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Sample records for interv barbara hanson

  1. Pauline Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuirk, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    A literacy teacher discusses how she raised with her class the issues surrounding Pauline Hanson, an Australian Member of Parliament opposed to multiculturalism. She describes how she used the opportunity to discuss differences between fact and opinion, as well as racism. (SK)

  2. Fluvial Tufa Evidence of Late Pleistocene Wet Intervals from Santa Barbara, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Y.; Corsetti, F. A.; Feakins, S. J.; Rhodes, E. J.; Kirby, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Past pluvials in the western United States provide valuable context for understanding regional hydroclimate variability. Here we report evidence of conditions substantially wetter than today from fluvial tufa deposits located near Zaca Lake, Santa Barbara County, California that have been dated by radiocarbon (14C) and Infra-Red Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL). Two successions of tufa deposition occur within a small catchment that drains Miocene Monterey Formation bedrock: 1) a fluvial deposit (0-0.5 m thick, 200 m in extent) that formed along a narrow valley below a modern spring, and 2) a perched deposit about 10 m higher (2 m thick, 15 m in extent). IRSL and radiocarbon dating of the perched carbonates suggests at least two episodes of carbonate growth: one at 19.4 ± 2.4 (1σ) through 17.8 ± 2.8 (1σ) ka and another at 11.9 ± 1.5 (1σ) ka verified with a charcoal 14C age of 10.95 ± 0.12 (2σ) cal ka BP. The relationship between the perched and fluvial spring deposits is inferred to represent a drop in the water table of more than 10 m associated with a transition from a wet climate in the late glacial to a dry Holocene today. The wet period indicated by tufa growth between 19.4 and 17.8 ka is relatively consistent with other California climate records both north and south of Zaca Lake. However, tufa growth ca. 12 to 11 ka demonstrates wet conditions occurred as far south as Zaca Lake during the Younger Dryas event, in contrast to climate records farther south in Lake Elsinore indicating persistently dry conditions through this interval. A small shift north in the average position of the winter season storm track could explain wet winters at Zaca while at the same time generating dry winters at Lake Elsinore, 275 km southwest of Zaca. If true, these data indicate that rather small latitudinal shifts in the average winter season storm track can produce large changes in regional hydroclimate.

  3. Hanson receives Macelwane Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravishankara, A. R.; Hanson, David R.

    At the 1996 Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland, David R. Hanson received the 1996 James B. Macelwane Medal, which recognizes significant contributions to the geophysical sciences by a young scientist of outstanding ability. The medal citation and Hanson's response are given here.

  4. 78 FR 43856 - Harold Hanson; Order Relating to Harold Hanson

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Concealment of Facts in the Course of an Investigation On or about January 29, 2009, Hanson made false or... tornado development in the Great Plains. The items were, in fact, intended for export to China and..., participate in any way in any transaction involving any commodity, software or technology (hereinafter...

  5. Barbara Cooney.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Jackie C.

    2000-01-01

    Profiles the life/work of the award winning picture-book author-illustrator Barbara Cooney. Includes her early development as an artist; early attempts at the picture-book form; experimentation with different media: watercolor, pen/ink with wash, charcoal, acrylics, pastels, and collage; later work that draws upon folk-art traditions; her love of…

  6. Barbara Cooney.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Jackie C.

    2000-01-01

    Profiles the life/work of the award winning picture-book author-illustrator Barbara Cooney. Includes her early development as an artist; early attempts at the picture-book form; experimentation with different media: watercolor, pen/ink with wash, charcoal, acrylics, pastels, and collage; later work that draws upon folk-art traditions; her love of…

  7. 78 FR 43857 - Order Relating to Yaming Nina Qi Hanson

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Province, People's Republic of China (``Qi Hanson''), of its intention to initiate an administrative... old university classmates in China provided her with $75,000 to purchase the autopilots from the... money to finance the entire purchase. In so doing, Qi Hanson committed one violation of section...

  8. John Hanson is awarded the 2016 De Florez Award

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-02

    John Hanson, Alternate Lead Systems Engineer in the Spacecraft and Vehicle Systems department of the Engineering Directorate at MSFC has been honored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) with the 2016 De Florez Award for flight simulation

  9. 10. Photocopy of lithograph (from Mrs. D. Hanson Grubb, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of lithograph (from Mrs. D. Hanson Grubb, San Francisco) 'Moss Eng. Co., N.Y.' Date unknown 'THE CATHEDRAL OF ST. PAUL, BENICIA, CAL.' WEST SIDE - St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 120 East J Street, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  10. Making a Difference: Geography, Feminism, and Everyday Life--An Interview with Susan Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Presents an interview with Susan Hanson, president of the Association of American Geographers in 1991-92. Describes how Hanson has managed her accomplished career in academia. Discusses issues and trends in geography and geography instruction. (CFR)

  11. Whole-Person Education; An Interview with J. R. Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spann, Milton; Hanson, J. Robert

    1990-01-01

    J. Robert Hanson responds to questions concerning the "learning style" and "perceptual and judgement functions," styles common among developmental students and members of particular ethnic/social groups, the modification of teaching styles to accommodate students, coownership of the classroom, and ways teachers can facilitate…

  12. The Legacy of Margie Hanson: It's All about Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Steve

    2005-01-01

    The Margie R. Hanson Distinguished Service Award recognizes established professionals who have made outstanding contributions to the field of physical education for children. The 2005 recipient was Steve Sanders, former Senior Editor of "TEPE." This article contains the text of the speech Dr. Sanders made following an official NASPE awards…

  13. Temperature Analysis: Howard A. Hanson Reservoir, Washington. Mathematical Model Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    were reached by Dortch (1981) in his investigation of Kinzua Dam in Pennsylvania and by Peters (1978) in his report of modifications to Flaming Gorge ...Vicksburg, MS. Peters, J. C. 1978. "Modification of Intakes at Flaming Gorge Dam , Utah, to Improve Water Temperature in the Green River," Proceedings...system to maintain downstream temperature objectives. Project Description 2. Howard A. Hanson Dam is located 65 miles upstream from the mouth of the

  14. Highlighting High Performance: Whitman Hanson Regional High School; Whitman, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-06-01

    This brochure describes the key high-performance building features of the Whitman-Hanson Regional High School. The brochure was paid for by the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative as part of their Green Schools Initiative. High-performance features described are daylighting and energy-efficient lighting, indoor air quality, solar and wind energy, building envelope, heating and cooling systems, water conservation, and acoustics. Energy cost savings are also discussed.

  15. Barbara Reed: Visionary Storyteller and Dramatist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Pays tribute to Barbara Reed, a leader in both children's drama and storytelling. Notes Barbara Reed's life accomplishments and many contributions to the field of theatre and performing arts education. (SC)

  16. Barbara Reed: Visionary Storyteller and Dramatist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Jane

    2000-01-01

    Pays tribute to Barbara Reed, a leader in both children's drama and storytelling. Notes Barbara Reed's life accomplishments and many contributions to the field of theatre and performing arts education. (SC)

  17. Five-dimensional Eguchi-Hanson solitons in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, A. W. C.; Mann, R. B.

    2012-02-01

    Eguchi-Hanson solitons are odd-dimensional generalizations of the four-dimensional Eguchi-Hanson metric and are asymptotic to AdS5/Zp when the cosmological constant is either positive or negative. We find soliton solutions to Lovelock gravity in 5 dimensions that are generalizations of these objects.

  18. Hyperspectral Ocean Color Science: Santa Barbara Channel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    HYPERSPECTRAL OCEAN COLOR SCIENCE: SANTA BARBARA CHANNEL David A. Siegel Institute of Computational Earth System Science University of California at...University of California at Santa Barbara,Institute of Computational Earth System Science,Santa Barbara,CA,93106 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...correction term required for the above-water Rrs + ( )λ estimates limits the utility of this technique to very calm days . Ours is one of the first

  19. Santa Barbara Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, Angela; Hansen, Sherman; Watkins, Ashley

    2013-11-30

    This report serves as the Final Report for Santa Barbara County’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report explains how DOE BBNP funding was invested to develop robust program infrastructure designed to help property owners complete energy improvements, thereby generating substantial outcomes for the local environment and economy. It provides an overview of program development and design within the grant period, program accomplishments and challenges to date, and a plan for the future sustainability of emPower, the County’s innovative clean energy and building efficiency program. During the grant period, Santa Barbara County’s emPower program primarily targeted 32,000 owner occupied, single family, detached residential homes over 25 years old within the County. In order to help these homeowners and their contractors overcome market barriers to completing residential energy improvements, the program developed and promoted six voluntary, market-based service areas: 1) low cost residential financing (loan loss reserve with two local credit unions), 2) residential rebates, 3) local customer service, 4) expert energy advising, 5) workforce development and training, and 6) marketing, education and outreach. The main goals of the program were to lower building energy use, create jobs and develop a lasting regional building performance market. These services have generated important early outcomes and lessons after the program’s first two years in service. The DOE BBNP funding was extended through October 2014 to enable Santa Barbara County to generate continued outcomes. In fact, funding related to residential financing remains wholly available for the foreseeable future to continue offering Home Upgrade Loans to approximately 1,300 homeowners. The County’s investment of DOE BBNP funding was used to build a lasting, effective, and innovative

  20. STS-118 Astronaut Barbara Morgan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Barbara R. Morgan (center), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist, dons a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, prior to the start of a mission training exercise in the Space Vehicle Mock Up Facility at Johnson Space Center. United Space Alliance (USA) personnel were on hand to assist Morgan. Morgan was chosen as the first educator to become a mission specialist astronaut in 2002. The Educator Astronaut Project evolved from the Teacher in Space Project. Both aimed to engage and attract students to explore the excitement and wonder of space flight and to inspire and support educators. Morgan's primary duty was the same as it is for the entire crew, accomplish the planned objectives of the station assembly mission. But she also took part in several education-related activities.

  1. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Santa Barbara Harbor Light 4 to Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light....

  2. ChE at UC Santa Barbara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seborg, Dale E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the chemical engineering program at the University of California, Santa Barbara, including history of the department, faculty research interests and professional activities, graduate and undergraduate programs, and research in nuclear engineering. (SK)

  3. ChE at UC Santa Barbara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seborg, Dale E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the chemical engineering program at the University of California, Santa Barbara, including history of the department, faculty research interests and professional activities, graduate and undergraduate programs, and research in nuclear engineering. (SK)

  4. Water resources of Hanson and Davison Counties, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Five glacial and four bedrock aquifers were delineated in Hanson and Davison Counties. The glacial aquifers, outwash deposits confined by as much as 275 feet of glacial till, are the Floyd, Plum Creek, Ethan, Warren, and Alexandria. The bedrock aquifers are the Niobrara, Codell, Dakota, and Sioux Quartzite Wash, and may be as much as 80, 350, 700, and 500 feet below land surface, respectively. The glacial aquifers averaged 13 to 40 feet in thickness and contain about 670,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Recharge to the Floyd and Plum Creek aquifers is from the Sioux Quartzite Wash aquifer and from fractures in the Sioux Quartzite. Recharge to the Ethan and Warren aquifers is from the Niobrara aquifer. Reported yield to wells from the Floyd and Plum Creek aquifers was as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the glacial aquifers are sulfate, calcium, and sodium. The bedrock aquifers averaged 40 to 110 feet in the thickness and contain about 11.3 million acre-feet of water in storage. The direction of water movement in the aquifers is to the northeast. The average reported yield from wells in the bedrock aquifers ranged from 1 to 75 gallons per minute. Reported yield from wells in the Niobrara aquifer was as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the Niobrara and Codell aquifers were sulfate, sodium, and calcium. Predominant chemical constituents in water from the Dakota and Sioux Quartzite wash were sulfate and calcium. (USGS)

  5. Rapid Response to the Howard Hanson Dam Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Carter, G.; White, A.; Neiman, P. J.; King, C.; Jankov, I.; Colman, B.; Cook, K.; Buehner, T.

    2010-12-01

    Dedicated in 1962, the Howard A. Hanson Dam (HHD) brought necessary flood relief to the Green River Valley in the Metropolitan Area of Seattle, Washington, and opened the way for increased valley development. For example, the flood damage prevented by HHD during the extreme precipitation event in early January 2009 is estimated to be about $4 billion. However, following the record high level of water behind HHD caused by this event, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (ACE) became concerned about the Dam’s safety. Despite short-term measures to improve HHD during 2009, the chance for a significant Green River Valley flood event was estimated by the ACE to be 1 in 25 for the 2009/10 winter season. In response to this elevated risk, NOAA organized a coordinated effort across research and forecast operations to implement new observations, modeling and dissemination tools, and knowledge of the role of atmospheric rivers (ARs) in producing extreme precipitation, prototyped in California within NOAA’s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov). Fortunately, although seasonal observed precipitation (October 2009 through March 2010) in the Seattle area was slightly greater than normal (e.g., 112% of normal at the Seattle National Weather Service Forecast Office), there were no threatening floods observed along the Green River. This outcome was influenced by a synoptic pattern that was progressive, i.e., storms did not stall over this vulnerable watershed, which reduced the chance for an extensive (time and space) extreme event. More than a decade of West Coast winter storm research conducted primarily in California by NOAA’s Earth System Research Laboratory/Physical Sciences Division (ESRL/PSD) has identified atmospheric rivers (ARs), narrow regions of enhanced water vapor transport, as the culprits that cause extreme precipitation events, such as the January 2009 event that stressed HHD. ESRL/PSD extended this AR research to the coast of Washington by deploying a

  6. 33 CFR 110.115 - Santa Barbara Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, Calif. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.115 Santa Barbara Harbor, Calif. North of the Santa Barbara breakwater; seaward of the line of mean high water; and southwest of a line bearing...

  7. The Virtues of the SDS and Its Associated Typology: A Second Response to Prediger and Hanson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John L.

    1976-01-01

    The author reviews the evidence for the beneficial effects of the Self-Directed Search (SDS), indicates that Hanson and Prediger have misinterpreted the theory, that their evidence is misleading, and that other evidence indicates that males and females of the same type are similar. The virtues of raw scores are summarized. (Author)

  8. Methods, Findings, and History in Attitude-Behavior Research: A Rejoinder to Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn

    1981-01-01

    Reviews Hanson's findings that laboratory research tends to demonstrate a positive correlation between attitudes and behavior while field research does not. This article, by adding date of publication, shows that the trend over time, presumably because of improved methodology, is toward more positive correlations in both settings. (Author/JAC)

  9. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  10. Book Review: "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Columbia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Educational Reform and Administrative Development: The Cases of Colombia and Venezuela," by E. Mark Hanson, which relates the policy-making and administrative structures of these two countries to their political, historical, and cultural contexts. (TE)

  11. Ground-water reconnaissance of the Santa Barbara-Montecito area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.

    1968-01-01

    This is the third interpretive report prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Santa Barbara County Water Agency on the groundwater resources of areas along the south coast of the county. The two previous reports--one by J. E. Upson in 1951 and another by R. E. Evenson, H. D. Wilson, Jr., and K. S. Muir--were on ground-water conditions in the Goleta and Carpinteria basins. The Santa Barbara-Montecito area is between those two basins-the Goleta basin on the west and the Carpinteria basin on the east. This area of about 30 square miles extends from the Pacific Ocean on the south to the Santa Inez Mountains on the north. The city of Santa Barbara and the towns of Montecito and Summerland are within the area. The Santa Barbara-Montecito area is a low-lying flat section of the coastal plain. Farther inland are highlands of consolidated rock and terrace deposits. The highlands are areas of uplift, folding, and faulting, and the lowlands are structural depressions. Most of the urban development in the area has been in the lowlands. The unconsolidated deposits that have partly filled the structural depressions make up the ground-water reservoir of the Santa Barbara-Montecito area. They include the Santa Barbara Formation of Pliocene and Pleistocene age, the Casitas Formation of Pleistocene age, and the alluvium of late Pleistocene and Recent age. These deposits underlie an area of about 20 square miles and have a maximum thickness of about 2,000 feet. The consolidated rocks of Tertiary age that underlie and form the boundaries of the ground-water reservoir contain ground water in fractures and in sandstone beds. However, the consolidated rocks are not an important source of ground water. In 1959, a year the ground-water basins were full and ground water in storage was at a maximum, storage in the Santa Barbara area was 184,000 acre-feet, and storage in the Montecito area was 97,000 acre-feet. By 1964, in response to below-average recharge and

  12. Eguchi-Hanson-like space-times in F(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Mann, R. B.; Riazi, N.; Panah, B. Eslam

    2012-11-01

    We consider a model of F(R) gravity in which exponential and power corrections to Einstein-Λ gravity are included. We show that this model has four-dimensional Eguchi-Hanson-type instanton solutions in Euclidean space. We then seek solutions to the five-dimensional equations for which space-time contains a hypersurface corresponding to the Eguchi-Hanson space. We obtain analytic solutions of the F(R) gravitational field equations and, by assuming certain relationships between the model parameters and integration constants, find several classes of exact solutions. Finally, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the solutions and compute the second derivative of the F(R) function with respect to the Ricci scalar to confirm Dolgov-Kawasaki stability.

  13. Exact solutions to Einstein-Maxwell theory on Eguchi-Hanson space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezelbash, A. M.; Kumar, V.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we construct explicit analytical exact solutions to the six and higher-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory. In all solutions, a subspace of the metric is the Eguchi-Hanson space where the metric functions are completely determined in terms of known analytical functions. Moreover, we find the solutions can be extended from nonstationary exact solutions to Einstein-Maxwell theory with cosmological constant. We show that the solutions are asymptotically expanding patches of de Sitter space-time.

  14. 77 FR 65621 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara Harbor, Santa Barbara, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... waters from the surface to the sea floor within a 100-yard radius of any cruise ship located within 3... to the sea floor within a 100-yard radius of any cruise ship which is located within 3 nautical miles... Barbara Harbor within a 100-yard radius of cruise ships covered by this rule. This security...

  15. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new geologic digital map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. This preliminary map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Santa Barbara and Goleta 7.5' quadrangles. A planned second version will extend the mapping westward into the adjoining Dos Pueblos Canyon quadrangle and eastward into the Carpinteria quadrangle. The mapping presented here results from the collaborative efforts of geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) (Minor, Kellogg, Stanley, Stone, and Powell) and the tectonic geomorphology research group at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Gurrola and Selting). C.L. Powell, II, performed all new fossil identifications and interpretations reported herein. T.R. Brandt designed and edited the GIS database,performed GIS database integration and created the digital cartography for the map layout. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along a west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain region, which extends from the Santa Ynez Mountains on the north to the Santa Barbara Channel on the south, is underlain by numerous active and potentially active folds and partly buried thrust faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt. Strong earthquakes that occurred in the region in 1925 (6.8 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude) are evidence that such structures pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara and Goleta. Also, young landslide deposits along the steep lower flank of the Santa

  16. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  17. Mentors, Muses, and Mutuality: Honoring Barbara Snell Dohrenwend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Anne

    2012-01-01

    I describe feminist community psychology principles that have the potential to expand and enrich mentoring and that honor Barbara Snell Dohrenwend, a leader who contributed to the research, theory, and profession of community psychology. I reflect on the affect that Barbara Dohrenwend had on life and on the development of feminist community…

  18. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  2. Mentors, Muses, and Mutuality: Honoring Barbara Snell Dohrenwend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Anne

    2012-01-01

    I describe feminist community psychology principles that have the potential to expand and enrich mentoring and that honor Barbara Snell Dohrenwend, a leader who contributed to the research, theory, and profession of community psychology. I reflect on the affect that Barbara Dohrenwend had on life and on the development of feminist community…

  3. Barbara Grier and the world she built.

    PubMed

    Passet, Joanne E

    2014-01-01

    Mentored in the art of lesbian literary detection by Jeannette Howard Foster, Barbara Grier became part of a vibrant print-based network of lesbians through her involvement with The Ladder. Building on that foundation, she developed Naiad Press into a successful lesbian business, one that opened doors for lesbian writers and preserved lesbian classics for new generations of readers. Shaped by her class and the times in which she came of age, Grier understood the power of print to change women's lives. Some challenged her commitment to lesbian feminism, but few questioned her dedication to building Naiad into a press that heightened lesbian visibility, fostered self-understanding, and contributed to the creation of community.

  4. Santa Barbara microwave backscattering model for woodlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.; Day, J.; Sun, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Santa Barbara microwave backscattering model for woodland vegetation with discontinuous tree canopies is described, with an emphasis on the construction of the model from probability-weighted sub-components. The modelling approach is to treat individual tree crowns as scatterers and attenuators, using the probabilities of scattering and attenuation to compute total backscatter. Four major model components are defined: surface backscattering, crown volume scattering, multi-path interactions between crown and ground, and double-bounce trunk-ground interactions. Each component is divided into subcomponents having distinct scattering and attenuation paths. The scattering of each subcomponent is computed and weighted by the probability of its occurrence. Total backscatter from a simulated woodland stand is computed by incoherent summation of the components. Recent revisions to the model have modified the subcomponent definitions and improved the probability formulation.

  5. Annual Quality Assurance Conference Abstracts by Barbara Marshik

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    25th Annual Quality Assurance Conference. Abstracts: Material and Process Conditions for Successful Use of Extractive Sampling Techniques and Certification Methods Errors in the Analysis of NMHC and VOCs in CNG-Based Engine Emissions by Barbara Marshik

  6. Environmental Law Series Links Campus and Community in Santa Barbara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnes, J. Marc

    1981-01-01

    Describes a three-course series in environmental law developed at the University of California, Santa Barbara as part of the undergraduate Environmental Studies Program. The series progresses from theory to simulation to field experience. (Author/WB)

  7. Environmental Law Series Links Campus and Community in Santa Barbara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnes, J. Marc

    1981-01-01

    Describes a three-course series in environmental law developed at the University of California, Santa Barbara as part of the undergraduate Environmental Studies Program. The series progresses from theory to simulation to field experience. (Author/WB)

  8. Barbara Morgan, 51-L backup payload specialist, at Memorial service

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1986-01-31

    51L-S-108 (31 Jan. 1986) --- Barbara R. Morgan, 51-L backup payload specialist to Christa McAuliffe, with others on the stage at the Memorial service for the Challenger Seven at JSC. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Santa Barbara Cluster Comparison Test with DISPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

    2016-06-01

    The Santa Barbara cluster comparison project revealed that there is a systematic difference between entropy profiles of clusters of galaxies obtained by Eulerian mesh and Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) codes: mesh codes gave a core with a constant entropy, whereas SPH codes did not. One possible reason for this difference is that mesh codes are not Galilean invariant. Another possible reason is the problem of the SPH method, which might give too much “protection” to cold clumps because of the unphysical surface tension induced at contact discontinuities. In this paper, we apply the density-independent formulation of SPH (DISPH), which can handle contact discontinuities accurately, to simulations of a cluster of galaxies and compare the results with those with the standard SPH. We obtained the entropy core when we adopt DISPH. The size of the core is, however, significantly smaller than those obtained with mesh simulations and is comparable to those obtained with quasi-Lagrangian schemes such as “moving mesh” and “mesh free” schemes. We conclude that both the standard SPH without artificial conductivity and Eulerian mesh codes have serious problems even with such an idealized simulation, while DISPH, SPH with artificial conductivity, and quasi-Lagrangian schemes have sufficient capability to deal with it.

  10. Monterey fractured reservoir, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    SciTech Connect

    Belfield, W.C.; Helwig, J.; La Pointe, P.R.; Dahleen, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    The South Elwood field in the Santa Barbara Channel is a faulted anticline with cumulative production of 14.5 million bbl from the Monterey Formation as of September 1, 1982. The distributions of pressure, flow rates, and oil-water contacts and the low average matrix permeability of 0.2 md require a fractured reservoir. Core and outcrop studies show a dominant fracture set characterized by vertical, lithologically controlled fractures oriented across strike, and breccias controlled by lithology and structure. Generally, the fracture intensity is unaffected by structural position or bed curvature but is controlled by lithology and bed thickness. Other varieties of fracturing in the Monterey are related to a protracted history of diagenesis, deformation, and fluid injection. Three types of tar-bearing breccias occur in the Monterey Formation: stratigraphic breccia, coalescent-fracture breccia, and fault-related breccia. Formation of breccias probably involves high pore pressures. Because of their polygenetic origin, breccia masses have diverse orientations paralleling bedding or fracture/fault systems. In conclusions, fracturing and brecciation of the Monterey Formation reflect the interplay between processes of diagenesis, deformation, and fluid dynamics. The most important features of the reservoir in the area of the present study are: (1) vertical fractures oriented normal to the structural trends and inferred to be favorably oriented (to remain open) with respect to the regional minimum horizontal stress; and (2) breccias that are both stratigraphically and structurally controlled and inferred to be related to the interaction of rock stress and fluid dynamics.

  11. Unresolved Questions Concerning the Effectiveness of Psychological Assessment as a Therapeutic Intervention: Comment on Poston and Hanson (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Garb, Howard N.; Wood, James M.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Poston and Hanson (2010) reported a meta-analysis of 17 studies on the use of psychological assessment as a therapeutic intervention (PATI) and concluded that "psychological assessment procedures--when combined with personalized, collaborative, and highly involving test feedback--have positive, clinically…

  12. Instanton-like self-dual solution to lattice Euclidean Gravity: Difference from Eguchi-Hanson solution to continuous gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergeles, S. N.

    2016-10-01

    The self-dual solution to lattice Euclidean gravity is constructed. In contrast to the well-known Eguchi-Hanson solution to continuous Euclidean Gravity, the lattice solution is asymptotically globally Euclidean, i.e., the boundary of the space as r → ∞ is S 3 = SU(2)

  13. Unresolved Questions Concerning the Effectiveness of Psychological Assessment as a Therapeutic Intervention: Comment on Poston and Hanson (2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Garb, Howard N.; Wood, James M.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Poston and Hanson (2010) reported a meta-analysis of 17 studies on the use of psychological assessment as a therapeutic intervention (PATI) and concluded that "psychological assessment procedures--when combined with personalized, collaborative, and highly involving test feedback--have positive, clinically…

  14. Underestimating risks to the northern spotted owl in fire-prone forests: response to Hanson et al

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Spies; Jay D. Miller; Joseph B. Buchanan; John F. Lehmkuhl; Jerry F. Franklin; Sean P. Healey; Paul F. Hessburg; Hugh D. Safford; Warren B. Cohen; Rebecca S.H. Kennedy; Eric E. Knapp; James K. Agee; Melinda. Moeur

    2010-01-01

    The development of conservation plans for Northern Spotted Owls (NSO) (Strix occidentalis caurina) in disturbance-prone landscapes requires evaluation of multiple threats and careful consideration of the consequences of management actions intended to reduce risk. Hanson et al. (2009) used downwardly revised estimates of recent old-forest losses to...

  15. Strain accumulation in the Santa Barbara Channel, 1971-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; King, Nancy; Agnew, Duncan; Hager, Bradford

    1988-01-01

    Geophysical evidence suggests a significant amount of north-south convergence occurs across the Santa Barbara Channel. Tectonic studies indicate a discrepancy between observed fault slip in California and the North American-Pacific plate motion. Newer plate motion models (NUVEL-1) yield a lower rate of convergence. Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in the Santa Barbara Channel in 1987, when combined with 1971 trilateration measurements, should be sufficient to resolve the present-day convergence rate. In early 1987. from January 3 to 7, GPS data were collected at 14 sites in California and at 5 additional stations throughout North America. The data can be used to estimate the rate of crustal deformation (convergence) ocurring across the Santa Barbara Channel. The GPS baselines were computed with the Bernese 2nd generation software. A comparison was made between baseline lengths obtained with the Burnese and MIT softwares. Baseline changes from 1971 to January, 1987 (GPS-Bernese) across the Santa Barbara Channel were computed. A uniform strain model was calculated from the baseline changes. The present-day rate of convergence across the Santa Barbara Channel was determined to be 8 to 10 mm/yr. This conclusion is obtained from changes in the baseline length measured with a 1971 trilateration survey and a January, 1987, GPS survey. The rapid convergence rate, in addition to the history of large seismic events, suggests this region is a prime target for future geodetic and geophysical studies.

