High seaward-directed sediment concentration is driven by both strong local resuspension and non-local advected sediment from the upper flat. More extensive numerical study for different flat slope, settling velocity and critical bottom stress is necessary. These new results will be compared with observations on a range of tidal-flat morphologies to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the balance of tidal sediment fluxes on intertidal flats. This study is supported by ONR, Coastal Geosciences Program.

  20. Distribution and accumulation of biogenic silica in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Xu, Shiyuan; Yan, Huimin; Ou, Dongni; Cheng, Shubo; Lin, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Sedimentary biogenic silica is known to be an important parameter to understand biogeochemical processes and paleoenviromental records in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. Consequently, it is of great significance to investigate accumulation and distribution of biogenic silica in sediments. The two-step mild acid-mild alkaline extraction procedure was used to leach biogenic silica and its early diagenetic products in intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that total biogenic silica (t-BSi) in the intertidal sediments varied from 237.7-419.4 micromol Si/g, while the mild acid leachable silica (Si-HCl) and the mild alkaline leachable silica (Si-Alk) were in the range of 25.1-72.9 micromol Si/g and 208.1-350.4 micromol Si/g, respectively. Significant correlations were observed for the grain size distributions of sediments and different biogenic silica pools in intertidal sediments. This confirms that grain size distribution can significantly affect biogenic silica contents in sediments. Close relationships of biogenic silica with organic carbon and nitrogen were also found, reflecting that there is a strong coupling between biogenic silica and organic matter biogeochemical cycles in the intertidal system of the Yangtze Estuary. Additionally, the early diagenetic changes of biogenic silica in sediments are discussed in the present study.

  1. Anthropogenic influence on sedimentation and intertidal mudflat change in San Pablo Bay, California: 1856-1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, B.E.; Smith, R.E.; Foxgrover, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes in morphology and sedimentation from 1856 to 1983 in San Pablo Bay, California. In 1856, the morphology of the bay was complex, with a broad main channel, a major side channel connecting to the Petaluma River, and an ebb-tidal delta crossing shallow parts of the bay. In 1983, its morphology was simpler because all channels except the main channel had filled with sediment and erosion had planed the shallows creating a uniform gently sloping surface. The timing and patterns of geomorphic change and deposition and erosion of sediment were influenced by human activities that altered sediment delivery from rivers. From 1856 to 1887, high sediment delivery (14.1 ?? 106 m3/yr) to San Francisco Bay during the hydraulic gold-mining period in the Sierra Nevada resulted in net deposition of 259 ?? 14 ?? 106 m3 in San Pablo Bay. This rapid deposition filled channels and increased intertidal mudflat area by 60% (37.4 ?? 3.4 to 60.6 ?? 6.2 km2). From 1951 to 1983, 23 ?? 3 ?? 106 m3 of sediment was eroded from San Pablo Bay as sediment delivery from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers decreased to 2.8 ?? 106 m3/yr because of damming of rivers, riverbank protection, and altered land use. Intertidal mudflat area in 1983 was 31.8 ?? 3.9 km2, similar to that in 1856. Intertidal mudflat distribution in 1983, however, was fairly uniform whereas most of the intertidal mudflats were in the western part of San Pablo Bay in 1856. Sediment delivery, through its affect on shallow parts of the bay, was determined to be a primary control on intertidal mudflat area. San Pablo Bay has been greatly affected by human activities and will likely continue to erode in the near term in response to a diminished sediment delivery from rivers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of tidal forcing on biogeochemical processes in intertidal salt marsh sediments

    PubMed Central

    Taillefert, Martial; Neuhuber, Stephanie; Bristow, Gwendolyn

    2007-01-01

    Background Early diagenetic processes involved in natural organic matter (NOM) oxidation in marine sediments have been for the most part characterized after collecting sediment cores and extracting porewaters. These techniques have proven useful for deep-sea sediments where biogeochemical processes are limited to aerobic respiration, denitrification, and manganese reduction and span over several centimeters. In coastal marine sediments, however, the concentration of NOM is so high that the spatial resolution needed to characterize these processes cannot be achieved with conventional sampling techniques. In addition, coastal sediments are influenced by tidal forcing that likely affects the processes involved in carbon oxidation. Results In this study, we used in situ voltammetry to determine the role of tidal forcing on early diagenetic processes in intertidal salt marsh sediments. We compare ex situ measurements collected seasonally, in situ profiling measurements, and in situ time series collected at several depths in the sediment during tidal cycles at two distinct stations, a small perennial creek and a mud flat. Our results indicate that the tides coupled to the salt marsh topography drastically influence the distribution of redox geochemical species and may be responsible for local differences noted year-round in the same sediments. Monitoring wells deployed to observe the effects of the tides on the vertical component of porewater transport reveal that creek sediments, because of their confinements, are exposed to much higher hydrostatic pressure gradients than mud flats. Conclusion Our study indicates that iron reduction can be sustained in intertidal creek sediments by a combination of physical forcing and chemical oxidation, while intertidal mud flat sediments are mainly subject to sulfate reduction. These processes likely allow microbial iron reduction to be an important terminal electron accepting process in intertidal coastal sediments. PMID:17567893

  3. Rare earth elements in intertidal sediments of Bohai Bay, China: concentration, fractionation and the influence of sediment texture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Gao, Xuelu; Arthur Chen, Chen-Tung

    2014-07-01

    Surface sediments from intertidal Bohai Bay were assessed using a four-step sequential extraction procedure to determine their concentrations of rare earth elements (REEs) and the chemical forms in which those elements were present. The normalized ratios La/Gd and La/Yb showed that LREE contents were not significantly higher than the middle REEs or HREE contents. A negative Ce anomaly and positive Eu were observed in sand and silty sand sediments, whereas no significant Ce or Eu anomaly was found in clayey silt sediments. Residual fraction of REEs accounted for the majority of their total concentrations. Middle REEs were more easily leached than other REEs, especially in clayey silt sediment. REEs contents in the surface sediment from the intertidal Bohai Sea were consistent with data from the upper continental crust and China shallow sea sediments, indicating that they were generally unaffected by heavily anthropogenic effects from adjacent areas.

  4. A comprehensive investigation and assessment of mercury in intertidal sediment in continental coast of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Dongqi; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan; Zhang, Ju; Delaune, Ronald D

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this paper were to survey the total Hg levels and distribution character in intertidal sediment in continental coast of Shanghai, and identify the environment factors that might influence the sediment Hg concentrations, and to assess the pollution degree and potential ecological risk of Hg in sediment. Eighty-eight surface sediment samples and 18 sediment cores were collected for Hg contamination analysis. Physicochemical properties including Eh, particle size, content of total organic carbon (TOC), and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) were also measured. Index of geo-accumulation (I geo) and potential ecological risk index were used respectively to assess the pollution levels and the ecological risk of sediment Hg. The average of total Hg concentrations in surface sediments was 107.4 ± 90.9 ng/g with the range from 0 to 465.9 ng/g. Higher Hg concentrations were generally found in surface sediments near sewage outfalls and the mouth of rivers. Total Hg concentrations were significantly correlated with TOC (p < 0.05) both in surface (r = 0.24) and core (r = 0.29) sediments, but not with the other environment factors (Eh, AVS, and particle size). Geo-accumulation index indicated that Hg contamination in intertidal sediments was generally at none to moderate degree, while potential ecological risk index demonstrated that the risk caused by Hg were at moderate to considerable level. Intertidal sediment in continental coast of Shanghai has generally been contaminated by Hg, and it might pose moderate to considerable risk to the local ecosystem. The Hg contamination is related more to the coastal pollution sources and complicated hydrodynamic and sedimentary conditions than the other environment factors studied.

  5. The effects of bioturbation on sediment transport on an intertidal mudflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Jon; Daborn, Graham

    Laboratory flume studies were conducted to determine the relative importance of various biological and physical factors controlling sediment erosion threshold and transport rate on an intertidal mudflat in the Bay of Fundy. Studies were conducted in a July period of maximum solar exposure. The upper and mid-intertidal stations of the flat were dominated by silt-clay sediments, while the lower intertidal was dominated by very fine sand. The tube-dwelling amphipod Corophium volutator was the most abundant infaunal species with densities exceeding ˜1300 ind·m -2 based on counts of burrow openings. Sediment-penetrometry and water-content measurements indicated no change in unconsolidated shear strength and porosity, respectively, along the intertidal transect. Despite the apparently cohesive nature of the sediment, erosion occurred as small ripples. Critical shear velocities (u ★crit) for erosion determined with intact cores in a laboratory flume were relatively consistent between stations and sampling dates (mean = 2.1 cm·s -1 ± 0.2 SD), with no relationship to Corophium density, sediment chlorophyll a, or physical variables. Field-treatment of sediment with formalin did not cause an obvious change in u ★crit as determined by flume experiments. Corophium seemed to have little effect on erosion thresholds because incipient motion could be observed between tube burrows, beyond the local influence of the amphipod. In contrast to erosion thresholds, sediment-erosion rates measured with bedload traps were negatively correlated with density of small Corophium, probably due to binding of sediment into burrows and the ambient sediment microfabric, all of which reduce the availability of sediment for transport. Adult amphipods, which occurred at low density probably due to territorial/competitive interactions, had no obvious effect on erosion rate since only a small proportion of the sediment surface was impacted by their bioturbation. Although a portion of the

  6. Exchange of nutrients across the sediment-water interface in intertidal ria systems (SW Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina-Alvarez, N.; Caetano, M.; Vale, C.; Santos-Echeandía, J.; Bernárdez, P.; Prego, R.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate were determined in river water, tidal water that floods the intertidal sediment (flooding water) and pore water of those sediments in the Northern Galician Rias of Ortigueira and Viveiro (NW Iberian Peninsula). The field surveys were done in the productive seasons of spring and summer 2008. Short-sediment cores and tidal flooding water were sampled at the intertidal area during the first 20 min that the tide inundates the sampling site. Nutrient fluxes of rivers (Lourido and Landro) flowing into the rias were in the order of H4SiO4 > NO3- > NH4+ > HPO42 Nutrients input from those rivers were low relative to the nutrient discharge of the entire coastal area. Striking changes of nutrient concentrations in flooding and pore waters of intertidal sediments were observed in the short periods of tidal inundation. Nutrient fluxes driven by molecular diffusion and tide-induced transport across the sediment-water interface were quantified and compared to the nutrient river contribution. Diffusive fluxes ranged from 9.3 to 13.7 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for nitrate and nitrite, - 1.32 to 30.1 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for ammonium, - 0.01 to 0.49 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for phosphate, and - 13.2 to 0.2 nmol·cm- 2·d- 1 for silicate. Tide-induced transport always exceeded diffusive fluxes, with differences reaching up to four orders of magnitude for silicate. The overall results of this study emphasize the relevance of tidal water movement in promoting the sediment-water exchange of nutrients in intertidal sub-ecosystems.

  7. Anthropogenic influence on sedimentation and intertidal mudflat change in San Pablo Bay, California: 1856 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.; Foxgrover, Amy C.

    2007-06-01

    Analysis of a series of historical bathymetric surveys has revealed large changes in morphology and sedimentation from 1856 to 1983 in San Pablo Bay, California. In 1856, the morphology of the bay was complex, with a broad main channel, a major side channel connecting to the Petaluma River, and an ebb-tidal delta crossing shallow parts of the bay. In 1983, its morphology was simpler because all channels except the main channel had filled with sediment and erosion had planed the shallows creating a uniform gently sloping surface. The timing and patterns of geomorphic change and deposition and erosion of sediment were influenced by human activities that altered sediment delivery from rivers. From 1856 to 1887, high sediment delivery (14.1 × 10 6 m 3/yr) to San Francisco Bay during the hydraulic gold-mining period in the Sierra Nevada resulted in net deposition of 259 ± 14 × 10 6 m 3 in San Pablo Bay. This rapid deposition filled channels and increased intertidal mudflat area by 60% (37.4 ± 3.4 to 60.6 ± 6.2 km 2). From 1951 to 1983, 23 ± 3 × 10 6 m 3 of sediment was eroded from San Pablo Bay as sediment delivery from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers decreased to 2.8 × 10 6 m 3/yr because of damming of rivers, riverbank protection, and altered land use. Intertidal mudflat area in 1983 was 31.8 ± 3.9 km 2, similar to that in 1856. Intertidal mudflat distribution in 1983, however, was fairly uniform whereas most of the intertidal mudflats were in the western part of San Pablo Bay in 1856. Sediment delivery, through its affect on shallow parts of the bay, was determined to be a primary control on intertidal mudflat area. San Pablo Bay has been greatly affected by human activities and will likely continue to erode in the near term in response to a diminished sediment delivery from rivers.

  8. Rapid release of mercury from intertidal sediments exposed to solar radiation: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Canário, João; Vale, Carlos

    2004-07-15

    There is increasing evidence of the primary importance of photochemical reactions and transfer of gaseous mercury to the atmosphere. Although mercury in aquatic sediments is efficiently retained, resuspension and bioturbation in intertidal sediments may expose temporarily anoxic sediments to solar radiation. Field experiments were performed to investigate these processes. Anoxic sediments from two areas in the Tagus estuary with different degrees of Hg contamination (experiments I and II) were homogenized and distributed into two sets of 36 uncovered Petri dishes. The samples were placed on the intertidal sediments and exposed to direct solar radiation and kept under dark (control) for 6-8 h. The decrease rates of acid volatile sulfides (abrupt in the first 3 h) and of pyrite (linear) were the same in sediments under solar radiation and dark. The total Hg concentrations were relatively constant in sediments kept in dark, but decreased from 17.6 to 7.65 and 3.45 to 1.35 nmol g(-1) in experiments I and II, respectively. In those exposed to solar radiation during the period of higher UV intensity. Similar evolutions were found in nonreactive Hg in pore waters (3.00-2.59 and 0.725-0.105 nM). On the contrary, reactive Hg was higher in pore waters of the sediments exposed to solar radiation and increased with time, from 424 to 845 pM and 53 to 193 pM. These results indicate that most mercury released in pore waters was photochemically reduced in a short period of time and escaped rapidly to the atmosphere. Episodes of bottom resuspension and bioturbation in the intertidal sediments enhance the transfer of gaseous mercury to the atmosphere.

  9. Impact of industrial effluents on geochemical association of metals within intertidal sediments of a creek.

    PubMed

    Volvoikar, Samida P; Nayak, G N

    2015-10-15

    Metal speciation studies were carried out on three intertidal core sediments of the industrially impacted Dudh creek located along west coast of India. Metals indicated a drastic increase in the bioavailable fraction towards the surface of the cores, suggesting an increase in anthropogenic metal input in recent years as compared to the past. Also, when compared with Vaitarna estuary and Khonda creek of Thane district, the speciation of metals in Dudh creek sediments was observed to have been highly modified in recent years. High concentrations of metals associated with bioavailable fractions therefore suggested a risk of toxicity to sediment associated biota of Dudh creek.

  10. Sediment dynamics within the intertidal floodplain of the lower Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, A. T.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Ogston, A. S.; Nowacki, D. J.; Asp, N. E.; Souza Filho, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    Tidal influence extends ~800 kilometers upstream of the Amazon River mouth, producing semidiurnal oscillations in water elevation and slowing or reversing the flow of the world's largest river. This tidally influenced reach, known as the tidal river, is flanked by an expansive intertidal floodplain, and includes confluences with two large tributaries, the Xingu and Tapajós. The relative magnitude of the seasonal and tidal signals changes along the length of the tidal river, yielding diverse floodplain environments that span a range of seasonal and tidal influence. Near the upstream limit of tides, natural levees isolate the river from the floodplain during low to moderate flows, while in the lower tidal river, natural levees are absent and river-floodplain exchange is dominated by the tides rather than seasonal variation in river stage. This difference between fluvial and tidal systems strongly affects the nature of sediment exchange between the channel and floodplain, including frequency, duration, and depth of inundation. Here we present data on the impact of this fluvial-tidal continuum on sedimentary processes in the floodplain and resultant depositional signatures. Changes in levee prominence, grain size, and sediment accumulation combine to produce the distinct morphologies of floodplain lakes, intertidal backswamps, and intertidal flats. In addition to sediment accumulation on the periodically exposed floodplain, Amazon River sediment accumulates within the drowned tributary confluences of the Xingu and Tapajós Rivers. Here seasonal and tidal changes in water temperature, discharge, and suspended-sediment concentration drive barotropic and baroclinic flows that transport Amazon River sediment into tributary basins. These findings help to constrain the fate of sediment within the ungauged Amazon tidal river, and will help in understanding the response of the lower Amazon River to changes in accommodation space associated with rising sea level, and changes

  11. Comparison of the levels of bacterial diversity in freshwater, intertidal wetland, and marine sediments by using millions of illumina tags.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Sheng, Hua-Fang; He, Yan; Wu, Jin-Ya; Jiang, Yun-Xia; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee; Zhou, Hong-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Sediment, a special realm in aquatic environments, has high microbial diversity. While there are numerous reports about the microbial community in marine sediment, freshwater and intertidal sediment communities have been overlooked. The present study determined millions of Illumina reads for a comparison of bacterial communities in freshwater, intertidal wetland, and marine sediments along Pearl River, China, using a technically consistent approach. Our results show that both taxon richness and evenness were the highest in freshwater sediment, medium in intertidal sediment, and lowest in marine sediment. The high number of sequences allowed the determination of a wide variety of bacterial lineages in all sediments for reliable statistical analyses. Principal component analysis showed that the three types of communities could be well separated from phylum to operational taxonomy unit (OTU) levels, and the OTUs from abundant to rare showed satisfactory resolutions. Statistical analysis (LEfSe) demonstrated that the freshwater sediment was enriched with Acidobacteria, Nitrospira, Verrucomicrobia, Alphaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. The intertidal sediment had a unique community with diverse primary producers (such as Chloroflexi, Bacillariophyta, Gammaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria) as well as saprophytic microbes (such as Actinomycetales, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes). The marine sediment had a higher abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, which were mainly involved in sulfate reduction in anaerobic conditions. These results are helpful for a systematic understanding of bacterial communities in natural sediment environments.

  12. Depositional variability of estuarine intertidal sediments and implications for metal distribution: An example from Moreton Bay (Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Guia; Gasparon, Massimo

    2015-10-01

    This study examines the patterns of depositional variability, sediment geochemistry and metal distribution in intertidal areas of Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia. Recent concern over increasing human impact on the bay has generated the need to obtain evidence on how the disturbance of the depositional setting might affect the natural estuarine environment. Sediment stratigraphy, major, and trace element analyses of sediment cores show that the sedimentation pattern is unique to each intertidal site. Disturbed 210Pb and 137Cs activity profiles of some of the cores indicate that sediment reworking occurs across the intertidal flats up to a depth of at least 80 cm. With some notable exceptions, an accurate geochronology of the surface sediments could not be established due to low 210Pb activities and sediment mixing. Thus, an increase in Pb, Zn and Cu towards the surface sediments observed at various sites is attributed to both anthropogenic contribution following the rapid urban development in the last century and to post-depositional diagenetic processes, bioturbation and sediment re-suspension induced by tides, storms or floods. Sediment cores are representative only of the local sedimentation and may not always allow extensive correlation to larger areas. Vertical profiles of heavy metals reflect the different depositional environment controlled by the complex hydrodynamics of the bay. Local hydrologic, physical, and tidal conditions might induce metals redistribution at different scales. This information is of critical importance in view of sediment remobilization caused by future development such as dredging, intertidal areas reclamation or excavation of new navigational channels.

  13. Site-specific features influence sediment stability of intertidal flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defew, Emma C.; Tolhurst, Trevor J.; Paterson, David M.

    The factors that influence the sediment stability and the transport of estuarine mudflats are not yet fully understood but knowledge of them is essential in coastal engineering applications and pollution ecology studies. The suggestion that variation in predictive models of sediment stability might be due to site-specific characteristics is investigated using data from four estuarine mudflats (Eden Estuary, Scotland, the Biezelingsche Ham, Zandkreek, and Molenplaat mudflats in The Netherlands). These estuaries differ in their environmental conditions, macrofaunal species composition and local features (e.g. Enteromorpha mats, migratory biofilms). Stable and unstable sediments were compared, and mean chlorophyll-a concentrations and granulometry of the sediments were significantly different between the two groups. Step-wise multiple linear regressions were applied to the sediment stability data of all sites to establish the influences on erosion threshold of microphytobenthic biomass, water content, granulometry, organic carbon content and the abundance of dominant macrofaunal species. The stability of each site was influenced by different factors. Sediment stability of the Eden Estuary was affected by the Enteromorpha bloom; Biezelingsche Ham was influenced by the highly migratory nature of the diatom biofilms and the abundance of Corophium volutator; the polychaete worm Arenicola marina had a net negative effect on sediment stability of the Zandkreek; and the Molenplaat was influenced by microphytobenthic biomass. This research highlights the need for site-specific calibration of models and suggests that a universal proxy parameter for sediment stability is unlikely to be obtained.

  14. Assessment of advective porewater movement affecting mass transfer of hydrophobic organic contaminants in marine intertidal sediment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Werner, David; Moffett, Kevan B; Luthy, Richard G

    2010-08-01

    Advective porewater movement and molecular diffusion are important factors affecting the mass transfer of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in marsh and mudflat sediments. This study assessed porewater movement in an intertidal mudflat in South Basin adjacent to Hunters Point Shipyard, San Francisco, CA, where a pilot-scale test of sorbent amendment assessed the in situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To quantify advective porewater movement within the top 0-60 cm sediment layer, we used temperature as a tracer and conducted heat transport analysis using 14-day data from multidepth sediment temperature logging stations and one-dimensional heat transport simulations. The best-fit conditions gave an average Darcy velocity of 3.8cm/d in the downward vertical direction for sorbent-amended sediment with a plausible range of 0 cm/d to 8 cm/d. In a limiting case with no net advection, the best-fit depth-averaged mechanical dispersion coefficient was 2.2x10(-7) m2/s with a range of 0.9x10(-7) m2/s to 5.6x10(-7) m2/s. The Peclet number for PCB mobilization showed that molecular diffusion would control PCB mass transfer from sediment to sorbent particles for the case of uniform distribution of sorbent. However, the advective flow and mechanical dispersion in the test site would significantly benefit the stabilization effect of heterogeneously distributed sorbent by acting to smooth out the heterogeneities and homogenizing pollutant concentrations across the entire bioactive zone. These measurements and modeling techniques on intertidal sediment porewater transport could be useful for the development of more reliable mass transfer models for the prediction of contaminant release within the sediment bed, the movement of HOCs in the intertidal aquatic environment, and in situ sequestration by sorbent addition.

  15. Hard science is essential to restoring soft-sediment intertidal habitats in burgeoning East Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shing Yip; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-02-01

    Intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems such as mangrove, saltmarsh, and tidal flats face multiple stresses along the burgeoning East Asia coastline. In addition to direct habitat loss, ecosystem structure, function, and capacity for ecosystem services of these habitats are significantly affected by anthropogenic loss of hydrologic connectivity, introduction of invasive exotic species, and chemical pollution. These dramatic changes to ecosystem structure and function are illustrated by four case studies along the East Asian coast: the Mai Po Marshes in Hong Kong, the Yunxiao wetlands in Fujian, China, and the Lake Sihwa and Saemangeum tidal flats in Korea. While investment in restoration is increasing significantly in the region, the lack of key basic knowledge on aspects of the behaviour of intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems, particularly those in Asia, impairs the effectiveness of these efforts. The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function for relatively species-poor mangrove, seagrass, and saltmarsh systems has implications for restoration targeting monospecific plantations. The trajectory of recovery and return of ecosystem function and services is also poorly known, and may deviate from simple expectations. As many introduced species have become established along the East Asian coast, their long-term impact on ecosystem function as well as the socio-economics of coastal communities demand a multidisciplinary approach to assessing options for restoration and management. These knowledge gaps require urgent attention in order to inform future restoration and management of intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems in fast-developing East Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is there any seasonal variation in marine nematodes within the sediments of the intertidal zone?

    PubMed

    Yodnarasri, Supaporn; Montani, Shigeru; Tada, Kuninao; Shibanuma, Seiichiro; Yamada, Toshiro

    2008-01-01

    The sediment parameters and nematode assemblages in the intertidal zone of the Hichirippu shallow lagoon, Hokkaido, Japan, were investigated. The objectives of this study were to observe the seasonal variation in the nematodes in the sediment, and to investigate the relationships between the nematodes and environmental factors. Samples were collected bi-monthly from five stations on the tidal flat from April 2003 to February 2004. It was found that the sediment parameters (Chl a concentration, AVS, TOC and TN contents) varied throughout the 10-month study. Fifty-four species of nematodes were found in the study area. The density and biomass of the nematodes varied in accordance with the sediment temperature during the sampling period. In this study, there was a seasonal variation in the nematode assemblage found in the intertidal zone of this shallow lagoon. The important factors affecting this variation were sediment temperature, and food competition among the nematodes themselves. The seasonal variation of the nematode also showed a relationship with the Chl a concentration in the sediment during the sampling period.

  17. Morphology and sedimentation on open-coast intertidal flats of the Changjiang Delta, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fan, D.; Li, C.; Wang, D.; Wang, P.; Archer, A.W.; Greb, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    On many intertidal flats, lateral aggradation and reworking by large tidal channels is the dominant sedimentary process. On the open-coast intertidal flats of the Changjiang Delta large laterally migrating tidal channels are absent. Instead, numerous shallow tidal creeks cut across the intertidal flats. On these flats, vertical rather than lateral migration dominates sedimentation. Observations over semidiurnal tidal cycles show that both flood and ebb tides have the potential to deposit their own mud-sand couplets, but four couplets per day are rarely preserved. Reworking by tidal currents and/or weak waves results in loss of tidal couplets or amalgamation of two or more thin couplets into a single thick couplet. Measurements of preserved couplets show that they can represent a single flooding or ebbing event (half day) to a period of several neap-spring cycles. Diastems within amalgamated couplets are generally not distinguishable. The key agent for reworking open-coast intertidal flat deposits is not tidal creek migration but seasonal storm waves. Seasonal storm deposits consist of a basal scour and sand-dominant laminae with mud pebbles, grading upward to mud-dominated layers of fair-weather deposits. Sand-dominated layers are also reworked.

  18. Spatial distribution of arsenic in the intertidal sediments of River Scheldt, Belgium.

    PubMed

    Chapagain, S K; Shrestha, S; Du Laing, G; Verloo, M; Kazama, F

    2009-04-01

    A study was carried out to assess the spatial distribution of arsenic in the intertidal sediments of the River Scheldt in Belgium. Sediment samples were collected from different locations along the River Scheldt up to 100 cm depth and analysed for the major physicochemical properties. The study reveals that the arsenic contents in the sediment samples vary in a wide range, from 2.3 to 140.2 mg kg(-1) dry weight. Moreover, the arsenic concentrations are generally below the background concentrations and remediation thresholds of arsenic in Flanders, Belgium. The occurrence of arsenic is found closely related to some physicochemical properties of the sediments. Arsenic has a strong positive correlation with organic matter and clay contents. On the contrary, a negative correlation exists between arsenic, sand and pH. It is recommended to develop and use organic matter control practices for lowering further accumulation of arsenic within the sediments.

  19. Effectiveness of bioremediation in reducing toxicity in oiled intertidal sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H.; Siron, R.

    1995-12-31

    A 123-day field study was conducted with in situ enclosures to compare the effectiveness of bioremediation strategies based in inorganic and organic fertilizer additions to accelerate the biodegradation rates and reduce the toxicity of Venture{trademark} condensate stranded within sand-beach sediments. Comparison of the two fertilizer formulations with identical nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations showed that the organic fertilizer stimulated bacterial productivity within the oiled sediments to the greatest extent. However, detailed chemical analysis indicated that inorganic fertilizer additions were the most effective in enhancing condensate biodegradation rates. The Microtox{reg_sign} Solid-Phase Test (SPT) bioassay was determined to be sensitive to Venture Condensate in laboratory tests. Subsequent application of this procedure to oiled sediment in the field showed a reduction in sediment toxicity over time. However, the Microtox{reg_sign} bioassay procedure did not identify significant reductions in sediment toxicity following bioremediation treatment. An observed increase in toxicity following periodic additions of the organic fertilizer was attributed to rapid biodegradation rates of the fertilizer, which resulted in the production of toxic metabolic products.

  20. Sediment-porewater-biota partitioning of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban intertidal marsh

    SciTech Connect

    Maruya, K.A.; Home, A.J.; Risebrough, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Quantifying the distribution of these hydrophobic organic compounds in situ is key to understanding their fate and effects in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, field data are needed to assess/validate/invalidate the relevance of chemical-specific sediment quality criteria which are derived from equilibrium partitioning models. A field-based study in San Francisco Bay designed to investigate seasonal and spatial variations has revealed that the in situ partitioning of pyrogenically-derived PAHs between sediments and porewaters as measured by K{sub oc}{prime} was an order of magnitude higher during the wet season than during the dry season. Moreover, K{sub oc}{prime} increased along an intertidal gradient accompanied by a corresponding increase in sediment fines, organic carbon and PAH concentration. In addition, BSAFs for two species of bivalves and a composite of polychaetes collected in the marsh were negatively correlated with log K{sub ow}. Moreover, BSAFs were consistently less during the wet season and also decreased along the same intertidal gradient providing further evidence that both partitioning and bioavailability are affected by a heterogeneous interaction between PAHs and sediments contaminated with urban runoff and/or depositional sources which are suspected to be enriched with a highly aromatic soot-like organic matrix. These findings suggest that simple equilibrium models may not accurately predict the partitioning and bioavailability of combustion-source PAHs in sediments which are contaminated primarily via an urban landscape.

  1. Effect of crab bioturbation on organic matter processing in South West Atlantic intertidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul, Eugenia; Escapa, Mauricio; Montemayor, Diana; Addino, Mariana; Alvarez, María Fernanda; Grela, María A.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) remineralization plays a key role in controlling the biogeochemistry of marine sediments. Through their burrowing activities, bioturbating macrofauna not only induces physical, chemical and biological modifications, which can affect microbial communities responsible for organic matter remineralization, but it could also directly affect the distribution and bioavailability of sedimentary organic matter. Through in situ experiments manipulating crab and burrow density in intertidal soft-bottoms, we assessed if crab-bioturbation affects benthic metabolism, and the amount, distribution, and bioavailability of sedimentary OM. Crab-bioturbation enhanced overall benthic metabolism and benthic flux of dissolved OM toward the water column at both mudflat and saltmarsh zones. Moreover, our results revealed that bioturbation also changes the quality, bioavailability and distribution of sedimentary OM in mudflats and saltmarshes. Overall, bioturbation enhanced the proportion of labile organic carbon of bioturbated sediments and homogenized the sediment column in terms of their proportion of labile organic carbon. However, crabs also generated biogenic structures (e.g., mounds) that could promote spatial heterogeneity of high nutritional-value OM. Bioturbation-induced changes on benthic metabolism and on OM availability would result in a reduction of the storage capacity of carbon in our intertidal systems. Previous works indicated that crab-burrows trap detritus and OM-rich sediments. Our results suggest that detritus are efficiently remineralized at bioturbated sediment, and finally they are quickly exported to the water column as CO2 and DOC. Thus, crabs are modifying the OM processing at intertidal soft bottoms, and the ways in which carbon is exported to coastal waters.

  2. Intertidal marine sediment harbours Actinobacteria with promising bioactive and biosynthetic potential.

    PubMed

    Jose, Polpass Arul; Jha, Bhavanath

    2017-08-30

    Actinobacteria are the major source of bioactive natural products that find their value in research and drug discovery programmes. Antimicrobial resistance and the resulting high demand for novel antibiotics underscore the need for exploring novel sources of these bacteria endowed with biosynthetic potential. Intertidal ecosystems endure regular periods of immersion and emersion, and represent an untapped source of Actinobacteria. In this study, we studied the diversity and biosynthetic potential of cultivable Actinobacteria from intertidal sediments of Diu Island in the Arabian Sea. A total of 148 Actinobacteria were selectively isolated using a stamping method with eight isolation media. Isolates were grouped into OTUs based on their 16S rRNA gene sequence, and categorized within actinobacterial families such as Glycomycetaceae, Micromonosporaceae, Nocardiaceae, Nocardiopsaceae, Pseudonocardiaceae, Streptomycetaceae, and Thermomonosporaceae. The biosynthetic potential of the Actinobacteria, necessary for secondary metabolite biosynthesis, was screened and confirmed by extensive fingerprinting approaches based on genes coding for polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The observed biosynthetic potential was correlated with the antibacterial activity exhibited by these isolates in laboratory conditions. Ultimately, the results demonstrate that intertidal sediment is a rich source of diverse cultivable Actinobacteria with high potential to synthesize novel bioactive compounds in their genomes.

  3. Proliferation of Purple Sulphur Bacteria at the Sediment Surface Affects Intertidal Mat Diversity and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Hubas, Cédric; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Paterson, David M.; Jeanthon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of studies dealing with mats of purple sulphur bacteria in the intertidal zone. These bacteria display an array of metabolic pathways that allow them to disperse and develop under a wide variety of conditions, making these mats important in terms of ecosystem processes and functions. Mass blooms of purple sulphur bacteria develop during summer on sediments in the intertidal zone especially on macroalgal deposits. The microbial composition of different types of mats differentially affected by the development of purple sulphur bacteria was examined, at low tide, using a set of biochemical markers (fatty acids, pigments) and composition was assessed against their influence on ecosystem functions (sediment cohesiveness, CO2 fixation). We demonstrated that proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria has a major impact on intertidal mats diversity and functions. Indeed, assemblages dominated by purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were efficient exopolymer producers and their biostabilisation potential was significant. In addition, the massive growth of purple sulphur bacteria resulted in a net CO2 degassing whereas diatom dominated biofilms represented a net CO2 sink. PMID:24340018

  4. Proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria at the sediment surface affects intertidal mat diversity and functionality.

    PubMed

    Hubas, Cédric; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Paterson, David M; Jeanthon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of studies dealing with mats of purple sulphur bacteria in the intertidal zone. These bacteria display an array of metabolic pathways that allow them to disperse and develop under a wide variety of conditions, making these mats important in terms of ecosystem processes and functions. Mass blooms of purple sulphur bacteria develop during summer on sediments in the intertidal zone especially on macroalgal deposits. The microbial composition of different types of mats differentially affected by the development of purple sulphur bacteria was examined, at low tide, using a set of biochemical markers (fatty acids, pigments) and composition was assessed against their influence on ecosystem functions (sediment cohesiveness, CO2 fixation). We demonstrated that proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria has a major impact on intertidal mats diversity and functions. Indeed, assemblages dominated by purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were efficient exopolymer producers and their biostabilisation potential was significant. In addition, the massive growth of purple sulphur bacteria resulted in a net CO2 degassing whereas diatom dominated biofilms represented a net CO2 sink.

  5. Influence of mangrove reforestation on heavy metal accumulation and speciation in intertidal sediments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Wu; Zhao, Bo; Peng, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Gui-Zhu

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the influence of mangrove reforestation on heavy metal accumulation and speciation in intertidal sediments, core sediments from a restored mangrove forest and adjacent mud flat in Yifeng Estuary (southeastern China) were analyzed. The chemical speciation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni) was determined according to a sequential extraction procedure. Special attention was paid to the upper 20cm of sediment, in which metal accumulation was enhanced and speciation was obviously modified. Mangrove reforestation decreased the concentrations of all metals in the acid-soluble fraction and increased metal concentrations in the oxidizable fraction. Increased Pb, Zn and Cu concentrations and decreased Ni and Cr concentrations were observed in the reducible fraction. These results suggest that mangrove reforestation facilitated the accumulation of heavy metals in the upper sediment layers but decreased their bioavailability and mobility. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamics of sediment carbon stocks across intertidal wetland habitats of Moreton Bay, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Matthew A; Jesse, Amber; Hawke, Bruce; Baldock, Jeff; Tabet, Basam; Lockington, David; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2017-10-01

    Coastal wetlands are known for high carbon storage within their sediments, but our understanding of the variation in carbon storage among intertidal habitats, particularly over geomorphological settings and along elevation gradients, is limited. Here, we collected 352 cores from 18 sites across Moreton Bay, Australia. We assessed variation in sediment organic carbon (OC) stocks among different geomorphological settings (wetlands within riverine settings along with those with reduced riverine influence located on tide-dominated sand islands), across elevation gradients, with distance from shore and among habitat and vegetation types. We used mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with analytical data and partial least squares regression to quantify the carbon content of ~2500 sediment samples and provide fine-scale spatial coverage of sediment OC stocks to 150 cm depth. We found sites in river deltas had larger OC stocks (175-504 Mg/ha) than those in nonriverine settings (44-271 Mg/ha). Variation in OC stocks among nonriverine sites was high in comparison with riverine and mixed geomorphic settings, with sites closer to riverine outflow from the east and south of Moreton Bay having higher stocks than those located on the sand islands in the northwest of the bay. Sediment OC stocks increased with elevation within nonriverine settings, but not in riverine geomorphic settings. Sediment OC stocks did not differ between mangrove and saltmarsh habitats. OC stocks did, however, differ between dominant species across the research area and within geomorphic settings. At the landscape scale, the coastal wetlands of the South East Queensland catchments (17,792 ha) are comprised of approximately 4,100,000-5,200,000 Mg of sediment OC. Comparatively high variation in OC storage between riverine and nonriverine geomorphic settings indicates that the availability of mineral sediments and terrestrial derived OC may exert a strong influence over OC storage potential across

  7. Analysis of the bacterial community in the two typical intertidal sediments of Bohai Bay, China by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Liu, Lusan; Zheng, Binghui; Zhu, Yanzhong; Wang, Xing

    2013-07-15

    For full understanding of the bacterial community in the intertidal zones of Bohai Bay, China, we used pyrosequencing-based approach to analyze the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria in the sediments from the two typically intertidal zones - Qikou (Qi) and Gaoshaling (Ga). Results showed that, at a 0.03 distance, the sequences from the Qi sediment were assigned to 3252 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) which belong to 34 phyla, 69 classes and 119 genera, while the 3740 OTUs from the Ga sediment were affiliated with 33 phyla, 66 classes and 146 genera. Comparing the bacterial communities inhabiting in the two intertidal sediments, we observed significant difference in the dominant composition and distribution at phylum, class and genus levels. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) showed that the median grain size and DO were the most important factors regulating the bacterial abundance and diversity, while the other environmental factors have effects with different degree.

  8. Permeability of intertidal sandflats: Impact of temporal variability on sediment metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetsche, E.; Bulling, M. T.; Witte, U.

    2012-07-01

    The effects of sediment permeability on sediment oxygen consumption (SOC) in an intertidal permeable sandflat were studied over a 1-year period. Our study demonstrates that temporal variation in sediment metabolism was not only driven by temperature, but also changes in sediment permeability and total carbon content over time. High SOC rates in the summer months (seasonal mean 36.5 mmol m-2 d-1) could be attributed to high temperatures affecting metabolic processes, the rapid turnover of labile organic material and the presence of large amounts of microphytobenthos and their exudates in interstitial pore spaces. The resultant clogging of pores lowered sediment permeabilities and led to the observation of increasing SOC rates at decreasing permeabilities. Despite higher permeabilities, oxygen consumption rates in winter (seasonal mean 17.3 mmol m-2 d-1) were less than half those measured in the summer, reflecting the presence of more persistent refractory material and lower temperatures. During the winter, a major storm event reworked the sediment and significantly changed the permeability, affecting SOC rates. As sediment permeability rose by ˜25%, SOC rates were increased by ˜35% in the month after the event compared to the previous month. Our results show that temporal variation, not only in temperature and carbon content, but also in sediment permeability, affects sediment metabolism and that resuspension and storm events are necessary to unclog systems and maintain high remineralisation rates in organically poor permeable sands.

  9. Soil organic matter degradation and enzymatic profiles of intertidal and subaqueous soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferronato, Chiara; Marinari, Sara; Bello, Diana; Vianello, Gilmo; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen; Vittori Antisari, Livia

    2017-04-01

    The interest on intertidal and subaqueous soils has recently arisen because of the climate changes forecasts. The preservation of these habitats represents an important challenge for the future of humanity, because these systems represent an important global C sink since soil organic matter (SOM) on intertidal and subaqueous soils undergoes very slow degradation rates due to oxygen limitation. Publications on SOM cycle in saltmarshes are very scarce because of the difficulties involved on those studies i.e. the interaction of many abiotic and biotic factors (e.g., redox changes, water and bio-turbation processes, etc) and stressors (e.g., salinity and anoxia). However, saltmarshes constitute an unique natural system to observe the influence of anoxic conditions on SOM degradation, because the tide fluctuations on the soil surface allow the formation of provisionally or permanently submerged soils. With the aim to investigate the quality of SOM in subaqueous soils, triplicates of subaqueous soils (SASs), intertidal soils (ITSs) and terrestrial soils (TESs) were collected in the saltmarshes of the Baiona Lagoon (Northern Italy) and classified according to their pedogenetic horizons. The SOM quality on each soil horizon was investigated by quantifying SOM, total and water-soluble organic carbon (TOC, WSC) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Given the contribution of soil enzymes to the degradation of SOM, some enzymatic assays were also performed. Thereafter, soil classification and humus morpho-functional classification were used to join together similar soil profiles to facilitate the description and discussion of results. Soils were ranked as Aquent or Wassent Entisols, with an A/AC/C pedosequence. SOM, TOC and MBC were statistically higher in A than in AC and C horizons. Among the A horizons, ITSs were those showing the highest values for these parameters (11% TOC, 1.6 mg kg-1 MBC, 0.9 mg kg-1 WSC). These results, combined with the morpho-functional classification

  10. Microspatial Variation in Carbohydrate Concentrations with Depth in the Upper Millimetres of Intertidal Cohesive Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, I. S.; Paterson, D. M.

    1998-03-01

    The carbohydrates present in surface sediments represent a readily available carbon source and their polymeric components increase sediment stability. Information regarding the occurrence of these carbohydrates is therefore important in the consideration of biogeochemical cycling, heterotrophic metabolism and sediment transport. The distributions of carbohydrates within the surface sediments of three intertidal mud flats were examined on a microscale (200 μm). The carbohydrates were operationally separated into two fractions and these differed in their distribution with depth. Dry mass concentration increased significantly with depth in the upper 2 mm and the structure of surface sediment changed visibly within a short distance of the surface. The upper 300 μm of the sediment was highly porous but became compact by 4 mm. Epipelic diatoms and cyanobacteria were observed at high densities in the upper 300 μm. In addition, the concentration of colloidal carbohydrates increased significantly in a landwards direction along a short transect. Furthermore, the distribution of sediment carbohydrates was apparently influenced by sediment bed morphology and these findings are discussed.

  11. Temporal-spatial variation and partitioning prediction of antibiotics in surface water and sediments from the intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shengnan; Liu, Xinhui; Cheng, Dengmiao; Liu, Guannan; Liang, Baocui; Cui, Baoshan; Bai, Junhong

    2016-11-01

    As special zones, the intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta (YRD) are highly variable along with time and space. Fluvial-marine and land-ocean interactions which frequently occur in these areas have a great impact on the fate of pollutants. Antibiotics, which contribute to antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs), are widely detected in wastewater, natural water, soil, sediments, and even drinking water. Therefore, it is meaningful to investigate the occurrence and fate of antibiotics in these special zones. In this study, eight antibiotics belonging to tetracyclines (TCs), fluoroquinolones (FQs), and macrolides (MLs) were detected in the surface water and sediments from the intertidal zones of YRD during two seasons. Two models were established to predict the partitioning coefficients of norfloxacin (NOR) and erythromycin (ETM) using physicochemical properties of sediments, respectively. The total concentrations of these antibiotics were 82.94-230.96ng·L(-1) and 40.97-207.44ng·g(-1), respectively, in the surface water and sediments. Seasonal variation was mainly influenced by the frequency of antibiotics use and environment factors. The regions with river supply exhibited the highest concentrations of antibiotics in surface water and sediments. Meanwhile, particle-size fractions, cation exchange capability (CEC), and metal ions content played dominant roles in the partitioning behaviors of NOR and ETM between the surface water and sediments. Both models established in this study featured accuracy and feasibility, which provided the methods for predicting the partitioning coefficients of emerging contaminants similar in structures to NOR and ETM in the intertidal zones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distribution and source analysis of heavy metals in soils and sediments of Yueqing Bay basin, East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Wu, Pengbao; Yin, Aijing; Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Ming; Gao, Chao

    2017-02-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals in coastal soils, stream sediments and intertidal sediments of Yueqing Bay basin were analyzed to study their distribution and trace the possible sources. According to various single- and multi-index methods, heavy metal enrichment, especially for Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni in stream sediments, should draw environmental concern. Controlling factors such as inorganic scavengers, organic matter, sample grain size and hydrodynamic conditions were identified to influence the transportation and distribution of metals within coastal soils and sediments. Principal component analysis indicated that most metals in soils and stream sediments originate primarily from natural and anthropogenic sources, respectively. Most metals in intertidal sediments, originating both from natural processes and human activities, tend to be concentrated in fine particles. The exchange of water and sediment between the bay and open waters is strong enough to keep the metals in the tidal flats from rising to very high levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface sedimentation and sediment property of 2014~2015 years on the Dongho open-coast intertidal flat, Gochang coast of southwestern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun; Kang, Na Yeong; Kang, Sol Ip

    2016-04-01

    The Dongho intertidal flat, located on the southwestern coast of Korea, is macro-tide, open-coast, linear shoreline, and sand substrates. In the Dongho intertidal flat, this study has focused on characteristics of surface sedimentation and sediment properties during 2014~2015 years. Can cores (30×17×5 cm3) were sampled at 4 sites with 150 m interval from shoreline to lower intertidal area during the 6 seasons from spring (June) in 2014 to summer (Aug.) in 2015. The 24 can cores of the intertidal flat were analyzed for sediment texture, porosity, wet density, grain density, and shear strength at 2, 10, and 25 cm parts from the top. Sediment type is mostly sand (S) facies of the Folk scheme, and mean grain size and skewness of the sediments are 0.93~2.70 ϕ and -0.50~0.41, respectively. Sediment properties show porosity of 9~32%, wet density of 1.88~2.45 g/cm3, grain density of 2.62~3.09 g/cm3, and shear strength of 8~64 kPa. The cancore peels represent planar and inclined stratification and bioturbated faintly stratification with some shell fragments. The stratification weaken from the shoreline to the lower intertidal site. This is indicative of waning influences of sea wave in the Dongho intertidal flat. Keywords: macro-tide, open-coast, can core, intertidal flat, Gochang coast Acknowledgements: This study was supported by the research grant from the Korean Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (PJT200538). This presentation is an interim result of the coastal research program in the study area.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and black carbon in intertidal sediments of China coastal zones: Concentration, ecological risk, source and their relationship.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Li, Ye; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Cheng, Lv

    2016-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC) have attracted many attentions, especially in the coastal environments. In this study, spatiotemporal distributions of PAHs and BC, and the correlations between BC and PAHs were investigated in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. BC in sediments was measured through dichromate oxidation (BCCr) and thermal oxidation (BCCTO). The concentrations of BCCr in the intertidal sediments ranged between 0.61 and 6.32mgg(-1), while BCCTO ranged between 0.57 and 4.76mgg(-1). Spatial variations of δ(13)C signatures in TOC and BC were observed, varying from -21.13‰ to -24.87‰ and from -23.53‰ to -16.78‰, respectively. PAH contents of sediments ranged from 195.9 to 4610.2ngg(-1) in winter and 98.2 to 2796.5ngg(-1) in summer, and significantly seasonal variations were observed at most sampling sites. However, the results of potential toxicity assessment indicated low ecological risk in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Greater concentrations of PAHs measured in the sediments of estuarine environments indicated that rivers runoff may have been responsible for the higher PAH pollution levels in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Pearson's correlation analysis suggested that pyrogenic compounds of PAH were significantly related to BC, due to that both BC and these compounds derived mainly from the combustion process of fossil fuels and biomass. Overall, increasing energy consumptions caused by anthropogenic activities can contribute more emissions of BC as well as PAHs and thus improve the importance of BC in indicating pyrogenic compounds of PAHs in the intertidal sediments of China coastal zones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental Oxidation of Iron Sulphides from Intertidal Surface Sediments: Stable Isotope Effects (S, O, C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebersbach, F.; Böttcher, M. E.; Al-Raei, A. M.; Segl, M.

    2009-04-01

    Top intertidal sediments show a pronounced zone of activities of sulphate-reducing bacteria. Iron sulfides may be formed, but a substantial part is reoxidized to sulfate. Microbial or chemical reoxidation can be further enhanced by a resuspension of surface sediments by tidal currents or storms. The rates of the different processes depend on the site-secific sedimentological properties (e.g., grain size, iron and sulphur contents etc.). In the present study 3 different areas of the German Wadden Sea were studied: a mud flat in the Jade Bay, and sandy sediments in the intertidals of Spiekeroog and Sylt islands. The latter site is part of an in-situ lugworm-exclusion experiment. The goal was the experimental and field investigation of the fate of iron sulfides and the formation of sulphate upon resuspension of intertidal surface sediments in oxygenated seawater. All sites were geochemically analyzed for dissolved and solid phase iron, manganese, sulphur and carbon phases/species, and sulphate reduction rates were measured using radiotracers. Dissolved chloride and grain sizes analysis where additionally carried out. TOC, S and metal phase contents were higher in mud compared to sandy sediments. Field results demonstrate gross but only minor net sulphide production and a downcore increases in FeS contents, due to intense sulphide oxidation at the surface. Pyrite, on the other hand, was abundant through the sediments due to continuous sediment reworking. The fate of iron-sulphides and accumulation of sulphate as a function of time was followed in batch experiments using dark suspensions of surface sediments in site-bottom waters at room temperature. During the experiments, each sample was shaken continuously under exposition to oxygen, and sub-samples were taken at the beginning and after discrete time intervalls. A very fast oxidation rate of AVS led to a complete exhaustion within a day, whereas Cr(II)-reducible sulfur was inititially built up and then decreased

  16. Bedform Dimensions and Suspended Sediment Observations in a Mixed Sand-Mud Intertidal Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtman, I. D.; Amoudry, L.; Peter, T.; Jaco, B.

    2016-02-01

    Small-scale bedforms, such as ripples, can profoundly modify near-bed hydrodynamics, near-bed sediment transport and resuspension, and benthic-pelagic fluxes. Knowledge of their dimensions is important for a number of applications. Fundamentally different processes can occur depending on the dimensions of ripples: for low and long ripples, the bed remains dynamically flat and diffusive processes dominate sediment entrainment; for steep ripples, flow separation occurs above the ripples creating vortices, which are far more efficient at entraining sediment into the water column. Recent laboratory experiments for mixtures of sand and mud have shown that bedform dimensions decrease with increasing sediment mud content. However, these same experiments also showed that mud is selectively taken into suspension when bedforms are created and migrate on the bed, leaving sandy bedforms. This entrainment process, selectively suspending fine sediment, is referred to as winnowing. To improve our understanding of bedform and entrainment dynamics of mixed sediments, in situ observations were made on intertidal flats in the Dee Estuary, United Kingdom. A suite of instruments were deployed collecting co-located measurements of the near-bed hydrodynamics, waves, small-scale bed morphology and suspended sediment. Three sites were occupied consecutively, over a Spring-Neap cycle, collecting data for different bed compositions, tide levels and wind conditions. Bed samples were taken when the flats became exposed at low water and a sediment trap collected suspended load when inundated. This study will combine these measurements to investigate the interactions between small-scale bed morphology, near-bed hydrodynamics and sediment entrainment. We will examine bedform development in the complex hydrodynamic and wave climate of tidal flats, in relation to standard ripple predictors. We will also relate the variability in small-scale bedforms to variation in hydrodynamic and wave conditions

  17. Effect of burrowing by the crab Helice crassa on chemistry of intertidal muddy sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.B.; Wilcock, R.J.; Wise, B.E.; Pickmere, S.E.

    1999-09-01

    The chemical environment was measured in vertical and horizontal profiles of cores taken from intertidal sediments that are extensively burrowed by the mud crab Helice crassa. The crab burrows folded the thin (2--5 mm) oxic layer into the sediment, and the burrows appeared to have a strong influence on the concentrations of acid volatile sulfide (AVS), acid-extractable Fe{sup II} (probably FeCO{sub 3} and FeS), Fe{sup III} (probably predominantly hydrous ferric oxide FeOOH), and Mn{sup II,III,IV} and a modest effect on FeS{sub 2} but no effect on total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, or acid-extractable zinc concentrations. The oxic layer was thinner in the burrows than on the sediment surface and showed some minor differences in solid-state chemistry, with higher FeOOH and lower FeS{sub 2} concentrations in the burrow walls. Acid volatile sulfide, FeCO{sub 3} were found in the oxic layers, presumably because of deposits from crab excavations of deeper anoxic sediments. The chemistry of the bioturbated profile was highly variable, not only because of existing burrows but also because of infilled abandoned burrows. The colors of the sediment profile were strongly related to the concentrations of Fe{sup II}, AVS, FE{sup III}, Mn, and FeS{sub 2}. The implications of the observed sediment chemistry to the fate and bioavailability of contaminants is discussed.

  18. Biogeochemistry of the coupled manganese-iron-sulfur cycles of intertidal surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosselmann, K.; Boettcher, M. E.; Billerbeck, M.; Walpersdorf, E.; Debeer, D.; Brumsack, H.-J.; Huettel, M.; Joergensen, B. B.

    2003-04-01

    The biogeochemistry of the coupled iron-manganese-sulfur-carbon cycles was studied in temperate intertidal surface sediments of the German Wadden Sea (North Sea). Coastal sampling sites include sand, mixed and mud flats with different organic matter and metal contents and permeability reflecting different hydrodynamic regimes. The field study focusses on the influence of temperature, organic matter load, and sediment types on the dynamics of biogeochemical reactions on different time scales (season, day-night, tidal cycles). One of the main interests was related to the cycling of metals (Mn, Fe) in relation to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Pore water profiles were investigated by sediment sectioning and high resolution gel sampling techniques. Microbial sulfate reduction rates were measured using radiolabeled sulfate with the whole core incubation technique and the spatial distribution of bacterial activity was visualised by using "2D-photoemulsion-monitoring technique". The biogeochemical sulfur cycle was additionally characterised by the stable isotope ratios (S,O) of different sulfur species (e.g., SO_4, AVS, pyrite). Element transfers (metals, nutrients) across the sediment-water interface were additionally quantified by the application of benthic flux chambers. Microbial sulfate reduction was generally highest in the suboxic zone of the surface sediments indicating its potential importance for the mobilization of iron and manganese. In organic matter poor permeable sediments tidal effects additionally influence the spatial and temporal distribution of dissolved redox-sensitive metals. In organic matter-rich silty and muddy sediments, temperature controlled the microbial sulfate reduction rates. Depth-integrated sulfate reduction rates in sandy sediments were much lower and controlled by both temperature and organic matter. Formation of anoxic sediment surfaces due to local enhanced organic matter load (so-called "black spots") may create windows

  19. Trace metals, PCBs, and PAHs in benthic (epipelic) diatoms from intertidal sediments; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Stronkhorst, J.; Misdorp, R. ); Vos, P.C. )

    1994-06-01

    Intertidal sediments in many estuaries around the world have a history of contamination resulting from long term discharges of industrial, agricultural and domestic waste effluents. These contaminated sediments are now regarded as a major source of toxicants for bottom-related organisms which, in turn, may pass on certain contaminants (e.g. methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) to organisms higher in the foodchain. Many studies have been conducted on the contamination of benthic macrofauna, estuarine fish and birds, but to our knowledge no research has yet been carried out on benthic diatoms which form the lowest trophic level of an intertidal ecosystem. Research on the effects of micro-contaminants on primary producers in marine ecosystems is mainly performed with phytoplankton. In the estuaries of temperate regions, benthic diatoms make a significant contribution to primary production in the ecosystem and are predated especially by deposit feeding Polychaete and Mollusca. Knowledge of the level of contamination in benthic diatoms is of major importance to recognize possible effects on growth rate and species composition of the benthic diatom populations and to understand the accumulation of toxicants into the foodchain. For chemical analysis it is difficult to obtain [open quote]pure[close quote] samples of benthic diatoms because they form part of the sediment. A similar problem occurs with the sampling of phytoplankton in turbid estuarine waters. The aim of this pilot study was (a) to improve a trap technique to collect pure samples of benthic diatoms of at least 2 gram dry weight for analysis of trace metals, PCBs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and (b) to compare the concentrations in benthic diatoms with levels in sediment and some bottom-related organisms. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Hydroxyatrazine in soils and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerch, R.N.; Thurman, E.M.; Blanchard, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    Hydroxyatrazine (HA) is the major metabolite of atrazine in most surface soils. Knowledge of HA sorption to soils, and its pattern of stream water contamination suggest that it is persistent in the environment. Soils with different atrazine use histories were collected from four sites, and sediments were collected from an agricultural watershed. Samples were exhaustively extracted with a mixed-mode extractant, and HA was quantitated using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Atrazine, deethylatrazine (DEA), and deisopropylatrazine (DIA) were also measured in all samples. Concentrations of HA were considerably greater than concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and DIA in all soils and sediments studied. Soil concentrations of HA ranged from 14 to 640 ??g/kg with a median concentration of 84 ??g/kg. Sediment concentrations of HA ranged from 11 to 96 ??g/kg, with a median concentration of 14 ??g/kg. Correlations of HA and atrazine concentrations to soil properties indicated that HA levels in soils were controlled by sorption of atrazine. Because atrazine hydrolysis is known to be enhanced by sorption and pH extremes, soils with high organic matter (OM) and clay content and low pH will result in greater atrazine sorption and subsequent hydrolysis. Significant correlation of HA concentrations to OM, pH, and cation exchange capacity of sediments indicated that mixed-mode sorption (i.e., binding by cation exchange and hydrophobic interactions) was the mechanism controlling HA levels in sediment. The presence of HA in soils and stream sediments at the levels observed support existing hypotheses regarding its transport in surface runoff. These results also indicated that persistence of HA in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is an additional risk factor associated with atrazine usage.

  1. Influences of sediment dessication on phosphorus transformations in an intertidal marsh: formation and release of phosphine.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Ding, Pingxing; Zhou, Junliang; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Di; Zheng, Yanli

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of sediment dewatering on the phosphorus transformations concerning about the production and emission of phosphine in the intertidal marsh of the Yangtze Estuary. The concentrations of matrix-bound phosphine ranged from 18.62-72.53 ng kg(-1) and 31.14-61.22 ng kg(-1) within the August and January exposure incubations, respectively. The responses of matrix-bound phosphine concentrations to sediment dessication demonstrate that the production (or accumulation) of matrix-bound phosphine significantly increased with water loss at the start of the emersion incubations. However, further dehydration inhibited the formation of matrix-bound phosphine in sediments. The significant correlations of matrix-bound phosphine with the organic-P bacteria abundance and alkaline phosphatase activities implicate that the production of matrix-bound phosphine within the dessication incubations was linked closely to the microbial decomposition of organic P. The emissions of phosphine generally decreased with sediment dewatering, with the fluxes of 7.51-96.73 ng m(-2)h(-1) and 5.34-77.74 ng m(-2)h(-1) over the exposure incubations of both August and January, respectively. Also, it is observed that the releases of phosphine during the entire exposure periods were affected not only by its production but also by sediment water and redox conditions. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of Aeolian Transport Processes in the Intertidal Zone on Sediment Exchange Between Marine and Aeolian Coastal Zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, S.; Verheijen, A.; Cohn, N.; Vos, S.; Hoonhout, B.; Ruggiero, P.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal dunes are generally dynamic due to a combination of marine and aeolian sediment transport processes. The growth of coastal dunes is generally governed by wind driven sediment transport. Quantifying and predicting aeolian sediment transport processes is a scientific and practical challenge. This is caused by the uncertainties in the relative importance of the transport capacity of the wind and the availability of sediment (or sediment supply). Especially sediment supply has recently been hypothesized to be of governing importance but no quantitative knowledge is available yet. The intertidal zone adds further complexity since sediment supply is likely influenced by alternating marine and aeolian processes on the tide timescale. However, while sediment availability is likely to vary along the coastal zone, no measurements of sediment supply and availability has been successful in the past. In this study we use detailed measurements of wind driven erosion and sedimentation in the intertidal and supra-tidal coastal zone to quantify sediment supply for aeolian sediment transport and associated dune growth. During the 6 weeks SEDEX2 field campaign, a RIEGL 200VZ laser scanner is used to collect high resolution topographic data with 15-minute intervals during several tidal cycles. The data reveals the small but significant erosion in the intertidal zone due to wind driven processes within a tidal cycle for the first time. At the same time the small but significant sedimentation at the dry beach and dunes is measured on the tidal timescale. These data are essential in understanding sediment exchange between marine and aeolian zones and the growth of coastal dunes.