  16. 76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations... Identification of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (359) * * * (i) * * * (E) Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County...

  17. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy Canyon...

  18. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy Canyon...

  19. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy Canyon...

  20. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy Canyon...

  1. Santa Barbara City College Faculty Manual, 1999-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Coll., CA.

    This faculty manual is intended to provide general information to faculty members regarding various policies of the Santa Barbara City College District. It begins with a list of the Board of Trustees, a statement from the College President, and a disclaimer. The manual is then followed by these sections: (1) Introduction to the College; (2)…

  2. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Happy Canyon of Santa... Areas § 9.217 Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Happy...

  3. The Quintessential Searcher: The Wit & Wisdom of Barbara Quint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Marylaine, Ed.

    This book presents selected writings by Barbara Quint (BQ) on online searching. The selections are organized into the following chapters: (1) "The Art of Searching," including finding out what the patron wants, preparing for the search, knowing when the search is done, search styles, rules of online searching, cost issues, Quint's Laws,…

  4. Santa Barbara City College: 2002-05 College Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Coll., CA.

    This document summarizes the Santa Barbara City College 2002-2005 College Plan. The plan's goals are: (1) to develop and implement strategies to increase assistance to students in identifying learning needs and defining educational, career, and life goals; (2) to increase the percentage of students attaining educational goals; (3) to increase…

  5. Barbara Bodichon's Travel Writing: Her Epistolary Articulation of "Bildung"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Martin, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    English painter Barbara Bodichon received a dynamic home education, consisting of engaging lessons, reading sessions, family discussions, sketching excursions, and trips at home and abroad. As an adult, Bodichon led a nomadic life, living between Algeria and England and travelling across Europe and America. Seeking to unpack travelling and travel…

  6. Barbara Thayer-Bacon on Knowers and the Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Barbara Thayer-Bacon (1999) objects to the minimum proficiency examinations that are mandated for school students in Ohio. Similar tests are required by, or are under consideration by, governments in many other parts of the world. Various writers have objected to one or other of these tests by arguing that they are crude, invalid, unreliable,…

  7. The Quintessential Searcher: The Wit & Wisdom of Barbara Quint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Marylaine, Ed.

    This book presents selected writings by Barbara Quint (BQ) on online searching. The selections are organized into the following chapters: (1) "The Art of Searching," including finding out what the patron wants, preparing for the search, knowing when the search is done, search styles, rules of online searching, cost issues, Quint's Laws,…

  8. Barbara Bodichon's Travel Writing: Her Epistolary Articulation of "Bildung"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Martin, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    English painter Barbara Bodichon received a dynamic home education, consisting of engaging lessons, reading sessions, family discussions, sketching excursions, and trips at home and abroad. As an adult, Bodichon led a nomadic life, living between Algeria and England and travelling across Europe and America. Seeking to unpack travelling and travel…

  9. Barbara A. Romanowicz Receives 2009 Inge Lehmann Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Romanowicz, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Barbara A. Romanowicz was awarded the 2009 Inge Lehmann Medal at the AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, held on 16 December 2009 in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is for “outstanding contributions to the understanding of the structure, composition, and dynamics of the Earth's mantle and core.”

  10. Legal IEPs: A Common Sense Approach with Barbara Bateman. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Div. for Learning Disabilities.

    In this 2-hour videotape workshop designed for teachers, administrators, parents, and others, Dr. Barbara Bateman answers many key questions that have been raised about Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) since the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the 1999 regulations. The videotape reviews the…

  11. Quantifying Sulfur-Containing Compounds Over the Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, J.; Hughes, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is emitted to the atmosphere through the outgassing of ocean surface waters. OCS is also the primary source of sulfur-containing compounds in the stratosphere and contributes to the formation of the stratospheric sulfate layer. During the 2016 Student Airborne Research Program (SARP), whole air samples were collected on the NASA DC-8 aircraft over the Santa Barbara Channel. Five additional surface samples were taken at various locations along the Santa Barbara Channel. The samples were analyzed using gas chromatography in the Rowland-Blake lab at UC Irvine, and compounds such as OCS, dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2), bromoform (CHBr3), and methyl iodide (CH3I) associated with ocean emissions and stratospheric aerosols were analyzed. These marine sourced compounds, excluding OCS, showed expected trends of dilution with increasing altitude. The surface samples from the Santa Barbara Channel all exhibited elevated concentrations of OCS in comparison to samples taken from the aircraft, with an average of 666 ± 12 pptv, whereas the average background concentration of OCS was 587 ± 19 pptv. SARP flights from 2009-2015 over the Santa Barbara Channel saw an average OCS concentration of 548 ± 26 pptv. Elevated levels of OCS have never been detected from the aircraft during SARP flights, indicating that OCS emissions must be measured using surface sampling if emission estimates from the ocean are to be evaluated.

  12. Barbara Thayer-Bacon on Knowers and the Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Barbara Thayer-Bacon (1999) objects to the minimum proficiency examinations that are mandated for school students in Ohio. Similar tests are required by, or are under consideration by, governments in many other parts of the world. Various writers have objected to one or other of these tests by arguing that they are crude, invalid, unreliable,…

  13. 33 CFR 167.450 - In the Santa Barbara Channel Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Santa Barbara Channel... Barbara Channel Traffic Separation Scheme: General. The Traffic Separation Scheme in the Santa Barbara Channel is described in §§ 167.451 and 167.452. The geographic coordinates in §§ 167.451 and 167.452...

  14. Heterotic warped Eguchi-Hanson spectra with five-branes and line bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlevaro, Luca; Nibbelink, Stefan Groot

    2013-10-01

    We consider heterotic strings on a warped Eguchi-Hanson space with five-brane and line bundle gauge fluxes. The heterotic string admits an exact CFT description in terms of an asymmetrically gauged WZW model, in a specific double scaling limit in which the blow-up radius and the string scale are sent to zero simultaneously. This allows us to compute the perturbative 6D spectra for these models in two independent fashions: i) Within the supergravity approximation we employ a representation dependent index; ii) In the double scaling limit we determine all marginal vertex operators of the coset CFT. To achieve agreement between the supergravity and the CFT spectra, we conjecture that the untwisted and the twisted CFT states correspond to the same set of hyper multiplets in supergravity. This is in a similar spirit as a conjectured duality between asymptotically linear dilaton CFTs and little string theory living on NS-five-branes. As the five-brane charge is non-vanishing, heterotic (anti-)five-branes have to be added in order to cancel irreducible gauge anomalies. The local spectra can be combined in such a way that supersymmetry is preserved on the compact resolved orbifold by choosing the local gauge fluxes appropriately.

  15. Permeability of the South Ellwood Fault, Offshore Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boles, J. R.; Horner, S.; Garven, G.

    2009-12-01

    Natural methane migrates from faulted and fractured siliceous Miocene-age shale hydrocarbon reservoirs to the seabed of the Santa Barbara channel in southern California. At one locality near Platform Holly, about 2 km offshore, where seepage is monitored from two steel and concrete tents on the seabed (area~1860 m2), seepage rate can be related to wells producing 1 km beneath the tents. A new well, perforated at 914 m (3000 ft) beneath the collection tents, directly affects the seepage into the tents. When the well is shut down, seepage production rates increase at a constant rate of 45.3 m3 day/day (1.6 MCF/day/day) to 31.2 m3 day/day (1.1 MCF/day/day) over shutdown periods ranging from 21 days in 2003 to 45 days in 2005, respectively. Using seismic and well data, a fault with about 60 m (200 ft) of throw has been identified running along the crest of the South Ellwood anticline. Using these changes in flow rate, the estimated pressure differences between the seep tent and the perforation intervals in the well, we have calculated the permeability with respect to gas for the 914 m fracture/fault flow path, assuming steady Darcian flow, to be about 3.0E-14 m2 (30 millidarcys, md). In another well, no longer in production, we observe tidal-cycle pressure variations indicating communication with the seabed and anomalous pressure build up that indicates influx of about 5 m3 (25 barrels) of seawater per day. Chemical and isotopic analysis confirms seawater mixing into the reservoir. Using an estimated fault volume of 6.3E+05 m3, we calculate a permeability of 1.9E-14 m2 (19 md) from the Darcy equation (Boles and Horner, 2003) for this well. These two permeability estimates, calculated by different methods, are remarkably similar and indicate that large fault conduits can have permeability of 10’s of md over kilometer length scales. Note: MCF= thousand cubic feet

  16. Biotic response to late Quaternary rapid climate switches in Santa Barbara Basin: Ecological and evolutionary implications

    SciTech Connect

    Cannariato, K.G.; Kennett, J.P.; Behl, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Santa Barbara Basin exhibit major faunal and ecological switches associated with late Quaternary millennial- to decadal-scale global climate oscillations. Repeated turnovers of entire faunas occurred rapidly (<40--400 yr) without extinction or speciation in conjunction with Dansgaard-Oeschger shifts in thermohaline circulation, ventilation, and climate, confirming evolutionary model predictions of Roy et al. Consistent faunal successions of dysoxic taxa during successive interstadials reflect the extreme sensitivity and adaptation of the benthic ecosystem to the rapid environmental changes that marked the late Quaternary and possibly other transitional intervals in the history of the Earth`s ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system. These data support the hypothesis that broad segments of the biosphere are well adapted to rapid climate change.

  17. senator-barbara-mikulski-visits-nasa-goddard_23847927479_o

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-06

    Maryland's Sen. Barbara Mikulski greeted employees at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, during a packed town hall meeting Jan. 6. She discussed her history with Goddard and appropriations for NASA in 2016. Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/maryland-sen-barbara-mikulski-visits-nasa-goddard Credit: NASA/Goddard/Rebecca Roth NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram   N

  18. senator-barbara-mikulski-visits-nasa-goddard_24107702312_o

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-06

    Maryland's Sen. Barbara Mikulski greeted employees at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, during a packed town hall meeting Jan. 6. She discussed her history with Goddard and appropriations for NASA in 2016. Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/maryland-sen-barbara-mikulski-visits-nasa-goddard Credit: NASA/Goddard/Rebecca Roth NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram   N

  19. Senator Barbara Mikulski visits NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-06

    Maryland's Sen. Barbara Mikulski greeted employees at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, during a packed town hall meeting Jan. 6. She discussed her history with Goddard and appropriations for NASA in 2016. Read more: http://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/maryland-sen-barbara-mikulski-visits-nasa-goddard Credit: NASA/Goddard/Rebecca Roth NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram   N

  20. Groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  1. Lesbis sustineo! Naiad press authors remember Barbara Grier.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from semi-structured interviews with some of Naiad Press's most celebrated women, including Katherine V. Forrest, Barbara's supervising editor at Naiad from 1983-1993; Sheila Ortiz Taylor, author of what is considered by many to be the first lesbian novel with a Chicana heroine; and the incomparable Lee Lynch, this work aims to sustain an ongoing remembrance of Grier's life and work by encouraging memory exploration--a symphonic blending of the printed and spoken word.

  2. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

  3. Geologic Map of the Goleta Quadrangle, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2007-01-01

    This map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying those parts of the Santa Barbara coastal plain and adjacent southern flank of the Santa Ynez Mountains within the Goleta 7 ?? quadrangle at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The Goleta map overlaps an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002) that provided coverage within the coastal, central parts of the Goleta and contiguous Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping in the northern part of the Goleta quadrangle, geologic mapping in other parts of the map area has been revised from the preliminary map compilation based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units are described in detail in the accompanying map pamphlet. Abundant biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault-kinematic observations (including slip-sense determinations) are embedded in the digital map database. The Goleta quadrangle is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The Santa Barbara coastal plain surface, which spans the central part of the quadrangle, includes several mesas and hills that are geomorphic expressions of underlying, potentially active folds and partly buried oblique and reverse faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt (SBFFB). Strong earthquakes have occurred offshore within 10 km of the Santa Barbara coastal plain in 1925 (6.3 magnitude), 1941 (5.5 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude). These and numerous smaller seismic events

  4. Status of groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Study Unit, 2011: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated in 2011 as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study unit is mostly in Santa Barbara County and is in the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater in the primary aquifer system of California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database for the Santa Barbara study unit. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the Santa Barbara study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors.The status assessment for the Santa Barbara study unit was based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey from 23 sites and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health database for January 24, 2008–January 23, 2011. The data used for the assessment included volatile organic compounds; pesticides; pharmaceutical compounds; two constituents of special interest, perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA); and naturally present inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used to evaluate groundwater quality for those constituents that have federal or California regulatory and non

  5. Santa Barbara Basin diatom and silicoflagellate response to global climate anomalies during the past 2200 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, J.A.; Bukry, D.; Field, D.

    2010-01-01

    Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages are quantified from a box core record spanning AD 1940-2001 and an Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A record from ???220 BC to AD 1880. The combined relative abundance of the diatoms Fragilariopsis doliolus and Nitzschia interrupteseriata from continuous two-year sampling intervals in the box core varies with sea surface temperature (SST), suggesting its utility in SST reconstruction. The assemblage data from the ODP 893A record indicate a broad interval of generally cooler SSTs between ???AD 800 and 1350, which corresponds to the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), a period of generally warmer temperatures across other regions of the northern hemisphere. The assemblages also indicate an interval of generally warmer SSTs between ???AD 1400 and 1800, a period of otherwise global cooling referred to as the Little Ice Age (LIA). The changes in assemblages of diatoms and silicoflagellates support the hypothesis that the widespread droughts of the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the Western US were associated with cooler eastern North Pacific SST. The box core assemblages have higher percentages of tropical and subtropical compared to temperate and subpolar species than the ODP samples, reflecting a response of phytoplankton communities to an unusual 20th century warming. Pseudonitzschia australis, a diatom linked with domoic acid production, begins to become more common (>3% of the diatom assemblage) in the box core only after AD 1985, suggesting a link to anthropogenic activity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  6. Fibrocartilaginous emboli in a tayra (Eira barbara): a case report.

    PubMed

    Renner, M S; Bryant, W; Kennedy, G A

    1998-12-01

    An 8-yr-old male tayra (Eira barbara) was presented with acute onset of pelvic limb paralysis. Radiography was unremarkable. Neurologic examination showed signs consistent with an intramedullary lesion between the second thoracic and fifth lumbar spinal cord segments. The animal's condition did not improve after 4 days of aggressive glucocorticoid therapy, and euthanasia was performed. Histologic examination of the spinal cord showed amorphous emboli suggestive of cartilaginous fragments within spinal veins. A diagnosis of fibrocartilaginous emboli was made, the first known case in a mustelid.

  7. Introduction: the influence and legacy of Barbara Grier.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Danielle M

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Lesbian Studies focuses on the life and legacy of the lesbian publisher, editor, and author Barbara Grier. Through Grier's "Lesbiana" column in Daughters of Bilitis's magazine The Ladder, three editions of The Lesbian in Literature (1967, 1975, 1985), to her role as publisher of the Naiad Press from 1973-2003, Grier introduced hundreds of new lesbian books to readers and kept several lesbian classics on the literary horizon. The articles in this issue focus on Grier's biography, history, and impact through archival analysis, interviews, and content analysis. This introduction contextualizes and outlines the articles in this special issue.

  8. Major Wildfire Near Santa Barbara seen by NASA Spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-22

    The Sherpa fire in Santa Barbara County, CA has burned over 12 square miles since it started on June 15. Smoke from the fire reached Los Angeles on the weekend. The fire caused closures of US Highway 101, one of the main routes between southern and northern California. The image was acquired June 19, 2016, covers an area of 25 by 30 kilometers, and is located at 34.4 degrees north, 119.8 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20734

  9. Interval Training

    MedlinePlus

    ... before trying any type of interval training. Recent studies suggest, however, that interval training can be used safely for short periods even in individuals with heart disease. Also keep the risk of overuse injury in mind. If you rush into a strenuous workout before ...

  10. 33 CFR 167.451 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception. 167.451 Section 167.451 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....451 In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception. (a) A separation zone...

  11. 33 CFR 167.450 - In the Santa Barbara Channel Traffic Separation Scheme: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the Santa Barbara Channel... Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.450 In the Santa Barbara Channel Traffic Separation Scheme: General. The Traffic Separation Scheme in the Santa...

  12. 33 CFR 165.1157 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Cruise Ships... § 165.1157 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California. (a) Location. The following areas are... cruise ship located within 3 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light (Light List...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1157 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Cruise Ships... § 165.1157 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California. (a) Location. The following areas are... cruise ship located within 3 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light (Light List...

  14. 33 CFR 167.451 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception. 167.451 Section 167.451 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....451 In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception. (a) A separation zone is...

  15. 33 CFR 167.452 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello. 167.452 Section 167.452 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....452 In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello. (a) A separation zone...

  16. 33 CFR 167.452 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello. 167.452 Section 167.452 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....452 In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello. (a) A separation zone...

  17. 33 CFR 167.451 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception. 167.451 Section 167.451 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....451 In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception. (a) A separation zone is...

  18. 77 FR 39638 - Safety Zone; Barbara Harder Wedding Fireworks, Lake Erie, Lake View, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... No. USCG-2012-0568] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Barbara Harder Wedding Fireworks, Lake Erie, Lake View... temporary safety zone on Lake Erie, Lake View, NY. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Barbara Harder Wedding Fireworks. This temporary safety zone is necessary...

  19. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Santa Barbara, California, is often called 'America's Riviera.' It enjoys a Mediterranean climate, a mountain backdrop, and a long and varied coastline. This perspective view of the Santa Barbara region was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat satellite image. The view is toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2526 m or 8286 feet) along the skyline. The coast here generally faces south. Consequently, Fall and Winter sunrises occur over the ocean, which is unusual for the U.S. west coast. The Santa Barbara 'back country' is very rugged and largely remains as undeveloped wilderness and an important watershed for local communities. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface.

    To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet) long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL

  20. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Santa Barbara, California, is often called 'America's Riviera.' It enjoys a Mediterranean climate, a mountain backdrop, and a long and varied coastline. This perspective view of the Santa Barbara region was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat satellite image. The view is toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2526 m or 8286 feet) along the skyline. The coast here generally faces south. Consequently, Fall and Winter sunrises occur over the ocean, which is unusual for the U.S. west coast. The Santa Barbara 'back country' is very rugged and largely remains as undeveloped wilderness and an important watershed for local communities. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface.

    To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet) long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL

  1. Bathymetry and Acoustic Backscatter: Northern Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Pete; Finlayson, David; Conrad, Jamie; Cochrane, Guy; Johnson, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, as part of the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP) the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology mapped a nearshore region of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in Southern California (fig 1). The CSMP is a cooperative partnership between Federal and State agencies, Universities, and Industry to create a comprehensive coastal/marine geologic and habitat basemap series to support the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) inititive. The program is supported by the California Ocean Protection Council and the California Coastal Conservancy. The 2008 mapping collected high resolution bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data using a bathymetric side scan system within State waters from about the 10-m isobath out over 3-nautical miles. This Open-File Report provides these data in a number of different formats, as well as a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and FGDC metadata.

  2. Rotation period of 234 Barbara, a further slowly spinning asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, H. J.

    1981-03-01

    The S-type asteroid 234 Barbara was observed photoelectrically for variations at CTIO, Chile, during the opposition in September 1979. A rotation period of P=26h5±0h.1(≙ 1d.104 ± 0d.004) was derived, with a lightcurve amplitude of at least Δm ≧ 0m.24. The lightcurve seems to show double wave characteristic, though the primary maximum and one of the minima are not observed directly. Absolute magnitude is Vbar(1,0) =9m.34 with B-V = +0m.92 and U-B=+0m.48; a phase coefficient of β = 0.035 mag/deg was derived.

  3. Resolving the cause of large differences between deglacial benthic foraminifera radiocarbon measurements in Santa Barbara Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana, A. L.; Southon, J. R.; Kennett, J.; Roark, E.; Sarnthein, M.; Stott, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    To better understand the deglacial upwelling pattern in the East Pacific, we have made radiocarbon (14C) measurements on benthic foraminifera and macrofauna from a 3.5 meter long interval in ODP Core 893A from Santa Barbara Basin, California representing early deglaciation. This work serves to investigate the source of apparent disagreement between radiocarbon datasets from Leibnitz Laboratory, Kiel University (Kiel) and Carbon Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These datasets are based on measurements of mixed benthic and mixed planktonic foraminifera. Inter-laboratory 14C results are similar for the planktonic foraminiferal analyses, however Kiel measurements on mixed benthic foraminifera are much older than mixed benthic measurements from equivalent depths measured at LLNL. Our new results show distinct 14C differences between taxa, with Pyrgo sp. giving ages consistently older than Kiel measurements on mixed benthic taxa; while ages for Nonionellina sp., Buliminella sp., Uvigerina sp. and benthic macrofauna were much younger- even younger than the LLNL mixed benthic data. The new data supports benthic-planktonic age offsets of no more than 300 years, indicating that bottom waters within the basin remained significantly younger during early deglaciation than some previous results have suggested and thus consistent with sedimentary and faunal evidence for well oxygenated conditions.

  4. Flood-Derived Sand Lobes on the Shelf of the Northern Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, E.; Simms, A.; Warrick, J. A.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity flows in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) of Southern California have the potential to damage pipelines leading to offshore petroleum platforms, yet their recurrence intervals and initiation mechanisms remain unknown. The recent discovery of seven fans on the continental shelf of the SBC poses an important question; namely, are the SBC fans deposited by sediment gravity flows capable of damaging shelf infrastructure? The fans lie directly offshore from small mountainous creeks that exceed the suspended sediment threshold of 40 g/L required for plunging at the fluvial-marine interface. Here, we present grain size trends, radiocarbon dates, and overall stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the SBC from eight cores and nine grab samples collected in October, 2013. The snub-nosed geometry of each lobe implies en masse freezing of deposits, but the incorporation of shell material and evidence of erosion in shallow seismic profiles indicate an initially turbulent flow regime. The location and geometry of these features suggests that the fans in the SBC are the result of hybrid hyperpycnal-debris flows, likely during floods associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation. A small shoreface slope break found immediately up-dip from these features suggests that seafloor geometry may play a key role in their deposition. The absence of a similar shoreface slope brake in areas without fans suggests a relationship between fan formation and shelf gradient.

  5. Floods and Fires: Decadal-scale terrestrial data from Santa Barbara Basin during the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, L. E.; Hendy, I. L.; Pak, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    High-resolution studies of pollen and charcoal from annually-deposited laminae of Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) reflect the regional dynamics of southern coastal California vegetation from 700- to 1900 C.E. through the Medieval Climate Anomaly, the Little Ice Age to the arrival of Europeans. Kasten core SPR0901-02KC (34°16.8' N, 120°02.3' W; 588 m water depth) was analyzed for pollen at consecutive 0.5 cm depth intervals that correspond with an average deposition of five years from 150 cm to core top. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 800 to 1270 C.E.) SBB sediments were dominated by xeric vegetation types (drought-resistant coastal sagebrush and chaparral) implying reduced precipitation in the southern California region. Subsequent, pulsating increases in mesic arboreal vegetation, notably oak assemblages, increase from a minima at 1200 C.E., stabilizing between 1450-1550 C.E. before gradually decreasing toward the 20th century. Prior to the late 14th century, fire events (inferred from microcharcoal fragments deposited in SBB), are rare and often associated with low lithogenic input into SBB. Notable charcoal peaks normalized to pollen abundance occur at 1110, 1200, 1410-1440, 1530, and 1764, with only the 1530 event associated with a flood layer. Fires do not appear to drive significant sediment input into the basin. Increased charcoal deposition follows the settlement of California rose to peak values in the mid 19th century. Decadal-scale fluctuations in relative abundance of mesic vegetation generally correspond with variations in sea-surface temperatures inferred from foraminiferal assemblages in SBB, and are consistent with changes in northern hemisphere circulation, indicating weakened Arctic Lows and extended La Niña-like conditions during the MCA and strengthened Aleutian Lows and extended El Niño-like atmospheric conditions during the LIA. Minimal abundance of oak and pine beginning in the 18th century corresponds with the historical period in

  6. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Barbara study unit, 2011: results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 48-square-mile Santa Barbara study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from January to February 2011, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Santa Barbara study unit was the thirty-fourth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP. The GAMA Santa Barbara study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the Santa Barbara study unit. Groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the quality in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the Santa Barbara study unit located in Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, groundwater samples were collected from 24 wells. Eighteen of the wells were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), and six wells were selected to aid in evaluation of water-quality issues (understanding wells). The groundwater samples were analyzed for organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds); constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]); naturally occurring inorganic constituents (trace

  7. Second progress report on the cooperative investigation of springs and stream flow in the Tecolote Tunnel area of Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troxell, Harold C.; Burgess, C.E.

    1950-01-01

    This report represents the second of a series of progress reports giving the results of discharge measurements made at more than 100 locations in the Santa Ynez Mountains from the Refugio Canyon on the west to the San Marcos Pass and Painted Cave area on the east. The flow in all the developed springs and headwater streams within this area, here designated as the Tecolote Tunnel Area of the purpose of this report, is generally measured monthly. The primary purpose of this second progress report is to make available to the public all factual data regarding the flow at these locations obtained since the preparation of the first progress report, issued in May 1949. Near the mid-point of this area the Bureau of Reclamation and the Santa Barbara County Water Agency proposed a tunnel, known as Tecolote Tunnel, for the purpose of diverting a portion of the runoff of the Santa Ynez River drainage area into water-deficient Santa Barbara and the coastal areas to the east and west, Because the water users of the mountain springs in the Tecolote Tunnel Area are somewhat apprehensive as to the influence this tunnel may have on their present water supply, the Santa Barbara Water Agency has requested the Geological Survey to obtain records of flow in their springs at frequent and regular intervals. During the current fiscal year these observations have been made as a result of a cooperative agreement between the Geological Survey and the Santa Barbara County Water Agency whereby each paid half the cost of the investigation. During the previous fiscal year all the costs to the Geological Survey in obtaining these observations were completely reimbursed by the Bureau of Reclamation.

  8. Coastal Processes Study of Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Revell, David L.; Hoover, Dan; Warrick, Jon; Brocatus, John; Draut, Amy E.; Dartnell, Pete; Elias, Edwin; Mustain, Neomi; Hart, Pat E.; Ryan, Holly F.