  3. A falling-head method for measuring intertidal sediment hydraulic conductivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Sun, Pingping; Chen, Shi; Xia, Yuqiang; Liu, Shuang

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an in situ falling-head method for measuring hydraulic conductivity of beach sediments in tidal environment. A polyvinyl chloride (PVC) standpipe was vertically pushed into the submerged beach sediments so that its lower part was filled by a sediment column. During the experiment, the sediments were submerged by sea water and the standpipe top was higher than the sea level. The pipe was fully filled with sea water at the beginning of the experiment. Then the water level time series inside and outside the standpipe were recorded. Analytical solutions were derived to describe the relation among the sediment's hydraulic conductivity and the water levels inside and outside the standpipe and used to analyze the experiment data obtained from the intertidal zone of Puqian Bay, Haikou, Hainan Province, China. The water levels predicted by the analytical solution agreed very well with all the experiment data. Experiments for horizontal hydraulic conductivity estimation were also conducted using L-shaped standpipe which bends from vertical to horizontal in the beach sediments. The averaged hydraulic conductivity anisotropy ratio at the study area is about 2.9. After each in situ experiment, the sediments in the standpipe were stored in a plastic box and transported to university laboratory to measure the hydraulic conductivity using falling-head method. It is found that the in situ hydraulic conductivity averages one order of magnitude greater than the laboratory one, indicating that the original beach surface sediments were loose due to tidal and wave actions and that the samples were significantly compacted during the transportation to laboratory.

  4. Role of Diatoms in the Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Intracellular Nitrate in Intertidal Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Stief, Peter; Kamp, Anja; de Beer, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular nitrate storage allows microorganisms to survive fluctuating nutrient availability and anoxic conditions in aquatic ecosystems. Here we show that diatoms, ubiquitous and highly abundant microalgae, represent major cellular reservoirs of nitrate in an intertidal flat of the German Wadden Sea and are potentially involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration. Intracellular nitrate (ICNO3) was present year-round in the sediment and was spatially and temporally correlated with fucoxanthin, the marker photopigment of diatoms. Pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA genes of all domains of life confirmed that ICNO3 storage was most likely due to diatoms rather than other known nitrate-storing microorganisms (i.e., large sulfur bacteria and the eukaryotic foraminifers and gromiids). Sedimentary ICNO3 concentrations reached up to 22.3 µmol dm-3 at the sediment surface and decreased with sediment depth to negligible concentrations below 5 cm. Similarly, the ICNO3/fucoxanthin ratio and porewater nitrate (PWNO3) concentrations decreased with sediment depth, suggesting that ICNO3 of diatoms is in equilibrium with PWNO3, but is enriched relative to PWNO3 by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Cell-volume-specific ICNO3 concentrations in a diatom mat covering the sediment surface during spring were estimated at 9.3-46.7 mmol L-1. Retrieval of 18S rRNA gene sequences related to known nitrate-storing and nitrate-ammonifying diatom species suggested that diatoms in dark and anoxic sediment layers might be involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration. Due to the widespread dominance of diatoms in microphytobenthos, the total nitrate pool in coastal marine sediments may generally be at least two times larger than derived from porewater measurements and partially be recycled to ammonium. PMID:24023845

  5. Role of diatoms in the spatial-temporal distribution of intracellular nitrate in intertidal sediment.

    PubMed

    Stief, Peter; Kamp, Anja; de Beer, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular nitrate storage allows microorganisms to survive fluctuating nutrient availability and anoxic conditions in aquatic ecosystems. Here we show that diatoms, ubiquitous and highly abundant microalgae, represent major cellular reservoirs of nitrate in an intertidal flat of the German Wadden Sea and are potentially involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration. Intracellular nitrate (ICNO3) was present year-round in the sediment and was spatially and temporally correlated with fucoxanthin, the marker photopigment of diatoms. Pyrosequencing of SSU rRNA genes of all domains of life confirmed that ICNO3 storage was most likely due to diatoms rather than other known nitrate-storing microorganisms (i.e., large sulfur bacteria and the eukaryotic foraminifers and gromiids). Sedimentary ICNO3 concentrations reached up to 22.3 µmol dm(-3) at the sediment surface and decreased with sediment depth to negligible concentrations below 5 cm. Similarly, the ICNO3/fucoxanthin ratio and porewater nitrate (PWNO3) concentrations decreased with sediment depth, suggesting that ICNO3 of diatoms is in equilibrium with PWNO3, but is enriched relative to PWNO3 by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Cell-volume-specific ICNO3 concentrations in a diatom mat covering the sediment surface during spring were estimated at 9.3-46.7 mmol L(-1). Retrieval of 18S rRNA gene sequences related to known nitrate-storing and nitrate-ammonifying diatom species suggested that diatoms in dark and anoxic sediment layers might be involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration. Due to the widespread dominance of diatoms in microphytobenthos, the total nitrate pool in coastal marine sediments may generally be at least two times larger than derived from porewater measurements and partially be recycled to ammonium.

  6. Disturbance of intertidal soft-sediment benthic communities by cockle hand raking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, M. J.; Broad, G.; Hall, S. J.

    2001-05-01

    Recent awareness of the ecosystem effects of fishing activities on the marine environment means that there is a pressing need to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of those activities that may have negative effects on non-target species and habitats. The cockle, Cerastoderma edule (L.) is the target of a commercial and artisanal fishery that occurs in intertidal and estuarine habitats across Northern Europe. Cockles are harvested either mechanically using tractor dredges or suction dredges or by large numbers of individual fishers using hand rakes. This study examined the effects of hand raking on the non-target species and under-sized cockles associated with intertidal cockle beds and the effects of size of the patch of sediment disturbed on subsequent recolonisation. Hand raking led to an initial three-fold increase in the damage rate of under-sized cockles compared with control plots. The communities in both small and large raked plots showed community changes relative to control plots 14 days after the initial disturbance. The small raked plots had recovered 56 days after the initial disturbance whereas the large raked plots remained in an altered state. Samples collected over a year later indicated that small-scale variations in habitat heterogeneity had been altered and suggest that while effects of hand raking may be significant within a year, they are unlikely to persist beyond this time-scale unless there are larger long-lived species present within the community.

  7. Distribution and enrichment of acid-leachable heavy metals in the intertidal sediments from Quanzhou Bay, southeast coast of China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gongren; Yu, Ruilian; Zhao, Jinxiu; Chen, Liping

    2011-02-01

    The article presents the distribution and enrichment of acid-leachable heavy metals (ALHMs) Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Mn, and Fe in the intertidal sediments collected from Quanzhou Bay, southeast coast of China. The contents of ALHMs along with sediment texture, total organic carbon, S2-, and CaCO3 in surface sediments were analyzed to identify the input of heavy metals from various sources. The enrichment of ALHMs in the sediments is mainly attributed to the intense industrial activities around Quanzhou Bay and to the serried activities of intertidal breed aquatics along the seacoast. The results also illustrate the association between the ALHMs with the finer fractions, organic matter, and Fe oxyhydroxides in the sediments. The above results were very supported by the multivariate statistical analyses, including correlation, principal component analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis. Comparative results of ALHMs in the intertidal sediments from Quanzhou Bay with those in other domestic bays and estuaries indicate that the study area has been enriched with heavy metals, especially with Zn, Cu, and Pb, during the past few decades. The results of the present study suggest that the authorities should pay attention to the current status and take some measures to control the heavy metal pollution in the study area.

  8. Wave energy dissipation by intertidal sand waves on a mixed-sediment Beach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.; Ruggiero, P.

    2006-01-01

    Within the surf zone, the energy expended by wave breaking is strongly influenced by nearshore bathymetry, which is often linked to the character and abundance of local sediments. Based upon a continuous, two year record of Argus Beach Monitoring System (ABMS) data on the north shore of Kachemak Bay in southcentral Alaska, we model the enhancement of wave energy dissipation by the presence of intertidal sand waves. Comparison of model results from simulations in the presence and absence of sand waves illustrates that these ephemeral morphological features can offer significant protection to the backing beach and sea cliff through two mechanisms: (1) by moving the locus of wave breaking seaward and (2) by increasing energy expenditure associated with the turbulence of wave breaking. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  9. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  10. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  11. Draft genome of amylolytic actinobacterium, Sinomonas humi MUSC 117(T) isolated from intertidal soil.

    PubMed

    Ser, Hooi-Leng; Tan, Wen-Si; Cheng, Huey-Jia; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-12-01

    The amylolytic actinobacterium, Sinomonas humi MUSC 117(T) was isolated from intertidal soil from Kuantan, Malaysia. MUSC 117(T) exhibited significant starch hydrolysis activity and was chosen for further analysis. Here we report approximately 4.4 Mbp high quality genome sequence of MUSC 117(T). Availability of the genome sequence will contribute to better understanding for the strain and allow further exploitation of its biotechnological potential.

  12. Persistence of polycyclic aromatic compounds of different molecular size and water solubility in surficial sediment of an intertidal sandflat

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcock, R.J.; Northcott, G.L.; Corban, G.A.; Wilkins, A.L.; Langdon, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    The persistence of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ranging from two- to six-ring compounds, in an intertidal sandflat was studied by applying uniform amounts (0.10 g) of each to the surface of the sandflat and then monitoring concentrations over time. The mass of total PAH, after initial losses, declined slowly, so that after 256 d 12% of the applied material remained. Vertical concentration profiles indicated that little downward movement occurred and that most of the mass was concentrated in the top 2 cm, where most losses also occurred. The study has shown that anthropogenic PAHs have persistences comparable with organochlorine pesticides in aerobic sediments of intertidal sandflats. Rank correlations showed that the order of persistence may be predicted on the basis of molecular size parameters, such as molecular weight, molecular volume, and area. Persistence of PAHs in intertidal sandflats appears to be regulated by simple, physical processes.

  13. Persistence and biodegradation of kerosene in high-arctic intertidal sediment.

    PubMed

    Røberg, Stian; Stormo, Svein Kristian; Landfald, Bjarne

    2007-10-01

    A kerosene type hydrocarbon fraction (equivalent to 7 L m(-2)) was added to enclosures in the surface layer of high-arctic intertidal beach sediment. The experimental spill was repeated in two consecutive years in the period July-September. The rate and extent of hydrocarbon removal and the accompanying bacterial response were monitored for 79 days (2002) and 78 days (2003). The bulk of added kerosene, i.e. 94-98%, was lost from the upper 5 cm layer by putatively abiotic processes within 2 days and a residual fraction in the range 0.6-1.2mg per g dry sediment was stably retained. Concomitant addition of oleophilic fertilizer led to higher initial retention, as 24% of the kerosene remained after 2 days in the presence of a modified, cold-climate adapted version of the well-known Inipol EAP 22 bioremediation agent. In these enclosures, which showed an increase in hydrocarbon-degrader counts from 6.5 x 10(3) to 4.1 x 10(7) per g dry sediment within 8 days, a 17% contribution by biodegradation to subsequent hydrocarbon removal was estimated. Stimulation in hydrocarbon-degrader counts in fertilizer-alone control enclosures was indistinguishable from the stimulation observed with both kerosene and fertilizer present, suggesting that the dynamics in numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was primarily impacted by the bioremediation agent.

  14. Interactions between Benthic Copepods, Bacteria and Diatoms Promote Nitrogen Retention in Intertidal Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Willem; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; De Troch, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the impact of diatoms and copepods on microbial processes mediating nitrate removal in fine-grained intertidal sediments. More specifically, we studied the interactions between copepods, diatoms and bacteria in relation to their effects on nitrate reduction and denitrification. Microcosms containing defaunated marine sediments were subjected to different treatments: an excess of nitrate, copepods, diatoms (Navicula sp.), a combination of copepods and diatoms, and spent medium from copepods. The microcosms were incubated for seven and a half days, after which nutrient concentrations and denitrification potential were measured. Ammonium concentrations were highest in the treatments with copepods or their spent medium, whilst denitrification potential was lowest in these treatments, suggesting that copepods enhance dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium over denitrification. We hypothesize that this is an indirect effect, by providing extra carbon for the bacterial community through the copepods' excretion products, thus changing the C/N ratio in favour of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Diatoms alone had no effect on the nitrogen fluxes, but they did enhance the effect of copepods, possibly by influencing the quantity and quality of the copepods' excretion products. Our results show that small-scale biological interactions between bacteria, copepods and diatoms can have an important impact on denitrification and hence sediment nitrogen fluxes. PMID:25360602

  15. Interactions between benthic copepods, bacteria and diatoms promote nitrogen retention in intertidal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Stock, Willem; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Willems, Anne; De Troch, Marleen

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at evaluating the impact of diatoms and copepods on microbial processes mediating nitrate removal in fine-grained intertidal sediments. More specifically, we studied the interactions between copepods, diatoms and bacteria in relation to their effects on nitrate reduction and denitrification. Microcosms containing defaunated marine sediments were subjected to different treatments: an excess of nitrate, copepods, diatoms (Navicula sp.), a combination of copepods and diatoms, and spent medium from copepods. The microcosms were incubated for seven and a half days, after which nutrient concentrations and denitrification potential were measured. Ammonium concentrations were highest in the treatments with copepods or their spent medium, whilst denitrification potential was lowest in these treatments, suggesting that copepods enhance dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium over denitrification. We hypothesize that this is an indirect effect, by providing extra carbon for the bacterial community through the copepods' excretion products, thus changing the C/N ratio in favour of dissimilatory nitrate reduction. Diatoms alone had no effect on the nitrogen fluxes, but they did enhance the effect of copepods, possibly by influencing the quantity and quality of the copepods' excretion products. Our results show that small-scale biological interactions between bacteria, copepods and diatoms can have an important impact on denitrification and hence sediment nitrogen fluxes.

  16. Behavior of trace metals in the sediment pore waters of intertidal mudflats of a tropical wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, K.T.; Lam, M.H.W.; Yen, Y.F.; Leung, A.P.K.

    2000-03-01

    Vertical profiles of dissolved Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Mn in the sediment pore waters of the intertidal mudflats of the Mai Po and Inner Deep Bay Ramsar Site of Hong Kong, People's Republic of China, were measured using the polyacrylamide gel diffusive equilibration thin film (DET) technique. The ranges of concentrations of dissolved Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Mn in the pore water of the top 0 to 20 cm of sediment were 2.2 to 10.0 nM, 346.0 to 950.0 nM 243.8 to 454.8 nM, 23.2 to 51.2 nM, 39.8 to 249.5 {micro}M, and 13.4 to 20.7 {micro}M, respectively. Enrichment of these trace metals was observed in the upper 0- to 7-cm layer. Profiles of conditional distribution coefficient, log(K{sub D}), of the trace metals and results of multiple regression analysis have revealed that reduction of Mn (hydrous) oxides was the major remobilization mechanism for Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the mudflats. Benthic diffusive fluxes of these trace metals from the mudflats were also estimated on the basis of the concentration gradients of trace metals between surface sediments and the overlying water column. The magnitude of the estimated diffusive fluxes followed the order Zn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Cd.

  17. [Spatial distribution and contamination evaluation of heavy metals in the intertidal surface sediments of Eastern Chongming].

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Juan; Yang, Shi-Lun; Hou, Li-Jun; Zhou, Ju-Zhen; Liu, Ying-Wen

    2012-07-01

    Using the ArcGIS geostatistical analysis module, this work investigated the spatial distribution pattern of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd) and their deposition fluxes in the intertidal surface sediments of Eastern Chongming based on the analysis of grain size, heavy metal concentrations and organic carbon content. The spatial interpolation (Kriging) was performed to estimate the deposition fluxes, and the contamination status of heavy metals was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd were 42, 27, 69, 71 and 0.23 microg x g(-1), respectively, all of which exceeded the background value in the Shanghai tidal flat. The contents of heavy metals showed a landward as well as northward increasing trend due to the influences of sediment grain size and organic carbon content. The annual deposition of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Cd in Eastern Chongming were 187, 121, 395, 312 and 1.04 t, respectively; the total deposition flux of these heavy metals was 11 g x (m2 x a)-1. Although the overall contamination level of heavy metals in Eastern Chongming was relatively low, Cd, Pb and Cu had a potential pollution threat to the sediment environment.

  18. Classification and Change Detection of Yellow Sea Intertidal Sediment Using a Two-step PCA of Optical Reflectance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, D. J.; Park, W.; Won, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Grain size distributions of intertidal sediment in the Yellow Sea vary widely ranging from mud dominant to sand dominant with extensive seasonal changes. These are affected by tidal energy of the Yellow Sea, river flows, topography, shoreline gradient and human activities such as land reclamation, etc. Grain size of tidal flats are linked closely to fisheries, aquaculture and pollutant process. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor these areas continuously. It is, however, difficult to retrieve grain size information from remotely sensed data. Because the optical reflectance of intertidal sediment is not a function of single parameter but varies according to water content, grain size, topography, surface water, benthic algae and halophytes, etc. Among these parameters, grain size and water content play a key role in bare intertidal surface. Since water content of intertidal sediment are affected by tide, it is necessary to establish a water-independent grain size retrieval model. It is known that mud and sand sediment are well distinguished under dry condition on PCA (Principal Component Analysis) space but hardly distinguished under saturated condition. Here we introduce a new grain size retrieval model by removing the water content dependency from optical reflectance via a two-step PCA transform. To define the relationship between grain size, water content and optical reflectance, two different standard samples were made as per grain size by wet sieving. By exploiting simplified reflectance features of the standard samples, a two-step PCA transform model was established. This grain size retrieval model was applied to GOCI (Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) images for sediment classification within the Yellow Sea. The results demonstrate it might be possible to discriminate between sand-dominant and mud-dominant areas based upon the model. Seasonal changes of sediment distribution within the tidal flats are well observed from the results.

  19. River flow control on intertidal mudflat sedimentation in the mouth of a macrotidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuvilliez, Antoine; Lafite, Robert; Deloffre, Julien; Lemoine, Maxence; Langlois, Estelle; Sakho, Issa

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of hydrological variability influenced by climatic phenomena upon the sedimentary exchange between the turbidity maximum (TM) and a river mouth intertidal mudflat. This study, carried out over a period of 10 years (1997-2006) in the Seine Estuary (France), is specifically focused on two extreme periods: a wet one from 2001 to 2002 and a drier one from 2005 to 2006. This study is based on an original approach combining data gathered via low-altitude remote sensing with altimeter readings and ground-level measurements. During this 10 year period, we observed a link between climate change and the sedimentary processes on the mudflat surface. The modifications of sedimentary processes are mainly connected to the multiannual variability of hydrological flow rates that control the positioning of the turbidity maximum, the source of the sedimentary material deposited in this intertidal zone. The TM at the mouth of the Seine estuary is well developed; its maximum mass is estimated to be between 300,000 tons and 500,000 tons (Avoine et al., 1981) with maximum concentrations in the surface waters ranging from 1 to 2 g • l- 1 (Le Hir et al., 2001). Most of the fine particles stored within the TM have been found to originate from within the catchment area (Dupont et al., 1994). In the Seine estuary, the dynamics of the estuarine TM, in response to hydrodynamic forcings, have been previously described (Avoine et al., 1981) and modeled (e.g. Brenon and Le Hir, 1999; Le Hir et al., 2001). The TM is upstream of the northern mudflat when the river flow is low (< 450 m • s- 1) and nearby the study area when the river flow is higher. Thus during wet periods, the sedimentation rates increase by + 17 cm • y- 1, while during the drier one (when the turbidity maximum is located upstream of the estuary) we observed an erosion rate of 7.6 cm • y- 1. Sedimentation events in the mudflat resulting from spring tides are less frequent

  20. Impact of biotic and abiotic processes on sediment dynamics and the consequences to the structure and functioning of the intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widdows, John; Brinsley, Mary

    2002-10-01

    This paper reviews field and laboratory studies using flumes to quantify the erodability of undisturbed intertidal sediments as a function of changes in (1) the natural benthic community structure and sediment properties, and (2) the abundance of key intertidal species. Sediment erodability, which varies spatially and temporally, is dependent on the interactions between physical processes, sediment properties and biological processes, particularly the balance between two functional groups of biota, the stabilisers and the destabilisers. Bio-stabilisers can influence the hydrodynamics and provide some physical protection to the bed (e.g. mussel beds, macroalgae, salt marsh macrophytes), or can enhance cohesiveness and alter the critical erosion threshold (e.g. microphytobenthos). In contrast, bio-destabilisers (e.g. bioturbators such as Macoma balthica, Hydrobia ulvae) increase surface roughness, reduce the critical erosion threshold and enhance the erosion rate. Field studies in the Humber (England) and Westerschelde (Netherlands) have shown that interannual changes in sediment erodability were a result of a shift from a stabilised sediment dominated by microphytobenthos to a destabilised sediment dominated by M. balthica. Interannual changes in key biota, their influence on sediment erosion, and the consequences for intertidal ecology and morphology, appear to be driven in part by climatic factors (primarily a shift from mild to cold winters). Quantification and understanding of these benthic processes has been used to parameterise mathematical models of intertidal sediment dynamics, and this has provided insight into the relative importance of biological and physical factors in determining sediment erosion/accretion in the intertidal zone.

  1. Dynamics of Inorganic Nutrients in Intertidal Sediments: Porewater, Exchangeable, and Intracellular Pools.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Bohorquez, Julio; Corzo, Alfonso; Jimenez-Arias, Juan L; Papaspyrou, Sokratis

    2016-01-01

    The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: porewater (PW) nutrients and exchangeable (EX) ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB) and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC), highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC, and EX) and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance) and organic matter (OM) contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain). MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an alternative nitrate

  2. Dynamics of Inorganic Nutrients in Intertidal Sediments: Porewater, Exchangeable, and Intracellular Pools

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Bohorquez, Julio; Corzo, Alfonso; Jimenez-Arias, Juan L.; Papaspyrou, Sokratis

    2016-01-01

    The study of inorganic nutrients dynamics in shallow sediments usually focuses on two main pools: porewater (PW) nutrients and exchangeable (EX) ammonium and phosphate. Recently, it has been found that microphytobenthos (MPB) and other microorganisms can accumulate large amounts of nutrients intracellularly (IC), highlighting the biogeochemical importance of this nutrient pool. Storing nutrients could support the growth of autotrophs when nutrients are not available, and could also provide alternative electron acceptors for dissimilatory processes such as nitrate reduction. Here, we studied the magnitude and relative importance of these three nutrient pools (PW, IC, and EX) and their relation to chlorophylls (used as a proxy for MPB abundance) and organic matter (OM) contents in an intertidal mudflat of Cadiz Bay (Spain). MPB was localized in the first 4 mm of the sediment and showed a clear seasonal pattern; highest chlorophylls content was found during autumn and lowest during spring-summer. The temporal and spatial distribution of nutrients pools and MPB were largely correlated. Ammonium was higher in the IC and EX fractions, representing on average 59 and 37% of the total ammonium pool, respectively. Similarly, phosphate in the IC and EX fractions accounted on average for 40 and 31% of the total phosphate pool, respectively. Nitrate in the PW was low, suggesting low nitrification activity and rapid consumption. Nitrate accumulated in the IC pool during periods of moderate MPB abundance, being up to 66% of the total nitrate pool, whereas it decreased when chlorophyll concentration peaked likely due to a high nitrogen demand. EX-Nitrate accounted for the largest fraction of total sediment nitrate, 66% on average. The distribution of EX-Nitrate was significantly correlated with chlorophyll and OM, which probably indicates a relation of this pool to an increased availability of sites for ionic adsorption. This EX-Nitrate pool could represent an alternative nitrate

  3. Sediment reworking by a polychaete, Perinereis aibuhitensis, in the intertidal sediments of the Gomso Bay, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Bon Joo; Seo, Jaehwan

    2017-06-01

    Bioturbation, especially sediment reworking by the activities of macroinvertebrates, such as feeding and burrowing, is one of the major processes that affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of marine sediments. Given the importance of sediment reworking, this study was designed to evaluate the sediment reworking rate of a polychaete, Perinereis aibuhitensis, which is dominant in the upper tidal flats on the west coast of Korea, based on quantification of pellet production during spring and fall surveys. The density of individuals was higher in fall than in spring, whereas, due to a difference in the proportion of adults between the two seasons, the morphometric dimensions of the worm and its pellets were significantly longer and heavier in the spring. Hourly pellet production per inhabitant and density were closely related, with pellet production gradually decreasing as density increased. Daily pellet production was much higher in spring than in fall, mostly due to an increase in daytime production. The sediment reworking rate of Perinereis was similar in the two seasons in which observations were made and depended on its density and the sediment reworking rate per individual. The overall sediment reworking rate of Perinereis was 31 mm yr-1 based on its density in the study area.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria in intertidal sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Berardesco, G.; Dyhrman, S.; Gallagher, E.; Shiaris, M.P.

    1998-07-01

    Phenanthrene-degrading bacteria were isolated from a 1-m{sup 2} intertidal sediment site in Boston Harbor. Samples were taken six times over 2 years. A total of 432 bacteria were isolated and characterized by biochemical testing. When clustered on the basis of phenotypic characteristics, the isolates could be separated into 68 groups at a similarity level of approximately 70%. Several groups corresponded to well-characterized species belonging the genera Vibrio and Pseudomonas. Only 51 of the 437 isolates hybridized to a DNA probe that encodes the upper pathway of naphthalene and phenanthrene degradation in Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9816. A cluster analysis indicated that the species composition of the phenanthrene-degrading community changed significantly from sampling date to sampling date. At one sampling time, 12 6-mm-diameter core subsamples were taken within the 1-m{sup 2} site to determine the spatial variability of the degrading communities. An analysis of molecular variance, performed with the phenotypic characteristics, indicated that only 6% of the variation occurred among the 12 subsamples, suggesting that the subsamples were almost identical in composition. The authors concluded that the communities of phenanthrene-degrading bacteria in the sediments are very diverse, that the community structure undergoes significant change with time but does not vary significantly on a spatial scale of centimeters, and that the predominant genes that encode phenanthrene degradation in the communities are not well-characterized.

  5. An assessment of selected trace elements in intertidal surface sediments collected from the Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Arai, Takaomi; Ismail, Ahmad; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2010-10-01

    Concentrations of 11 trace elements (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Pb, and U) were determined in the intertidal surface sediments of Peninsular Malaysia. The average trace element concentrations are ranked as follows: Zn>V>As>Cr>Pb>Cu>Ni>Co>U>g>Cd. Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQGs) employed in present study are the Australia and New Zealand joint guideline (ANZECC/ARMCANZ), and the Hong Kong authorities. From the pooled data, none of these trace elements have the average concentration above the ISQG-high values. However, As and Ag average concentrations were over the ISQG-low values. Some elements were found to have the average concentration above the ISQG-high and/or ISQG-low in certain locations, including Kampung Pasir Putih (JPP), Lumut Port (ALP), Kuala Perai (PKP), Port Dickson (NPD), and others. The lowest and highest concentrations in a specific sampling location and maritime area varied among the elements, variations that were greatly affected by natural and anthropogenic activities in a given area. For each trace element, there were various levels of concentration among the sampling locations and maritime areas. These patterns indicated pollutant sources of an element for each area perhaps derived from nearby areas and did not widely distributed to other locations. It is necessary for Malaysia to develop an ISQG for effective quick screening and evaluation of the coastal environment of Peninsular Malaysia.

  6. Heavy metal contamination in surface sediments of Yangtze River intertidal zone: an assessment from different indexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiguo; Feng, Huan; Chang, Jinna; Qu, Jianguo; Xie, Hongxia; Yu, Lizhong

    2009-05-01

    Surface sediments (0-5 cm) from 59 stations within the Yangtze River intertidal zone (YRIZ) were sampled for metal contamination analysis in April and August 2005. The concentrations ranged (in mg kg(-1) dry weight): Al, 40,803-97,213; Fe, 20,538-49,627; Cd, 0.12-0.75; Cr, 36.9-173; Cu, 6.87-49.7; Mn, 413-1,112; Ni, 17.6-48.0; Pb, 18.3-44.1; and Zn, 47.6-154; respectively. Among the 59 sampling stations, enrichment factors (EF) indicate enrichment of Cd (52 stations), Cr (54 stations), Cu (5 stations), Ni (26 stations), Pb (5 stations) and Zn (5 stations). Geoaccumulation indexes (I(geo)) also suggest individual metal contamination in localized areas. This study indicates that Cd, Cr and Ni enrichment in the YRIZ sediment is widespread whereas Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn enrichment is localized or nonexistent. Factor and cluster analyses indicate that Cd is associated with total organic carbon whereas Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn have a close association with Mn.

  7. The role of cross-shore tidal dynamics in controlling intertidal sediment exchange in mangroves in Cù Lao Dung, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Karin R.; Nardin, William; Mullarney, Julia C.; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    Mangroves are halophytic plants common in tropical and sub-tropical environments. Their roots and pneumatophores strongly affect intertidal hydrodynamics and related sediment transport. Here, we investigate the role tree and root structures may play in altering tidal currents and the effect of these currents on the development of intertidal landscapes in mangrove-dominated environments. We use a one-dimensional Delft3D model, forced using typical intertidal slopes and vegetation characteristics from two sites with contrasting slope on Cù Lao Dung within the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, to examine the vegetation controls on tidal currents and suspended sediment transport as the tides propagate into the forest. Model results show that vegetation characteristics at the seaward fringe determine the shape of the cross-shore bottom profile, with sparse vegetation leading to profiles that are close to linear, whereas with dense vegetation resulting in a convex intertidal topography. Examples showing different profile developments are provided from a variety of published studies, ranging from linear profiles in sandier sites, and distinctive convex profiles in muddier sites. As expected, profile differences in the model are caused by increased dissipation due to enhanced drag caused by vegetation; however, the reduction of flow shoreward in sparsely vegetated or non-vegetated cases was similar, indicating that shallowing of the profile and slope effects play a dominant role in dissipation. Here, tidal velocities are measured in the field using transects of Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers, and confirm that cross-shore tidal currents diminish quickly as they move over the fringe of the forest; they then stay fairly consistent within the outer few 100 m of the forest, indicating that the fringing environment is likely a region of deposition. An understanding of how vegetation controls the development of topography is critical to predicting the resilience of these sensitive

  8. Carbon and Electron Flow in Mud and Sandflat Intertidal Sediments at Delaware Inlet, Nelson, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Mountfort, Douglas O.; Asher, Rodney A.; Mays, Edward L.; Tiedje, James M.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of carbon and electron flow in mud and sandflat intertidal sediments showed that the terminal electron acceptor was principally sulfate and that the carbon flow was mainly to CO2. Studies with thin layers of sediment exposed to H2 showed that methane production accounted for virtually none of the H2 utilized, whereas sulfate reduction accounted for a major proportion of the gas uptake. At all sampling sites except one (site B7), rates of methanogenesis were low but sulfate concentrations in the interstitial water were high (>18 mM). At site B7, the sulfate concentrations declined with depth from 32 mM at 2 cm to <1 mM at 10 cm or below, and active methanogenesis occurred in the low-sulfate zone. Sulfate-reducing activity at this site initially decreased and then increased with depth so that elevated rates occurred in both the active and nonactive methanogenic zones. The respiratory index (RI) [RI = 14CO2/(14CO2 + 14CH4)] for [2-14C]acetate catabolism at site B7 ranged from 0.98 to 0.2 in the depth range of 2 to 14 cm. Addition of sulfate to sediment from the low-sulfate zone resulted in an increase in RI and a decrease in methanogenesis. At all other sites examined, RI ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 and was constant with depth. The results suggested that although methanogenesis was inhibited by sulfate (presumably through the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria), it was not always limited by sulfate reduction. PMID:16345535

  9. Community Dynamics and Activity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Prokaryotes in Intertidal Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yanling; Newell, Silvia; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junliang; Zhao, Hui; You, Lili; Cheng, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, abundance, and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase α subunit (amoA) in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Generally, AOB had a lower diversity of amoA genes than did AOA in this study. Clone library analysis revealed great spatial variations in both AOB and AOA communities along the estuary. The UniFrac distance matrix showed that all the AOB communities and 6 out of 7 AOA communities in the Yangtze Estuary were statistically indistinguishable between summer and winter. The studied AOB and AOA community structures were observed to correlate with environmental parameters, of which salinity, pH, ammonium, total phosphorus, and organic carbon had significant correlations with the composition and distribution of both communities. Also, the AOA communities were significantly correlated with sediment clay content. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results indicated that the abundance of AOB amoA genes was greater than that of AOA amoA genes in 10 of the 14 samples analyzed in this study. Potential nitrification rates were significantly greater in summer than in winter and had a significant negative correlation with salinity. In addition, potential nitrification rates were correlated strongly only with archaeal amoA gene abundance and not with bacterial amoA gene abundance. However, no significant differences were observed between rates measured with and without ampicillin (AOB inhibitor). These results implied that archaea might play a more important role in mediating the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite in the Yangtze estuarine sediments. PMID:24185847

  10. Community dynamics and activity of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in intertidal sediments of the Yangtze estuary.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Newell, Silvia; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junliang; Zhao, Hui; You, Lili; Cheng, Xunliang

    2014-01-01

    Diversity, abundance, and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) were investigated using the ammonia monooxygenase α subunit (amoA) in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary. Generally, AOB had a lower diversity of amoA genes than did AOA in this study. Clone library analysis revealed great spatial variations in both AOB and AOA communities along the estuary. The UniFrac distance matrix showed that all the AOB communities and 6 out of 7 AOA communities in the Yangtze Estuary were statistically indistinguishable between summer and winter. The studied AOB and AOA community structures were observed to correlate with environmental parameters, of which salinity, pH, ammonium, total phosphorus, and organic carbon had significant correlations with the composition and distribution of both communities. Also, the AOA communities were significantly correlated with sediment clay content. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) results indicated that the abundance of AOB amoA genes was greater than that of AOA amoA genes in 10 of the 14 samples analyzed in this study. Potential nitrification rates were significantly greater in summer than in winter and had a significant negative correlation with salinity. In addition, potential nitrification rates were correlated strongly only with archaeal amoA gene abundance and not with bacterial amoA gene abundance. However, no significant differences were observed between rates measured with and without ampicillin (AOB inhibitor). These results implied that archaea might play a more important role in mediating the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite in the Yangtze estuarine sediments.

  11. Random Forest Classification of Sediments on Exposed Intertidal Flats Using ALOS-2 Quad-Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Yang, X.; Liu, G.; Zhou, H.; Ma, W.; Yu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are one of the world's most densely populated areas and it is necessary to propose an accurate, cost effective, frequent, and synoptic method of monitoring these complex ecosystems. However, misclassification of sediments on exposed intertidal flats restricts the development of coastal zones surveillance. With the advent of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) satellites, polarimetric SAR satellite imagery plays an increasingly important role in monitoring changes in coastal wetland. This research investigated the necessity of combining SAR polarimetric features with optical data, and their contribution in accurately sediment classification. Three experimental groups were set to make assessment of the most appropriate descriptors. (i) Several SAR polarimetric descriptors were extracted from scattering matrix using Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi methods; (ii) Optical remote sensing (RS) data with R, G and B channels formed the second feature combinations; (iii) The chosen SAR and optical RS indicators were both added into classifier. Classification was carried out using Random Forest (RF) classifiers and a general result mapping of intertidal flats was generated. Experiments were implemented using ALOS-2 L-band satellite imagery and GF-1 optical multi-spectral data acquired in the same period. The weights of descriptors were evaluated by VI (RF Variable Importance). Results suggested that optical data source has few advantages on sediment classification, and even reduce the effect of SAR indicators. Polarimetric SAR feature sets show great potentials in intertidal flats classification and are promising in classifying mud flats, sand flats, bare farmland and tidal water.

  12. Observations of Intertidal Bars Welding to the Shoreline: Examining the Mechanisms of Onshore Sediment Transport and Beach Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, N.; Anderson, D. L.; Susa, T.; Ruggiero, P.; Honegger, D.; Haller, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Many coastlines throughout the world are in a net erosional state due to factors such as climate change and anthropogenic activities. While most coastal erosion occurs episodically during major storms, beaches recover during extended periods of low wave energy. Despite the importance of beach recovery on limiting coastal vulnerability, the mechanisms driving onshore sediment transport are much less well understood than those of storm-driven offshore transport. Intertidal bar (i.e., swash bar) welding to the shoreline is one proposed mechanism of sediment delivery from the nearshore to the backshore. However, studies of swash bars and their contribution to beach building have been scarce because of the sporadic nature of these events and difficulty measuring sediment fluxes in the intertidal zone. Several beaches in the US Pacific Northwest are prograding rapidly in part due to highly dissipative conditions and an abundant sediment supply. For example, at South Beach State Park (SBSP) in Newport, OR the shoreline accreted at an average of 6 m/yr from 1960 to 2002. To explore the role of intertidal bar welding on supplying sediment to this dynamic backshore, we recently completed a boutique field experiment at SBSP. Topographic and bathymetric surveys carried out over 9 months document the short term (sediment concentrations, and the density structure of the water column to characterize the environmental conditions driving the observed morphologic changes. A co-located X-band marine radar and meteorological station provide information regarding spatially complex wave transformations and the forces driving aeolian sediment transport, respectively. Our observations at SBSP indicate a dynamic coastal landscape including multiple nearshore bars. During the experiment we observed onshore migration of the subtidal bars

  13. Substantial nitrous oxide emissions from intertidal sediments and groundwater in anthropogenically-impacted West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moseman-Valtierra, Serena; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Crusius, John; Baldwin, Sandy; Green, Adrian; Brooks, Thomas W.; Pugh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Large N2O emissions were observed from intertidal sediments in a coastal estuary, West Falmouth Harbor, MA, USA. Average N2O emission rates from 41 chambers during summer 2008 were 10.7 mol N2O m(-2) h(-1)±4.43 μmol N2O m(-2) h(-1) (standard error). Emissions were highest from sediments within a known wastewater plume, where a maximum N2O emission rate was 155 μmol N2O m(-2) h(-1). Intertidal N2O fluxes were positively related to porewater ammonium concentrations at 10 and 25 cm depths. In groundwater from 7 shoreline wells, dissolved N2O ranged from 488% of saturation (56 nM N2O) to more than 13000% of saturation (1529 nM N2O) and was positively related to nitrate concentrations. Fresh and brackish porewater underlying 14 chambers was also supersaturated in N2O, ranging from 2980% to 13175% of saturation. These observations support a relationship between anthropogenic nutrient loading and N2O emissions in West Falmouth Harbor, with both groundwater sources and also local N2O production within nutrient-rich, intertidal sediments in the groundwater seepage face. N2O emissions from intertidal "hotspot" in this harbor, together with estimated surface water emissions, constituted 2.4% of the average overall rate of nitrogen export from the watershed to the estuary. This suggests that N2O emissions factors from coastal ecosystems may be underestimated. Since anthropogenic nutrient loading affects estuaries worldwide, quantification of N2O dynamics is warranted in other anthropogenically-impacted coastal ecosystems.

  14. Comparison of Geostatistical Kriging Algorithms for Intertidal Surface Sediment Facies Mapping with Grain Size Data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the predictive performance of different geostatistical kriging algorithms for intertidal surface sediment facies mapping using grain size data. Indicator kriging, which maps facies types from conditional probabilities of predefined facies types, is first considered. In the second approach, grain size fractions are first predicted using cokriging and the facies types are then mapped. As grain size fractions are compositional data, their characteristics should be considered during spatial prediction. For efficient prediction of compositional data, additive log-ratio transformation is applied before cokriging analysis. The predictive performance of cokriging of the transformed variables is compared with that of cokriging of raw fractions in terms of both prediction errors of fractions and facies mapping accuracy. From a case study of the Baramarae tidal flat, Korea, the mapping method based on cokriging of log-ratio transformation of fractions outperformed the one based on cokriging of untransformed fractions in the prediction of fractions and produced the best facies mapping accuracy. Indicator kriging that could not account for the variation of fractions within each facies type showed the worst mapping accuracy. These case study results indicate that the proper processing of grain size fractions as compositional data is important for reliable facies mapping. PMID:24688362

  15. Comparison of geostatistical kriging algorithms for intertidal surface sediment facies mapping with grain size data.

    PubMed

    Park, No-Wook; Jang, Dong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the predictive performance of different geostatistical kriging algorithms for intertidal surface sediment facies mapping using grain size data. Indicator kriging, which maps facies types from conditional probabilities of predefined facies types, is first considered. In the second approach, grain size fractions are first predicted using cokriging and the facies types are then mapped. As grain size fractions are compositional data, their characteristics should be considered during spatial prediction. For efficient prediction of compositional data, additive log-ratio transformation is applied before cokriging analysis. The predictive performance of cokriging of the transformed variables is compared with that of cokriging of raw fractions in terms of both prediction errors of fractions and facies mapping accuracy. From a case study of the Baramarae tidal flat, Korea, the mapping method based on cokriging of log-ratio transformation of fractions outperformed the one based on cokriging of untransformed fractions in the prediction of fractions and produced the best facies mapping accuracy. Indicator kriging that could not account for the variation of fractions within each facies type showed the worst mapping accuracy. These case study results indicate that the proper processing of grain size fractions as compositional data is important for reliable facies mapping.

  16. Degradation and mineralization of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons anthracene and naphthalene in intertidal marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, J.E.; Capone, D.G.

    1985-07-01

    The degradation of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene and naphthalene by the microbiota of intertidal sediments was investigated in laboratory studies. No mineralization of either PAH was observed in the absence of oxygen. Both rates and total amounts of PAH mineralization were strongly controlled by oxygen content and temperature of the incubations. Inorganic nitrogen and glucose amendments had minimal effects on PAH mineralization. The rates and total amounts of PAH mineralized were directly related to compound concentration, pre-exposure time, and concentration. Maximum mineralization was observed at the higher concentrations (5 to 100 ..mu..g/g (ppm)) of both PAHs. Optimal acclimation to anthracene and naphthalene (through pre-exposures to the compounds) occurred at the highest acclimation concentration (1,000 ppm). However, acclimation to a single concentration (100 ppm) resulted in initial relative mineralization rates over a range of re-exposure concentrations (1 to 1,000 ppm) being nearly identical. Maximum mineralization of both PAHs occurred after intermediate periods (1 to 2 weeks) of pre-exposure. The fraction of the total heterotrophic population capable of utilizing anthracene or naphthalene as sole carbon source was also greatest after 2 weeks.

  17. Distribution of Ciliates in Intertidal Sediments across Geographic Distances: A Molecular View.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2017-04-01

    The estimation of the diversity and geographic distribution of protists in particular ciliates has long been an ongoing debate. We estimated the distribution of ciliates in intertidal sediments with geographic distance ranging from 10cm to 1,000km, using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Higher community similarity, in particular that of rare ciliate taxa, occurred between replicates than between sites. Statistical analyses showed that the community dissimilarities of both abundant and moderately abundant ciliates had correlations with geographic distance at the scales of 50m, 200km and 1000km, indicating a distance-decay relationship. No significant correlation was observed for rare taxa. The analysis of Bray-Curtis similarity showed a higher pairwise community similarity in abundant taxa than in moderately abundant taxa, and that in rare taxa was the lowest. Abundant taxa usually can disperse in a wider range than rare taxa, though their distribution is restricted by distance to some extent. Rare taxa are potentially more sensitive to changing environments, but no distance-decay relationship could be observed. The data indicate contrasting patterns of geographic distribution of the abundant and rare ciliate taxa and a weak distance-decay relationship for relatively abundant taxa at a scale over 50m. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences between aerobic and anaerobic degradation of microphytobenthic biofilm-derived organic matter within intertidal sediments.

    PubMed

    McKew, Boyd A; Dumbrell, Alex J; Taylor, Joe D; McGenity, Terry J; Underwood, Graham J C

    2013-06-01

    Within intertidal sediments, much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) consists of carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microphytobenthic biofilms. EPS are an important source of carbon and energy for aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms owing to burial of microphytobenthos and downward transport of their exudates. We established slurries of estuarine biofilms to determine the fate of organic carbon and EPS fractions, differing in size and complexity, under oxic and anoxic conditions. DOC and hot-water-extracted organic matter (predominately diatom chrysolaminarin) were utilised rapidly at similar rates in both conditions. Concentrations of insoluble, high-molecular-weight EPS were unchanged in oxic microcosms, but were significantly degraded under anoxic conditions (39% degradation by day 25). Methanogenesis and sulphate reduction were major anaerobic processes in the anoxic slurries, and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing revealed that Desulfobacteraceae (relative sequence abundance increased from 1.9% to 12.2%) and Desulfobulbaceae (increased from 1.5% to 4.3%) were the main sulphate reducers, whilst Clostridia and Bacteroidetes were likely responsible for anaerobic hydrolysis and fermentation of EPS. We conclude that a diverse consortium of anaerobic microorganisms (including coexisting sulphate reducers and methanogens) degrade both labile and refractory microphytobenthic-derived carbon and that anaerobic degradation may be the primary fate of more structurally complex components of microphytobenthic EPS. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal flat surface sediments from coastal zone of Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiumei; Zheng, Rong; Zhao, Jiale; Ma, Chao; Gao, Xiaojiang

    2014-09-01

    Sixteen surface sediment samples were collected and analysed to evaluate the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from intertidal flat in Jiangsu Province. Overall, 22 OCPs were detected with total concentrations of OCPs ranging widely from 0.96 to 12.14 ng/g (dry wt). Total hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels varied from <0.01 to 0.67 ng/g and from 0.23 to 4.85 ng/g, respectively. DDTs were the predominant compounds. The dominance of β-HCH indicated a history of HCH pollution. According to the ratios of ( p, p'-DDD+ p, p'-DDE)/ p, p'-DDT and o,p'-DDT/ p, p'-DDT, new input of DDTs did not occur in most sites, and the main sources were historical usage of technical DDTs. OCPs such as dieldrin, endrin, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDT exceeded the effects range low, showing adverse biological effects that would occasionally occur at some sites of the study area.

  20. Temporal record of Pu isotopes in inter-tidal sediments from the northeastern Irish Sea.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Patric; Worsfold, Paul; Keith-Roach, Miranda; Andersen, Morten B; Kershaw, Peter; Leonard, Kins; Choi, Min-Seok; Boust, Dominique; Lesueur, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    A depth profile of (239)Pu and (240)Pu specific activities and isotope ratios was determined in an inter-tidal sediment core from the Esk Estuary in the northeastern Irish Sea. The study site has been impacted with plutonium through routine radionuclide discharges from the Sellafield nuclear reprocessing plant in Cumbria, NW England. A pronounced sub-surface maximum of ~10 k Bq kg(-1) was observed for (239+240)Pu, corresponding to the peak in Pu discharge from Sellafield in 1973, with a decreasing trend with depth down to ~0.04 k Bq kg(-1) in the deeper layers. The depth profile of (239+240)Pu specific activities together with results from gamma-ray spectrometry for (137)Cs and (241)Am was compared with reported releases from the Sellafield plant in order to estimate a reliable sediment chronology. The upper layers (1992 onwards) showed higher (239+240)Pu specific activities than would be expected from the direct input of annual Sellafield discharges, indicating that the main input of Pu is from the time-integrated contaminated mud patch of the northeastern Irish Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from ~0.03 in the deepest layers to >0.20 in the sub-surface layers with an activity-weighted average of 0.181. The decreasing (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio with depth reflects the changing nature of operations at the Sellafield plant from weapons-grade Pu production to reprocessing spent nuclear fuel with higher burn-up times in the late 1950s. In addition, recent annual (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in winkles collected during 2003-2008 from three stations along the Cumbrian coastline showed no significant spatial or temporal differences with an overall average of 0.204, which supports the hypothesis of diluted Pu input from the contaminated mud patch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of sediment characteristics on the composition of soft-sediment intertidal communities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Henkel, Jessica R.; Sigel, Bryan J.; Taylor, Caz M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic infaunal communities are important components of coastal ecosystems. Understanding the relationships between the structure of these communities and characteristics of the habitat in which they live is becoming progressively more important as coastal systems face increasing stress from anthropogenic impacts and changes in climate. To examine how sediment characteristics and infaunal community composition were related along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, we sampled intertidal infaunal communities at seven sites covering common habitat types at a regional scale. Across 69 samples, the communities clustered into four distinct groups on the basis of faunal composition. Nearly 70% of the variation in the composition of the communities was explained by salinity, median grain size, and total organic content. Our results suggest that at a regional level coarse habitat characteristics are able to explain a large amount of the variation among sites in infaunal community structure. By examining the relationships between infaunal communities and their sedimentary habitats, we take a necessary first step that will allow the exploration of how changes in habitat and community composition influence higher trophic levels and ecosystem scale processes. PMID:26157603

  2. Transport model of underground sediment in soils.

    PubMed

    Jichao, Sun; Guangqian, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment.

  3. Transport Model of Underground Sediment in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Guangqian, Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment. PMID:24288479

  4. Intertidal Sandbar Welding as a Primary Source of Sediment for Dune Growth: Evidence from a Large Scale Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohn, N.; Ruggiero, P.; de Vries, S.

    2016-12-01

    Dunes provide the first line of defense from elevated water levels in low-lying coastal systems, limiting potentially major flooding, economic damages, and loss of livelihood. Despite the well documented importance of healthy dunes, our predictive ability of dune growth, particularly following erosive storm events, remains poor - resulting in part from traditionally studying the wet and dry beach as separate entities. In fact, however, dune recovery and growth is closely tied to the subtidal morphology and the nearshore hydrodynamic conditions, necessitating treating the entire coastal zone from the shoreface to the backshore as an integrated system. In this context, to further improve our understanding of the physical processes allowing for beach and dune growth during fair weather conditions, a large field experiment, the Sandbar-aEolian Dune EXchange EXperiment, was performed in summer 2016 in southwestern Washington, USA. Measurements of nearshore and atmospheric hydrodynamics, in-situ sediment transport, and morphology change provide insight into the time and space scales of nearshore-beach-dune exchanges along a rapidly prograding stretch of coast over a 6 week period. As part of this experiment, the hypothesis that dune growth is limited by the welding of intertidal sandbars to the shoreline (Houser, 2009) was tested. Using laser particle counters, bed elevation sensors (sonar altimeters and Microsoft Kinect), continuously logging sediment traps, RGB and IR cameras, and repeat morphology surveys (terrestrial lidar, kite based structure from motion, and RTK GPS), spatial and temporal trends in aeolian sediment transport were assessed in relation to the synoptic onshore migration and welding of intertidal sandbars. Observations from this experiment demonstrate that (1) the intertidal zone is the primary source of sediment to the dunes during non-storm conditions, (2) rates of saltation increase during later stages of bar welding but equivalent wind conditions

  5. Methane and organic matter as sources for excess carbon dioxide in intertidal surface sediments of the German Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, M. E.; Al-Raei, A. M.; Walpersdorf, E. C.; Heuer, V.; Hinrichs, K.; Hilker, Y.; Engelen, B.; Volkenborn, N.; Segl, M.

    2009-12-01

    The tidal areas of the German Wadden Sea form an important transition zone between the terrestrial and marine environment. Tidal areas represent highly productive marine coastal ecosystems that are under additional influence of riverine inputs. The re-mineralization of organic matter is coupled to reductive processes using oxygen, nitrate, Mn,Fe oxy(hydroxi)des and sulfate as final electron acceptors. Sulfate reduction is involved in the oxidation of DOC and methane, and is the most important anaerobic process leading to a re-flux of CO2 into the water column. CH4 and CO2 are important greenhouse gases. Both are produced in marine sediments but methane fluxes from marine sediments to the water column or the atmosphere are often limited by oxidation. Upon oxidation of organic matter and methane, carbon dioxide is added to pore waters, and both, carbon dioxide and methane may be liberated from intertidal surface sediments into the bottom waters or the atmosphere. Sizes and quality of OM pools and methane concentrations, transport properties as well as biogeochemical processs in intertidal sediments differ in different sediment types (sands, mixed and mud flats). Pore waters and surface sediments from the intertidal of the German Wadden Sea, North Sea, have been analyzed on a seasonal base for a number of (bio)geochemical parameters as, for instance, the contents and isotope composition of TOC, DIC, methane, sulphate reduction rates (SRR), sulfate, sulfide, pyrite, AVS. The typical sediments of the tidal area of Spiekeroog Island have been considered, as sands, mixed and mud flats. The C-13/C-12 partitioning was used to identify the major sources of DIC and key reactions in the coupled C-S cycles. SRR showed a control by season (temperature) and organic matter contents. Bulk organic matter in the surface sediments showed stable carbon isotope data between about -19 and -25 per mil with lighter data found in mixed and mud flats, indicating mixtures between marine and

  6. Climate variations, soil conservation and reservoir sedimentation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The integrated effects of soil conservation and a wetter climate on reservoir sedimentation were investigated for the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in west-central Oklahoma. A 12% wetter climate since the mid-1980s led to an increase in soil erosion and downstream sediment yield that offset the redu...

  7. Bioremediation of oil-contaminated sediments on an inter-tidal shoreline using a slow-release fertilizer and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ran; Lau, Angelina N L; Lim, Yong Giak; Obbard, Jeffrey P

    2005-01-01

    A 95-day field trial on the bioremediation of oil in beach sediment using Osmocote and chitosan was conducted on an inter-tidal foreshore in Singapore. Osmocote was the key factor in enhancing nutrient levels in sediments, the metabolic activity of the indigenous microbial biomass, and the biodegradation of aliphatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with ring number of 2 and 3. In contrast, chitosan did not enhance these parameters in the presence of Osmocote. However, the addition of chitosan to Osmocote amended sediments significantly enhanced biodegradation of recalcitrant 4-6-ring PAHs. This is most likely due to the high oil adsorbancy capacity of chitosan, which enhances the bioavailability of high ring number PAHs to the microbial biomass.

  8. A High-Level Fungal Diversity in the Intertidal Sediment of Chinese Seas Presents the Spatial Variation of Community Composition.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Mengmeng; Bian, Xiaomeng; Guo, Jiajia; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The intertidal region is one of the most dynamic environments in the biosphere, which potentially supports vast biodiversity. Fungi have been found to play important roles in marine ecosystems, e.g., as parasites or symbionts of plants and animals, and as decomposers of organic materials. The fungal diversity in intertidal region, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, sediment samples from various intertidal habitats of Chinese seas were collected and investigated for determination of fungal community and spatial distribution. Through ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) metabarcoding, a high-level fungal diversity was revealed, as represented by 6,013 OTUs that spanned six phyla, 23 classes, 84 orders and 526 genera. The presence of typical decomposers (e.g., Corollospora in Ascomycota and Lepiota in Basidiomycota) and pathogens (e.g., Olpidium in Chytriomycota, Actinomucor in Zygomycota and unidentified Rozellomycota spp.), and even mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., Glomus in Glomeromycota) indicated a complicated origin of intertidal fungi. Interestingly, a small proportion of sequences were classified to obligate marine fungi (e.g., Corollospora, Lignincola, Remispora, Sigmoidea). Our data also showed that the East China Sea significantly differed from other regions in terms of species richness and community composition, indicating a profound effect of the huge discharge of the Yangtze River. No significant difference in fungal communities was detected, however, among habitat types (i.e., aquaculture, dock, plant, river mouth and tourism). These observations raise further questions on adaptation of these members to environments and the ecological functions they probably perform.

  9. A High-Level Fungal Diversity in the Intertidal Sediment of Chinese Seas Presents the Spatial Variation of Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Mengmeng; Bian, Xiaomeng; Guo, Jiajia; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The intertidal region is one of the most dynamic environments in the biosphere, which potentially supports vast biodiversity. Fungi have been found to play important roles in marine ecosystems, e.g., as parasites or symbionts of plants and animals, and as decomposers of organic materials. The fungal diversity in intertidal region, however, remains poorly understood. In this study, sediment samples from various intertidal habitats of Chinese seas were collected and investigated for determination of fungal community and spatial distribution. Through ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) metabarcoding, a high-level fungal diversity was revealed, as represented by 6,013 OTUs that spanned six phyla, 23 classes, 84 orders and 526 genera. The presence of typical decomposers (e.g., Corollospora in Ascomycota and Lepiota in Basidiomycota) and pathogens (e.g., Olpidium in Chytriomycota, Actinomucor in Zygomycota and unidentified Rozellomycota spp.), and even mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., Glomus in Glomeromycota) indicated a complicated origin of intertidal fungi. Interestingly, a small proportion of sequences were classified to obligate marine fungi (e.g., Corollospora, Lignincola, Remispora, Sigmoidea). Our data also showed that the East China Sea significantly differed from other regions in terms of species richness and community composition, indicating a profound effect of the huge discharge of the Yangtze River. No significant difference in fungal communities was detected, however, among habitat types (i.e., aquaculture, dock, plant, river mouth and tourism). These observations raise further questions on adaptation of these members to environments and the ecological functions they probably perform. PMID:28066402

  10. Black spots produced by buried macroalgae in intertidal sandy sediments of the Wadden Sea: Effects on the meiobenthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neira, Carlos; Rackemann, Michael

    1996-12-01

    The effects of buried decaying macroalgae on meiobenthos were examined in intertidal sandy sediments of the Wadden Sea of Lower Saxony. In situ experiments confirmed that one of the principal causes of the formation of reduced surface sediments or 'black spots' on the tidal flats is the increasing occurrence and subsequent decomposition of filamentous green algae ( Enteromorpha spp.) buried in the sediment. Five to fifteen days after algal material had been buried, the sediment surface turned black. The impact of these black spots on meiobenthos was dramatic: the changed chemical conditions in the sediment resulted in long and drastic reductions in meiofaunal abundance and number of taxa. A multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis of data on meiobenthic abundances revealed that samples from black-spot areas were clearly separated from those of control and reference areas. Re-oxidized black spots showed recolonization by meiofaunal animals, with numbers of individuals and taxa similar to those of oxidized surface sediments. The use of abundances of members of higher meiobenthic taxa to monitor changes in the sediment's chemistry, especially those caused by biomass overload, is discussed.

  11. Recovery of sediments in the lower intertidal and subtidal environment. Restoration project 93047-1. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Clair, C.E.; Short, J.W.; Rice, S.D.

    1996-05-01

    Sediments were collected at ten locations in Prince William Sound in July 1993 to determine the geographical and bathymetric distribution of oil from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in the low intertidal zone and subtidal region. The authors sampled sediments at mean lower low water (0 m) and at five subtidal depths from 3 to 100 m. No Exxon Valdez oil was found in sediments at 0 m where the greatest mean intertidal concentration of total polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons excluding perylene (54 ng/g) was observed at Moose Lips Bay. Subtidal sediments showed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon composition patterns similar to Exxon Valdez oil at three sites, Herring Bay, Northwest Bay and Sleepy Bay. Contamination of sediments by Exxon Valdez oil reached a depth of 20 m at Northwest Bay and Sleepy Bay. In deep sediments (> or = 40 m) the authors found no evidence of weathered Exxon Valdez oil.

  12. The effect of sediment mixing on mercury dynamics in two intertidal mudflats at Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, USA

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lauren E.; Chen, Celia Y.; Voytek, Mary A.; Amirbahman, Aria

    2016-01-01

    Estuarine sediments store particulate contaminants including mercury (Hg). We studied Hg sediment dynamics in two intertidal mudflats at Great Bay estuary, NH, over multiple years. Sediments at both mudflats were physically mixed down to ~10 cm, as determined by 7Be measurements, albeit via different mechanisms. Portsmouth mudflat (PT) sediments were subject to bioturbation by infaunal organisms and Squamscott mudflat (SQ) sediments were subject to erosion and redeposition. The presence of higher concentrations of fresh Fe(III) hydroxide at PT suggested bioirrigation by the polychaetes (Nereis virens). At depths where infaunal bioirrigation was observed, pore-water inorganic Hg (Hgi) and methylmercury (MeHg) were lower potentially due to their interaction with Fe(III) hydroxide. Methylmercury concentrations increased immediately below this zone in some samples, suggesting that the observed increase in material flux in bioirrigated sediments may initiate from lower depths. Pore water in sediment at PT also had higher fractions of more protein-like and labile DOC than those at SQ that can lead to increased MeHg production in PT, especially at depths where Hgi is not removed from solution by Fe(III) hydroxide. Where sediment erosion and redeposition were observed at SQ, Hg species distribution was extended deeper into the sediment column. Moreover, methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR) and mercury reductase (mer-A) genes were higher at SQ than PT suggesting differences in conditions for Hg cycling. Results showed that the near-surface region of high MeHg concentrations commonly observed in unmixed sediments does not exist in physically mixed sediments that are common in many estuarine environments. PMID:26924879

  13. The effect of sediment mixing on mercury dynamics in two intertidal mudflats at Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, USA.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lauren E; Chen, Celia Y; Voytek, Mary A; Amirbahman, Aria

    2015-12-01

    Estuarine sediments store particulate contaminants including mercury (Hg). We studied Hg sediment dynamics in two intertidal mudflats at Great Bay estuary, NH, over multiple years. Sediments at both mudflats were physically mixed down to ~10 cm, as determined by (7)Be measurements, albeit via different mechanisms. Portsmouth mudflat (PT) sediments were subject to bioturbation by infaunal organisms and Squamscott mudflat (SQ) sediments were subject to erosion and redeposition. The presence of higher concentrations of fresh Fe(III) hydroxide at PT suggested bioirrigation by the polychaetes (Nereis virens). At depths where infaunal bioirrigation was observed, pore-water inorganic Hg (Hgi) and methylmercury (MeHg) were lower potentially due to their interaction with Fe(III) hydroxide. Methylmercury concentrations increased immediately below this zone in some samples, suggesting that the observed increase in material flux in bioirrigated sediments may initiate from lower depths. Pore water in sediment at PT also had higher fractions of more protein-like and labile DOC than those at SQ that can lead to increased MeHg production in PT, especially at depths where Hgi is not removed from solution by Fe(III) hydroxide. Where sediment erosion and redeposition were observed at SQ, Hg species distribution was extended deeper into the sediment column. Moreover, methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR) and mercury reductase (mer-A) genes were higher at SQ than PT suggesting differences in conditions for Hg cycling. Results showed that the near-surface region of high MeHg concentrations commonly observed in unmixed sediments does not exist in physically mixed sediments that are common in many estuarine environments.