    2009-01-01

    The Santa Barbara littoral cell (SBLC) is a complex coastal system with significant management challenges. The coastline ranges broadly in exposure to wave energy, fluvial inputs, hard structures, and urbanization. Geologic influence (structural control) on coastline orientation exerts an important control on local beach behavior, with anthropogenic alterations and the episodic nature of sediment supply and transport also playing important roles. Short- and long-term temporal analyses of shoreline change, beach width, and volume change show no obvious trends in regional beach behavior. Extensive armoring along the SBLC has accreted the back beach, narrowing beach widths and in some cases increasing sediment transport. Unarmored beaches have exhibited mild erosion while maintaining similar widths. Harbor constructions have had notable impacts on downdrift beaches, but once the coastal system has equilibrated the signal becomes strongly dampened and littoral-drift gradients driven by natural shoreline orientation again become dominant. Sediment inputs from the Santa Clara River dominate sediment processes on beaches to the south. The SBLC is dominated by episodic flood and storm-wave events. Exceptionally large accretion signals along this stretch of coastline are closely tied to major flood events when large amounts of sediment are deposited in deltas. These deltas decay over time, supplying downdrift beaches with sediment. Storm-wave impacts and gradients in alongshore transport can lead to beach rotations and migrating erosion hotspots when geological controls are weak. Annual and seasonal rates of cross-shore and alongshore transport are at least 2-3 times higher for the more west- and southwest-facing beaches south of the Ventura River as compared to the more sheltered beaches to the west/north. Gross littoral transports are good approximations of net littoral transports for beaches west/north of Ventura as transport is almost purely unidirectional. However

  9. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara Coastline, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the Santa Barbara, California, region provides a beautiful snapshot of the area's rugged mountains and long and varied coastline. Generated using data acquired from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat image this is a perspective view toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2,526 m or 8,286 feet) along the skyline at the left. On a clear day, a pilot might see a similar view shortly before touching down on the east-west runway of the Santa Barbara Airport, seen just to the left of the coastline near the center of image. This area is one of the few places along the U.S. West Coast where because of a south-facing beach, fall and winter sunrises occur over the ocean.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter(98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science

  10. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara Coastline, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of the Santa Barbara, California, region provides a beautiful snapshot of the area's rugged mountains and long and varied coastline. Generated using data acquired from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat image this is a perspective view toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2,526 m or 8,286 feet) along the skyline at the left. On a clear day, a pilot might see a similar view shortly before touching down on the east-west runway of the Santa Barbara Airport, seen just to the left of the coastline near the center of image. This area is one of the few places along the U.S. West Coast where because of a south-facing beach, fall and winter sunrises occur over the ocean.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter(98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science

  11. 75 FR 45082 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Reporting... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County...

  12. 78 FR 53680 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer, Santa Barbara and Ventura County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... Ventura County Air Pollution Control Districts AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD), Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD) and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD) portions of the California...

  13. Six Decades of Picture Book Illustration: The Art of Barbara Cooney.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Jackie C.

    2001-01-01

    Explores three distinct periods (across 60 years) in the work of renowned picture book artist Barbara Cooney. Reflects on strengths and weaknesses as well as her overall contributions to picture book art. (SR)

  14. Barbara Morgan and Christa McAuliffe watch the STS 61-A launch of Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Barbara R. Morgan and Sharon Christa McAuliffe (right) watch the STS 61-A launch of Challenger at Kennedy Space Center's Launch complex 39 (25293); McAuliffe turns to camera as STS 61-A launch progresses (25294).

  15. Water-resources optimization model for Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    A simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal management of the city of Santa Barbara's water resources during a drought. The model, which links groundwater simulation with linear programming, has a planning horizon of 5 years. The objective is to minimize the cost of water supply subject to: water demand constraints, hydraulic head constraints to control seawater intrusion, and water capacity constraints. The decision variables are montly water deliveries from surface water and groundwater. The state variables are hydraulic heads. The drought of 1947-51 is the city's worst drought on record, and simulated surface-water supplies for this period were used as a basis for testing optimal management of current water resources under drought conditions. The simulation-optimization model was applied using three reservoir operation rules. In addition, the model's sensitivity to demand, carry over [the storage of water in one year for use in the later year(s)], head constraints, and capacity constraints was tested.

  16. Reply to Barbara Pfeffer Billauer's "On Judaism and genes.

    PubMed

    Wolpe, Paul Root

    1999-06-01

    The response of Barbara Pfeffer Billauer to my article "If I Am Only My Genes, What Am I? Genetic Essentialism and a Jewish Response" highlights the conflict between a sociological understanding of religion and the resistance to such analysis from within a faith tradition. Ms. Billauer makes three main points; the first strangely credits to me, and then attacks, an argument the article takes great pains to refute, but does so to emphasize the faith's prescient guidance in matters scientific. The second attempts to rebut my critical analysis of the tensions inhernet in Jewish views of the body with an insistence that Judaism so perfectly balances the relation between the sacred and profane that there is not now, and never was, the slightest tension between corporeality and divinity in the Jewish corpus. The third uses my article as vehicle for her to expound on an interesting but tangential formulation of three Jewish terms. In all, the need to defend her interpretation of Judaism's solutions to the problems the article raises results in un-self-critical and ahistorical theorizing, making the utility of her arguments in a discussion of the sociology of religion unsatisfactory.

  17. Metagenomes from two microbial consortia associated with Santa Barbara seep oil.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Erik R; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alexander; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Pati, Amrita; Jansson, Janet R; Gilbert, Jack A; Tringe, Susannah Green; Lorenson, Thomas D; Hess, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The metagenomes from two microbial consortia associated with natural oils seeping into the Pacific Ocean offshore the coast of Santa Barbara (California, USA) were determined to complement already existing metagenomes generated from microbial communities associated with hydrocarbons that pollute the marine ecosystem. This genomics resource article is the first of two publications reporting a total of four new metagenomes from oils that seep into the Santa Barbara Channel.

  18. Validation and Application of PHYDOTax In The Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, C. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phytoplankton Functional Types(PFTs) are conceptual groupings of phytoplankton based on physical or functional characteristics. Understanding phytoplankton is essential in our study of how ecosystems function and in monitoring carbon flow. PHYDOTax is a PFT algorithm that discriminates taxon-specific biomass in images from airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral sensors. The PHYDOTax algorithm uses a spectral library and an inverse matrix approach to deconvolve pure phytoplankton spectral end-members from spectra of natural waters. The spectral library used in development was created from phytoplankton taxa found in Monterey Bay, CA and the California Current System (CCS). PHYDOTax has only been validated in Monterey Bay and for only one airborne sensor, Spectroscopic Aerial Mapping System with On-board Navigation (SAMSON). The objectives of this research were to apply PHYDOTax to a different region of the CCS, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), and to test the usability of PHYDOTax with a different airborne imager, Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). PHYDOTax was modified to accommodate the reduced spectral resolution of AVIRIS, which has fewer wavelengths than the SAMSON imagery that was used to validate the model for Monterey Bay. PHYDOTax's predictions were consistent with cell-count data from whole water samples on June 5, 2013, courtesy of the Plumes and Blooms Cruise (UCSB). PHYDOTax's ability to perform in another area of the CCS shows promise that it may be accurately applied to the west coast of the US. PHYDOTax's ability to perform with lower spectral resolution imagery, suggests that it may it may be robust enough to be down-sampled to multi-spectral resolution inputs. This opens the possibility of applying PHYDOTax to historical (SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS), existing (VIIRS, HICO), and future (PACE, GEO-CAPE) sensors to describe temporal trends in phytoplankton distribution and carbon flow in the ocean and to build continuity among the sensor

  19. Holocene Climatic and Hydrographic Variability in the Santa Barbara Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friddell, J.; Thunell, R.; Guilderson, T.; Kashgarian, M.

    2002-12-01

    Using an 11-m piston core with an age model defined by 38 radiocarbon dates, we have constructed a decadally-resolved record of Holocene sea surface temperature and hydrography for the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB). Time series analyses of planktonic foraminiferal (G. bulloides and N. pachyderma) δ18O suggest that, during the warm mid-Holocene, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation was more often in its warm phase and more frequent and intense El Niño warm events occurred than during the cooler early Holocene or the late 20th century. Paired planktonic and benthic foraminiferal radiocarbon dates from the same core depths reveal changes in the SBB hydrographic structure. At the end of the Younger Dryas, the surface-deep radiocarbon age difference of the basin was ~550 years. Between 10.5 and 6.0 ka, the benthic-planktonic difference (B-P) oscillated between 300 and 500 years but then increased to a maximum of 580 years at 4.0 ka. We interpret the 10.5 to 4.0 ka increase in B-P as a result of increasing thermal stratification in the basin during this time period (as shown by δ18O) and a concomitant reduction in surface 14C reservoir age relative to the deep water. The periodicity of oscillations in the B-P radiocarbon record is ~1300 +/- 300 years. This is similar to that found by Bond et al. (1997) for Holocene climate cyclicity (1374 +/- 502 years), and most of our high B-P events identified are at similar to or slightly later times than the ice-rafting events identified in the North Atlantic (radiocarbon ages of 9.7, 8.5, 7.1, 5.8, 5.0, and 4.3 ka). If the ice-rafting events were caused by reductions in thermohaline circulation, then it is possible that these conveyor slow-downs could have decreased deep circulation in the SBB, thereby increasing the benthic 14C age and subsequently B-P. These findings suggest that the same hydrographic and climatic phenomena that drove cyclicity in the North Atlantic during the Holocene could have also impacted the northeast Pacific

  20. The Start of Plate Tectonics in the Eoarchean: A Tribute to Gilbert N Hanson, Pioneer in Archean Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.; Kamber, B. S.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Mueller, P. A.; Basu, A. R.

    2007-05-01

    The use of isotopic and trace element geochemistry and igneous petrology to understand the petrogenesis of Archean rocks was pioneered by Gilbert Hanson and Joseph Arth at SUNY Stony Brook in the 1970's. Extension of these approaches allows the onset of plate tectonics on Earth shortly after the end of the Hadean to be specified. Nb/Th and Th/U ratios of mafic-ultramafic rocks from the depleted upper mantle begin to change from 7 to 18.2 and 4.7 to 2.9 (respectively) at 3.6 Ga. This signals the appearance of subduction-altered slabs in general mantle circulation from subduction initiated at 3.8 Ga. Juvenile crustal rocks begin to show derivation from progressively depleted mantle with typical igneous ɛNd:ɛHf = 1:2 after 3.6 Ga. Cratons with stable mantle keels that have subduction imprints begin to appear at 3.5 Ga. These changes all suggest that extraction of continental crust by plate tectonic processes was progressively depleting the mantle from 3.6 Ga onwards. Neoarchean subduction appears largely analogous to present subduction except in being able to produce large cratons with thick mantle keels. The earliest Eoarchean juvenile rocks and Hadean zircons have compositions that reflect the integrated effects of separation of an early enriched reservoir and fractionation of perovskite from the Mars-size impact-derived magma ocean, rather than separation of voluminous continental crust or oceanic plate tectonics. Hadean zircons most likely were derived from a continent-absent, mafic to ultramafic protocrust that was multiply remelted between 4.4 and 4.0 Ga under wet conditions to produce evolved felsic rocks. If the protocrust was produced by global mantle overturn at ca 4.4 Ga, then the transition to plate tectonics resulted from radioactive decay-driven mantle heating. Otherwise, such protocrust would have been the typical product of mantle convection and the transition to plate tectonics resulted from cooling to the extent that large lithospheric plates

  1. Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan pose for photos after training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Sharon Christa McAuliffe (right), the Teacher in Space Payload specialist assigned to the 51-L mission, and her backup, Barbara R. Morgan pose for photos after training in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. The Shuttle crew compartment, in a launch mode, can be seen in the background.

  2. IMPACT II, Catalog of Santa Barbara County Teacher-Developed Curriculum Ideas: Disseminators, Adapters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara County Schools, CA.

    This document highlights the creative curriculum ideas of Santa Barbara County's (California) teachers that have been classroom-tested. IMPACT II is a teacher program that assists educational reform by providing innovative teacher-developed curriculum ideas, teacher-to-teacher networks, professional development, teacher recognition, and…

  3. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  4. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  5. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  6. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  7. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  8. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  9. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at Santa...

  10. The Educational Legacy of El Plan de Santa Barbara: An Interview with Reynaldo Macias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Javier

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Reynaldo F. Macias, chair of the recently established Department of Chicana/o Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), talks about the historical significance of El Plan de Santa Barbara, its impact on Chicana/o studies throughout the Southwest, and its relevance in establishing a department at UCLA, and the…

  11. 75 FR 77000 - South Coast Conduit/Upper Reach Reliability Project, Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation South Coast Conduit/Upper Reach Reliability Project, Santa Barbara County, CA... reliability to Cachuma Project (CP) and State Water Project (SWP) customers on the South Coast of Santa....gov , or from Ms. Kate Rees, Cachuma Operation and Maintenance Board, 3301 Laurel Canyon Road,...

  12. Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan named Teacher in Space Participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Sharon Christa McAuliffe (left), from Concord, New Hampshire and Barbara R. Morgan of McCall, Idaho, have been named Teacher in Space Participants. They are posing in Space Shuttle mission simulator (SMS), wearing the blue shuttle flight suits and holding a helmet between them.

  13. Senator Barbara Mikulski and the Contagious “Learning Bug” | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Sen. Barbara Mikulski came to NIH on April 11 to say goodbye. Following this fall’s election, the longest-serving woman in congressional history will relinquish her Maryland Senate seat, bringing to a close a 40-year national political career in which she staunchly supported NIH and biomedical research.

  14. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region; Santa Barbara Channel Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.

    2009-01-01

    USGS coastal and ocean science in the Western United States and the Pacific integrates scientific expertise in geology, water resources, biology, and geography. Operating from 10 major science centers in the Western Region, the USGS is addressing a broad geographic and thematic range of important coastal and marine issues. In California, the Santa Barbara Channel represents one area of focus.

  15. Blue oak plant communities of southern San Luis Obispo and northern Santa Barbara Counties, California

    Treesearch

    Mark I. Borchert; Nancy D. Cunha; Patricia C. Krosse; Marcee L. Lawrence

    1993-01-01

    An ecological classification system has been developed for the Pacific Southwest Region of the Forest Service. As part of that classification effort, blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodlands and forests of southern San Luis Obispo and northern Santa Barbara Counties in Los Padres National Forest were classified into I3 plant communities using...

  16. The Educational Legacy of El Plan de Santa Barbara: An Interview with Reynaldo Macias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Javier

    2007-01-01

    In this interview, Reynaldo F. Macias, chair of the recently established Department of Chicana/o Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), talks about the historical significance of El Plan de Santa Barbara, its impact on Chicana/o studies throughout the Southwest, and its relevance in establishing a department at UCLA, and the…

  17. 75 FR 28056 - Cachuma Lake Resource Management Plan, Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... timely delivery of high-quality water to users while enhancing natural resources and recreational... municipal and industrial water supplies to the City of Santa Barbara, Goleta Water District, Montecito Water District, Carpinteria Valley Water District, and Santa Ynez River Water Conservation District,...

  18. Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan named Teacher in Space Participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Sharon Christa McAuliffe (left), from Concord, New Hampshire and Barbara R. Morgan of McCall, Idaho, have been named Teacher in Space Participants. They are posing in Space Shuttle mission simulator (SMS), wearing the blue shuttle flight suits and holding a helmet between them.

  19. The non-convex shape of (234) Barbara, the first Barbarian*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Carry, B.; Colas, F.; Delbo, M.; Matter, A.; Hanuš, J.; Alí Lagoa, V.; Andrei, A. H.; Assafin, M.; Audejean, M.; Behrend, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Carbognani, A.; Cedrés Reyes, M.; Conjat, M.; Cornero, N.; Coward, D.; Crippa, R.; de Ferra Fantin, E.; Devogéle, M.; Dubos, G.; Frappa, E.; Gillon, M.; Hamanowa, H.; Jehin, E.; Klotz, A.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Lecacheux, J.; Leroy, A.; Manfroid, J.; Manzini, F.; Maquet, L.; Morelle, E.; Mottola, S.; Polińska, M.; Roy, R.; Todd, M.; Vachier, F.; Vera Hernández, C.; Wiggins, P.

    2015-04-01

    Asteroid (234) Barbara is the prototype of a category of asteroids that has been shown to be extremely rich in refractory inclusions, the oldest material ever found in the Solar system. It exhibits several peculiar features, most notably its polarimetric behaviour. In recent years other objects sharing the same property (collectively known as `Barbarians') have been discovered. Interferometric observations in the mid-infrared with the ESO VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) suggested that (234) Barbara might have a bi-lobated shape or even a large companion satellite. We use a large set of 57 optical light curves acquired between 1979 and 2014, together with the timings of two stellar occultations in 2009, to determine the rotation period, spin-vector coordinates, and 3-D shape of (234) Barbara, using two different shape reconstruction algorithms. By using the light curves combined to the results obtained from stellar occultations, we are able to show that the shape of (234) Barbara exhibits large concave areas. Possible links of the shape to the polarimetric properties and the object evolution are discussed. We also show that VLTI data can be modelled without the presence of a satellite.

  20. Values in Doing and Writing Science: The Case of Barbara McClintock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Articulates the perspective that regards science as a form of manufactured knowledge that is not objective but, like other forms of knowledge, culture-bound and historically specific. Suggests how some communicative difficulties suffered by the scientist Barbara McClintock can be traced to her unconventional practice. (HB)

  1. 2016 Summer Series - Barbara Block - Sushi and Satellites: Tracking Predators Across the Blue Serengeti

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-21

    The Earth’s oceans cover the majority of the surface area of our planet, yet our understanding of the marine ecosystem is limited. Professor Barbara Block of Stanford will present her work studying tunas, billfishes and sharks utilization of the ocean.

  2. A High-School Science Lesson with Barbara Neureither. School Development Library [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Barbara Neureither is a high school science teacher at Holt High School in Holt, Michigan. The philosophy of her science department is "more is less," which means that the most important concepts are identified and taught in greater depth. Science is taught using a constructivist approach that allows students to construct their own…

  3. Developing Poor and Minority Children as Leaders with the Barbara Taylor School Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Gloria; Holzman, Lois

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Barbara Taylor Educational Model, developed and implemented in Harlem (New York) and in day care and Head Start programs of the Somerset Community Action Program (New Jersey). Presents case studies illustrating how the model enables students to overcome barriers to their development posed by racism, sexism, and classism. (MW)

  4. Live Supervision in Family Therapy: An Interview With Barbara Okun and Fred Piercy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes special program on live supervision in family therapy given at 1988 annual American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) Conference that featured experts Barbara Okun and Fred Piercy discussing "cotherapy" and "one-way mirror" live supervision approaches. Provides edited transcript of their program.…

  5. A High-School Science Lesson with Barbara Neureither. School Development Library [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Central Regional Educational Lab., Oak Brook, IL.

    Barbara Neureither is a high school science teacher at Holt High School in Holt, Michigan. The philosophy of her science department is "more is less," which means that the most important concepts are identified and taught in greater depth. Science is taught using a constructivist approach that allows students to construct their own…

  6. Senator Barbara Mikulski and the Contagious “Learning Bug” | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Sen. Barbara Mikulski came to NIH on April 11 to say goodbye. Following this fall’s election, the longest-serving woman in congressional history will relinquish her Maryland Senate seat, bringing to a close a 40-year national political career in which she staunchly supported NIH and biomedical research.

  7. 76 FR 28226 - Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander; and AIR 7 Seas... ``Complainant,'' against African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia, ALCO Logistics, LLC; Brenda Alexander; and Air 7 Seas... Ndahendekire Foundation located in Mbarara, Uganda. Complainant alleges that: Respondent African Shipping...

  8. Understanding IDEA 1997 and the 1999 Regulations with Barbara Bateman. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Div. for Learning Disabilities.

    The United States Congress amended the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1997 to reflect changes in the special education field over the previous twenty years. In this 2-hour videotape recording designed for teachers, administrators, parents, and others, Dr. Barbara Bateman presents her insights about changes in IDEA law and…

  9. Values in Doing and Writing Science: The Case of Barbara McClintock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Articulates the perspective that regards science as a form of manufactured knowledge that is not objective but, like other forms of knowledge, culture-bound and historically specific. Suggests how some communicative difficulties suffered by the scientist Barbara McClintock can be traced to her unconventional practice. (HB)

  10. 75 FR 55709 - Port Access Route Study: In the Approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach and in the Santa Barbara...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... and in the Santa Barbara Channel AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of public meetings; request... Santa Barbara Channel'' that was published in the Federal Register on Wednesday, April 7, 2010. As... approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach and in the Santa Barbara Channel. DATES: Public meetings will be held...

  11. Constraining the vertical movement of OMZ waters in Santa Barbara Basin for the past 15 ky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, S.; Hill, T. M.; Kennett, J.; Behl, R. J.; Ohkushi, K.

    2010-12-01

    Here we constrain the upper vertical boundary of the California Margin Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) through the past 15ky, with focus on the Bölling-Alleröd (B/A) warm interval. The depth range of the OMZ along the California Margin is responsive to events of rapid warming, however the spatial extent and underlying mechanism for the synchrony is not clear. We construct a depth transect within Santa Barbara Basin (34° 15’N, 119° 45’W) using a core from 418m water depth (MV0811-15JC), and previously investigated cores from 481m (MD02-2504) and 570m (MD02-2503) water depths. Isotope stratigraphy and radiocarbon dating (planktonic calcite) were used to generate a working age model. Foraminiferal and micro-invertebrate assemblages and preserved sediment laminations constrain the movement of low-oxygen water. Oxygen isotopic values at all three sites record similar surface water δ18O shifts over the deglaciation (1.5‰ magnitude; based upon planktonic foraminifera G. bulloides) and a smaller but analogous δ18O shift is seen in benthic records (0.5‰ magnitude; based on benthic foraminifera U. peregrina). All three cores exhibit a ~1‰ decrease in G. bulloides (planktonic) δ13C values across the deglaciation, and then a return to more stable values of ~-0.75‰ during the Holocene. All three cores show an increase in δ13C values of benthic foraminfera U. peregrina at the onset of the Holocene (~1‰ positive shift); in the future, these records may be coupled with total organic carbon analyses to understand the role of productivity and terrestrial carbon export in influencing OMZ strength. During the B/A lamination records indicate strong hypoxia below 480m; however laminations are not preserved at 418m. In contrast, benthic foraminiferal assemblages show similar responses (albeit more muted the in shallowest site) to low-oxygen concentrations during the B/A, with species N. stella, B. tumida, and B. tenuata dominating at all three sites. At the 418m site, the

  12. Geohydrology of Storage Unit III and a combined flow model of the Santa Barbara and foothill ground-water basins, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freckleton, John R.; Martin, Peter; Nishikawa, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    The city of Santa Barbara pumps most of its ground water from the Santa Barbara and Foothill ground-water basins. The Santa Barbara basin is subdivided into two storage units: Storage Unit I and Storage Unit III. The Foothill basin and Storage Unit I of the Santa Barbara basin have been studied extensively and ground-water flow models have been developed for them. In this report, the geohydrology of the Santa Barbara ground- water basin is described with a special emphasis on Storage Unit III in the southwestern part of the basin. The purposes of this study were to summarize and evaluate the geohydrology of Storage Unit III and to develop an areawide model of the Santa Barbara and Foothill basins that includes the previously unmodeled Storage Unit III. Storage Unit III is in the southwestern part of the city of Santa Barbara. It is approximately 3.5 miles long and varies in width from about 2,000 feet in the southeast to 4,000 feet in the north-west. Storage Unit III is composed of the Santa Barbara Formation and overlying alluvium. The Santa Barbara Formation (the principal aquifer) consists of Pleistocene and Pliocene(?) unconsolidated marine sand, silt, and clay, and it has a maximum saturated thickness of about 160 feet. The alluvium that overlies the Santa Barbara Formation has a maximum saturated thickness of about 140 feet. The storage unit is bounded areally by faults and low-permeability deposits and is underlain by rocks of Tertiary age. The main sources of recharge to Storage Unit III are seepage from Arroyo Burro and infiltration of precipitation. Most of the recharge occurs in the northwest part of the storage unit, and ground water flows toward the southeast along the unit's long axis. Lesser amounts of recharge may occur as subsurface flow from the Hope Ranch subbasin and as upwelling from the underlying Tertiary rocks. Discharge from Storage Unit III occurs as pumpage, flow to underground drains, underflow through alluvium in the vicinity of Arroyo

  13. Pliocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the eastern Santa Barbara Basin utilizing benthic foraminifera: a new record from Unocal core D273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, C. N.; Shafer, A.; Ruch, S.; Roopnarine, P. D.

    2016-12-01

    In 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) received the micropaleontological collection of Union Oil of California (Unocal). The collection consists of more than 750,000 vials of residues from approximately 9,000 cores and surface samples amassed during the course of Unocal's 20th century operations. Since its acquisition, the collection has been transferred from a Unocal storage facility in La Brea, California, to the CAS collections in San Francisco, where a process of compactorization, sample rehousing, and data exploration was initiated in order to understand the scope of the collection. One objective of this effort is to determine the extent to which the collection supplements or extends publicly accessible micropaleontological data. This study reports foraminiferal assemblages and diversity indices for Unocal core D273, a 955 m continuous core spanning a transect from 195 - 1150 m below seafloor. Core D273 is the first exploratory oil well core drilled from the Dos Cuadras oil field located in the eastern Santa Barbara Basin (SBB), California (34.331°N, 119.6269°W). Individual sample residues from 95 consecutive depth intervals were analyzed for their foraminiferal content in order to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions at this site. Preliminary results reveal a trend of decreasing diversity downcore coincident with increasing dominance of lower middle bathyal, intermediately hypoxic genera Cibicides, Epistominella, Bolivina, and Uvigerina. Biostratigraphic interpretation of the Dos Cuadras oil field suggest that D273 spans the Pliocene Pico Formation, including the "Repetto" biozone of the early Pliocene Repettian Stage (4.8-2.58 Ma), extending the available sedimentary record for the SBB. Further examination of D273 and related warm-interval Pliocene cores may provide proxy data for predicting oceanographic and benthic community response within the SBB under climate change scenarios predicted for the middle and end of this century.

  14. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, effects of pumping on water levels and water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1982-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the coastal area of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin in southern California. The water-level declines are the result of increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines in the main water-bearing zones to altitudes below sea level. Consequently, the ground-water basin is threatened with salt-water intrusion if the present pumpage is maintained or increased. Water-quality data suggest that salt-water intrusion has already degraded the water yielded from six coastal wells. Chloride concentrations in the six wells ranged from about 400 to 4,000 milligrams per liter. Municipal supply wells near the coast currently yield water of suitable quality for domestic use. There is, however, no known physical barrier to the continued inland advance salt water. Management alternatives to control salt-water intrusion in the Santa Barbara area include (1) decreasing municipal pumping, (2) increasing the quantity of water available for recharge by releasing surplus water to Mission Creek, (3) artificially recharing the basin using injection wells, and (4) locating municipal supply wells farther from the coast and farther apart to minimize drawdown. (USGS)

  15. Health-hazard-evaluation report HETA 87-243-292-1876, Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital, Santa Barbara, California. [Ethylene oxide exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, W.; Gunter, B.

    1988-02-01

    In response to a request from the Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital, Santa Barbara, California, an evaluation was made of possible health hazards. Attention was directed in particular to waste anesthetic gases and vapors in the Outpatient Surgery Center and the main operating rooms. A second concern was ethylene oxide (EtO) exposures from a gas sterilizer, and samples were taken during operation of this equipment. Personal and area air samples were collected during surgery and analyzed for nitrous oxide (N/sub 2/0), halogenated anesthetic agents, and methyl methacrylate. Only two samples exceeded the NIOSH REL of 25 ppm for N/sub 2/O. Eight samples exceeded the NIOSH REL of 0.5/ppm for halogenated anesthetics used in combination with N/sub 2/O. The Outpatient Surgery Center had only about half the recommended number of air changes per hour. Contaminant concentrations are maintained below the environmental criteria in most samples, but a potential for overexposure to N/sub 2/O and forane exists. The authors recommend improving general ventilation at the facility, work practices, exposure monitoring, equipment maintenance, and the use of scavenging systems for waste gases.

  16. Water levels in observation wells in Santa Barbara County, California, in 1956

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.; Merritt, P.M.

    1957-01-01

    Investigation of the ground-water resources of Santa Barbara County was continued during 1956 by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Santa Barbara County Water Agency. Monthly water-level recorders were operated. Earlier measurements, covering the period 1941 through 1953, have been published in Geological Survey water-Supply Papers; those for 1954 and 1955 are in press and have been released locally in duplicated form. Water-Supply Paper 1068 contains tabulated descriptions of 2,246 wells in existence in 1942 in the various ground-water basins of the county. The same publication contains also many water-level measurements made prior to 1942 by the city of Santa Barbara, Santa Maria Valley Water Conservation District, San Joaquin Power Division of the Pacific Gas and Electric Co., Union Sugar Co., Union Oil Co., and other organizations and individuals. Comprehensive reports on the geology and ground-water resources of the Santa Ynez River basin (Upson and Thomasson, 1951), the south-coast basins (Upson, 1951), the Santa Maria Valley area (Worts, 1951), and the Cuyama Valley (Upson and Worts, 1951) have been published as Water-Supply Papers 1107, 1108, 1000, and 1110-B respectively. A report on stream runoff and ground-water storage capacity of the Santa Ynez River valley (Troxell and Wilson, 1952) was released to the open file in October 1952. A report appraising the ground-water resources of the Santa Ynez River valley (Wilson, 1957) was released to the open file in October 1956.

  17. Interval arithmetic in calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairbekova, Gaziza; Mazakov, Talgat; Djomartova, Sholpan; Nugmanova, Salima

    2016-10-01

    Interval arithmetic is the mathematical structure, which for real intervals defines operations analogous to ordinary arithmetic ones. This field of mathematics is also called interval analysis or interval calculations. The given math model is convenient for investigating various applied objects: the quantities, the approximate values of which are known; the quantities obtained during calculations, the values of which are not exact because of rounding errors; random quantities. As a whole, the idea of interval calculations is the use of intervals as basic data objects. In this paper, we considered the definition of interval mathematics, investigated its properties, proved a theorem, and showed the efficiency of the new interval arithmetic. Besides, we briefly reviewed the works devoted to interval analysis and observed basic tendencies of development of integral analysis and interval calculations.

  18. Southern sea otter range expansion and habitat use in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M. Tim; Tomoleoni, Joseph; LaRoche, Nicole; Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Mike; Staedler, Michelle; Randell, Zachary

    2017-01-17

    The re-colonization of the Santa Barbara channel by sea otters brings these ESA-listed marine mammals closer to active oil and gas production facilities, shipping lanes and naturally occurring oil and gas seeps. However, the degree to which sea otters may actually be affected by human-caused oil spills or exposure to natural oil seeps is currently unknown. Between 2012 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey and collaborating agencies conducted a telemetry-based study of sea otters in Santa Barbara channel, in order to provide critical information for resource managers (specifically the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, henceforth BOEM, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, henceforth USFWS) about the spatial ecology, population status, and potential population threats to sea otters in Santa Barbara Channel, with particular reference to exposure to manmade structures and sources of oil and natural gas. Analysis of spatial monitoring data using a Bayesian-based synoptic model allowed for description of sea otter home ranges, identification of hot-spots of use, and insights into habitat selection behavior by male and female sea otters. Important findings included the deeper modal depth preferred by males versus females, strong preferences by both sexes for areas with persistent kelp canopy, and greater use of soft-sediment areas by males. The synoptic model also provided the ability to predict population-level density distribution for each sex in new habitats: by calculating the value of these probability density distributions at the known locations of natural seeps, we were able to identify those seeps with higher potential for sea otter encounters. The relative probability of occurrence at locations near to some seeps was sufficiently high (about 1% likelihood of occurrence for some of our study animals) that one would anticipate occasional encounters. Data on male and female survival, reproductive success, activity budgets, and body condition all indicated that

  19. Sedimentological Evidence of the 1812 Santa Barbara Tsunami in Carpinteria Marsh, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, L.; Simms, A.; King, B. L.; Rockwell, T. K.; Ejarque, A.; Anderson, R.; Peters, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Santa Barbara coast is at risk for tsunamis generated from tectonic movement in areas of compression and extension associated with the San Andreas Fault, as well as from submarine landslide movement in the Santa Barbara channel. Historical documents and other records indicate Santa Barbara has experienced approximately sixteen historical tsunamis, the largest of which may have occurred on Dec 21, 1812, following a magnitude ~7.1 earthquake. We propose that an anomalous sand deposit, Sand Facies One (SF1), which is found within the first meter of sediment throughout Carpinteria Marsh in Carpinteria, CA, may represent deposition related to this event. We have collected 23 vibracores, up to 4.1 m in length, and three Geoprobe cores to ~14 m depth in Carpinteria Marsh. SF1 occurs in 20 of the 23 vibracores and exhibits sedimentological characteristics associated with a tsunami genesis such as: fining upward grain size, sharp or erosional basal contact, and thinning of the deposit landward. Mineralogy, deposit geometry, and X-Ray Florescence (XRF) data are used to determine a marine versus terrestrial origin for the layer. It is difficult, however, to differentiate between storm and tsunami deposits based purely on the sedimentary characteristics of a deposit. We show that an improved age chronology which includes exotic pollen stratigraphy and radiocarbon data indicates an age range appropriate for the 1812 event but does not exclude regional flooding events documented in the 1860s. We use the characteristics of SF1 to determine if similar layers occur at other depths in the Geoprobe cores. Preliminary core descriptions indicate that there is at least one layer which exhibits characteristics similar to SF1and may indicate the occurrence of a similar inundation event. We conclude that tsunami deposition related to the 1812 event is a possible explanation for SF1, but additional analyses are needed to rule out other flooding events. Whether storm or tsunami, the

  20. The life-cycle of the digenetic trematode, Proctoeces maculatus (Looss, 1901) Odhner, 1911 (Syn. P. rubtenuis [Linton, 1907] Hanson, 1950), and description of Cerceria adranocerca n. sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stunkard, H.W.; Uzmann, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    ano,nalus, taken at Cerros Island, Mexico. Hanson ( 1950) identified two specimens collected from Calamus sp. at Bermuda by the late F. D. Barker as Distontuni subtenue Linton, 1907, a species described originally from Calantus calanius in the same area. Comparison of these specimens with those from Tortugas identified by Manter as P. erythraeus established their identity, and P. erythraeus was suppressed as a synonym of Proctoeces subtenue (Linton, 1907). Hanson corrected the statement of Manter (1947), noting that it is the vitellaria, not the uterus, which never extends into the post testicular region.

  1. Abrupt termination of Marine Isotope Stage 16 (Termination VII) at 631.5 ka in Santa Barbara Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Walter E.; Kennett, James P.; Behl, Richard J.; Nicholson, Craig; Sorlien, Christopher C.

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Isotope Stage 16-15 boundary (Termination VII) is the first deglacial warming step of the late Quaternary following the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT), when 41 kyr climatic cycles shifted to strong 100 kyr cycles. The detailed structure of this important climatic event has remained unknown until now. Core MV0508-19JPC from Santa Barbara Basin, California, contains a decadal-scale climatic and geochemical sediment record of 4000 years duration that includes the early part of this deglacial episode. This record reveals that the climatic shift during the early deglacial occurred rapidly (<700 years), in a progression of three abrupt warming steps. The onset of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 15 was remarkably abrupt with 4-5°C sea surface warming in ~50 years. The deglacial sequence contains the well-dated Lava Creek tephra (631.3 ± 4 ka) from Yellowstone Caldera used to date the onset of Termination VII at 631.5 ka. The late MIS 16 and early MIS 15 interval exhibits multiple decadal-scale negative excursions in δ13C of planktic foraminifera, likely the result of repeated discharges of methane from methane hydrates associated with both ocean warming and low sea level. A warm interstadial that interrupts late MIS 16 is marked by elevated concentrations of redox-sensitive elements indicating sulfidic, oxygen-deficient bottom and pore-waters, and elevated concentrations of total organic carbon and Cd, reflecting increased surface productivity. Unlike younger sediments on the California margin, these indicators of increased productivity and low dissolved oxygen do not consistently correspond with each other or with preserved laminations, possibly reflecting instability of a still evolving ocean-atmosphere system following the MPT.

  2. Reconstructing Quaternary precipitation periodicities with Santa Barbara Basin sediment cores: application of the siliciclastic detrital element proxy at annual resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, T.; Hendy, I. L.; Hinnov, L.; Brown, E. T.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation patterns in Southern California directly affect water availability, and extreme weather exacerbates water stress and subsequent societal impacts in this highly populated and vital agricultural region. In the future, mean annual precipitation is predicted to decrease in California, although frequency of heavy precipitation events may increase. To reconstruct annual precipitation history in Southern California, including both the magnitude and recurrence intervals, we analyze sediment from two Late Holocene (past ~150 years and past ~2 ka) and five Pleistocene (~400-450 ka [MIS 11 and 12] and ~735 ka [MIS 18]) cores collected in Santa Barbara Basin using data from XRF core scans for elements associated with the terrigenous siliciclastic detrital fraction of core sediment (Al, Fe, K, Rb, Si, Ti, Zr). We develop a floating annual age model for each core through identification of the annual signal in the siliciclastic detrital fraction. Siliciclastic detrital element concentrations increase in sediment associated with precipitation events and floods, and decrease in sediment associated with droughts. Variability in the concentrations of these elements can thus be used as a precipitation and river runoff proxy. We investigate changes in annual detrital sediment input during glacial, deglacial, and interglacial climate states, and changes due to rapid climate change (centennial to millennial time scales). Power spectral analysis of our annually tuned time series reveals precipitation periodicities associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (15-25, 50-70 years) and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (2-7 years) that are dissimilar to common tidal perigee and nodal periods. These results provide information on the nature and response of precipitation patterns due to past changes in climate forcing, which will improve climate predictions for this region, especially interannual and decadal variability that impact climate on human timescales (i.e. <100 years).

  3. Data for southern sea otter range expansion and habitat use in the Santa Barbara Channel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M. Tim; Tomoleoni, Joseph; Staedler, Michelle M.; LaRoche, Nicole L.; Randell, Zachary; Bowen, Lizabeth; Murray, Michael J.; Miles, A. Keith

    2017-01-01

    The current study was designed to provide critical information for resource managers (specifically the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, henceforth BOEM, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, henceforth USFWS) about the spatial ecology, population status, and potential population threats to sea otters in Santa Barbara Channel, with particular reference to exposure to manmade structures and sources of oil and natural gas. Our four primary research objectives were: 1. Determine the extent of movements and spatial use patterns by sea otters along the southern California coast2. Identify important sea otter resting and foraging areas adjacent to manmade structures3. Assess sea otter distribution, behavior and habitat selection in the vicinity of natural oil and gas seep areas (e.g., Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara County)4. Combine data on tagged animal movements, habitat use patterns and population distribution (acquired during this study and from previous studies and USGS monitoring activities), to create population-level “risk of exposure” models for spatially explicit threats such as natural oil seeps or hypothetical oil spill scenarios.These data were used to support the folowing publication:Tinker, M.T., Tomoleoni, Joseph, LaRoche, Nicole, Bowen, Lizabeth, Miles, A. Keith, Murray, Mike, Staedler, Michelle, and Randell, Zach, 2017, Southern sea otter range expansion and habitat use in the Santa Barbara Channel, California: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2017–1001 (OCS Study BOEM 2017-002), 76 p., http://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20171001.

  4. Optical assessment of particle size and composition in the Santa Barbara Channel, California.

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, Tihomir Sabinov; Siegel, David A; Maritorena, Stéphane; Guillocheau, Nathalie

    2012-06-01

    The suspended particle assemblage in complex coastal waters is a mixture of living phytoplankton, other autochthonous matter, and materials of terrestrial origin. The characterization of suspended particles is important for understanding regional primary productivity and rates of carbon sequestration, the fate of anthropogenic materials released to the coastal environment, as well as its effects on bulk optical properties, which influence the passive optical remote sensing of the coastal ocean. Here, the extensive bio-optical Plumes and Blooms data set is used to characterize the surface particle assemblage in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, a highly productive, upwelling-dominated, coastal site affected by episodic sediment inputs. Available variables sensitive to characteristics of the particle assemblage include particle beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment concentration observations, chlorophyll and particulate organic carbon concentration, particulate and phytoplankton absorption coefficients, and Laser In-situ Scattering and Transmissometry (LISST) 100-X particle sizer observations. Comparisons among these particle assemblage proxy variables indicate good agreement and internal consistency among the data set. Correlations among chlorophyll concentration, particulate organic carbon concentration (POC), HPLC pigments, and proxies sensitive to the entire particle assemblage such as backscattering and LISST data strongly indicate that in spite of its coastal character, variability in the particle assemblage in the Santa Barbara Channel is dominated by its marine biogenic component. Relatively high estimates of the bulk real index of refraction and its positive correlation with chlorophyll and lithogenic silica concentration tentatively indicate that there is minerogenic particle influence in the Santa Barbara Channel that tends to covary with the phytoplankton blooms. Limitations of each

  5. Plumes and Blooms: Modeling the Case II Waters of the Santa Barbara Channel. Chapter 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, D. A.; Maritorena, S.; Nelson, N. B.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Plumes and Blooms (PnB) project is to develop, validate and apply to imagery state-of-the-art ocean color algorithms for quantifying sediment plumes and phytoplankton blooms for the Case II environment of the Santa Barbara Channel. We conduct monthly to twice-monthly transect observations across the Santa Barbara Channel to develop an algorithm development and product validation data set. The PnB field program started in the summer of 1996. At each of the 7 PnB stations, a complete verification bio-geo-optical data set is collected. Included are redundant measures of apparent optical properties (remote sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation spectra), as well as in situ profiles of spectral absorption, beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients. Water samples are analyzed for component in vivo absorption spectra, fluorometric chlorophyll, phytoplankton pigment (by the SDSU CHORS laboratory), and inorganic nutrient concentrations. A primary goal is to use the PnB field data set to objectively tune semi-analytical models of ocean color for this site and apply them using available satellite imagery (SeaWiFS and MODIS). In support of this goal, we have also been addressing SeaWiFS ocean color and AVHRR SST imagery. We also are using the PnB data set to address time/space variability of water masses in the Santa Barbara Channel and its relationship to the 1997/1998 El Nino. However, the comparison between PnB field observations and satellite estimates of primary products has been disappointing. We find that field estimates of water-leaving radiance, L(sub wN)(lambda), correspond poorly to satellite estimates for both SeaWiFS and MODIS local area coverage imagery. We believe this is due to poor atmospheric correction due to complex mixtures of aerosol types found in these near-coastal regions. Last, we remain active in outreach activities.

  6. Conventional U-Pb dating versus SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Rondonia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparrenberger, I.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ba??rbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondo??nia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondo??nia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 ?? 5 Ma and 989 ?? 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yield little about the ages of Sn-granite magmatism. SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the Santa Ba??rbara facies association yielded a 207Pb/206Pb weighted-mean age of 978 ?? 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Ba??rbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and ??Nd (T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondo??nia Tin Province.

  7. Transport of clays in the eastern part of santa barbara channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpack, R.L.; Drake, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    A record discharge of about 54 ?? 106 metric tons of predominantly fine-grained detrital sediment was introduced during 1969 into the eastern part of Santa Barbara Channel from the Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers. The clay-size fraction from bottom samples collected during a time-series of about 18 months revealed movement across the shelf and into the adjacent basin in a repetitive sequential pattern. Light transmission profiles show resuspension and transport of sediments at depths of up to 225 m. This transport and distribution history is attributed to seasonal variations in the vertical and lateral position of a poleward-flowing current. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Retrospective: lessons learned from the Santa Barbara project and their implications for health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, Jonah; Karp, Sam; Smith, Mark D; Sujansky, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Despite its closure in December 2006, the Santa Barbara County Care Data Exchange helped focus national attention on the value of health information exchange (HIE). This in turn led to the federal government's plan to establish regional health information organizations (RHIOs). During its existence, the project pioneered innovative approaches, including certification of health information technology vendors, a community-wide governance model, and deployment of a peer-to-peer technical model now in wider use. RHIO efforts will benefit from the project's lessons about the need for an incremental development approach, rigorous implementation processes, early attention to privacy and liability concerns, and planning for a sustainable business model.

  9. Patterns of acoustic variation in Cicada barbara Stål (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Juma, G A; Seabra, S G; Quartau, J A

    2008-02-01

    Field recordings of the calling song and of an amplitude modulated signal produced by males of Cicada barbara from North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula were analysed in order to assess the geographical acoustic variation and the potential usefulness of acoustic data in the discrimination of subspecies and populations. Sound recordings were digitized and the frequency and temporal properties of the calls of each cicada were analysed. In all regions studied, peak frequency, quartiles 25, 50 and 75% and syllable rate showed low coefficients of variation suggesting inherent static properties. All frequency variables were correlated with the latitude, decreasing from south to north. In addition, most acoustic variables of the calling song showed significant differences between regions, and PCA and DFA analyses supported a partitioning within this species between Iberian Peninsula+Ceuta and Morocco, corroborating mtDNA data on the same species. Therefore, the subspecific division of C. barbara into C. barbara barbara from Morocco and C. barbara lusitanica from Portugal, Spain and Ceuta finds support from the present acoustic analyses, a result which is also reinforced by molecular markers.

  10. Musical intervals in speech

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Deborah; Choi, Jonathan; Purves, Dale

    2007-01-01

    Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes. PMID:17525146

  11. Musical intervals in speech.

    PubMed

    Ross, Deborah; Choi, Jonathan; Purves, Dale

    2007-06-05

    Throughout history and across cultures, humans have created music using pitch intervals that divide octaves into the 12 tones of the chromatic scale. Why these specific intervals in music are preferred, however, is not known. In the present study, we analyzed a database of individually spoken English vowel phones to examine the hypothesis that musical intervals arise from the relationships of the formants in speech spectra that determine the perceptions of distinct vowels. Expressed as ratios, the frequency relationships of the first two formants in vowel phones represent all 12 intervals of the chromatic scale. Were the formants to fall outside the ranges found in the human voice, their relationships would generate either a less complete or a more dilute representation of these specific intervals. These results imply that human preference for the intervals of the chromatic scale arises from experience with the way speech formants modulate laryngeal harmonics to create different phonemes.

  12. A rapid compatibility analysis of potential offshore sand sources for beaches of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mustain, N.; Griggs, G.; Barnard, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    The beaches of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell, which are narrow as a result of either natural and/or anthropogenic factors, may benefit from nourishment. Sand compatibility is fundamental to beach nourishment success and grain size is the parameter often used to evaluate equivalence. Only after understanding which sand sizes naturally compose beaches in a specific cell, especially the smallest size that remains on the beach, can the potential compatibility of source areas, such as offshore borrow sites, be accurately assessed. This study examines sediments on the beach and in the nearshore (5-20m depth) for the entire Santa Barbara Littoral Cell east of Point Conception. A digital bed sediment camera, the Eyeball??, and spatial autocorrelation technique were used to determine sediment grain size. Here we report on whether nearshore sediments are comparable and compatible with beach sands of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  13. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, Effects of pumping on water levels and on water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1984-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels in the southern part of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin declined more than 100 feet. These water-level declines resulted from increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The increase in municipal pumping was part of a basin-testing program designed to determine the usable quantity of ground water in storage. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines to altitudes below sea level in the main water-bearing zones. As a result, the ground-water basin would be subject to saltwater intrusion if the study-period pumpage were maintained or increased. Data indicate that saltwater intrusion has degraded the quality of the water yielded from six coastal wells. During the study period, the six coastal wells all yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 250 milligrams per liter, and four of the wells yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter. Previous investigators believed that saltwater intrusion was limited to the shallow part of the aquifer, directly adjacent to the coast. The possibility of saltwater intrusion into the deeper water-bearing deposits in the aquifer was thought to be remote because an offshore fault truncates these deeper deposits so that they lie against consolidated rocks on the seaward side of the fault. Results of this study indicate, however, that ocean water has intruded the deeper water-bearing deposits, and to a much greater extent than in the shallow part of the aquifer. Apparently the offshore fault is not an effective barrier to saltwater intrusion. No physical barriers are known to exist between the coast and the municipal well field. Therefore, if the pumping rate maintained during the basin-testing program were continued, the degraded water along the coast could move inland and contaminate the municipal supply wells. The time required for the degraded water to move from the coast to

  14. Italy - Adriatic Sea - Barbara - A giant gas field marked by seismic velocity anomaly - A subtle trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ianniello, A.; Bolelli, W.; Di Scala, L. )

    1990-09-01

    Barbara gas field, discovered in 1971, is located in the northern sector of the Adriatic offshore. The field is a gentle anticline involving Quaternary clastic sediments and shaped by carbonate Mesozoic morphology. The presence of shallow gas pockets at the crest of the structure distort the seismic signal to such an extent that structural reconstruction using seismic data is not possible. Moreover, time delays and ray-path anomalies do not allow the use of staking velocities for the depth conversion. Seismic attribute analysis, instead of velocities, and time delays on the isochrone maps are providing a key to the understanding of seismic anomalies and are an indirect tool for reconstructing the real structural configuration of the field. The appraisal story of the field illustrates how the previously mentioned complications influenced its delineation and how an understanding of these complications helped in upgrading the reserves from an initial value of 10 billion ECM of gas to 40 billion ECM. Additional data acquired with the development wells tend to increase the estimate. Therefore, Barbara field is the most important Italian gas field of the decade. The producing formation is composed of very thin-bedded sandstone and shale intercalations, representing the peculiarity of this reservoir. Development of the field is being achieved with six production platforms and 72 wells.

  15. Littoral transport rates in the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell: a process-based model analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, E. P. L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Brocatus, John

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sediment transport patterns and pathways is essential for sustainable coastal zone management of the heavily modified coastline of Santa Barbara and Ventura County (California, USA). A process-based model application, based on Delft3D Online Morphology, is used to investigate the littoral transport potential along the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (between Point Conception and Mugu Canyon). An advanced optimalization procedure is applied to enable annual sediment transport computations by reducing the ocean wave climate in 10 wave height - direction classes. Modeled littoral transport rates compare well with observed dredging volumes, and erosion or sedimentation hotspots coincide with the modeled divergence and convergence of the transport gradients. Sediment transport rates are strongly dependent on the alongshore variation in wave height due to wave sheltering, diffraction and focusing by the Northern Channel Islands, and the local orientation of the geologically-controlled coastline. Local transport gradients exceed the net eastward littoral transport, and are considered a primary driver for hot-spot erosion.

  16. The recent history of trace metal accumulation in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Heike; Reimers, Clare E.

    1991-11-01

    A new 56-year record, spanning the years 1931-1986, of trace metal accumulation rates for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn is constructed from the laminated sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California. The sedimentary record yields information on short-term climatic changes and allows a resolution of 1 year (±2 years) for age assignments. Concentrations of Cu, Ni and, especially Pb, in bulk sediment solids reflect anthropogenic input. The Pb sediment profile reflects recent developments in Pb consumption: the introduction of unleaded gasoline in the U.S.A. is documented by a levelling off of the Pb concentrations in the sediments. Within the Cd and Zn profiles, there is no suggestion of anthropogenic input. However, flux calculations indicate that industrial pollution does contribute to the accumulation of Zn in the basin sediments, while the Cd content can be attributed entirely to contributions from natural sources. When the total accumulation of anthropogenic trace metals in the Santa Barbara Basin is calculated for the time period 1971-1980, its magnitude is insignificant compared to amounts released from coastal areas both adjacent to and south of the basin. This finding indicates that the removal of trace metals from seawater in this region is efficient near the point sources.

  17. Fluxes of uranium and thorium series isotopes in the Santa Barbara Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Willard S.; Bruland, Kenneth W.; Michel, Jacqueline

    1981-05-01

    Samples from the MANOP Santa Barbara Basin sediment trap intercomparison were analyzed for the isotopes of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium. All of the traps showed approximately the same compositions and isotopic ratios, indicating that they trapped similar materials. The 234Th flux via falling particles was very close to the flux predicted from the production and scavenging rates of 234Th from the water column. The 210Pb content of the trapped particles and the surface sediments were the same, however, the measured flux of 210Pb was seven times greater than the predicted flux. Predicted and measured fluxes of 228Th and 210Po were similarly out of balance. To explain this apparent inconsistency, we suggest (as others have done) that the Santa Barbara Basin is an area where scavenging from the water column is intensified and where sediments deposited initially on the margins may be physically remobilized on a short time scale. These two effects increase the apparent area from which the basin derives the longer-lived isotopes but does not increase significantly the supply of the short-lived 234Th.

  18. Demonstrating an Effective Marine Biodiversity Observation Network in the Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. J.

    2016-02-01

    The Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) is a transition zone characterized by high species and habitat diversity and strong environmental gradients within a relatively small area where cold- and warm-water species found from Baja to the Bering Sea coexist. These characteristics make SBC an ideal setting for our demonstration Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (BON) project that integrates biological levels from genes to habitats and links biodiversity observations to environmental forcing and biogeography. SBC BON is building a comprehensive demonstration system that includes representation of all levels of biotic diversity, key new tools to expand the scales of present observation, and a data management network to integrate new and existing data sources. Our system will be scalable to expand into a full regional Marine BON, and the methods and decision support tools we develop will be transferable to other regions. Incorporating a broad set of habitats including nearshore coast, continental shelf, and pelagic, and taxonomic breadth from microbes to whales will facilitate this transferability. The Santa Barbara Channel marine BON has three broad objectives: 1. Integrate biodiversity data to enable inferences about regional biodiversity 2. Develop advanced methods in optical and acoustic imaging and genomics for monitoring biodiversity in partnership with ongoing monitoring and research programs to begin filling the gaping gaps in our knowledge. 3. Implement a tradeoff framework that optimizes allocation of sampling effort. Here we discuss our progress towards these goals and challenges in developing an effective MBON.

  19. Patterns and Forcing of Primary Productivity in the Santa Barbara Channel, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburn, L.; Brzezinski, M.; Gotschalk, C.

    2008-12-01

    The relationship between phytoplankton productivity in the Santa Barbara Channel, California and various forcing process is being examined using observations from 15 cruises as part of the Santa Barbara Coastal Long Term Ecological Research (SBC-LTER) project. Distributions of primary productivity exhibit highly variable patterns that respond strongly to changes in wind stress, circulation state, nutrient patterns, and other factors. An empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis shows that the first 3 modes (out of 25) account for 89 percent of the variance in primary productivity over the channel. The first mode describes seasonal changes in productivity with the second describing increases in productivity associated with cyclonic rotation in the western channel. The third mode describes productivity variations along the narrow continental shelf along the mainland. Continuing analysis is examining links between the EOF modes and forcing processes. A primary objective of the work is to link offshore productivity to delivery of nutrients, phytoplankton and other subsidies to kelp forests on the inner shelf.