  14. Grain size effect on PBDE and PCB concentrations in sediments from the intertidal zone of Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingru; Zheng, Binghui; Qin, Yanwen; Jiao, Lixin; Zhang, Lei

    2010-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of great environmental concern because their concentrations in the environment are increasing exponentially, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous contaminants, although their usage ceased in most industrialized countries in the mid-1970s. This research provides particle-scale understanding of PBDE and PCB distribution in sediments obtained from the three intertidal flats of Bohai Bay, China. The sediments were fractionated into three size groups (<31, 31-63, and >63μm diameter). The PBDE, PCB, and total organic matter contents were not associated with grain size, and the lowest total organic matter was found in the 31-63μm fraction at all three sites. The PCBs and PBDEs were distributed differently among the various fractions from the three sites. The highest level of PCBs and PBDEs occurred in the 31-63μm fraction of the Dagukou sediments, and their lowest levels were found in Lujuhe sediments. In the Qikou sediments, the lowest PCB level occurred in the 31-63μm fraction and the lowest PBDE level was found in the <31μm fraction. These results indicate that the environmental behavior of PBDEs and PCBs are affected by the texture and organic matter content of sediments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution, source apportionment and health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in intertidal sediment of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Moore, Farid; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-08-30

    Surface sediment samples were collected from intertidal zone of Asaluyeh, Persian Gulf, to investigate distribution, sources and health risk of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total PAH concentrations ranged from 1.8 to 81.2 μg kg(-1) dry weight, which can be categorized as low level of pollution. Qualitative and quantitative assessments showed that PAHs originated from both petrogenic and pyrogenic sources with slight pyrogenic dominance. Source apportionment using principal component analysis indicated that the main sources of PAHs were fossil fuel combustion (33.59%), traffic-related PAHs (32.77%), biomass and coal combustion (18.54%) and petrogenic PAHs (9.31%). According to the results from the sediment quality guidelines, mean effects range-median quotient (M-ERM-Q) and benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaPeq), low negative ecological risks related to PAH compounds would occur in the intertidal zone of Asaluyeh. The total benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) toxic equivalent quotient (TEQ(carc)) for carcinogenic compounds ranged from 0.01 to 7 μg kg(-1)-BaPeq, indicating low carcinogenic risk. The human health risk assessment of PAH compounds via ingestion and dermal pathways suggests low and moderate potential risk to human health, respectively.

  16. Improvement of the sediment ecosystem following diversion of an intertidal sewage outfall at the Fraser river estuary, Canada, with emphasis on Corophium salmonis (Amphipoda).

    PubMed

    Arvai, J L; Levings, C D; Harrison, P J; Neill, W E

    2002-06-01

    Primary treated sewage effluent from the city of Vancouver, Canada was deposited directly onto the intertidal ecosystem of Sturgeon bank, Fraser river estuary between 1962 and 1988. In response to the degraded sediment conditions an azoic zone developed near the discharge outfall. Effluent discharges into the intertidal zone were almost completely stopped in 1988 with the construction of a submerged outfall. Our studies, conducted between 1994 and 1996, showed considerable improvement in the environment of the mudflat ecosystem, including increased dissolved oxygen, decreased sediment chlorophyll, decreased organic material in the sediment, reduced heavy metals in surficial sediment and increased grain size. The amphipod Corophium salmonis, important in the food web for juvenile salmon and other fish species, recolonized the previously azoic location. At reference stations, C. salmonis density was similar to that observed in previous surveys two decades earlier. Our data strongly suggest that improvement or sediment conditions near the former sewage outfall was a major factor enabling colonization by C. salmonis.

  17. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in intertidal and subtidal sediments in coastal wetland with high tidal ranges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kang, Dong-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Ryul; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-04-01

    The present study aimed to understand the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in wetlands experiencing high tides and the manner in which these characteristics are affected by various factors, in particular, two distinct physical and topographical features (i.e., sub- and intertidal zones). For all OCPs except HCHs, the distribution levels were higher in the intertidal zone than in the subtidal zone. The spatial heterogeneity in the isomer compositional pattern, distribution levels, and correlation among individual OCPs were pronounced in the intertidal zone. Spatial homogeneity was observed within the subtidal zone, indicating that the effect of flushing and mixing was strong enough to diminish the potential local concentration peaks and unique composition pattern. It was evident that input paths and their strength impact the horizontal and transversal distribution of OCPs. The OCP group-specific discrepancy in spatial distribution suggested that (1) chlordane and chlorobenzenes were from a single dominant innermost terrestrial input path, (2) DDTs were from multiple terrestrial input paths, and (3) HCH was likely to be from the outer sea. The observations in this study imply that (1) benthic organisms could experience greater exposure in the intertidal basin than in the subtidal zone and (2) management measures of OCPs should be set after considering the tidal effect and the OCP-specific input paths.

  18. Determination of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the inter-tidal sediments off Balochistan (Pakistan) Coast, Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Qureshi, Riffat M; Ahmad, Nasir; Solaija, Tariq Jamal

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclide contents of 226Ra, 228Ra and (40)K were studied for inter-tidal sediments collected from selected locations off the745 km long Balochistan Coast using HPGe detector based gamma-spectrometry system. The sampling zone extends from the beaches of Sonmiani (near Karachi metropolis) through Jiwani (close to the border of Iran). The natural radioactivity levels detected in various sediment samples range from 14.4 +/- 2.5 to 36.6 +/- 3.8 Bq kg(-1) for 226Ra, 9.8 +/- 1.2 to 35.2 +/- 2.0 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra and 144.6 +/- 9.4 to 610.5 +/- 23.9 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. No artificial radionuclide was detected in any of the marine coastal sediment samples. 137Cs, (60)Co, 106Ru and 144Ce contents in sediment samples were below the limit of detection. The measured radioactivity levels are compared with those reported in the literature for coastal sediments in other parts of the world. The information presented in this paper will serve as the first ever local radioactivity database for the Balochistan/Makran Coastal belt of Pakistan. The presented data will also contribute to the IAEA's, Asia-Pacific Marine Radioactivity Database (ASPAMARD) and the Global Marine Radioactivity Database (GLOMARD).

  19. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in intertidal flat surface sediments from the Yangtze estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Hou, L. J.; Yang, Y.; Zou, H.; Lu, J.; Wang, X.

    2001-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments taken from intertidal flats in the Yangtze estuary and adjacent coastal areas were determined by GC-MS. The results have shown that total PAH concentration ranged from 0.263-6.372 mg/kg in tidal flat surface sediments from the study area. Mean concentration level is 1.662 mg/kg. The concentration levels of total PAHs varied dramatically with in the region. They are characteristically at maximum near sewage discharge points. Petroleum-derived contamination may be a dominant source in the study area based on the distributions of Flu/Pyr and two and three-ringed and four-ringed congeners in surface sediments. A pyrolytic origin was responsible for higher PAH concentration levels at three sampling sites. The degree of sediment contamination by PAHs in the study area is low to moderate in comparison with other estuarine and tidal flat surface sediments elsewhere. However, anthracene and fluorene exceed the effects of low range (ER-L) values, showing a primary potential impact for the Yangtze estuarine tidal flat ecosystem.

  20. Mass physical properties of muddy intertidal sediments: some applications, misapplications and non-applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming, B. W.; Delafontaine, M. T.

    2000-07-01

    Mass physical properties of sediments are increasingly receiving attention outside the traditional fields of soil mechanics, geotechnical engineering and engineering geology because they are being recognised as important physical process-response parameters in sediment dynamics, benthic ecology, microbiology and biogeochemistry. In this study systematic relationships between bulk density, water content and sediment composition are presented for a variety of geographic environments. In all cases high correlations between these parameters are observed, all regions showing characteristic trends reflecting local environmental conditions. In this context, absolute water content is shown to be a universal master variable by means of which differences between individual environments can be normalised. It is postulated that relationships between water content and any other sediment parameter can be established by generating calibrations validated by carefully selected data bases which cover local ranges of sediment composition. Such site-specific calibrations can be used in regional and inter-regional modelling exercises. Thus, a universal negative relationship between absolute water content ( Wa) and dry bulk density (BD d) of common terrigenous material is expressed by the equation BD d =2.6596369 - 0.0886164 Wa+0.0088041 W1.5a - 0.0002594 W2a ( r=-0.9991, n=112). An extensive literature survey reveals that the term "concentration", which refers to a mass per unit volume, is frequently confused with the term "content" which refers to a mass per unit mass. It is demonstrated that this widespread malpractice has been responsible for serious misinterpretations of otherwise perfectly good data because quantitative comparisons are being made between parameters having different physical dimensions. In other cases, it has prevented the recognition of well-correlated relationships, resulting in incomplete arguments or unfounded speculations. In view of this, we advocate a

  1. A comparison and measurement standardisation of four in situ devices for determining the erosion shear stress of intertidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolhurst, T. J.; Black, K. S.; Paterson, D. M.; Mitchener, H. J.; Termaat, G. R.; Shayler, S. A.

    2000-07-01

    Predictive modelling of estuarine sediment erosion and transport requires a description of the erosional properties of the bed. The two main variables of interest are the critical erosion shear stress ( τcr) and the erosion rate ( ɛ). A number of different erosion devices exist to measure the erosion shear stress of intertidal sediments in situ. These devices apply different strategies to induce and measure erosion, and the area over which erosion is integrated varies greatly. In addition, the definition of erosion threshold differs between workers. This makes comparison of data collected from different devices very difficult. Four different types of erosion device, Microcosm system, In Situ Erosion Flume (ISEF), SedErode and cohesive strength meter (CSM) were used during the July 1997 EC INTRMUD Humber estuary (UK) field campaign. These devices were deployed simultaneously on the Skeffling intertidal mudflat to allow comparison of the data generated. This involved the comparison of suspended particulate matter (SPM) time series, the nature of the applied shear stress ( τo) and the area over which erosion was integrated. The initial goal was to develop a standard analysis procedure for comparison of stability measurements. The erosion threshold calculated from area normalised suspended particulate matter (SPM n) time series was relatively comparable between devices especially between the Microcosm and ISEF. However, device size and natural sediment spatial heterogeneity affected the results. The erosion rate varied by orders of magnitude between the different devices. This variation seemed to be due to the considerable differences in device deployment time. In conclusion, SPM data from different devices are broadly comparable, whilst erosion rates are only comparable if the shear stress steps are of the same duration.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment and sea urchin (Echinometra mathaei) from the intertidal ecosystem of the northern Persian Gulf: Distribution, sources, and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzifard, Mehrzad; Moore, Farid; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Sharifi, Reza

    2017-09-09

    The distribution, sources and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment and sea urchin (Echinometra mathaei) from the intertidal zone of the northern Persian Gulf were investigated. Total PAH concentrations varied from 12.8 to 81.25 and from 16.7 to 35 μgKg(-1) dry weight in sediment and Echinometra mathaei, respectively. The PAH concentrations can be classified as low. Source identification and apportionment using diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis demonstrate that the combustion of fossil fuels, road traffic, combustion of natural gas and biomass, and oil spill could be considered as the main sources of PAH contamination. The first PAH biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) data from sediment to Echinometra mathaei in the intertidal zone of the northern Persian Gulf were calculated, indicating accumulation of both lower and higher molecular weight PAHs, with a preferential accumulation of lower molecular weight PAHs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. An alternative radiometric method for calculating the sedimentation rates: application to an intertidal region (SW of Spain).

    PubMed

    Ligero, R A; Casas-Ruiz, M; Barrera, M; Barbero, L; Meléndez, M J

    2010-09-01

    A new method using the inventory determined for the activity of the radionuclide (137)Cs, coming from global radioactive fallout has been utilised to calculate the sedimentation rates. The method has been applied in a wide intertidal region in the Bay of Cádiz Natural Park (SW Spain). The sedimentation rates estimated by the (137)Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the (210)Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physico-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest. This area, which is representative of common environmental coastal scenarios, is particularly sensitive to perturbations related to climate change, and the results of the study will allow to make short and medium term evaluations of this change.

  4. The community and function shift of ammonia oxidizers across terrestrial and marine (soil/sediment) boundaries in two coastal bay ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. J.; Zhang, L.; Duff, A.

    2016-02-01

    Terrestrial-marine boundaries, such as those in intertidal coastal ecosystems, represent delineated changes from land to sea. Nitrification activity along terrestrial-soil and marine-sediment boundaries will be strongly influenced by environmental conditions that change sharply. This makes them ideal environmental gradients to investigate niche separation and functional alteration between ammonia oxidising archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB). This study investigated ammonia oxidisers across a terrestrial/marine boundary in two intertidal coastal bays (Clew and Rusheen Bay) on the Atlantic coast of Ireland via in situ field studies and ex situ laboratory microcosms. Within each bay 5 sites spanning soil, soil/sediment interface and marine sediments were targeted. AOA>AOB in soil but AOB>AOA in the sediments of both bays, while the soil-sediment interface had equal abundances of AOA and AOB. AOA and AOB communities from soil, soil/sediment interface and sediment clustered separately. The ratio of AOA to AOB negatively correlated with pH and salinity, but positively with total organic carbon. To further investigate the hypothesis that AOA were the dominant active ammonia oxidisers in soil and AOB in sediments, triplicate soil, interface and sediment microcosms were amended with ammonia and incubated for 28 days at 17C. Control microcosms containing acetylene, an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, were also included. NH4+ was consumed and accompanied by an increase in NO3-, but not in the acetylene controls. In the soil microcosms, the increase in NO3- was accompanied by an increase in AOA amoA genes and transcripts. Active AOA amoA transcripts clustered with Nitrosopumilus maritimus and soil-sediment clusters 1 and 3. In the sediment microcosms AOB amoA genes and transcripts numbers increased with active AOB amoA gene transcripts clustering with Nitrosomonoas sp.

  5. Short- and long-term sedimentation on Montportail Brouage intertidal mudflat, Marennes Oléron Bay (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouleau, D.; Jouanneau, J. M.; Weber, O.; Sauriau, P. G.

    2000-09-01

    The intertidal mudflat of Montportail-Brouage is 4 km wide and extends over about 30% of intertidal area of the Bay of Marennes-Oléron. The sampling area was a cross-shore transect (east-west) in the mid-part of the mudflat, so as to overlap the different geomorphological features, from the shore to the central channel. Particularly distinctive were zones of shore-oblique ridges and runnels, and small channels. The short-term erosion-sedimentation processes related to these bedforms, and their effects on the long-term stability of these structures are poorly known. Thus, sediment budget is difficult to assess in the long term, due to temporal variations. Monthly sedimentological surveys were performed from March 1997 to May 1998. Six stations were sampled by coring for determination of water content, dry density, grain size and carbonate content of the sandy fraction, measured on the topmost 5 cm. Within the ridge and runnel zone, this sampling was done on both structures along with the determination of depth profiles of macrofauna species. Radiographic profiles to a depth of 50 cm were made at each of the 6 stations for description of the sedimentary facies, and radioisotope profiles ( 7Be, 210Pbexc) were made at four stations. Wet bulk density appeared to be roughly constant (1.39-1.44 kg m -3) over the whole mudflat below 2 or 3 cm. For the levels 0-1 and 1-2 cm, the bulk density showed much more variation, in particular in the runnels. These variations were due to episodic deposits of fluid mud (wet bulk density <1.25 kg m -3). The sand content decreased from the lower part of the mudflat to the upper part, particularly in the fluid mud. On the contrary, the carbonate content of the sand fraction increased in the upper part by accumulation of foraminifera associated with shell lag deposits. 7Be measurements revealed a short-term sedimentation of fluid mud (up to 21.04 cm yr -1), particularly in runnels from the upper mudflat, thus indicating a temporary

  6. Hydrocarbons in intertidal sediments and mussels from Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1977-1980: Characterization and probable sources. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Karinen, J.F.; Babcock, M.M.; Brown, D.W.; MacLeod, W.D.; Ramos, L.S.

    1993-01-01

    The oil spill that resulted from the March 1989 grounding of the oil tanker vessel Exxon Valdez provides a unique opportunity for the study of marine oil pollution effects because the spilled crude oil polluted a large geographic area that was previously considered pristine. The only sources of confounding hydrocarbons in the areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, impacted by the spill are naturally occurring hydrocarbons and anthropogenic hydrocarbons from occasional boating activity in the Sound or due to long-range atmospheric transport. The authors' objectives were to determine the levels, intra-annual variability, and interannual variability of selected alkane hydrocarbons and PAHs in intertidal sediments and in M. trossulus tissues at a network of sampling stations over the 4-year sampling period, and if possible to identify the likely sources of hydrocarbons found.

  7. Sulfur cycling of intertidal Wadden Sea sediments (Konigshafen, Island of Sylt, Germany): sulfate reduction and sulfur gas emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, E.; Bodenbender, J.; Jensen, M. H.; Rennenberg, H.; Jensen, K. M.

    2000-05-01

    Sulfate reduction rates (SRR t) and reduced inorganic sulfur pools (RIS) in Wadden Sea sediment as well as sulfur gas emissions directly to the atmosphere were measured at intervals of 2 to 12 months from 1991 to 1994. Three stations were chosen in the intertidal embayment, Königshafen, representing the range of sediments found in the Wadden Sea: Organic-poor coarse sand, organic-poor and Arenicola marina inhabited medium sand, and organic-rich muddy sand. Maximum SRR t were 2 to 5 times higher in muddy sand than in the sandy sediments. The depth-integrated SRR t varied 12 to 13-fold on a seasonal basis at the three stations. Although temperature controls biochemical processes, the overall control is more complex due to the simultaneous influence of other seasonal factors such as availability of organic matter and oxidation level of surface sediment. The sedimentary RIS pools were low due to iron limitation and contained only 30% acid volatile sulfur (AVS). Muddy sand had up to an order of magnitude more RIS than the two sandy sediments. The turnover of RIS was rapid (turnover time from ˜1 to 32 h), fastest during summer and at the sandy stations. The emission of S-gases was dominated by H 2S during summer (45-67% of the total), and was highest in muddy and lowest in coarse sand. H 2S was less important in early spring (3-49% of the total). Other sulfur gases, such as COS, DMS and CS 2, each accounted for less than 20% of the total sulfur emissions with no specific temporal and spatial pattern. Due to the low content of metals in the sediment, the reduced sulfur pools are cycled rapidly with chemical and biological reoxidation at oxic-anoxic boundaries as a major sink. Thus, the emissions of H 2S account for less than 1‰ of the sulfide produced.

  8. Spatial pattern of early recruitment of Macoma balthica (L.) and Cerastoderma edule (L.) in relation to sediment dynamics on a highly dynamic intertidal sandflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, H.; Duiker, J. M. C.; de Vries, P. P.; Herman, P. M. J.; Wolff, W. J.

    2001-05-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between sediment dynamics and spatial distribution of early bivalve recruits, a correlative field study was carried out on a highly dynamic intertidal sandflat in the Westerschelde estuary, SW Netherlands. On a spatial grid, 43 plots over an area of 700×800 m 2, early recruits (300-1000 μm mesh fraction) of the tellinid clam Macoma balthica (L.) and the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule (L.) were sampled during the spatfall period (May-June) in 1997. Data were also collected on bed-level height, sediment dynamics and -composition and abundance of adult benthos. The grid covered a range of -50 to +140 cm with respect to mean-tide level. In both species, maximum early recruitment was found at the higher part of this range of intertidal levels. The strong gradient in densities from the lower towards the higher intertidal was significantly negatively correlated with sediment dynamics. No significant correlations of early-recruit densities were found with silt content, or with densities of adult benthos. The relationship between early recruitment and bed-level height differed from that observed in Wadden Sea studies of recruits of similar size, where maximum early recruitment occurred in the lower intertidal. It is suggested that in highly dynamic environments, sediment dynamics may have an important influence on passive resuspension of early recruits and on spatial patterns of early recruitment. Based on field and model data, it is discussed which processes could cause the difference in early recruitment patterns in low and highly dynamic intertidal environments. It is concluded that the presence of low-dynamic areas is essential for the success of early recruitment, and thus for the maintenance of bivalve populations.

  9. Heavy metals in surface sediments of the intertidal Laizhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China: Distributions, sources and contamination assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Gao, Xuelu

    2015-09-15

    Surface sediments from the intertidal zone of the southwestern Laizhou Bay were analyzed for heavy metals to seek their concentrations, distributions, pollution status, potential ecological risks and possible sources. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were in the ranges of 4.65-9.65, 0.11-0.28, 25.85-42.75, 7.57-21.29, 0.022-0.054, 12.85-25.35, 9.65-17.65 and 38.22-73.81μgg(-1) dry sediment weight, respectively. Cd and Hg presented a status of no pollution to moderate pollution and moderate to considerable potential ecological risks; they were enriched to some extent at some sampling stations, while the other studied metals were not. The combined effects of the studied metals in the sediments made them have a 21% probability of being toxic to biota. The results indicated that As, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb were mainly from natural contribution, while a significant portion of Cd and Hg was likely from anthropogenic discharges in addition to natural inputs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reworking of muddy intertidal sediments in the severn estuary, Southwestern U.K.—A preliminary survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. R. L.

    1987-03-01

    The estuary is a large, macrotidal system that faces the prevailing winds. Consequently, it is swept by vigorous tidal currents and is somewhat stormy. The muddy intertidal sediments, ranging in age from the early Flandrian to the present day, are predisposed to reworking chiefly because of (a) the presence of silt and sand laminae, which promotes splitting along the bedding, and (b) the development during the spring and summer of deep, ramifying drying cracks in response to seasonal changes in the tidal and weather regimes. The chief mechanisms and processes of reworking are various kinds of mass movement after failure, wave impact and current shear, and scouring by water-born tools. The chief expressions of reworking are: (1) mud cliffs associated with either an apron or strew of fallen masses of sediment; (2) rip-up clasts; (3) extensive scoured surfaces; (4) ridges and furrows of various scales parallel with tidal currents; (5) ridges and furrows at right-angles to shore shaped by incident waves; and (6) sediment sheets and trains of bedforms composed of either mud clasts (granule- to pebble-sized) or siderite-clay mineral concretions (sand- to granule-sized). Reworking in the estuary occurs on tidal, seasonal and longer time scales. Since the mid Flandrian, when peats with mature trees accumulated throughout the area, the Severn Estuary has retreated up the Severn Vale, the muddy sediments being extensively reworked in the process. During this retreat, the minimum annual turnover of fine sediment through reworking may have amounted to between 7 and 70% of the annual fluvial supply.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the intertidal zone of Bohai Bay, Northeast China: Spatial distribution, composition, sources and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiao; Liang, Baocui; Fu, Wenjun; Liu, Xinhui; Cui, Baoshan

    2016-11-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can enter intertidal zones by various pathways and pose potential threats to intertidal ecosystem. We investigated distribution, composition, sources and risk assessment of PAHs in intertidal surface sediments of Bohai Bay. Total PAH concentrations ranged from 37.2ng·g(-1) to 206.6ng·g(-1), among which high values occurred near Nanpaishuihe River Estuary and Haihe River Estuary. The composition patterns of PAHs were characterized by the predominance of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, and acenaphthylene was the most dominant component. Diagnostic ratios and principal component analysis have confirmed that PAH contaminants originated from mixed sources, and the major was local combustion. The mean benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentration of total PAHs in intertidal sediments was 15.67ng·g(-1), which was mostly contributed by seven carcinogenic PAHs. According to ecological risk assessment, negative effects related to acenaphthylene would occur occasionally in partial survey regions of the study.

  12. Dispersion and solubility of In, Tl, Ta and Nb in the aquatic environment and intertidal sediments of the Scheldt estuary (Flanders, Belgium).

    PubMed

    Folens, Karel; Du Laing, Gijs

    2017-09-01

    Certain specialty elements are indispensable in modern technologies for their particular properties. Yet, potential risks associated to the release of these elements at any stage, remains unknown. Therefore, the dispersion of indium (In), thallium (Tl), tantalum (Ta) and niobium (Nb) in the aquatic environment of the Scheldt estuary (Flanders, Belgium) was studied. Maximum concentrations in intertidal sediments of 101 ± 15 μg kg(-1) for In, 481 ± 37 μg kg(-1) for Tl, 88 ± 19 μg kg(-1) for Ta and 1162 ± 4 μg kg(-1) for Nb appeared on the sampling location closest to the river mouth, i.e. 57.5 km upstream. Their distribution in the intertidal sediments depends on the physicochemical sediment characteristics along the flow of the river Scheldt. The same was the case for most other metals and aluminum as their occurrence also correlated (p < 0.05) with the occurrence of In, Tl and Nb. While in general, studied elements correlate to the OM content and sulfur and phosphorus herein included, a relative enrichment of In, Tl and Nb was seen at Rupelmonde (92.0 km from the river mouth). Mainly the intertidal sediment silt fraction is capable of retaining the elements by exchanging with other ions in the mineral interlayer. Increasing salinity towards the river mouth can furthermore induce the formation of insoluble chloride species. Overall, the solubility of In, Tl, Ta and Nb appeared extremely low upon extraction of pore water from intertidal sediments saturated to 100% field capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Different Types of Diatom-Derived Extracellular Polymeric Substances Drive Changes in Heterotrophic Bacterial Communities from Intertidal Sediments.

    PubMed

    Bohórquez, Julio; McGenity, Terry J; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; García-Robledo, Emilio; Corzo, Alfonso; Underwood, Graham J C

    2017-01-01

    Intertidal areas support extensive diatom-rich biofilms. Such microphytobenthic (MPB) diatoms exude large quantities of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) comprising polysaccharides, glycoproteins and other biopolymers, which represent a substantial carbon pool. However, degradation rates of different EPS components, and how they shape heterotrophic communities in sediments, are not well understood. An aerobic mudflat-sediment slurry experiment was performed in the dark with two different EPS carbon sources from a diatom-dominated biofilm: colloidal EPS (cEPS) and the more complex hot-bicarbonate-extracted EPS. Degradation rate constants determined over 9 days for three sediment fractions [dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total carbohydrates (TCHO), and (cEPS)] were generally higher in the colloidal-EPS slurries (0.105-0.123 d(-1)) compared with the hot-bicarbonate-extracted-EPS slurries (0.060-0.096 d(-1)). Addition of hot-bicarbonate-EPS resulted in large increases in dissolved nitrogen and phosphorous by the end of the experiment, indicating that the more complex EPS is an important source of regenerated inorganic nutrients. Microbial biomass increased ~4-6-fold over 9 days, and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the addition of both types of EPS greatly altered the bacterial community composition (from 0 to 9 days) compared to a control with no added EPS. Bacteroidetes (especially Tenacibaculum) and Verrucomicrobia increased significantly in relative abundance in both the hot-bicarbonate-EPS and colloidal-EPS treatments. These differential effects of EPS fractions on carbon-loss rates, nutrient regeneration and microbial community assembly improve our understanding of coastal-sediment carbon cycling and demonstrate the importance of diverse microbiota in processing this abundant pool of organic carbon.

  14. Different Types of Diatom-Derived Extracellular Polymeric Substances Drive Changes in Heterotrophic Bacterial Communities from Intertidal Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Bohórquez, Julio; McGenity, Terry J.; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; García-Robledo, Emilio; Corzo, Alfonso; Underwood, Graham J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Intertidal areas support extensive diatom-rich biofilms. Such microphytobenthic (MPB) diatoms exude large quantities of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) comprising polysaccharides, glycoproteins and other biopolymers, which represent a substantial carbon pool. However, degradation rates of different EPS components, and how they shape heterotrophic communities in sediments, are not well understood. An aerobic mudflat-sediment slurry experiment was performed in the dark with two different EPS carbon sources from a diatom-dominated biofilm: colloidal EPS (cEPS) and the more complex hot-bicarbonate-extracted EPS. Degradation rate constants determined over 9 days for three sediment fractions [dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total carbohydrates (TCHO), and (cEPS)] were generally higher in the colloidal-EPS slurries (0.105–0.123 d−1) compared with the hot-bicarbonate-extracted-EPS slurries (0.060–0.096 d−1). Addition of hot-bicarbonate-EPS resulted in large increases in dissolved nitrogen and phosphorous by the end of the experiment, indicating that the more complex EPS is an important source of regenerated inorganic nutrients. Microbial biomass increased ~4–6-fold over 9 days, and pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the addition of both types of EPS greatly altered the bacterial community composition (from 0 to 9 days) compared to a control with no added EPS. Bacteroidetes (especially Tenacibaculum) and Verrucomicrobia increased significantly in relative abundance in both the hot-bicarbonate-EPS and colloidal-EPS treatments. These differential effects of EPS fractions on carbon-loss rates, nutrient regeneration and microbial community assembly improve our understanding of coastal-sediment carbon cycling and demonstrate the importance of diverse microbiota in processing this abundant pool of organic carbon. PMID:28289404

  15. Effects of short-term changes in sediment temperature on the photosynthesis of two intertidal microphytobenthos communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Sónia; Ribeiro, Lourenço; Marques da Silva, Jorge; Cartaxana, Paulo

    2013-03-01

    Intertidal microphytobenthos (MPB) has been found to maintain high productivity rates despite the variability in various key environmental parameters, namely rapid temperature changes during emersion. The effects of short-term (30 min and 2 h) changes in temperature (15, 25, 35 and 42 °C) on the photosynthetic activity of two intertidal MPB communities (Trancão and Alcochete) of the Tagus estuary were studied using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (Imaging-PAM) fluorometry. MPB communities differed in species composition and size-class distribution: Trancão was dominated by diatoms of the size-class 100-250 μm3, particularly Navicula cf. phyllepta, whereas Alcochete had higher relative abundances for size-class 250-1000 μm3, dominated by a mixture of diatom species of the genera Navicula, Thalassiosira and Gyrosigma. The Trancão MPB community had higher photosynthetic capacity (higher ETRmax), was photoacclimated to higher irradiances (higher Ek) and had lower efficiency at limiting irradiances (lower α). The different taxonomic composition and size-class distribution could explain the observed results, as small cells are usually more active due to larger surface to volume ratios. Photosynthetic capacities of the two studied MPB communities increased with temperature until 35 °C. Photosynthetic efficiencies were not affected by temperature in the 15-35 °C range and both ETRmax and α decreased at the extreme temperature of 42 °C. MPB communities were able to increase photosynthetic capacity and productivity under transient exposure to high sediment temperatures, similar to that observed during summer midday low tides.

  16. [Composition of marine sediment samples in the Costa Rica intertidal zones using X-Ray fluorescence analysis].

    PubMed

    Salazar, Alfonso; Lizano, Omar G; Alfaro, Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Using an energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence analysis, simultaneous evaluation of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ge, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in 74 marine sediment samples from the Costa Rica intertidal zones was conducted. Samples were collected between June 1999 and December 2001, from Caribbean and Pacific beaches of Costa Rica. Calcium and iron showed the highest abundances and are indicators of the natural origin of the sediments. Calcium is associated with biogenic processes such as coral reefs near the sampling sites and iron indicates a terrigenous origin. In general, the beaches of the Caribbean and North Pacific regions showed the greatest concentration of calcium. This is indicative of the abundant reef structures near these beaches. The beaches of the Central and South Pacific show the greatest iron concentrations, indicating an important lithosphere contribution and/or little contribution of calcium carbonate due to the poor development of coralline structures near the sampling sites. Finally, the analyses did not show evidence of elements associated with anthropogenic pollution. Only a northern section of Puerto Viejo beach showed high concentrations of lead, zinc and titanium, perhaps associated with hydrothermal sources.

  17. Diverse metal reduction and nano- mineral formation by metal-reducing bacteria enriched from inter-tidal flat sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Park, B.; Seo, H.; Roh, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria utilize diverse metal oxides as electron acceptors and couple this microbial metal reduciton to growth. However, the microbe-metal interactions playing important roles in the metal geochemistry and organic matter degradation in the tidal flat sediments have not been uncovered enough to employ in various environmental and industrial applications. The objective of this study was to examine biomineralization and bioremediation by the facultative metal-reducing bacteria isolated from the inter-tidal flat sediments in southwestern of Korea. 16S-rRNA analysis showed bacterial consortium mainly consists of genus of Clostridium sp. The enriched bacteria were capable of reducing diverse metals such as iron oxide, maganese oxide, Cr(VI) and Se(VI) during glucose fermentation process at room temperature. The bacteria reduced highly toxic and reactive elements such as Cr(VI) and Se(VI) to Cr(III) and Se(0). The results showed that microbial processes induced transformation from toxic states of heavy metals to less toxic and mobile states in natural environments. Andthe bacteria also reduced iron oxyhydroxide such as ferrihydrite and akaganeite (β-FeOOH) and formed nanometer-sized magnetite (Fe3O4). This study indicates microbial processes not only can be used for bioremediation of inorganic contaminants existing in the marine environments, but also form the magnetite nanoparticles which are exhibit superparamagnetic properties that can be useful for relevant medical and industrial applications.

  18. Velocity and sediment surge: What do we see at times of very shallow water on intertidal mudflats?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian; Gong, Zheng; Zhang, Changkuan; Townend, Ian; Jin, Chuang; Li, Huan

    2016-02-01

    A self-designed "bottom boundary layer hydrodynamic and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) measuring system" was built to observe the hydrodynamic and the SSC processes over the intertidal mudflats at the middle part of the Jiangsu coast during August 8-10, 2013. Velocity profiles within 10 cm of the mudflat surface were obtained with a vertical resolution as fine as 1 mm. An ADCP was used to extend the profile over the full water depth with a resolution of 10 cm and the vertical SSC profile was measured at intervals using Optical Backscatter Sensors (OBS). At the same time, water levels and wave conditions were measured with a Tide and Wave Recorder. Measured data suggested that the vertical structure of velocity profiles within 10 cm above the bed maintains a logarithmic distribution during the whole tidal cycle except the slack-water periods. Shallow flows during both the early-flood period and the later-ebb period are characterized by a relatively large vertical velocity gradient and a "surge" feature. We conclude that the very shallow water stages are transient and may not contribute much to the whole water and sediment transport, while they can play a significant role in the formation and evolution of micro-topographies on tidal flats.

  19. Influences of sediment properties and macrophytes on phosphorous speciation in the intertidal marsh.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xuexin; Liang, Xinqiang; Wu, Ming; Gu, Binhe; Li, Wenhua; Sheng, Xuancai; Wang, Shaoxian

    2014-09-01

    Phosphorus (P) in wetlands is mainly bound to sediment in various species, which is essential to predict water column P levels. The purpose of this work is to understand the influences of sediment properties and vegetation types on P speciation. Sediments under four vegetation types in the tidal flat and offshore sandbar in Hangzhou Bay of China were collected seasonally. The rank order of P species in sediment based on concentration was exchangeable P (Exch-P) < iron/aluminum-bound P (Fe/Al-P) < organic P (Org-P) < calcium-bound P (Ca-P). Sediment total phosphorus (TP) and Fe/Al-P concentrations were lower in offshore sandbar than those of tidal flat, reflecting effects of anthropogenic contamination in the latter. Sediment particle size distribution strongly affected P speciation, as indicated by a significant correlation between them. Total phosphorus and Org-P concentrations in vegetated sediments were higher than those of bare mudflat. Additionally, there was a significant negative correlation between Ca-P and Org-P, and Fe/Al-P, indicating the presence of vegetation which may result in P speciation by converting Ca-P to soluble and active P and higher Org-P. Overall, sediment particle size distribution is the most fundamental physical property that affects P speciation, and vegetation types are important factors that influence Org-P concentration.

  20. Stable isotope biogeochemistry of the sulfur cycle in modern marine sediments: I. Seasonal dynamics in a temperate intertidal sandy surface sediment.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Michael; Hespenheide, Britta; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Bosselmann, Katja

    2004-12-01

    A biogeochemical and stable isotope geochemical study was carried out in surface sediments of an organic-matter poor temperate intertidal sandy surface sediment (German Wadden Sea of the North Sea) to investigate the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria and the dynamics of the vertical partitioning of sedimentary sulfur, iron, and manganese species in relation to the availability of total organic carbon (TOC) and mud contents. The contents and stable isotopic compositions ((34)S/(32)S) of total reduced inorganic sulfur species (TRIS) and dissolved sulfate were measured. Maximum oxygen penetration depths were estimated from the onset of a blackening of the sediments due to FeS accumulation and ranged from 5 to 10 mm below surface (mmbsf). A zone of relatively moderate relative organic-matter enrichment was found between 5 and 20 mmbsf leading to enhanced activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria with sulfate-reduction rates (SRR) up to 350 nmol cm(-3) d(-1). Below this zone, microbial SRR dropped significantly. Depth integrated SRR seem to depend not only on temperature but also on the availability of reactive organic matter. The sulfur-isotopic composition of TRIS was depleted in (34)S by 33-40 per thousand with respect to coexisting dissolved sulfate (constant at about +21 per thousand vs. Vienna-Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT)). Since sulfate reduction is not limited by dissolved sulfate (open system), depth variations of the isotopic composition of TRIS reflect changes in overall isotope effect due to superimposed microbial and abiotic reactions. Most of the solid-phase iron and manganese was bonded to (non-reactive) heavy minerals. However, a layer of reactive Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxi(hydroxi)des was found in the uppermost sediment section due to re-oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) and Mn(II) species at the sediment-water interface. Metal cycling below the surface is at least partially coupled to intense sulfur cycling.

  1. Vertical distribution of potentially toxic elements in sediments impacted by intertidal geothermal hot springs (Bahia Concepcion, Gulf of California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal-Acosta, M. L.; Shumilin, E.

    2016-12-01

    The intertidal geothermal hot springs (GHS) in Bahia Concepcion, Gulf of California are the source of potentially toxic elements to the adjacent marine environment surrounded by mangroves trees. The anoxic sediments enriched in organic carbon accumulate As, Hg and other heavy metals that can be bioavailable for the biota. To know the vertical distribution of these elements the geochemistry of a short sediment core was carried out. It was collected in June, 2010 in the mangrove area near to GHS (1 m) during a low tide, pushing manually a polypropylene tube into the sediments. The extracted sediment core was cut with plastic knife on 1 cm thick sub-samples, stored in plastic bags and transported on ice to the laboratory. The major and trace elements contents were determinate by ICP-MS after total digestion with stronger acids (HClO4-HNO3-HCl-HF). Certificate reference materials were used for the quality control of the method obtaining good recoveries for most of the elements (80-105%). The sediment core had high maximum contents of CaCO3 (70%) and total organic carbon (12%). The concentration of Hg along the core ranges from 650 to 74300 mg kg-1 and had more than three orders of magnitude above the reference values of 40 mg kg-1 for the Upper Continental Crust (UCC)1. In contrast, As ranges from 12 to 258 mg kg-1 resulting in more than one order of magnitude respect to UCC1 (1.7 mg kg-1). Similar pattern result for Mn, Cu, Pb, and Zn with the maximum values of 3200 mg kg-1, 42 mg kg-1, 12.4 mg kg-1, 71 mg kg-1 respectively that coincide with the maximum for As at the same core depth (4 cm). The Ca, Li, Co, Sb, U, and Mg also show high contents in comparison with the UCC1reference values. The maximum contents of Mo and Cd coincide with maximum concentration of sulfur (2%) at 6 to 8 cm. The enrichment factor calculated using Al as normalizing element showed Cd (7-280), As (26-329) and Hg (23-1196) as highly enriched mainly in the first centimeters of the sediment core

  2. Biota: sediment partitioning of aluminium smelter related PAHs and pulp mill related diterpenes by intertidal clams at Kitimat, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Yunker, Mark B; Lachmuth, Cara L; Cretney, Walter J; Fowler, Brian R; Dangerfield, Neil; White, Linda; Ross, Peter S

    2011-09-01

    The question of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability and its relationship to specific PAH sources with different PAH binding characteristics is an important one, because bioavailability drives PAH accumulation in biota and ultimately the biochemical responses to the PAH contaminants. The industrial harbour at Kitimat (British Columbia, Canada) provides an ideal location to study the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment hydrocarbons to low trophic level biota. Samples of soft shell clams (Mya arenaria) and intertidal sediment collected from multiple sites over six years at various distances from an aluminium smelter and a pulp and paper mill were analysed for 106 PAHs, plant diterpenes and other aromatic fraction hydrocarbons. Interpretation using PAH source ratios and multivariate data analysis reveals six principal hydrocarbon sources: PAHs in coke, pitch and emissions from anode combustion from the aluminium smelter, vascular plant terpenes and aromatised terpenes from the pulp and paper mill, petroleum PAHs from shipping and other anthropogenic activities and PAHs from natural plant detritus. Harbour sediments predominantly contain either pitch or pyrogenic PAHs from the smelter, while clams predominantly contain plant derived PAHs and diterpenes from the adjacent pulp mill. PAHs from the smelter have low bioavailability to clams (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factors; BSAFs <1 for pitch and coke; <10 for anode combustion, decreasing to ∼0.1 for the mass 300 and 302 PAHs), possibly due to binding to pitch or soot carbon matrices. Decreases in PAH isomer ratios between sediments and clams likely reflect a combination of variation in uptake kinetics of petroleum PAHs and compound specific metabolism, with the importance of petroleum PAHs decreasing with increasing molecular weight. Plant derived compounds exhibit little natural bioaccumulation at reference sites, but unsaturated and aromatised diterpenes released from resins by

  3. Density-driven convection during flooding of warm, permeable intertidal sediments: the ecological importance of the convective turnover pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, C.

    2000-02-01

    Vertical temperature profiles during exposure and flooding of a sandy tidal flat were investigated at a single site in the Sado estuary (Portugal), and compared with the change in benthic nitrogen pools. Data from April 1994 (night and day flood periods), July and November 1994 were analysed in order to study possible convective transport induced by the changing thermal regime on a tidal time scale. An ecological consequence of the flooding of warm, permeable sediment beds by cool water was the reversal of porewater density gradients, leading to a quick exchange of porewater for flood water, in what constitutes a rapid, powerful pathway for benthic solute removal in tidal ecosystems. The matrix-averaged interstitial velocity of up- and down-draught plumes of water ranged between 10 -7 and 10 -6 m s -1 over a depth scale of 6-10 cm. The Peclet number ranged from 1.4 to 28 in heavily bioturbated environments ( DBs for N solutes=5×10 -9 m2 s-1), and from 70 to 1400 in non-bioturbated environments ( DBs for N solutes ≈10 -10 m 2 s -1). The results indicate that convective turnover of porewaters in permeable tidal flats is abrupt, may occur with daily frequency, and may have three orders of magnitude more impact on sediment-water fluxes than diffusion alone. Convective flow is a major component of sediment-water fluxes in tidal areas and crucial to accurate budget studies on the sandy intertidal. On the basis of these results and recent literature, the potential ecological importance of the Convective Turnover Pump is discussed, showing it to be a very powerful potential accelerator of organic matter diagenesis in tidal systems due to its frequency and range of action.

  4. Impacts of mariculture on the diversity of bacterial communities within intertidal sediments in the Northeast of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jialin; Li, Fuchao; Yu, Shuxian; Qin, Song; Wang, Guangyi

    2013-11-01

    Mariculture is one of the major seafood supplies worldwide and has caused serious environmental concerns on the coastal zone. Its rapid development has been shown to disrupt the sediment ecosystems and thus influence the benthic bacterial communities. Bacterial diversity and community structure within both adjacent farms and non-cultured zones intertidal sediments along the coasts of Qinhuangdao and Dalian, China, were investigated using full-length 16S rRNA gene-based T-RFLP analyses and clone library construction. Richness and Shannon-Wiener index were significantly increased at sites adjacent the mariculture farm with mean values of 29 and 2.97 from peak profiles of T-RFLP result. Clustering analyses suggested that impacts of mariculture on bacterial diversity of sediment were significantly larger than those resulted from temporal and spatial scales. Upon comparisons of RFLP patterns from 602 clones from libraries of the selected five samples, 137 OTUs were retrieved. Members of γ- and δ-Proteobacteria, Bacilli, Flavobacteria, and Actinobacteria were recorded in all libraries. In addition, γ-Proteobacteria were dominant in all samples (21.7~45.0 %). Redundancy analysis revealed that the distribution of bacterial composition seemed to be determined by the variables of salinity, PO4 (3-)-P, NH4 (+)-N, and Chlorophyll a content. The phyla of γ-Proteobacteria, Clostridia, Flavobacteria, Bacilli, and Planctomycetes were principal components to contribute to the bacterial differences of clone libraries. Our finding demonstrated that these phyla could display variations of bacterial composition linked to environmental disturbance resulted from mariculture.

  5. Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvind K.; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D.; Jones, D. Martin; Bowler, Bernard F. J.; Head, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Many studies have empirically determined optimum levels of inorganic N and P for stimulation of hydrocarbon degradation. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax) for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N and P are not limiting. In the marine sediments studied, crude oil degradation was limited by both N and P availability. In sediments treated with 12.5 mg/g of oil but with no addition of N and P, hydrocarbon degradation rates, assessed on the basis of CO2 production, were 1.10 ± 0.03 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day which were comparable to rates of CO2 production in sediments to which no oil was added (1.05 ± 0.27 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day). When inorganic nitrogen was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 4.25 ± 0.91 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. However, when the same levels of inorganic nitrogen were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment) maximum rates of measured CO2 production increased more than four-fold to 18.40 ± 1.04 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for inorganic N (in the form of sodium nitrate) when P was not limiting were 1.99 ± 0.86 μmol/g wet sediment and 16.16 ± 1.28 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 63 ± 95 nmol/g wet sediment and 12.05 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P < 0.05). When N and P

  6. Kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation in intertidal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvind K; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D; Jones, D Martin; Bowler, Bernard F J; Head, Ian M

    2014-01-01

    Availability of inorganic nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorous, is often a primary control on crude oil hydrocarbon degradation in marine systems. Many studies have empirically determined optimum levels of inorganic N and P for stimulation of hydrocarbon degradation. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of information on fundamental kinetic parameters for nutrient enhanced crude oil biodegradation that can be used to model the fate of crude oil in bioremediation programmes that use inorganic nutrient addition to stimulate oil biodegradation. Here we report fundamental kinetic parameters (Ks and qmax) for nitrate- and phosphate-stimulated crude oil biodegradation under nutrient limited conditions and with respect to crude oil, under conditions where N and P are not limiting. In the marine sediments studied, crude oil degradation was limited by both N and P availability. In sediments treated with 12.5 mg/g of oil but with no addition of N and P, hydrocarbon degradation rates, assessed on the basis of CO2 production, were 1.10 ± 0.03 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day which were comparable to rates of CO2 production in sediments to which no oil was added (1.05 ± 0.27 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day). When inorganic nitrogen was added alone maximum rates of CO2 production measured were 4.25 ± 0.91 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. However, when the same levels of inorganic nitrogen were added in the presence of 0.5% P w/w of oil (1.6 μmol P/g wet sediment) maximum rates of measured CO2 production increased more than four-fold to 18.40 ± 1.04 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. Ks and qmax estimates for inorganic N (in the form of sodium nitrate) when P was not limiting were 1.99 ± 0.86 μmol/g wet sediment and 16.16 ± 1.28 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day respectively. The corresponding values for P were 63 ± 95 nmol/g wet sediment and 12.05 ± 1.31 μmol CO2/g wet sediment/day. The qmax values with respect to N and P were not significantly different (P < 0.05). When N and P

  7. Comparative study on microphytobenthic pigments of muddy and sandy intertidal sediments of the Tagus estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartaxana, P.; Mendes, C. R.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; Brotas, V.

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of microphytobenthic pigments determined by HPLC (chlorophylls and carotenoids) were compared between muddy and sandy sediments of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). In the two types of sediment, with similar periods of illuminated emersion, chlorophyll a concentrations on a per area basis (mg m -2) were comparable (down to 2 mm). Pigment analysis also revealed similar microphytobenthic communities in terms of algal classes. Diatoms were the dominant microalgae, but cyanophytes, euglenophytes and phanerogam debris were also present. For both muddy and sandy sediments, microphytobenthic biomass showed a high level of variability both within and between two consecutive years. Microphytobenthos was highly stratified in the mud, with most of the chlorophyll a occurring in the top 500 μm. In the sand, relatively constant concentrations were found throughout the sediment profile down to 3 mm. This is probably related to deeper light penetration in sandy sediment and/or increased physical mixing caused by invertebrate activity or overlying currents, leading to the burial of an important fraction of the microphytobenthic cells. Differences observed in the intensity of sediment coloration of muddy and sandy sediments might have resulted from the different vertical distribution of benthic biomass.

  8. Seasonal Variations of Topography and Surface Sediments in 2014-2015 on Open-Coast Intertidal Flat of the Gochang, Southwestern Coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, W. H.

    2016-12-01

    The Gochang open-coast, intertidal flat is located in the southwestern coast of Korea (the eastern part of the Yellow Sea), characterized by macro-tide in tidal range, an open-coast in its type, and sand substrates. This study has investigated seasonal variations in surface topography and sedimentary facies of surface sediments in the Gochang intertidal flat. During the nine seasons of winter (Feb.), spring (May), summer (Aug.), and fall (Nov.) in 2014-2015 and winter (Feb.) in 2016, the topographic elevation of total 525 sites was measured along three survey lines. It consists of 21 sites at 30 m intervals in each transverse line perpendicular to the shoreline, respectively. During the eight seasons of the year 2014-2015 such as winter (February), spring (May), summer (August), and fall (November), surface sediments of total 504 sites were sampled and analyzed along the three survey lines. The surface sediments of the Gochang intertidal flat in 2014-2015 consisted mainly of fine-grained sand sediments showing a trend in grain size to be coarser in winter and finer in summer. Based seasonal wave and tidal level data recorded near the study area, it was interpreted that seasonal effects of wave were stronger than those of tide as a factor controlling surface sedimentation. High waves in winter may result in the coarsening trend of grain size in surface sediments, whereas, in summer, the sediments may get finer by relatively low waves. Spatial sedimentary facies of the Gochang intertidal flat in 2014-2015 represented that seasonal deviation of the upper tidal zone was larger than that of the lower tidal zone, hence sediments getting coarser in grain size and poorly sorted in the upper tidal zone. From upper to lower tidal zone, grain size became finer and sediments were better-sorted, showing smaller seasonal deviations. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by the research grant from the Korean Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (PJT200538). This presentation is

  9. Chemoautotrophic carbon fixation rates and active bacterial communities in intertidal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Boschker, Henricus T S; Vasquez-Cardenas, Diana; Bolhuis, Henk; Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja W C; Moodley, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Chemoautotrophy has been little studied in typical coastal marine sediments, but may be an important component of carbon recycling as intense anaerobic mineralization processes in these sediments lead to accumulation of high amounts of reduced compounds, such as sulfides and ammonium. We studied chemoautotrophy by measuring dark-fixation of 13C-bicarbonate into phospholipid derived fatty acid (PLFA) biomarkers at two coastal sediment sites with contrasting sulfur chemistry in the Eastern Scheldt estuary, The Netherlands. At one site where free sulfide accumulated in the pore water right to the top of the sediment, PLFA labeling was restricted to compounds typically found in sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. At the other site, with no detectable free sulfide in the pore water, a very different PLFA labeling pattern was found with high amounts of label in branched i- and a-PLFA besides the typical compounds for sulfur and ammonium oxidizing bacteria. This suggests that other types of chemoautotrophic bacteria were also active, most likely Deltaproteobacteria related to sulfate reducers. Maximum rates of chemoautotrophy were detected in first 1 to 2 centimeters of both sediments and chemosynthetic biomass production was high ranging from 3 to 36 mmol C m(-2) d(-1). Average dark carbon fixation to sediment oxygen uptake ratios were 0.22±0.07 mol C (mol O2)(-1), which is in the range of the maximum growth yields reported for sulfur oxidizing bacteria indicating highly efficient growth. Chemoautotrophic biomass production was similar to carbon mineralization rates in the top of the free sulfide site, suggesting that chemoautotrophic bacteria could play a crucial role in the microbial food web and labeling in eukaryotic poly-unsaturated PLFA was indeed detectable. Our study shows that dark carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic bacteria is a major process in the carbon cycle of coastal sediments, and should therefore receive more attention in future studies on

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of surface sediments and oysters from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Gaspare, Lydia; Machiwa, John F; Mdachi, S J M; Streck, Georg; Brack, Werner

    2009-01-01

    Surface sediment and oyster samples from the inter-tidal areas of Dar es Salaam were analyzed for 23 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including the 16 compounds prioritized by US-EPA using GC/MS. The total concentration of PAHs in the sediment ranged from 78 to 25,000 ng/g dry weight, while oyster concentrations ranged from 170 to 650 ng/g dry weight. Hazards due to sediment contamination were assessed using Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks and Threshold Effect Levels. Diagnostic indices and principle component analysis were used to identify possible sources. Interestingly, no correlation between sediment and oyster concentrations at the same sites was found. This is supported by completely different contamination patterns, suggesting different sources for both matrices. Hazard assessment revealed possible effects at six out of eight sites on the benthic communities and oyster populations. The contribution of PAH intake via oyster consumption to carcinogenic risks in humans seems to be low.

  11. Disparate distributions of chemolithotrophs containing form IA or IC large subunit genes for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in intertidal marine and littoral lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Lisa M; King, Gary M

    2007-04-01

    The distributions of bacterial form IA and form IC ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) were investigated using Lowes Cove intertidal mudflat and Damariscotta Lake littoral sediments by PCR amplification of 492-495 bp fragments of the large subunit RuBisCO gene, cbbL. Genomic extracts for amplification were obtained from lake surface (upper 2 mm), mudflat surface (upper 2 mm), subsurface (5-7 cm), and soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria) burrow-wall sediments, as well as from a sulfide-oxidizing mat. Phylogenetic analyses of cbbL clone libraries revealed that Lowes Cove sediments were dominated by form IA cbbL-containing sequences most closely related to cbbL genes of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria or sulfide-oxidizing mats. In contrast, Damariscotta Lake cbbL clones contained primarily form IC cbbL sequences, which typify aerobic CO- and hydrogen-oxidizing facultative chemolithotrophs. Statistical analyses supported clear differentiation of intertidal and lake chemolithotroph communities, and provided evidence for some differentiation among intertidal communities. amova and libshuff analyses of Lowes Cove libraries suggested that M. arenaria burrow-wall sediments did not harbour distinct communities compared with surface and subsurface sediments, but that surface and subsurface libraries displayed moderate differences. The results collectively support a conceptual model in which the relative distribution of form IA- and IC-containing bacterial chemolithotrophs depends on sulfide availability, which could reflect the role of sulfate reduction in sediment organic matter metabolism, or the presence of geothermal sulfide sources.

  12. Spatial variation and toxicity assessment for heavy metals in sediments of intertidal zone in a typical subtropical estuary (Min River) of China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhigao; Li, Jiabing; He, Tao; Ren, Peng; Zhu, He; Gao, Hui; Tian, Liping; Hu, Xingyun

    2017-08-19

    Sediment samples were collected in five marshes (C1, Phragmites australis marsh; C2, P. australis and Cyperus malaccensis marsh; C3, C. malaccensis marsh; C4, Spartina alterniflora marsh; and C5, Cyperus compressus marsh) respectively along two typical transects (T1 and T2) extending from the vegetated marsh to the mudflat in a typical subtropical estuary (Min River) of China in July 2015 to investigate the spatial variation and toxicity of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni) in intertidal zone. Results showed that the concentrations of heavy metal in surface sediments of the two transects were in the order of Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni and slightly decreased from the land to the sea except for Pb and Zn. The levels of the five metals at C5 marsh were generally the lowest, while those of Pb, Cr, and Zn at C2 marsh were the highest. The vertical variations of Pb, Cr, and Zn concentrations in profiles differed among marshes or transects, and in most cases, there was no evidence of sediment organic matter (SOM) contributing to the sorption of significant amount of metals in sediments along the two transects, while grain composition was a primary factor controlling the spatial variations of metals. Both the vertical distributions of Cu and Ni levels among marshes or transects showed little fluctuation, which could be better explained by the effects of sulfur on the solubility and mobility of the two metals in profiles. Heavy metal levels in sediments of the Min River estuary were much higher compared with most estuaries in Asia, Europe, Africa, and South America. The sediments in intertidal zone of the Min River estuary were moderately polluted by the five metals, and particularly, Ni was identified as heavy metal of primary concern. Both Ni and Pb in sediments of the intertidal zone showed high potential toxicity and high contributions to the sum of the toxic units (ΣTUs). In future, the metal pollutions in intertidal zone of the Min River estuary might be more

  13. Variation of topography and surface sediments before and after the typhoon Kompasu on open-coast intertidal flat of the Gochang, southwestern coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryang, Woo Hun

    2017-04-01

    The Gochang open-coast, intertidal flat is located in the southwestern coast of Korea (the eastern part of the Yellow Sea), characterized by macro-tide in tidal range, an open-coast in its type, and sand substrates. In the Gochang intertidal flat, this study has investigated the typhoon effects of topography, surface sediment, and sedimentary environment, appeared before and after the typhoon Kompasu. The typhoon Kompasu moved along the southwestern coasts and across midlands of the Korean Peninsula from 1 to 2 September in 2010. This route of the typhoon, moving across the eastern Yellow Sea and the peninsula, was a rare case in the southwestern coast of Korea, and there was not the similar route case in the study area since the typhoon Kompasu. The surface topography in the middle-to-lower tidal zone became lower after the typhoon rather than that before the typhoon. The lower topographic change is indicative of surface sediment erosion caused by the typhoon wave. The Gochang intertidal flat is mainly composed of fine to coarse sands, and the ratio of fine sand is the largest. Spatial distribution pattern of sedimentary facies before the typhoon showed a trend of coast-parallel bands of fine sand facies and medium sand facies, whereas that after the typhoon represented a simple distribution of fine sand facies, not showing the coast-parallel bands. Keywords: typhoon effect, surface sediment, open-coast, intertidal flat, macro-tide Acknowledgements: This study was supported by the research grant from the Korean Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries (PJT200538).

  14. Mercury and methylmercury distribution in the intertidal surface sediment of a heavily anthrophogenically impacted saltwater-mangrove-sediment interplay zone.

    PubMed

    Haris, Hazzeman; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Mokhtar, Mazlin Bin

    2017-01-01

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined from sediment samples collected from thirty sampling stations in Port Klang, Malaysia. Three stations had THg concentrations exceeding the threshold effect level of the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. THg and MeHg concentrations were found to be concentrated in the Lumut Strait where inputs from the two most urbanized rivers in the state converged (i.e. Klang River and Langat River). This suggests that Hg in the study area likely originated from the catchments of these rivers. MeHg made up 0.06-94.96% of the sediment's THg. There is significant positive correlation (p < 0.01) between THg and MeHg concentrations. Significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was also observed between fine sediment particles (i.e. clay and silt) with MeHg concentrations. Sediment particle size, however, was not found to have any influence on THg concentrations in the sediment in the study area.