  20. Geohydrology of the Foothill ground-water basin near Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freckleton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Geohydrologic data presented in this report indicate that the East Subbasin of the Goleta groundwater basin and Storage Unit II of the Santa Barbara groundwater basin should be considered as a separate groundwater basin, which is referred to as the Foothill groundwater basin in this report. The 4.5 sq-mi Foothill groundwater basin is bordered on the north and northeast by the Santa Ynez Mountains and on three sides by faults that impede groundwater flow. Sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age underlie the groundwater basin and form its lower boundary. Unconsolidated deposits of the Santa Barbara Formation (Pliocene and Pleistocene age) form the principal aquifer of the basin. Where a zone of low permeability separates it from overlying Quaternary alluvium, the aquifer is confined. In the early 1950's, groundwater levels declined more than 60 ft during periods of heavy pumping. From the mid-1950 's to the late 1970 's, groundwater levels generally rose. Water levels during 1984-87 generally declined. Nitrate concentrations in samples from two wells exceeded the primary maximum contaminant level established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Secondary maximum contaminant levels for dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate also were exceeded in some samples. A three-dimensional finite-difference model was developed for part of Foothill groundwater basin. Steady-state verification and transient-state model calibrations were used to estimate or confirm estimates of basin recharge and natural discharge. (USGS)

  1. The Impact of Climatological Variables on Kelp Canopy Area in the Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigner, K.; Bausell, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Kelp canopy area (KCA), a proxy for kelp forest health, has important implications for small and large-scale processes pertaining to fisheries, near shore currents, and marine ecosystems. As part of the NASA Airborne Science Research Program (SARP), this study examines the impact of ocean chemistry and climatological variables on KCA in the Santa Barbara Channel through time series analysis. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), and upwelling indices as well as sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, nitrate, and chlorophyll-a concentrations taken within the Santa Barbara channel (1990-2014) were acquired from the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI), and Di Lorenzo's NPGO websites. These data were then averaged for winter (November-January) and summer (May-August) seasons and compared to KCA measurements derived from Landsat images via unsupervised classification. Regression, cumulative sum tests, and cross-correlation coefficients revealed a two year lag between KCA and the NPGO, indicating the presence of an additional factor driving both variables. Further analyses suggests that the NPO may be this driving factor, as indicated by the correlation (lag 0) with KCA. Comparing relationships between kelp and other variables over various time periods supports the acceleration of the NPGO and other variables in more recent years. Exploring relationships between KCA, NPGO, and NPO may provide insight into potential impacts of climate change on coastal marine ecosystems.

  2. Programming with Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Nicholas D.; Gross, Thomas R.

    Intervals are a new, higher-level primitive for parallel programming with which programmers directly construct the program schedule. Programs using intervals can be statically analyzed to ensure that they do not deadlock or contain data races. In this paper, we demonstrate the flexibility of intervals by showing how to use them to emulate common parallel control-flow constructs like barriers and signals, as well as higher-level patterns such as bounded-buffer producer-consumer. We have implemented intervals as a publicly available library for Java and Scala.

  3. Interval Graph Limits

    PubMed Central

    Diaconis, Persi; Holmes, Susan; Janson, Svante

    2015-01-01

    We work out a graph limit theory for dense interval graphs. The theory developed departs from the usual description of a graph limit as a symmetric function W (x, y) on the unit square, with x and y uniform on the interval (0, 1). Instead, we fix a W and change the underlying distribution of the coordinates x and y. We find choices such that our limits are continuous. Connections to random interval graphs are given, including some examples. We also show a continuity result for the chromatic number and clique number of interval graphs. Some results on uniqueness of the limit description are given for general graph limits. PMID:26405368

  4. Interval estimations in metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates interval estimation for a measurand that is known to be positive. Both the Neyman and Bayesian procedures are considered and the difference between the two, not always perceived, is discussed in detail. A solution is proposed to a paradox originated by the frequentist assessment of the long-run success rate of Bayesian intervals.

  5. Overconfidence in interval estimates.

    PubMed

    Soll, Jack B; Klayman, Joshua

    2004-03-01

    Judges were asked to make numerical estimates (e.g., "In what year was the first flight of a hot air balloon?"). Judges provided high and low estimates such that they were X% sure that the correct answer lay between them. They exhibited substantial overconfidence: The correct answer fell inside their intervals much less than X% of the time. This contrasts with choices between 2 possible answers to a question, which showed much less overconfidence. The authors show that overconfidence in interval estimates can result from variability in setting interval widths. However, the main cause is that subjective intervals are systematically too narrow given the accuracy of one's information-sometimes only 40% as large as necessary to be well calibrated. The degree of overconfidence varies greatly depending on how intervals are elicited. There are also substantial differences among domains and between male and female judges. The authors discuss the possible psychological mechanisms underlying this pattern of findings.

  6. Direct interval volume visualization.

    PubMed

    Ament, Marco; Weiskopf, Daniel; Carr, Hamish

    2010-01-01

    We extend direct volume rendering with a unified model for generalized isosurfaces, also called interval volumes, allowing a wider spectrum of visual classification. We generalize the concept of scale-invariant opacity—typical for isosurface rendering—to semi-transparent interval volumes. Scale-invariant rendering is independent of physical space dimensions and therefore directly facilitates the analysis of data characteristics. Our model represents sharp isosurfaces as limits of interval volumes and combines them with features of direct volume rendering. Our objective is accurate rendering, guaranteeing that all isosurfaces and interval volumes are visualized in a crack-free way with correct spatial ordering. We achieve simultaneous direct and interval volume rendering by extending preintegration and explicit peak finding with data-driven splitting of ray integration and hybrid computation in physical and data domains. Our algorithm is suitable for efficient parallel processing for interactive applications as demonstrated by our CUDA implementation.

  7. Preliminary report on water storage capacity of unconsolidated deposits beneath the Lompoc Plain, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Upson, Joseph E.

    1943-01-01

    The Lompoc Plain is the central lowland of a topographic and structural basin that forms the western and lower part of the Santa Ynes Valley in Santa Barbara County, California. It extends inland about 11 miles from the coast and is 1 mile fto about 3 miles wide.

  8. School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview with Barbara Chester, President of the National Association of Elementary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steaffens, Susan

    2011-01-01

    As the current president of National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), Barbara Chester has the responsibility of representing the organization's members in their efforts as advocates for children. Principal Chester's answers to the interview questions reflect the challenges facing schools and the role that principals need to…

  9. Proceedings of the 2006 International Workshop on Multiscale Biological Imaging, Data Mining and Informatics, Santa Barbara, USA (BII06).

    PubMed

    2007-07-10

    The 2006 International Workshop on Multiscale Biological Imaging, Data Mining and Informatics was held at Santa Barbara, on Sept 7-8, 2006. Based on the presentations at the workshop, we selected and compiled this collection of research articles related to novel algorithms and enabling techniques for bio- and biomedical image analysis, mining, visualization, and biology applications.

  10. International Conference on Mechanical Fatigue of Advanced Materials Held in Santa Barbara, California on 13-18 January 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-15

    University of California at Santa Barbara Ohya , Kanji, General Manager NGK Spark Plug Co., Ltd. Ota, Mark NGK Spark Plug Co., Inc. Pelloux, Regis M ...Long and Short Cracks- in Silicon Nitride" Y. Mutoh and M . Takahaslii "Cyclic Fatigue Properties of Sintered Si3N4’ K. Ohya . M . Takatsu. and K. Ogura...2 M onolithic M etals

  11. An Interview with Barbara Keogh: Observations of Her Career and the Role of Context in Understanding Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Steven P.

    2011-01-01

    Barbara Keogh is a true Californian. She was born in Glendale, received her education and professional training in California colleges and universities, and has been a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) for more than 40 years, where she is now Emerita. She is a licensed clinical psychologist and has worked as a…

  12. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Alectoris barbara (Aves: Phasianidae) from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, A; Modry, D; Foronda, P

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the objective of identifying the species of Eimeria present in a cynegetic farm. A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) species is described from Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara, from the Canary Islands. Experimental infections were carried out in order to determine the prepatent period, sporulation time, site of infection, and morphology of endogenous stages. One species is described as new. Eimeria barbarae n. sp. has ellipsoidal oocysts, 20.0 × 14.4 (16-23 × 13-16) μm, with a shape-index (SI) of 1.39. Sporocysts are almond-shaped, 9.0 × 5.4 (6.5-11 × 4.5-6) μm, SI = 1.56. The endogenous development takes place along the intestine. The present study showed that E. barbarae causes severe pathologies in A. barbara chickens, with impact on their health condition. Control strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the loss due to coccidiosis at studied farm.

  13. A Mitigation Process for Impacts of the All American Pipeline on Oak Woodlands in Santa Barbara County

    Treesearch

    Germaine Reyes-French; Timothy J. Cohen

    1991-01-01

    This paper outlines a mitigation program for pipeline construction impacts to oak tree habitat by describing the requirements for the Offsite Oak Mitigation Program for the All American Pipeline (AAPL) in Santa Barbara County, California. After describing the initial environmental analysis, the County regulatory structure is described under which the plan was required...

  14. A preliminary study of the Santa Barbara, California, earthquake of August 13, 1978, and its major aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, William Hung Kan; Johnson, C.E.; Henyey, T.L.; Yerkes, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The ML5.1 Santa Barbara earthquake of August 13, 1978 occurred at lat 34 ? 22.2'N., long 119 ? 43.0' 4 km south of Santa Barbara, Calif. at a depth of 12.5 km in the northeast Santa Barbara Channel, part of the western Transverse Ranges geomorphic-structural province. This part of the province is characterized by seismically active, east-trending reverse faults and rates of coastal uplift that have averaged up to about 10 m/1000 years over the last 45,000 years. No surface rupture was detected onshore. Subsurface rupture propagated northwest from the main shock toward Goleta, 15 km west of Santa Barbara, where a maximum acceleration of 0.44 g was measured at ground level and extensive minor damage occurred; only minor injuries were reported. A fairly well-constrained fault-plane solution of the main shock and distribution of the aftershocks indicate that left-reverse-oblique slip occurred on west-northwest-trending, north-dipping reverse faults; inadequate dip control precludes good correlation with any one of several mapped faults. Had the earthquake been larger and rupture propagated to the southeast or a greater distance to the northwest, it could have posed a hazard to oilfield operations. The fault-plane solution and aftershock pattern closely fit the model of regional deformation and the solution closely resembles those of five previously mapped events located within a 15-km radius.

  15. School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview with Barbara Chester, President of the National Association of Elementary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steaffens, Susan

    2011-01-01

    As the current president of National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), Barbara Chester has the responsibility of representing the organization's members in their efforts as advocates for children. Principal Chester's answers to the interview questions reflect the challenges facing schools and the role that principals need to…

  16. User Evaluation: Summary of the Methodologies and Results for the Alexandria Digital Library, University of California at Santa Barbara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Linda L.; Dolin, Ron; Frew, James; Kemp, Randall B.; Larsgaard, Mary; Montello, Daniel R.; Rae, Mary-Anna; Simpson, Jason

    1997-01-01

    The collection and services of the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) at the University of California Santa Barbara focus on geospatial information sources with links to geographic locations. Evaluation studies conducted within the ADL project are described as well as what was learned about user characteristics and reactions to ADL. (Author/AEF)

  17. Kirschenmann Road multi-well monitoring site, Cuyama Valley, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Everett, R.R.; Hanson, R.T.; Sweetkind, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Water Agency Division of the Santa Barbara County Department of Public Works, is evaluating the geohydrology and water availability of the Cuyama Valley, California (fig. 1). As part of this evaluation, the USGS installed the Cuyama Valley Kirschenmann Road multiple-well monitoring site (CVKR) in the South-Main subregion of the Cuyama Valley (fig. 1). The CVKR well site is designed to allow for the collection of depth-specific water-level and water-quality data. Data collected at this site provides information about the geology, hydrology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the local aquifer system, thus, enhancing the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Cuyama Valley. This report presents the construction information and initial geohydrologic data collected from the CVKR monitoring site, along with a brief comparison to selected supply and irrigation wells from the major subregions of the Cuyama Valley (fig. 1).

  18. Soils and vegetation of Santa Barbara Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halvorson, William L.; Fenn, Dennis B.; Allardice, William R.

    1988-01-01

    The multifaceted development of an erosion surface on Santa Barbara Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, has led to this study of the relationship between soils and vegetation. A dry Mediterranean climate and past attempts at farming and introductions of alien species have led to vegetative degradation accompanied by both gully and surface erosion. Soil and vegetation analyses show this erosion to be in a location of transition. The soils are Typic Chromoxererts (Vertisol Order) with high clay, salinity, and sodium contents. The vegetation is ecotonal in nature, grading from a principally alien annual grassland with Avena fatua and Atriplex semibaccata to a shrub community dominated by the native Suaeda californica. Management toward revegetation and stabilization of this island ecosystem will be difficult with high clay, saline-sodic soils and disturbed vegetation.

  19. Hyperpycnal plume-derived fans in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Simms, Alexander R.; Ritchie, Andy; Steel, Elisabeth; Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Finlayson, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperpycnal gravity currents rapidly transport sediment across shore from rivers to the continental shelf and deep sea. Although these geophysical processes are important sediment dispersal mechanisms, few distinct geomorphic features on the continental shelf can be attributed to hyperpycnal flows. Here we provide evidence of large depositional features derived from hyperpycnal plumes on the continental shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel, California, from the combination of new sonar, lidar, and seismic reflection data. These data reveal lobate fans directly offshore of the mouths of several watersheds known to produce hyperpycnal concentrations of suspended sediment. The fans occur on an upwardly concave section of the shelf where slopes decrease from 0.04 to 0.01, and the location of these fans is consistent with wave- and auto-suspending sediment gravity current theories. Thus, we provide the first documentation that the morphology of sediment deposits on the continental shelf can be dictated by river-generated hyperpycnal flows.

  20. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter-outer mainland shelf, eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Finlayson, David P.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), acquired bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data from the outer shelf region of the eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California. These surveys were conducted in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). BOEM is interested in maps of hard-bottom substrates, particularly natural outcrops that support reef communities in areas near oil and gas extraction activity. The surveys were conducted using the USGS R/V Parke Snavely, outfitted with an interferometric sidescan sonar for swath mapping and real-time kinematic navigation equipment. This report provides the bathymetry and backscatter data acquired during these surveys in several formats, a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.

  1. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soley, Fernando G.; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras ( Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  2. Hyperpycnal plume-derived fans in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Simms, Alexander R.; Ritchie, Andy; Steel, Elisabeth; Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Finlayson, David P.

    2013-05-01

    gravity currents rapidly transport sediment across shore from rivers to the continental shelf and deep sea. Although these geophysical processes are important sediment dispersal mechanisms, few distinct geomorphic features on the continental shelf can be attributed to hyperpycnal flows. Here we provide evidence of large depositional features derived from hyperpycnal plumes on the continental shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel, California, from the combination of new sonar, lidar, and seismic reflection data. These data reveal lobate fans directly offshore of the mouths of several watersheds known to produce hyperpycnal concentrations of suspended sediment. The fans occur on an upwardly concave section of the shelf where slopes decrease from 0.04 to 0.01, and the location of these fans is consistent with wave- and auto-suspending sediment gravity current theories. Thus, we provide the first documentation that the morphology of sediment deposits on the continental shelf can be dictated by river-generated hyperpycnal flows.

  3. Barbara L. Bonner: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training acknowledges psychologists who contribute to new teaching methods or solutions to learning problems through the use of research findings or evidence-based practices. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of psychological knowledge to improve learning in educational settings, including prekindergarten to Grade 12, or in communities. The 2014 recipient is Barbara L. Bonner. She is acknowledged for "her passionate determination to improve the lives of children throughout the world by training countless professionals to be leaders in the field of child maltreatment, for her leadership in establishing one of the most highly respected centers for the study of child maltreatment in the nation, and for directing an interdisciplinary training program on child maltreatment. Bonner's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here.

  4. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened.

    PubMed

    Soley, Fernando G; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras (Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  5. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for offshore structures in the Santa Barbara Channel phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W; Savy, J

    1999-08-06

    This report summarizes progress through Phase 2 of the probabilistic seismic hazards analysis (PSHA) for the Santa Barbara Channel being carried out by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the US Department of the Interior. The purpose of the PSHA is to provide a basis for development by MMS of regulations governing evaluation of applications to re-license existing oil platforms in federal waters within the Channel with respect to seismic loading. The final product of the analysis will be hazard maps of ground motion parameters at specified probability levels of exceedence. This report summarizes the characterization of local earthquake sources within the Channel and onshore areas of the Western Transverse Ranges, development of a ground motion attenuation model for the region, and presents preliminary hazard results at three selected sites.

  6. Large-Scale Multi-Objective Optimization for the Management of Seawater Intrusion, Santa Barbara, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Z. P.; Nishikawa, T.; Paulinski, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Santa Barbara, located in coastal southern California, is concerned that excessive groundwater pumping will lead to chloride (Cl) contamination of its groundwater system from seawater intrusion (SWI). In addition, the city wishes to estimate the effect of continued pumping on the groundwater basin under a variety of initial and climatic conditions. A SEAWAT-based groundwater-flow and solute-transport model of the Santa Barbara groundwater basin was optimized to produce optimal pumping schedules assuming 5 different scenarios. Borg, a multi-objective genetic algorithm, was coupled with the SEAWAT model to identify optimal management strategies. The optimization problems were formulated as multi-objective so that the tradeoffs between maximizing pumping, minimizing SWI, and minimizing drawdowns can be examined by the city. Decisions can then be made on a pumping schedule in light of current preferences and climatic conditions. Borg was used to produce Pareto optimal results for all 5 scenarios, which vary in their initial conditions (high water levels, low water levels, or current basin state), simulated climate (normal or drought conditions), and problem formulation (objective equations and decision-variable aggregation). Results show mostly well-defined Pareto surfaces with a few singularities. Furthermore, the results identify the precise pumping schedule per well that was suitable given the desired restriction on drawdown and Cl concentrations. A system of decision-making is then possible based on various observations of the basin's hydrologic states and climatic trends without having to run any further optimizations. In addition, an assessment of selected Pareto-optimal solutions was analyzed with sensitivity information using the simulation model alone. A wide range of possible groundwater pumping scenarios is available and depends heavily on the future climate scenarios and the Pareto-optimal solution selected while managing the pumping wells.

  7. Dad's in the Garage: Santa Barbara Physicists in the Long 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mody, Cyrus

    2013-03-01

    American physicists faced many challenges in the 1970s: declining research budgets; public skepticism of scientific authority; declining student enrollments; and pressure to shift to topics such as biomedicine, environmental remediation, alternative energy, public housing and transport, and disability technologies. This paper examines the responses to these challenges of a small group of Santa Barbara physicists. While this group is not representative of the American physics profession, the success and failure of their responses to changed conditions tells us something about how American physicists got through the 1970s, and about the origins of some features of American physics today. The three physicists examined here are Philip Wyatt, David Phillips, and Virgil Elings. In the late `60s, Wyatt left a defense think tank to found an instrumentation firm. The Santa Barbara oil spill and other factors pushed that firm toward civilian markets in biomedicine and pollution measurement. Phillips joined Wyatt's firm from UCSB, while also founding his own company, largely to sell electronic devices for parapsychology. Phillips was also the junior partner in a master's of scientific instrumentation degree curriculum founded by Elings in order to save UCSB Physics' graduate program. Through the MSI program, Elings moved into biomedical research and became a serial entrepreneur. By the 1990s, Wyatt, Phillips, and Elings' turn toward academic entrepreneurship, dual military-civilian markets for physics start-ups, and interdisciplinary collaborations between physicists and life scientists were no longer unusual. Together, their journey through the `70s shows how varied the physics' profession's response to crisis was, and how much it pivoted on new interactions between university and industry.

  8. Tidal Fluctuations in a Deep Fault Extending Under the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garven, G.; Stone, J.; Boles, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Faults are known to strongly affect deep groundwater flow, and exert a profound control on petroleum accumulation, migration, and natural seafloor seepage from coastal reservoirs within the young sedimentary basins of southern California. In this paper we focus on major fault structure permeability and compressibility in the Santa Barbara Basin, where unique submarine and subsurface instrumentation provide the hydraulic characterization of faults in a structurally complex system. Subsurface geologic logs, geophysical logs, fluid P-T-X data, seafloor seep discharge patterns, fault mineralization petrology, isotopic data, fluid inclusions, and structural models help characterize the hydrogeological nature of faults in this seismically-active and young geologic terrain. Unique submarine gas flow data from a natural submarine seep area of the Santa Barbara Channel help constrain fault permeability k ~ 30 millidarcys for large-scale upward migration of methane-bearing formation fluids along one of the major fault zones. At another offshore site near Platform Holly, pressure-transducer time-series data from a 1.5 km deep exploration well in the South Ellwood Field demonstrate a strong ocean tidal component, due to vertical fault connectivity to the seafloor. Analytical models from classic hydrologic papers by Jacob-Ferris-Bredehoeft-van der Kamp-Wang can be used to extract large-scale fault permeability and compressibility parameters, based on tidal signal amplitude attenuation and phase shift at depth. For the South Ellwood Fault, we estimate k ~ 38 millidarcys (hydraulic conductivity K~ 3.6E-07 m/s) and specific storage coefficient Ss ~ 5.5E-08 m-1. The tidal-derived hydraulic properties also suggest a low effective porosity for the fault zone, n ~ 1 to 3%. Results of forward modeling with 2-D finite element models illustrate significant lateral propagation of the tidal signal into highly-permeable Monterey Formation. The results have important practical implications

  9. Potential earthquake faults offshore Southern California, from the eastern Santa Barbara Channel south to Dana Point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Sorlien, C.C.; Sliter, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Urban areas in Southern California are at risk from major earthquakes, not only quakes generated by long-recognized onshore faults but also ones that occur along poorly understood offshore faults. We summarize recent research findings concerning these lesser known faults. Research by the U.S. Geological Survey during the past five years indicates that these faults from the eastern Santa Barbara Channel south to Dana Point pose a potential earthquake threat. Historical seismicity in this area indicates that, in general, offshore faults can unleash earthquakes having at least moderate (M 5-6) magnitude. Estimating the earthquake hazard in Southern California is complicated by strain partitioning and by inheritance of structures from early tectonic episodes. The three main episodes are Mesozoic through early Miocene subduction, early Miocene crustal extension coeval with rotation of the Western Transverse Ranges, and Pliocene and younger transpression related to plate-boundary motion along the San Andreas Fault. Additional complication in the analysis of earthquake hazards derives from the partitioning of tectonic strain into strike-slip and thrust components along separate but kinematically related faults. The eastern Santa Barbara Basin is deformed by large active reverse and thrust faults, and this area appears to be underlain regionally by the north-dipping Channel Islands thrust fault. These faults could produce moderate to strong earthquakes and destructive tsunamis. On the Malibu coast, earthquakes along offshore faults could have left-lateral-oblique focal mechanisms, and the Santa Monica Mountains thrust fault, which underlies the oblique faults, could give rise to large (M ??7) earthquakes. Offshore faults near Santa Monica Bay and the San Pedro shelf are likely to produce both strike-slip and thrust earthquakes along northwest-striking faults. In all areas, transverse structures, such as lateral ramps and tear faults, which crosscut the main faults, could

  10. The application of co-melt-extruded poly(ε-caprolactone) as a controlled release drug delivery device when combined with novel bioactive drug candidates: Membrane permeation and Hanson dissolution studies

    PubMed Central

    Gardyne, Stephen J.; Mucalo, Michael R.; Rathbone, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Eight bioactive drug compounds (abamectin, amoxicillin, dexamethasone, dexamethasone valerate, ketoprofen, melatonin, oestradiol 17β, and oestradiol benzoate) were combined via melt extrusion and disc pressing processes with a polycaprolactone (PCL) matrix and were then evaluated and compared via membrane diffusion and Hanson dissolution studies. This investigation was to determine the potential of this matrix to act as a controlled release drug delivery vehicle for a number of drugs not previously combined with PCL in a melt extrusion mix. The inclusion of the progesterone/PCL system, for which the drug release behaviour has been well studied before was intended for comparison with the PCL systems incorporating drugs that have received little research attention in the past. Initial studies centred on an evaluation of the permeation ability of the bioactive drugs dissolved in aqueous cyclodextrin solutions through a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) membrane using Valia-Chien side-by-side cells. Permeation rates were mostly low and found to range from 0 to 122 μg h−1 with only ketoprofen, melatonin, and progesterone displaying rates exceeding 20 μg h−1. Hanson dissolution release profiles in aqueous alcohol were subsequently measured for the 9 melt extruded PCL/drug combinations and led to Hanson release rates of 0–556 μg cm−2 h−0.5 with dexamethasone, dexamethasone valerate, ketoprofen, melatonin, and progesterone giving values exceeding 100 μg cm−2 h−0.5. A number of drugs such as the dexamethasones probably performed better than they did in the permeability rate measurements because of the less polar aqueous alcoholic solvent used. In searching for useful correlations between the drug physicochemical properties and release rate, only a moderate correlation (R2=0.5675) between Hanson dissolution release rate and permeation rate was found. This suggests that the release rate and the permeation are both controlled by the rate of drug

  11. Interval neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Traditional neural networks like multi-layered perceptrons (MLP) use example patterns, i.e., pairs of real-valued observation vectors, ({rvec x},{rvec y}), to approximate function {cflx f}({rvec x}) = {rvec y}. To determine the parameters of the approximation, a special version of the gradient descent method called back-propagation is widely used. In many situations, observations of the input and output variables are not precise; instead, we usually have intervals of possible values. The imprecision could be due to the limited accuracy of the measuring instrument or could reflect genuine uncertainty in the observed variables. In such situation input and output data consist of mixed data types; intervals and precise numbers. Function approximation in interval domains is considered in this paper. We discuss a modification of the classical backpropagation learning algorithm to interval domains. Results are presented with simple examples demonstrating few properties of nonlinear interval mapping as noise resistance and finding set of solutions to the function approximation problem.

  12. A simulation-optimization model for water-resources management, Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    In times of drought, the local water supplies of the city of Santa Barbara, California, are insufficient to satisfy water demand. In response, the city has built a seawater desalination plant and gained access to imported water in 1997. Of primary concern to the city is delivering water from the various sources at a minimum cost while satisfying water demand and controlling seawater intrusion that might result from the overpumping of ground water. A simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal management of Santa Barbara?s water resources. The objective is to minimize the cost of water supply while satisfying various physical and institutional constraints such as meeting water demand, maintaining minimum hydraulic heads at selected sites, and not exceeding water-delivery or pumping capacities. The model is formulated as a linear programming problem with monthly management periods and a total planning horizon of 5 years. The decision variables are water deliveries from surface water (Gibraltar Reservoir, Cachuma Reservoir, Cachuma Reservoir cumulative annual carryover, Mission Tunnel, State Water Project, and desalinated seawater) and ground water (13 production wells). The state variables are hydraulic heads. Basic assumptions for all simulations are that (1) the cost of water varies with source but is fixed over time, and (2) only existing or planned city wells are considered; that is, the construction of new wells is not allowed. The drought of 1947?51 is Santa Barbara?s worst drought on record, and simulated surface-water supplies for this period were used as a basis for testing optimal management of current water resources under drought conditions. Assumptions that were made for this base case include a head constraint equal to sea level at the coastal nodes; Cachuma Reservoir carryover of 3,000 acre-feet per year, with a maximum carryover of 8,277 acre-feet; a maximum annual demand of 15,000 acre-feet; and average monthly capacities for the

  13. Overconfidence in Interval Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soll, Jack B.; Klayman, Joshua

    2004-01-01

    Judges were asked to make numerical estimates (e.g., "In what year was the first flight of a hot air balloon?"). Judges provided high and low estimates such that they were X% sure that the correct answer lay between them. They exhibited substantial overconfidence: The correct answer fell inside their intervals much less than X% of the time. This…

  14. Coastal groundwater dynamics off Santa Barbara, California: combining geochemical tracers, electromagnetic seepmeters, and electrical resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Izbicki, John A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents repeat field measurements of 222Rn and 223,224,226,228Ra, electromagnetic seepage meter-derived advective fluxes, and multi-electrode, stationary and continuous marine resistivity surveys collected between November 2005 and April 2007 to study coastal groundwater dynamics within a marine beach in Santa Barbara, California. The study provides insight into magnitude and dynamics of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and associated nutrient loadings into near-shore coastal waters, where the predominant SGD drivers can be both spatially and temporally separated. Rn-222 and 223,224,226,228Ra were utilized to quantify the total and saline contribution, respectively, of SGD. The two short-lived 224,223Ra isotopes provided an estimate of apparent near-shore water mass age, as well as an estimate of the Ra-derived eddy diffusion coefficient, Kh (224Ra = 2.86 ?? 0.7 m2 s-1; 223Ra = 1.32 ?? 0.5 m2 s-1). Because 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 day) and 224Ra (t1/2 = 3.66 day) have comparable half-lives and production terms, they were used in concert to examine respective water column removal rates. Electromagnetic seepage meters recorded the physical, bi-directional exchange across the sediment/water interface, which ranged from -6.7 to 14.5 cm day-1, depending on the sampling period and position relative to the low tide line. Multi-day time-series 222Rn measurements in the near-shore water column yielded total (saline + fresh) SGD rates that ranged from 3.1 ?? 2.6 to 9.2 ?? 0.8 cm day-1, depending on the sampling season. Offshore 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600 year) and 222Rn gradients were used with the calculated Kh values to determine seabed flux estimates (dpm m-2 day-1), which were then converted into SGD rates (7.1 and 7.9 cm day-1, respectively). Lastly, SGD rates were used to calculate associated nutrient loads for the near-shore coastal waters off Santa Barbara. Depending on both the season and the SGD method utilized, the following SGD-derived nutrient inputs were

  15. Modeling studies of dissolved organic matter cycling in Santa Barbara Basin (CA, USA) sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdige, David J.; Komada, Tomoko; Magen, Cédric; Chanton, Jeffrey P.