  15. Sediment dynamics modulated by burrowing crab activities in contrasting SW Atlantic intertidal habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escapa, Mauricio; Perillo, Gerardo M. E.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2008-11-01

    Biogenic bottom features, animal burrows and biological activities interact with the hydrodynamics of the sediment-water interface to produce altered patterns of sediment erosion, transport and deposition which have consequences for large-scale geomorphologic features. It has been suggested that depending on the hydrodynamic status of the habitat, the biological activity on the bottom may have a variety of effects. In some cases, different bioturbation activities by the same organism can result in different consequences. The burrowing crab Neohelice granulata is the most important bioturbator at SW Atlantic saltmarshes and tidal plains. Because of the great variety of habitats that this species may inhabit, it is possible to compare its bioturbation effects between zones dominated by different hydrodynamic conditions. Internal marsh microhabitats, tidal creeks bottoms and basins, and open mudflats were selected as contrasting zones for the comparison on a large saltmarsh at Bahía Blanca Estuary (Argentina). Crab burrows act as passive traps of sediment in all zones, because their entrances remain open during inundation periods at high tide. Mounds are generated when crabs remove sediments from the burrows to the surface and become distinctive features in all the zones. Two different mechanisms of sediment transport utilizing mounds as sediment sources were registered. In the first one, parts of fresh mound sediments were transported when exposed to water flow during flooding and ebbing tide, with higher mound erosion where currents were higher as compared to internal marsh habitats and open mudflats. In the second mechanism, mounds exposed to atmospheric influence during low tide became desiccated and cracked forming ellipsoidal blocks, which were then transported by currents in zones of intense water flow in the saltmarsh edge. Sedimentary dynamics varied between zones; crabs were promoting trapping of sediments in the internal saltmarsh (380 g m -2 day -1) and

  16. Accumulation of Sellafield-derived radiocarbon ((14)C) in Irish Sea and West of Scotland intertidal shells and sediments.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Kieran M; Muir, Graham K P; Cook, Gordon T; MacKinnon, Gillian; Howe, John A; Heymans, Johanna J; Xu, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear energy industry produces radioactive waste at various stages of the fuel cycle. In the United Kingdom, spent fuel is reprocessed at the Sellafield facility in Cumbria on the North West coast of England. Waste generated at the site comprises a wide range of radionuclides including radiocarbon ((14)C) which is disposed of in various forms including highly soluble inorganic carbon within the low level liquid radioactive effluent, via pipelines into the Irish Sea. This (14)C is rapidly incorporated into the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) reservoir and marine calcifying organisms, e.g. molluscs, readily utilise DIC for shell formation. This study investigated a number of sites located in Irish Sea and West of Scotland intertidal zones. Results indicate (14)C enrichment above ambient background levels in shell material at least as far as Port Appin, 265 km north of Sellafield. Of the commonly found species (blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) and common periwinkle (Littorina littorea)), mussels were found to be the most highly enriched in (14)C due to the surface environment they inhabit and their feeding behaviour. Whole mussel shell activities appear to have been decreasing in response to reduced discharge activities since the early 2000s but in contrast, there is evidence of continuing enrichment of the carbonate sediment component due to in-situ shell erosion, as well as indications of particle transport of fine (14)C-enriched material close to Sellafield.

  17. LC/IRMS analysis: A powerful technique to trace carbon flow in microphytobenthic communities in intertidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moerdijk-Poortvliet, Tanja C. W.; Stal, Lucas J.; Boschker, Henricus T. S.

    2014-09-01

    Microphytobenthic communities are important for primary production in intertidal marine sediments. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), comprising polysaccharides and proteins, play a key role in the structure and functioning of microphytobenthic biofilms and allow interactions between the benthic microalgae and the associated heterotrophic bacteria. The use of stable isotopes has provided major insights into the functioning of these microbial ecosystems. Until recently, gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) was the principal method for compound specific stable isotope analysis in these studies. Liquid chromatography linked to IRMS (LC/IRMS) is a more recently developed technique that broadens the range of compounds that can be targeted, in particular enabling the analysis of 13C in non-volatile, aqueous soluble organic compounds, such as carbohydrates and amino acids. In this paper we present an overview of the possibilities and limitations of the LC/IRMS technique to study metabolic processes in microphytobenthic biofilms consisting of mainly diatoms. With a preliminary in-situ labeling experiment, we show that the biosynthesis of carbohydrates and amino acids in EPS and total carbohydrate and amino acid pools can be determined by LC/IRMS. Water extractable EPS were composed predominantly of carbohydrates, whereas amino acids played a minor role, both in terms of content and production. By using LC/IRMS, we will be able to quantify the biosynthesis of metabolites and, hence, to unravel in detail the metabolic pathways of the transfer of carbon from the diatoms via EPS to the bacteria.

  18. Spatial distribution and concentration assessment of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carine S; Moreira, Icaro T A; de Oliveira, Olivia M C; Queiroz, Antonio F S; Garcia, Karina S; Falcão, Brunno A; Escobar, Narayana F C; Rios, Mariana Cruz

    2014-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the concentrations and spatial distribution of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the intertidal zone surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay, Brazil, to assess the distribution and degree of contamination by TPHs, measure the level of TPH degradation in the surface sediment, and identify the organic matter sources. The surface sediment used in this study was collected in 50 stations, and TPHs, isoprenoid alkanes (pristane and phytane), and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) were analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The total concentrations ranged from 0.22 to 40,101 μg g(-1) dry weight and showed a strong correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC) content. The highest TPH concentrations were observed in samples from the mangrove sediments of a river located near a petroleum refinery. Compared with other studies in the world, the TPH concentrations in the intertidal surface sediment of Todos os Santos Bay were below average in certain stations and above average in others. An analysis of the magnitude of UCM (0.11 to 17,323 μg g(-1) dry weight) and the ratios nC17/Pr and nC18/Ph suggest that an advanced state of oil weathering, which indicates previous contamination. The molar C/N ratios varied between 5 and 43, which indicate organic matter with a mixed origin comprising marine and continental contributions.

  19. Diversity, Abundance, and Distribution of nirS-Harboring Denitrifiers in Intertidal Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Gao, Juan; Yin, Guoyu; Li, Xiaofei; Deng, Fengyu; Lin, Xianbiao; Jiang, Xiaofen; Chen, Fei; Zong, Haibo; Zhou, Junliang

    2015-07-01

    Denitrification plays a critical role in nitrogen removal in estuarine and coastal ecosystems. In this study, the community composition, diversity, abundance, and distribution of cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase gene (nirS)-harboring denitrifiers in intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based clone libraries and quantitative PCR techniques. Clone library analysis showed that the nirS-encoding bacterial biodiversity was significantly higher at the lower salinity sites than at the higher salinity sites. However, there was no significant seasonal difference in the nirS gene diversity between summer and winter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the nirS-harboring denitrifier communities at the study area had distinctive spatial heterogeneity along the estuary. At the lower salinity sites, the nirS-harboring bacterial community was co-dominated by clusters III and VII; while at the higher salinity sites, it was dominated by cluster I. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the community compositions of nirS-type denitrifiers were significantly correlated with salinity, ammonium, and nitrate. Quantitative PCR results showed that the nirS gene abundance was in the range of 1.01 × 10(6) to 9.00 × 10(7) copies per gram dry sediment, without significant seasonal variation. Among all the environmental factors, the nirS gene abundance was only significantly related to the change of salinity. These results can extend our current knowledge about the composition and dynamics of denitrification microbial community in the estuarine ecosystem.

  20. Temporal fluctuations in grain size, organic materials and iron concentrations in intertidal surface sediment of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomson-Becker, E. A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of the oxidized surface sediment in an estuary fluctuate temporally in response to physical forces and apparently-fluctuating inputs. These characteristics, which include grain size and concentrations of organic materials and iron, will influence both trace-metal geochemistry and bioavailability. Temporal trends in the abundance of fine particles, total organic carbon content (TOC), absorbance of extractable organic material (EOM), and concentration of extractable iron in the sediment of San Francisco Bay were assessed using data sets containing approximately monthly samples for periods of two to seven years. Changes in wind velocity and runoff result in monthly changes in the abundance of fine particles in the intertidal zone. Fine-grained particles are most abundant in the late fall/early winter when runoff is elevated and wind velocities are low; particles are coarser in the summer when runoff is low and wind velocities are consistently high. Throughout the bay, TOC is linearly related to fine particle abundance (r = 0.61). Temporal variability occurs in this relationship, as particles are poor in TOC relative to percent of fine particles in the early rainy season. Iron-poor particles also appear to enter the estuary during high runoff periods; while iron is enriched on particle surfaces in the summer. Concentrations of extractable iron and absorbance of EOM vary strongly from year to year. Highest absorbances of EOM occurred in the first year following the drought in 1976-77, and in 1982 and 1983 when river discharge was unusually high. Extractable-iron concentrations were also highest in 1976-77, but were very low in 1982 and 1983. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  1. Distribution, mobility, and pollution assessment of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Fe in intertidal surface sediments of Sg. Puloh mangrove estuary, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Udechukwu, Bede Emeka; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Omar, Hishamuddin

    2015-03-01

    Sungai Puloh mangrove estuary supports a large diversity of macrobenthic organisms and provides social benefits to the local community. Recently, it became a major recipient of heavy metals originating from industries in the hinterland as a result of industrialization and urbanization. This study was conducted to evaluate mobility and pollution status of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Fe) in intertidal surface sediments of this area. Surface sediment samples were collected based on four different anthropogenic sources. Metals concentrations were analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Results revealed that the mean concentrations were Zn (1023.68 ± 762.93 μg/g), Pb (78.8 ± 49.61 μg/g), Cu (46.89 ± 43.79 μg/g), Ni (35.54 ± 10.75 μg/g), Cd (0.94 ± 0.29 μg/g), and Fe (7.14 ± 0.94%). Most of the mean values of analyzed metals were below both the interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQG-low and ISQG-high), except for Pb concentration (above ISQG-low) and Zn concentration (above ISQG-high), thus suggesting that Pb and Zn may pose some environmental concern. Cadmium, Pb, and Zn concentrations were above the threshold effect level (TEL), indicating seldom adverse effect of these metals on macrobenthic organisms. Pollution load index (PLI) indicated deterioration and other indices revealed the intertidal surface sediment is moderately polluted with Cd, Pb, and Zn. Therefore, this mangrove area requires urgent attention to mitigate further contamination. Finally, this study will contribute to data sources for Malaysia in establishing her own ISQG since it is a baseline study with detailed contamination assessment indices for surface sediment of intertidal mangrove area.

  2. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes vs. carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous burial in new intertidal and saltmarsh sediments.

    PubMed

    Adams, C A; Andrews, J E; Jickells, T

    2012-09-15

    Carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) burial rates were determined within natural saltmarsh (NSM) and 'managed realignment' (MR) sediments of the Blackwater estuary, UK. Methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) fluxes were measured along with their ability to offset a portion of the C burial to give net C sequestration. C and N densities (Cρ and Nρ) of NSM sediments (0.022 and 0.0019 g cm(-3)) are comparable to other UK NSM sediments. Less vegetationally developed MR sediments have lower Cρ and Nρ (0.012 and 0.0011 g cm(-3)) while the more vegetationally developed sites possess higher Cρ and Nρ (0.023 and 0.0030 g cm(-3)) than NSM. Both NSM and MR areas were small CH(4) (0.10-0.40 g m(-2)yr(-1)) and N(2)O (0.03-0.37 g m(-2) yr(-1)) sources. Due to their large Global Warming Potentials, even these relatively small greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes reduced the net C sequestration within MR marshes by as much as 49%, but by only 2% from NSM. Potential MR areas within the Blackwater estuary (29.5 km(2) saltmarsh and 23.7 km(2) intertidal mudflat) could bury 5478 t C yr(-1) and 695.5 t N yr(-1), with a further 476t N yr(-1) denitrified. The saltmarsh MR would also sequester 139.4 t Pyr(-1). GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 24% giving a C sequestration rate of 4174 t Cyr(-1). Similar areas within the Humber estuary (74.95 km(2)) could bury 3597 t Cyr(-1) and 180 t N yr(-1), with a further 442 t Nyr(-1) denitrified. GHG fluxes would reduce the C burial benefit by 31% giving a C sequestration rate of 2492 t C yr(-1). Overall, MR sites provide sustainable coastal defence options with significant biogeochemical value and, despite being net sources of CH(4) and N(2)O, can sequester C and reduce estuarine nutrient loads.

  3. Osmium and Platinum Decoupling in the Environment: Evidences in Intertidal Sediments (Tagus Estuary, SW Europe).

    PubMed

    Almécija, Clara; Sharma, Mukul; Cobelo-García, Antonio; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Caetano, Miguel

    2015-06-02

    Catalytic converters in automobiles have significantly increased the input of platinum group elements (PGE) to the environment, and their coupled geochemical behavior has been proposed. To check this hypothesis, Pt and Os concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os ratios were determined in sediment cores and interstitial waters from the Tagus Estuary (SW Europe) affected by different traffic pressure. Platinum concentration in surface sediments nearby the high traffic zone (up to 40 ng g(-1)) indicated severe contamination. Although lower than Pt, Os enrichment was also observed in surface sediments, with lower (187)Os/(188)Os ratios than in deeper layers. Dissolved Pt and Os in interstitial waters, 0.1-0.7 pg g(-1) and 0.03-0.10 pg g(-1), respectively, were higher than in typical uncontaminated waters. Results indicate two sources of Pt and Os into the Tagus Estuary salt marshes: a regional input associated with industrial activities, fossil fuel combustions, and regional traffic and a local source linked to nearby traffic density emissions. Estimations of Os and Pt released by catalytic converters support this two-source model. Differences in geochemical reactivity and range of dispersion from their sources lead to a decoupled behavior of Os and Pt, questioning the use of Os isotopes as proxies of PGE sources to the environment.

  4. 210Pb chronology and trace metal geochemistry in the intertidal sediment of Qinjiang River estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Peng; Meng, Xianwei; Feng, Aiping; Yin, Ping; Wang, Xiangqin; Zhang, Jun

    2012-06-01

    Historical records of metal inputs were studied by using a sediment core collected from a sand-rich mudflat in the Qinjiang River estuary, China. 210Pb chronology was used to reconstruct the fluxes of Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and As to the core site during the last 86 years. Based on the constant initial concentration model, the sedimentation rates are 1.18 cm year-1 in the top 30 cm sandy layer and 0.92 cm year-1 in the muddy bottom layer. To compensate for grain-size and mineralogy effects on metal concentrations, aluminum was used as the normalizing element. The enrichment factors ( EF) indicate that the natural inputs had prevailed up to the early 1980s. After this period, the intensity of human activities has resulted in continual increasing trend of metals towards the surface. Recent sediment samples from the Qinjiang River estuary are found moderately enriched by Cd ( EF>1.5) and slightly enriched by other metals ( EF<1.5). Considering that the drainage area of the Qinjiang River is mostly agricultural land, the increased Cd may be due to the usage of fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural activities and the combustion of fossil fuels.

  5. Composition and activity of beta-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizing communities associated with intertidal rocky biofilms and sediments of the Douro River estuary, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, C; Bano, N; Wiebe, W J; Hollibaugh, J T; Bordalo, A A

    2007-10-01

    To characterize the phylogenetic composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) of the beta-subclass of the class Proteobacteria in intertidal sediment and rocky biofilms of the Douro estuary, and evaluate relationships with environmental variables and N-biogeochemistry. Cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles showed differences in beta-Proteobacteria AOB assemblage composition between rocky biofilms and sediments. All sequences obtained from intertidal rocky biofilm sites exhibited phylogenetic affinity to Nitrosomonas sp. lineages, whereas a majority of the sequences from the sediment sites were most similar to marine Nitrosospira cluster 1. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on environmental variables identified two main groups of samples. The first contained samples from rocky biofilm sites characterized by high concentrations of NO2- and NH4+, and high organic matter and chlorophyll a content. The second group contained all of the sediment samples; these sites were characterized by lower values for the variables above. In addition, rocky biofilm sites exhibited higher nitrification rates. Intersite differences in environmental and/or physical conditions led to the selection of different populations of beta-Proteobacteria AOB, supporting different magnitudes of N-cycling regimes. This study represents an important step in establishing the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of beta-Proteobacteria AOB with possible consequences for N-biogeochemistry.

  6. Occurrence and behavior of butyltins in intertidal and shallow subtidal surface sediments of an estuarine beach under different sampling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Dayana Moscardi dos; Sant'Anna, Bruno Sampaio; Sandron, Daniela Corsino; Cardoso de Souza, Sara; Cristale, Joyce; Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues de; Turra, Alexander

    2010-07-01

    Contamination by butyltin compounds (BTs) has been reported in estuarine environments worldwide, with serious impacts on the biota of these areas. Considering that BTs can be degraded by varying environmental conditions such as incident light and salinity, the short-term variations in such factors may lead to inaccurate estimates of BTs concentrations in nature. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the possibility that measurements of BTs in estuarine sediments are influenced by different sampling conditions, including period of the day (day or night), tidal zone (intertidal or subtidal), and tides (high or low). The study area is located on the Brazilian southeastern coast, São Vicente Estuary, at Pescadores Beach, where BT contamination was previously detected. Three replicate samples of surface sediment were collected randomly in each combination of period of the day, tidal zone, and tide condition, from three subareas along the beach, totaling 72 samples. BTs were analyzed by GC-PFPD using a tin filter and a VF-5 column, by means of a validated method. The concentrations of tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) ranged from undetectable to 161 ng Sn g -1 (d.w.). In most samples (71%), only MBT was quantifiable, whereas TBTs were measured in only 14, suggesting either an old contamination or rapid degradation processes. DBT was found in 27 samples, but could be quantified in only one. MBT concentrations did not differ significantly with time of day, zones, or tide conditions. DBT and TBT could not be compared under all these environmental conditions, because only a few samples were above the quantification limit. Pooled samples of TBT did not reveal any difference between day and night. These results indicated that, in assessing contamination by butyltin compounds, surface-sediment samples can be collected in any environmental conditions. However, the wide variation of BTs concentrations in the study area, i.e., over a very small

  7. Mineralization of Organic Matter in Intertidal Sediments of a Tropical Semi-enclosed Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, D. M.; Tirendi, F.; Dixon, P.; Trott, L. A.; Brunskill, G. J.

    1999-04-01

    Rates and pathways of organic matter decomposition in sediments were examined during winter and summer in two mangrove forests and two accreting mud flats in Hinchinbrook Channel, north-eastern Australia. Rates of O 2consumption (range: 2·8-61·0 mmol m -2day -1) and CO 2release (range: 1·8-21·9 mmol m -2day -1) were faster in winter than in summer. Low respiratory quotients (CO 2/O 2range: 0·24-1·08) and a comparison of other metabolic pathways with total carbon oxidation (T cox) in summer suggests that most O 2was used in oxidizing reduced solutes. Rates of total carbon oxidation were greater in the mangrove sediments than in the mud flats. In winter, sulphate reduction in the mangroves (range: 4·9-8·3 mmol S m -2day -1) accounted for a much greater proportion (45-78%) of T coxthan in the mud flats where sulphate reduction (range: 0·8-1·0 mmol S m -2day -1) was a minor (12-14% of T cox) metabolic pathway. In summer, sulphate reduction accounted for a greater (62->100%) proportion of T coxin both mangrove (range: 7·9-10·1 mmol S m -2day -1) and mud flat (range: 0·8-2·3 mmol S m -2day -1) sediments. Rates of denitrification in summer were rapid but highly variable at all four sites (range: 2·9-6·9 mmol N 2m -2 day -1). Rates of Fe and Mn reduction were slow at all four sites (range: 0·0-0·27 mmol C m -2day -1) suggesting that metal reduction was a minor decomposition pathway. No methane was detected in the porewater or released from sediments at any of the sites. There was no net microalgal primary production at any of the sites. Mineralization efficiency of organic carbon was low (9-14%) at the most sheltered mud flat, but efficiencies were greater (44-60%) and nearly equivalent at less sheltered mud flat and mangrove habitats, respectively. Imbalances of mineralized carbon between the sum of the various pathways and T cox, particularly at the mangrove sites, suggest unaccounted losses of dissolved carbon. Large seasonal changes in porewater Cl

  8. Pricia antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from Antarctic intertidal sediment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Zeng, Yin-Xin; Sun, Kun; Chen, Bo

    2012-09-01

    A yellow-coloured, rod-shaped, Gram-reaction- and Gram-staining-negative, non-motile and aerobic bacterium, designated strain ZS1-8(T), was isolated from a sample of sandy intertidal sediment collected from the Antarctic coast. Flexirubin-type pigments were absent. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain ZS1-8(T) formed a distinct phyletic line and the results indicated that the novel strain should be placed in a new genus within the family Flavobacteriaceae. In pairwise comparisons between strain ZS1-8(T) and recognized species, the levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were all <93.3 %. The strain required Ca(2+) and K(+) ions as well as NaCl for growth. Optimal growth was observed at pH 7.5-8.0, 17-19 °C and with 2-3 % (w/v) NaCl. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 1) G, iso-C(15 : 0), summed feature 3 (iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c), an unknown acid with an equivalent chain-length of 13.565 and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The predominant polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content was 43.9 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain ZS1-8(T) represents a novel species in a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae for which the name Pricia antarctica gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the type species is ZS1-8(T) (= JCM 17291(T) = DSM 23421(T)).

  9. Sonochemical Digestion of Soil and Sediment Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determination of plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to determine the potential for applying ultrasonic irradiation to sample digestion. Two standard reference materials (SRMs) were used in this study: Columbia River Sediment and Rocky Flats Soil. The key experiments performed are listed below along with a summary of the results. The action of nitric acid, regardless of its concentration and liquid-to-solid ratio, did not achieve dissolution efficiency better that 20%. The major fraction of natural organic matter (NOM) remained undissolved by this treatment. Sonication did not result in improved dissolution for the SRMs tested. The action of hydrofluoric acid at concentrations of 8 M and higher achieved much more pronounced dissolution (up to 97% dissolved for the Rocky Flats soil sample and up to 78% dissolved for the Columbia River Sediment sample). Dissolution efficiency remains constant for solid-to-liquid ratios of up to 0.05 to 1 and decreases for the higher loadings of the solid phase. Sonication produced no measurable effect in improving the dissolution of the samples compared with the control digestion experiments. Combined treatment of the SRM by mixtures of HNO3 and HF showed inferior performance compared with the HF alone. An adverse effect of sonication was found for the Rocky Flats soil material, which became more noticeable at higher HF concentrations. Sonication of the Columbia River sediment samples had no positive effect in the mixed acid treatment. The results indicate that applying ultrasound in an isolated cup horn configuration does not offer any advantage over conventional ''heat and mix'' treatment for dissolution of the soil and sediment based on the SRM examined here. This conclusion, however, is based on an approach that uses gravimetric analysis to determine gross dissolution

  10. Strong correlations between metal in mollusk soft tissue and nonresistant sediment fraction: a tool for biomonitoring intertidal zone of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

    2014-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined in three species of mollusks and associated sediment. Samples were collected from two locations along the intertidal zone of the Persian Gulf near Bandar Abbas. The study was conducted during the spring of 2011, 10 sediment samples and 15 mollusks from each of the following species: Saccostrea cucullata, Solen brevis, and Callista umbonella, were simultaneously collected. Soft tissue, shell, and sediment were tested for metals using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Geochemical fractions of the sediment were examined for metals using a sequential extraction technique. Our results indicate that over half of Cd and Pb in the sediment had natural origins. Independent sample t test showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) inter-tissue differences in accumulation of Cd and Pb. Soft tissue of C. umbonella contained highest levels of Cd. Pb accumulation was highest in S. brevis shell. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between Cd in the soft tissue of C. umbonella and its levels in the geochemical fractions of the sediment. Lead levels in the resistant geochemical fractions of the sediment and S. brevis shell were significantly correlated. Our results suggest that soft tissue of C. umbonella and shell of S. brevis are reliable biomonitoring tools for Cd and Pb, respectively.

  11. Effectiveness of bioremediation of crude oil contaminated subantarctic intertidal sediment: the microbial response.

    PubMed

    Delille, D; Delille, B; Pelletier, E

    2002-08-01

    A field study was initiated in February 1996 in a remote sandy beach of The Grande Terre (Kerguelen Archipelago, 69 degrees 42 degrees E, 49 degrees 19 degrees S) with the objective of determining the long-term effects of some bioremediation agents on the biodegradation rate and the toxicity of oil residues under severe subantarctic conditions. A series of 10 experimental plots were settled firmly into sediment. Each plot received 2L of Arabian light crude oil and some of them were treated with bioremediation agents: slow release fertilizer Inipol EAP-22 (Elf Atochem) or fish composts. Plots were sampled on a regular basis over a 3-year period. A two-order of magnitude increase of saprophytic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms occurred during the first month of the experiment in all treated enclosures, but no clear differences appeared between the plots. Very high microbial populations were present during the experiment. Biodegradation within treated spots was faster than within the untreated ones and appeared almost complete after 6 months as indicated by the degradation index of aliphatic hydrocarbons within all plots. The analysis of interstitial water collected below the oily residues presented no toxicity. However, a high toxicity signal, using Microtox solid phase, appeared for all oiled sand samples with a noticeable reduction with time even if the toxicity signal remained present and strong after 311 days of oil exposition. As a conclusion, it is clear that the microbial response was rapid and efficient in spite of the severe weather conditions, and the rate of degradation was improved in presence of bioremediation agents. However, the remaining residues had a relatively high toxicity.

  12. SOIL AND SEDIMENT SAMPLING METHODS | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response's (OSWER) Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation (OSRTI) needs innovative methods and techniques to solve new and difficult sampling and analytical problems found at the numerous Superfund sites throughout the United States. Inadequate site characterization and a lack of knowledge of surface and subsurface contaminant distributions hinders EPA's ability to make the best decisions on remediation options and to conduct the most effective cleanup efforts. To assist OSWER, NERL conducts research to improve their capability to more accurately, precisely, and efficiently characterize Superfund, RCRA, LUST, oil spills, and brownfield sites and to improve their risk-based decision making capabilities, research is being conducted on improving soil and sediment sampling techniques and improving the sampling and handling of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminated soils, among the many research programs and tasks being performed at ESD-LV.Under this task, improved sampling approaches and devices will be developed for characterizing the concentration of VOCs in soils. Current approaches and devices used today can lose up to 99% of the VOCs present in the sample due inherent weaknesses in the device and improper/inadequate collection techniques. This error generally causes decision makers to markedly underestimate the soil VOC concentrations and, therefore, to greatly underestimate the ecological

  13. [Distribution patterns of heavy metals in surficial sediment and their influence on the environment quality of the intertidal flat of Luoyuan Bay, Fujian coast].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-Hua; Du, Yong-Fen; Wang, Dan-Dan; Gao, Shu

    2012-09-01

    Intertidal flats represent a typical environmentally fragile and sensitive zone. In order to investigate the environmental quality of the intertidal zone in Luoyuan Bay, field survey was carried out in 2009. Contents of heavy metals (Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in the surficial sediment were measured using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Moreover, the impact on the environment quality was evaluated with the potential ecological risk method. The average contents of the heavy metals Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in the surficial sediment were 20.48, 77.82, 23.24, 40.67, 36.25, 134.75 and 111.21 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The heavy metal contents in the Spartina alterniflora salt-marsh were apparently higher than those in the bare flat. Further, the heavy metal concentrations found in the present study were generally higher than the background values of the coastal regions of Fujian Province, but lower than those associated with the Pearl River estuary. According to principal component and correlation analyses, industrial wastewater, mineral exploration and degradation of organic matter were the main sources of heavy metals in the area investigated. The results of potential ecological risk evaluation indicated that the intertidal zone as a whole can be ranked as "moderate potential ecological risk". Ni and Co were the major pollutants among the metals in consideration; the pollution related to Pb was less significant. The level of potential ecological risk of the Spartina alterniflora slat-marsh was higher than that of the bare flat. The sequence of potential ecological risk for the heavy metals was Ni > Co > Cu > Pb > Cr > V > Zn.

  14. The Significance of Diagenesis versus Riverine Input in Contributing to the Sediment Geochemical Matrix of Iron and Manganese in an Intertidal Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C. A.; Bendell-Young, L. I.

    1999-06-01

    Summer porewater and spring and summer surficial sediment samples were collected from 26 locations in the intertidal region of the Fraser River estuary. Porewaters were analysed for dissolved iron and manganese (as defined by species <0·2μm in diameter) to assess the contribution of diagenesis to concentrations of iron and manganese oxides at the sediment-water interface. Surficial sediment samples were geochemically characterized as: % organic matter (% LOI); reducible iron (RED Fe, iron oxides) and easily reducible manganese (ER Mn, manganese oxides). Grain size at each site was also determined. The sediment geochemical matrix, as defined by the above four parameters, was highly heterogeneous throughout the intertidal region (three-way ANOVA; P<0·0001). For RED Fe and ER Mn, this heterogeneity could be explained by either diagenetic processes (RED Fe) or by a combination of the proximity of the sample sites to the mouth of the Fraser River estuary plus diagenetic processes (ER Mn). Correlation (Spearman Rank Correlation Test (r s), of dissolved iron within the subsurface sediments with amounts of RED Fe recovered from the associated surface sediments was highly significant (r s=0·80, P<0·0001); high concentrations of RED Fe at the sediment-water interface co-occurred with high concentrations of dissolved iron, regardless of the proximity of the sample locations to riverine input. Compared with iron, the relationship between dissolved manganese and ER Mn from surface sediments was lower (r s=0·58; P<0·0008). Locations most strongly influenced by the Fraser River contained greater concentrations of ER Mn at the sediment-water interface than that which would be expected based on the contribution from diagenesis alone. Sediment grain size and organic matter were also influenced by the proximity to riverine input. Surficial sediment of sites close to the river mouth were comprised primarily of percent silt (2·0μm-50μm) whereas sites not influenced by

  15. Distribution patterns of metals contamination in sediments based on type regional development on the intertidal coastal zones of the Persian Gulf, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Ali; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Kheirabadi, Nabiallah; Barani, Hashm; Haidari, Behnam

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the variation of metals concentrations (Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu) in surface sediments based on type region development from ten sites on the intertidal coastal zone of the Persian Gulf, Iran. The metals concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.86 to 180.78 μg g(-1) for Pb, 0.61 to 6.48 μg g(-1) for Cd, 5.99 to 44.42 μg g(-1) for Zn, and 3.01 to 43.33 μg g(-1) for Cu. The quality of the sediments was evaluated based on sediment quality guidelines (effects range-low (ERL) and effects range-medium (ERM) indexes. Biological effects criteria suggest that metals concentrations in sediments were lower than ERM for all sites, but for some sites metals concentrations in sediments were higher than ERL. The present results support the concept that human activities in each region could be a major source of metals pollution input in the aquatic environment.

  16. Processing of particulate organic carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill effluent in intertidal sediments: a 13C pulse-chase experiment.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Joanne M; Ross, Donald J; Eyre, Bradley D

    2013-01-01

    To determine the benthic transformation pathways and fate of carbon associated with secondary-treated pulp and paper mill (PPM) effluent, (13)C-labeled activated sludge biomass (ASB) and phytoplankton (PHY) were added, separately, to estuarine intertidal sediments. Over 28 days, (13)C was traced into sediment organic carbon, fauna, seagrass, bacteria, and microphytobenthos and into fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from inundated sediments, and carbon dioxide (CO2(g)) from exposed sediments. There was greater removal of PHY carbon from sediments (~85% over 28 days) compared to ASB (~75%). Although there was similar (13)C loss from PHY and ASB plots via DIC (58% and 56%, respectively) and CO2(g) fluxes (<1%), DOC fluxes were more important for PHY (41%) than ASB (12%). Faster downward transport and loss suggest that fauna prefer PHY, due to its lability and/or toxins associated with ASB; this may account for different carbon pathways. Secondary-treated PPM effluent has lower oxygen demand than primary-treated effluent, but ASB accumulation may contribute to sediment anoxia, and respiration of ASB and PHY-derived DOC may make the water column more heterotrophic. This highlights the need to optimize secondary-treatment processes to control the quality and quantity of organic carbon associated with PPM effluent.

  17. Ascribing soil erosion of hillslope components to river sediment yield.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Kazem

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, soil erosion has increased in catchments of Iran. It is, therefore, necessary to understand soil erosion processes and sources in order to mitigate this problem. Geomorphic landforms play an important role in influencing water erosion. Therefore, ascribing hillslope components soil erosion to river sediment yield could be useful for soil and sediment management in order to decrease the off-site effects related to downstream sedimentation areas. The main objectives of this study were to apply radionuclide tracers and soil organic carbon to determine relative contributions of hillslope component sediment sources in two land use types (forest and crop field) by using a Bayesian-mixing model, as well as to estimate the uncertainty in sediment fingerprinting in a mountainous catchment of western Iran. In this analysis, (137)Cs, (40)K, (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and soil organic carbon tracers were measured in 32 different sampling sites from four hillslope component sediment sources (summit, shoulder, backslope, and toeslope) in forested and crop fields along with six bed sediment samples at the downstream reach of the catchment. To quantify the sediment source proportions, the Bayesian mixing model was based on (1) primary sediment sources and (2) combined primary and secondary sediment sources. The results of both approaches indicated that erosion from crop field shoulder dominated the sources of river sediments. The estimated contribution of crop field shoulder for all river samples was 63.7% (32.4-79.8%) for primary sediment sources approach, and 67% (15.3%-81.7%) for the combined primary and secondary sources approach. The Bayesian mixing model, based on an optimum set of tracers, estimated that the highest contribution of soil erosion in crop field land use and shoulder-component landforms constituted the most important land-use factor. This technique could, therefore, be a useful tool for soil and sediment control management strategies. Copyright

  18. Sediment from Agricultural Constructed Wetland Immobilizes Soil Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Johanna; Uusitalo, Risto; Leppänen, Janette; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural soils impair the quality of receiving surface waters by enhancing eutrophication. This study tested the potential of using sediment from agricultural constructed wetlands (CWs) to immobilize soil P using two soils differing in texture and soil test P (STP). A silty clay soil (SIC) with high STP (24 mg ammonium acetate-extractable P [P] L) and a sandy loam soil (SL) with excessive STP (210 mg P L) were incubated with increasing amounts of clayey CW sediment. The soil-sediment mixtures were studied with the quantity/intensity (Q/I) technique, using chemical extractions, and by exposing the mixtures to simulated rainfall. In both Q/I and simulated rainfall tests, P solubility steadily decreased with increasing sediment proportion in the mixtures. However, in chemical extractions this effect was observed only at high sediment addition rates (10 or 50% [v/v] sediment). At a practically feasible sediment addition rate of 5%, dissolved reactive P (DRP) in percolating water from simulated rainfall decreased by 55% in SIC and by 54% in SL ( < 0.001 in both cases). Particulate P (PP) also showed a decreasing trend with increasing sediment addition rate. Upon prolonged simulated rainfall, the decreasing effect of sediment on DRP and PP declined somewhat. The effects of sediment addition can be attributed partly to increased salt concentrations in the sediment, which have a short-term effect on P mobilization, but mostly to increased concentrations of Al and Fe (hydr)oxides, increasing long-term P sorption capacity. Adding CW sediment at a rate of up to 5% of surface soil volume to soils could provide an alternative to chemical treatment (e.g., with metal salts) for immobilizing P in small, high-risk P leaching areas, such as around drinking troughs in pastures.

  19. Assessing the impacts of bait collection on inter-tidal sediment and the associated macrofaunal and bird communities: The importance of appropriate spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Watson, G J; Murray, J M; Schaefer, M; Bonner, A; Gillingham, M

    2017-09-01

    Bait collection is a multibillion dollar worldwide activity that is often managed ineffectively. For managers to understand the impacts on protected inter-tidal mudflats and waders at appropriate spatial scales macrofaunal surveys combined with video recordings of birds and bait collectors were undertaken at two UK sites. Dug sediment constituted approximately 8% of the surveyed area at both sites and is less muddy (lower organic content) than undug sediment. This may have significant implications for turbidity. Differences in the macrofaunal community between dug and undug areas if the same shore height is compared as well as changes in the dispersion of the community occurred at one site. Collection also induces a 'temporary loss of habitat' for some birds as bait collector numbers negatively correlate with wader and gull abundance. Bait collection changes the coherence and ecological structure of inter-tidal mudflats as well as directly affecting wading birds. However, as β diversity increased we suggest that management at appropriate hectare/site scales could maximise biodiversity/function whilst still supporting collection. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL/SEDIMENT WASHING SYSTEM BERGMANN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System is a waste minimization technique designed to separate or "partition" soils and sediments by grain size and density. In this water-based volume reduction process, hazardous contaminants are concentrated into a small residual portion...

  1. BERGMANN USA SOIL SEDIMENT WASHING TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides an evaluation of the performance of the Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System and its applicability for the treatment of soils or sediments contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspects of the technology w...

  2. BERGMANN USA SOIL SEDIMENT WASHING TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides an evaluation of the performance of the Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System and its applicability for the treatment of soils or sediments contaminated with organic and/or inorganic compounds. Both the technical and economic aspects of the technology w...

  3. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL/SEDIMENT WASHING SYSTEM BERGMANN USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bergmann USA Soil/Sediment Washing System is a waste minimization technique designed to separate or "partition" soils and sediments by grain size and density. In this water-based volume reduction process, hazardous contaminants are concentrated into a small residual portion...

  4. Impacts of burial by sediment on decomposition and heavy metal concentrations of Suaeda salsa in intertidal zone of the Yellow River estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhigao; Mou, Xiaojie; Zhang, Dangyu; Sun, Wanlong; Hu, Xingyun; Tian, Liping

    2017-03-15

    Three one-off burial treatments were designed in intertidal zone of the Yellow River estuary to determine the effects of sediment burial on decomposition and heavy metal levels of Suaeda salsa. Sediment burial showed significant effect on decomposition rate of S. salsa. With increasing burial depth, Cu, Zn, Cd and Co levels generally increased, while Cr and Mn levels decreased. Except for Zn, Mn, Cd and Co, stocks of Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni and V in S. salsa among burials were greatly different. The S. salsa in three burials was particular efficient in binding V and Co and releasing Pb, Zn and Cd, and, with increasing burial depth, stocks of Cr, Cu, Ni and Mn shifted from accumulation to release. In future, the eco-toxic risk of Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn and Cd exposure might be serious as the strong burial episodes occurred in S. salsa marsh.

  5. Human viruses in sediments, sludges, and soils*

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. Chalapati; Metcalf, Theodore G.; Melnick, Joseph L.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies have provided a greater understanding of the movement of viruses in the environment by their attachment to solids. These studies have focused on solids-associated viruses present in wastewater discharged into the ocean and on viruses in sludge and wastewater that may be retained in soil following their land disposal. Such ocean or land disposal of wastewater and sludge may result in a discharge of one or more of 120 human enteric virus pathogens including those causing poliomyelitis, viral hepatitis A and acute gastroenteritis. Solids-associated viruses in effluents discharged into coastal waters accumulate in bottom sediments, which may contain 10 to 10 000 more virus per unit volume than the overlying seawater. Solids-associated viruses resuspended by water turbulence may be transported from polluted to distant non-polluted recreational or shellfish-growing water. Transmission of viruses causing hepatitis or gastroenteritis may result from contact by bathers or swimmers with these viruses in recreational waters, or from ingestion of raw or improperly cooked shellfish in which the solids-associated virus had been bioaccumulated. The land disposal of sludge and wastewater has a potential of causing infections in farm workers, contamination of crops, pollution of raw potable water sources or infiltration of ground water. Viruses retained on soils can be released by rain water and may contaminate ground water through lateral and vertical movements. PMID:3015442

  6. Monitoring spatiotemporal trends in intertidal bedforms of the German Wadden Sea in 2009-2015 with TerraSAR-X, including links with sediments and benthic macrofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, Winny; Schückel, Ulrike; Son, Chang Soo; Jung, Richard; Bartholomä, Alexander; Ehlers, Manfred; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lehner, Susanne; Farke, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) holds a high potential for remote sensing in intertidal areas. Geomorphic structures of the sediment surface generating patterns of water cover contrasting with exposed sediment surfaces can clearly be detected. This study explores intertidal bedforms on the upper flats bordering the island of Norderney in the German Wadden Sea using TerraSAR-X imagery from 2009 to 2015. Such bedforms are common in the Wadden Sea, forming crests alternating with water-covered troughs oriented in a north-easterly direction. In the western Norderney area, the crest-to-crest distance ranges from 50-130 m, and bedform length can reach 500 m. Maximum height differences between crests and troughs are 20 cm. A simple method is developed to extract the water-covered troughs from TerraSAR-X images for spatiotemporal analysis of bedform positions in a GIS. It is earmarked by unsupervised ISODATA classification of textural parameters, contrasting with various algorithm-based methods pursued in earlier studies of waterline detection. The high-frequency TerraSAR-X data reveal novel evidence of a bedform shift in an easterly direction during the study period. Height profiles measured with RTK-DGPS along defined transects support the findings from TerraSAR-X data. First investigations to characterise sediments and macrofauna show that benthic macrofauna community structure differs significantly between crests and troughs, comprising mainly fine sands. Evidently, bedform formation has implications for benthic faunal diversity in back-barrier settings of the Wadden Sea. SAR remote sensing provides pivotal data on bedform dynamics.

  7. Monitoring spatiotemporal trends in intertidal bedforms of the German Wadden Sea in 2009-2015 with TerraSAR-X, including links with sediments and benthic macrofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, Winny; Schückel, Ulrike; Son, Chang Soo; Jung, Richard; Bartholomä, Alexander; Ehlers, Manfred; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lehner, Susanne; Farke, Hubert

    2016-10-01

    Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) holds a high potential for remote sensing in intertidal areas. Geomorphic structures of the sediment surface generating patterns of water cover contrasting with exposed sediment surfaces can clearly be detected. This study explores intertidal bedforms on the upper flats bordering the island of Norderney in the German Wadden Sea using TerraSAR-X imagery from 2009 to 2015. Such bedforms are common in the Wadden Sea, forming crests alternating with water-covered troughs oriented in a north-easterly direction. In the western Norderney area, the crest-to-crest distance ranges from 50-130 m, and bedform length can reach 500 m. Maximum height differences between crests and troughs are 20 cm. A simple method is developed to extract the water-covered troughs from TerraSAR-X images for spatiotemporal analysis of bedform positions in a GIS. It is earmarked by unsupervised ISODATA classification of textural parameters, contrasting with various algorithm-based methods pursued in earlier studies of waterline detection. The high-frequency TerraSAR-X data reveal novel evidence of a bedform shift in an easterly direction during the study period. Height profiles measured with RTK-DGPS along defined transects support the findings from TerraSAR-X data. First investigations to characterise sediments and macrofauna show that benthic macrofauna community structure differs significantly between crests and troughs, comprising mainly fine sands. Evidently, bedform formation has implications for benthic faunal diversity in back-barrier settings of the Wadden Sea. SAR remote sensing provides pivotal data on bedform dynamics.

  8. The abundance of functional genes, cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA, and bacterial community structure of intertidal soil from Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Keshri, Jitendra; Yousuf, Basit; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-06-01

    The Gulf of Cambay is a trumpet-shaped inlet of the Arabian Sea, located along the west coast of India and confronts a high tidal range with strong water currents. The region belongs to a semi-arid zone and saline alkaline intertidal soils are considered biologically extreme. The selected four soil types (S1-S4) were affected by salinity, alkalinity and sodicity. Soil salinity ranged from 20 to 126 dS/m, soil pH 8.6-10.0 with high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Abundance of the key functional genes like cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA involved in biogeochemical cycling were targeted using qPCR, which varied from (2.36 ± 0.03) × 10(4) to (2.87 ± 0.26) × 10(8), (1.18 ± 0.28) × 10(6) to (1.01 ± 0.26) × 10(9), (1.41 ± 0.21) × 10(6) to (1.29 ± 0.05) × 10(8) and (8.47 ± 0.23) × 10(4) to (1.73 ± 0.01) × 10(6) per gram dry weight, respectively. The microbial community structure revealed that soils S1 and S3 were dominated by phylum Firmicutes whereas S4 and S2 showed an abundance of Proteobacterial clones. These soils also represented Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria clones. Molecular phylogeny showed a significant variation in the bacterial community distribution among the intertidal soil types. A high number of novel taxonomic units were observed which makes the intertidal zone a unique reservoir of unidentified bacterial taxa that may be explored further.

  9. Global Soil and Sediment transfer during the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Thomas; Vanacker, Veerle; Stinchcombe, Gary; Penny, Dan; Xixi, Lu

    2016-04-01

    The vulnerability of soils to human-induced erosion and its downstream effects on fluvial and deltaic ecosystems is highly variable in space and time; dependent on climate, geology, the nature and duration of land use, and topography. Despite our knowledge of the mechanistic relationships between erosion, sediment storage, land-use and climate change, the global patterns of soil erosion, fluvial sediment flux and storage throughout the Holocene remain poorly understood. The newly launched PAGES working group GloSS aims to determine the sensitivity of soil resources and sediment routing systems to varying land use types during the period of agriculture, under contrasting climate regimes and socio-ecological settings. Successfully addressing these questions in relation to the sustainable use of soils, sediments and river systems requires an understanding of past human-landscape interactions. GloSS, therefore, aims to: Develop proxies for, or indices of, human impact on rates of soil erosion and fluvial sediment transfer that are applicable on a global scale and throughout the Holocene; Create a global database of long-term (102-104 years) human-accelerated soil erosion and sediment flux records; Identify hot spots of soil erosion and sediment deposition during the Anthropocene, and Locate data-poor regions where particular socio-ecological systems are not well understood, as strategic foci for future work. This paper will present the latest progress of the PAGES GloSS working group.

  10. A Doubling of Microphytobenthos Biomass Coincides with a Tenfold Increase in Denitrifier and Total Bacterial Abundances in Intertidal Sediments of a Temperate Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Sabbe, Koen; Tytgat, Bjorn; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB) biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen). Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold) increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-). This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community. PMID:25961719

  11. Diversity of bacterial community and detection of nirS- and nirK-encoding denitrifying bacteria in sandy intertidal sediments along Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Zheng, Binghui; Nan, Bingxu; Hu, Peilong

    2014-11-15

    The microbial community and the nirS- and nirK-encoding denitrifiers in the intertidal sediments along Laizhou Bay in China were studied using pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), respectively. There were three primary intertidal zones: Laizhou (La), Weifang Harbor (We), and Dongying (Do). Significant differences in composition and abundances at the different taxonomic levels were observed among the three bacterial communities. The qPCR results indicated that the nirS gene abundance varied from 8.67 × 10(5) to 5.68 × 10(6)copies/gwet weight (ww), whereas the nirK gene abundance varied from 1.26 × 10(5) to 1.89 × 10(6)copies/gww. The canonical correlation analysis (CCA) indicated that the sand percentage was the most important factor in shaping the bacterial community followed by silt percentage, NO2(-), TOC, DO, pH, and clay percentage, whereas the clay percentage, pH, NO3(-), DO, NO2(-), TOC, silt percentage, and sand percentage were the most important factors associated with regulating the abundance of nirS- and nirK-encoding denitrifiers.

  12. Correlating mass physical properties with ALOS reflectance spectra for intertidal sediments from the Ba Lat Estuary (northern Vietnam): an exploratory laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi; Koike, Katsuaki; Tue, Nguyen Tai

    2013-08-01

    Characterization of the sediment composition of tidal flats and monitoring of their spatiotemporal changes has become an important part of the sustainable management of coastal environments. To accurately classify sediments through remote sensing, a comprehensive understanding of sediment reflectance spectra is indispensable. The present laboratory-based study explores the performance of the high spatial resolution (10 × 10 m) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) launched in 2006. Relationships between reflectance spectra (bands 1 to 4) and four typical mass physical properties were investigated under wet and dry experimental conditions for intertidal sediments sampled near the Ba Lat Estuary in northern Vietnam. Reflectance in the near-infrared region corresponding to ALOS band 4 (0.76-0.89 μm) was found (1) to have a strong negative correlation with sand content (dry wt%) under both wet and dry conditions (linear correlation coefficient r = -0.7859 and -0.8094, respectively), (2) to increase with decreasing relative water content (%) in a given sediment type (r = -0.7748 to -0.9367 for mud, sandy mud, muddy sand, and sand), (3) to have a positive correlation with organic matter content (r = 0.7610 and 0.6460 under wet and dry conditions for contents >0.20 dry wt%), and (4) to be insignificantly correlated with mineral composition assessed in terms of contents (wt%) of quartz, clay minerals, and mica group minerals. Positive relationships between reflectance and water content for the pooled data of all sediment types (r = 0.6395) or organic matter content contrast with previous findings, and can be attributed to close interrelationships between these properties and the predominance of sand content as controlling factor of reflectance. This study clarifies that ALOS band 4 provides the most useful imagery for intertidal monitoring because its reflectance, as simulated using the laboratory data, shows the strongest correlation with sand content. In a next step

  13. Effects of sandy vs muddy sediments on the vertical distribution of microphytobenthos in intertidal flats of the Fraser River Estuary, Canada.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kedong; Zetsche, Eva-Maria; Harrison, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    Benthic algae or microphytobenthos (MPB) in intertidal flats play an important role in the sediment and overlying water ecosystems. We hypothesize that there are effects of sediment texture on the vertical distribution of MPB using chlorophyll a (chl a) as a proxy for MPB biomass and present results over a 2.5-year period. Four sites were sampled monthly: two sandy sites (A10 and A12) and two muddy sites (A0 and A14) on the intertidal flats of the Fraser River Estuary. At the two sandy sites, pigments were distributed down to 10 cm. High ratios of depth-integrated chl a to phaeopigments suggest that the chl a had been recently buried. In contrast, at the muddy sites, pigments were limited to the top 4 cm, with MBP in the top 1 cm contributing up to 60 % of the whole sediment core pigments. As a result, the depth-integrated chl a values were on average 2,044 mg m(-2) (160-4,200) at A10 and 882 mg m(-2) (183-2,569) at A12, the two sandy sites, and much higher than at the two muddy sites where averages of 84 mg m(-2) (41-174) and 235 mg m(-2) (77-854) were measured at A0 and A14, respectively. Despite these lower concentrations at the muddy sites than at the sandy sites, particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) concentrations showed a homogenous vertical distribution at the two sandy sites. Such a homogeneous vertical distribution of chl a, POC, and PON suggests that vertical transport mechanisms were actively transporting organic material into and out of the sediment. These results suggest that MBP on sandy sediments play a very active role in providing food for herbivores and are interacting with the overlying water column in the sediment-water exchange processes during tidal cycles.

  14. Searching for the Meteoritic Contribution to Martian Soils and Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. C.

    2015-07-01

    Martian soils and surface sediments will contain contributions from meteoritic (and IDP) input, with multiple important consequences. Determination of this input must interpret in situ measurements which focus on trace elements and evolved gases.

  15. Effects of sediment discharge from Namibian diamond mines on intertidal and subtidal rocky-reef communities and the rock lobster Jasus lalandii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulfrich, Andrea; Branch, George M.

    2014-10-01

    Extensive terrestrial diamond mining occurs on the southern coast of Namibia, and at Elizabeth Bay near Lüderitz sediment tailings totalling about 2 million tons.yr-1, have been discharged onto the beach. We report here on monitoring spanning 2004-2012 to assess (1) the impacts of increased tailings discharges following an expansion of the mine in 2005, and (2) recovery after discharges halted in 2009. Sampling covered three levels of wave exposure, and compared impacted sites with comparable unmined reference sites. Benthic communities were quantified on both intertidal and subtidal reefs, and kelp densities and rock-lobster abundances, lengths and sex ratios on subtidal reefs. Prior to intensification of mining, deposition of tailings significantly influenced intertidal communities only at sheltered localities where wave action was insufficient to disperse them. Following the mine expansion, effects spread to both semi-exposed and exposed sites. After mining was suspended, recovery of the biota was limited, even three years later. Reductions of intertidal diversity and grazers, proliferation of macroalgae, and increased dominance by filter feeders were recorded at the impacted sites and were persistent, but the affects of wave exposure on community composition generally exceeded those of mining discharges. On subtidal reefs, tailings deposition reduced predators and grazers, increased filter feeders and ephemeral green algae, and decreased all other algae, possibly driven by light reduction due to plumes of suspended fine sediments. Increased discharges post-2005 also substantially influenced bathymetry, wave and current regimes, transforming 2 km of previously wave-exposed rocky coastline into a semi-exposed sandy beach. Tailings discharge appeared to influence community composition in four ways: (1) inundation and blanketing; (2) increased suspended particulate materials; (3) indirect top-down ripple effects, and (4) light reduction. Throughout the period 2004

  16. Climate Change and Intertidal Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pauline M.; Adam, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause—the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the “squeeze” experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change. PMID:24832670

  17. Climate change and intertidal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pauline M; Adam, Paul

    2013-03-19

    Intertidal wetlands are recognised for the provision of a range of valued ecosystem services. The two major categories of intertidal wetlands discussed in this contribution are saltmarshes and mangrove forests. Intertidal wetlands are under threat from a range of anthropogenic causes, some site-specific, others acting globally. Globally acting factors include climate change and its driving cause-the increasing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. One direct consequence of climate change will be global sea level rise due to thermal expansion of the oceans, and, in the longer term, the melting of ice caps and glaciers. The relative sea level rise experienced at any one locality will be affected by a range of factors, as will the response of intertidal wetlands to the change in sea level. If relative sea level is rising and sedimentation within intertidal wetlands does not keep pace, then there will be loss of intertidal wetlands from the seaward edge, with survival of the ecosystems only possible if they can retreat inland. When retreat is not possible, the wetland area will decline in response to the "squeeze" experienced. Any changes to intertidal wetland vegetation, as a consequence of climate change, will have flow on effects to biota, while changes to biota will affect intertidal vegetation. Wetland biota may respond to climate change by shifting in distribution and abundance landward, evolving or becoming extinct. In addition, impacts from ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the fertilisation, larval development, growth and survival of intertidal wetland biota including macroinvertebrates, such as molluscs and crabs, and vertebrates such as fish and potentially birds. The capacity of organisms to move and adapt will depend on their life history characteristics, phenotypic plasticity, genetic variability, inheritability of adaptive characteristics, and the predicted rates of environmental change.

  18. Monitoring toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in intertidal sediments for five years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Sung, Chan-Gyoung; Moon, Seong-Dae; Kang, Sin-Kil; Lee, Ji-Hye; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Ha, Sung Yong

    2013-11-15

    Ecotoxicological monitoring of intertidal sediments was performed for 5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill in Taean, Korea. Sediment toxicity was observed on most of the beaches 4 months after the spill and later decreased rapidly to nontoxic levels 8 months after the spill. The concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (TPAHs) in the sediments ranged from 2 to 530,000 ng/g during the monitoring. More than half of the samples exhibited significant toxicity 5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. Using a logistic regression model, the median lethal concentration of TPAHs to amphipod Monocorophium uenoi was estimated to be 36,000 ng/g. From the 63 chemistry and toxicity data, the effect range-low, effect range median, threshold effect level, and probable effect level were derived to be 3190, 54,100, 2480, and 29,000 ng/g, respectively. The relative compositions of the PAH groups indicated that the weathering process is still ongoing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Partition characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on soils and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Mcgroddy, S.E.; Kile, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The partition behavior was determined for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, from water to a range of soil and sediment samples. The measured partition coefficients of the individual PAHs between soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) and water (i.e., K(oc) values) are relatively invariant either for the 'clean' (uncontaminated) soils or for the clean sediments; however, the mean K(oc) values on the sediments are about twice the values on the soils. This disparity is similar to the earlier observation for other nonpolar solutes and reflects the compositional differences between soil and sediment organic matters. No significant differences in K(oc) are observed between a clean coastal marine sediment and freshwater sediments. The coastal sediments that are significantly impacted by organic contaminants exhibit higher K(oc) values. At given K(ow) values (octanol-water), the PAHs exhibit much higher K(oc) values than other relatively nonpolar solutes (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons). This effect is shown to result from the enhanced partition of PAHs to SOM rather than from lower K(ow) values of PAHs at given supercooled liquid solute solubilities in water. The enhanced partition of PAHs over other nonpolar solutes in SOM provides an account of the markedly different correlations between log K(oc) and log K(ow) for PAHs and for other nonpolar solutes. The improved partition of PAHs in SOM stems apparently from the enhanced compatibility of their cohesive energy densities with those of the aromatic components in SOM. The approximate aromatic fraction in soil/sediment organic matter has been assessed by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy.The partition behavior was determined for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, from water to a range of soil and sediment samples. The measured partition coefficients of the individual PAHs between soil/sediment organic matter (SOM

  20. Intertidal landscape response time to dike breaching and stepwise re-embankment: A combined historical and geomorphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongepier, Iason; Wang, Chen; Missiaen, Tine; Soens, Tim; Temmerman, Stijn

    2015-05-01

    Intertidal flats and marshes provide important ecosystem services to coastal and estuarine societies, and have therefore been subject to extensive research. Most of these studies, however, have one thing in common: intertidal landscape response has been studied from a rather short-term perspective, mostly less than 100 years. Furthermore, the impact of embankment practices on the development of the remaining intertidal area and its stability has hardly been studied at all. In this paper, a longer term perspective (sixteenth to twenty-first centuries) is used in order to (1) reconstruct intertidal landscape evolution, using both historical and soil maps and (2) assess the effect of stepwise embankment on the intertidal area, both in terms of the surface proportions of the different components of an intertidal area and the vertical and lateral sediment elevation and sedimentation rates. The reconstruction and embankment effect assessment will be applied to the Land of Saeftinghe, an intertidal area in the Western Scheldt estuary that was partially re-embanked in a stepwise manner into an embankment landscape called the Waasland polder area (Belgium/The Netherlands). Important outcomes of this study are: (1) a combination of historical-geographical methods proves to be a valuable tool for past intertidal landscape reconstruction; (2) dike breaching and partial (stepwise) re-embankment are important driving mechanisms for the evolution of the remaining intertidal landscape towards new equilibrium conditions, though the new landscape equilibria can only be reached with a certain time lag; (3) subsequent embankments with a short time interval (15 to 21 years) prevent tidal marsh surface areas from reaching an equilibrium state; and (4) between 60 and 96 years are needed for tidal marsh elevation to reach an equilibrium.

  1. Arsenic chemistry in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Fendorf, S.; Nico, P.; Kocar, B.D.; Masue, Y.; Tufano, K.J.

    2009-10-15

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring trace element that poses a threat to human and ecosystem health, particularly when incorporated into food or water supplies. The greatest risk imposed by arsenic to human health results from contamination of drinking water, for which the World Health Organization recommends a maximum limit of 10 {micro}g L{sup -1}. Continued ingestion of drinking water having hazardous levels of arsenic can lead to arsenicosis and cancers of the bladder, skin, lungs and kidneys. Unfortunately, arsenic tainted drinking waters are a global threat and presently having a devastating impact on human health within Asia. Nearly 100 million people, for example, are presently consuming drinking water having arsenic concentrations exceeding the World Health Organization's recommended limit (Ahmed et al., 2006). Arsenic contamination of the environment often results from human activities such as mining or pesticide application, but recently natural sources of arsenic have demonstrated a devastating impact on water quality. Arsenic becomes problematic from a health perspective principally when it partitions into the aqueous rather than the solid phase. Dissolved concentrations, and the resulting mobility, of arsenic within soils and sediments are the combined result of biogeochemical processes linked to hydrologic factors. Processes favoring the partitioning of As into the aqueous phase, potentially leading to hazardous concentrations, vary extensively but can broadly be grouped into four categories: (1) ion displacement, (2) desorption (or limited sorption) at pH values > 8.5, (3) reduction of arsenate to arsenite, and (4) mineral dissolution, particularly reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn (hydr)oxides. Although various processes may liberate arsenic from solids, a transition from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, and commensurate arsenic and iron/manganese reduction, appears to be a dominant, but not exclusive, means by which high concentrations of dissolved

  2. Retention and Migration of Chlorpyrifos in Aquatic Sediments and Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremariam, S. Y.; Beutel, M.; Yonge, D.; Flury, M.; Harsh, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    The accurate description of the fate and transport of potentially toxic agricultural pesticides in sediments and soils is of great interest to environmental scientists and regulators. Of particular concern is the widely documented detection of agricultural pesticides and their byproducts in drinking water wells. This presentation discusses results of a study of the fate and transport of chlorpyrifos, a strongly hydrophobic organophosphate-pesticide, in sediments and soils collected from a range of aquatic environments. Using radio-labeled chlorpyrifos, this study is unique in its comprehensive nature and focus on aquatic sediments, for which studies involving pesticide fate and transport are limited. Study components include: (1) batch equilibrium experiments to evaluate sorption/desorption parameters; (2) kinetic and non-equilibrium sorption experiments using miniaturized flow-cells; (3) column experiments to understand patterns of pesticide break through; and (4) numerical modeling of chlorpyrifos transport through aquatic sediments and soils. Initial results show that chlorpyrifos sorption, when corrected for reversible sorption to container walls, exhibited two component sorption, a large irreversible fraction and a smaller reversible fraction that can act as a secondary source. In addition, of a wide range of soil parameters measured, organic carbon content exhibited the highest correlation with chlorpyrifos retention in cranberry field soils. Simulation models developed in this study, which account for hysteretic and nonlinear sorption, will help to better predict the fate of chlorpyrifos and other hydrophobic chemicals in sediments and soils.

  3. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Piersma, Theunis; Zhang, Zhengwang; Ding, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    The Yellow Sea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate from Australasia to the Arctic each spring. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effects of overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study, the abundance of molluscs in the intertidal mudflats of northern Bohai Bay on the Chinese Yellow Sea was investigated in 2008-2014 from the perspective of their importance as food for northward migrating shorebirds, especially Red Knots Calidris canutus. Numerically contributing 96% to the numbers of 17 species found in spring 2008, the bivalve Potamocorbula laevis (the staple food of Red Knots and other shorebirds) dominated the intertidal mollusc community. In the spring of 2008-2014, the densities of P. laevis were surprisingly high, varying between 3900 and 41,000 individuals/m2 at distinctly small sizes (average shell lengths of 1.1 to 4.8 mm), and thus reaching some of the highest densities of marine bivalves recorded worldwide and providing good food for shorebirds. The distribution of P. laevis was associated with relatively soft sediments in close proximity to the recently built seawalls. A monthly sampling programme showed steep seasonal changes in abundance and size. P. laevis were nearly absent in winter, each year settling on the intertidal mudflats anew. Peak densities were reached in spring, when 0-age P. laevis were 1-3 mm long. The findings point to a highly unusual demographic structure of the species, suggesting that some interfering factors are at play. We hypothesise that the current dominance of young P. laevis in Bohai Bay reflects the combined pressures of a nearly complete active removal of adult populations from mid-summer to autumn for shrimp farming (this clearing of adults may offer space for recruitment during the next spring) and low numbers of epibenthic predators of bivalves, such as shrimps and crabs, due to persistent overfishing in

  4. Processes Controlling Transfer of Fine-Grained Sediment within and Between Channels and Flats on Intertidal Flats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    asymmetry, winds, river discharge and biological activity) affect the sediment-transport dynamics that act to import fine- grained sediment. The...resulting product is the formation of mud-flat environments with complex morphology (e.g., multiple scales of tidal channels, differing geotechnical and...from rivers , erosion/deposition at the seabed, and transport of sediment in and out of each sub-environment (e.g., primary/secondary channels, flats

  5. Are intertidal soft sediment assemblages affected by repeated oil spill events? A field-based experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo; Martins, César C; Lana, Paulo C

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the impact of repeated diesel spills on the structure of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages of a subtropical estuary. Three frequencies of exposure events were compared against two dosages of oil in a factorial experiment with asymmetrical controls. Hypotheses were tested to distinguish between (i) the overall effect of oil spills, (ii) the effect of diesel dosage via different exposure regimes, and (iii) the effect of time since last spill. Repeated oil spills dramatically altered the overall structure of assemblages and reduced the total density of macrofauna and densities of dominant taxa. Increasing the frequency of oil spills negatively affected macrofauna. In general, frequent low-dosage oil spills were more deleterious than infrequent high-dosage ones. However, increases in densities of some taxa, mainly the gastropod Heleobia australis, were observed in response to infrequent spills. Our results highlight the importance of repeated exposure events in determining the extent of oil impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Towards Soil and Sediment Inventories of Black Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    A body of literature on black carbon (BC) concentrations in soils and sediments is rapidly accumulating, but as of yet, there are no global or regional inventories of BC in either reservoir. Soil and sediment BC inventories are badly needed for a range of fields. For example, in oceanography a global sediment BC inventory is crucial in understanding the role of biomass burning in the development of stable marine carbon reservoirs, including dissolved organic carbon and sedimentary organic carbon. Again in the marine environment, BC likely strongly impacts the fate and transport of anthropogenic pollutants: regional inventories of BC in sediments will help develop better environmental remediation strategies. In terrestrial systems well-constrained natural BC soil inventories would help refine ecological, agricultural, and soil biogeochemical studies. BC is highly sorptive of nutrients including nitrogen and phosphorous. The presence of BC in ecosystems almost certainly alters N and P cycling; however, without soil BC inventories, we cannot know where BC has a significant impact. BC's nutrient sorptivity and water-holding capacity make it an important component of agricultural soils, and some researchers have proposed artificially increasing soil BC inventories to improve soil fertility. Natural soil BC concentrations in some regions are quite high, but without a baseline inventory, it is challenging to predict when agricultural amendment will significantly exceed natural conditions. And finally, because BC is one of the most stable fractions of organic carbon in soils, understanding its concentration and regional distribution will help us track the dynamics of soil organic matter response to changing environmental conditions. Developing effective regional and global BC inventories is challenging both because of data sparsity and methodological intercomparison issues. In this presentation I will describe a roadmap to generating these valuable inventories.

  7. Soils as Sediment database: closing a gap between soil science and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Soils are an interface between the Earth's spheres and shaped by the nature of the interaction between them. The relevance of soil properties for the nature of the interaction between atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is well-studied and accepted, on point- or ecotone-scale. However, this understanding of the largely vertical connections between spheres is not matched by a similar recognition of soil properties affecting processes acting largely in a lateral way across the land surface, such as erosion, transport and deposition of soil. Key areas where such an understanding is essential are all issues related to the lateral movement of soil-bound substances that affect the nature of soils itself, as well as water or vegetation downslope from the source area. The redistribution of eroded soil falls several disciplines, most notably soil science, agronomy, hydrology and geomorphology. Accordingly, the way sediment is described differs: in soil science, aggregation and structure are essential properties, while most process-based soil erosion models treat soil as a mixture of individual mineral grains, based on concepts derived in fluvial geomorphology or civil engineering. The actual behavior of aggregated sediment is not reflected by either approach and difficult to capture due to the dynamic nature of aggregation, especially in an environment such as running water. Still, a proxy to assess the uncertainties introduced by aggregation on the behavior of soil as sediment would represent a step forward. To develop such a proxy, a database collating relevant soil and sediment properties could serve as an initial step to identify which soil types and erosion scenarios are prone to generate a high uncertainty compared to the use of soil texture in erosion models. Furthermore, it could serve to develop standardized analytical procedures for appropriate description of soil as sediment.

  8. The use of lipid markers to define sources of organic matter in sediment and food web of the intertidal salt-marsh-flat ecosystem of Mont-Saint-Michel Bay, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, Tarik; Bodineau, Laurent; Retiere, Christian; Thoumelin, Guy

    1997-12-01

    Salt marsh plants and seven surface sediment samples along a transect in the intertidal flat area of Mont-Saint-Michel Bay were analysed for fatty acids and sterols. The presence of lipid markers of halophytes (long-chain fatty acids, 18:3ω3, and phytosterols) in the surface layers of the sediment confirms the export of organic matter from the salt marsh to the intertidal flat. The spatial distribution of this organic matter over the tidal-flat area was controlled by the tidal currents and the presence of mussel beds. Lipid markers of diatoms (20:5ω3 and brassicasterol) and bacteria (18:1ω7 and odd, linear and branched, fatty acids) were also found in the surface sediments. Diatoms and benthic bacteria as well as organic matter from the salt marsh were the significant food sources available to the macrozoobenthos on the intertidal flat. The ingestion of these food types by the dominant species of the macrozoobenthos was confirmed by the presence of their respective lipid markers in the animals. The presence of these markers in animals subjected to a starvation experiment confirmed that these food types are really assimilated. The lipid composition of the starved animals indicated that the species studied were able to accumulate the fatty acid 20:5ω3 (considered to be a diatom marker), and that the annelid Nereis diversicolor supported an internal bacterial population.

  9. Tracing sediment using by enhancing the ferrimagnetic content of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinton, J.; Armstrong, A.; Maher, B. A.

    2010-12-01

    The last decades has seen the increasing development of new technologies for tracing the movement of sediment across landscapes, including rare earth element oxides, fluorescent particles and DNA tags. These new tracers allow us to tag soil particles using a chemical marker or introduce particles to the soil that mimic its behaviour. Once applied to the soil the particles can be recovered from the landscape or fluvial system and the concentration of tagged particles present quantified. Therefore there is the potential to use different tracers or different ‘species’ of the same tracer to collect data on temporal and spatial patterns of soil redistribution on hillsides and sediment delivery to fluvial systems, with a better resolving power than existing tracers, such as Cs137. Such data could help us in many ways, for example: improving our process understanding of soil erosion processes; understanding rates deposition and their links to biogeochemical cycling; providing spatial data for the validation of erosion models; and getting a better understanding of sediment residence times in catchments. However, there are problems with some of the new generation of tracer which include: different properties to the soil which is being tagged; difficulties with analytical methods; analysis costs; and poor recovery from hillslope scale experiments. In this paper we present initial findings on the use of soil with an enhanced ferrimagnetic content, but with the same physical characteristics as the parent soil, as a sediment tracer. To enhance the soil’s ferromagnetic content the soil was heated under reducing conditions. High and low field susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, alternating frequency demagnetisation (10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 mT), and isothermal remanent magnetization (10, 20, 50 100, 200, 300 and 1000 mT) of the bulk soil and the <2, 2-8, 8-16, 16-32, 32-64, 64-125, 125-250, 250-500, and 500-1000 micron size fractions were found to differ

  10. Processes Controlling Transfer of Fine-Grained Sediment Within and Between Channels and Flats on Intertidal Flats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    rivers , precipitation on exposed flat surfaces, erosion/deposition at the seabed, and transport of sediment in and out of each sub-environment (e.g...e.g., wind, precipitation, river discharge), sedimentological (sediment grain size and erodibility) and biological (vegetation and benthic biota...influence. This study area allows us to focus on asymmetries in tidal processes. In comparison, the Skagit River tidal flats (NW Washington; see

  11. Relative Importance of Biotic and Abiotic Forces on the Composition and Dynamics of a Soft-Sediment Intertidal Community.

    PubMed

    Gerwing, Travis G; Drolet, David; Hamilton, Diana J; Barbeau, Myriam A

    2016-01-01

    Top-down, bottom-up, middle-out and abiotic factors are usually viewed as main forces structuring biological communities, although assessment of their relative importance, in a single study, is rarely done. We quantified, using multivariate methods, associations between abiotic and biotic (top-down, bottom-up and middle-out) variables and infaunal population/community variation on intertidal mudflats in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, over two years. Our analysis indicated that spatial structural factors like site and plot accounted for most of the community and population variation. Although we observed a significant relationship between the community/populations and the biotic and abiotic variables, most were of minor importance relative to the structural factors. We suggest that community and population structure were relatively uncoupled from the structuring influences of biotic and abiotic factors in this system because of high concentrations of resources that sustain high densities of infauna and limit exploitative competition. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the infaunal community primarily reflects stochastic spatial events, namely a "first come, first served" process.

  12. Relative Importance of Biotic and Abiotic Forces on the Composition and Dynamics of a Soft-Sediment Intertidal Community

    PubMed Central

    Barbeau, Myriam A.

    2016-01-01

    Top-down, bottom-up, middle-out and abiotic factors are usually viewed as main forces structuring biological communities, although assessment of their relative importance, in a single study, is rarely done. We quantified, using multivariate methods, associations between abiotic and biotic (top-down, bottom-up and middle-out) variables and infaunal population/community variation on intertidal mudflats in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, over two years. Our analysis indicated that spatial structural factors like site and plot accounted for most of the community and population variation. Although we observed a significant relationship between the community/populations and the biotic and abiotic variables, most were of minor importance relative to the structural factors. We suggest that community and population structure were relatively uncoupled from the structuring influences of biotic and abiotic factors in this system because of high concentrations of resources that sustain high densities of infauna and limit exploitative competition. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the infaunal community primarily reflects stochastic spatial events, namely a “first come, first served” process. PMID:26790098

  13. Determination of the Critical Erosion Threshold of Cohesive Sediments on Intertidal Mudflats Along the Dutch Wadden Sea Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houwing, E.-J.

    1999-10-01

    The bed shear strength on an intertidal mudflat bordering salt marshes along the Dutch Wadden Sea coast was determined by means of an in situ erosion flume (ISEF). Characteristic erosion patterns (type I- and type II-erosion) were observed for most measurements. The critical erosion threshold varied between 0·11-0·18 (Pa) for all measurements and erosion rates varied between 5×10 -5and 3×10 -3(kg m -2 s -1). No clear relationship was found between distinct parameters like bed density, moisture content or biological activity and the critical erosion threshold. A more pronounced effect of the erodability of the mudflat was found when the erosion rate was taken into account. Basically two clusters were distinguished. High mean peak erosion rates of the substratum were found at locations which were characterized by a low mud content of the substratum (below 20% mud by weight). In these situations bed load transport is expected to be the most important process which determined erosion of the bed and erosion of predominantly the sand fraction was found. At higher rates of the mud content (over 20% mud by weight) mean peak erosion rates decreased substantially (an order 6 to 10 times lower) and both erosion of the mud and sand fraction was found.

  14. 26TH International Conference on Soils, Sediment, Water and Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-10

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0076 26TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOILS, SEDIMENT, WATER AND ENERGER Paul Kostecki ASSOCIATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH... ASSOCIATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH & SCIENCES FOUNDATION, INC. 150 FEARING ST STE 21 AMHERST, MA 01002-1945 US 8.  PERFORMING ORGANIZATION      REPORT...Exhibitors Presented By The Association for Environmental Health & Sciences Foundation 2010 ConferenCe program www.UmassSoils.com DISTRIBUTION A

  15. Distribution, potential sources and ecological risks of two persistent organic pollutants in the intertidal sediment at the Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiutang; Yang, Xiaolong; Zhang, Anguo; Ma, Xindong; Gao, Hui; Na, Guangshui; Zong, Humin; Liu, Guize; Sun, Yongguang

    2017-01-15

    Spatial distribution, source apportionment, and potential ecological risks of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and seven endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the intertidal sediment at the Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China were analyzed. Results showed that the total PAH concentrations ranged from 28.79ngg(-1) dw to 281.97ngg(-1) dw (mean: 115.92ngg(-1) dw) and the total EDC concentrations from 0.52ngg(-1) dw to 126.73ngg(-1) dw (mean: 37.49ngg(-1) dw). The distribution pattern for the PAHs was generally different from that of the EDCs possibly due to their distinct sources and n-octanol-/water partition coefficients (KOW). Qualitative and quantitative analytical results showed that PAH sources were mainly from a mixture of pyrogenic and petrogenic contributions. The higher levels at the southeast of Geligang indicated that the EDC pollutants may have mainly originated from the plastic industry and other chemical plants located along the Liao River. Ecological risk assessment revealed that PAHs exhibited low ecotoxicological effects, whereas EDCs, especially 4-tert-octylphenol and bisphenol A, had high ecological hazard to the estuarine biota.

  16. Environmental distribution of PAHs in pine needles, soils, and sediments.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Ratola, Nuno; Hildebrandt, Alain; Alves, Arminda; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià

    2012-03-01

    The content of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined in 60 samples from three environmental matrices (soils, sediments, and pine needles) in an effort to assess their distribution on a river basin scale. A sampling campaign was carried out in 2006, selecting urban, industrial, and agricultural sampling sites along the northeast of Spain. Techniques used included pressurized liquid extraction and solid-liquid ultrasonic extraction followed by gas chromatography-electron impact ionization mass spectrometry. The mean total PAHs concentrations were 290 < 613 < 1,628 ng/g (dry weight) in pine needles, soil, and sediments, respectively. There is a good correspondence between the total concentration of soils and pine needles, as opposed to the levels between sediments and pine needles. The high concentrations found in some Pinus halepensis samples may reflect a superior uptake potential of this species in comparison to the others studied. The three matrices present a very different PAH distribution pattern, with pine needles showing a predominance of the lighter (2-, 3-, and 4-ring) PAHs, whereas 5- and 6-ring PAHs are the most abundant in soils. Sediments display a more heterogeneous pattern, with contributions of all the PAHs but different distribution depending on the site, suggesting a wider range of input sources. Established PAH molecular ratios and principal component analysis were used to identify the origins and profiles of PAHs. While sediments showed a wide range attributed to historical inputs, soils and pine needles confirmed the compartmentalization of the PAHs, with lighter airborne PAHs accumulated in pine needles and heavier ones in soils. It can be suggested that the monitoring of several matrices is a strong tool to elucidate the contamination sources and accumulation patterns of PAHs. However, given the influence of the matrix type on this assessment, the information should be considered complementary, yet allowing a more

  17. Elements patterns of soil and river sediments as a tracer of sediment migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dordevic, Dragana; Pétursdóttir, Þórunn; Halldórsson, Guðmundur; Sakan, Sanja; Škrivalj, Sandra; Finger, David Christian

    2017-04-01

    Iceland is the small island on the mid Atlantic ridge, with strong natural catastrophes, such as floods, droughts, landslides, storms and volcanic eruptions that can have devastating impacts on natural and build environment. Rangárvellir area next to Mt Hekla and the glacier Tindfjallajökul has impacted by severe erosion processes but also rich of surface water that play a crucial role in sediment transport processes in the watersheds of the two rivers Eystri-Rangá and Ytri-Rangá. Their sediments consist of various materials originating from volcanoes ash and lava. Difference of contents of various chemical components in sediments and surrounding soil could be bases for identification of erosion processes and watersheds connectivity. River sediment is accumulator of chemical constituents from water in water-sediment interaction, making it as an important material for investigation their migration routes. In order to develop of methods for investigating of sediment migration using their chemical patterns the STSM of Connecteur COST Action ES1306-34336 have been approved. Samples of river sediments and surrounding soils of the Eystri-Rangá and Ytri-Rangá rivers in watersheds of Rangárvellir area as well as primarily volcanic ash from Eyafjallajökull were taken. Sequential extraction of heavy metals and trace elements from collected samples has been applied using the optimized procedure proposed by European Community Bureau of reference (BCR) in the next fractions: 1) soluble in acid - metals that are exchangeable or associated with carbonates; 2) reducible fraction - metals associated with oxides of Fe and Mn; 3) oxidizable fraction - metals associated with organic matter and sulfides and 4) residual fraction - metals strongly associated with the crystalline structure of minerals. Extracted solutions have analyzed by ICP/OES on next elements: Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Si, Sr, V, Zn. Distributions

  18. An alternative method for the estimation of sedimentation rates using radiometric measurements in an intertidal region (sw of spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligero, Rufino; Casas-Ruiz, Melquiades; Barrera, Manuel; Barbero, Luis

    2010-05-01

    The techniques for the direct measurement of the sedimentation rate are reliable but slow and imprecise, given that the time intervals of measurement cannot be very long. Consequently it is an extremely laborious task to obtain a representative map of the sedimentation rates and such maps are available for very few zones. However, for most environmental studies, it is very important to know the sedimentation rates. The high degree of accuracy of the gamma spectrometric techniques together with the application of the model describes in this work, has allowed the determination of the sedimentation rates in a wide spatial area such of the Bay of Cadiz to be obtained with precision and consuming considerably less time in comparison to the traditional techniques. Even so, the experimental conditions required for the sample cores are fairly restrictive, and although the radiological method provides a quantitative advance in measurement, the experimental difficulty in the execution of the study is not greatly diminished. For this reason, a second model has been derived based on the measurement of the inventory, which offers economies in time and financial cost, and which allows the sedimentation rate in a region to be determined with satisfactory accuracy. Furthermore, it has been shown that the application of this model requires a precise determination of 137Cs inventories. The sedimentation rates estimated by the 137Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the 210Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physical-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest

  19. Linking Soil and Sediment Properties for research on Biogeochemical Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.

    2012-04-01

    Conventional perspectives on soil erosion include the on-site damage to soil and reductions in crop yield, as well as the resulting off-site effects on water quality, runoff and sediment loads in rivers. Our evolving understanding of the Earth System has added a new dimension to the role of soil erosion within the global geochemical cycles. First, the relevance of soil as a nutrient and Carbon (C) pool was recognized. Initially, the role of soils in the global C cycle was largely considered to be limited to a vertical exchange of greenhouse house gases (GHG) between vegetation, soil and atmosphere and thus mostly studied by soil scientists, plant ecologists and climatologists. Even Critical Zone research focused mostly on weathering and regolith properties and ignored lateral fluxes of dissolved or particulate organic matter. Since the late 1990s, a wider role of soils in biogeochemical cycles has emerged. Recent estimates place the lateral movement of C between soil and sediment pools in terrestrial ecosystems (including rivers and lakes) at approximately 0.6 to 1.5 Gt per year. Some of the eroded C is replaced by photosynthesis from the atmosphere, but at a cost of additional emissions, for example due to fertilizer production. The long-term fate of the eroded and deposited soil organic matter is subject to an open debate and suffers from a lack of reliable spatial information on lateral C fluxes and its subsequent fate in terrestrial ecosystems. The connection between soil C pool, GHG emissions and erosion illustrates the relevance of surface processes for the C fluxes between Earth's spheres. Accordingly, soil is now considered as mobile system to make accurate predictions about the consequences of global change for terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks. This expanded perspective on soils as dynamic pool of weathering regolith, sediment, nutrients and C at the interface between the geospheres requires the analysis of relevant soil properties

  20. Linking soil and sediment properties for research on biogeochemical cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2013-04-01

    Conventional perspectives on soil erosion include the on-site damage to soil and reductions in crop yield, as well as the resulting off-site effects on water quality, runoff and sediment loads in rivers. Our evolving understanding of the Earth System has added a new dimension to the role of soil erosion within the global geochemical cycles. First, the relevance of soil as a nutrient and Carbon (C) pool was recognized. Initially, the role of soils in the global C cycle was largely considered to be limited to a vertical exchange of greenhouse house gases (GHG) between vegetation, soil and atmosphere and thus mostly studied by soil scientists, plant ecologists and climatologists. Even Critical Zone research focused mostly on weathering and regolith properties and ignored lateral fluxes of dissolved or particulate organic matter. Since the late 1990s, a wider role of soils in biogeochemical cycles has emerged. Recent estimates place the lateral movement of C between soil and sediment pools in terrestrial ecosystems (including rivers and lakes) at approximately 0.6 to 1.5 Gt per year. Some of the eroded C is replaced by photosynthesis from the atmosphere, but at a cost of additional emissions, for example due to fertilizer production. The long-term fate of the eroded and deposited soil organic matter is subject to an open debate and suffers from a lack of reliable spatial information on lateral C fluxes and its subsequent fate in terrestrial ecosystems. The connection between soil C pool, GHG emissions and erosion illustrates the relevance of surface processes for the C fluxes between Earth's spheres. Accordingly, soil is now considered as mobile system to make accurate predictions about the consequences of global change for terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and climate feedbacks. This expanded perspective on soils as dynamic pool of weathering regolith, sediment, nutrients and C at the interface between the geospheres requires the analysis of relevant soil properties

  1. Seasonal dynamics of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in surface sediments of a diatom-dominated intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oléron, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Guillaume; Zhao, Jean-Michel; Orvain, Francis; Dupuy, Christine; Klein, Géraldine L.; Graber, Marianne; Maugard, Thierry

    2014-09-01

    Numerous field-based investigations have highlighted that the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) is physico-chemically and ecologically important for intertidal mudflats. EPS are largely secreted by marine benthic diatoms and their quantity and quality are environmental-dependant. This paper focused on the dynamic pathways, concentration rates and monosaccharides composition of colloidal, bound and residual carbohydrates extracted by using a cationic exchange resin from a diatom-dominated intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oléron, France) during two different sampling periods: winter (February 2008) and summer (July 2008). A wide range of biotic and abiotic parameters were also studied to better understand the effect of environmental parameters, e.g., chlorophyll a, salinity, pore water amount, emersion time, luminosity, C:N ratio and tidal coefficient. Multiple colorimetric assays coupled to gas chromatographic analyses were carried out to perform the biochemical characterizations. Firstly, the quantity of carbohydrates produced during winter (5.28 μg·μg chl a- 1) was more important than during summer (2.04 μg·μg chl a- 1). Yet, more proteins were found during summer for the colloidal and bound fractions (0.73 and 1.04 μg·μg chl a- 1). Further investigations showed that the dynamic pathways were equivalent between winter and summer: bound carbohydrates (BC) quantities increased during the sediment emersion periods on the contrary to colloidal carbohydrates (CC) which tended to drop throughout the emersion time. The quality in monosaccharides was fraction-dependant, whatever the season. CC were always glucose-rich confirming their role of carbon source. BC were mainly composed of rhamnose whose the ratio increased during the emersion period, thus conferring adhesive properties to the extracellular matrix bounding diatoms cells. Residual carbohydrates (RC) were composed of various monosaccharides and a major increase of glucose content was

  2. Annual and seasonal temperature variance along an inter-tidal sediment transect in Yaquina bay, Oregon, 1999 - 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment temperature was measured using submersible Onset TidbiT® recording thermistor thermometers at eelgrass (Zostera marina, Z. japonica) mid-rhizome root depth (~5 cm) at 6 stations on a transect from ~MLLW (mean lower low water) at the channel edge to near MHHW (mean higher...

  3. Annual and seasonal temperature variance along an inter-tidal sediment transect in Yaquina bay, Oregon, 1999 - 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment temperature was measured using submersible Onset TidbiT® recording thermistor thermometers at eelgrass (Zostera marina, Z. japonica) mid-rhizome root depth (~5 cm) at 6 stations on a transect from ~MLLW (mean lower low water) at the channel edge to near MHHW (mean higher...

  4. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments?

    PubMed

    Rickson, R J

    2014-01-15

    The detrimental impact of sediment and associated pollutants on water quality is widely acknowledged, with many watercourses in the UK failing to meet the standard of 'good ecological status'. Catchment sediment budgets show that hill slope erosion processes can be significant sources of waterborne sediment, with rates of erosion likely to increase given predicted future weather patterns. However, linking on-site erosion rates with off-site impacts is complicated because of the limited data on soil erosion rates in the UK and the dynamic nature of the source-pathway-receptor continuum over space and time. Even so, soil erosion control measures are designed to reduce sediment production (source) and mobilisation/transport (pathway) on hill slopes, with consequent mitigation of pollution incidents in watercourses (receptors). The purpose of this paper is to review the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of erosion control measures used in the UK to reduce sediment loads of hill slope origin in watercourses. Although over 73 soil erosion mitigation measures have been identified from the literature, empirical data on erosion control effectiveness are limited. Baseline comparisons for the 18 measures where data do exist reveal erosion control effectiveness is highly variable over time and between study locations. Given the limitations of the evidence base in terms of geographical coverage and duration of monitoring, performance of the different measures cannot be extrapolated to other areas. This uncertainty in effectiveness has implications for implementing erosion/sediment risk reduction policies, where quantified targets are stipulated, as is the case in the EU Freshwater Fish and draft Soil Framework Directives. Also, demonstrating technical effectiveness of erosion control measures alone will not encourage uptake by land managers: quantifying the costs and benefits of adopting erosion mitigation is equally important, but these are uncertain and difficult to

  5. Lignin Degradation and Humus Formation in Alluvial Soils and Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Fustec, Eliane; Chauvet, Eric; Gas, Gilbert

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of lignin to the formation of humic compounds was examined in different environments of the terrestrial-aquatic interface in the Garonne River valley in southwestern France. Alluvial soils and submerged or nonsubmerged river and pond sediments containing alder, poplar, or willow [14C-lignin]ligno-celluloses were incubated. After a 49-day incubation period, 10 to 15% of labeled lignins in alluvial soils was recovered as evolved 14CO2. In nonsubmerged sediments, 10% of the applied activity was released as 14CO2, and in submerged sediments, only 5% was released after 60 days of incubation. In the different alluvial soils and sediments, the bulk of residual activity (70 to 85%) remained in the two coarsest-grain fractions (2,000 to 100 and 100 to 50 μm). Only 2 to 6% of the residual activity of these two coarse fractions was recovered as humic and fulvic acids, except in the case of alder [14C-lignin]lignocellulose, which had decomposed in a soil collected beneath alders. In this one 55% of the residual activity was extracted as humic substances from the 2,000- to 100-μm fraction. Humic and fulvic acids represented from 6 to 50% of the residual activity in the finest-grain fractions (50 to 20 and 20 to 0 μm). The highest percentages were obtained in soil collected beneath alders and in submerged pond sediment. The contribution of different groups of microorganisms, as well as nutrients and clay content, may influence humic-substance formation in such environments. Physical stability also may be an important factor for complex microbial activity involved in this process. PMID:16347894

  6. Commercial Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) culture in British Columbia, Canada: The effects of predator netting on intertidal sediment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, Daphne; McKinley, R. Scott

    2007-03-01

    Quantifying risks posed by aquaculture to adjacent coastal ecosystems is necessary to ensure long term stability of coastal systems and the sustainability of industries that exist therein. Research has demonstrated that the use of predator netting in shellfish aquaculture increases sedimentation rates and productivity; here we examine the influence of netting on the west coast of Canada. Changes in percent silt (sediment particles <63 μm), percent gravel (sediment particles >2 mm), organic and inorganic carbon levels and temperature, and differences in clam populations were monitored on paired netted and non-netted Manila clam ( Tapes philippinarum) plots on four farmed beaches at Baynes Sound, British Columbia in 2003 and 2004. There were no significant differences in the levels of silt ( p = 0.129, n = 8), gravel ( p = 0.723, n = 8), or inorganic carbon ( p = 0.070, n = 8) between netted and non-netted plots. However, the level of organic carbon was significantly higher on netted plots ( p = 0.014, n = 8) and a slight temperature buffering effect of the netting during low-tide events over the period of study. There were significantly more T. philippinarum on netted plots compared to non-netted plots ( p = 0.001, n = 8) and the length frequency distribution of the populations also differed ( p < 0.00001) with non-netted plots containing slightly smaller clams. The observed increase in organic carbon levels beneath netting is possibly due to biodeposition by T. philippinarum beneath nets and removal of organics by the deposit feeding Nuttallia obsurata on non-netted plots; however that was not tested here. For the locations and parameters monitored in this study, it appears that netting and clam farming in Baynes Sound British Columbia, has limited effect on the sediment.

  7. Searsville Sediment Experiment: What is the ideal agricultural soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, J.; Lo, D.; Patel, N.; Gu, S.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to decide whether or not the sediment located within Searsville Dam at the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is well suited for agricultural soil. By utilizing various combinations of sediment, farm soil, compost, and horse manure to grow basil plants, we underwent an exploratory study in order to better understand what type of materials and nutrients plants can best thrive within. Our general experiment protocol includes watering the crops with irrigation every day while young, and then limiting that water exposure to only Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays as they become more established. The basil is growing in pots filled with the different amounts of material, and are arranged randomly to prevent certain plants from getting more sunlight than others. The whole experiment plot is covered with a thin white fabric and secured with bricks and wood to keep out pests in the garden. In order to observe trends in the basil development, plant height and leaf number is recorded once every week. During the third week of the study we performed soil texture tests, and within the fourth week we calculated pH data. We discovered that the sediment our project focuses upon is 10-18% clay and 50% sand which categorizes it as loam, and the Stanford farm soil that serves as our control group contains 20-26% clay and 30% sand so it is a silt loam material. The pH tests also showed an average of 7.45 for sediment, 7.3 for farm soil, 7.85 for compost, and 7.65 for horse manure. By looking at all of the data recorded over the five-week time period, we have so far noticed that the 50% sediment and 50% horse manure combination consistently has the best height increase as well as leaf size and content. The 50% sediment and 50% compost mixture has also performed well in those terms, and is therefore a possibility for the best agricultural soil. However, future lab work conducted by Stanford students to examine the nutrient content of the basil tissue, along

  8. Adsorption and desorption of chlorpyrifos to soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Seyoum Yami; Beutel, Marc W; Yonge, David R; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B

    2012-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos, one of the most widely used insecticides, has been detected in air, rain, marine sediments, surface waters, drinking water wells, and solid and liquid dietary samples collected from urban and rural areas. Its metabolite, TCP, has also been widely detected in urinary samples collected from people of various age groups. With a goal of elucidating the factors that control the environmental contamination, impact, persistence, and ecotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, we examine, in this review, the peer-reviewed literature relating to chlorpyrifos adsorption and desorption behavior in various solid-phase matrices. Adsorption tends to reduce chlorpyrifos mobility, but adsorption to erodible particulates, dissolved organic matter, or mobile inorganic colloids enhances its mobility. Adsorption to suspended sediments and particulates constitutes a major off-site migration route for chlorpyrifos to surface waters, wherein it poses a potential danger to aquatic organisms. Adsorption increases the persistence of chlorpyrifos in the environment by reducing its avail- ability to a wide range of dissipative and degradative forces, whereas the effect of adsorption on its ecotoxicity is dependent upon the route of exposure. Chlorpyrifos adsorbs to soils, aquatic sediments, organic matter, and clay minerals to differing degrees. Its adsorption strongly correlates with organic carbon con- tent of the soils and sediments. A comprehensive review of studies that relied on the batch equilibrium technique yields mean and median Kd values for chlorpyrifos of 271 and 116 L/kg for soils, and 385 and 403 L/kg for aquatic sediments. Chlorpyrifos adsorption coefficients spanned two orders of magnitude in soils. Normalizing the partition coefficient to organic content failed to substantially reduce variability to commonly acceptable level of variation. Mean and median values for chlorpyrifos partition coefficients normalized to organic carbon, K, were 8,163 and 7,227 L/kg for soils and 13

  9. Nitrogen release from forest soils containing sulfide-bearing sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maileena Nieminen, Tiina; Merilä, Päivi; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa

    2014-05-01

    Soils containing sediments dominated by metal sulfides cause high acidity and release of heavy metals, when excavated or drained, as the aeration of these sediments causes formation of sulfuric acid. Consequent leaching of acidity and heavy metals can kill tree seedlings and animals such as fish, contaminate water, and corrode concrete and steel. These types of soils are called acid sulfate soils. Their metamorphic equivalents, such as sulfide rich black shales, pose a very similar risk of acidity and metal release to the environment. Until today the main focus in treatment of the acid sulfate soils has been to prevent acidification and metal toxicity to agricultural crop plants, and only limited attention has been paid to the environmental threat caused by the release of acidity and heavy metals to the surrounding water courses. Even less attention is paid on release of major nutrients, such as nitrogen, although these sediments are extremely rich in carbon and nitrogen and present a potentially high microbiological activity. In Europe, the largest cover of acid sulfate soils is found in coastal lowlands of Finland. Estimates of acid sulfate soils in agricultural use range from 1 300 to 3 000 km2, but the area in other land use classes, such as managed peatland forests, is presumably larger. In Finland, 49 500 km2 of peatlands have been drained for forestry, and most of these peatland forests will be at the regeneration stage within 10 to 30 years. As ditch network maintenance is often a prerequisite for a successful establishment of the following tree generation, the effects of maintenance operations on the quality of drainage water should be under special control in peatlands underlain by sulfide-bearing sediments. Therefore, identification of risk areas and effective prevention of acidity and metal release during drain maintenance related soil excavating are great challenges for forestry on coastal lowlands of Finland. The organic and inorganic nitrogen

  10. Dissimilatory nitrogen reduction in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary: small scale heterogeneity and novel nitrate-to-ammonium reducers

    PubMed Central

    Decleyre, Helen; Heylen, Kim; Van Colen, Carl; Willems, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The estuarine nitrogen cycle can be substantially altered due to anthropogenic activities resulting in increased amounts of inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate). In the past, denitrification was considered to be the main ecosystem process removing reactive nitrogen from the estuarine ecosystem. However, recent reports on the contribution of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) to nitrogen removal in these systems indicated a similar or higher importance, although the ratio between both processes remains ambiguous. Compared to denitrification, DNRA has been underexplored for the last decades and the key organisms carrying out the process in marine environments are largely unknown. Hence, as a first step to better understand the interplay between denitrification, DNRA and reduction of nitrate to nitrite in estuarine sediments, nitrogen reduction potentials were determined in sediments of the Paulina polder mudflat (Westerschelde estuary). We observed high variability in dominant nitrogen removing processes over a short distance (1.6 m), with nitrous oxide, ammonium and nitrite production rates differing significantly between all sampling sites. Denitrification occurred at all sites, DNRA was either the dominant process (two out of five sites) or absent, while nitrate reduction to nitrite was observed in most sites but never dominant. In addition, novel nitrate-to-ammonium reducers assigned to Thalassospira, Celeribacter, and Halomonas, for which DNRA was thus far unreported, were isolated, with DNRA phenotype reconfirmed through nrfA gene amplification. This study demonstrates high small scale heterogeneity among dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes in estuarine sediments and provides novel marine DNRA organisms that represent valuable alternatives to the current model organisms. PMID:26528270

  11. The intertidal soft sediments and their macrofauna in the Greater Swansea Bay area (Worm's Head to Nash Point), South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shackley, Susan E.

    1981-05-01

    The zonation and abundance of the infauna of 11 soft shores in the Greater Swansea Bay area are described in relation to sediment grain size composition and exposure to wave action. Faunal associations are more characteristic of a boreal sand community but with reduced species diversity. Exposure to wave action accounts, at least in part, for this reduced fauna but the combined effects of industrial and urban development in the Swansea Bay area cannot be ignored. This study provides a baseline for future work in a region subject to pollution, completing the infaunal species lists for the northern coastline of the Bristol Channel.

  12. Four new species of Epacanthion Wieser, 1953 (Nematoda: Thoracostomopsidae) in intertidal sediments of the Nanji Islands from the East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shi, Benze; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-03-04

    Four new species of Epacanthion are described from intertidal sandy sediments in the Nanji Islands National Marine Natural Reserve from the East China Sea. Males of all four new species have short spicules (< 2 anal body diameter) and a characteristic cervical circle of distinctly short and densely arranged setae at the pharyngeal region: Epacanthion hirsutum sp. nov. with a cervical circle of a single row of setae posterior to the nerve ring; E. longicaudatum sp. nov. with a cervical circle of 16 bundles each composed of six setae in two longitudinal rows posterior to the nerve ring; E. fasciculatum sp. nov. with a cervical circle of 18 bundles each composed of about 10 setae posterior to the nerve ring; and E. sparsisetae sp. nov. with a cervical circle of eight bundles each composed of about 10 setae anterior to the nerve ring. Among the known species of Epacanthion, only two species possess these features: E. quadridisci and E. gorgonocephalum. Epacanthion quadridiscus has six bundles of setae situated at the same level of the nerve ring, while E. gorgonocephalum has distinctly dense setae forming a wide band at the pharyngeal region. Epacanthion hirsutum sp. nov. differs from all congeners by the cervical circle composed of a single row of setae. Epacanthion sparsisetae sp. nov. is unique in having the cervical circle of bundles anterior to the nerve ring. Epacanthion longicaudatum sp. nov. differs from E. fasciculatum sp. nov. by the body size and the structure of the cervical circle. An updated diagnostic key to 28 valid species of Epacanthion is proposed.

  13. Characterization of archaeological soils and sediments using VIS-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmeier, E.; Gerlach, R.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of past environments includes the analysis of former soil properties, which were different from recent topsoil characteristics. Ancient topsoil material can be preserved over millennia, e.g. in prehistoric pits that were filled with material from the former surface. Thus, the colors of pit fillings are specific for the time the soil material has been relocated. Early Neolithic pit fillings in the loess area of NW-Germany, e.g., have a black to dark brown color, while Iron Age pit fillings have a lighter grey color. Up to now, the reasons for these color differences are unknown. Soil colors reflect soil characteristics, and the correlations between color and soil components like charred organic matter or iron hydroxides can be measured using spectrophotometric data. The development of a quantitative spectroscopic method based on soil color spectra would enable the measurement of large amounts of samples, e.g. to investigate environmental or archaeological research questions on a regional scale. The aim of our study is the assessment of soil profile information using VIS-spectroscopy, with a main focus on archaeological soil features, and to establish spectrophotometry as a rapid and reliable tool for the analysis of soils and sediments. Furthermore, we evaluate the color differences of pit fillings that are typical for a prehistoric period, and the differences in colors between two regions dominated by different soil types. Soil color spectra were obtained in the 360 to 740nm range, in 10nm steps, using a field-spectrophotometer (CM-700d) and a lab spectrophotometer (CM-5). The spectrophotometric data was calibrated against soil sample sets that have been analysed on iron, carbonates, organic carbon, and pyrogenic carbon (BPCA). Samples were taken at archaeological excavations in the loess-covered regions of NW- and E-Germany. Mainly pit fillings were sampled that cover a chronological range from the Early Neolithic to the Roman period or Iron Age

  14. Spatiotemporal relationships between the abundance, distribution, and potential activities of ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying microorganisms in intertidal sediments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason M; Mosier, Annika C; Francis, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to gain an understanding of how key microbial communities involved in nitrogen cycling in estuarine sediments vary over a 12-month period. Furthermore, we sought to determine whether changes in the size of these communities are related to, or indicative of, seasonal patterns in fixed nitrogen dynamics in Elkhorn Slough--a small, agriculturally impacted estuary with a direct connection to Monterey Bay. We assessed sediment and pore water characteristics, abundance of functional genes for nitrification (bacterial and archaeal amoA, encoding ammonia monooxygenase subunit A) and denitrification (nirS and nirK, encoding nitrite reductase), and measurements of potential nitrification and denitrification activities at six sites. No seasonality in the abundance of denitrifier or ammonia oxidizer genes was observed. A strong association between potential nitrification activity and the size of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial communities was observed across the estuary. In contrast, ammonia-oxidizing archaeal abundances remained relatively constant in space and time. Unlike many other estuaries, salinity does not appear to regulate the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing communities in Elkhorn Slough. Instead, their distributions appear to be governed over two different time scales. Long-term niche characteristics selected for the gross size of archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidizing communities, yet covariation in their abundances between monthly samples suggests that they respond in a similar manner to short-term changes in their environment. Abundances of denitrifier and ammonia oxidizer genes also covaried, but site-specific differences in this relationship suggest differing levels of interaction (or coupling) between nitrification and denitrification.

  15. A regional soil and sediment geochemical study in northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.; Holloway, J.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Helsel, D.R.; Smith, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Regional-scale variations in soil geochemistry were investigated in a 20,000-km2 study area in northern California that includes the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the southern Sacramento Valley and the northern Coast Ranges. Over 1300 archival soil samples collected from the late 1970s to 1980 in El Dorado, Placer, Sutter, Sacramento, Yolo and Solano counties were analyzed for 42 elements by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a near-total dissolution. These data were supplemented by analysis of more than 500 stream-sediment samples from higher elevations in the Sierra Nevada from the same study site. The relatively high-density data (1 sample per 15 km2 for much of the study area) allows the delineation of regional geochemical patterns and the identification of processes that produced these patterns. The geochemical results segregate broadly into distinct element groupings whose distribution reflects the interplay of geologic, hydrologic, geomorphic and anthropogenic factors. One such group includes elements associated with mafic and ultramafic rocks including Cr, Ni, V, Co, Cu and Mg. Using Cr as an example, elevated concentrations occur in soils overlying ultramafic rocks in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (median Cr = 160 mg/kg) as well as in the northern Coast Ranges. Low concentrations of these elements occur in soils located further upslope in the Sierra Nevada overlying Tertiary volcanic, metasedimentary and plutonic rocks (granodiorite and diorite). Eastern Sacramento Valley soil samples, defined as those located east of the Sacramento River, are lower in Cr (median Cr = 84 mg/kg), and are systematically lower in this suite compared to soils from the west side of the Sacramento Valley (median Cr = 130 mg/kg). A second group of elements showing a coherent pattern, including Ca, K, Sr and REE, is derived from relatively silicic rocks types. This group occurs at elevated

  16. In situ measurements of erosion shear stress and geotechnical shear strength of the intertidal sediments of the experimental managed realignment scheme at Tollesbury, Essex, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, C. W.; Tolhurst, T. J.; Black, K. S.; Whitmore, A. P.

    2003-11-01

    Managed realignment is one of several 'soft' engineering options which may reduce the costs of coastal defence, provide a more 'natural' response to the problem of rising sea levels and at the same time deliver environmental, specifically nature conservation, benefits. The success of this technique depends on the ability of the soils and sediments within the site to resist the erosive action of waves and tidal currents and allow sediment accretion to occur, at least at a rate equal to mean sea-level rise. Once a critical shear stress, τ0 crt exerted by the moving fluids over the bed, is exceeded erosion will occur. A cohesive strength meter (CSM) and the fall-cone method were used to gather data, in situ on the strength and stability of sediments from an experimental managed realignment site and an adjacent, established saltmarsh in south-east England. Following six years of regular tidal cover, the underlying agricultural soil appeared both very strong (mean surface shear strength, τ f=228 kPa) and highly resistant to erosion ( τ 0 crt=6.23 N m -2). During this period much of the site had been covered by sediment, and saltmarsh plants ( Salicornia europaea) had become established above the mean high water neap tide (MHWN) level. Above MHWN level (tidal cover time <15%) sediments had greater bulk densities and lower water contents which resulted in a moderate shear strength (τ f=11.6 kPa) and resistance to erosion (τ 0 crt=2.45 N m -2) . Below MHWN, where sediment accretion rates were greatest, poor consolidation resulted in very high water contents and low bulk densities. These areas were at the highest potential risk of erosion (τ 0 crt=1.5 N m -2) and had very low shear strengths (τ f=0.33 kPa) . Where sediment exceeded 25 cm depth, gullies formed allowing their banks and adjacent margins to drain faster than the surrounding sediment. This led to a significant increase in bed strength (τ f=10.8 kPa) and stability (τ 0 crt=4.3 N m -2) . These gullies

  17. COPING WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND SOILS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    JONES,K.W.; VAN DER LELIE,D.; MCGUIGAN,M.; ET AL.

    2004-05-25

    Soils and sediments contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds harmful to the environment and to human health are common in the urban environment. We report here on aspects of a program being carried out in the New York/New Jersey Port region to develop methods for processing dredged material from the Port to make products that are safe for introduction to commercial markets. We discuss some of the results of the program in Computational Environmental Science, Laboratory Environmental Science, and Applied Environmental Science and indicate some possible directions for future work. Overall, the program elements integrate the scientific and engineering aspects with regulatory, commercial, urban planning, local governments, and community group interests. Well-developed connections between these components are critical to the ultimate success of efforts to cope with the problems caused by contaminated urban soils and sediments.

  18. Rapid persulfate oxidation predicts PAH bioavailability in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Cuypers, C.; Grotenhuis, T.; Joziasse, J.; Rulkens, W.

    2000-05-15

    Persulfate oxidation was validated as a method to predict polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bioavailability in soils and sediments. It was demonstrated for 14 field contaminated soils and sediments that residual PAH concentrations after a short (3 h) persulfate oxidation correspond well to residual PAH concentrations after 21 days of biodegradation. Persulfate oxidation of samples that had first been subjected to biodegradation yielded only limited additional PAH oxidation. This implies that oxidation and biodegradation removed approximately the same PAH fraction. Persulfate oxidation thus provides a good and rapid method for the prediction of PAH bioavailability. Thermogravimetric analysis of oxidized and untreated samples showed that persulfate oxidation primarily affected expanded organic matter. The results indicate that this expanded organic matter contained mainly readily bioavailable PAHs.

  19. Comparison of two feature selection methods for the separability analysis of intertidal sediments with spectrometric datasets in the German Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Richard; Ehlers, Manfred

    2016-10-01

    The spectral features of intertidal sediments are all influenced by the same biophysical properties, such as water, salinity, grain size or vegetation and therefore they are hard to separate by using only multispectral sensors. This could be shown by a previous study of Jung et al. (2015). A more detailed analysis of their characteristic spectral feature has to be carried out to understand the differences and similarities. Spectrometry data (i.e., hyperspectral sensors), for instance, have the opportunity to measure the reflection of the landscape as a continuous spectral pattern for each pixel of an image built from dozen to hundreds of narrow spectral bands. This reveals a high potential to measure unique spectral responses of different ecological conditions (Hennig et al., 2007). In this context, this study uses spectrometric datasets to distinguish between 14 different sediment classes obtained from a study area in the German Wadden Sea. A new feature selection method is proposed (Jeffries-Matusita distance bases feature selection; JMDFS), which uses the Euclidean distance to eliminate the wavelengths with the most similar reflectance values in an iterative process. Subsequent to each iteration, the separation capability is estimated by the Jeffries-Matusita distance (JMD). Two classes can be separated if the JMD is greater than 1.9 and if less than four wavelengths remain, no separation can be assumed. The results of the JMDFS are compared with a state-of-the-art feature selection method called ReliefF. Both methods showed the ability to improve the separation by achieving overall accuracies greater than 82%. The accuracies are 4%-13% better than the results with all wavelengths applied. The number of remaining wavelengths is very diverse and ranges from 14 to 213 of 703. The advantage of JMDFS compared with ReliefF is clearly the processing time. ReliefF needs 30 min for one temporary result. It is necessary to repeat the process several times and to average

  20. Assessing the environmental availability of uranium in soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, J.E.; Holdren, G.R. Jr.; Krupa, K.M.; Lindenmeier, C.W.

    1994-06-01

    Soils and sediments contaminated with uranium pose certain environmental and ecological risks. At low to moderate levels of contamination, the magnitude of these risks depends not only on the absolute concentrations of uranium in the material but also on the availability of the uranium to drinking water supplies, plants, or higher organisms. Rational approaches for regulating the clean-up of sites contaminated with uranium, therefore, should consider the value of assessing the environmental availability of uranium at the site before making decisions regarding remediation. The purpose of this work is to review existing approaches and procedures to determine their potential applicability for assessing the environmental availability of uranium in bulk soils or sediments. In addition to making the recommendations regarding methodology, the authors have tabulated data from the literature on the aqueous complexes of uranium and major uranium minerals, examined the possibility of predicting environmental availability of uranium based on thermodynamic solubility data, and compiled a representative list of analytical laboratories capable of performing environmental analyses of uranium in soils and sediments.

  1. Analysis of chlorothalonil and three degradates in sediment and soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, M.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous extraction of chlorothalonil and three of its degradates (4-hydroxy-2,5,6- trichloroisophthalonitrile, 1-carbamoyl-3-cyano-4-hydroxy-2,5,6- trichlorobenzene, and 1,3-dicarbamoyl-2,4,5,6-tetrachlorobenzene) from soils and sediments; the compounds were extracted using sonication with acetone and isolation of the parent compound and matrix interferences from the degradates by solid phase extraction (SPE). The chlorothalonil fraction underwent further coextracted matrix interference removal with Florisil. The degradates were derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) and chlorotrimethylsilane (TMCS). All compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Recoveries on a spiked (20 and 200 ??g kg-1) sediment ranged from 80% to 91% with calculated limits of detection of 1-5 ??g kg-1 dry weight sediment. An additional 20 sediment samples were collected in watersheds from the Southeastern United States where chlorothalonil is used widely on peanuts and other crops. None of the target compounds were detected. Laboratory fortified recoveries of chlorothalonil and its degradates in these environmental sediment samples ranged from 75% to 89%.

  2. Morphodynamic evolution of an intertidal mudflat under the influence of Amazon sediment supply - Kourou mud bank, French Guiana, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensac, Erwan; Gardel, Antoine; Lesourd, Sandric; Brutier, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    The coastal environment between the Amazon and the Orinoco Rivers is characterised by the migration of large mud banks formed by accretion of the muddy discharge from the Amazon. The migration of mud in the shallow coastal waters is associated with the creation of mudflats that form a surface for the development of coastal mangroves after consolidation. This study focuses on the fine-scale sedimentary processes involved in the morphodynamic evolution of a consolidated mudflat and its erosion. Mudflats can be divided into two areas: the seafront and the inner part between the seafront and the land. This study highlights a link between tidal mud supply, biofilm migration and increasing elevation in the latter area. The migration of a biofilm through each cycle of tidal supply prevents erosion and permits the continuous accretion of the entire mudflat over several years. This increase in topography is also modulated by fortnightly tidal cycles. Desiccation greatly impacts the mudflat's structure at a yearly scale. This process plays an important role in the erosion of the seafront area under wave action by allowing the formation of mud pebbles, which are progressively abraded into fluid mud supplied to the inner part of the mudflat by over-wash processes. This study provides a better understanding of the behaviour of mudflats on the wave-exposed coast downdrift of the mouth of the Amazon by describing: (1) the processes involved in sediment exchanges between mudflats and mud banks, (2) the mechanisms associated with the persistence of mudflats along the French Guiana coast downdrift of the mouth of the Amazon, and (3) the processes involved in the erosion and recycling of these mudflats.

  3. Within-day and seasonal patterns of microphytobenthos biomass determined by co-measurement of sediment and water column chlorophylls in the intertidal mudflat of Nanaura, Saga, Ariake Sea, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Chul-Hwan; Khim, Jong Seong; Araki, Hiroyuki; Yamanishi, Hiroyuki; Koga, Kenichi

    2007-03-01

    The microphytobenthos biomass was examined at a fixed site on the Nanaura mudflat, Ariake Sea over 9 months at intervals of 2-3 weeks. During the course of 16 surveys, samples were collected in daytime at intervals of <1 h for measurement of chlorophylls (Chl a and pheopigments) in sediment (during exposure; n = 98) and water column (during ebb, n = 86; flood, n = 95). We found a clear temporal pattern in within-day sediment Chl a indicating net increase of microphytobenthos biomass in surface sediment during a single-daytime exposure. The significant biomass increase was clearly observed during the winter period, but weakened during the rest of the periods. Pheopigments in sediment showed much greater within-day variation compared to corresponding Chl a, with relatively great fluctuation from summer to early fall. However, during fall-winter periods, the sediment pheopigments showed within-day variation, similar to corresponding Chl a, indicating a biomass-dependent degradation approaching winter season. Overall, winter peak of Chl a (176 mg m -2) and summer peak of pheopigments (596 mg m -2) in sediment were characteristic in the Nanaura mudflat, Ariake Sea. In general, seasonal patterns for water column chlorophylls were similar to those for sediment chlorophylls, with winter peak of Chl a (174 μg L -1) and summer maximum of pheopigments (206 μg L -1), respectively. Typically, monthly mean water Chl a (during flood) was significantly correlated with monthly mean sediment Chl a (during exposure), indicating an entrainment of sediment Chl a to the water column during flood by tidal resuspension. Calculations indicated that ca. 66% of Chl a in the water column could be benthic-derived from the surface sediment, on average ( n = 181), supporting a significant contribution of microphytobenthos biomass and production in intertidal mudflat ecosystem.

  4. Authigenic pyrite formation and re-oxidation as an indicator of an unsteady-state redox sedimentary environment: Evidence from the intertidal mangrove sediments of Hainan Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hai; Yao, Suping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Two cores of intertidal mangrove sediments from the Tanmen and Qinglan Harbors on Hainan Island, China, were investigated for their geochemical characteristics of carbon, nitrogen, iron and sulfur and the pyrite morphology and framboidal pyrite size distribution. A modified sequential iron extraction procedure revealed extremely high FeHR/FeT ratios (0.81±0.07, n=28). The pyrite results determined by the nitric acid digestion and chromium reduction method show a strong correlation (r=0.91, n=28), indicating that most of the chromium-reducible sulfur is pyrite, whereas the proportion of elemental sulfur is minor. The organic carbon concentrations and the atomic C/N ratios demonstrate that the organic carbon in the mangrove sediments is derived predominantly from higher plants. The chromium-reducible sulfur (CRS) values show a good linear logarithmic correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC), indicating that the process of sulfate reduction increases rapidly with the concentration of TOC at Qinglan Harbor (QL), which has low TOC contents (<5 wt%). In contrast, sulfate reduction increases slowly with high TOC (>5 wt%) at Tanmen Harbor (TM). These data suggest that pyrite formation at the QL site is controlled by the TOC contents, whereas at the TM site, the primary factor controlling the pyritization process is the supply rate of sulfate. Both sites have significantly high sulfate contents (average 1.67±0.45 wt% and 0.80±0.32 wt% at Tanmen and Qinglan, respectively), which are isotopically depleted in 34S (average -6.15±7.17‰ and -6.72±7.33‰ at Tanmen and Qinglan, respectively) suggesting that the sulfate is mainly from the reoxidation of reduced sulfides (mainly pyrite) instead of seawater sulfate during burial. The distributions of pyrite textures suggest that the pyrite in the mangrove swamps is formed mainly as framboids and only a few pyrite crystals are formed directly as euhedral crystals. The high mean diameters and standard deviations (7.0±4

  5. ISSUES IN ASSESSING LOW LEVEL IONIZABLE CONTAMINANT PARTITIONING IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solubilization has profound implications for such diverse risk assessment activities as assessing sediment contaminant porewater exposures to benthic fauna, determining half lives of refractory toxicants in natural soils and sediments, and assessing the fate and transport of th...

  6. Ammonia- and methane-oxidizing microorganisms in high-altitude wetland sediments and adjacent agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Shan, Jingwen; Zhang, Jingxu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia oxidation is known to be carried out by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), while methanotrophs (methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB)) play an important role in mitigating methane emissions from the environment. However, the difference of AOA, AOB, and MOB distribution in wetland sediment and adjacent upland soil remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundances and community structures of AOA, AOB, and MOB in sediments of a high-altitude freshwater wetland in Yunnan Province (China) and adjacent agricultural soils. Variations of AOA, AOB, and MOB community sizes and structures were found in water lily-vegetated and Acorus calamus-vegetated sediments and agricultural soils (unflooded rice soil, cabbage soil, and garlic soil and flooded rice soil). AOB community size was higher than AOA in agricultural soils and lily-vegetated sediment, but lower in A. calamus-vegetated sediment. MOB showed a much higher abundance than AOA and AOB. Flooded rice soil had the largest AOA, AOB, and MOB community sizes. Principal coordinate analyses and Jackknife Environment Clusters analyses suggested that unflooded and flooded rice soils had relatively similar AOA, AOB, and MOB structures. Cabbage soil and A. calamus-vegetated sediment had relatively similar AOA and AOB structures, but their MOB structures showed a large difference. Nitrososphaera-like microorganisms were the predominant AOA species in garlic soil but were present with a low abundance in unflooded rice soil and cabbage soil. Nitrosospira-like AOB were dominant in wetland sediments and agricultural soils. Type I MOB Methylocaldum and type II MOB Methylocystis were dominant in wetland sediments and agricultural soils. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that AOA Shannon diversity was positively correlated with the ratio of organic carbon to nitrogen (p < 0.05). This work could provide some new insights toward ammonia and methane oxidation in soil and wetland sediment

  7. The effects of soil carbon on phosphorus and sediment loss from soil trays by overland flow.

    PubMed

    McDowell, R W; Sharpley, A N

    2003-01-01

    Soil chemical constituents influence soil structure and erosion potential. We investigated manure and inorganic fertilizer applications on soil chemistry (carbon [C] quality and exchangeable cations), aggregation, and phosphorus (P) loss in overland flow. Surface samples (0-5 cm) of a Hagerstown (fine, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soil, to which either dairy or poultry manure or triple superphosphate had been applied (0-200 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) for 5 yr), were packed in boxes (1 m long, 0.15 m wide, and 0.10 m deep) to field bulk density (1.2 g cm(-3)). Rainfall was applied (65 mm h(-1)), overland flow collected, and sediment and P loss determined. All amendments increased Mehlich 3-extractable P (19-177 mg kg(-1)) and exchangeable Ca (4.2-11.5 cmol kg(-1)) compared with untreated soil. For all treatments, sediment transport was inversely related to the degree of soil aggregation (determined as ratio of dispersed and undispersed clay; r = 0.51), exchangeable Ca (r = 0.59), and hydrolyzable carbohydrate (r = 0.62). The loss of particulate P and total P in overland flow from soil treated with up to 50 kg P ha(-1) dairy manure (9.9 mg particulate phosphorus [PPI, 15.1 mg total phosphorus [TP]) was lower than untreated soil (13.3 mg PP, 18.1 mg TP), due to increased aggregation and decreased surface soil slaking attributed to added C in manure. Manure application at low rates (<50 kg P ha(-1)) imparts physical benefits to surface soil, which decrease P loss potential. However, at greater application rates, P transport is appreciably greater (26.9 mg PP, 29.5 mg TP) than from untreated soil (13.3 mg PP, 18.1 mg TP).