    2016-12-01

    Here we describe new reaction-transport models for the cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM, both dissolved organic carbon [DOC] and dissolved organic nitrogen [DON]) in anoxic marine sediments, and apply these models to data from Santa Barbara Basin sediment cores (maximum depth of 4.6 m). Model results show that most organic carbon (and nitrogen) flow in the sediments occurs through reactive DOM intermediates that turn over rapidly to produce inorganic remineralization end-products. Refractory DOM is also produced, and the vast majority of this refractory DOM is not remineralized and either escapes as a benthic flux across the sediment-water interface or is buried. Except near the sediment surface, refractory DOM represents >95% of the total pore water DOM. Pore water DOM appears to be consistently depleted in nitrogen as compared to its source organic matter, which may be the result of differential production of carbon- versus nitrogen-containing refractory DOM during remineralization. Refractory DOC (DOCr) in Santa Barbara Basin sediment pore waters is largely produced from degradation of sediment particulate organic carbon (POC). In addition, there is an upward basal flux of DOCr that is strongly depleted in 14C (-810‰). The Δ14C value of DOCr varies according to its source, ranging from +60‰ (a component of surface sediment POC enriched with radiocarbon from nuclear weapons testing in the 1960's) to -810‰ (the basal DOC flux). Each contributes to the DOCr benthic flux, which has a weighted-average Δ14C value of -40‰. The model-determined DOCr benthic flux is roughly half of the total DOC benthic flux, consistent with observations in the literature that sediments are a source of both labile and refractory DOC to bottom waters. These results support previous arguments that sediment benthic fluxes represent an important source of refractory DOC to the oceans. The benthic flux of refractory DOC from these sediments may also contribute pre-aged DOC

  16. Varieties of Confidence Intervals.

    PubMed

    Cousineau, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Error bars are useful to understand data and their interrelations. Here, it is shown that confidence intervals of the mean (CI M s) can be adjusted based on whether the objective is to highlight differences between measures or not and based on the experimental design (within- or between-group designs). Confidence intervals (CIs) can also be adjusted to take into account the sampling mechanisms and the population size (if not infinite). Names are proposed to distinguish the various types of CIs and the assumptions underlying them, and how to assess their validity is explained. The various CIs presented here are easily obtained from a succession of multiplicative adjustments to the basic (unadjusted) CI width. All summary results should present a measure of precision, such as CIs, as this information is complementary to effect sizes.

  17. Circulation, Water Temperature, and Larval Settlement Over the Inner Continental Shelves of the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewings, M. R.; Washburn, L.; Ohlmann, C.; Blanchette, C.; Caselle, J.; Gotschalk, C.

    2008-12-01

    We use seven-year time series of wind stress, water velocity, and temperature in 15-18 m water depth to describe the circulation and water temperature over the inner continental shelves of the Channel Islands and California mainland in the Santa Barbara Basin. This area is strongly influenced by the California Current upwelling system. In turn, the water circulation in the Santa Barbara Basin influences the local marine ecosystem by affecting the water temperature and the supply of nutrients and larval fish and invertebrates. Larvae and nutrients traveling from the coast to the open ocean and back again must somehow pass through the inner shelf. The water circulation over the inner continental shelf of the Northern Channel Islands has not been described. Due to the shallowness of the water, an inner shelf has different physical dynamics than either the surfzone or the middle and outer continental shelf. We discuss the relative importance of upwelling- favorable along-shelf winds and of cross-shelf winds as forcing mechanisms for coastal upwelling circulations over the inner shelf; test whether the cross-shelf wind stress and surface gravity waves are important for cross-shelf circulation in the Santa Barbara Basin; and describe the subtidal patterns of water temperature, stratification, and velocity around the Channel Islands and their relation to observed larval settlement patterns. Cross-shelf circulation and the movement of water masses into and out of the Basin have implications for settlement and recruitment of many coastal species, including the economically important kelp rockfish, kelp bass, and sea urchin. Understanding the circulation of the Santa Barbara Basin and its inner shelves is a precursor to determining the source locations of the planktonic larvae. That information on source locations is essential for the design, siting, and assessment of existing and future marine protected areas in California and elsewhere.

  18. Influence of Harbor construction on downcoast morphological evolution: Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Revell, D.L.; Barnard, P.L.; Mustain, N.; Storlazzi, C.D.

    2008-01-01

    Sand impoundment caused by construction of the Santa Barbara Harbor in the 1920s, created an erosion wave that impacted downcoast Carpinteria Beach. Historic beach and shoreline changes were analyzed to understand continuing erosion using a combination of historic air photos, lidar, and physical measurements. The long-term analyses show a clockwise rotation with erosion of - 0.35 m/yr at the updrift end and accretion downdrift of 0.3 m/yr. Storm impacts measured before and after the 1982-83 and 1997-98 El Ni??o events show similar rotation patterns, providing evidence that El Ni??os may be driving coastal evolution. Differences in shoreline responses between El Nino events show that the erosion hotspot migrated downdrift following construction of a revetment after the 1982-83 storms. Seasonal field measurements in the winter show beach narrowing while sediment coarsen variably alongshore. The coarsest materials and erosion hotspot are co-located at the end of the revetment on the city beach. Copyright ASCE 2008.

  19. WRF simulation of downslope wind events in coastal Santa Barbara County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Forest; Carvalho, Leila M. V.; Jones, Charles; Hall, Todd; Gomberg, David; Dumas, John; Jackson, Mark

    2017-07-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS) considers frequent gusty downslope winds, accompanied by rapid warming and decreased relative humidity, among the most significant weather events affecting southern California coastal areas in the vicinity of Santa Barbara (SB). These extreme conditions, commonly known as ;sundowners;, have affected the evolution of all major wildfires that impacted SB in recent years. Sundowners greatly increase fire, aviation and maritime navigation hazards and are thus a priority for regional forecasting. Currently, the NWS employs the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model at 2 km resolution to complement forecasts at regional-to-local scales. However, no systematic study has been performed to evaluate the skill of WRF in simulating sundowners. This research presents a case study of an 11-day period in spring 2004 during which sundowner events were observed on multiple nights. We perform sensitivity experiments for WRF using available observations for validation and demonstrate that WRF is skillful in representing the general mesoscale structure of these events, though important shortcomings exist. Furthermore, we discuss the generation and evolution of sundowners during the case study using the best performing configuration, and compare these results to hindcasts for two major SB fires. Unique, but similar, profiles of wind and stability are observed over SB between case studies despite considerable differences in large-scale circulation, indicating that common conditions may exist across all events. These findings aid in understanding the evolution of sundowner events and are potentially valuable for event prediction.

  20. Geologic Controls on Channel Morphology and Low-Flow Habitat; Rattlesnake Creek, Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, G.; Keller, E.

    2006-12-01

    Channel morphology and baseflow are limiting factors in sustaining low-flow habitat for the spawning and rearing of endangered southern steelhead trout in southern California. To aid the recovery of steelhead trout, it is imperative to determine how pools are formed and maintained in steep mountain streams, and what hydrogeologic factors control baseflow. Rattlesnake Creek, a steep (6 to 31%) boulder-bedrock channel in Santa Barbara, California, was investigated to determine if geologic and hydrogeologic properties, specifically rock strength and fracture density, control channel morphology and low-flow habitat. Analysis of rock strength, fracture density, and channel morphology using a single-factor analysis of variance, Kolmorgorov-Smirnov test and t-test suggest that rock strength and fracture density of the underlying lithology (bed and banks) does not significantly affect the channel morphology at the 0.05 level of significance. However, this study does show that boulder large roughness elements (LREs) armor the channel, controlling channel gradient and the location, abundance and type of pools. Step pools are the dominant pool type, found in reaches up to 18% where cascades might be expected, and steps are composed of resistant sandstone boulder LREs. Although fracture density does not influence the morphology of the channel, baseflow for low-flow habitat is predominantly supplied through fractures in the coldwater sandstone.

  1. Dissolved sulfide distributions in the water column and sediment pore waters of the Santa Barbara Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.; VanGeen, A.; McCorkle, D.C.; Bernhard, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Dissolved sulfide concentrations in the water column and in sediment pore waters were measured by square-wave voltammetry (nanomolar detection limit) during three cruises to the Santa Barbara Basin in February 1995, November-December 1995, and April 1997. In the water column, sulfide concentrations measured outside the basin averaged 3 ?? 1 nM (n = 28) in the 0 to 600 m depth range. Inside the basin, dissolved sulfides increased to reach values of up to 15 nM at depths >400 m. A suite of box cores and multicores collected at four sites along the northeastern flank of the basin showed considerable range in surficial (400 ??M at 10 cm. Decreases in water-column nitrate below the sill depth indicate nitrate consumption (-55 to -137 ??mole m-2 h-1) similar to nearby Santa Monica Basin. Peaks in pore-water iron concentrations were generally observed between 2 and 5 cm depth with shallowest peaks at the 590 m site. These observations, including observations of the benthic microfauna, suggest that the extent to which the sulfide flux, sustained by elevated pore-water concentrations, reaches the water column may be modulated by the abundance of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in addition to iron redox and precipitation reactions.

  2. Abundance, Composition, and Sinking Rates of Fish Fecal Pellets in the Santa Barbara Channel

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Grace K.; Steinberg, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly sinking fecal pellets are an important component of the vertical flux of particulate organic matter (POM) from the surface to the ocean's interior; however, few studies have examined the role fish play in this export. We determined abundance, size, prey composition, particulate organic carbon/nitrogen (POC/PON), and sinking rates of fecal pellets produced by a forage fish, likely the northern anchovy, in the Santa Barbara Channel. Pellet abundance ranged from 0.1–5.9 pellets m−3. POC and PON contents averaged 21.7 µg C pellet−1 and 2.7 µg N pellet−1. The sinking rate averaged 787 m d−1; thus pellets produced at the surface would reach the benthos (~500 m) in <1 day. Estimated downward flux of fish fecal POC reached a maximum of 251 mg C m−2 d−1. This is equal to or exceeds previous measurements of sediment trap POM flux, and thus may transport significant amounts of repackaged surface material to depth. PMID:23056908

  3. Effect of localizing fruit and vegetable consumption on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrition, Santa Barbara County.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, David A; Radka, Corie N; Müller, Nora M; Watson, Tyler D; Rekstein, Nicole J; Wright, Hannah Van M; Hollingshead, Sydney E

    2011-05-15

    The US agrifood system is very productive, but highly centralized and resource intensive with very weak links between production and consumption. This contributes to high levels of malnutrition and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). A popular approach to improvement is localization-reducing direct transport (farm to retail distance, or "food miles"). We examined Santa Barbara County (SBC) California, which mirrors the high production, nutritional and environmental problems, and growing localization movement of California. SBC ranks in the top 1% of US counties in value of agricultural products, and >80% of this value is produce (fruits and vegetables). We calculated the amount of produce grown in and consumed in SBC and estimated that >99% of produce grown in SBC is exported from the county, and >95% of produce consumed in SBC is imported. If all produce consumed in SBC was grown in the county (100% localization), it would reduce GHGE from the agrifood system <1%, and not necessarily affect nutrition. While food miles capture only a portion of the environmental impact of agrifood systems, localization could be done in ways that promote synergies between improving nutrition and reducing GHGE, and many such efforts exist in SBC.

  4. Seastacks buried beneath newly reported Lower Miocene sandstone, northern Santa Barbara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, A.E.; Hanna, F.M.

    1985-04-01

    Three large, isolated exposures of a light-gray, coarse-grained, thick-bedded sandstone unit occur in the northern San Rafael Mountains of Santa Barbara County, California. These rocks are moderately fossiliferous and contain Vertipecten bowersi, Amussiopecten vanvlecki, Aequipecten andersoni, Otrea howelli, shark teeth, whale bones, and regular echinoid spines. The fossils indicate that the sandstone unit, although previously reported as upper(.) Miocene, correlates best with the lower Miocene Vaqueros Formation. This unit was deposited in angular unconformity on a Cretaceous, greenish-gray turbidite sequence of interbedded sandstone and shale, and onlaps the unconformity erosion surface from west to east, the unit being thicker in the west and older at its base. The underlying Cretaceous sandstone beds are well indurated, and during the eastward transgression of the early Miocene sea, they resisted wave erosion and stood as seastacks offshore of the advancing coastline, thus creating a very irregular topographic surface upon which the Vaqueros Formation was deposited. Some seastacks were as much as 4 m tall, as indicated by inliers of Cretaceous rock surrounded by 4-m thick sections of the Vaqueros Formation.

  5. Anomalously high uplift rates along the Ventura-Santa Barbara Coast, California-tectonic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Yerkes, R.F.; Lajoie, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The NW-SE trending segments of the California coastline from Point Arena to Point Conception (500 km) and from Los Angeles to San Diego (200 km) generally parallel major right-lateral strike-slip fault systems. Minor vertical crustal movements associated with the dominant horizontal displacements along these fault systems are recorded in local sedimentary basins and slightly deformed marine terraces. Typical maximum uplift rates during Late Quaternary time are about 0.3 m/ka, based on U-series ages of corals and amino-acid age estimates of fossil mollusks from the lowest emergent terraces. In contrast, the E-W-trending segments of the California coastline between Point Conception and Los Angeles (200 km) parallel predominantly northward-dipping thrust and high-angle reverse faults of the western Transverse Ranges. Along this coast, marine terraces display significantly greater vertical deformation. Amino-acid age estimates of mollusks from elevated marine terraces along the Ventura-Santa Barbara coast imply anomalously high uplift rates of between 1 and 6 m/ka over the past 40 to 100 ka. The deduced rate of terrace uplift decreases from Ventura to Los Angeles, conforming with a similar trend observed by others in contemporary geodetic data. The more rapid rates of terrace uplift in the western Transverse Ranges reflect N-S crustal shortening that is probably a local accommodation of the dominant right-lateral shear strain along coastal California. ?? 1979.

  6. Microbial Oxidation of Ethane within Seep Sediment at Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, S. D.; Duncombe, R.; Scarlett, R. D.; Shaffer, J.; Lensch, S.; Valentine, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrocarbon seep field at Coal Oil Point (COP), off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, releases more than 10^10 g of thermogenic natural gas each year. Only a fraction of this methane, ethane, propane, and butane reaches the atmosphere, and is instead consumed by marine microbes in both the sediment and water column. Bacterial respiration of these gases has been observed in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with the exception of ethane (aerobic only) (Kniemeyer et. al 2007). This work seeks to quantify the rate of ethane oxidation (both aerobic and anaerobic) in marine sediment. A series of experiments, to be conducted using COP seep sediment aboard the R/V Atlantis in October 2013, will test how varying oxygen conditions impact ethane oxidation rate. Oxidation rates will be quantified using sensitive 3H-ethane tracers. Preliminary data from Shane's Seep, located within the COP seep field, indicates that ethane oxidation is restricted to the top 6 cm of sediment. This suggests that oxygen is a limiting factor, but further work is needed to establish if ethane oxidation is restricted to exclusively aerobic environments.

  7. Eustatic and structural control of submarine-fan sedimentation, Conception fan, Santa Barbara basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Thor, D.R.

    1984-04-01

    Eustatic sea level lows provide an opportunity for submarine-fan development; topography and structure, however, can control depositional-sequence geometry. Analysis of high-resolution seismic data provides a basis to evaluate to the evolution and geometry of the Pleistocene-Holocene Conception fan. The fan formed in the restricted, tectonically active Santo Barbara basin. It consists of 4 vertically stacked depositional sequences, each bounded by nondepositional unconformities. The unconformities are defined by seismic-sequence boundaries and were formed during sea-level falls that are related to Pleistocene glacioeustatic changes. Each depositional sequence consists of lowstand, sandrich facies (fan channel, levee, and lobe) topped by highstand, mud-rich facies. The geometry of the depositional sequences tends to be rectilinear, not arcuate, because lateral progradation is restricted by topographically high structures. The modern fan surface and the Holocene depositional sequence provide a good analog for the older, underlying depositional sequences. The fan surface is characterized by 4 main channels, 2 of which head into submarine canyons incised into the shelf. Submarine canyons that fed the other 2 channels are now filled and have no topographic expression. In addition, numerous partially buried channel segments occur in the interchannel areas. The Holocene depositional sequence consists of lenticular and sheet-drape deposits interpreted to be channel, levee, and lobe facies. The facies geometry suggests that Mutti's topographic compensation, channel migration, and avulsion were typical processes on Conception fan.

  8. Initial source and site characterization studies for the U.C. Santa Barbara campus

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Nicholson, C.; Steidl, J.; Gurrola, L.; Alex, C.; Cochran, E.; Ely, G.; Tyler, T.

    1997-12-01

    The University of California Campus-Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) project is an integrated 3 year effort involving Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and four UC campuses - Los Angeles (UCLA), Riverside (UCR), Santa Barbara (UCSB), and San Diego (UCSD) - plus additional collaborators at San Diego State University (SDSU), at Los Alamos National Laboratory and in industry. The primary purpose of the project is to estimate potential ground motions from large earthquakes and to predict site-specific ground motions for one critical structure on each campus. This project thus combines the disciplines of geology, seismology, geodesy, soil dynamics, and earthquake engineering into a fully integrated approach. Once completed, the CLC project will provide a template to evaluate other buildings at each of the four UC campuses, as well as provide a methodology for evaluating seismic hazards at other critical sites in California, including other UC locations at risk from large earthquakes. Another important objective of the CLC project is the education of students and other professional in the application of this integrated, multidisciplinary, state-of-the-art approach to the assessment of earthquake hazard. For each campus targeted by the CLC project, the seismic hazard study will consist of four phases: Phase I - Initial source and site characterization, Phase II - Drilling, logging, seismic monitoring, and laboratory dynamic soil testing, Phase III - Modeling of predicted site-specific earthquake ground motions, and Phase IV - Calculations of 3D building response. This report cover Phase I for the UCSB campus and incudes results up through March 1997.

  9. A conceptual model for river water and sediment dispersal in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Washburn, L.; Siegel, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The ephemeral Santa Clara River delivers large amounts of freshwater and sediment to the eastern Santa Barbara Channel during brief, episodic discharge events. This discharge into the channel was characterized here with shipboard measurements during floods of 1997 and 1998. Within approximately 1-km of the river mouth, the river discharge quickly stratifies into a freshened, turbid surface plume and a bottom nephloid layer. Observations immediately off the Santa Clara River mouth on a peak day of river discharge revealed that sediment rapidly settled from the freshened surface waters, as suspended sediment in the freshened surface plume contained only ???6% of the sediment mass expected if the sediment mixed conservatively. On the two subsequent days the reduction of sediment mass in the surface plume continued at ???50% per day. These observations suggest that river sediment undergoes rapid initial settling within ???1-km of the river mouth, followed by somewhat slower rates of settling. Although we did not measure sedimentation or bottom boundary layer processes, our mass balance results suggest that almost all of the river sediment either escapes along or deposits upon the inner shelf seabed.

  10. Genetic analyses of nickel tolerance in a North American serpentine endemic plant, Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Burrell, A Millie; Hawkins, Angela K; Pepper, Alan E

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of metal tolerance in plants is an important model for studies of adaptation to environment, population genetics, and speciation. Here, we investigated nickel tolerance in the North American serpentine endemic Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae in comparison with its nonserpentine sister taxon C. amplexicaulis var. amplexicaulis. We hypothesized that the serpentine endemic would have a heritable growth advantage on nickel-containing substrates. We employed an artificial growth assay to quantify biomass accumulation. Study plants were crossed to create an F(2:3) population that was used to determine the heritability of nickel tolerance and to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Nickel accumulation in both laboratory populations and native specimens was examined using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The serpentine endemic had a dramatic growth advantage at concentrations of nickel >30 µmol/L. Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae and its nonserpentine sister taxon both accumulated nickel to substantial levels. Nickel tolerance was highly heritable (h(2) = 0.59) and not associated with accumulation. The QTL analyses identified two major loci for nickel tolerance, on linkage group 2 (LG2) and linkage group 9 (LG9). In our study, nickel tolerance was determined by two major loci with large effects. At both loci, alleles from the serpentine parent conferred positive effects on nickel tolerance, suggesting that they are adaptive in the natural serpentine environment. The mechanism of nickel tolerance in the serpentine plant was not exclusion of nickel. Nickel tolerance may have an inducible component in C. amplexicaulis var. barbarae.

  11. Multichannel interval timer (MINT)

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, K.B.

    1982-06-01

    A prototype Multichannel INterval Timer (MINT) has been built for measuring signal Time of Arrival (TOA) from sensors placed in blast environments. The MINT is intended to reduce the space, equipment costs, and data reduction efforts associated with traditional analog TOA recording methods, making it more practical to field the large arrays of TOA sensors required to characterize blast environments. This document describes the MINT design features, provides the information required for installing and operating the system, and presents proposed improvements for the next generation system.

  12. Interval probabilistic neural network.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Piotr A; Kulczycki, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Automated classification systems have allowed for the rapid development of exploratory data analysis. Such systems increase the independence of human intervention in obtaining the analysis results, especially when inaccurate information is under consideration. The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach, a neural networking, for use in classifying interval information. As presented, neural methodology is a generalization of probabilistic neural network for interval data processing. The simple structure of this neural classification algorithm makes it applicable for research purposes. The procedure is based on the Bayes approach, ensuring minimal potential losses with regard to that which comes about through classification errors. In this article, the topological structure of the network and the learning process are described in detail. Of note, the correctness of the procedure proposed here has been verified by way of numerical tests. These tests include examples of both synthetic data, as well as benchmark instances. The results of numerical verification, carried out for different shapes of data sets, as well as a comparative analysis with other methods of similar conditioning, have validated both the concept presented here and its positive features.

  13. Submarine landslides in the Santa Barbara Channel as potential tsunami sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H. Gary; Murai, L.Y.; Watts, P.; Maher, N.A.; Fisher, M.A.; Paull, C.E.; Eichhubl, P.

    2006-01-01

    Recent investigations using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institutes (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) "Ventana" and "Tiburon" and interpretation of MBARI's EM 300 30 kHz multibeam bathymetric data show that the northern flank of the Santa Barbara Basin has experienced massive slope failures. Of particular concern is the large (130 km2) Goleta landslide complex located off Coal Oil Point near the town of Goleta, that measures 14.6-km long extending from a depth of 90 m to nearly 574 m deep and is 10.5 km wide. We estimate that approximately 1.75 km3 has been displaced by this slide during the Holocene. This feature is a complex compound submarine landslide that contains both surfical slump blocks and mud flows in three distinct segments. Each segment is composed of a distinct head scarp, down-dropped head block and a slide debris lobe. The debris lobes exhibit hummocky topography in the central areas that appear to result from compression during down slope movement. The toes of the western and eastern lobes are well defined in the multibeam image, whereas the toe of the central lobe is less distinct. Continuous seismic reflection profiles show that many buried slide debris lobes exist and comparison of the deformed reflectors with ODP Drill Site 149, Hole 893 suggest that at least 200 000 years of failure have occurred in the area (Fisher et al., 2005a). Based on our interpretation of the multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles we modeled the potential tsunami that may have been produced from one of the three surfical lobes of the Goleta slide. This model shows that a 10 m high wave could have run ashore along the cliffs of the Goleta shoreline. Several other smaller (2 km2 and 4 km2) slides are located on the northern flank of the Santa Barbara Basin, both to the west and east of Goleta slide and on the Concepcion fan along the western flank of the basin. One slide, named the Gaviota slide, is 3.8 km2, 2.6 km long and 1.7 km wide. A

  14. Submarine landslides in the Santa Barbara Channel as potential tsunami sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, H. G.; Murai, L. Y.; Watts, P.; Maher, N. A.; Fisher, M. A.; Paull, C. E.; Eichhubl, P.

    2006-01-01

    Recent investigations using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institutes (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) "Ventana" and "Tiburon" and interpretation of MBARI's EM 300 30 kHz multibeam bathymetric data show that the northern flank of the Santa Barbara Basin has experienced massive slope failures. Of particular concern is the large (130 km2) Goleta landslide complex located off Coal Oil Point near the town of Goleta, that measures 14.6-km long extending from a depth of 90 m to nearly 574 m deep and is 10.5 km wide. We estimate that approximately 1.75 km3 has been displaced by this slide during the Holocene. This feature is a complex compound submarine landslide that contains both surfical slump blocks and mud flows in three distinct segments. Each segment is composed of a distinct head scarp, down-dropped head block and a slide debris lobe. The debris lobes exhibit hummocky topography in the central areas that appear to result from compression during down slope movement. The toes of the western and eastern lobes are well defined in the multibeam image, whereas the toe of the central lobe is less distinct. Continuous seismic reflection profiles show that many buried slide debris lobes exist and comparison of the deformed reflectors with ODP Drill Site 149, Hole 893 suggest that at least 200 000 years of failure have occurred in the area (Fisher et al., 2005a). Based on our interpretation of the multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection profiles we modeled the potential tsunami that may have been produced from one of the three surfical lobes of the Goleta slide. This model shows that a 10 m high wave could have run ashore along the cliffs of the Goleta shoreline. Several other smaller (2 km2 and 4 km2) slides are located on the northern flank of the Santa Barbara Basin, both to the west and east of Goleta slide and on the Conception fan along the western flank of the basin. One slide, named the Gaviota slide, is 3.8 km2, 2.6 km long and 1.7 km wide. A

  15. Contrasting spatial patterns in the diurnal and semidiurnal temperature variability in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristizábal, María. F.; Fewings, Melanie R.; Washburn, Libe

    2016-01-01

    The Santa Barbara Channel, California, experiences large temperature fluctuations during summer that have been associated with the input of nutrients to the euphotic zone. We studied the temperature fluctuations in the diurnal and semidiurnal bands, which account for as much as 65% of the total variance. We analyzed data from 25 moorings along the mainland and the Northern Channel Islands deployed at depths 8-18 m during 1999-2012. In the diurnal band, the temperature fluctuations vary almost simultaneously within two distinct regions, with a lag of 5 h between the regions: the mainland east of Point Conception and the west part of the Channel exposed to the large-scale winds. The two regions of in-phase temperature variability are in agreement with a previously published division of zones according to the wind characteristics. The portion of the diurnal temperature variance that is wind driven does not propagate along the coastline, but rather is directly forced by the wind. The semidiurnal temperature oscillations are more substantial in the Northern Channel Islands. These findings are consistent with a numerical study that predicted that the steep slopes of the Santa Cruz Basin, located south of the Channel Islands, are a source of semidiurnal internal tides. We conclude that the contrast between the spatial patterns of the diurnal and semidiurnal temperature oscillations on scales of tens of kilometers reflects the spatial distribution of the main forcing in each band, namely the diurnal wind and the locally generated semidiurnal internal tide. The spatial patterns of the diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations reflect the forcing in each band.