  8. Extraction of arsenate and arsenite species from soils and sediments

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Myron; Cai, Yong; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop a simple method that can be used to extract the more readily mobilizable and bioavailable arsenic species from soil and sediment while at the same time minimizing the transformation between (AsIII) and (AsV), the two most commonly found arsenic species in the environment. Several extraction strategies were evaluated using phosphate as extractant in combination with either ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH2OH·HCl), or sodium diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (NaDDC).The addition of EDTA in the phosphate solution did not prevent AsIII from oxidation. While promising results were shown when 1% NH2OH·HCl was added, conversion of AsIII began to occur with extended extraction time (>12 h). Good results were achieved using 10 mM phosphate and 0.5% NaDDC where AsIII oxidation was clearly minimized. The combined phosphate and NaDDC solution was applied to several soil and sediment samples. AsIII spiked was quantitatively recovered in all soil types tested. PMID:16198465

  9. Extraction of arsenate and arsenite species from soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Myron; Cai, Yong; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2006-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop a simple method that can be used to extract the more readily mobilizable and bioavailable arsenic species from soil and sediment while at the same time minimizing the transformation between (AsIII) and (AsV), the two most commonly found arsenic species in the environment. Several extraction strategies were evaluated using phosphate as extractant in combination with either ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (NH2OH.HCl), or sodium diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (NaDDC). The addition of EDTA in the phosphate solution did not prevent AsIII from oxidation. While promising results were shown when 1% NH2OH.HCl was added, conversion of AsIII began to occur with extended extraction time (> 12 h). Good results were achieved using 10 mM phosphate and 0.5% NaDDC where AsIII oxidation was clearly minimized. The combined phosphate and NaDDC solution was applied to several soil and sediment samples. AsIII spiked was quantitatively recovered in all soil types tested.

  10. Plutonium mobility studies in soil sediment decontaminated by means of a soil-washing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Orlandini, K.A.; Swift, N.; Carfagno, D.

    1995-07-01

    The ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process extracts plutonium from contaminated soils/sediments by means of a series of washings with a blend of chemicals, that includes a chelating agent, an oxidant, and carbonates. At the end of the process, the Pu level in the soil is lowered to 25-30 pCi/g from an initial contamination level averaging 500 pCi/g. The radionuclide still present in the soil at the end of the treatment must be strongly immobilized in or onto the soil particles to minimize the risk of its percolation to the aquifer and/or uptake by vegetation. This paper reports the investigation of residual Pu mobility as K{sub d} (distribution coefficient) in the treated soil/sediment. Six batches of contaminated soil were treated simultaneously by means of the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process. Some batches of the treated soil were amended with a standard fertilizer treatment of compost and nutrient and brought to pH 8.5. The treated soil, treated and fertilized soil, and the untreated controls were then incubated at 18{degrees}C for 90 days. At four different times, a small aliquot of soil was retrieved from each of the batches and contacted with rainwater for six days to determine the Pu solid/liquid distribution and K{sub d}. Results indicated that a higher total amount of Pu was leached from the untreated soil, probably as a consequence of the higher content of available/exchangeable Pu in this soil compared with the treated ones. Treated/fertilized soils showed Pu leaching at intermediate levels between those for treated and untreated soils, at least for the first 30 days of incubation. K{sub d} values at the beginning of the incubation period were significantly lower in the untreated and treated/fertilized soils compared with those for the treated-only, but at 90 days, these values were substantially equal among the three different soils. Traces of the chelant were detectable only in treated, unfertilized soil.

  11. TNT RDX and HMX Explosives in Soils and Sediments. Analysis Techniques and Drying Losses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    sample collection and pretreatment . Since soil and sediment samples soil, sediment and sludge samples. contain varying amounts of water, a common pre...sediment for the Louisiana lagoon sludge , microwave oven and soil samples were near 1000%6 for TNT but on- drying and infrared lamp drying were not used... microwave oven drying, and drying under b infrared lamps, all resulted in greater losses" with TNT and RDX recoveries ranging from 76 to 90%. Drying

  12. Plutonium contamination in soils and sediments at Mayak PA, Russia.

    PubMed

    Skipperud, Lindis; Salbu, Brit; Oughton, Deborah H; Drozcho, Eugeny; Mokrov, Yuri; Strand, Per

    2005-09-01

    The Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA) was established in the late 1940's to produce plutonium for the Soviet Nuclear Weapons Programme. In total, seven reactors and two reprocessing plants have been in operation. Today, the area comprises both military and civilian reactors as well as reprocessing and metallurgical plants. Authorized and accidental releases of radioactive waste have caused severe contamination to the surrounding areas. In the present study, [alpha]-spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) have been used to determine plutonium activities and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples collected from reservoirs of the Techa River at the Mayak area and downstream Techa River. The objective of the study was to determine the total inventory of plutonium in the reservoirs and to identify the different sources contributing to the plutonium contamination. Results based on [alpha]-spectrometry and ICP-MS measurements show the presence of different sources and confirmed recent reports of civilian reprocessing at Mayak. Determination of activity levels and isotope ratios in soil and sediment samples from the Techa River support the hypothesis that most of the plutonium, like other radionuclides in the Techa River, originated from the very early waste discharges to the Techa River between 1949 and 1951. Analysis of reservoir sediment samples suggest that about 75% of the plutonium isotopes could have been released to Reservoir 10 during the early weapons production operation of the plant, and that the majority of plutonium in Reservoir 10 originates from discharges from power production or reprocessing. Enhanced 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in river sediment upper layers (0-2 cm) between 50 and 250 km downstream from the plant indicate a contribution from other, non-fallout sources.

  13. Partition of nonpolar organic pollutants from water to soil and sediment organic matters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    The partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride and 1,2-dichlorobenzene between normal soil/sediment organic matter and water have been determined for a large set of soils, bed sediments, and suspended solids from the United States and the People's Republic of China. The Koc values for both solutes are quite invariant either for the soils or for the bed sediments; the values on bed sediments are about twice those on soils. The similarity of Koc values between normal soils and between normal bed sediments suggests that natural organic matters in soils (or sediments) of different geographic origins exhibit comparable polarities and possibly comparable compositions. The results also suggest that the process that converts eroded soils into bed sediments brings about a change in the organic matter property. The difference between soil and sediment Koc values provides a basis for identifying the source of suspended solids in river waters. The very high Koc values observed for some special soils and sediments are diagnostic of severe anthropogenic contamination.

  14. Controlling parameters of fluorescent tracer sorption on soils and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bork, Marcus; Graf-Rosenfellner, Markus; Lange, Jens; Lang, Friederike

    2017-04-01

    Fluorescent dyes like uranine (UR) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) have been widely used, especially for tracing hydrological processes. In the recent past, efforts have intensified to use fluorescent tracers also in soils, for example as proxies for organic pollutants. However, the sorption properties of both organic pollutants and fluorescent tracers have to be exactly known to succeed. Yet existing knowledge for soils is still incomplete and poorly standardized. For this reason, we carried out laboratory batch experiments to determine sorption isotherms of UR and SRB with varying pH, soil texture and organic carbon content (OC). As sorbents we used a sandy sediment with low OC, a silty loamy topsoil with 2.8 %-OC and a similar textured subsoil containing 0.6 %-OC. For both tracers six concentration steps each were prepared and shaken with the suspended sorbent for 42 h using a sorbent:solution ratio of 1:5. During the equilibration, the pH was repeatedly adjusted to 5.5, 6.5, and 7.5 by adding hydrochloric acid (HCl) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Subsequently, the tracer-sorbent-suspension was centrifuged and the fluorescence of the tracer in the supernatant was measured. In order to examine the influence of OC and the clay fraction on the tracer sorption, batch-experiments at pH 7.5 were also conducted with manipulated sorbents: top- and subsoil samples were treated with H2O2 to remove organic matter and the clay mineral montmorillonite was added to the sandy sediment to achieve final clay contents of 0.1 %, 0.5 %, 1 %, 2 %, 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % clay. We observed a negative relationship between the linear sorption coefficient Kd and pH, which was stronger for UR than for SRB. Increasing numbers of negative sorption sites and functional groups of both tracers and sorbents with increasing pH might be the reason for this observation. Besides the pH-value, quantity and quality of clay and OC had a crucial influence on the sorption of UR and SRB in soils and sediment. As

  15. Some statistical relationships between stream sediment and soil geochemistry in northwestern Wisconsin - can stream sediment compositions be used to predict compositions of soils in glaciated terranes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, W.F.; Woodruff, L.G.; Pimley, S.

    2004-01-01

    Mean stream sediment chemical compositions from northwestern Wisconsin in the north central United States, based on more than 800 samples, differ significantly from mean A-horizon and C-horizon soil compositions, based on about 380 samples of each horizon. Differences by a factor greater than 1.5 exist for some elements (Ca, Mn, Mg, P, Ti, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn). A very large database of stream sediment geochemistry exists for the region (more than 2200 samples) and for the U.S. (roughly 400,000 samples), whereas data on the chemistry of soils is much sparser both regionally and nationally. Therefore, we have attempted to quantify trends in compositional differences between stream sediments and nearby soils to test whether the abundant stream sediment data can be used to predict soil compositions. A simple computational technique of adjusting the stream sediment compositions according to the ratio of means of soils and stream sediments was conducted. A variety of techniques of correction and interpolation of data were tested and indicate that repetitive testing of results allows an optimum correction to be achieved. Predicted soil compositions compared to analytically determined soil compositions show a range of results from relatively good correspondence for some elements to rather poor correspondence for others. In general, predictions are best at midranges of compositions. The technique does not predict well more extreme or anomalous values. Thus, this technique appears to be useful for estimating background soil compositions and delineating regional compositional trends in soils in situations where large amounts of stream sediment analyses and smaller amounts of soil analyses are available. The technique also provides probabilistic qualifications on the expected error between predicted and actual soil compositions so that individual users can judge if the technique provides data of sufficient accuracy for specific needs. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of soil surface roughness on interrill erosion processes and sediment particle size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Wenfeng; Huang, Chihua

    2017-10-01

    Soil surface roughness significantly impacts runoff and erosion under rainfall. Few previous studies on runoff generation focused on the effects of soil surface roughness on the sediment particle size distribution (PSD), which greatly affects interrill erosion and sedimentation processes. To address this issue, a rainfall-simulation experiment was conducted with treatments that included two different initial soil surface roughnesses and two rainfall intensities. Soil surface roughness was determined by using photogrammetric method. For each simulated event, runoff and sediment samples were collected at different experimental times. The effective (undispersed) PSD of each sediment sample and the ultimate (after dispersion) PSD were used to investigate the detachment and transport mechanisms involved in sediment movement. The results show that soil surface roughness significantly delayed runoff initiation, but had no significant effect on the steady runoff rate. However, a significant difference in the soil loss rate was observed between the smooth and rough soil surfaces. Sediments from smooth soil surfaces were more depleted in clay-size particles, but more enriched in sand-size particles than those from rough soil surfaces, suggesting that erosion was less selective on smooth than on rough soil surfaces. The ratio of different sizes of transported sediment to the soil matrix indicates that most of the clay was eroded in the form of aggregates, silt-size particles were transported mainly as primary particles, and sand-size particles were predominantly aggregates of finer particles. Soil surface roughness has a crucial effect on the sediment size distribution and erosion processes. Significant differences of the enrichment ratios for the effective PSD and the ultimate PSD were observed under the two soil surface roughness treatments. These findings demonstrate that we should consider each particle size separately rather than use only the total sediment discharge in

  17. Process recognition in multi-element soil and stream-sediment geochemical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grunsky, E.C.; Drew, L.J.; Sutphin, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Stream-sediment and soil geochemical data from the Upper and Lower Coastal Plains of South Carolina (USA) were studied to determine relationships between soils and stream sediments. From multi-element associations, characteristic compositions were determined for both media. Primary associations of elements reflect mineralogy, including heavy minerals, carbonates and clays, and the effects of groundwater. The effects of groundwater on element concentrations are more evident in soils than stream sediments. A "winnowing index" was created using ratios of Th to Al that revealed differing erosional and depositional environments. Both soils and stream sediments from the Upper and Lower Coastal Plains show derivation from similar materials and subsequent similar multi-element relationships, but have some distinct differences. In the Lower Coastal Plain, soils have high values of elements concentrated in heavy minerals (Ce, Y, Th) that grade into high values of elements concentrated into finer-grain-size, lower-density materials, primarily comprised of carbonates and feldspar minerals (Mg, Ca, Na, K, Al). These gradational trends in mineralogy and geochemistry are inferred to reflect reworking of materials during marine transgressions and regressions. Upper Coastal Plain stream-sediment geochemistry shows a higher winnowing index relative to soil geochemistry. A comparison of the 4 media (Upper Coastal Plain soils and stream sediments and Lower Coastal Plain soils and stream sediments) shows that Upper Coastal Plain stream sediments have a higher winnowing index and a higher concentration of elements contained within heavy minerals, whereas Lower Coastal Plain stream sediments show a strong correlation between elements typically contained within clays. It is not possible to calculate a functional relationship between stream sediment-soil compositions for all elements due to the complex history of weathering, deposition, reworking and re-deposition. However, depending on

  18. How sedge meadow soils, microtopography, and vegetation respond to sedimentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, K.J.; Zedler, Joy B.

    2002-01-01

    The expansion of urban and agricultural activities in watersheds of the Midwestern USA facilitates the conversion of species-rich sedge meadows to stands of Phalaris arundinacea and Typha spp. We document the role of sediment accumulation in this process based on field surveys of three sedge meadows dominated by Carex stricta, their adjacent Phalaris or Typha stands, and transitions from Carex to these invasive species. The complex microtopography of Carex tussocks facilitates the occurrence of other native species. Tussock surface area and species richness were positively correlated in two marshes (r2 = 0.57 and 0.41); on average, a 33-cm-tall tussock supported 7.6 species. Phalaris also grew in tussock form in wetter areas but did not support native species. We found an average of 10.5 Carex tussocks per 10-m transect, but only 3.5 Phalaris tussocks. Microtopographic relief, determined with a high-precision GPS, measured 11% greater in Carex meadows than Phalaris stands. Inflowing sediments reduced microtopographic variation and surface area for native species. We calculated a loss of one species per 1000 cm2 of lost tussock surface area, and loss of 1.2 species for every 10-cm addition of sediment over the sedge meadow surface. Alluvium overlying the sedge meadow soil had a smaller proportion of organic matter content and higher dry bulk density than the buried histic materials. We conclude that sedimentation contributes to the loss of native species in remnant wetlands. ?? 2002, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  19. Soil characteristics of sediment-amended baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps of coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Ming; Middleton, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Amendments of sediment from dredging activities have played an important role in raising the elevation of sinking coastal wetlands. This study compared the soil characteristics of sediment- amended coastal swamps in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve with natural swamps along Bayou des Familles. The sandy sediment amendments used in the coastal forests had different soil texture and characteristics than the more organic soils of the natural swamps. Three years after the application of these sediments on the sediment-amended swamps, dewatering and compaction of the sediment had occurred but the sediment still had high salinity and bulk density, and low organic matter content. The two sediment-amended swamps differed from each other in that Site 1 had a higher elevation (mean = 25 cm higher) and drier soil than Site 2. The effects of sediment in coastal forested wetlands require separate consideration from studies of salt marshes, e.g., the weight of the sediment might damage tree roots, or the amendments might influence soil stability during storms in a different way. Generally, this study suggests that shallower depths of sediment are more likely to yield environments beneficial to these sinking baldcypress swamps in coastal Louisiana.

  20. Combined effects of tides, evaporation and rainfall on the soil conditions in an intertidal creek-marsh system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Pei; Zhou, Tingzhang; Lu, Chunhui; Shen, Chengji; Zhang, Chenming; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Li, Ling

    2017-05-01

    Salt marshes, distributed globally at the land-ocean interface, are a highly productive eco-system with valuable ecological functions. While salt marshes are affected by various eco-geo-hydrological processes and factors, soil moisture and salinity affect plant growth and play a key role in determining the structure and functions of the marsh ecosystem. To examine the variations of both soil parameters, we simulated pore-water flow and salt transport in a creek-marsh system subjected to spring-neap tides, evaporation and rainfall. The results demonstrated that within a sandy-loam marsh, the tide-induced pore-water circulation averted salt build-up due to evaporation in the near-creek area. In the marsh interior where the horizontal drainage was weak, density-driven flow was responsible for dissipating salt accumulation in the shallow soil layer. In the sandy-loam marsh, the combined influences of spring-neap tides, rainfall and evaporation led to the formation of three characteristic zones, c.f., a near-creek zone with low soil water saturation (i.e., well-aerated) and low pore-water salinity as affected by the semi-diurnal spring tides, a less well-aerated zone with increased salinity where drainage occurred during the neap tides, and an interior zone where evaporation and rainfall infiltration regulated the soil conditions. These characteristics, however, varied with the soil type. In low-permeability silt-loam and clay-loam marshes, the tide-induced drainage weakened and the soil conditions over a large area became dominated by evaporation and rainfall. Sea level rise was found to worsen the soil aeration condition but inhibit salt accumulation due to evaporation. These findings shed lights on the soil conditions underpinned by various hydrogeological processes, and have important implications for further investigations on marsh plant growth and ecosystem functions.

  1. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic matter in soils and sediments is widely distributed over the earth's surface occurring in almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments (Schnitzer, 1978). Soils and sediments contain a large variety of organic materials ranging from simple sugars and carbohydrates to th...

  2. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC) IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic matter in soils and sediments is widely distributed over the earth's surface occurring in almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments (Schnitzer, 1978). Soils and sediments contain a large variety of organic materials ranging from simple sugars and carbohydrates to th...

  3. Effects of soil surface roughness on interrill erosion processes and sediment particle size distribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil surface roughness significantly impacts runoff and erosion under rainfall. Few previous studies on runoff generation focused on the effects of soil surface roughness on the sediment particle size distribution (PSD), which greatly affects interrill erosion and sedimentation processes. To address...

  4. Simultaneous Recovery of RNA and DNA from Soils and Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Richard A.; Qiu, Xiaoyun; Wu, Liyou; Roh, Yul; Palumbo, A. V.; Tiedje, J. M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2001-01-01

    Recovery of mRNA from environmental samples for measurement of in situ metabolic activities is a significant challenge. A robust, simple, rapid, and effective method was developed for simultaneous recovery of both RNA and DNA from soils of diverse composition by adapting our previous grinding-based cell lysis method (Zhou et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62:316–322, 1996) for DNA extraction. One of the key differences is that the samples are ground in a denaturing solution at a temperature below 0°C to inactivate nuclease activity. Two different methods were evaluated for separating RNA from DNA. Among the methods examined for RNA purification, anion exchange resin gave the best results in terms of RNA integrity, yield, and purity. With the optimized protocol, intact RNA and high-molecular-weight DNA were simultaneously recovered from 19 soil and stream sediment samples of diverse composition. The RNA yield from these samples ranged from 1.4 to 56 μg g of soil−1 dry weight), whereas the DNA yield ranged from 23 to 435 μg g−1. In addition, studies with the same soil sample showed that the DNA yield was, on average, 40% higher than that in our previous procedure and 68% higher than that in a commercial bead milling method. For the majority of the samples, the DNA and RNA recovered were of sufficient purity for nuclease digestion, microarray hybridization, and PCR or reverse transcription-PCR amplification. PMID:11571148

  5. Short-term ecological risks of depositing contaminated sediment on arable soil.

    PubMed

    Peijnenburg, Willie; de Groot, Arthur; Jager, Tjalling; Posthuma, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Sediments act as sinks of suspended material from surface water. Dredging of regional waters and subsequent disposal of the sediment on soil may lead to contamination of the soil, in some cases resulting in exceedance of soil quality standards. Soil quality standards are based on total concentrations. Total levels, however, do not always give an indication of adverse effects in soil ecosystems. Instead, truly bioavailable concentrations should be used as indicators. In this study we aim to test a set of suited indicators. We carried out partition and accumulation assays with metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and mixtures of soil and sediment, as well as a limited number of toxicity bioassays. We also investigated the rate of disappearance of PAHs from mixtures of sediments and soils. The experiments confirm that total levels indeed are not indicative of truly occurring toxic effects: mixing of highly contaminated sediments with soil hardly gave rise to either additional accumulation of metals and PAHs or excess toxicity. This indicates that the bioavailability of the metals and PAHs present in the sediment is limited. This general finding is confirmed by the low rate of disappearance of PAHs from the mixtures. It is concluded that inclusion of the aspects of bioavailability, mixture toxicity, and degradation, in the way described in this report, will solve the major limitations of the current methodology of classification of contaminated sediments.

  6. Residues of HCHs and DDTs in soils and sediments of preconstructing urban wetland.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Hong, Bing; Zhou, Shoubiao; Zhao, Juan; Xia, Chuanjun; Liu, Hui

    2012-09-01

    Residues of hexachlorohexanes isomers (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites (DDTs) in the soils and sediments of Dayanghan Wetland in Wuhu, China were investigated. The concentrations of ΣHCH in soils and sediments averaged 1.35 and 3.77 μg/kg with the predominance of β-HCH and δ-HCH, respectively. The concentrations of ΣDDT in soils and sediments averaged of 7.80 and 2.80 μg/kg, respectively, with the dominance of o, p'-DDT. The concentrations of HCHs in the soils and sediments and DDTs in the sediments were categorized as no pollution, but the level of DDTs in the soils was classified as low pollution.

  7. Comparative phosphorus sorption by marine sediments and agricultural soils in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Fox, Robert L; Fares, Ali; Wan, Y; Evensen, Carl I

    2006-01-01

    The influence of soil phosphorus (P) sources on P sorption characteristics of marine sediments was investigated for Pearl Harbor and off shore Molokai in Hawaii. Estuary sediments were sampled in seven locations; these represented different soils and on-shore activities. The soil samples included nine major soils that contributed sediment to the Harbor and coastal sediments near the island of Molokai. Sediment and soil samples were equilibrated for 6 days in 0.01 M CaCl(2) solution and synthetic seawater containing differing amounts of P. Phosphorus sorption curves were constructed. The equilibrated solution P, with no P added, ranged from 0.01 to 0.2 mg L(-1); P sorption by sediments at standard solution concentration 0.2 mg L(-1), ranged from 0 to 230 mg kg(-1). Sediment P sorption corresponded closely with soil sorption characteristics. Soils contributing sediments to the west reach of Pearl Harbor are highly weathered Oxisols with high standard P sorption values while those in the southeast of the Harbor were Vertisols and Mollisols which sorb little P. The influence of source materials on sediment P sorption was also observed for off-shore sediments near Molokai. Sediments serve as both source and sink for P in Pearl Harbor and in this role can be a stabilizing influence on P concentration in the water column. Phosphorus sorption curves in conjunction with water quality data can help to understand P dynamics between sediments and the water column and help evaluate concerns about P loading to a water body. For Pearl Harbor, solution P in equilibrium with sediments from the Lochs was 0.021 mg L(-1); a value unlikely to produce an algal bloom. (Measured total P in the water columns (mean) was 0.060.).

  8. Nitrate retention capacity of milldam-impacted legacy sediments and relict A horizon soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzman, Julie N.; Kaye, Jason P.

    2017-05-01

    While eutrophication is often attributed to contemporary nutrient pollution, there is growing evidence that past practices, like the accumulation of legacy sediment behind historic milldams, are also important. Given their prevalence, there is a critical need to understand how N flows through, and is retained in, legacy sediments to improve predictions and management of N transport from uplands to streams in the context of climatic variability and land-use change. Our goal was to determine how nitrate (NO3-) is cycled through the soil of a legacy-sediment-strewn stream before and after soil drying. We extracted 10.16 cm radius intact soil columns that extended 30 cm into each of the three significant soil horizons at Big Spring Run (BSR) in Lancaster, Pennsylvania: surface legacy sediment characterized by a newly developing mineral A horizon soil, mid-layer legacy sediment consisting of mineral B horizon soil and a dark, organic-rich, buried relict A horizon soil. Columns were first preincubated at field capacity and then isotopically labeled nitrate (15NO3-) was added and allowed to drain to estimate retention. The columns were then air-dried and subsequently rewet with N-free water and allowed to drain to quantify the drought-induced loss of 15NO3- from the different horizons. We found the highest initial 15N retention in the mid-layer legacy sediment (17 ± 4 %) and buried relict A soil (14 ± 3 %) horizons, with significantly lower retention in the surface legacy sediment (6 ± 1 %) horizon. As expected, rewetting dry soil resulted in 15N losses in all horizons, with the greatest losses in the buried relict A horizon soil, followed by the mid-layer legacy sediment and surface legacy sediment horizons. The 15N remaining in the soil following the post-drought leaching was highest in the mid-layer legacy sediment, intermediate in the surface legacy sediment, and lowest in the buried relict A horizon soil. Fluctuations in the water table at BSR which affect

  9. Amending soils with sediment material from constructed wetlands increases phosphorus sorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, Johanna; Uusitalo, Risto; Leppänen, Janette; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2017-04-01

    Sediment of agricultural constructed wetlands (CWs) is comprised of matter eroded from surrounding fields. This material is rich in aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe) (hydr)oxides that have a high affinity for phosphorus (P). Sediment material returned to fields could therefore affect soil P retention characteristics. We incubated a clay soil with a high soil test P (STP, 24 mg PAc l-1; extracted with pH 4.65 ammonium acetate buffer) and a sandy loam with excessive STP (210 mg PAc l-1) for three weeks with increasing amounts of CW sediment: 0, 2, 5, 10 and 50% of the sample volume. After incubation, the soil-sediment mixtures were studied with the quantity/intensity (Q/I) technique, using chemical extractions and by exposing the mixtures to simulated rainfall. Sorption affinity for P regularly increased with increasing the sediment share of the mixtures, the 0% sediment content having the lowest and 50% sediment content the highest P sorption. With 0% sediment application, the value of equilibrium P concentration (EPC0) determined by Q/I technique, was 0.69 and 44.3 mg l-1 for clay soil and sandy loam, respectively. With 2-5% sediment amendment, the EPC0 decreased 13-36% for clay soil and 13-54% for sandy loam. The 50% sediment mixtures had EPC0 of 0.05 mg l-1 for both soils. At a practically feasible sediment addition rate of 5%, dissolved reactive P (DRP) in percolating water from simulated rainfall decreased by 55% in the clay soil and 54% in sandy loam (p<0.001 in both cases). Particulate-P (PP) also showed a decreasing trend with increasing sediment addition rate. Upon prolonged simulated rainfall, the decreasing effect of sediment on DRP and PP declined somewhat. The effects of sediment addition can be attributed partly to increased salt concentrations in the sediment, which have a short-term effect on P mobilisation, but mostly to increased concentrations of Al and Fe (hydr)oxides, increasing long-term P sorption capacity. Amending the soils with sediment material

  10. Effects of biochar on soil infiltration, runoff and sediment production on a slopeland red soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jien, Shih-Hao; Chen, Jyun-Yuan; Liao, Chien-Sen

    2016-04-01

    Biochar has been considered as a useful amendment to ameliorate soil physical and chemical properties. This study aims to incorporate a wood biochar (WB), pyrolized by 400℃, into a clayey red soil with a slope gradient of 5o to improve infiltration and reduce runoff and sediment production. Field trials were conducted in four treatments including control, biochar (4%, w/w) (WB), compost (1%) + biochar (4%) (CWB) and polyacrylamide in 50 ppm (PAM) in this study. An erosion experiment was performed by a rainfall simulator in a rainfall intensity of 70 mm/hr after 12 months. The runoff and sediments were collected and weighted for each treatment. The results displayed that runoff amounts were obviously reduced by 2.3% -6.3% in treatments of WB and CWB compared with the control, but not in PAM. On contrary, the infiltration rates were obviously increased by 7.4%-18% in the treatment of WB and CWB compared with the control, but reduced by 25% in PAM treatment. After 12 months, all treatments could effectively prevent clayey soil from erosion, particularly in PAM. In conclusion, biochar could be an alternative strategy for improvement of permeability and erodibility compared with PAM practice on mild slopeland soils.

  11. Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of the Carquinez Strait. Quarterly progress report, January 1996--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Benson, S.M.; Brownfield, A.A.

    1996-04-01

    This quarterly report describes research on selenium (Se) cycling in the marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 1996. Chapter 2 contains descriptions of results of extractions and analyses of sediment cores from the intertidal zone of the Martinez and Benicia field sites, including some x-ray spectroscopy data related to the characterization of the sediment Eh-pH regime. Chapter 3 contains a summary of work in progress on the extraction of various Se species from sediment/soil samples, and efforts in measuring suspended sediment Se. Chapter 4 is an update on stable Se isotope research and Se purification techniques. Chapter 5 describes the rationale, design, and preliminary results of a plant-Se study. Chapter 6 presents the design of a recently initiated sediment dynamics study. The leader is referred to the 1995 Annual Report for details on the project design, site selection, and methodology.

  12. Heat transport dynamics at a sandy intertidal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kevin M.; Cardenas, M. Bayani; Erler, Dirk V.; Santos, Isaac R.; Eyre, Bradley D.

    2013-06-01

    Intertidal zones are spatially complex and temporally dynamic environments. Coastal groundwater discharge, including submarine groundwater discharge, may provide stabilizing conditions for intertidal zone permeable sediments. In this study, we integrated detailed time series temperature observations, porewater pressure measurements, and two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography profiles to understand the coupled hydraulic-thermal regime of a tropical sandy intertidal zone in a fringing coral reef lagoon (Rarotonga, Cook Islands). We found three heating patterns across the 15 m study transect over tidal and diel periods: (1) a highly variable thermal regime dominated by swash infiltration and changes in saturation state in the upper foreshore with net heat import into the sediment, (2) a groundwater-supported underground stable, cool region just seaward of the intertidal slope break also importing heat into the subsurface, and (3) a zone of seawater recirculation that sustained consistently warm subsurface temperatures that exported heat across the sediment-water interface. Simple calculations suggested thermal conduction as the main heat transport mechanism for the shallow intertidal sediment, but deeper and/or multidimensional groundwater flow was required to explain temperature patterns beyond 20 cm depth. Temperature differences between the distinct hydrodynamic zones of the foreshore site resulted in significant thermal gradients that persisted beyond tidal and diel periods. The thermal buffering of intertidal zones by coastal groundwater systems, both at surface seeps and in the shallow subsurface, can be responsible for thermal refugia for some coastal organisms and hotspots for biogeochemical reactions.

  13. Quantification of activated carbon contents in soils and sediments using chemothermal and wet oxidation methods.

    PubMed

    Brändli, Rahel C; Bergsli, Anders; Ghosh, Upal; Hartnik, Thomas; Breedveld, Gijs D; Cornelissen, Gerard

    2009-12-01

    Activated carbon (AC) strongly sorbs organic pollutants and can be used for remediation of soils and sediments. A method for AC quantification is essential to monitor AC (re)distribution. Since AC is black carbon (BC), two methods for BC quantification were tested for AC mixed in different soils and sediments: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet-chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. For three soils, the amount of AC was accurately determined by CTO at 375 degrees C. For two sediments, however, much of the AC disappeared during combustion at 375 degrees C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects by sediment constituents. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350 degrees C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation effectively functioned for AC quantification in sediments, with almost complete AC recovery (81-92%) and low remaining amounts of native organic carbon (5-16%).

  14. Influence of Cultivation and Cropping Systems on Production of Soil Sediment on Agricultural Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poposka, Hristina; Mukaetov, Dusko

    2017-04-01

    Soil conservation practices and in particular soil tillage and crop cultivation patterns are becoming an important issue in agricultural production. Combating soil erosion and diminishing its negative impact on agricultural soil imposes as a matter of vital interest which gained even greater significance, in a pronounced negative impact of climate change. Main objective of the three-year research and monitoring program was to evaluate the effects of the easy-to-use adaptive measures on intensity of soil erosion, and soil properties considering to be of crucial importance on run-off velocity and sediment loss, like: soil structure stability, soil infiltration rate, soil organic matter and soil moisture conservation. The influence of soil tillage practices and different cropping systems on soil intensity and sediment loss, has been monitored on specially designed soil erosion fields with standard dimensions (20m length x 4m. width), on a sloppy terrain (12% slope). The experimental field is located on heavily textured Chromic cambisol on saprolite. This is the predominant soil type on the sloppy terrains in the country, usually under intensive agricultural activities Soil texture and physical characteristics were thoroughly investigated in order to determine the base soil conditions. The influence of downslope and contour ploughing on quantity of eroded sediment has been monitored in three consecutive years. The eroded sediment has been collected periodically on a weekly base and after intensive rainfalls. The intensity of soil erosion under most widespread cropping systems in the country, like: a) cereals as a monoculture, b) crop rotation, and c) perennial grass, was monitored as well. The collected sediment was examined in order to determine the quantity of soil organic matter and nutrient loss (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). Soil chemical properties are examined after each vegetative season in order to quantify the effect of tillage and cropping systems on

  15. Study of sediment movement in an irrigated maize-cotton system combining rainfall simulations, sediment tracers and soil erosion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Gema; Laguna, Ana; Cañasveras, Juan Carlos; Boulal, Hakim; Barrón, Vidal; Gómez-Macpherson, Helena; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    Although soil erosion is one of the main threats to agriculture sustainability in many areas of the world, its processes are difficult to measure and still need a better characterization. The use of iron oxides as sediment tracers, combined with erosion and mixing models opens up a pathway for improving the knowledge of the erosion and redistribution of soil, determining sediment sources and sinks. In this study, magnetite and a multivariate mixing model were used in rainfall simulations at the micro-plot scale to determine the source of the sediment at different stages of a furrow-ridge system both with (+T) and without (-T) wheel tracks. At a plot scale, magnetite, hematite and goethite combined with two soil erosion models based on the kinematic wave approach were used in a sprinkler irrigation test to study trends in sediment transport and tracer dynamics along furrow lengths under a wide range of scenarios. In the absence of any stubble cover, sediment contribution from the ridges was larger than the furrow bed one, almost 90%, while an opposite trend was observed with stubble, with a smaller contribution from the ridge (32%) than that of the bed, at the micro-plot trials. Furthermore, at a plot scale, the tracer concentration analysis showed an exponentially decreasing trend with the downstream distance both for sediment detachment along furrows and soil source contribution from tagged segments. The parameters of the distributed model KINEROS2 have been estimated using the PEST Model to obtain a more accurate evaluation. Afterwards, this model was used to simulate a broad range of common scenarios of topography and rainfall from commercial farms in southern Spain. Higher slopes had a significant influence on sediment yields while long furrow distances allowed a more efficient water use. For the control of runoff, and therefore soil loss, an equilibrium between irrigation design (intensity, duration, water pattern) and hydric needs of the crops should be

  16. Effect of aggregation on SOC transport: linking soil properties to sediment organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Soils are an interface between the Earth's spheres and shaped by the nature of the interaction between them. The relevance of soil properties for the nature of the interaction between atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere is well-studied and accepted, on point- or ecotone-scale. However, this understanding of the largely vertical connections between spheres is not matched by a similar recognition of soil properties affecting processes acting largely in a lateral way across the land surface, such as erosion, transport and deposition of soil and the associated organic matter. Understanding the redistribution of eroded soil organic matter falls into several disciplines, most notably soil science, agronomy, hydrology and geomorphology, and recently into biogeochemistry. Accordingly, the way soil and sediment are described differs: in soil science, aggregation and structure are essential properties, while most process-based soil erosion models treat soil as a mixture of individual mineral grains, based on concepts derived in fluvial geomorphology or civil engineering. The actual behavior of aggregated sediment and the associated organic matter is not reflected by either approach and difficult to capture due to the dynamic nature of aggregation, especially in an environment such as running water. Still, a proxy to assess the uncertainties introduced by aggregation on the behavior of soil/sediment organic while moving in water across landscapes and into the aquatic system would represent a major step forward. To develop such a proxy, a database collating relevant soil, organic matter and sediment properties could serve as an initial step to identify which soil types and erosion scenarios are prone to generate a high uncertainty compared to the use of soil texture in erosion models. Furthermore, it could serve to develop standardized analytical procedures for appropriate description of soil and organic matter as sediment.

  17. Integration of remote sensing, RUSLE and GIS to model potential soil loss and sediment yield (SY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaludin, H.; Lihan, T.; Rahman, Z. Ali; Mustapha, M. A.; Idris, W. M. R.; Rahim, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Land use activities within a basin serve as one of the contributing factors which cause deterioration of river water quality through its potential effect on erosion. Sediment yield in the form of suspended solid in the river water body which is transported to the coastal area occurs as a sign of lowering of the water quality. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine potential soil loss using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model and the sediment yield, in the Geographical Information Systems (GIS) environment within selected sub-catchments of Pahang River Basin. RUSLE was used to estimate potential soil losses and sediment yield by utilizing information on rainfall erosivity (R) using interpolation of rainfall data, soil erodibility (K) using field measurement and soil map, vegetation cover (C) using satellite images, topography (LS) using DEM and conservation practices (P) using satellite images. The results indicated that the rate of potential soil loss in these sub-catchments ranged from very low to extremely high. The area covered by very low to low potential soil loss was about 99%, whereas moderate to extremely high soil loss potential covered only about 1% of the study area. Sediment yield represented only 1% of the potential soil loss. The sediment yield (SY) value in Pahang River turned out to be higher closer to the river mouth because of the topographic character, climate, vegetation type and density, and land use within the drainage basin.

  18. Applicability of diffusive gradients in thin films for measuring Mn in soils and freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Mundus, Simon; Tandy, Susan; Cheng, Hao; Lombi, Enzo; Husted, Søren; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Hao

    2011-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant nutrient, receiving increased attention due to significant deficiency problems in modern crop production. In aquatic sediments, Mn plays an important role in controlling the mobility of other elements due to its high redox sensitivity. Diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is recognized as one of the most promising techniques to assess plant availability of nutrients in soils and mobility in sediments. However, the appropriate conditions where DGT can be used to measure Mn in soils and sediments have not been thoroughly investigated. We deployed DGTs in soil, sediment, and solution to investigate the effect of pH and competition from Ca and Fe ions. We found that by using DGT it is possible to accurately measure Mn in soils at pH levels and Ca and Fe concentrations resembling those of normal and fertile agricultural soils. However, in acid soils at pH below 5.5, Mn measurements might be biased due to potential competition effects caused by Ca. Soil deployments showed that changes in soil redox conditions were closely reflected by the DGT based Mn measurements. This might enable a novel approach of using DGT to predict Mn mobility and plant availability in soils. In reducing aquatic sediments, high concentrations of ferrous ions can displace Mn from the resin-gel of the DGT device. We found this to be a significant problem with longer deployment times.

  19. Quantifying and modeling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernet, A. K.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Soil erosion is a power process that continuously alters the Earth's landscape. Human activities, such as construction and agricultural practices, and natural events, such as forest fires and landslides, disturb the landscape and intensify erosion processes leading to sudden increases in runoff sediment concentrations and degraded stream water quality. Understanding soil erosion and sediment transport processes is of great importance to researchers and practicing engineers, who routinely use models to predict soil erosion and sediment movement for varied land use and climate change scenarios. However, existing erosion models are limited in their applicability to constructions sites which have highly variable soil conditions (density, moisture, surface roughness, and best management practices) that change often in both space and time. The goal of this research is to improve the understanding, predictive capabilities and integration of treatment methodologies for controlling soil erosion and sediment export from construction sites. This research combines modeling with field monitoring and laboratory experiments to quantify: (a) spatial and temporal distribution of soil conditions on construction sites, (b) soil erosion due to event rainfall, and (c) potential offsite discharge of sediment with and without treatment practices. Field sites in southern California were selected to monitor the effects of common construction activities (ex., cut/fill, grading, foundations, roads) on soil conditions and sediment discharge. Laboratory experiments were performed in the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL), part of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University, to quantify the impact of individual factors leading to sediment export. SERL experiments utilize a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 m, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). Preliminary modeling, field and laboratory

  20. Origin of basaltic soils at Gusev crater, Mars, by aeolian modification of impact-generated sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Ian O.; Fedo, Christopher M.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.

    2011-04-01

    Textural properties of soils including grain size, sorting, modality, skewness, shape (quantified as sphericity and qualified as form), roundness, and grain size distribution, have been measured and calculated from Microscopic Imager (MI) high-resolution images from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit in Gusev crater. Soil targets were classified by grain size into five groups: fine to medium sand dark soil, medium sand to very fine pebble bed form armor, and very fine to medium pebble lithic fragments, a bimodal mixed soil, and an excavated soil trench. The abundance of submature, very poorly sorted, bimodal mixed soils indicates incomplete sorting by soil type. Probability distributions of excavated subsurface soil match crushed sediment analogs, indicating impact comminution, while all other soils show no direct evidence of an impact origin. If soils were produced primarily by impacts, then the evidence from probability distributions, angular shapes, and agglutinates have been reworked by postimpact surface activity. Soils in Gusev crater are continuously modified, reworked, and sandblasted. Textures of surface sediments are disconnected from subsurface textures and only reflect modern surficial aeolian processes. Models to reconstruct physical and chemical soil formation properties should not assume a static three-dimensional structure. A three-step model, initiated by the formation of basaltic crust and its alteration, followed by bolide impact, and finally modification by aeolian reworking is envisioned for the formation of soils. Such a scenario accounts for the potential that surface sediments may be compositionally and texturally distinct from the subsurface.

  1. Microbial biofilms in intertidal systems: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decho, Alan W.

    2000-07-01

    Intertidal marine systems are highly dynamic systems which are characterized by periodic fluctuations in environmental parameters. Microbial processes play critical roles in the remineralization of nutrients and primary production in intertidal systems. Many of the geochemical and biological processes which are mediated by microorganisms occur within microenvironments which can be measured over micrometer spatial scales. These processes are localized by cells within a matrix of extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS), collectively called a "microbial biofilm". Recent examinations of intertidal systems by a range of investigators using new approaches show an abundance of biofilm communities. The purpose of this overview is to examine recent information concerning the roles of microbial biofilms in intertidal systems. The microbial biofilm is a common adaptation of natural bacteria and other microorganisms. In the fluctuating environments of intertidal systems, biofilms form protective microenvironments and may structure a range of microbial processes. The EPS matrix of biofilm forms sticky coatings on individual sediment particles and detrital surfaces, which act as a stabilizing anchor to buffer cells and their extracellular processes during the frequent physical stresses (e.g., changes in salinity and temperature, UV irradiation, dessication). EPS is an operational definition designed to encompass a range of large microbially-secreted molecules having widely varying physical and chemical properties, and a range of biological roles. Examinations of EPS using Raman and Fourier-transform infared spectroscopy, and atomic-force microscopy suggest that some EPS gels possess physical and chemical properties which may hasten the development of sharp geochemical gradients, and contribute a protective effect to cells. Biofilm polymers act as a sorptive sponge which binds and concentrates organic molecules and ions close to cells. Concurrently, the EPS appear to localize

  2. Long-term sediment yield from small catchment in southern Brazil affected by land use and soil management changes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Merten, Gustavo; Alessandra Peixoto de Barros, Claudia; Dalbianco, Leandro; Ramon, Rafael; Schlesner, Alexandre

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment yield are the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. Despite this, there is a lack of information about the effects of the soil management on the hydrology and sediment yield at catchment scale. This study aimed to investigate the long-term relationship between the land use and sediment yield in a small catchment with significant changes in soil management, and its impacts on soil erosion and sediment yield. To account the anthropogenic and climatic effects on sediment yield were monitored precipitation, stream flow and suspended sediment concentration during thirteen years (2002 and 2014) at 10 minutes interval and the changes that occurred each year in the land use and soil management. Despite the influence of climate on the sediment yield, the results clearly show three distinct periods affected by the land use and soil management changes during this this period. In the first four years (2002-2004) the predominant land use was the tobacco with traditional soil management, where the soils are plough every year and without winter cover crop. In this period the sediment yield reached the order of 160 t.ha-1.y-1. In the period of 2005-2009, a soil conservation program introduced the adoption of minimum tillage in the catchment and the sediment yield decrease to 70 t.ha-1.y-1. In the last period (2010-2014) there was a partial return to the traditional soil management practices with an increase trend in sediment yield. However, there was also an increase in reforestation areas with positive effect in reducing erosion and sediment yield. The magnitude order of sediment yield in this period was 100 t.ha-1.y-1. The long term sediment yield data was able to demonstrate the impact of the improved management practices in reducing soil erosion and sediment yield. The results allowed a good understanding of the changing sediment dynamics and soil erosion at catchment scale.

  3. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  4. Temporal and spatial morphological variations along a cross-shore intertidal profile, Jiangsu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zheng; Jin, Chuang; Zhang, Changkuan; Zhou, Zeng; Zhang, Qian; Li, Huan

    2017-07-01

    Fifteen monthly field surveys were conducted from September 2012 to November 2013 at ten representative stations along a cross-shore profile, covering the entire tidal flat. Results indicate that tidal currents significantly affect bed level variations over bare flats, while subsurface processes (e.g., soil subsidence and expansion) are likely to play an important role in changing the bed level of the upper intertidal flat where salt marshes are present. The cross-shore profile shows a clear double-convex shape, and different geomorphic zones display distinctive variation. Above the mean high water level (MHWL), the bed level is generally stable. The region around the MHWL, where the upper convex point is present, is a location of high sedimentation due to the weaker hydrodynamic conditions and the settling and scour lag effects, it keeps growing with the increase of inundation frequency. A concave point occurs in the middle part of the intertidal flat, showing considerable erosion. Near the mean low water level (MLWL), the lower convex point is elevated due to the long-shore tidal current and associated sediment transport (the flood dominated transport during summer exceeds the ebb dominated transport during winter, hence the net effect favors sedimentation). Further seawards, the area below the MLWL is strongly eroded. The cross-shore profile follows a ;stable-accretional-erosional-accretional-erosional; sequence. Overall, the measurements indicate that the interplay among vegetation, hydrodynamics and sediment transport is critical in shaping the cross-shore morphology of the intertidal flats along the Jiangsu coast of China.

  5. METAL SPECIATION IN SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND WATER SYSTEMS VIA SYNCHROTRON RADIATION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal contaminated environmental systems (soils, sediments, and water) have challenged researchers for many years. Traditional methods of analysis have employed extraction methods to determine total metal content and define risk based on the premise that as metal concentration in...

  6. METAL SPECIATION IN SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND WATER SYSTEMS VIA SYNCHROTRON RADIATION RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal contaminated environmental systems (soils, sediments, and water) have challenged researchers for many years. Traditional methods of analysis have employed extraction methods to determine total metal content and define risk based on the premise that as metal concentration in...

  7. Ecoenzymatic Stoichiometry of Microbial Organic Nutrient Acquisition in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial soils and freshwater sediments contain reserves of organic carbon estimated at 1500 Pg and 0.2 Pg, respectively. Mineralization of this organic matter by heterotrophic microorganisms drives global carbon and nutrient cycles, controlling plant production and atmospher...

  8. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  9. Ecoenzymatic Stoichiometry of Microbial Organic Nutrient Acquisition in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial soils and freshwater sediments contain reserves of organic carbon estimated at 1500 Pg and 0.2 Pg, respectively. Mineralization of this organic matter by heterotrophic microorganisms drives global carbon and nutrient cycles, controlling plant production and atmospher...

  10. DYNAMICS OF MINERAL STRUCTURES AND THE FATE OF METALS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating sorption reactions that control the partitioning of metals from solution to mineral surfaces in contaminated soil/sediment systems. Surface complexation models have been developed to quantify the forward reaction with reasonable ...

  11. NEW GIS WATERSHED ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR SOIL CHARACTERIZATION AND EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive procedure for computing soil erosion and sediment delivery metrics has been developed which utilizes a suite of automated scripts and a pair of processing-intensive executable programs operating on a personal computer platform.

  12. NEW GIS WATERSHED ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR SOIL CHARACTERIZATION AND EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive procedure for computing soil erosion and sediment delivery metrics has been developed which utilizes a suite of automated scripts and a pair of processing-intensive executable programs operating on a personal computer platform.

  13. DYNAMICS OF MINERAL STRUCTURES AND THE FATE OF METALS IN SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating sorption reactions that control the partitioning of metals from solution to mineral surfaces in contaminated soil/sediment systems. Surface complexation models have been developed to quantify the forward reaction with reasonable ...

  14. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  15. Determination of radioactivity levels and hazards of soil and sediment samples in Firtina Valley (Rize, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kurnaz, A; Küçükömeroğlu, B; Keser, R; Okumusoglu, N T; Korkmaz, F; Karahan, G; Cevik, U

    2007-11-01

    The natural radioactivity levels in soil and sediment samples of Firtina Valley have been determined. To our knowledge, there seems to be no information about radioactivity level in the Firtina Valley soils and sediments so far. For this reason, soil and sediment samples were collected along the Firtina Valley and analysis on the collected samples were carried out to determine 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radioisotopes using high purity germanium detector. The activity concentrations obtained for 226Ra, 214Pb, 214Bi, 228Ac, 208Tl, 40K and 137Cs are given in the unit of Bq/kg. The results have been compared with other radioactivity measurements in different country's soils and sediments. The radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the external hazard index (Hex), the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) and the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) were also calculated and compared with the international recommended values.

  16. Laboratory measurements of upwelled radiance and reflectance spectra of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    An effort to investigate the potential of remote sensing for monitoring nonpoint source pollution was conducted. Spectral reflectance characteristics for four types of soil sediments were measured for mixture concentrations between 4 and 173 ppm. For measurements at a spectral resolution of 32 mm, the spectral reflectances of Calvert, Ball, Jordan, and Feldspar soil sediments were distinctly different over the wavelength range from 400 to 980 nm at each concentration tested. At high concentrations, spectral differences between the various sediments could be detected by measurements with a spectral resolution of 160 nm. At a low concentration, only small differences were observed between the various sediments when measurements were made with 160 nm spectral resolution. Radiance levels generally varied in a nonlinear manner with sediment concentration; linearity occurred in special cases, depending on sediment type, concentration range, and wavelength.

  17. Presumptive remedies for soils, sediments, and sludges at wood treater sites

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this directive is to provide guidance on selecting a presumptive remedy or combination of presumptive remedies for wood treater sites with contaminated soils, sediments, and sludges. Specifically, this guidance; describes the contaminants generally found at wood treater sites; presents the presumptive remedies for contaminated soils, sediments, and sludges at wood treater sites; describes the presumptive remedy process concerning the site characterization and technology screening steps; and outlines the data that should be used to select a presumptive remedy.

  18. A multi-component statistic analysis for the influence of sediment/soil composition on the sorption of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-100) onto natural sediments/soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lizhong; Yang, Kun; Lou, Baofeng; Yuan, Bihao

    2003-11-01

    The contents of soil/sediment organic carbon and clay minerals (i.e. montmorillonite, kaolinite, illite, gibbsite and 1.4 nm minerals) for 21 natural soil/sediment samples and the sorption of Triton X-100 on these samples were determined. A multi-component statistic analysis was employed to investigate the importance of soil/sediment organic matters and clay minerals on their sorption of Triton X-100. The sorption power of soil/sediment composition for Triton X-100 conforms to an order of montmorillonite>organic carbon>illite>1.4 nm minerals (vermiculite+chlorite+1.4 nm intergrade mineral)>kaolinite. The sorption of Triton X-100 on a montmorillonite, a kaolinite and a humic acid were also investigated and consistent with the result of multi-component statistic analysis. It is clear that the sorption of Triton X-100 on soils or sediments is the combined contribution of soil/sediment organic matters and clay minerals, which depended on both the contents of soil/sediment organic matters and the types and contents of clay minerals. The important influence of illite on the sorption of nonionic surfactants onto soils/sediments is suggested and demonstrated in this paper. Surfactants for aquifer remediation application may be more efficient for the contaminated soils/sediments that contain little clay minerals with 2:1 structure because of the less sorption of nonionic surfactants on these soils/sediments.

  19. In Situ Representation of Soil/Sediment Conductivity Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Qian; Zhang, Yueyong; Zhou, Qixing

    2016-01-01

    The electrical conductivity (EC) of soil is generally measured after soil extraction, so this method cannot represent the in situ EC of soil (e.g., EC of soils with different moisture contents) and therefore lacks comparability in some cases. Using a resistance measurement apparatus converted from a configuration of soil microbial fuel cell, the in situ soil EC was evaluated according to the Ohmic resistance (Rs) measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The EC of soils with moisture content from 9.1% to 37.5% was calculated according to Rs. A significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.896, p < 0.01) between the soil EC and the moisture content was observed, which demonstrated the feasibility of the approach. This new method can not only represent the actual soil EC, but also does not need any pretreatment. Thus it may be used widely in the measurement of the EC for soils and sediments. PMID:27144567

  20. Assessment of herbicide sorption by biochars and organic matter associated with soil and sediment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorption of two herbicides, fluridone (FLUN) and norflurazon (NORO), by whole sediment, two types of biochars and various soil/sediment organic matter (OM) fractions including nonhydrolyzable carbon (NHC), black carbon (BC) and humic acid (HA) was examined. The single-point organic carbon (OC)-norma...

  1. Selenium fractionation and cycling in the intertidal zone of Carquinez Strait. Quarterly progress report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Zawislanski, P.T.; Benson, S.M.; Brownfield, A.A.; Chau, S.

    1996-07-01

    This quarterly report describes research on selenium (Se) cycling in the marshes and mudflats of the Carquinez Strait between 4/1/96 and 6/30/96. Chapter 2 contains descriptions of results of extractions and analyses of sediment cores from the intertidal zone of the Martinez and Benicia field sites, including Se fractionation data from Martinez Regional Park. Chapter 3 contains a summary of work in progress on the extraction of various Se species from sediment/soil samples, and efforts in measuring suspended sediment Se. Chapter 4 is an update on stable Se isotope research and Se purification techniques. Chapter 5 describes the recent developments in low-level Se analytical methods. Chapter 6 presents preliminary sedimentation rate data from the Martinez field site. Exciting new developments in x-ray spectroscopy of clams are presented in Chapter 7. The reader is referred to the 1995 Annual Report for details on the project design, site selection, and methodology.

  2. Rainfall Erosion of Intertidal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R.

    2007-05-01

    A poorly quantified and mechanistically overlooked material cycling process in estuarine landscapes is rainfall- driven erosion of intertidal salt marsh and mudflat surfaces. During low tide rainsplash erosion and runoff may entrain carbon-rich sediment that, due to high cohesion, ordinarily is not mobilized by tidal currents and shallow water waves (e.g., a deachment limited landscape). Consequently, low tide rainfall may affect tidal creek network structure, creek network extension and nutrient cycling. Field manipulations and passive observations show that low tide rainfall events preferentially entrain highly nutritious intramarsh particulate matter, and in some cases with high concentrations of adsorbed metals. Once mobilized, the subtle topographic variations of the salt marsh landscape route runoff and the suspended load to intertidal creeks, and the subtidal water column. Hence low tide rainfall-runoff processes may enhance the cycling of, for example, benthic microalgae and their products, a primary carbon source for estuarine food webs. Once in the subtidal zone the material may be exported to the coastal ocean or it may be redeposited on the marsh surface with the next high tide, depending on tidal phase. Taken together these observations reveal one facet of salt marsh interactions between landscape structure- biological processes-physical processes.

  3. Atrazine, triketone herbicides, and their degradation products in sediment, soil and surface water samples in Poland.

    PubMed

    Barchanska, Hanna; Sajdak, Marcin; Szczypka, Kornelia; Swientek, Angelika; Tworek, Martyna; Kurek, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the sediment, soil and surface water contamination with selected popular triketone herbicides (mesotrione (MES) and sulcotrione(SUL)), atrazine (ATR) classified as a possible carcinogen and endocrine disrupting chemical, as well as their degradation products, in Silesia (Poland). Seventeen sediment samples, 24 soil samples, and 64 surface water samples collected in 2014 were studied. After solid-liquid extraction (SLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE), analytes were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). Ten years after the withdrawal from the use, ATR was not detected in any of the collected samples; however, its degradation products are still present in 41 % of sediment, 71 % of soil, and 8 % of surface water samples. SUL was determined in 85 % of soil samples; its degradation product (2-chloro-4-(methylosulfonyl) benzoic acid (CMBA)) was present in 43 % of soil samples. In 17 % of sediment samples, CMBA was detected. Triketones were detected occasionally in surface water samples. The chemometric analysis (clustering analysis (CA), single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA), N-Way ANOVA) was applied to find relations between selected soil and sediment parameters and herbicides concentration. In neither of the studied cases a statistically significant relationship between the concentrations of examined herbicides, their degradation products and soil parameters (organic carbon (OC), pH) was observed.

  4. Spiral-shaped graphoglyptids from an Early Permian intertidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minter, Nicholas J.; Buatois, Luis A.; Lucas, Spencer G.; Braddy, Simon J.; Smith, Joshua A.

    2006-12-01

    Spiral-shaped foraging trace fossils, assigned to the grapho glyptid cf. Spirorhaphe azteca, are reported from an Early Permian intertidal flat in the Robledo Mountains of southern New Mexico, USA. Remarkably similar spiral-shaped structures are produced in modern intertidal flats by the paraonid polychaete Paraonis fulgens, and function as traps to capture mobile microorganisms migrating in the sediment in response to tides. We envisage a similar function for the Early Permian trace fossils. Previous studies have suggested that the lack of P. fulgens type traces from ancient intertidal deposits indicates that such behavior only evolved geologically recently in such settings. However, this report demonstrates that such specialized foraging behavior was present in intertidal settings by at least the Early Permian. Graphoglyptids are typical of deep-marine settings, and characteristic of the Nereites ichnofacies. This represents their first undoubted occurrence in intertidal facies in the geological record. We postulate that the occurrence of graphoglyptids in deep-marine and intertidal settings is related to the predictability of resources. The scarcity of intertidal graphoglyptids in the geological record is most likely a preservational effect.

  5. Field measurements on spatial variations in aeolian sediment availability at the Sand Motor mega nourishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoonhout, Bas; de Vries, Sierd

    2017-02-01

    Spatial variations in aeolian sediment transport were measured at the Sand Motor mega nourishment in The Netherlands during a six week field campaign in the fall of 2014. A consistent significant increase in sediment transport in downwind direction (positive gradient) was measured over the intertidal beach area, indicating that the intertidal beach is a primary source of aeolian sediment, despite the high soil moisture contents. A small positive increase in transport in downwind direction was measured over the dry beach, indicating that local aeolian sediment supply was hampered. A consistent decrease in sediment transport in downwind direction (negative gradient) was measured at the transition between intertidal and dry beach, indicating local deposition of sediment. The negative gradients coincide with the berm edge and the onset of a shell pavement. Therefore deposition might be promoted by morphological feedback between a berm and the wind and the entrapment of sediment in the beach armor layer. The local sediment deposits cause the sediment supply to the dunes to be continued even during high water, resulting in a phased process. The influence of the beach armor layer reduces during storm events as the armor layer itself is being mobilized.

  6. The Effect of the Subsurface Soil Water Regime on Sediment Production and Movement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil erosion and sediment transport in agricultural watersheds are highly complicated processes involving a large array of soil properties, surface conditions, and flow regimes. The preponderance of early research on upland areas in agricultural watersheds was motivated by concern for the loss of ag...

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and soils from oil exploration areas of the Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sojinu, O S Samuel; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Sonibare, O O; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2010-02-15

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from rivers and canals adjoining some oil exploration sites in the Niger Delta and surface soils from host communities were examined. The concentrations of 28 target PAHs ranged from 65 to 331 ng/g (average: 168 ng/g) and from 24 to 120 ng/g (average: 80 ng/g) in the sediment and soil samples, respectively. Two-ring PAHs were the dominant components accounting for approximately 45% of the total PAHs detected. Assessment of the PAH compound ratios, phenanthrene/athracene (Phe/Ant) and fluoranthene/pyrene (Flu/Pyr), suggested that the PAHs in most sediment samples were predominantly of petrogenic origin which may have resulted from incessant oil pipeline leakages in the area. On the other hand, PAHs of pyrogenic sources were present predominantly in surface soils, an indication that gas flaring associated with oil exploration work in the Delta mostly affects the surface soils. An assessment using a set of widely cited sediment quality guidelines indicated that the majority of the sediment samples collected from the rivers of the delta does not pose a serious threat to the ecosystem except for two locations, Imo river and Oginni canal where PAH-contaminated sediments were likely to be acutely toxic to certain sediment dwellers.

  8. Genotoxicity of field-collected inter-tidal sediments from Cork Harbor, Ireland, to juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) as measured by the Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Kilemade, M F; Hartl, M G J; Sheehan, D; Mothersill, C; Van Pelt, F N A M; O'Halloran, J; O'Brien, N M

    2004-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or Comet assay was employed to test the potential of surficial sediment collected from Cork Harbor, Ireland, to induce DNA damage in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) in a laboratory exposure experiment. Turbot were exposed for 21 days to field-collected sediment from Cork Harbor and from a relatively clean reference site at Ballymacoda and sampled at 0, 7, 14, and 21 days. As a positive control for the sediment exposure experiment, a subsample of the turbot was exposed to cadmium chloride-spiked seawater. DNA damage analysis was performed on epidermal, gill, spleen, liver, and whole blood cell preparations. Liver, gill, and blood were the most sensitive tissues while a lower level of damage was detected in the epidermis and spleen. The blood was determined to be a suitable predictor of DNA damage in the whole organism. Chemical analysis of the sediment indicated that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed the bulk of the contaminants, with the harbor sites having almost double the levels of those from the reference site. The data indicated that turbot exposed to sediments from Cork Harbor elicited a significant increase in DNA damage in comparison with those exposed to sediment from the reference site and that exposure to the contaminated sediments caused a multi-organ genotoxic response. Results from the study indicate a relationship between the presence of genotoxicants in sediment and DNA damage. This finding was encouraging with regard to the potential use of the Comet assay as part of a marine biomonitoring strategy.

  9. Soil erosion and sediment connectivity modelling in Burgundy vineyards: case study of Mercurey, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fressard, Mathieu; Cossart, Étienne; Lejot, Jêrome; Michel, Kristell; Perret, Franck; Christol, Aurélien; Mathian, Hélène; Navratil, Oldrich

    2017-04-01

    This research aims at assessing the impact of agricultural landscape structure on soil erosion and sediment connectivity at the catchment scale. The investigations were conducted the vineyards of Mercurey (Burgundy, France), characterized by important issues related to soil loss, flash floods and associated management infrastructures maintenance. The methodology is based on two main steps that include (1) field investigations and (2) modelling. The field investigations consists in DEM acquisition by LiDAR imaging from a drone, soil mapping and human infrastructures impacting runoff classification and mapping (such as crop rows, storm water-basins, drainage network, roads, etc.). These data aims at supplying the models with field observations. The modelling strategy is based on two main steps: First, the modelling of soil sensitivity to erosion, using the spatial application of the RUSLE equation. Secondly, to assess the sediment connectivity in this area, a model based on graph theory developed by Cossart and Fressard (2017) is tested. The results allow defining the influence of different anthropogenic structures on the sediment connectivity and soil erosion at the basin scale. A set of sub-basins influenced by various anthropogenic infrastructures have been identified and show contrasted sensitivities to erosion. The modelling of sediment connectivity show that the runoff pattern is strongly influenced by the vine rows orientation and the drainage network. I has also permitted to identify non collected (by storm water-basins) areas that strongly contribute to the turbid floods sediment supply and to soil loss during high intensity precipitations events.

  10. Occurrence, source and ecological assessment of baseline hydrocarbons in the intertidal marine sediments along the shoreline of Douglas Channel to Hecate Strait in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zeyu; Hollebone, Bruce P; Laforest, Sonia; Lambert, Patrick; Brown, Carl E; Yang, Chun; Shah, Keval; Landriault, Mike; Goldthorp, Michael

    2017-09-15

    The occurrence, source and ecological assessment of baseline hydrocarbons in the intertidal zone along the northern British shoreline were evaluated based on analyzing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), n-alkanes, petroleum related biomarkers such as terpanes and steranes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including non-alkylated and alkylated homologues (APAHs). The TPH levels, n-alkanes, petroleum biomarkers and PAHs in all the sampling sites, except for Masset Harbor/York Point at Gil Island were low, without obvious unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and petroleum contamination input. Specifically, n-alkanes showed a major terrestrial plants input; PAHs with abundant non-alkylated PAHs but minor APAHs showed a major pyrogenic input. However, obvious petroleum-derived hydrocarbons have impacted Masset Harbor. A historical petroleum input was found in York Point at Gil Island, due to the presence of the low level of petroleum biomarkers. Ecological assessment of 13 non-alkylated PAHs in Masset Harbor indicated no potential toxicity to the benthic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Soil washing process for the removal of hydrophobic organic compounds from soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, W.

    1988-01-01

    A new process concept for the removal of organic pollutants from soils and sediments is presented. The organic pollutants to be removed are primarily hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC), e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, penta-, tri- and monochlorophenols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides. The main objectives of this process concept include: (1) the conversion of solid waste to a liquid waste for easier handling, (2) the achievement of a significant volume reduction of the initial waste stream and (3) the safe ultimate disposal of the reduced volume of the liquid waste containing the contaminants, with minimal energy expenditures. The four principal steps of the process are, solid-liquid separation, solvent leaching, liquid-liquid extraction and adsorption. An analytical model has been developed for the entire process, and is presented together with sample calculations for the individual steps. The model allows for the optimization of the process for any specified scenario.

  12. Correlation of soil and sediment organic matter polarity to aqueous sorption of nonionic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kile, D.E. ); Wershaw, R.L.; Chiou, C.T. )

    1999-06-15

    Polarities of the soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) in 19 soil and 9 freshwater sediment samples were determined from solid-state [sup 13]C-CP/MAS NMR spectra and compared with published partition coefficients (K[sub oc]) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution. Nondestructive analysis of whole samples by solid-state NMR permits a direct assessment of the polarity of SOM that is not possible by elemental analysis. The percent of organic carbon associated with polar functional groups was estimated from the combined fraction of carbohydrate and carboxyl-amide-ester carbons. A plot of the measured partition coefficients (K[sub oc]) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vs. percent polar organic carbon (POC) shows distinctly different populations of soils and sediments as well as a roughly inverse trend among the soil/sediment populations. Plots of K[sub oc] values for CT against other structural group carbon fractions did not yield distinct populations. The results indicate that the polarity of SOM is a significant factor in accounting for differences in K[sub oc] between the organic matter in soils and sediments. The alternate direct correlation of the sum of aliphatic and aromatic structural carbons with K[sub oc] illustrates the influence of nonpolar hydrocarbon on solute partition interaction. Additional elemental analysis data of selected samples further substantiate the effect of the organic matter polarity on the partition efficiency of nonpolar solutes. The separation between soil and sediment samples based on percent POC reflects definite differences of the properties of soil and sediment organic matters that are attributable to diagenesis.

  13. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  14. Correlation of soil and sediment organic matter polarity to aqueous sorption of nonionic compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kile, D.E.; Wershaw, R. L.; Chiou, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    Polarities of the soiL/sediment organic matter (SOM) in 19 soil and 9 freshwater sediment sam pies were determined from solid-state 13C-CP/MAS NMR spectra and compared with published partition coefficients (K(oc)) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution. Nondestructive analysis of whole samples by solid-state NMR permits a direct assessment of the polarity of SOM that is not possible by elemental analysis. The percent of organic carbon associated with polar functional groups was estimated from the combined fraction of carbohydrate and carboxylamide-ester carbons. A plot of the measured partition coefficients (K(oc)) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) vs. percent polar organic carbon (POC) shows distinctly different populations of soils and sediments as well as a roughly inverse trend among the soil/sediment populations. Plots of K(oc) values for CT against other structural group carbon fractions did not yield distinct populations. The results indicate that the polarity of SOM is a significant factor in accounting for differences in K(oc) between the organic matter in soils and sediments. The alternate direct correlation of the sum of aliphatic and aromatic structural carbons with K(oc) illustrates the influence of nonpolar hydrocarbon on solute partition interaction. Additional elemental analysis data of selected samples further substantiate the effect of the organic matter polarity on the partition efficiency of nonpolar solutes. The separation between soil and sediment samples based on percent POC reflects definite differences of the properties of soil and sediment organic matters that are attributable to diagenesis.Polarities of the soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) in 19 soil and 9 freshwater sediment samples were determined from solid-state 13C-CP/MAS NMR spectra and compared with published partition coefficients (Koc) of carbon tetrachloride (CT) from aqueous solution. Nondestructive analysis of whole samples by solid-state NMR permits a direct

  15. Elemental composition, distribution and control of biogenic silica in the anthropogenically disturbed and pristine zone inter-tidal sediments of Indian Sundarbans mangrove-estuarine complex.

    PubMed

    Dhame, Shreya; Kumar, Alok; Ramanathan, Al; Chaudhari, Punarbasu

    2016-10-15

    Spatial distribution and interrelationship among organic nutrients - silica and carbon - and various lithogenic elements were investigated in the surficial sediments of Matla estuary and Core Zone of Indian Sundarbans Reserve Forest using spatial analysis and multivariate statistics. Biogenic silica (BSi), an important parameter for coastal biogeochemisry, was measured using Si-time alkaline leaching method. BSi concentration ranged from 0.01% to 0.85% with higher concentrations in upstream region of Matla estuary and attenuated values towards the bay, seemingly due to changes in hydrodynamics and land use conditions. Spatial distribution of BSi did not exhibit significant correlation with sediment parameters of organic carbon (OC), elemental composition and clay content. However, it showed significant contrasting trends with total phosphorus (TP) and total silica of human influenced Matla estuary sediments as well as the dissolved silica (DSi) of its surface waters. Anthropogenic influence on sediment geochemistry is discernable with the presence of higher concentrations of organic and inorganic elements in Matla estuary than in Core Zone sediments. Spatial variation trends are often challenging to interpret due to multiple sources of input, varying energy and salinity conditions and constant physical, chemical and biological alterations occurring in the environment. Nonetheless, it is certain that anthropogenic activities have a substantial influence on biogeochemical processes of Sundarbans mangrove-estuarine complex and potentially the coastal ocean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Holocene soil erosion and sediment storage in a meso-scale catchment in Germany: A quantitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Markus; Will, Mathias

    2010-05-01

    Landscape perturbations by climate change and/or human impact are the major triggers for Holocene soil erosion, especially since the introduction of farming and pastoralism in the Neolithic period. Since then there has been a shift from naturally induced towards man induced soil erosion. However, to get insight into the long-term process of sediment reworking and to better understand the causes of past soil erosion, quantitative temporal and spatial investigations are necessary. For the reconstruction of past soil erosion, colluvial and alluvial sediments, as well as truncated soil profiles represent important natural archives. These archives can be used to spatially quantify sediment redistribution, while the dating of the sediments shed light on the timing of past soil erosion, as well as on the intensity of the process of sediment redistribution, by calculating sedimentation rates. In this study we present colluvial and alluvial archives from a meso-scale catchment (97 km2) in Northern Bavaria, Germany. In order to reconstruct the erosion and sedimentation history of the catchment in time and space, colluvial and alluvial sediment records were intensively investigated. A detailed chronostratigraphy of the sediments was established by optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, which helps to reconstruct past sediment fluxes. Based on these data, we present a sediment budget and discuss the problematic interpretation of the temporal variation of sediment fluxes and its causes.

  17. Trace metal contamination in surface sediments of intertidal zone from Qinhuangdao, China, revealed by geochemical and magnetic approaches: Distribution, sources, and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongmin; Xue, Junhui; Deng, Yuzhen; Chen, Lin; Liu, Jiangfeng

    2016-04-15

    Based on geochemical and magnetic approaches, the distribution, sources, and health risk of trace metals in surface sediments from a seashore tourist city were investigated. A significant correlation was found between magnetic susceptibility (χ) and trace metals, which suggested that levels of trace metals in the sediments can be effectively depicted by the magnetic approach. The spatial distribution of χ and trace metals matched well with the city layout with relatively higher values being found in the port and busy tourist areas. This result, together with enrichment factors (EFs) and Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) of metals, suggested that the influence of human activities on the coastal environment was noticeable. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that trace metals in the sediments were derived from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Noncarcinogenic risk assessment showed that there was no potential health risk of exposure to metals by means of ingestion or inhalation.

  18. How To Live with Phosphorus Scarcity in Soil and Sediment: Lessons from Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Torres, Yunuen; Rodríguez-Torres, Maria Dolores; Islas, Africa; Souza, Valeria; García-Oliva, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Phosphorus (P) plays a fundamental role in the physiology and biochemistry of all living things. Recent evidence indicates that organisms in the oceans can break down and use P forms in different oxidation states (e.g., +5, +3, +1, and −3); however, information is lacking for organisms from soil and sediment. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB), Mexico, is an oligotrophic ecosystem with acute P limitation, providing a great opportunity to assess the various strategies that bacteria from soil and sediment use to obtain P. We measured the activities in sediment and soil of different exoenzymes involved in P recycling and evaluated 1,163 bacterial isolates (mainly Bacillus spp.) for their ability to use six different P substrates. DNA turned out to be a preferred substrate, comparable to a more bioavailable P source, potassium phosphate. Phosphodiesterase activity, required for DNA degradation, was observed consistently in the sampled-soil and sediment communities. A capability to use phosphite (PO33−) and calcium phosphate was observed mainly in sediment isolates. Phosphonates were used at a lower frequency by both soil and sediment isolates, and phosphonatase activity was detected only in soil communities. Our results revealed that soil and sediment bacteria are able to break down and use P forms in different oxidation states and contribute to ecosystem P cycling. Different strategies for P utilization were distributed between and within the different taxonomic lineages analyzed, suggesting a dynamic movement of P utilization traits among bacteria in microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life found in molecules, such as DNA, cell walls, and in molecules for energy transfer, such as ATP. The Valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila (Mexico), is a unique desert characterized by an extreme limitation of P and a great diversity of microbial life. How do bacteria in this valley manage to obtain P? We measured the availability

  19. How To Live with Phosphorus Scarcity in Soil and Sediment: Lessons from Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Torres, Yunuen; Rodríguez-Torres, Maria Dolores; Elser, James J; Islas, Africa; Souza, Valeria; García-Oliva, Felipe; Olmedo-Álvarez, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    Phosphorus (P) plays a fundamental role in the physiology and biochemistry of all living things. Recent evidence indicates that organisms in the oceans can break down and use P forms in different oxidation states (e.g., +5, +3, +1, and -3); however, information is lacking for organisms from soil and sediment. The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB), Mexico, is an oligotrophic ecosystem with acute P limitation, providing a great opportunity to assess the various strategies that bacteria from soil and sediment use to obtain P. We measured the activities in sediment and soil of different exoenzymes involved in P recycling and evaluated 1,163 bacterial isolates (mainly Bacillus spp.) for their ability to use six different P substrates. DNA turned out to be a preferred substrate, comparable to a more bioavailable P source, potassium phosphate. Phosphodiesterase activity, required for DNA degradation, was observed consistently in the sampled-soil and sediment communities. A capability to use phosphite (PO3 (3-)) and calcium phosphate was observed mainly in sediment isolates. Phosphonates were used at a lower frequency by both soil and sediment isolates, and phosphonatase activity was detected only in soil communities. Our results revealed that soil and sediment bacteria are able to break down and use P forms in different oxidation states and contribute to ecosystem P cycling. Different strategies for P utilization were distributed between and within the different taxonomic lineages analyzed, suggesting a dynamic movement of P utilization traits among bacteria in microbial communities. Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life found in molecules, such as DNA, cell walls, and in molecules for energy transfer, such as ATP. The Valley of Cuatro Ciénegas, Coahuila (Mexico), is a unique desert characterized by an extreme limitation of P and a great diversity of microbial life. How do bacteria in this valley manage to obtain P? We measured the availability of P and the

  20. Relationship between heavy metals in mud sediments and beach soil of the River Nile

    SciTech Connect

    Awadallah, R.M.; Soltan, M.E.; Rashed, M.N.

    1996-08-01

    the chemical partitioning of selected inorganic ions was investigated in mud sediments taken from the bottom of the main stream of the River Nile by means of sediment sampler and beach soil samples collected from seven sectors (three subsamples from each location) between Aswan and Giza (Aswan, Qena, Sohag, Assiut, El Menya, Beni Suef, and Giza). These samples were analyzed by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that iron and lead were found at higher levels in beach soil than in the river sediments at all sites except for iron sediments of Aswan where the region was subjected to volcanic activities in the ancient geological eras (granites,.....etc.). At some sites, some heavy-metal concentrations seemed to be higher in sediment than in beach soil as a result of weathering of beach soil by the effect of wind and currents of water. In other sites, sediment pollution by these metals might be attributed to inputs from industrial effluents and domestic wastewater drained directly into the Nile. Statistical analysis of data shows significant correlation coefficient values (r= up to 0.915) 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. The influence of vegetation on sedimentation and resuspension of soil particles in small constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Braskerud, B C

    2001-01-01

    When initiatives to mitigate soil erosion are insufficient or fail, constructed surface flow wetlands (CWs) could be a final buffer to reduce pollution before reaching recipients. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of CW vegetation on the retention of soil particles from arable land. Retention was measured with water flow-proportional sampling systems in the inlet and outlet, sedimentation traps, and sedimentation plates in four small CWs over a period of 5 yr. The surface area of the CWs was 265 to 900 m2, and the average hydraulic loads were 1.2 to 3.4 m d(-1). Watershed areas were 0.5 to 1.5 km2. Annual soil particle retention was 30 to 80% or 14 to 121 kg m(-2). Results show that macrophytes stimulate sediment retention by mitigating resuspension of CW sediment. Five years after construction, resuspension had decreased approximately 40% and was negligible. As vegetation cover increases, the influence of macrophytes on soil particle retention reaches a level where other factors, such as hydraulic load and sediment load, were more important. Macrophytes increased the hydraulic efficiency by reducing short-circuit or preferential flow. However, vegetation did not have any influence on the clay concentration in the sediment. Hence, a possible stimulation of particle flocculation was not detected. Vegetation makes it possible to use the positive effect of a short particle settling distance in shallow ponds by hindering resuspension.

  2. Metal pollution of estuarine sediments caused by leaching of acid sulphate soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmyr, Linda; Åström, Mats; Peltola, Pasi

    2008-01-01

    This study tracks changes in metal distribution in estuarine sediments as a result of leakage from acid sulphate (AS) soil landscapes in the Boreal Zone (Finland). The main objective was to identify the impact of these nasty soils on sediment geochemistry in a biologically sensitive and shallow brackish-water estuary. In order to do this four sediment cores were sampled in a profile extending seawards from the mouth of the Vörå River, which is one of the most heavily AS soil-impacted rivers in Finland and Europe. Two of the cores were rather deep (2.5 m and 4.0 m) and the others were shallow (0.4 m and 0.8 m). The results showed that an appreciable amount of aluminium (Al), cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were elevated in the surface and sub-surface of the sampled bottom sediments compared to the deeper sediment background levels. These metals are all known to be abundantly leached from the AS soils. At the site approximately 4 km away from the river mouth, the concentrations of Cd, Co, Mn, Ni and Zn were elevated 5-100 times as compared to the background levels and showed an intriguing cyclic pattern, most likely reflecting seasonal leaching dynamics in the AS soil landscapes. In contrast, metals that are not abundantly leached from AS soils, i.e. chromium (Cr), iron (Fe) and vanadium (V) had consistently low concentrations throughout all sediment cores. The elevated metal concentrations in the top layers of the sediments in the estuary are alarming. The continuous land uplift of the region combined with the episodic rapid declines in pH may result in short and long term extensive release of metals. This, in turn, may have significant effects on the trace-metal contents in the Gulf of Bothnia and the entire Baltic Sea.

  3. Bioavailability of chromium in soils and sediments at a former leather tannery site

    SciTech Connect

    Pacquin, P.R.; Di Toro, D.M.; De Rosa, L.; Maiello, J.; Kerrigan, J.

    1995-12-31

    Bioavailability is a fundamental consideration in the equilibrium partitioning method used by EPA to develop sediment quality criteria (SOC). Even so, the bioavailability of metals in soils and sediments is often overlooked in ecological risk assessments for Superfund sites. This paper summarizes field and laboratory data for chromium levels in biota, soil and sediment samples from an abandoned tannery site and presents a method for characterizing the bioavailable fraction of chromium in these media. Chromium levels in soils and sediments at the former tannery site are about 1,000 times higher than levels at control sites (30,000 ppm versus 30 ppm). The elevated chromium levels are due to previously released tannery wastes, which contain high levels of chromium as a result of the tanning process. In contrast to chromium levels in soils and sediments, levels in terrestrial biota (earthworms, vegetation, and meadow voles) and aquatic biota (minnows, crayfish and mayfly nymphs) at the site are only about 2 to 20 times higher than control area samples. Biota:Soil and Biota:Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs, total chromium basis) for the site are about one to five percent of control area BSAFs. This difference indicates that chromium at the site is relatively non-bioavailable. Sequential extraction techniques were used to characterize the manner in which the chromium is bound to soil and sediment at the site. The extraction results are compared with the biota field data and it appears that the exchangeable chromium fraction is indicative of the bioavailable fraction. The implications of these results to a screening level ecological risk assessment are presented.

  4. Black carbon and kerogen in soils and sediments. 1. Quantification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin

    2002-09-15

    A comprehensive wet chemical procedure was developed by combining acid demineralization, base extraction, and dichromate oxidation for fractionation and quantitative isolation of soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) into four fractions: (1) humic acids + kerogen + BC (HKB); (2) kerogen + BC (KB); (3) humic acid (HA); and (4) BC. The soil/sediment samples tested were collected from the suburban areas of Guangzhou, a rapidly developing city of China. The results show that BC and kerogen constitute 57.8-80.6% of the total organic carbon (TOC) and that the relative content of BC ranges from 18.3% to 41.0% of the TOC, indicating that both BC and kerogen are major organic components in soils and sediments from this industrialized region. Systematic characterization of the isolated SOMs shows that both BC and kerogen have sizes ranging from a few microns to above 100 microm, relatively low O/C and H/C atomic ratios, and low contents of oxygen-containing functional groups. The isolated BC has unique fusinite and semifusinite macerals, highly porous nature, and structures indicative of its possible origins. The study indicates that SOM is highly heterogeneous and that humin, the nonextractable humus fraction, consists mainly of kerogen and BC materials in the tested soil/sediment samples. The presence of these materials in soils and sediments may have significant impacts on pollutant mass transfer and transformation processes such as desorption and bioavailability of less polar organic chemicals in surface aquatic and groundwater environments.

  5. Disposal of dredged sediments in tropical soils: ecotoxicological evaluation based on bioassays with springtails and enchytraeids.

    PubMed

    Cesar, Ricardo; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Polivanov, Helena; Sousa, José Paulo

    2015-02-01

    Metal reference values established in Brazilian legislation for terrestrial disposal of dredged sediments and soil quality were derived for temperate regions. To evaluate the adequacy of such metal reference values to tropical soils, the ecotoxicity of a dredged sediment (from the Guanabara bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was investigated in two local soils (ferralsol and chernosol) by performing avoidance and reproduction tests using Folsomia candida and Enchytraeus crypticus. Test doses consisted of 0 %, 1.25 %, 2.5 %, 5, 10 %, and 20 %. Total and potentially bioavailable metal concentrations were determined in the test mixtures. Although the chernosol mixtures had the highest total metal concentrations, the influence of the expansive clay minerals (with high ability to adsorb metals) and the high contents of nutrients typical from this type of soils, seem to reduce the ecotoxicity. Collembolan avoidance behavior was the least sensitive endpoint. The lowest sediment doses increased the reproduction of F. candida in ferralsol mixtures. E. crypticus reproduction in the ferralsol mixtures were more pronounced at lower concentrations than in chernosol mixtures. Possibly the low nutrient content of the ferralsols, in connection with the addition of small amounts of sediment, created particular conditions that promoted reproduction of the test species. Data obtained in the ecotoxicological tests may support the establishment of a "safe" ecological dose of dredged sediments to be applied in tropical soils, supporting decision-makers in programs of environmental management.

  6. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuhan; Luo, Banglin; Ding, Linqiao; Gong, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0–0.5 m, 0.5–1 m, 1–2 m, 2–3 m, 3–4 m, 4–5 m, 5–6 m, 6–7 m, 7–8 m, 8–10 m, and 10–12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min) and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°). The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments. PMID:26734498

  7. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Luo, Banglin; Ding, Linqiao; Gong, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0-0.5 m, 0.5-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-4 m, 4-5 m, 5-6 m, 6-7 m, 7-8 m, 8-10 m, and 10-12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min) and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°). The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  8. Assessment of environmentally persistent free radicals in soils and sediments from three Superfund sites.

    PubMed

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Cook, Robert L; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M; Donnelly, Kirby C; Kelley, Matthew A; Cosgriff, David

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils at a closed wood treatment facility site in Georgia. The reported EPFRs were pentachlorophenoxyl radicals formed on soils under ambient conditions via electron transfer from PCP to electron acceptors in the soil. In this study, we present results for soil and sediment samples from additional Superfund sites in Montana and Washington. Paramagnetic centers associated with different chemical environments were characterized by distinct g-factors and line widths (ΔHp-p). EPFR concentrations in contaminated samples were ~30×, ~12×, and ~2× higher than background samples at the Georgia, Montana, and Washington sites, respectively. EPR signals in the Montana contaminated soils were very similar to those previously observed for pentachlorophenol contaminated soils at the Georgia site, i.e., g = 2.00300 and ΔHp-p = 6.0 G, whereas signals in the Washington sediment samples were similar to those previously observed for other PAH contaminated soils, i.e., g = 2.00270 and ΔHp-p = 9.0 G. Total carbon content measurements exhibited direct correlation with EPFR concentration. The presence of radicals in sites contaminated a decade to a century ago suggests continuous formation of EPFRs from molecular contaminants in the soil and sediment.

  9. Assessment of Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals in Soils and Sediments from Three Superfund Sites

    PubMed Central

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N.; Cook, Robert L.; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Donnelly, Kirby C.; Kelley, Matthew A.; Cosgriff, David

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils at a closed wood treatment facility site in Georgia. The reported EPFRs were pentachlorophenoxyl radicals formed on soils under ambient conditions via electron transfer from PCP to electron acceptors in the soil. In this study, we present results for soil and sediment samples from additional Superfund sites in Montana and Washington. Paramagnetic centers associated with different chemical environments were characterized by distinct g-factors and line widths (ΔHp-p). EPFR concentrations in contaminated samples were ~30x, ~12x, and ~2x higher than background samples at the Georgia, Montana, and Washington sites, respectively. EPR signals in the Montana contaminated soils were very similar to those previously observed for pentachlorophenol contaminated soils at the Georgia site, i.e., g = 2.00300 and ΔHp-p = 6.0 G, whereas signals in the Washington sediment samples were similar to those previously observed for other PAH contaminated soils, i.e., g = 2.00270 and ΔHp-p = 9.0G. Total carbon content measurements exhibited direct correlation with EPFR concentration. The presence of radicals in sites contaminated a decade to a century ago suggests continuous formation of EPFRs from molecular contaminants in the soil and sediment. PMID:24244947

  10. Examining the sediments and soils of Gusev Crater with the Athena science payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Brad; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Zent, Aaron P.

    2004-04-01

    Gusev Crater has been proposed to contain lacustrine and/or fluvial sediments; however, eolian or volcanic sediments, global dust, and locally produced soils may also be present. This work describes the use of the Athena instrument package to evaluate the environment in which sampled materials were deposited in Gusev Crater. Sedimentary or soil deposits can be sampled by examining materials that were (1) excavated by impact events, (2) revealed by wind deflation, or (3) exposed by spinning the rover wheels. Specific observations can be diagnostic of a depositional environment. For instance, Pancam images of thin (e.g., 5 cm) planar layers of phyllosilicates and/or evaporites (as determined by Mini-TES) would suggest lacustrine sediments. Layered sediments (e.g., trough cross bed) with rounded particles (>4 mm) would suggest fluvial activity. Eolian sediments may have planar or cross-planar layers of well-sorted grains (~200 μm). Parallel bed deposits consisting of glass observable by Microscopic Imager would indicate volcanic ash. Soil bulk chemistry reported by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer that is similar to the Viking and Mars Pathfinder soils would indicate global dust. Mini-TES should only detect primary mineralogies in physically weathered soils, whereas chemically weathered soils may contain carbonates, sulfates, and/or phyllosilicates. Although some characteristics are unique to a sediment or soil deposit, different deposit types can have similar characteristics (e.g., planar layering). Determining the depositional history of material in Gusev will require the integration of measurements from several instruments and careful geologic reasoning by the investigators.

  11. Habitat-specific type I polyketide synthases in soils and street sediments.

    PubMed

    Hill, Patrick; Piel, Jörn; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Krištůfek, Václav; Boddy, Christopher N; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-01-01

    Actinomycetes produce many pharmaceutically useful compounds through type I polyketide biosynthetic pathways. Soil has traditionally been an important source for these actinomycete-derived pharmaceuticals. As the rate of antibiotic discovery has decreased and the incidence of antibiotic resistance has increased, researchers have looked for alternatives to soil for bioprospecting. Street sediment, where actinomycetes make up a larger fraction of the bacterial population than in soil, is one such alternative environment. To determine if these differences in actinomycetal community structure are reflected in type I polyketide synthases (PKSI) distribution, environmental DNA from soils and street sediments was characterized by sequencing amplicons of PKSI-specific PCR primers. Amplicons covered two domains: the last 80 amino acids of the ketosynthase (KS) domain and the first 240 amino acids of the acyltransferase (AT) domain. One hundred and ninety clones from ten contrasting soils from six regions and nine street sediments from six cities were sequenced. Twenty-five clones from two earthworm-affected samples were also sequenced. UniFrac lineage-specific analysis identified two clades that clustered with actinomycetal GenBank matches that were street sediment-specific, one similar to the PKSI segment of the mycobactin siderophore involved in mycobacterial virulence. A clade of soil-specific sequences clustered with GenBank matches from the ambruticin and jerangolid pathways of Sorangium cellulosum. All three of these clades were found in sites >700 km apart. Street sediments are enriched in actinomycetal PKSIs. Non-actinomycetal PKSI pathways may be more chemically diverse than actinomycetal PKSIs. Common soil and street sediment PKIs are globally distributed.

  12. The role of climate in balancing soil production and sediment yield in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    New Zealand hosts some of the highest specific sediment yields on the planet reaching up to nearly 30,000 t km-2 yr-1. Sediment yields measure the export of sediment from a basin and give an indication of erosion from hillslopes. In New Zealand high sediment yields correlate with high annual precipitation and high rates of tectonic strain (Hicks et al., 1996). It is, however, unclear how soil production keeps pace with such extreme erosion. Here, this question is investigated by modelling soil production as a function of local climate parameters. Two simple models for building climate into soil production are through effective energy and mass transfer, EEMT, (Rasmussen and Tabor, 2007) and primary chemical weathering. When applied to ~30 year climate data, these models highlight the variability of potential soil production across New Zealand. Due partially to high annual rainfall, some of the fastest erosion rates on the west coast of the South Island are nearly in balance with soil production. In other regions such as the east coast of the North Island, hotspots exist where annual sediment yields exceed reasonable soil production rates such that additional mechanisms must operate to generate sediment and make up this deficit. Globally, precipitation tends to increase and temperature decreases with increasing elevation. In New Zealand, increasing elevations also roughly correlate with an increase in mean basin slope angle and the percent of a basin at >30° slopes. As a result, modelled soil production also tends to increase with increasing mean basin slope angle. This correlation occurs independent of erosion feedbacks on the modelled soil production rates. This relationship presents an intriguing scenario in which the topography of the mountain range may be maintained by climate through variations in soil production. Even with rapid modelled soil production at high precipitation rates and/or high temperatures and/or high temperatures, many basins cannot keep pace

  13. Mercury Fractionation in Superficial Sediment and Paddy Soil Samples from Tianjin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Zhang, Zhaoji; Fei, Yuhong; Wu, Guoqing; Qian, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Sediment and soil samples from the Beitang River (BR) and the Haihe River (HR) in Tianjin were analyzed to investigate the extent of mercury contamination. The results show that total mercury (THg) contents in the BR and HR sediments were 2241 ± 1024 and 653 ± 450 ng g(-1), and THg in rice paddy soils were 907 ± 345 and 328 ± 286 ng g(-1), respectively. Industrial and domestic sewage were regarded as the main sources of mercury in the two river basins. Sediment-bound mercury in the BR and the HR were found to be predominantly associated with the organic-bound fraction (55 %) and residual fraction and (54 %), while soil-bound mercury was mainly in organic-bound fraction in paddy soils (61 % and 57 %, respectively). The availability of this element (soluble and exchangeable and specifically sorbed fraction) seemed restricted, but significantly higher in the paddy soils than in sediments. Higher soluble and exchangeable, specifically sorbed fraction and organic-bound fraction may promote the higher toxic methylmercury and bioavailable fraction formation in the soils during the rice cultivation.

  14. Soil Black Carbon Loss and Sediment Black Carbon Accumulation in a Central Texas Woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieve, E. A.; Hockaday, W. C.; White, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    The Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge is located along the eastern edge of the Edwards Plateau in Texas, and was established in 1992 for the purpose of conserving habitat for two endangered bird species. The landscape is composed of hilly, mesa-valley terrain, which is mostly covered by grasslands and woodlands dominated by juniper with intermingling of various oak species. Based on historical photo analysis and tree fire scar dendrochronology, the area has experienced major land use changes over the last century due to wildfire, logging, and drought affecting soil stability and woodland species composition. A previous study on soil black carbon showed that site-specific soil erosion potential and time since last fire may act as controls on soil black carbon concentrations. However, the black carbon transport flux, depositional fate, or the magnitude of soil erosion effects upon the black carbon budget are unconstrained at the watershed scale. To address this, we sampled the sediments accumulating in small ponds constructed during the 1950's for livestock watering. We are quantifying black carbon in sediments using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Preliminary data suggest that the pond sediments are a black carbon sink. Black carbon comprises 15 % - 25 %, of the sedimentary organic carbon, as substantial enrichment relative to soils within the watershed. We will present an early assessment of the black carbon erosion and sediment accumulation rates in first- and second-order watersheds.

  15. Cadmium contamination in Tianjin agricultural soils and sediments: relative importance of atmospheric deposition from coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanghong; Yang, Cancan; Guo, Lan; Wang, Zhongliang

    2013-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in coal, fly ash, slag, atmospheric deposition, soils and sediments collected from Tianjin, northern China, were measured to provide baseline information and determine possible Cd sources and potential risk. The concentrations of Cd in coal, fly ash and atmospheric deposition were much higher than the soil background values. Fallout from coal-fired thermal power plants, heating boilers and industrial furnaces has increased the Cd concentration in soils and sediments in Tianjin. The concentrations of Cd in soils of suburban areas were significantly higher than in rural areas, suggesting that coal burning in Tianjin may have an important impact on the local physical environment. Cd from coal combustion is readily mobilized in soils. It is soluble and can form aqueous complexes and permeate river sediments. The high proportion of mobile Cd affects the migration of Cd in soils and sediments, which may pose an environmental threat in Tianjin due to the exposure to Cd and Cd compounds via the food chain. This study may provide a window for understanding and tracing sources of Cd in the local environment and the risk associated with Cd bioaccessibility.

  16. The new PARIOTM device for determining continuous particle-size distributions of soils and sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alina; Pertassek, Thomas; Steins, Andreas; Durner, Wolfgang; Göttlein, Axel; Petrik, Wolfgang; von Unold, Georg

    2017-04-01

    The particle-size distribution (PSD) is a key property of soils. The reference method for determining the PSD is based on gravitational sedimentation of particles in an initially homogeneous suspension. Traditional methods measure manually (i) the uplift of a floating body in the suspension at different times (Hydrometer method) or (ii) the mass of solids in extracted suspension aliquots at predefined sampling depths and times (Pipette method). Both methods lead to a disturbance of the sedimentation process and provide only discrete data of the PSD. Durner et al. (2017) recently developed a new automated method to determine particle-size distributions of soils and sediments from gravitational sedimentation (Durner, W., S.C. Iden, and G. von Unold: The integral suspension pressure method (ISP) for precise particle-size analysis by gravitational sedimentation, Water Resources Research, doi:10.1002/2016WR019830, 2017). The so-called integral suspension method (ISP) method estimates continuous PSD's from sedimentation experiments by recording the temporal evolution of the suspension pressure at a certain measurement depth in a sedimentation cylinder. It requires no manual interaction after start and thus no specialized training of the lab personnel and avoids any disturbance of the sedimentation process. The required technology to perform these experiments was developed by the UMS company, Munich and is now available as an instrument called PARIO, traded by the METER Group. In this poster, the basic functioning of PARIO is shown and key components and parameters of the technology are explained.

  17. Estimating for Sediment Yield During Storm Based on Soil and Watershed Geomorphology Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.; Yang, C.

    2008-05-01

    Concentrated rainfall usually results in serious soil erosion on steep hillslopes. Since the itinerary of the eroded sediment is complicated and measure for temporal sediment concentration is a laborious work, estimating for watershed erosion during storm is considered as difficulty in practice. In this study, a simple method for estimating sediment yield during storm was derived. By using soil data and watershed geomorphologic information, analytical solutions for sediment travel times and delivery ratios for different orders of overland areas and channels were derived to form an instantaneous unit sedimentgraph. Consequently, sediment yield during storm can be estimated by convoluting the rainfall intensities with the proposed instantaneous unit sedimentgraph. In this study, the proposed model has been verified using the data from Goodwin Experimental Watershed located in Mississippi of the United States. A digital elevation model was adopted to obtain the watershed geomorphologic factors for subsequent runoff routing and sediment concentration estimations. The simulated and the measured sediment yields were in good agreement for the test storms. It is therefore promising for the proposed model to be used for sediment yield estimation in gauged and ungauged watersheds for water resources design work.

  18. Estimation of sediment yield during storms based on soil and watershed geomorphology characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kwan Tun; Yang, Chi-Cheng

    2010-03-01

    SummaryConcentrated rainfall usually results in serious soil erosion on steep hillslopes. Since the itinerary of the eroded sediment is complicated, estimating watershed erosion during storms is practically difficult. A physically-based approach for sediment yield estimation during storms was proposed in this study. By using soil and watershed geomorphologic information, analytical solutions for sediment travel time in different orders of overland areas and channels were derived to develop a geomorphologic instantaneous unit sedimentgraph (GIUS) which showed the temporal distribution of sediment discharge resulting from an instantaneous rainfall excess input. The resultant GIUS was a function of the rainfall excess intensity and sediment delivery ratio. The linearity restriction of the unit hydrograph theory was relaxed. Sediment yields during storm events were calculated by convoluting rainfall intensities with the proposed GIUS, which had been verified by using data from the Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed in Mississippi, the United States. The simulated and the measured sediment yields were in good agreement for the test storms. Sensitivity of the sedimentgraph to the model parameters was also investigated. The proposed model was considered a promising application for sediment yield estimation in the field of water resources design.

  19. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonover, Jon E.; Crim, Jackie F.; Williard, Karl W. J.; Groninger, John W.; Zaczek, James J.; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees ( Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year-1 translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year-1 from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year-1) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management.

  20. Intertidal meiofauna of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, the structure of the meiobenthos community and marine nematodes in particular was investigated in the different intertidal zones of Jeju Island (South Sea of Korea). A relationship was found between the density of meiobenthic communities and the type of the bottom sediment. In addition, in the silty sediments, nematodes were dominant, while in the sandy sediments harpacticoids and ostracods were dominant groups. Sixty eight species belonging to 60 genera and 19 families of nematodes were found in the whole area. Four different nematode taxocenosis were distinguished using a cluster analysis. Dominant feeding groups were omnivores (2B) and epistratum-feeders (2A). The highest number of non-selective deposit-feeders (1B) was detected in the lagoon with the bottom silty sediments.

  1. Effect of soil surface conditions on runoff velocity and sediment mean aggregate diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    César Ramos, Júlio; Bertol, Ildegardis; Paz González, Antonio; de Souza Werner, Romeu; Marioti, Juliana; Henrique Bandeira, Douglas; Andrighetti Leolatto, Lidiane

    2013-04-01

    Soil cover and soil management are the factors that most influence soil erosion by water, because they directly affect soil surface roughness and surface cover. The main effect of soil cover by crop residues consists in dissipation of kinetic energy of raindrops and also partly kinetic energy of runoff, so that the soil disaggregation is considerably reduced but, in addition, soil cover captures detached soil particles, retains water on its surface and decreases runoff volume and velocity. In turn, soil surface roughness, influences soil surface water storage and infiltration and also runoff volume and velocity, sediment retention and subsequently water and sediment losses. Based on the above rationale, we performed a field experiment to assess the influence of soil cover and soil surface roughness on decay of runoff velocity as well as on mean diameter of transported sediments (D50 index). The following treatments were evaluated: SRR) residues of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on a smooth soil surfcace, SRV) residues of common vetch (Vicia sativa) on a smooth soil surface, SSR) scarification after cultivation of Italian ryegrass resulting in a rough surface, SSV) scarification after cultivation of common vetch resulting in a rough surface, and SBS) scarified bare soil with high roughness as a control. The field experiments was performed on an Inceptisol in South Brazil under simulated rainfall conditions during 2012. Experimental plots were 11 m long and 3.5 m wide with an area of 38.5 m2. Six successive simulated rainfall tests were applied using a rotating-boom rain simulator. During each test, rain intensity was 60 mmhr-1, whereas rain duration was 90 minutes. Runoff velocity showed no significant differences between cultivated treatments. However, when compared to bare soil treatment, SBS (0.178 m s-1) and irrespective of the presence of surface crop residues or scarification operations, cultivated soil treatments significantly reduced runoff velocity

  2. Sorption of radium-226 from oil-production brine by sediments and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Reid, D.F.

    1983-01-01

    The sorption of226Ra from oil-production brine by soils and sediments was investigated. Sorption was rapid, and the percentage sorbed increased with brine dilution. Greatest removals of226Ra from sediments in the laboratory occurred with alkaline DTPA, HCl, and BaCl2, with lesser removals using CaCl2 and NaCl solutions. Digestion of sediments with NaOCl indicates that most of the native and sorbed226Ra is associated with the mineral rather than organic fraction of the sediments. Correlation analysis based on 14 soils indicates that the retention of226Ra may involve precipitation reactions associated with sulfate-bearing minerals, as well as ion-exchange reactions with the clay mineral fractions of surficial earth materials. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  3. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  4. Extraction of amino acids from soils and sediments with superheated water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, C. N.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1974-01-01

    A method of extraction for amino acids from soils and sediments involving superheated water has been investigated. About 75-97 per cent of the amino acids contained in four soils of a soil profile from Illinois were extracted by this method. Deep penetration of water into soil aggregates and partial hydrolysis of peptide bonds during this extraction by water at high temperature are likely mechanisms responsible for the release of amino acids from samples. This extraction method does not require subsequent desalting treatments when analyses are carried out with an ion-exchange amino acid analyzer.

  5. The use of heavy metal top soil concentrations for the validation of overbank floodplain sedimentation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, Olaf; Rode, Michael; Schulz, Marcus

    2010-05-01

    In floodplains of lowland rivers, the transport, sedimentation, and remobilization of fine sediments is highly variable in space and time. Therefore, it is often difficult to validate sediment transport models due to the lack of appropriate data. The objective of this study is to show that heavy metal concentrations in the top soil (upper 15 cm) of a highly polluted floodplain are related to the deposition of fine sediments and thus can be used to assess the plausibility of a two-dimensional (2D) hydraulic and sediment transport model. In a floodplain, heavy metals are bonded to fine sediments, and the deposition of heavy metals originates from a long history of floods. Heavy metal concentrations can be used as a time-integrated indicator of sedimentation, if during a defined period of heavy metal contamination the total deposition of fine sediments is less than a defined topsoil sampling depth. We provided evidence for this hypothesis studying a 45km²-floodplain of River Mulde (Germany). For the assessment of heavy metal top soil concentrations, 126 samples were available. Hydraulics, sedimentation patterns, and concentrations of particle-bonded pollutants were calculated with a 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model (TELEMAC 2D). The calibration of critical velocities of sedimentation and erosion of the model was based on sediment trap exposures during a flood event with a ten-year recurrence interval (Schulz et al. 2009). The calculated sedimentation of the calibrated model was subdivided into three classes: low sedimentation (<0.1 mm), medium sedimentation (0.1 mm < sedimentation < 1 mm), and high sedimentation (> 1mm). Heavy metal concentrations of the floodplain soil were classified according to these simulated spatially distributed sedimentation classes. The analysis of the measured and modelled values clearly showed that the mean values of the classified concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) were increasing with

  6. Improved Flotation Technique for Microscopy of In Situ Soil and Sediment Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Bone, T. L.; Balkwill, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    An improved flotation method for microscopy of in situ soil and sediment microorganisms was developed. Microbial cells were released into gellike flotation films that were stripped from soil and sediment aggregates as these aggregates were submerged in 0.5% solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone. The use of polyvinylpyrrolidone solutions instead of water facilitated the release of films from saturated samples such as aquifer sediments as well as from typical surface soils. In situ microbial morphological characteristics could then be surveyed rapidly by light microscopy of films stained with acridine orange. This method effectively determined the ranges of morphological diversity in a variety of sample types. It also detected microcolonies and other spatial relationships among microbial cells. Only a small fraction (3.4 to 10.1%) of the microflora was released into the flotation films, but plating and direct evaluations by microscopy showed that this fraction was representative of the total population. Images PMID:16347005

  7. Effects of freeze-thaw cycles on anaerobic microbial processes in an Arctic intertidal mud flat.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Joanna E; Robador, Alberto; Hubert, Casey; Jørgensen, Bo Barker; Brüchert, Volker

    2010-04-01

    Insight into the effects of repeated freezing and thawing on microbial processes in sediments and soils is important for understanding sediment carbon cycling at high latitudes acutely affected by global warming. Microbial responses to repeated freeze-thaw conditions were studied in three complementary experiments using arctic sediment collected from an intertidal flat that is exposed to seasonal freeze-thaw conditions (Ymerbukta, Svalbard, Arctic Ocean). The sediment was subjected to oscillating freeze-thaw incubations, either gradual, from -5 to 4 degrees C, or abrupt, from -20 to 10 degrees C. Concentrations of low-molecular weight carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids) were measured and sulfate reduction was assessed by measuring (35)S sulfate reduction rates (SRRs). Gradual freeze-thaw incubation decreased microbial activity in the frozen state to 0.25 % of initial levels at 4 degrees C, but activity resumed rapidly reaching >60 % of initial activity in the thawed state. Exposure of sediments to successive large temperature changes (-20 versus 10 degrees C) decreased SRR by 80% of the initial activity, suggesting that a fraction of the bacterial community recovered rapidly from extreme temperature fluctuations. This is supported by 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles that revealed persistence of the dominant microbial taxa under repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The fast recovery of the SRRs suggests that carbon mineralization in thawing arctic sediment can resume without delay or substantial growth of microbial populations.

  8. Hillslope sediment and soil carbon transport: can we model their movement?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Greg; Kunkel, Veikko; Dever, Chris; Braggins, Matthew; Willgoose, Garry

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying and predicting the movement of hillslope sediment and soil organic carbon (SOC) is of huge scientific, agronomic and economic benefit. In particular, the movement and fate of SOC has attracted considerable recent attention. However, the reliable modelling and prediction of sediment and SOC movement has proved elusive. Here we examine the movement of sediment and SOC along a grazing hillslope in south-eastern Australia. The slope is linear, uniformly managed and has consistent vegetation (grassland). We quantify sediment and SOC transport using the environmental tracer 137-Ceasium. However, here we collect field samples using the conventional soil cores but also shallow samples to quantify the dynamics of the near surface. We also model the movement of sediment and SOC using a numerically based soil erosion and landscape evolution model. Our results show that the hillslope is erosional which is supported by field observation. However, there was no relationship between SOC and 137-Caesium suggesting that SOC and their movement and fate are not related. Significant relationships were observed between soil texture and SOC for the near surface but not for the deeper cores suggesting any movement and fate of SOC is more controlled by soil particle size at the near surface. The SIBERIA sediment transport model was calibrated and run for the site. Comparing the field derived erosion and SOC data with model prediction found no significant relationship. However, the numerical model was able to predict the cyclic pattern of 137-Ceasium and SOC as well as overall trends. Our findings demonstrate that the movement and fate of sediment and SOC is complex.

  9. Sediments deposition due to soil erosion in the watershed region of Mangla dam.

    PubMed

    Butt, Mohsin Jamil; Mahmood, Rashed; Waqas, Ahmad

    2011-10-01

    Soil erosion is the most important reason of sedimentation load of water reservoirs in the world. In Pakistan, Mangla dam is one of the most important water reservoirs used for the production of electricity and for the supply of water for irrigation purposes. However, the capacity of Mangla dam reservoir has reduced by more than 20% since its construction. This study highlights the impact of rainfall on soil erosion and consequently on sedimentation deposition in Mangla dam reservoir. Sedimentation, annual rainfall, and normal rainfall data of 39 years were used in this study. Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data were used to calculate the total drainage area of the Mangla watershed region. The sedimentation data of Mangla reservoir from 1967 to 2005 were retrieved from Water and Power Development Authority in Pakistan. The meteorological observatories in the Mangla watershed region are identified. Annual rainfall data from 1967 to 2005 for the meteorological observatories in the Mangla watershed regions were retrieved from Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD). In addition, normal rainfall data for the years 1949 to 1978 and for the years 1979 to 2008 were also retrieved from PMD. The impact of annual rainfall is observed on sedimentation load in Mangla dam. The correlation coefficient between annual rainfall and sedimentation load is 0.94. This study shows that with an increase in rainfall, the soil erosion of the area increases which subsequently is responsible for the increase in the rate of sedimentation load in Mangla dam. This study further demonstrates that better soil management can reduce the sedimentation load in the Mangla reservoir.

  10. Herbicide monitoring in soil, runoff waters and sediments in an olive orchard.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Maria Jesus; De Luna, Elena; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Hermosin, M Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Occurrences of surface water contamination by herbicides in areas where olive orchards are established reveal a need to understand soil processes affecting herbicide fate at field scale for this popular Mediterranean crop. A monitoring study with two herbicides (terbuthylazine and oxyfluorfen) in the first 2cm of soil, runoff waters, and sediments, was carried out after under natural rainfall conditions following winter herbicide application. At the end of the 107day field experiment, no residues of the soil applied terbuthylazine were recovered, whereas 42% of the oxyfluorfen applied remained in the top soil. Very low levels of both herbicides were measured in runoff waters; however, concentrations were slightly higher for terbuthylazine (0.53% of applied) than for oxyfluorfen (0.03% of applied), relating to their respective water solubilities. Congruent with soil residue data, 38.15% of the applied oxyfluorfen was found in runoff-sediment, compared to only 0.46% for terbuthylazine. Accordingly, the herbicide soil distribution coefficients measured within runoff field tanks was much greater for oxyfluorfen (Kd=3098) than for terbuthylazine (Kd=1.57). The herbicide oxyfluorfen is co-transported with sediment in runoff, remaining trapped and/or adsorbed to soil particle aggregates, due in part to its low water solubility. In contrast, terbuthylazine soil dissipation may be associated more so with leaching processes, favored by its high water solubility, low sorption, and slow degradation. By comparing these two herbicides, our results reaffirm the importance of herbicide physico-chemical properties in dictating their behavior in soil and also suggest that herbicides with low solubility, as seen in the case oxyfluorfen, remain susceptible to offsite transport associated with sediments.

  11. Metal removal from contaminated soil and sediments by the biosurfactant surfactin

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, C.N.; Yong, R.N.; Gibbs, B.F.; James, S.; Bennett, H.P.J.

    1999-11-01

    Batch soil washing experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of using surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, a lipopeptide biosurfactant, for the removal of heavy metals from a contaminated soil and sediments. The soil contained high levels of metals and hydrocarbons (890 mg/kg of zinc, 420 mg/kg of copper, and 12.6% oil and grease), and the sediments contained 110 mg/kg of copper and 3,300 mg/kg of zinc. The contaminated soil was spiked to increase the level of copper, zinc, and cadmium to 550, 1,200, and 2,000 mg/kg, respectively. Water alone removed minimal amounts of copper and zinc (less than 1%). Results showed that 0.25% surfactin/1% NaOH could remove 25% of the copper and 6% of the zinc from the soil and 15% of the copper and 6% of the zinc from the sediments. A series of five washings of the soil with 0.25% surfactin (1% NaOH) was able to remove 70% of the copper and 22% of the zinc. The technique of ultrafiltration and the measurement of octanol-water partitioning and {zeta}-potential were used to determine the mechanism of metal removal by surfactin. It was indicated that surfactin was able to remove the metals by sorption at the soil interphase and metal complexation, followed by desorption of the metal through interfacial tension lowering and fluid forces and finally complexation of the metal with the micelles.

  12. Clay Mineralogy of Soils and Sediments from an Alluvial Aquifer, Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, W. C.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Lim, D.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Long, P. E.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Alluvial aquifers along the Colorado River corridor in central to western Colorado contain legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial aquifers host important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface that are both significant on their own, but also influence contaminant behavior. Mineral phases likely active in the sequestration of metal contaminants are chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite, and smectite. These minerals are also important biogeofacies markers. The Colorado alluvial sediments include lenses of silt and clay that are commonly more reduced than coarser grained materials. The clay minerals that make up the alluvial aquifer sediments include these mineral phases important for metal sequestration (chlorite, smectite, illite), as well as kaolinite and quartz. More specifically, the clay mineralogy of soils derived from these sediments at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the alluvial sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade. The vermiculite-smectite intergrade is a weathering product of illite. The presence of illite and chlorite in both the sediments and the soils at Rifle reflect a mineralogically immature character of the source rocks. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate, indicative of mixed provence of immature (chlorite, smectite, illite) and mature (kaolinite) minerals relative to their source areas.

  13. Microbial degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CHCl2F and CHCl2CF3) in soils and sediments.

    PubMed Central

    Oremland, R S; Lonergan, D J; Culbertson, C W; Lovley, D R

    1996-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms to degrade trace levels of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-21 and HCFC-123 was investigated. Methanotroph-linked oxidation of HCFC-21 was observed in aerobic soils, and anaerobic degradation of HCFC-21 occurred in freshwater and salt marsh sediments. Microbial degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in anoxic freshwater and salt marsh sediments, and the recovery of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane indicated the involvement of reductive dechlorination. No degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in aerobic soils. In some experiments, HCFCs were degraded at low (parts per billion) concentrations, raising the possibility that bacteria in nature remove HCFCs from the atmosphere. PMID:8633881

  14. Microbial degradation of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (CHCl2F and CHCl2CF3) in soils and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Lonergan, D.J.; Culbertson, C.W.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms to degrade trace levels of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC-21 and HCFC-123 was investigated. Methanotroph- linked oxidation of HCFC-21 was observed in aerobic soils, and anaerobic degradation of HCFC-21 occurred in freshwater and salt marsh sediments. Microbial degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in anoxic freshwater and salt marsh sediments, and the recovery of 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane indicated the involvement of reductive dechlorination. No degradation of HCFC-123 was observed in aerobic soils. In same experiments, HCFCs were degraded at low (parts per billion) concentrations, raising the possibility that bacteria in nature remove HCFCs from the atmosphere.

  15. Calcium Isotopes in Marine Sediments and Soils: Paleoceanography, Diagenesis, and Soil Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depaolo, D. J.; Fantle, M. S.; Turchyn, A.; Ewing, S.; Yang, W.

    2007-12-01

    the sediment column. A deep-sea section where calcite is present in subequal proportions with clay, and in which there is also organic matter and rapid sulfate reduction, has a different pattern. Pore water 44Ca/40Ca values are closer to those of seawater, suggesting that there is virtually no calcite dissolution below a few meters depth. Analysis of the available data on fractionation during calcite precipitation suggests that the fractionation is controlled by attachment kinetics at the mineral surface. The observations also require that the presence of clay and/or organic material change the calcite dissolution rates by a large factor. Studies of Ca isotopes in hyper-arid soils and in alkaline lakes also show evidence of inorganic Ca isotope fractionation, probably controlled by relatively rapid, non-equilibrium precipitation of calcite, gypsum, or anhydrite during dessication events.

  16. Predicting habitat associations of five intertidal crab species among estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeiren, Peter; Sheaves, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Intertidal crab assemblages that are active on the sediment surface of tropical estuaries during tidal exposure play an important role in many fundamental ecosystem processes. Consequently, they are critical contributors to a wide range of estuarine goods and services. However, a lack of understanding of their spatial organization within a large landscape context prevents the inclusion of intertidal crabs into generally applicable ecological models and management applications. We investigated spatial distribution patterns of intertidal crabs within and among eight dry tropical estuaries spread across a 160 km stretch of coast in North East Queensland, Australia. Habitat associations were modelled for five species based on photographic sampling in 40-80 sites per estuarine up- and downstream component: Uca seismella occurred in sites with little structure, bordered by low intertidal vegetation; Macrophthalmus japonicus occupied flat muddy sites with no structure or vegetation; Metopograpsus frontalis and Metopograpsus latifrons occupied sites covered with structure in more than 10% and 25% respectively. Finally, both Metopograpsus spp. and Metopograpsus thukuhar occupied rock walls. Habitat associations were predictable among estuaries with moderate to high sensitivity and low percentages of false positives indicating that simple, physical factors were adequate to explain the spatial distribution pattern of intertidal crabs. Results provide a necessary first step in developing generally applicable understanding of the fundamental mechanisms driving spatial niche organization of intertidal crabs within a landscape context.

  17. Char BC amendments for soil and sediment amelioration: BC quantification and field pilot trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelissen, G.; Braendli, R. C.; Eek, E.; Henriksen, T.; Hartnik, T.; Breedveld, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Background Activated char BC binds organic contaminants and possibly mercury so strongly that their bioaccumulation and transport to other environmental compartments are reduced. The advantages of black carbon amendment over many other remediation methods include i) it can be used as an in situ risk reduction method, ii) the price is low, and iii) it overcomes significant controversies associated with disposal of dredged and excavated materials. In this study BC amendment is used in pilot trials in the field for soil and sediment amelioration. Quantification of amended char BC Two methods for char BC quantification were tested: i) chemothermal oxidation (CTO) at a range of temperatures and ii) wet chemical oxidation with a potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid solution. The amount of BC amended to three soils was accurately determined by CTO at 375°C. For two sediments, much of the BC disappeared during combustion at 375°C, which could probably be explained by catalytic effects caused by sediment constituents such as metals, mineral oxides and salts. Attempts to avoid these effects through rinsing with acid before combustion did not result in higher char BC recoveries. CTO at lower temperatures (325-350°C) was a feasible alternative for one of the sediments. Wet oxidation with potassium dichromate/sulfuric acid proved to effectively function for BC quantification in sediments, since almost complete BC recovery (81-92 %) was observed for both sediments, while the amount of organic carbon remaining was low (5-16 %). Field pilots Earlier, we showed the effectiveness of BC amendment in the laboratory. In the laboratory it was shown that BC amendments (2 %) reduced freely dissolved porewater concentrations (factor of 10-50) and bioaccumulation (factor of 5). This presentation will describe 50 × 50 m pilot field trials in Norway (2007-2008): Trondheim Harbor (sediment) and Drammen (soil). The presentation will focus on physical monitoring (distribution of BC in the

  18. Experimental and molecular dynamic simulation study of perfluorooctane sulfonate adsorption on soil and sediment components.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruiming; Yan, Wei; Jing, Chuanyong

    2015-03-01

    Soil and sediment play a crucial role in the fate and transport of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in the environment. However, the molecular mechanisms of major soil/sediment components on PFOS adsorption remain unclear. This study experimentally isolated three major components in soil/sediment: humin/kerogen, humic/fulvic acid (HA/FA), and inorganic component after removing organics, and explored their contributions to PFOS adsorption using batch adsorption experiments and molecular dynamic simulations. The results suggest that the humin/kerogen component dominated the PFOS adsorption due to its aliphatic features where hydrophobic effect and phase transfer are the primary adsorption mechanism. Compared with the humin/kerogen, the HA/FA component contributed less to the PFOS adsorption because of its hydrophilic and polar characteristics. The electrostatic repulsion between the polar groups of HA/FA and PFOS anions was attributable to the reduced PFOS adsorption. When the soil organic matter was extracted, the inorganic component also plays a non-negligible role because PFOS molecules might form surface complexes on SiO2 surface. The findings obtained in this study illustrate the contribution of organic matters in soils and sediments to PFOS adsorption and provided new perspective to understanding the adsorption process of PFOS on micro-interface in the environment.

  19. Process-based model linking pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) activity to sediment transport and soil thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Kyungsoo; Amundson, Ronald; Heimsath, Arjun M.; Dietrich, William E.

    2005-11-01

    Burrowing organisms assist in shaping earth surfaces and are simultaneously affected by the environment they inhabit; however, a conceptual framework is not yet available to describe this feedback. We introduce a model that connects the population density of soil-burrowing animals to sediment transport via energy. The model, combined with available data from California hillslopes where soil erosion is driven by pocket gophers (Thomomys bottae), suggests that a gopher annually expends ˜9 kJ of energy, or ˜1% of reported burrowing energy expenditure, in generating sediment transport. The model is used to evaluate the case that gophers prefer to populate thicker soils. The results suggest that this behavior may drastically dampen the spatial and temporal variations of soil thickness and gopher populations, implying that burrowing organisms may create landscapes distinct from those affected by abiotic processes.

  20. Assessment of the AWC TRUclean process for use on Mound soils and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.R.