  16. Sundowner Winds Contributing to Intensifying Dry Conditions in Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macarewich, S. I.; Carvalho, L. V.; Hall, T.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme downslope wind and warming events, locally termed as "sundowners," are notorious for accelerating the spread of wildfires in the vicinity of Santa Barbara, California. Unique topographic features characterize the terrain of this region: about 100 km of narrow coastal plains run approximately east-west, and are bordered by a steep mountain range (exceeding elevations of 1200 m), which runs parallel to the coastline. Named for their typical onset during the early to late afternoon, Sundowners are foehn winds associated with gusty winds down the lee slope of the mountains and canyons, abnormal rapid drop in relative humidity and rise in temperature. Some Sundowner events can exceed wind speeds of gale force and temperatures of 40°C (~100°F). Not only do these events disrupt the marine-influenced weather regime, they also cause significant damage to agriculture, threaten urban landscapes, and coincide with nearly every major wildfire. Sundowners are mesoscale phenomena that develop as a result of a north to south pressure gradient at the Santa Ynez Mountains. Here, Sundowners are identified using the Montecito remote operated weather station (MTIC1) from December 1999 to February 2014. The MTIC1 is located within a mountain pass where Sundowner winds are most significant. A Sundowner database, provided by the National Weather Service, is used to identify the events. We show that recordings of maximum temperatures, sustained wind speeds, wind gusts, and minimum relative humidity indicate that Sundowner events are increasing in frequency and intensity, particularly in spring. When compared to normal conditions, Sundowner conditions produce a significant increase in evapotranspiration and net radiation that can increase drought conditions in the region. This study examines environmental impacts and discusses potential drivers of Sundowner behavior.

  17. Development of an ultra-high temperature infrared scene projector at Santa Barbara Infrared Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, Greg; Laveigne, Joe; Danielson, Tom; McHugh, Steve; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott

    2015-05-01

    The rapid development of very-large format infrared detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to develop correspondingly larger-format infrared emitter arrays to support the testing needs of systems incorporating these detectors. As with most integrated circuits, fabrication yields for the read-in integrated circuit (RIIC) that drives the emitter pixel array are expected to drop dramatically with increasing size, making monolithic RIICs larger than the current 1024x1024 format impractical and unaffordable. Additionally, many scene projector users require much higher simulated temperatures than current technology can generate to fully evaluate the performance of their systems and associated processing algorithms. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024x1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures. During an earlier phase of the program, SBIR demonstrated materials with MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 1000K. New emitter materials have subsequently been selected to produce pixels that achieve even higher apparent temperatures. Test results from pixels fabricated using the new material set will be presented and discussed. Also in development under the same UHT program is a 'scalable' RIIC that will be used to drive the high temperature pixels. This RIIC will utilize through-silicon vias (TSVs) and quilt packaging (QP) technologies to allow seamless tiling of multiple chips to fabricate very large arrays, and thus overcome the inherent yield limitations of very-large-scale integrated circuits. Current status of the RIIC development effort will also be presented.

  18. Magnitude and composition of sinking particulate phosphorus fluxes in Santa Barbara Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekula-Wood, Emily; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Bennett, Melissa A.; Thunell, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The composition and bioavailability of particulate P influence marine biological community production on both modern and geologic time-scales, and continental margins play a critical role in the supply, modification, and storage of particulate P. This study examined particulate P cycling in the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) off the coast of southern California using a ˜520 m deep-moored sediment trap deployed from 1993-2006 and a sediment core collected in 2005 directly beneath the sediment trap at 590 m. Total particulate P (TPP), particulate inorganic P (PIP), and particulate organic P (POP) were quantified using a 5-step sequential extraction method (SEDEX) that chemically separates PIP into loosely bound, oxide-bound, authigenic, and detrital P phases. POP fluxes, while similar in magnitude to other coastal regions (22 ± 10 μmol m-2 d-1) were a small component of the TPP pool (15%). Seasonal trends revealed significant increases in POP fluxes during upwelling due to increased biological production in surface waters by organisms that increased mineral ballast. High particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP ratios (337 ± 18) further indicated rapid and efficient remineralization of POP relative to POC as particles sank through the oxic water column; however, further reduction of POP ceased in the deeper anoxic waters. Loosely bound, oxide-bound, and authigenic P, dominated the TPP pool, with PIP fluxes substantially higher than those measured in other coastal settings. Strong correlations between oxide-associated, authigenic, and detrital P fluxes with lithogenic material indicated a terrestrial source associated with riverine discharge. Furthermore, more than 30% of the loosely bound and oxide-bound P was remineralized prior to burial, with the magnitude of dissolution far exceeding that of POP. These results highlight the dynamic nature of the particulate P pool in coastal ecosystems and how changes in P source can alter the composition and lability of P that

  19. Morphology, acoustic characteristics, and Late Quaternary growth of conception Fan, Santa Barbara basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kraemer, S.M.C.

    1986-04-01

    A radial borderland-basin fan in the western half of the Santa Barbara basin, the Conception Fan, shows characteristics of a debris slope. More than 3000 mi of closely spaced (3.5 kHz) high-resolution profiles, 270 gravity cores, and 8 borings were used to map channel and fan morphology, and channel, levee, and lobe acoustic facies. Two major unconformities are recognized on the seismic profiles. The upper unconformity represents the 10-k.y.B.P. horizon. The lower unconformity is the erosional surface of the late Wisconsinan lowstand of sea level, 18-26 k.y.B.P. Eustasy and tectonism produced two pulses of deposition, each from a different point source, during the Flandrian transgression. Prior to the late Pleistocene, the Conception Fan was fed by one major canyon/channel system, above the western part of the fan. During the late Pleistocene, two small submarine canyons were cut into the slope 7 mi east. Four major channels, smaller than the western channel system, were incised into the fan surface, indicating the eustatic decrease in sediment input. The fault-controlled western canyon (Sacate) fed all but the eastern channel. Faulting and slumping on the slope cut the eastern canyon (Gaviota) and formed the eastern channel. Numerous slope gullies influenced eastern canyon and channel development. Holocene currents rounding Point Conception have winnowed fine sediments in the western channel region, resulting in hummocky topography and the scoured appearance of the channel. Hemipelagic deposition dominates the lower-middle and lower fan of the eastern part of the fan. The western part of the fan seems to be receiving slope-like deposits over the relict fan surface.

  20. Nutrient contributions to the Santa Barbara Channel, California, from the ephemeral Santa Clara River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Washburn, L.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Siegel, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Santa Clara River delivers nutrient rich runoff to the eastern Santa Barbara Channel during brief (???1-3 day) episodic events. Using both river and oceanographic measurements, we evaluate river loading and dispersal of dissolved macronutrients (silicate, inorganic N and P) and comment on the biological implications of these nutrient contributions. Both river and ocean observations suggest that river nutrient concentrations are inversely related to river flow rates. Land use is suggested to influence these concentrations, since runoff from a subwatershed with substantial agriculture and urban areas had much higher nitrate than runoff from a wooded subwatershed. During runoff events, river nutrients were observed to conservatively mix into the buoyant, surface plume immediately seaward of the Santa Clara River mouth. Dispersal of these river nutrients extended 10s of km into the channel. Growth of phytoplankton and nutrient uptake was low during our observations (1-3 days following runoff), presumably due to the very low light levels resulting from high turbidity. However, nutrient quality of runoff (Si:N:P = 16:5:1) was found to be significantly different than upwelling inputs (13:10:1), which may influence different algal responses once sediments settle. Evaluation of total river nitrate loads suggests that most of the annual river nutrient fluxes to the ocean occur during the brief winter flooding events. Wet winters (such as El Nin??o) contribute nutrients at rates approximately an order-of-magnitude greater than "average" winters. Although total river nitrate delivery is considerably less than that supplied by upwelling, the timing and location of these types of events are very different, with river discharge (upwelling) occurring predominantly in the winter (summer) and in the eastern (western) channel. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Abrupt termination of Marine Isotope Stage 16 (Termination VII) at 631.5 ka in Santa Barbara Basin, Californi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, Walter E.; Kennett, James P.; Behl, Richard J.; Nicholson, Craig; Sorlien, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Isotope Stage 16–15 boundary (Termination VII) is the first deglacial warming step of the late Quaternary following the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT), when 41 kyr climatic cycles shifted to strong 100 kyr cycles. The detailed structure of this important climatic event has remained unknown until now. Core MV0508-19JPC from Santa Barbara Basin, California, contains a decadal-scale climatic and geochemical sediment record of 4000 years duration that includes the early part of this deglacial episode. This record reveals that the climatic shift during the early deglacial occurred rapidly (<700 years), in a progression of three abrupt warming steps. The onset of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 15 was remarkably abrupt with 4–5°C sea surface warming in ~50 years. The deglacial sequence contains the well-dated Lava Creek tephra (631.3 ± 4 ka) from Yellowstone Caldera used to date the onset of Termination VII at 631.5 ka. The late MIS 16 and early MIS 15 interval exhibits multiple decadal-scale negative excursions in δ13C of planktic foraminifera, likely the result of repeated discharges of methane from methane hydrates associated with both ocean warming and low sea level. A warm interstadial that interrupts late MIS 16 is marked by elevated concentrations of redox-sensitive elements indicating sulfidic, oxygen-deficient bottom and pore-waters, and elevated concentrations of total organic carbon and Cd, reflecting increased surface productivity. Unlike younger sediments on the California margin, these indicators of increased productivity and low dissolved oxygen do not consistently correspond with each other or with preserved laminations, possibly reflecting instability of a still evolving ocean-atmosphere system following the MPT.

  2. Interval hypoxic training.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, L

    2001-01-01

    Interval hypoxic training (IHT) is a technique developed in the former Soviet Union, that consists of repeated exposures to 5-7 minutes of steady or progressive hypoxia, interrupted by equal periods of recovery. It has been proposed for training in sports, to acclimatize to high altitude, and to treat a variety of clinical conditions, spanning from coronary heart disease to Cesarean delivery. Some of these results may originate by the different effects of continuous vs. intermittent hypoxia (IH), which can be obtained by manipulating the repetition rate, the duration and the intensity of the hypoxic stimulus. The present article will attempt to examine some of the effects of IH, and, whenever possible, compare them to those of typical IHT. IH can modify oxygen transport and energy utilization, alter respiratory and blood pressure control mechanisms, induce permanent modifications in the cardiovascular system. IHT increases the hypoxic ventilatory response, increase red blood cell count and increase aerobic capacity. Some of these effects might be potentially beneficial in specific physiologic or pathologic conditions. At this stage, this technique appears interesting for its possible applications, but still largely to be explored for its mechanisms, potentials and limitations.

  3. High-resolution paleoclimatology of the Santa Barbara Basin during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and early Little Ice Age based on diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages in Kasten core SPR0901-02KC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David B.; Hendy, Ingrid L.

    2015-01-01

    Diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages documented in a high-resolution time series spanning 800 to 1600 AD in varved sediment recovered in Kasten core SPR0901-02KC (34°16.845’ N, 120°02.332’ W, water depth 588 m) from the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) reveal that SBB surface water conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the early part of the Little Ice Age (LIA) were not extreme by modern standards, mostly falling within one standard deviation of mean conditions during the pre anthropogenic interval of 1748 to 1900. No clear differences between the character of MCA and the early LIA conditions are apparent. During intervals of extreme droughts identified by terrigenous proxy scanning XRF analyses, diatom and silicoflagellate proxies for coastal upwelling typically exceed one standard deviation above mean values for 1748-1900, supporting the hypothesis that droughts in southern California are associated with cooler (or La Niña-like) sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Increased percentages of diatoms transported downslope generally coincide with intervals of increased siliciclastic flux to the SBB identified by scanning XRF analyses. Diatom assemblages suggest only two intervals of the MCA (at ~897 to 922 and ~1151 to 1167) when proxy SSTs exceeded one standard deviation above mean values for 1748 to 1900. Conversely, silicoflagellates imply extreme warm water events only at ~830 to 860 (early MCA) and ~1360 to 1370 (early LIA) that are not supported by the diatom data. Silicoflagellates appear to be more suitable for characterizing average climate during the 5 to 11 year-long sample intervals studied in the SPR0901-02KC core than diatoms, probably because diatom relative abundances may be dominated by seasonal blooms of a particular year.

  4. Disaster Management: Rapid Dry-Up of Rainwater on Land Surface Leading to the Santa Barbara Wildfire

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-05-08

    Wildfires are a recurring natural hazard faced by Californians. In Santa Barbara County, a wildfire, called the Jesusita fire, ignited on May 5, 2009 in the Cathedral Peak area northwest of Mission Canyon. As of midday May 8, the fire, which was 10-percent contained, had scorched 3,500 acres, damaged or destroyed 75 structures, and had forced the evacuation of tens of thousands of residents. This image shows soil moisture change in the top soil layer (2-inches deep) on 2 and 3 May 2009, as measured by the NASA QuikSCAT satellite scatterometer (radar). Rainwater increased the amount of moisture in the soil by a moderate 4 percent (represented by the green color) on May 2, which rapidly dried up on the next day (0 percent, as depicted by the grey color on May 3). Son Nghiem of JPL is leading a science team to develop wildfire applications using QuikScat data. “Information critical to assessing the conditions leading to wildfires can be obtained from NASA’s SeaWinds scatterometer, a stable and accurate radar aboard the QuikScat satellite,” says Dr. Son Nghiem, a JPL scientist in remote sensing. This is accomplished by using QuikScat data to map moisture changes in the topsoil. As such, QuikScat can detect rainwater that actually reaches the land surface and accumulates on it, rather than raindrops in the air. While rain radars may detect a significant rain rate, rainwater may evaporate in part before reaching the surface. For example, in the case of dry thunderstorm (known as virga), raindrops disappear on the way down, leaving the land dry, while the associated lightning ignites fires. For the case of the current fire in Santa Barbara, QuikScat detected a moderate increase of 4 percent in soil moisture on May 2, while rain radar data seemed to indicate a significant and extensive rain. The next day, QuikScat revealed that whatever rainwater that had accumulated earlier quickly dried up over the whole area. The maximum temperature in Santa Barbara approached 90

  5. Population structure of Cicada barbara Stål (Hemiptera, Cicadoidea) from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco based on mitochondrial DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Juma, G A; Quartau, J A; Bruford, M W

    2008-02-01

    We assess the genetic history and population structure of Cicada barbara in Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula, based on analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The divergence between Morocco and the Iberian Peninsula populations was strongly corroborated by the molecular data, suggesting genetically isolated populations with a low level of gene flow. The Ceuta population from Spanish North Africa was more similar to the Iberian populations than the surrounding Moroccan populations, suggesting that the Strait of Gibraltar has not been acting as a strict barrier to dispersal while the Rif Mountains have. The Iberian Peninsula specimens showed a signature of demographic expansion before that which occurred in Morocco, but some of the assumptions related to the demographic parameters should be considered with caution due to the small genetic variation found. The high haplotype diversity found in Morocco implies higher demographic stability than in the Iberian Peninsula populations. These results do not, however, suggest a Moroccan origin for Iberian cicadas; but the most northwest region in Africa, such as Ceuta, might have acted as a southern refuge for Iberian cicadas during the most severe climatic conditions, from where they could expand north when climate improved. The separation of two subspecies within C. barbara (C. barbara lusitanica and C. barbara barbara) finds support with these results.

  6. The Quaternary North Channel-Pitas Point Fault System in Northwest Santa Barbara Channel, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorlien, C. C.; Nicholson, C.; Behl, R. J.; Marshall, C. J.; Kennett, J.

    2014-12-01

    The north margin of the rapidly-shortening, rapidly subsiding offshore and western onshore Ventura Basin is comprised of major N-dipping faults that step left. Offshore in Santa Barbara Channel, part of the shortening accommodated by the shallow Red Mountain fault is transferred farther offshore to the North Channel-Pitas Point fault system (NC-PP). We previously investigated the eastern offshore 50 km of this fault system using dense grids of industry multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) data and local grids of high resolution MCS data. Timing and rates of the observed deformation were determined by correlation to a detailed dated stratigraphy derived from piston cores that sampled seafloor outcrops back to 740 ka, as well as biostratigraphy, oxygen isotopic stratigraphy, a dated industry well-log horizon, and tephrochonology of the 639 ka Lava Creek ash. We are now continuing our interpretation of the NC-PP through its western 50 km using 2D and 3D MCS data and this previous dated seismic stratigraphy. The PP-NC is variably blind along strike, with its upper tips in places below the 1 Ma horizon and in other locations cutting up to higher levels. The blind slip is absorbed by a progressively-tilting S-dipping forelimb everywhere. Preliminary examination of cross sections through our 8 gridded, depth-converted horizons suggests that the rate of tilting has not significantly changed during the last 1 Myr, and that dips and structural relief, although variable, are not systematically greater in the east than in the west between Carpinteria and the UCSB campus at 119° 50' W.. Farther westward, the rate of tilting, and probably the rate of offshore shortening, decreases steadily through 40 km between 120° 05' W. and the end of the system beyond Point Conception. This trend mirrors the decrease in elevation and structural relief of the Santa Ynez Mountains above the deep fault. As in its eastern part, there is no evidence of a major change in tilt rate through the

  7. Contaminant exposures at the 4H shell mounds in the Santa Barbara Channel.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Charles R; Salazar, Michael H; Salazar, Sandra M; Snyder, Barry J

    2006-12-01

    Remobilization, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of chemical contaminants were evaluated at the 4H shell mounds - the site of abandoned offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. Evaluations used a weight-of-evidence approach based on results from bulk phase chemical analyses and laboratory toxicity testing of shell mound cores, in situ field bioassays using caged mussels, and surficial sediment chemistry. Shell mound cores contained elevated concentrations of metals associated with drilling wastes (e.g., Ba, Cr, Pb, and Zn), as well as monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The highest concentrations along with pockets of free oil were associated with the middle "cuttings" stratum. Sediments composited from all core strata caused significant acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of Ba and PAHs in test organisms during laboratory exposures. In contrast, caged mussels placed at each of the shell mounds for a period of 57-58 days had greater than 90% survival, and there were no significant differences in survival of mussels placed at the shell mounds and corresponding reference sites. While all mussel samples exhibited increases in shell length, whole animal weight, and tissue lipid content, in some cases growth metrics for the shell mound mussels were significantly higher than those for the reference sites. Concentrations of metals, PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tissues of the shell mound mussels were not significantly different from those at reference sites. The presence of labile aromatic hydrocarbons in shell mound cores and absence of significant contaminant accumulation of tissues of caged mussels indicated that chemical contaminants are not being remobilized from the 4H shell mounds. Surficial bottom sediments near the shell mounds contained elevated Ba concentrations that probably were associated with drilling wastes. However, concentrations did not

  8. A tale of two biographies: the myth and truth of Barbara McClintock.

    PubMed

    Shah, Esha

    2016-12-01

    Evelyn Fox Keller wrote first biography of the Nobel Prize winning geneticist Barbara McClintock in which Keller discussed how McClintock felt being rejected by her peers in the 1950s because she questioned the dominant idea of the particulate gene and instead proposed that the genetic material jumped positions on the chromosome which indicated that the gene did not control but was controlled by the cellular environment. Keller's story of McClintock's life is an account of a woman scientist's conception of science and how her unorthodox views isolated her from the main stream science. Keller's biography was read by many in a way that made McClintock a feminist icon by showing how women scientists "see" scientific objects differently and how their science is holistic and hence radically different from the reductionism of male-dominated science. The second biographer Nathaniel Comfort calls this story a myth. In his detailed intellectual biography, Comfort embarks on an energetic journey to separate fact from fiction to dismantle what he calls the McClintock myth. The difference between two biographers is not entirely about evidences or about separating fact from fiction but about their adoption of two contrasting paradigms of scientist's subjectivity: Keller foregrounds McClintock's affective self and Comfort her rational. In this commentary I have closely and comparatively read both biographies to revisit Keller's "myth" and Comfort's "truth" and to provide yet another interpretation of McClintock's life and work from the perspective of object relations theories in psychoanalysis. Instead of figuring out the extent to which the myth bears truth as Comfort does, I have asked questions: How and why this private myth was in the making throughout McClintock's life and work? How this private myth was related to the making of her science? By using developmental psychoanalytical approach, I show that what Comfort calls McClintock's private myth was not something that was

  9. Quantification of CH 4 loss and transport in dissolved plumes of the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mau, Susan; Heintz, Monica B.; Valentine, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted into the coastal ocean faces two primary fates: escape to the atmosphere or prolonged dissolution that allows sufficient time for oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria. The partitioning of CH4 between these fates is modulated by physical, chemical and biological factors, including the distribution of CH4 in the water, temperature, wind speed, water movement, and the biological CH4 oxidation rate. Because of the underlying complexity, studies rarely quantify all of these factors in unison, thereby leaving gaps in our understanding of CH4 biogeochemistry in the coastal ocean. In this study we estimated the partitioning of CH4 between transport, microbial oxidative loss, and sea-air transfer in a defined plume of dissolved CH4 originating from one of the world's largest seep fields, near Coal Oil Point (COP) in the Santa Barbara Channel, California. Depth distributions of CH4 concentration, biologically mediated oxidation rate, and current velocity were quantified at 12 stations in a 198 km2 area down-current from COP on July 4-5, 2007. Six stations were sampled again on July 7, 2007 to evaluate temporal plume variability. The observed CH4 distribution revealed two distinct CH4 plumes: a shallow plume centered at ∼40 m and a deeper plume centered at ∼200 m. The shallow plume originates at COP; the source of the deeper CH4 plume is not known. Cross-sections of both plumes were used to calculate transport and loss terms for dissolved CH4. The results indicate that the majority of the dissolved CH4 is advected and diffuses horizontally by turbulence whereas microbial oxidation, sea-air gas transfer, and vertical turbulent diffusion are less significant. Based on rates estimated in the study area, a model was developed to simulate the fate of the dissolved CH4. The model results suggest that 60% of the CH4 of the sampled plumes will ultimately be microbially oxidized and 40% will be transferred to the atmosphere by sea-air gas exchange under the

  10. Flow of springs and small streams in the Tecolote Tunnel area of Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, S.E.

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of the construction of Tecolote Tunnel in southern Santa Barbara County, California, on the flow of springs and spring-fed streams in the tunnel area. A program of monthly measurement of discharge for this purpose began in late 1948 at 125 springs and streams; tunnel construction started in March 1950 and was completed in January 1956. By late 1951 appreciable seepage was entering the tunnel. Incidental to the primary objective of this study, but a necessary part of the investigation, were a study of the discharge pattern of the springs and streams of the region, and an evaluation of the effect on flow of both the Arvin-Tehachapi earthquake of July 21, 1952 and the Refugio brush fire of early September 1955. The most striking characteristic of the regimen of flow in the area is the rapid response of discharge to precipitation. An interesting effect was observed in July 1952 when the Arvin-Tehachapi earthquake abruptly increased the flow at 18 measuring sites. At 15 of these sites this effect was felt for only several months, but at three of the sites the effect remained for several years. As for the Refugio fire, there is some reason to believe that the summer flow of many springs and streams may have increased in the years that followed as a result of decreased evapotranspiration losses, but the evidence is inconclusive. The many complex and interrelated factors that influence the discharge of springs and spring-fed streams make it exceedingly difficult to isolate the effect of Tecolote Tunnel on the flow Another major difficulty in evaluating the effect of the tunnel stems from the fact that the calibration period for this study was only three years long, lasting from late 1948 to late 1951, and was uniformly deficient in precipitation, Furthermore, these inadequacies of the calibration period in regard to short length of record and limited range in precipitation, cannot be overcome by

  11. Sources and Pathways of Bacterial Contamination in Urban Streams and Ocean Beaches, Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Mendez, G. O.; La, J. X.; Izbicki, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Streams and ocean beaches in Santa Barbara, California, occasionally have concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria that exceed public health standards for recreational water, forcing temporary beach closures. Possible sources of fecal bacteria contamination include transient human populations, animal populations, and leaking sewer lines. The purpose of this three-year study is to identify important sources of fecal bacteria affecting the urban streams and beaches and to identify important pathways of transport. Contamination may enter streams and beaches directly by surface runoff, but also may be transmitted short distances through shallow ground water. Our analysis of existing historical data shows that fecal indicator bacteria concentrations are higher in near-shore ocean water following extreme high tides. The possible role of near shore ground water in supplying contaminants to the sea will be investigated by sampling water from an array of shallow wells installed for this study between an older city sewer line and the ocean. The ground water flux to the ocean will be inferred from water levels in these wells, and further tested by radium isotope values in near shore ocean samples. Two additional well arrays will be installed to test for leakage from residential sewage hookups and measure associated exchanges between ground water, streams, and ocean. Preliminary data collected by this study show fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in urban reaches of Mission Creek and its tributaries, the principle drainage through the city, are higher during low flow periods than during periods of higher flow. Analysis of preliminary data also shows short-term temporal variations in bacterial concentrations during twenty-four hour periods. Human enterovirus has been detected in our sample from one urban-drain tributary to Mission Creek. In order to identify the origins of fecal indicator bacteria water samples from Mission Creek, its tributaries, urban drains, and

  12. Extending the High-Resolution Global Climate Record in Santa Barbara Basin: Developing a More Continuous Composite Section from Overlapping Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behl, R. J.; Kennett, J. P.; Hill, T. M.; Pak, D.; Schimmelmann, A.; Cannariato, K. G.; Nicholson, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Hopkins, S. E.; Team, S.

    2005-12-01

    More than thirty ~2 to 5m-long piston cores were recovered from an eroded, breached anticline on the Mid-Channel Trend of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB). Precision placement of cores enabled us to build several composite stratigraphic sections of overlapping cores. This was accomplished by continuous shipboard evaluation and feedback between pre-existing and concurrently acquired high-resolution seismic data and immediate sedimentologic core analysis to determine subsequent core locations. Overlap was confirmed by correlated stratigraphic patterns of alternating laminated vs. massive intervals, gray flood layers, spectrophotometric and MST density/porosity data. These cores were acquired to provide a semi-continuous, composite paleoceanographic record of the Quaternary SBB and the California Margin that extends beyond the fertile ODP Site 893 core, to possibly as old as 450 to 600 ka, an age previously unreachable by conventional methods. Most cores were mantled by glauconitic sand or a thin carbonate hardground encrusted with sessile organisms, including solitary corals. Underlying the condensed Holocene sand or hardground deposits are alternating layers of Pleistocene laminated and massive/bioturbated sediment with minor sand and sandy clay layers. The style, continuity, and variability of laminated fabric and the nature of bedding contacts are similar to that observed at ODP Site 893 where glacial episodes were associated with oxygenated, bioturbated sediment and interglacial and interstadial sediment were associated with dysoxic, laminated sediment. Laminated sediment comprises 38% of the hemipelagic deposits which is nearly identical with the ratio of laminated to massive sediment over the past 160 ky at Site 893. By extrapolation, despite accumulating in a mobile, deforming, active margin basin, the earlier Pleistocene deposits seem to record similar behavior to the last 160 ky recorded at ODP Site 893. In some intervals, gray layers are thicker and more

  13. The world's most spectacular marine hydrocarbon seeps (Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara Channel, California): Quantification of emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornafius, J. Scott; Quigley, Derek; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    1999-09-01

    We used 50 kHz sonar data to estimate natural hydrocarbon emission rates from the 18 km2 marine seep field offshore from Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California. The hydrocarbon gas emission rate is 1.7 ± 0.3 × 105 m3 d-1 (including gas captured by a subsea seep containment device) and the associated oil emission rate is 1.6 ± 0.2 × 104 Ld-1 (100 barrels d-1). The nonmethane hydrocarbon emission rate from the gas seepage is 35±7 td-1 and a large source of air pollution in Santa Barbara County. Our estimate is equal to twice the emission rate from all the on-road vehicle traffic in the county. Our estimated methane emission rate for the Coal Oil Point seeps (80±12 td-1) is 4 times higher than previous estimates. The most intense areas of seepage correspond to structural culminations along anticlinal axes. Seep locations are mostly unchanged from those documented in 1946, 1953, and 1973. An exception is the seepage field that once existed near offshore oil platform Holly. A reduction in seepage within a 1 km radius around this offshore platform is correlated with reduced reservoir pressure beneath the natural seeps due to oil production. Our findings suggest that global emissions of methane from natural marine seepage have been underestimated and may be decreasing because of oil production.