    1989-03-23

    The AWC TRUclean System has been proposed as a method to reduce the volume of LSA waste during D&D excavation of Pu-238 contaminated soils on the Mound Site and Pu-238 contaminated sediments in the Miami-Erie Canal. Following test runs with Mound soil, AWC suggested that the TRUclean Process could reduce the amount of LSA waste by greater than 90% if a machine could be built and used to process the Mound soil. The cost savings which could potentially be realized by assuming this magnitude of volume reduction were thought to be significant on large projects. These preliminary results suggested that a review of the TRUclean Process and the 1987 test results should be performed to determine a course of action. The AWC TRUclean Process and the test data have been evaluated and the potential effectiveness of the process determined for use on Mound soils and/or on the sediments in the Miami-Erie Canal.

  1. Unstable Pore-Water Flow in Intertidal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Shen, C.; Li, L.

    2014-12-01

    Salt marshes are important intertidal wetlands strongly influenced by interactions between surface water and groundwater. Bordered by coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur over vastly different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil condition, particularly aeration, which influences the marsh plant growth. Numerous studies have been carried out to examine the pore-water flow process in the marsh soil driven by tides, focusing on stable flow with the assumption of homogeneity in soil and fluid properties. This assumption, however, is questionable given the actual inhomogeneous conditions in the field. For example, the salinity of surface water in the tidal creek varies temporally and spatially due to the influence of rainfall and evapotranspiration as well as the freshwater input from upland areas to the estuary, creating density gradients across the marsh surface and within the marsh soil. Many marshes possess soil stratigraphy with low-permeability mud typically overlying high-permeability sandy deposits. Macropores such as crab burrows are commonly distributed in salt marsh sediments. All these conditions are prone to the development of non-uniform, unstable preferential pore-water flow in the marsh soil, for example, funnelling and fingering. Here we present results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to explore such unstable flow. In particular, the analysis aims to address how the unstable flow modifies patterns of local pore-water movement and solute transport, as well as the overall exchange between the marsh soil and

  2. Influences of hydrological regime on heavy metal and salt ion concentrations in intertidal sediment from Chongming Dongtan, Changjiang River estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiale; Gao, Xiaojiang; Yang, Jin

    2017-04-01

    The tidal flat along the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary has long been reclaimed for the agricultural purposes, with the prevailing hydrological conditions during such pedogenic transformations being of great importance to their successful development. In this study, samples of surface sediment from Chongming Dongtan, situated at the mouth of the Changjiang River estuary, were collected and analyzed in order to understand how hydrological management can influence the concentrations of heavy metals and salt ions in pore water, and chemical fractionation of heavy metals during the reclamation process. We performed a series of experiments that simulated three different hydrological regimes: permanent flooding (R1), alternative five-day periods of wetting and drying (R2), continuous field capacity (R3). Our results exhibited good Pearson correlations coefficients between heavy metals and salt ions in the pore water for both R1 and R2. In particular, the concentrations of salt ions in the pore water decreased in all three regimes, but showed the biggest decline in R2. With this R2 experiment, the periodic concentration patterns in the pore water varied for Fe and Mn, but not for Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Neither the fractionation of Ni nor the residual fractions of any metals changed significantly in any regime. In R1, the reducible fractions of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb) in the sediment decreased, while the acid extractable fractions increased. In R2, the acid extractable and the reducible fractions of Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb both decreased, as did the oxidizable fraction of Cu. These data suggest that an alternating hydrological regime can reduce both salinity and the availability of heavy metals in sediments.

  3. Biogeochemistry of mercury in soils and sediments in a mining-impacted watershed, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, J. M.; Goldhaber, M. B.

    2004-12-01

    The East Davis Creek watershed, located in the California Coast Ranges, is host to historic mines that provided mercury for recovery of gold in the Sierra Nevada goldfields in the mid-to-late 1800s. Bedrock in this watershed includes marine sedimentary rock, serpentinite, and hydrothermally altered serpentinite. Cinnabar (HgS) found in the altered serpentinite is the primary ore mineral for mercury. We evaluated the hypothesis that mercury is sequestered in soil organic matter downstream from source areas, releasing a fraction as water-soluble methylmercury. Microbial biomass and the presence of sulfur-reducing bacteria implicated in mercury methylation were quantified using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data. Methylation incubations were performed on soil and sediment inoculated with water from Davis Creek Reservoir and sealed in glass containers under an anoxic headspace for 21 days. Methylmercury was measured on extracts of the soils at the start and at the end of the incubation period. Two sources of mercury to stream sediments, a soil with an altered serpentinite parent and mine tailings, were incubated. Stream sediment, an overbank deposit soil and a wetland soil forming from these sediments were also incubated. The overbank deposit soil is periodically flooded. The wetland soil around the edge of Davis Creek Reservoir is perennially saturated with water. The altered serpentinite soil and mine tailings had the highest total mercury concentrations (170 and 150 ng Hg /g, respectively). Total mercury concentrations in stream sediments are low (¡Ü1 ng Hg/g), with higher mercury concentrations in the overbank (3 ng/g) and wetland soils (18 ng Hg/g). Mercury leached from altered serpentinite soils and mine tailings may be transported downstream and sequestered through sorption to organic matter in the overbank and wetland soils. PLFA biomarkers for Desulfobacter (10Me16:0) and Desulfovibrio (i17:1) were present in all incubated materials, with lower

  4. Modeling 3D soil and sediment distributions for assessing catchment structure and hydrological feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Thomas; Brück, Yasemine; Hinz, Christoph; Gerke, Horst H.

    2015-04-01

    Structural heterogeneity, namely the spatial distribution of soils and sediments (represented by mineral particles), characterizes catchment hydrological behavior. In natural catchments, local geology and the specific geomorphic processes determine the characteristics and spatial distribution of structures. In constructed catchments, structural features are determined primarily by the construction processes and the geological origin of the parent material. Objectives are scenarios of 3D catchment structures in form of complete 3D description of soil hydraulic properties generated from the knowledge of the formation processes. The constructed hydrological catchment 'Hühnerwasser' (Lower Lusatia, Brandenburg, Germany) was used for the calibration and validation of model results due to its well-known conditions. For the modelling of structural features, a structure generator was used to model i) quasi-deterministic sediment distributions using input data from a geological model of the parent material excavation site; ii) sediment distributions that are conditioned to measurement data from soil sampling; and iii) stochastic component sediment distributions. All three approaches allow a randomization within definable limits. Furthermore, the spoil cone / spoil ridge orientation, internal layering, surface compaction and internal spoil cone compaction were modified. These generated structural models were incorporated in a gridded 3D volume model constructed with the GOCAD software. For selected scenarios, the impact of structure variation was assessed by hydrological modelling with HYDRUS 2D/3D software. For that purpose, 3D distributions of soil hydraulic properties were estimated based on generated sediment properties using adapted pedotransfer functions. Results from the hydrological model were compared them to measured discharges from the catchment. The impact of structural feature variation on flow behaviour was analysed by comparing different simulation scenarios

  5. Soil/sediment characterization for 216-A-29 ditch

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the environmental samples collected from the 216-A-29 Ditch in 1988. Tables summarizing the laboratory data for radionuclides, metals, and soil chemistry are included.

  6. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... material, climate, macro- and microorganisms, topography, and time. (ix) “Soil aggregate” is the... a rate of change of solution concentration of 5 percent or less per 24 hours. (viii) Centrifugation...

  7. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... material, climate, macro- and microorganisms, topography, and time. (ix) “Soil aggregate” is the... a rate of change of solution concentration of 5 percent or less per 24 hours. (viii) Centrifugation...

  8. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... material, climate, macro- and microorganisms, topography, and time. (ix) “Soil aggregate” is the... a rate of change of solution concentration of 5 percent or less per 24 hours. (viii) Centrifugation...

  9. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... material, climate, macro- and microorganisms, topography, and time. (ix) “Soil aggregate” is the... a rate of change of solution concentration of 5 percent or less per 24 hours. (viii) Centrifugation...

  10. 40 CFR 796.2750 - Sediment and soil adsorption isotherm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... material, climate, macro- and microorganisms, topography, and time. (ix) “Soil aggregate” is the... a rate of change of solution concentration of 5 percent or less per 24 hours. (viii) Centrifugation...

  11. Impacts of tracked vehicles on sediment from a desert soil

    Treesearch

    Erek H. Fuchs; Karl M. Wood; Tim L. Jones; Brent Racher

    2003-01-01

    Off-road military vehicle traffic is a major consideration in the management of military lands. The objective of this study was to determine the impacts of military tracked M1A1 heavy combat tank vehicles on sediment loss from runoff, surface plant cover, and surface microtopography in a desert military training environment. A randomized block design was used which had...

  12. Ecoenzymatic Stoichiometry of Stream Sediments with Comparison to Terrestrial Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we extend the development of ecoenzymatic stoichiometry to the surface sediments of stream ecosystems using data collected in a nationwide survey. The data set is larger and more comprehensive than those used in our previous studies. The data include the first broa...

  13. Ecoenzymatic Stoichiometry of Stream Sediments with Comparison to Terrestrial Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we extend the development of ecoenzymatic stoichiometry to the surface sediments of stream ecosystems using data collected in a nationwide survey. The data set is larger and more comprehensive than those used in our previous studies. The data include the first broa...

  14. Characterization of heavy metal contamination in the soil and sediment of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tujin; Pan, Jin; Liu, Xuelian

    2017-02-23

    This paper analyzes the concentration, distribution, bioavailability, and potential heavy metal contamination risk of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr in the soil and sediment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR). In this paper, 14 stations that cover the upper reaches to the lower reaches of the TGR were selected. The spatial distribution of heavy metals in the TGR showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr were higher in the upper and lower reaches than those in the middle reaches because of industrial and agricultural activities as well as natural processes (e.g., soil erosion, rock weathering). The results also indicated that multiple pollution sources and complex geomorphological, geochemical and biological processes resulted in remarkably higher heavy metal concentrations in the soils of the water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) than in the soils of the banks. The Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cr concentrations in the soils of the TGR did not exceed their respective maximum allowable concentration (MAC) values for agricultural soils in China, indicating that the soil in the TGR was not seriously contaminated with Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, or Cr. However, the mean concentrations of all the studied metals in the sediments were higher than the geochemical background values and much higher than those in the soils, thus indicating the effect of the pollution sources and the altered hydrologic conditions that occurred after the impoundment of the TGR. A geoaccumulation index analysis indicated that the TGR sediments were moderately polluted with Cu and Cd, unpolluted to moderately polluted with Pb and Cr, and unpolluted with Zn. Fractionation studies indicated that Cd was mainly present in the non-residual fractions and exhibited great instability and bioavailability; furthermore, the alternating wetting and drying of the WFLZ soils enhance the mobility and bioavailability of Cd. Thus, greater attention should be paid to Cd pollution in the TGR because of its higher risk

  15. Arsenic contamination in water, soil, sediment and rice of central India.

    PubMed

    Patel, K S; Shrivas, K; Brandt, R; Jakubowski, N; Corns, W; Hoffmann, P

    2005-04-01

    Arsenic contamination in the environment (i.e. surface, well and tube-well water, soil, sediment and rice samples) of central India (i.e. Ambagarh Chauki, Chhattisgarh) is reported. The concentration of the total arsenic in the samples i.e. water (n = 64), soil (n = 30), sediment (n = 27) and rice grain (n = 10) were ranged from 15 to 825 microg L(-1), 9 to 390 mg kg(-1), 19 to 489 mg kg(-1) and 0.018 to 0.446 mg kg(-1), respectively. In all type of waters, the arsenic levels exceeded the permissible limit, 10 microg L(-1). The most toxic and mobile inorganic species i.e. As(III) and As(V) are predominantly present in water of this region. The soils have relatively higher contents of arsenic and other elements i.e. Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ga, Zr, Sn, Sb, Pb and U. The mean arsenic contents in soil of this region are much higher than in arsenic soil of West Bengal and Bangladesh. The lowest level of arsenic in the soil of this region is 3.7 mg kg(-1) with median value of 9.5 mg kg(-1). The arsenic contents in the sediments are at least 2-folds higher than in the soil. The sources of arsenic contamination in the soil of this region are expected from the rock weathering as well as the atmospheric deposition. The environmental samples i.e. water, soil dust, food, etc. are expected the major exposure for the arsenic contamination. The most of people living in this region are suffering with arsenic borne diseases (i.e. melanosis, keratosis, skin cancer, etc.).

  16. Watershed sediment losses to lakes accelerating despite agricultural soil conservation efforts.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Adam J; Filstrup, Christopher T; Downing, John A

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural soil loss and deposition in aquatic ecosystems is a problem that impairs water quality worldwide and is costly to agriculture and food supplies. In the US, for example, billions of dollars have subsidized soil and water conservation practices in agricultural landscapes over the past decades. We used paleolimnological methods to reconstruct trends in sedimentation related to human-induced landscape change in 32 lakes in the intensively agricultural region of the Midwestern United States. Despite erosion control efforts, we found accelerating increases in sediment deposition from erosion; median erosion loss since 1800 has been 15.4 tons ha(-1). Sediment deposition from erosion increased >6-fold, from 149 g m(-2) yr(-1) in 1850 to 986 g m(-2) yr(-1) by 2010. Average time to accumulate one mm of sediment decreased from 631 days before European settlement (ca. 1850) to 59 days mm(-1) at present. Most of this sediment was deposited in the last 50 years and is related to agricultural intensification rather than land clearance or predominance of agricultural lands. In the face of these intensive agricultural practices, traditional soil conservation programs have not decelerated downstream losses. Despite large erosion control subsidies, erosion and declining water quality continue, thus new approaches are needed to mitigate erosion and water degradation.

  17. Watershed Sediment Losses to Lakes Accelerating Despite Agricultural Soil Conservation Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Adam J.; Filstrup, Christopher T.; Downing, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural soil loss and deposition in aquatic ecosystems is a problem that impairs water quality worldwide and is costly to agriculture and food supplies. In the US, for example, billions of dollars have subsidized soil and water conservation practices in agricultural landscapes over the past decades. We used paleolimnological methods to reconstruct trends in sedimentation related to human-induced landscape change in 32 lakes in the intensively agricultural region of the Midwestern United States. Despite erosion control efforts, we found accelerating increases in sediment deposition from erosion; median erosion loss since 1800 has been 15.4 tons ha−1. Sediment deposition from erosion increased >6-fold, from 149 g m−2 yr−1 in 1850 to 986 g m−2 yr−1 by 2010. Average time to accumulate one mm of sediment decreased from 631 days before European settlement (ca. 1850) to 59 days mm−1 at present. Most of this sediment was deposited in the last 50 years and is related to agricultural intensification rather than land clearance or predominance of agricultural lands. In the face of these intensive agricultural practices, traditional soil conservation programs have not decelerated downstream losses. Despite large erosion control subsidies, erosion and declining water quality continue, thus new approaches are needed to mitigate erosion and water degradation. PMID:23326454

  18. AN OVERVIEW OF PARTITIONING AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF PAHS IN SEDIMENTS AND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding and predicting any adverse effects of PAHs depends on generating a reliable measure or estimate of how much PAH is available for uptake. Simply knowing the total amount of PAH in soil, water or sediment is insufficient for determining whether or not these compounds ...

  19. IMMUNOASSAY METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The journal article describes the use of a prototype immunoassay method for the determination of pentacholorphenol (PCP) in soil and sediment. PCP was used as a pesticide and wood preservative and is not currently available to the general public. The paper stresses the importan...

  20. Sediment source identification in a semiarid watershed at soil mapping unit scales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Selective erosion and transport of silt and clay-particles from watershed soil surfaces leads to enrichment of suspended sediments by size fractions that are the most effective scavengers of chemical pollutants. Thus, preferential transport of highly reactive size fractions represents a major proble...

  1. Impacts of heterogeneous organic matter on phenanthrene sorption--Different soil and sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Childs, Jeffrey; Sabatini, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Organic petrography has been proposed as a tool for characterizing the heterogeneous organic matter present in soil and sediment samples. A new simplified method is proposed as a quantitative means of interpreting observed sorption behavior for phenanthrene and different soils and sediments based on their organic petrographical characterization. This method is tested under singe solute conditions and at phenanthrene concentration of 1 μg/L. Since the opaque organic matter fraction dominates the sorption process, we propose that by quantifying this fraction one can interpret organic content normalized sorption distribution coefficient (Koc) values for a sample. While this method was developed and tested for various samples within the same aquifer, in the current study the method is validated for soil and sediment samples from different sites that cover a wide range of organic matter origin, age, and organic content. All 10 soil and sediment samples studied had log Koc values for the opaque particles between 5.6 and 6.8. This range of Koc values illustrates the heterogeneity of opaque particles between sites and geological formations and thus the need to characterize the opaque fraction of materials on a site-by-site basis.

  2. The effects of fire on soil hydrologic properties and sediment fluxes in chaparral steeplands, southern California

    Treesearch

    P. M. Wohlgemuth; K. R. Hubbert

    2008-01-01

    Fire is a major disturbance event in southwestern ecosystems. A prescribed burn in the San Dimas Experimental Forest provided an opportunity to quantify the effects of fire on soil hydrologic properties and sediment fluxes in chaparral-covered steeplands. Located in the San Gabriel Mountains about 50 km northeast of Los Angeles, a 1.28 ha watershed was instrumented...

  3. DEMONSTRATION AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLAN: XRF TECHNOLOGIES OF MEASURING TRACE ELEMENTS IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of field portable/mobile technologies for measuring trace elements in soil and sediments was conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The demonstration took place from January 24 to 28, 200...

  4. AUTOMATED GIS WATERSHED ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR RUSLE/SEDMOD SOIL EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive procedure for computing soil erosion and sediment delivery metrics has been developed using a suite of automated Arc Macro Language (AML ) scripts and a pair of processing- intensive ANSI C++ executable programs operating on an ESRI ArcGIS 8.x Workstation platform...

  5. Sediment and Runoff Losses following Harvesting/Site Prep Operations on a Piedmont Soil in Alabama

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. III Grace; Emily A. Carter

    2001-01-01

    Impacts of soil erosion on water quality from forest harvesting and site preparation have received increased concern in recent years. The study presented here was performed in Lee County, Alabama to investigate the impact of harvesting and site preparation on a 20-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation on sediment and runoff yield....

  6. IN-SITU REDUCTION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER, SOILS, AND SEDIMENTS BY SODIUM DITHIONITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the extent of chromium contamination in the groundwater and underlying soils and sediments of a chrome-plating shop at the USCG Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC. Most of the mobile Cr(VI) is present in the capillary zone ...

  7. Phosphorus Dynamics in Soil, Runoff, and Sediment from Three Management Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land application of poultry litter can lead to increased phosphorus (P) level in surface runoff and sediment, which in turn, potentially accelerates the eutrophication in the water bodies. The objective of this research was to study the P dynamics in two poultry litter amended soils using three mana...

  8. Effects of climate variations and soil conservation on sedimentation of a west-central Oklahoma reservoir

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the second half of the 20th century, extensive soil conservation practices were implemented on the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed in West-Central Oklahoma. Sediment and flow observations were made on major tributaries in 1943-1950 (pre-conservation time period), and again in 2004-2008 (post-co...

  9. AUTOMATED GIS WATERSHED ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR RUSLE/SEDMOD SOIL EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive procedure for computing soil erosion and sediment delivery metrics has been developed using a suite of automated Arc Macro Language (AML ) scripts and a pair of processing- intensive ANSI C++ executable programs operating on an ESRI ArcGIS 8.x Workstation platform...

  10. AN OVERVIEW OF PARTITIONING AND BIOAVAILABILITY OF PAHS IN SEDIMENTS AND SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding and predicting any adverse effects of PAHs depends on generating a reliable measure or estimate of how much PAH is available for uptake. Simply knowing the total amount of PAH in soil, water or sediment is insufficient for determining whether or not these compounds ...

  11. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  12. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  13. IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the extent of total chromium and Cr(VI)contamination in the underlying soils and sediments of a chrome-plating shop at the USCG Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC and to evaluate the use of liquid reductants for in situ treatm...

  14. MANAGING ARSENIC CONTAMINATED SOIL, SEDIMENT, AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE WITH SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater is a widespread problem in certain areas and has caused great public concern due to increased awareness of the health risks. Often the contamination is naturally occurring, but it can also be a result of waste generated from...

  15. ENGINEERING ISSUE: TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the increased need for Superfund decision-makers to have a working knowledge of the remedial capabilities available to treat soil and sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the Superfund Engineering Forum has identified remediation of PCB-contamin...

  16. UTILIZATION OF BACTERIA TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN THE US: LASAGNA AND OTHER TREATMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an overview of the work underway at USEPA/ORD/NRMRL's Center Hill Microbiology Laboratory on bioremediation of contaminated soils and sediments. The Laboratory has isolated and naturally selected for various isolates. An isolate that will be reviewed is CHL-004, a Pseudom...

  17. IN-SITU REDUCTION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER, SOILS, AND SEDIMENTS BY SODIUM DITHIONITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory studies were conducted to characterize the extent of chromium contamination in the groundwater and underlying soils and sediments of a chrome-plating shop at the USCG Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC. Most of the mobile Cr(VI) is present in the capillary zone ...

  18. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  19. UTILIZATION OF BACTERIA TO REMEDIATE CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS IN THE US: LASAGNA AND OTHER TREATMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an overview of the work underway at USEPA/ORD/NRMRL's Center Hill Microbiology Laboratory on bioremediation of contaminated soils and sediments. The Laboratory has isolated and naturally selected for various isolates. An isolate that will be reviewed is CHL-004, a Pseudom...

  20. Fractionation of elements in soils, sludges and sediments: batch and dynamic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, P. S.; Spivakov, B. Ya

    2008-07-01

    Methods and approaches employed in the fractionation of elements according to their physicochemical mobility and bioavailability in soils, sludges and sediments are generalised. Comparative analysis of sequential extraction schemes for heavy metals, arsenic, selenium and phosphorus is performed. Special consideration is given to the flow-through fractionation and kinetic aspects of selective leaching.

  1. IN-SITU REMEDIATION OF CHROMIUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the extent of total chromium and Cr(VI)contamination in the underlying soils and sediments of a chrome-plating shop at the USCG Support Center near Elizabeth City, NC and to evaluate the use of liquid reductants for in situ treatm...

  2. IMMUNOASSAY METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL IN SOIL AND SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The journal article describes the use of a prototype immunoassay method for the determination of pentacholorphenol (PCP) in soil and sediment. PCP was used as a pesticide and wood preservative and is not currently available to the general public. The paper stresses the importan...

  3. Mercury Release from Soils and Sediments in the Sacramento River Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, E.; Aiken, G. R.; Ryan, J. N.; Gasper, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury released into water from soils and sediments contaminated by cinnabar (HgS) and gold mining is a major environmental concern in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California. To better understand the conditions resulting in Hg solubilization from these contaminated materials, six soil and sediment samples from the Coastal Range and the Sierra Nevada were subject to batch leaching experiments under varying conditions. Sequential extraction analyses of the soils and sediments indicated that most of the mercury was present as (1) Hg as HgS in samples affected by HgS mining, which occurred in the Coastal Range, (2) Hg bound to metal oxides in a background serpentine soil from the Coastal Range, (3) Hg bound to sediment organic matter in lake sediments from Camp Far West Reservoir, and (4) elemental Hg in a sluice sediment from Starr Tunnel. The effects of pH, ionic strength, inorganic ions (chloride, calcium), simple organic ligands (mercaptoacetic acid, salicylic acid, EDTA), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the release of Hg were investigated. Leaching experiments confirmed that the water-soluble fraction was small (9 to 350 ng/L) compared to the amounts of Hg associated with the solid samples (1 to 36 μg/g total mercury); however, these concentrations would be sufficient to result in increased methylation by sulfate-reducing bacteria in wetland systems. An increase in mercury release was observed with (1) increasing pH due to solubilization of soil organic matter, (2) decreasing ionic strength due to colloid stabilization, and (3) increasing chloride concentration due to the formation of complexes with mercury. The presence of calcium strongly inhibited mercury release. Among the organic ligands, mercaptoacetic acid, which binds Hg very strongly, was the most effective at solubilizing Hg. DOM, in the form of organic matter isolates, was also very effective at solubilizing Hg for all samples except the lake sediment sample, with the most aromatic organic

  4. Mercury speciation in floodplain soils and sediments along a contaminated river transect

    SciTech Connect

    Wallschlaeger, D.; Desai, M.V.M.; Spengler, M.; Wilken, R.D.

    1998-09-01

    A novel mercury-specific sequential extraction procedure (SEP) for the assessment of mercury (Hg) speciation in soils and sediments, with emphasis on studying the interaction between Hg and organic matter (OM), was developed and tested. It was applied to determine Hg speciation in floodplain topsoils and surface sediments along the Hg-contaminated part of the river Elbe, and to simultaneously derive some information on the (re)mobilization potentials for Hg from these matrices. The majority of the total Hg in the ecosystem today is bound in the floodplains, which also still geographically reflect the historic emission record. Most of the Hg in both matrices is bound strongly to OM, suggesting low availability. However, distinct differences between Hg speciation in the floodplain soils and sediments were also discovered. Mercury deposited in the floodplains shows speciation patterns that indicate stronger fixation compared with Hg in the sediments. This difference is attributed to the association of Hg with larger quantities of OM, which presumably also has higher molecular weight (MW). By comparison, Hg in the sediments was distributed among weaker binding forms, which are more likely to liberate Hg. Particularly, sediments showed a total lack of sulfidic binding forms for Hg. Pronounced geographical trends were detected in the Hg speciation along the river transect, with a general downstream shift from weaker to stronger binding forms, probably due to increased association with OM. These studies indicate that Hg speciation in riverine ecosystems is dynamic and reflects the chemical mechanisms underlying (bio) geochemical processes like distribution and transport.

  5. Soil and water temperature effects on the fluvial erosion of cohesive sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinola, A.; Wynn-Thompson, T.; Olgun, G.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment is one of the leading causes of water quality impairment in US streams and rivers (Wood and Armitage 1997; USEPA 2000; Bryce et al., 2010). Although sediment mobilization from the and transport through fluvial systems is a natural process, human activities, as a result of urbanization and climate change, alter the natural hydrologic and hydraulic characteristic of watersheds, leading to extreme erosion and sedimentation. Apart from higher flows, however, urbanization leads to elevated stream temperatures and, in combination with other anthropogenic influences such as hydropower operations, reservoir discharges and industrial cooling water, result in water and soil temperatures well above the expected seasonal temperature regime. In laboratory experiments, a higher water temperature was positively correlated with erosion rates (Grissinger, 1966; Cristensen and Das 1974; Parks, 2012) but this phenomenon is still poorly understood. Additionally, the effect of soil temperature on the fluvial erosion of cohesive soils has never been studied before; therefore, this research explores the relationship between soil and water temperature on cohesive soil erosion rate. Remolded montmorillonite, vermiculite and illite/kaolinite-dominated soils were tested in an 8 m x 1 m x 0.4 m recirculating flume at four combinations of soil temperatures and water temperatures (40C water and 40C soil, 40C water and 150C soil, 250C water and 250C soil, 250C water and 400C soil) representing typical winter and summer field conditions, as well as increased soil temperatures due to contact with urban infrastructure, such as bridge piers or foundations. Soils were compacted at their respective maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, based on Proctor tests (ASTM D698) and then eroded for 10-15 minutes at a boundary shear stress of 4 Pa. Velocity profiles and distance to the soil surface were measured continuously using a profiling acoustic doppler velocimeter. Differences in

  6. Soil disturbance/restoration effects on stream sediment loading in the Tahoe Basin--detection monitoring.

    PubMed

    Grismer, M E

    2014-07-01

    Quantifying the relative impacts of soil restoration or disturbance on watershed daily sediment and nutrients loads is essential towards assessing the actual costs/benefits of the land management. Such quantification requires stream monitoring programs capable of detecting changes in land-use or soil functional and erosive area "connectivity" conditions across the watershed. Previously, use of a local-scale, field-data based runoff and erosion model for three Lake Tahoe west-shore watersheds as a detection monitoring "proof of concept" suggested that analyses of midrange average daily flows can reveal sediment load reductions of relatively small watershed fractional areas (∼5 %) of restored soil function within a few years of treatment. Developing such an effective stream monitoring program is considered for tributaries on the west shore of the Lake Tahoe Basin using continuous (15-min) stream monitoring information from Ward (2,521 ha), Blackwood (2,886 ha), and the Homewood (260 ha, HMR) Creek watersheds. The continuous total suspended sediment (TSS) and discharge monitoring confirmed the hysteretic TSS concentration-flowrate relationship associated with the daily and seasonal spring snowmelt hydrographs at all three creeks. Using the complete dataset, daily loads estimated from 1-h sampling periods during the day indicated that the optimal sampling hours were in the afternoon during the rising limb of the spring snowmelt hydrograph, an observation likely to apply across the Sierra Nevada and other snowmelt driven watersheds. Measured rising limb sediment loads were used to determine if soils restoration efforts (e.g., dirt road removal, ski run rehabilitation) at the HMR creek watershed reduced sediment loads between 2010 and 2011. A nearly 1.5-fold decrease in sediment yields (kg/ha per m(3)/s flow) was found suggesting that this focused monitoring approach may be useful towards development of TMDL "crediting" tools. Further monitoring is needed to verify

  7. Reducing sediment concentration and soil loss using organic and inorganic amendments at plot scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S. H. R.; Gholami, L.; Homaee, M.; Khaledi Darvishan, A.

    2015-04-01

    Various organic and inorganic mulches are used for soil conservation purposes, the effectiveness of which on soil characteristics has not been comprehensively considered from different aspects. The present study surveys the efficiency of straw mulch, manure and TA-200 polyacrylamide with respective rates of 500, 300 and 50 g m-2 in changing sediment concentration and soil loss. The experiments were conducted for sandy-loam soil taken from a summer rangeland, the Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. The experiments were performed under laboratory conditions with simulated rainfall intensities of 30, 50, 70 and 90 mm h-1 and a slope of 30%. The results showed that the straw mulch decreased soil erosion at rate of 45.60% compared to the control plots and performed better than manure (8.98% reduction) and PAM (4.74% reduction). The results showed that the maximum reduction in sediment concentration and soil loss for all soil amendments occurred at the rainfall intensity of 90 mm h-1 with the rates of 58.69 and 63.24% for straw mulch, 14.65 and 13.14% for manure and 20.15 and 23.44% for TA-200.

  8. Autoclave decomposition method for metals in soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-López, M; Jonathan, M P; Rodríguez-Espinosa, P F; Salgado-Galeana, J A

    2012-04-01

    Leaching of partially leached metals (Fe, Mn, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was done using autoclave technique which was modified based on EPA 3051A digestion technique. The autoclave method was developed as an alternative to the regular digestion procedure passed the safety norms for partial extraction of metals in polytetrafluoroethylene (PFA vessel) with a low constant temperature (119.5° ± 1.5°C) and the recovery of elements were also precise. The autoclave method was also validated using two Standard Reference Materials (SRMs: Loam Soil B and Loam Soil D) and the recoveries were equally superior to the traditionally established digestion methods. Application of the autoclave was samples from different natural environments (beach, mangrove, river, and city soil) to reproduce the recovery of elements during subsequent analysis.

  9. On inter-tidal transport equation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Feng, Shizuo; Pangen, Xi

    1989-01-01

    The transports of solutes, sediments, nutrients, and other tracers are fundamental to the interactive physical, chemical, and biological processes in estuaries. The characteristic time scales for most estuarine biological and chemical processes are on the order of several tidal cycles or longer. To address the long-term transport mechanism meaningfully, the formulation of an inter-tidal conservation equation is the main subject of this paper. The commonly used inter-tidal conservation equation takes the form of a convection-dispersion equation in which the convection is represented by the Eulerian residual current, and the dispersion terms are due to the introduction of a Fickian hypothesis, unfortunately, the physical significance of this equation is not clear, and the introduction of a Fickian hypothesis is at best an ad hoc approximation. Some recent research results on the Lagrangian residual current suggest that the long-term transport problem is more closely related to the Lagrangian residual current than to the Eulerian residual current. With the aid of additional insight of residual current, the inter-tidal transport equation has been reformulated in this paper using a small perturbation method for a weakly nonlinear tidal system. When tidal flows can be represented by an M2 system, the new intertidal transport equation also takes the form of a convective-dispersion equation without the introduction of a Fickian hypothesis. The convective velocity turns out to be the first order Lagrangian residual current (the sum of the Eulerian residual current and the Stokes’ drift), and the correlation terms take the form of convection with the Stokes’ drift as the convective velocity. The remaining dispersion terms are perturbations of lower order solution to higher order solutions due to shear effect and turbulent mixing.

  10. Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC): A new device to support high resolution soil and sediment sampling for agri-environmental assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabit, Lionel; Meusburger, Katrin; Iurian, Andra-Rada; Owens, Philip N.; Toloza, Arsenio; Alewell, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Soil and sediment related research for terrestrial agri-environmental assessments requires accurate depth incremental sampling of soil and exposed sediment profiles. Existing coring equipment does not allow collecting soil/sediment increments at millimetre resolution. Therefore, the authors have designed an economic, portable, hand-operated surface soil/sediment sampler - the Fine Increment Soil Collector (FISC) - which allows extensive control of soil/sediment sampling process and easy recovery of the material collected by using a simple screw-thread extraction system. In comparison with existing sampling tools, the FISC has the following advantages and benefits: (i) it permits sampling of soil/sediment samples at the top of the profile; (ii) it is easy to adjust so as to collect soil/sediment at mm resolution; (iii) it is simple to operate by one single person; (iv) incremental samples can be performed in the field or at the laboratory; (v) it permits precise evaluation of bulk density at millimetre vertical resolution; and (vi) sample size can be tailored to analytical requirements. To illustrate the usefulness of the FISC in sampling soil and sediments for 7Be - a well-known cosmogenic soil tracer and fingerprinting tool - measurements, the sampler was tested in a forested soil located 45 km southeast of Vienna in Austria. The fine resolution increments of 7Be (i.e. 2.5 mm) affects directly the measurement of the 7Be total inventory but above all impacts the shape of the 7Be exponential profile which is needed to assess soil movement rates. The FISC can improve the determination of the depth distributions of other Fallout Radionuclides (FRN) - such as 137Cs, 210Pbexand239+240Pu - which are frequently used for soil erosion and sediment transport studies and/or sediment fingerprinting. Such a device also offers great potential to investigate FRN depth distributions associated with fallout events such as that associated with nuclear emergencies. Furthermore, prior

  11. Modifications to particles as they move through landscapes: connecting soils and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Philip N.

    2016-04-01

    In many areas of the world, soils are eroded leading to the movement of particles towards the global ocean. Along this journey, there are modifications to these particles and we tend to refer to this altered material as sediment in recognition that such material may no longer be fully reflective of its source. These modifications are brought about by physical, chemical and biological processes, and by the inclusion of additional sources of material, such as channel banks. The degree of modification is partly a function of the inherent properties of the original soil material but also reflects landscape type, and the temporal and spatial scales of investigation. This presentation will consider the changes in particles between soil profiles and sediment transported in river systems, drawing on examples from studies in Canada and beyond. It is hoped that by understanding the transformation of such material we can predict better its movement and impacts.

  12. Black carbon in soils and sediments: Analysis, distribution, implications, and current challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Noack, Angela G.

    2000-09-01

    This review highlights the ubiquity of black carbon (BC) produced by incomplete combustion of plant material and fossil fuels in peats, soils, and lacustrine and marine sediments. We examine various definitions and analytical approaches and seek to provide a common language. BC represents a continuum from partly charred material to graphite and soot particles, with no general agreement on clear-cut boundaries. Formation of BC can occur in two fundamentally different ways. Volatiles recondense to highly graphitized soot-BC, whereas the solid residues form char-BC. Both forms of BC are relatively inert and are distributed globally by water and wind via fluvial and atmospheric transport. We summarize, chronologically, the ubiquity of BC in soils and sediments since Devonian times, differentiating between BC from vegetation fires and from fossil fuel combustion. BC has important implications for various biological, geochemical and environmental processes. As examples, BC may represent a significant sink in the global carbon cycle, affect the Earth's radiative heat balance, be a useful tracer for Earth's fire history, build up a significant fraction of carbon buried in soils and sediments, and carry organic pollutants. On land, BC seems to be abundant in dark-colored soils, affected by frequent vegetation burning and fossil fuel combustion, thus probably contributing to the highly stable aromatic components of soil organic matter. We discuss challenges for future research. Despite the great importance of BC, only limited progress has been made in calibrating analytical techniques. Progress in the quantification of BC is likely to come from systematic intercomparison using BCs from different sources and in different natural matrices. BC identification could benefit from isotopic and spectroscopic techniques applied at the bulk and molecular levels. The key to estimating BC stocks in soils and sediments is an understanding of the processes involved in BC degradation on a

  13. Moisture and solute flux along preferred pathways characterized by fissured sediments in desert soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.

    1992-06-01

    Evaluation of preferred flow pathways is critical for waste disposal. These pathways reduce the effectiveness of thick desert soils in attenuating contaminants by short-circuiting flow through the unsaturated zone. Unsaturated flow in fissured sediments in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas, U.S.A., was examined to determine if these sediments act as preferred pathways for water and solute transport. Fissures are surface features, or gulleys, that are underlain by fractures filled with loose sediment washed in from surrounding areas. Hydraulic and chemical approaches were used to investigate unsaturated flow processes beneath and adjacent to fissures, and the results were compared with data from surrounding geomorphic systems such as arroyos, ephemeral streams and interstreams. Typically, high water potentials in surficial sediments result from infiltration of recent precipitation. Below this surficial zone of high water potentials lies a zone of low water potentials that is much thinner beneath the fissure than in adjacent sediments or in sediments beneath ephemeral streams and interstreams. Maximum chloride concentrations in profiles in the fissured sediments (80-105 gm -3) were much lower than those measured in all other geomorphic systems (2000-6000 gm -3) because chloride is leached in the vicinity of the fissures. Minimum estimates of the moisture flux from chloride data ranged from 1 to 8 mm yr -1 in the fissured sediments and were up to 350 times greater than those calculated for ephemeral stream and interstream settings. The corresponding moisture velocities in the fissured sediments ranged from 10 to 70 mm yr -1. A tracer experiment demonstrated higher downward water and solute transport in the fracture fill beneath the fissure relative to adjacent sediments. Numerical simulations of the tracer experiment with the computer code TRACR3D reproduced the overall shape of the tracer plume. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the tracer plume is most sensitive

  14. Adsorption of tetracycline on soil and sediment: effects of pH and the presence of Cu(II).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheyun; Sun, Ke; Gao, Bo; Zhang, Guixiang; Liu, Xitao; Zhao, Ye

    2011-06-15

    Tetracycline (TC) is frequently detected in the environment, however, knowledge on the environmental fate and transport of TC is still limited. Batch adsorption experiments of TC by soil and sediment samples were conducted. The distribution of charge and electrostatic potential of individual atoms of various TC species in the aqueous solution were determined using MOPAC version 0.034 W program in ChemBio3D Ultra software. Most of the adsorption isotherms on the soil, river and marine sediments were well fitted with the Freundlich and Polanyi-Manes (PMM) models. The single point organic carbon (OC)-normalized adsorption distribution coefficients (K(OC)) and PMM saturated adsorption capacity (Q(OC)(0)) values of TC were associated with the mesopore volume and clay content to a greater extent, indicating the mesopore volume of the soil and sediments and their clay content possibly influenced the fate and transport of TC in the natural environment. The adsorption of TC on soil and sediments strongly depended on the pH and presence of Cu(II). The presence of Cu(II) facilitated TC adsorption on soil and sediments at low pH (pH<5), possibly due to the metallic complexation and surface-bridging mechanism by Cu(II) adsorption on soil and sediments. The cation exchange interaction, metallic complexation and Coulombic interaction of mechanisms for adsorption of TC to soils and sediments were further supported by quantum chemical calculation of various TC species in different pH.

  15. Soil erosion and sediment delivery issues in a large hydro-electric power reservoir catchment, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebiyu, Amsalu; Dume, Bayu; Bode, Samuel; Ram, Hari; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation and associated processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are among the developmental challenges in many countries and HEP reservoirs in the Gilgel Gibe catchment, Ethiopia, are under threat from siltation. Soil erosion is one of the biggest global environmental problems resulting in both on-site and offsite effects which have economic implications and an essential actor in assessing ecosystem health and function. Sediment supply in a catchment is heterogeneous in time and space depending on climate, land use and a number of landscape characteristics such as slope, topography, soil type, vegetation and drainage conditions. In the Ethiopian highlands, sediment delivery depends on discharge, the onset of rainfall, land use and land cover, which varies between rainfall seasons. There is also a variation among catchments in suspended sediment concentration due to the variation in the catchments characteristics in Ethiopia. Rainfall-runoff relationship, sediment production and delivery to rivers or dams is variable and poorly understood; due to heterogeneous lithology; various climatic conditions across small spatial scales; land use and land management practices in Ethiopia. Spatial variation in sediment yield in Africa varies to differences in seismic activity, topography, vegetation cover and annual runoff depth. In the Gilgel-Gibe catchment, the annual sediment load of the Gilgel-Gibe River has been estimated to be about 4.5×107 tons taking the contribution of sheet erosion alone. Also, the suspended sediment yield of the tributaries in Gilgel-Gibe catchment has been estimated to be in the range of 0.4-132.1 tons per hectare per year. The soil loss due to landslide alone in the past 20 years in the catchment was about 11 t/ha/yr. Heavy rainfall, bank erosion and river incisions have been indicated as the main triggering factors for landslides and the associated sediment delivery in the Gilgel-Gibe catchment. Approaches for catchment

  16. Hydrodynamic investigation of fluvial sediment transport with Soil Protrusion Apparatus (SPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaratne, Ravindra; Salim, Sarik

    2014-11-01

    In order to understand sediment transport process based on knowledge of their soil properties and hydrodynamic behaviour a series of 2D laboratory controlled small-scale experiments were conducted using the Ahlborn sediment mobile bed tank (4.0×0.6×0.2 m). Experiments were conducted in smooth and rough bed conditions with purposely-built Soil Protrusion Apparatus (SPA) to measure the basic parameters on which erosion depends. Sediment deposition patterns in equilibrium stage associated with different bed roughness and particle size distributionswere fundamentally investigated. Extended physical modelling of crescent zones also included analysing their grain size distribution. Dimensional analysis and multiple linear regression methodswere employed to derive a simple empirical relationship for erosion rate (ER) in terms of the shear stress (τs), average grain diameter (d50) and soil protrusion (z) for smooth and rough sediment bed conditions. These analyses also suggest ways to refine empirical models, examining transport rates to explore the limits of erosion and deposition influences in shallow flow conditions.

  17. Parasitism, community structure and biodiversity in intertidal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mouritsen, K N; Poulin, R

    2002-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that parasites can influence the composition and structure of natural animal communities. In spite of this, it is difficult to assess just how important parasitism is for community structure because very few studies have been designed specifically to address the role of parasites at the community level, no doubt because it is difficult to manipulate the abundance of parasites in field experiments. Here, we bring together a large amount of published information on parasitism in intertidal communities to highlight the potential influence of parasites on the structure and biodiversity of these communities. We first review the impact of metazoan parasites on the survival, reproduction, growth and behaviour of intertidal invertebrates, from both rocky shores and soft-sediment flats. Published evidence suggests that the impact of parasites on individuals is often severe, though their effects at the population level are dependent on prevalence and intensity of infection. We then put this information together in a discussion of the impact of parasitism at the community level. We emphasize two ways in which parasites can modify the structure of intertidal communities. First, the direct impact of parasites on the abundance of key host species can decrease the importance of these hosts in competition or predator-prey interactions with other species. Second, the indirect effects of parasites on the behaviour of their hosts, e.g. burrowing ability or spatial distribution within the intertidal zone, can cause changes to various features of the habitat for other intertidal species, leading to their greater settlement success or to their local disappearance. Our synthesis allows specific predictions to be made regarding the potential impact of parasites in certain intertidal systems, and suggests that parasites must be included in future community studies and food web models of intertidal ecosystems.

  18. Soil erosion and sediment yield and their relationships with vegetation cover in upper stream of the Yellow River.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Skidmore, Andrew K; Toxopeus, A G

    2010-12-15

    Soil erosion is a significant concern when considering regional environmental protection, especially in the Yellow River Basin in China. This study evaluated the temporal-spatial interaction of land cover status with soil erosion characteristics in the Longliu Catchment of China, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. SWAT is a physical hydrological model which uses the RUSLE equation as a sediment algorithm. Considering the spatial and temporal scale of the relationship between soil erosion and sediment yield, simulations were undertaken at monthly and annual temporal scales and basin and sub-basin spatial scales. The corresponding temporal and spatial Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) information was summarized from MODIS data, which can integrate regional land cover and climatic features. The SWAT simulation revealed that the annual soil erosion and sediment yield showed similar spatial distribution patterns, but the monthly variation fluctuated significantly. The monthly basin soil erosion varied from almost no erosion load to 3.92 t/ha and the maximum monthly sediment yield was 47,540 tones. The inter-annual simulation focused on the spatial difference and relationship with the corresponding vegetation NDVI value for every sub-basin. It is concluded that, for this continental monsoon climate basin, the higher NDVI vegetation zones prevented sediment transport, but at the same time they also contributed considerable soil erosion. The monthly basin soil erosion and sediment yield both correlated with NDVI, and the determination coefficients of their exponential correlation model were 0.446 and 0.426, respectively. The relationships between soil erosion and sediment yield with vegetation NDVI indicated that the vegetation status has a significant impact on sediment formation and transport. The findings can be used to develop soil erosion conservation programs for the study area.

  19. Soil and sediments micromorphology: reconstruction of palaeoenvironments, anthropogenic processes, or more recent human impact on ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard, Martine; Trombino, Luca; Stoops, Georges

    2014-05-01

    Soils and sediments registered the environmental changes in time and space, but also display components inherited from human activities, both in archaeological and in modern times. Micromorphological investigations carried out on undisturbed samples of soil and sediments by microscopic and ultramicroscopic techniques, correlated with mineralogy, geochemistry or biology, allow us to interpret the processes behind the formation of regoliths, sediments and anthropogenic deposits, from which a relative chronology, specific environmental conditions and/or extent of human impact may be deduced. The traditional optical microscopy observations, carried on the thin section groundmass and pedofeatures, provide clues on the different processes behind soils and sediments genesis (weathering, supergene, low T hydrothermal, anthropogenic) and their impact on ecosystems or on palaeoenvironments. In more recent times, the improvements in electron microscope imaging technology permit to make detailed observations up to the nanoscale, opening a new domain of observations to micromorphologists, both as regard of the micromass and of the thinner pedofeatures. Moreover, the optimisation of the microgeochemical mapping techniques, with spatially resolved chemical, isotopic or mineralogical analyses, is another powerful tool to gain insight in chemical migration fronts: the limit of the original rock fabric disappearance may be bypassed. In order to illustrate micromorphological researches in natural and man-influenced ecosystems, and to combine researches at different scales, several optical and electronic images of soils and sediments groundmass, associated to their microgeochemical characteristics will be presented, with selected examples taken from the climatic record of paleosols, the impact of hydrothermal alteration on saprolites, the neo-formation of minerals related to weathering process evolution, the protosoil formation in natural and human waste deposits, and the forensic

  20. Flow Cytometric Assessment of Bacterial Abundance in Soils, Sediments and Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Frossard, Aline; Hammes, Frederik; Gessner, Mark O.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial abundance is a fundamental measure in microbiology, but its assessment is often tedious, especially for soil, and sediment samples. To overcome this limitation, we adopted a time-efficient flow-cytometric (FCM) counting method involving cell detachment and separation from matrix particles by centrifugation in tubes receiving sample suspensions and Histodenz® solution. We used this approach to assess bacterial abundances in diverse soils (natural and agricultural), sediments (streams and lakes) and sludge from sand-filters in a drinking water treatment plant and compared the results to bacterial abundances determined by two established methods, epifluorescence microscopy (EM) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) quantification. Cell abundances determined by FCM and EM correlated fairly well, although absolute cell abundances were generally lower when determined by FCM. FCM also showed significant relations with cell counts converted from ATP concentrations, although estimates derived from ATP determinations were typically higher, indicating the presence of ATP sources other than bacteria. Soil and sediment organic matter (OM) content influenced the goodness of fit between counts obtained with EM and FCM. In particular, bacterial abundance determined by FCM in samples containing less than 10% OM, such as stream sediment, was particularly well correlated with the cell counts assessed by EM. Overall, these results suggest that FCM following cell detachment and purification is a useful approach to increase sample throughput for determining bacterial abundances in soils, sediments and sludge. However, notable scatter and only partial concordance among the FCM and reference methods suggests that protocols require further improvement for assessments requiring high precision, especially when OM contents in samples are high. PMID:27379043

  1. Sediment budget for Murder Creek, Georgia, USA, from Pu239+240 - determined soil erosion rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubblefield, A. P.; Matissoff, G.; Ketterer, M. E.; Whiting, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Soil inventories of the radionuclides Cs137 and Pb210 have been used in a variety of environments as indicators for erosion and depositional processes. Development of sediment budgets for entire watersheds from radionuclide data has been somewhat constrained because limited sample numbers may not adequately characterize the wide range of geomorphic conditions and land uses found in heterogeneous environments. The measurement of Pu239+240 shows great potential for developing quantitative watershed sediment budgets. With inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, hundreds of samples may be processed in dramatically shorter times than the gamma spectrometry method used for Cs137 or alpha spectrometry method used for Pb210. We collected surface soil samples from Murder Creek in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA, to compare Pu239+240 inventories with Cs137 and Pb210 inventories for a range of land uses in a predominantly forested watershed. Excellent correlations were found for radionuclide inventories (r2 =0.88, n = 38) and high resolution (4 mm) depth profiles. The second objective was to generate a sediment budget using the full Pu239+240 dataset (n = 309). Average Pu239+240 inventories were 70.0 Bq/m2 for hardwood forest, 60.0 Bq/m2 for pine plantation, 65.1 Bq/m2 for pine forest, 66.7 Bq/m2 for row crop agriculture and 67.9 Bq/m2 for pasture. The sediment budget will be constructed by converting inventories into site-specific erosion rates. Erosion rates will be scaled up to the watershed scale using GIS coverages of land use, soil, slope, and slope position. Results will be compared with Murder Creek sediment budgets in the scientific literature generated from RUSLE erosion modeling, USGS monitoring networks and reservoir sedimentation.

  2. Trace metal behaviour in estuarine and riverine floodplain soils and sediments: a review.

    PubMed

    Du Laing, G; Rinklebe, J; Vandecasteele, B; Meers, E; Tack, F M G

    2009-06-15

    This paper reviews the factors affecting trace metal behaviour in estuarine and riverine floodplain soils and sediments. Spatial occurrence of processes affecting metal mobility and availability in floodplains are largely determined by the topography. At the oxic-anoxic interface and in the anoxic layers of floodplain soils, especially redox-sensitive processes occur, which mainly result in the inclusion of metals in precipitates or the dissolution of metal-containing precipitates. Kinetics of these processes are of great importance for these soils as the location of the oxic-anoxic interface is subject to change due to fluctuating water table levels. Other important processes and factors affecting metal mobility in floodplain soils are adsorption/desorption processes, salinity, the presence of organic matter, sulphur and carbonates, pH and plant growth. Many authors report highly significant correlations between cation exchange capacity, clay or organic matter contents and metal contents in floodplain soils. Iron and manganese (hydr)oxides were found to be the main carriers for Cd, Zn and Ni under oxic conditions, whereas the organic fraction was most important for Cu. The mobility and availability of metals in a floodplain soil can be significantly reduced by the formation of metal sulphide precipitates under anoxic conditions. Ascending salinity in the flood water promotes metal desorption from the floodplain soil in the absence of sulphides, hence increases total metal concentrations in the water column. The net effect of the presence of organic matter can either be a decrease or an increase in metal mobility, whereas the presence of carbonates in calcareous floodplain soils or sediments constitutes an effective buffer against a pH decrease. Moreover, carbonates may also directly precipitate metals. Plants can affect the metal mobility in floodplain soils by oxidising their rhizosphere, taking up metals, excreting exudates and stimulating the activity of

  3. Additional Sediment/Soil Sampling Conducted at the Little Sioux Bend Shallow Water Habitat Project Site during October 2013

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 6 6 - 8 8 - 10 Percent Compostion of Sediment/Soil Samples Collected at Site LS-D1 D ep th In te rv... Compostion of Sediment/Soil Samples Collected at Site LS-D2 D ep th In te rv al (f ee t) Gravel - Fine Sand - Coarse Sand - Medium Sand - Fine Silt...0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 6 6 - 8 8 - 10 Percent Compostion of Sediment/Soil Samples Collected at Site LS-D3 D ep th In te

  4. Analysis of sulfonamides in soil, sediment, and sludge based on dynamic microwave-assisted micellar extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ding, Jie; Ding, Lan; Ren, Nanqi

    2016-07-01

    A green and high-throughput analytical method was described for the simultaneous determination of ten sulfonamides (SAs) from soil, sediment, and sludge in northeast China. None of potentially hazardous organic solvents was used in the whole sample preparation procedure, and the total preparation time of 15 samples was about 18 min. The limits of detection for the SAs were in the range of 0.42-0.68 ng g(-1). The intra-day and inter-day precisions, expressed by the relative standard deviation, were below 7 %. Under the optimum conditions, the recoveries of ten SAs were between 69.7 and 102.7 %. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze the SAs residues in agricultural soils, river sediments, and sewage sludge. SAs were found at the levels of 1.40-2.31 ng g(-1) and 3.77-29.29 ng g(-1) in the sediments and sludge, respectively. The aging effect of spiked soil samples on the SAs recoveries was examined, and the results demonstrate that eight SAs could persist in five soils for 3 months. Compared with the traditional method, the proposed method could reduce the consumption of the organic solvent, shorten the sample preparation time, and increase the sample throughput.

  5. Immobilization of mercury in field soil and sediment using carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron sulfide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Zhong; Kaback, Dawn; Zhao, Dongye

    2012-07-27

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most pervasive and bio-accumulative metals in the environment. Yet, effective in situ remediation technologies have been lacking. This study investigated the effectiveness of a class of soil-deliverable FeS nanoparticles for in situ immobilization of Hg in two field-contaminated soils from a New Jersey site and one sediment from an Alabama site. The nanoparticles were prepared using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer. Transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed a particle size of 34.3 ± 8.3 nm (standard deviation), whereas dynamic light scattering gave a hydrodynamic diameter of 222.5 ± 3.2 nm. Batch tests showed that at an FeS-to-Hg molar ratio of 28:1-118:1, the nanoparticles reduced water-leachable Hg by 79%-96% and the TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) based leachability by 26%-96%. Column breakthrough tests indicated that the nanoparticles were deliverable in the sediment/soil columns under moderate injection pressure. However, once the external pressure was removed, the delivered nanoparticles remained virtually mobile under typical groundwater flow conditions. When the Hg-contaminated soil and sediment were treated with 52-95 pore volumes of a 500 mg l(-1) FeS nanoparticle suspension, water-leachable Hg was reduced by 90%-93% and TCLP-leachable Hg was reduced by 65%-91%. The results warrant further field demonstration of this promising in situ remediation technology.

  6. Immobilization of mercury in field soil and sediment using carboxymethyl cellulose stabilized iron sulfide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yanyan; Liu, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Zhong; Kaback, Dawn; Zhao, Dongye

    2012-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most pervasive and bio-accumulative metals in the environment. Yet, effective in situ remediation technologies have been lacking. This study investigated the effectiveness of a class of soil-deliverable FeS nanoparticles for in situ immobilization of Hg in two field-contaminated soils from a New Jersey site and one sediment from an Alabama site. The nanoparticles were prepared using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a stabilizer. Transmission electron microscopy measurements revealed a particle size of 34.3 ± 8.3 nm (standard deviation), whereas dynamic light scattering gave a hydrodynamic diameter of 222.5 ± 3.2 nm. Batch tests showed that at an FeS-to-Hg molar ratio of 28:1-118:1, the nanoparticles reduced water-leachable Hg by 79%-96% and the TCLP (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure) based leachability by 26%-96%. Column breakthrough tests indicated that the nanoparticles were deliverable in the sediment/soil columns under moderate injection pressure. However, once the external pressure was removed, the delivered nanoparticles remained virtually mobile under typical groundwater flow conditions. When the Hg-contaminated soil and sediment were treated with 52-95 pore volumes of a 500 mg l-1 FeS nanoparticle suspension, water-leachable Hg was reduced by 90%-93% and TCLP-leachable Hg was reduced by 65%-91%. The results warrant further field demonstration of this promising in situ remediation technology.

  7. Characterization and mobility of geogenic chromium in soils and river bed sediments of Asopos basin.

    PubMed

    Lilli, Maria A; Moraetis, Daniel; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Karatzas, George P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-08

    A field and laboratory study was conducted to assess the origin and mobility of CrVI in Asopos basin in Greece. Sampling was designed in such way as to capture the spatial variability of chromium occurring in sediments and soils in different lithological units in the area. Physicochemical and geochemical characterization of surface agricultural soils obtained from river terraces and river bed sediments was conducted in order to determine the natural background of chromium. Lithologies with strong calcareous, siliceous and ultramafic components were identified using principal component analysis. Laboratory mobility studies quantified the rates of chromium sorption and release from soils and their capacity to adsorb chromium. Heavy metal analysis and local geology study support the hypothesis that the main source of chromium is of geogenic origin. Chromium distribution in Asopos river bed was influenced from the eroded products derived from extensive areas with ultramafic rocks the last 5Ma. The mobility studies showed that leaching process was very fast and sorption capacity was significant and capable to retain chromium in case of waste release in the river. Finally the mobility of chromium release is limited due to existing attenuation capacity controlled by ferric oxides coatings on the soil and sediments.

  8. Preferential flow in fissured sediments in desert soils related to radioactive waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Scanlon, B.R.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Unsaturated flow in fissured sediments in the Chihuahuan Desert of Texas was examined to determine if these features act as preferred pathways for water and solute transport. Fissures are surface features, or gulleys, that are underlain by fractures filled with sediment derived from surrounding areas. Hydraulic and chemical approaches were used to investigate unsaturated flow processes beneath and adjacent to fissures, and the results were compared with data from surrounding geomorphic systems such as arroyos, ephemeral streams, and interstreams. Typically, high water potentials in surficial sediments result from infiltration of recent precipitation. Below this surficial zone of high water potentials lies a zone of low water potentials that is much thinner beneath the fissure than in adjacent sediments or in sediments beneath ephemeral streams and interstreams. Maximum chloride concentrations in profiles in the near-surface fissured sediments were much lower than those measured in all other geomorphic systems. The corresponding moisture velocities in the fissured sediments ranged from 10 to 70 mm/yr. A tracer experiment demonstrated higher downward water and solute transport in the fracture fill beneath the fissure relative to adjacent sediments. Numerical simulations of the tracer experiment with the computer code TRACR3D reproduced the overall shape of the tracer plume. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the tracer plume is most sensitive to spatial variability in soil texture and the corresponding hydraulic parameters. The results from this study suggest that sediments in the fissured area act as preferred pathways in the shallow subsurface because surface runoff is concentrated in the fissures and because underlying fractures and cavities provide avenues for moisture and solute transport.

  9. Hysteretic sediment fluxes in rainfall-driven soil erosion: Particle size effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheraghi, Mohsen; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Sander, Graham C.; Barry, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    A detailed laboratory study was conducted to examine the effects of particle size on hysteretic sediment transport under time-varying rainfall. A rainfall pattern composed of seven sequential stepwise varying rainfall intensities (30, 37.5, 45, 60, 45, 37.5, and 30 mm h-1), each of 20 min duration, was applied to a 5 m × 2 m soil erosion flume. The soil in the flume was initially dried, ploughed to a depth of 20 cm and had a mechanically smoothed surface. Flow rates and sediment concentration data for seven particle size classes (<2, 2-20, 20-50, 50-100, 100-315, 315-1000, and >1000 µm) were measured in the flume effluent. Clockwise hysteresis loops in the sediment concentration versus discharge curves were measured for the total eroded soil and the finer particle sizes (<2, 2-20, and 20-50 µm). However, for particle sizes greater than 50 µm, hysteresis effects decreased and suspended concentrations tended to vary linearly with discharge. The Hairsine and Rose (HR) soil erosion model agreed well with the experimental data for the total eroded soil and for the finer particle size classes (up to 50 µm). For the larger particle size classes, the model provided reasonable qualitative agreement with the measurements although the fit was poor for the largest size class (>1000 µm). Overall, it is found that hysteresis varies amongst particle sizes and that the predictions of the HR model are consistent with hysteretic behavior of different