  14. Minimax confidence intervals in geomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Philip B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the geomagnetic problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.

  15. Minimax confidence intervals in geomagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, Philip B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the geomagnetic problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.

  16. Constraining the variability of optical properties in the Santa Barbara Channel, CA: A phytoplankton story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Rebecca Katherine

    The research presented in this dissertation evaluates the direct relationships of phytoplankton community composition and inherent optical properties (IOP); that is, the absorption and scattering of light in the ocean. Phytoplankton community composition affect IOPs in both direct and indirect ways, thus creating challenges for optical measurements of biological and biogeochemical properties in aquatic systems. Studies were performed in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), CA where an array of optical and biogeochemical measurements were made. Phytoplankton community structure was characterized by an empirical orthogonal functional analysis (EOF) using phytoplankton accessory pigments. The results showed that phytoplankton community significantly correlated to all IOPs, e.g. phytoplankton specific absorption, detrital absorption, CDOM absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Furthermore, the EOF analysis was unique in splitting the microphytoplankton size class into separate diatom and dinoflagellate regimes allowing for assessment optical property differences within the same size class, a technique previously not systematically achievable. The phytoplankton functional group dinoflagellates were particularly influential to IOPs in surprising ways. Dinoflagellates showed higher backscattering efficiencies than would be predicted based on Mie theory, and significantly influenced CDOM absorption via direct association with dissolved mycosproine-like amino acid absorption (MAA) peaks in CDOM spectra. A new index was developed in this work to quantify MAA absorption peaks in CDOM spectra, and was named the MAA Index. Prior to this research dissolved MAA absorption in natural waters was never quantified, and CDOM data containing these peaks were often disregarded and discarded from analysis. CDOM dynamics in the SBC were assessed for a 15-year study period, and this work shows that significantly large MAA Index values, e.g. MAA Index > 1, were present in

  17. Effect Sizes, Confidence Intervals, and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The present article provides a primer on (a) effect sizes, (b) confidence intervals, and (c) confidence intervals for effect sizes. Additionally, various admonitions for reformed statistical practice are presented. For example, a very important implication of the realization that there are dozens of effect size statistics is that "authors must…

  18. Temporal binding of interval markers

    PubMed Central

    Derichs, Christina; Zimmermann, Eckart

    2016-01-01

    How we estimate the passage of time is an unsolved mystery in neuroscience. Illusions of subjective time provide an experimental access to this question. Here we show that time compression and expansion of visually marked intervals result from a binding of temporal interval markers. Interval markers whose onset signals were artificially weakened by briefly flashing a whole-field mask were bound in time towards markers with a strong onset signal. We explain temporal compression as the consequence of summing response distributions of weak and strong onset signals. Crucially, temporal binding occurred irrespective of the temporal order of weak and strong onset markers, thus ruling out processing latencies as an explanation for changes in interval duration judgments. If both interval markers were presented together with a mask or the mask was shown in the temporal interval center, no compression occurred. In a sequence of two intervals, masking the middle marker led to time compression for the first and time expansion for the second interval. All these results are consistent with a model view of temporal binding that serves a functional role by reducing uncertainty in the final estimate of interval duration. PMID:27958311

  19. Reference Intervals in Neonatal Hematology.

    PubMed

    Henry, Erick; Christensen, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    The various blood cell counts of neonates must be interpreted in accordance with high-quality reference intervals based on gestational and postnatal age. Using very large sample sizes, we generated neonatal reference intervals for each element of the complete blood count (CBC). Knowledge of whether a patient has CBC values that are too high (above the upper reference interval) or too low (below the lower reference interval) provides important insights into the specific disorder involved and in many instances suggests a treatment plan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Teaching Confidence Intervals Using Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Confidence intervals are difficult to teach, in part because most students appear to believe they understand how to interpret them intuitively. They rarely do. To help them abandon their misconception and achieve understanding, we have developed a simulation tool that encourages experimentation with multiple confidence intervals derived from the…

  1. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  2. Interval Recognition in Minimal Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatzkin, Merton

    1984-01-01

    Music majors were asked to identify interval when it was either preceded or followed by a tone moving in the same direction. Difficulties in interval recognition in context appear to be an effect not just of placement within the context or of tonality, but of particular combinations of these aspects. (RM)

  3. Children's Discrimination of Melodic Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.

    1996-01-01

    Adults and children listened to tone sequences and were required to detect changes either from intervals with simple frequency ratios to intervals with complex ratios or vice versa. Adults performed better on changes from simple to complex ratios than on the reverse changes. Similar performance was observed for 6-year olds who had never taken…

  4. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  5. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  6. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  7. Petroleum Weathering Associated with Hydrocarbon Migration and Seepage, a Case Study From the Santa Barbara Channel, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardlaw, G. D.; Nelson, R. K.; Reddy, C. M.; Valentine, D. L.

    2005-12-01

    A 2003 report by the National Research Council estimates that 50 to 70 percent of oil that is released into the sea is from natural seeps (National Research Council, 2003), indicating that catastrophic oil spills or the runoff from roads and highways are not the major sources of oil in the marine environment. For example, approximately 37 tons of petroleum is emitted daily from seeps off the coast of Santa Barbara, California (Quigley et al. 1996). The Santa Barbara seeps are some of the most active in the world and have been releasing petroleum for thousands of years. Sheens of oil on the water surface and tar patches on the beaches are ubiquitous along the coastline of Santa Barbara and are continuing reminders of this natural process. Although the geochemistry of these seeps have been studied in the past, it has been hindered by the complexity of the petroleum hydrocarbons and the inability of traditional gas chromatography to separate, identify, and quantify each component of the oil. To expand on these previous efforts, we have begun to use comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). This new technology provides at least an order of magnitude increase in the resolution and detection of petroleum hydrocarbons compared to traditional methods. Preliminary work using GCxGC has focused on examining the chemical composition of unrefined petroleum as it migrates up from depth through natural faults to the seafloor, from the seafloor to the sea surface, and from the sea surface to local beaches. Petroleum collected from a subsurface reservoir (Platform Holly Well 2342-15) is composed of a wide range of resolved petroleum hydrocarbons including n-alkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, linear alkane benzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, steranes, hopanes, cyclic isoprenoids, and very large branched biomarkers with 38 to 40 carbons. This product is significantly different than oil emerging from the seafloor at the Jackpot seep, which we believe is

  8. Authigenic molybdenum formation in marine sediments: A link to pore water sulfide in the Santa Barbara Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Yen; Anderson, Robert F.; VanGeen, A.; Kuwabara, J.

    2000-01-01

    Pore water and sediment Mo concentrations were measured in a suite of multicores collected at four sites along the northeastern flank of the Santa Barbara Basin to examine the connection between authigenic Mo formation and pore water sulfide concentration. Only at the deepest site (580 m), where pore water sulfide concentrations rise to >0.1 ??M right below the sediment water interface, was there active authigenic Mo formation. At shallower sites (550,430, and 340 m), where pore water sulfide concentrations were consistently <0.05 ??M, Mo precipitation was not occuring at the time of sampling. A sulfide concentration of ???0.1 ??M appears to be a threshold for the onset of Mo-Fe-S co-precipitation. A second threshold sulfide concentration of ???100 ??M is required for Mo precipitation without Fe, possibly as Mo-S or as particle-bound Mo. Mass budgets for Mo were constructed by combining pore water and sediment results for Mo with analyses of sediment trap material from Santa Barbara Basin as well as sediment accumulation rates derived from 210Pb. The calculations show that most of the authigenic Mo in the sediment at the deepest site is supplied by diffusion from overlying bottom waters. There is, however, a non-lithogenic particulate Mo associated with sinking particles that contributes ???15% to the total authigenic Mo accumulation. Analysis of sediment trap samples and supernant brine solutions indicates the presence of non-lithogenic particulate Mo, a large fraction of which is easily remobilized and, perhaps, associated with Mn-oxides. Our observations show that even with the very high flux of organic carbon reaching the sediment of Santa Barbara Basin, active formation of sedimentary authigenic Mo requires a bottom water oxygen concentration below 3 ??M. However, small but measurable rates of authigenic Mo accumulation were observed at sites where bottom water oxygen ranged between 5 and 23 ??M, indicating that the formation of authigenic Mo occured in the

  9. Binary Interval Search: a scalable algorithm for counting interval intersections

    PubMed Central

    Layer, Ryan M.; Skadron, Kevin; Robins, Gabriel; Hall, Ira M.; Quinlan, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: The comparison of diverse genomic datasets is fundamental to understand genome biology. Researchers must explore many large datasets of genome intervals (e.g. genes, sequence alignments) to place their experimental results in a broader context and to make new discoveries. Relationships between genomic datasets are typically measured by identifying intervals that intersect, that is, they overlap and thus share a common genome interval. Given the continued advances in DNA sequencing technologies, efficient methods for measuring statistically significant relationships between many sets of genomic features are crucial for future discovery. Results: We introduce the Binary Interval Search (BITS) algorithm, a novel and scalable approach to interval set intersection. We demonstrate that BITS outperforms existing methods at counting interval intersections. Moreover, we show that BITS is intrinsically suited to parallel computing architectures, such as graphics processing units by illustrating its utility for efficient Monte Carlo simulations measuring the significance of relationships between sets of genomic intervals. Availability: https://github.com/arq5x/bits. Contact: arq5x@virginia.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23129298

  10. VARIABLE TIME-INTERVAL GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1959-10-31

    This patent relates to a pulse generator and more particularly to a time interval generator wherein the time interval between pulses is precisely determined. The variable time generator comprises two oscillators with one having a variable frequency output and the other a fixed frequency output. A frequency divider is connected to the variable oscillator for dividing its frequency by a selected factor and a counter is used for counting the periods of the fixed oscillator occurring during a cycle of the divided frequency of the variable oscillator. This defines the period of the variable oscillator in terms of that of the fixed oscillator. A circuit is provided for selecting as a time interval a predetermined number of periods of the variable oscillator. The output of the generator consists of a first pulse produced by a trigger circuit at the start of the time interval and a second pulse marking the end of the time interval produced by the same trigger circuit.

  11. A Womb with a Political View: Barbara Park's "MA! There's Nothing to Do Here!" Prenatal Parenting, and the Battle over Personhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Michelle Ann

    2013-01-01

    This essay makes the case that Barbara Park's picture book "MA! There's Nothing to Do Here!: A Word from Your Baby-in-Waiting" (2008) adds another equal-parts absurdist and alarming item to the ever-growing responsibilities of expecting mothers: ensuring that their fetus is entertained. The messages that Park's narrative…

  12. How a Community of Inquiry Shapes and Is Shaped by Policies: The Santa Barbara Classroom Discourse Group Experience as a Telling Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Carol N.; Green, Judith

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a "telling case" of the history of the Santa Barbara Classroom Discourse Group (SBCDG) and describe how policies supported and constrained the work of this sustaining community. As a telling case, this discussion of policy issues that were constructed and faced by members of the SBCDG does not claim…

  13. A Womb with a Political View: Barbara Park's "MA! There's Nothing to Do Here!" Prenatal Parenting, and the Battle over Personhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Michelle Ann

    2013-01-01

    This essay makes the case that Barbara Park's picture book "MA! There's Nothing to Do Here!: A Word from Your Baby-in-Waiting" (2008) adds another equal-parts absurdist and alarming item to the ever-growing responsibilities of expecting mothers: ensuring that their fetus is entertained. The messages that Park's narrative…

  14. The Santa Barbara Assets and Risks Assessment to Predict Recidivism among Male and Female Juveniles: An Investigation of Inter-Rater Reliability and Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Sharkey, Jill D.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to advance our understanding of the assessment of numerous factors associated with recidivism among females and males involved in the juvenile justice system. In particular, this study examined the reliability (i.e., inter-rater) and validity (i.e., construct, criterion, and predictive) of the Santa Barbara Assets and Risks…

  15. U.S. EPA Awards almost $800,000 to UC Santa Barbara to Research Effects of Chemical Exposure on Ecosystems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has awarded a Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grant of $799,723 to the University of California Santa Barbara to develop a model to better understand and predict the biological and ecologica

  16. Instructional Improvement at Santa Barbara City College. Fourth Annual Report: Innovative Teaching Methodology and Research Activities by the Institution's Distinguished Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Coll., CA. Office of Instruction.

    Brief descriptions are provided of the programs and activities conducted at Santa Barbara City College (SBCC) to promote instructional improvement, and of the achievements of program participants. After an introduction to the college's commitment to instructional excellence, the following programs are described: (1) the Annual Faculty Lecturer…

  17. Development of Multiscale Biological Image Data Analysis: Review of 2006 International Workshop on Multiscale Biological Imaging, Data Mining and Informatics, Santa Barbara, USA (BII06)

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Manfred; Peng, Hanchuan; Singh, Ambuj

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 International Workshop on Multiscale Biological Imaging, Data Mining and Informatics was held at Santa Barbara, on Sept 7–8, 2006. Based on the presentations at the workshop, we selected and compiled this collection of research articles related to novel algorithms and enabling techniques for bio- and biomedical image analysis, mining, visualization, and biology applications. PMID:17634090

  18. Evaluation of Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) photographic and digital data: Santa Barbara Channel test site, 29 October 1975 overflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, S. P.; Estes, J. E.; Kronenberg, M. R.; Hajic, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of Ocean Color Scanner data was examined to evaluate detection and discrimination capabilities of the system for marine resources, oil pollution and man-made sea surface targets of opportunity in the Santa Barbara Channel. Assessment of the utility of OCS for the determination of sediment transport patterns along the coastal zone was a secondary goal. Data products provided 1975 overflight were in digital and analog formats. In evaluating the OCS data, automated and manual procedures were employed. A total of four channels of data in digital format were analyzed, as well as three channels of color combined imagery, and four channels of black and white imagery. In addition, 1:120,000 scale color infrared imagery acquired simultaneously with the OCS data were provided for comparative analysis purposes.

  19. Radiolarian indicators of El Nino and anti-El Nino events in Holocene sediments of Santa Barbara basin

    SciTech Connect

    Weinheimer, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    Radiolarian distributions and physical oceanographic data from the Santa Barbara basin indicate the following. Strong anti-El Nino periods can be characterized by (1) intermediate radiolarian density, (2) high percentage of transition-central radiolarian fauna, and (3) low percentage and number of warm-water radiolarian fauna. This distribution pattern is attributed to strong wind-driven upwelling and reduced northward transport by the California Countercurrent during anti-El Nino periods. Strong El Nino periods are typically (1) high in radiolarian density, and (2) low in percentage but high in number of warm-water fauna. This distribution is attributed to reduced wind-driven upwelling, enhanced northward countercurrent transport, and geostrophic doming of the cold-water masses in the shear zone between the California Current and California Countercurrent.

  20. An endobiont-bearing allogromiid from the Santa Barbara Basin: Implications for the early diversification of foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard, Joan M.; Habura, Andrea; Bowser, Samuel S.

    2006-09-01

    Our current understanding of paleoecology and paleoceanography is largely based on the superb Phanerozoic fossil record of foraminiferan protists. The early history of the group is unresolved, however, because basal foraminiferans (allogromiids) are unmineralized and thus fossilize poorly. Molecular-clock studies date foraminiferal origins to the Neoproterozoic, but the deep sea, one of Earth's most extensive habitats and presently hosting a significant fraction of basal foraminiferal diversity, was probably anoxic at that time and, until now, anaerobic allogromiids were unknown. Molecular, cell, and ecological analyses reveal the presence of a previously unknown allogromiid inhabiting anoxic, sulfidic deep-sea sediments (Santa Barbara Basin, California). The fact that the new foraminifer harbors prokaryotic endobionts implicates symbiogenesis as a driving force in early foraminiferal diversification.

  1. A study of the TEX86 paleothermometer in the water column and sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huguet, Carme; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Thunell, Robert; Lourens, Lucas J.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan

    2007-09-01

    Particulate organic matter collected during a 2-year period, as part of an ongoing sediment trap study, and a high-resolution sediment record from 1850 to 1987 A.D. from the Santa Barbara Basin were analyzed for TEX86, a temperature proxy based on marine crenarchaeotal membrane lipids. Highest fluxes of crenarchaeotal lipids in the water column were found in May-June 1996 and from October 1996 to January 1997 and, in general, showed a good correlation with mass fluxes. TEX86 reconstructed temperatures from the sediment trap series ranged from 8 to 11°C and were usually substantially lower than sea surface temperatures (SST), indicating that unlike in previous studies, the TEX86 corresponds to subsurface temperatures, likely between 100 and 150 m. TEX86 temperature variations observed in trap samples were not coupled to changes in SST or deep-water temperatures and only to some degree with crenarchaeotal lipid fluxes. This suggests that a complex combination of different depth origins and seasonal growth periods of Crenarchaeota contributed to the variations in TEX86 signal during the annual cycle. TEX86 temperatures in the two sediment cores studied (8-13°C) were also substantially lower than those of instrumental SST records (14-17.5°C) confirming that TEX86 records a subsurface temperature signal in the Santa Barbara Basin. This result highlights the importance of performing calibration studies using sediment traps and core tops before applying the TEX86 temperature proxy in a given study area.

  2. 3D Structural and Stratigraphic Architecture of the Northwest Santa Barbara Basin: Implications for Slope Stability and Submarine Landslide Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A.; Brothers, D. S.; Kluesner, J.; Johnson, S. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple submarine landslides have been documented on the north flank of the Santa Barbara Basin and such failures are considered capable of generating local tsunami hazards to the Santa Barbara region. Past 2D seismic reflection data has provided a general view of the regional framework geology resulting from north-south compression, but fails to identify along-strike variations of faults and folds. This study uses industry 3D seismic reflection data encompassing the slope surrounding the 3.8 km2-Gaviota submarine landslide to investigate structural and stratigraphic controls of slope failure in this region. The 3D depth-migrated volume shows a complex network of faults that result in both broad and local zones of compression, folding, and uplift along the slope. One localized zone of enhanced anticlinal folding and uplift associated with small-scale thrust faults is located directly beneath the Gaviota slide, while another is beneath a seafloor fissure west of the slide inferred to represent incipient failure. New high-resolution 2D transects constrain the character of shallow deformation above the locally uplifted blocks. 3D isopach maps indicate the seafloor fissures trend along a key threshold of thickness between the seafloor and a shallow horizon; the fissures are also coincide with an apparent zone of shallow, gas-charged strata that onlap the steeply dipping flanks of local anticlinal deformation. Because the seafloor gradient near the Gaviota slide is significantly lower than the internal friction angle for fine-grained marine sediments, we propose that a combination of active deformation, sediment compaction, and gas charging acted to precondition the slope of the Gaviota landslide for failure by reducing the shear strength. Similar factors occur beneath intact sections of the slope adjacent to the slide, which should be considered prone to future landsliding.

  3. Distinguishing between water column and sedimentary denitrification in the Santa Barbara Basin using the stable isotopes of nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigman, D. M.; Robinson, R.; Knapp, A. N.; van Geen, A.; McCorkle, D. C.; Brandes, J. A.; Thunell, R. C.

    2003-05-01

    Below its sill depth, the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) is commonly suboxic ([O2] ˜ 3 μM), with only brief periods of ventilation. Associated with development of suboxia, the concentration of nitrate decreases with depth into the basin without an associated decrease in phosphate, indicating that a substantial fraction of the nitrate supplied to the basin is removed by denitrification. Coincident with the decrease in nitrate concentration across the "redoxcline" (the interface between oxic and suboxic waters) within the SBB, there is an increase in the 15N/14N of that nitrate, as would be anticipated from the isotopic fractionation associated with denitrification. However, the increase in 15N/14N of nitrate is much smaller than occurs in the open eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP) for a comparable amount of nitrate loss. Both the concentrations of N species within the basin and measurements of nitrate 18O/16O suggest that the lower-than-expected 15N enrichment in the suboxic SBB involves denitrification, rather than being due to some unknown source of low-15N/14N N to the deep SBB. Calculations with a range of models of nitrate supply and consumption indicate that the degree of nitrate consumption in the basin is too small for differences in water circulation to explain the isotopic differences between the Santa Barbara Basin and the open ETNP. Previous studies indicate that the isotope effect of sedimentary denitrification is negligible due to nitrate diffusion in sediment pore waters. Thus we infer that the small magnitude of the isotopic enrichment of SBB water column nitrate is due to the importance of sedimentary denitrification within the basin. Assuming that water column and sedimentary denitrification have isotope effects of 25 and 1.5 per mil, respectively, our results suggest that sedimentary denitrification accounts for more than 75% of the nitrate loss within the suboxic SBB.

  4. Discerning Between Water Column and Sedimentary Denitrification in the Santa Barbara Basin Using the Nitrogen Isotopes of Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, A. N.; Sigman, D. M.; van Geen, L.; McCorkle, D. C.; Brandes, J. A.; Thunell, R. C.

    2001-05-01

    Below its sill depth, the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) is seasonally anoxic, making the basin suitable for denitrification in both the water column and the sediments. Deviations of nitrate and phosphate concentrations from Redfield ratios provide quantitative estimates of the nitrate consumed by denitrification in the SBB. However, there are no integrative constraints on whether denitrification occurs predominantly in the water column or in the sediments. Associated with a sharp increase in the nitrate deficit across the oxic/anoxic interface within the SBB, there is an increase in the d15N of water column nitrate, as would be expected from denitrification. However, given the size of the nitrate deficit, the increase of d15N of nitrate is much smaller than would be expected from the accepted intrinsic isotope effect of denitrification of 20-30 per mil, assuming a Rayleigh model for uptake. In situations where both transport and removal are important, the Rayleigh model provides only an approximation of the actual fractionation. However, model calculations suggest that transport within the water column cannot explain the observed d15N discrepancy in the SBB. Benthic lander studies of Puget Sound sediments have demonstrated that the isotope effect of sedimentary denitrification is negligible, due to the effects of substrate diffusion in sediment porewaters (Brandes and Devol, 1997). We present new porewater measurements from the Carolina slope in the North Atlantic that confirm this conclusion for other sedimentary environments. Thus, we infer that the small magnitude of the isotopic enrichment of SBB water column nitrate is due to the importance of denitrification in the sediments relative to the water column. Assuming that water column and sedimentary denitrification have isotope effects of 25 and 0 per mil, respectively, model calculations indicate that sedimentary denitrification accounts for more than 75% of the nitrate loss within the anoxic Santa Barbara Basin.

  5. Sedimentary pyrite δ34S differs from porewater sulfide in Santa Barbara Basin: Proposed role of organic sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, Morgan Reed; Sessions, Alex L.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Adkins, Jess F.

    2016-08-01

    Santa Barbara Basin sediments host a complex network of abiotic and metabolic chemical reactions that knit together the carbon, sulfur, and iron cycles. From a 2.1-m sediment core collected in the center of the basin, we present high-resolution profiles of the concentrations and isotopic compositions of all the major species in this system: sulfate, sulfide (∑H2S), elemental sulfur (S0), pyrite, extractable organic sulfur (OS), proto-kerogen S, total organic and dissolved inorganic carbon, and total and reducible iron. Below 10 cm depth, the core is characterized by low apparent sulfate reduction rates (<0.01 mM/yr) except near the sulfate-methane transition zone. Surprisingly, pyrite forming in shallow sediments is ∼30‰ more 34S-depleted than coexisting ∑H2S in porewater. S0 has the same strongly 34S-depleted composition as pyrite where it forms near the sediment-water interface, though not at depth. This pattern is not easily explained by conventional hypotheses in which sedimentary pyrite derives from abiotic reactions with porewater ∑H2S or from the products of S0 disproportionation. Instead, we propose that pyrite formation in this environment occurs within sulfate reducing microbial aggregates or biofilms, where it reflects the isotopic composition of the immediate products of bacterial sulfate reduction. Porewater ∑H2S in Santa Barbara Basin may be more 34S-enriched than pyrite due to equilibration with relatively 34S-enriched OS. The difference between OS and pyrite δ34S values would then reflect the balance between microbial sulfide formation and the abundance of exchangeable OS. Both OS and pyrite δ34S records thus have the potential to provide valuable information about biogeochemical cycles and redox structure in sedimentary paleoenvironments.

  6. Spatial scaling of deglacial hypoxia in the Santa Barbara Basin: Using rank-abundance curves and kurtosis to understand paleoecological community stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhre, S.; Hill, T. M.; Okushi, K.; Kennett, J.; Behl, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    Deglacial sediment from Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) reveals the complex spatial and temporal variability of intermediate water oxygenation. We use formainiferal community end-member indices and the kurtosis of rank-abundance curves to articulate the variability of oxygen by depth through the deglaciation (4-17ky). We construct a vertical and geographic transect across SBB (34° 15'N, 119° 45'W) using a core from 418m water depth (MV0811-15JC), and previously investigated cores from 440m (MD02-2504) and 570m (MD02-2503) water depths. All three cores show the classical deglaciation δ18O structure at terminations 1A and 1B, previously published for the two deepest cores. Foraminifera are well adapted to a broad environmental range of oxygen concentrations, and thus are well suited for fine-scale oxygenation reconstructions. Indices of end-member species proportional abundance oscillate with the deglacial trends of Bølling-Allerød warming and Younger Dryas cooling. These data illustrate that deglacial changes in the environmental extremes in oxygenation, but not necessarily the average state, occurred simultaneously across these distinct depths and locations with the SBB. Interestingly, the two deeper cores are laminated across the deglaciation, while the shallowest and most northwestern of the cores is not laminated. We evaluate these data with using rank-abundance curves (RAC) as a diagnostic of foraminiferal community stress across the deglaciation; kurtosis of these community curves is used as a measure of RAC peakedness or flatness. Kurtosis value excursions were associated with communities dominated by the species Bolivina tumida, a foraminifera associated with low-oxygen, methane-rich environments. Importantly, communities in the deepest core had extremely low abundances at horizons of environmental deoxygenation, indicating that these events correspond to prohibitively-low deoxygenation events, and potentially the coarse sampling interval at these horizons

  7. Enhanced marine productivity off western North America during warm climate intervals of the past 52 k.y

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, J.D.; O'Connell, S. B.; DelViscio, J.; Dean, W.; Carriquiry, J.D.; Marchitto, T.; Zheng, Yen; VanGeen, A.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the Santa Barbara Basin off the coast of California have linked changes in its bottom-water oxygen content to millennial-scale climate changes as recorded by the oxygen isotope composition of Greenland ice. Through the use of detailed records from a sediment core collected off the Magdalena Margin of Baja California, Mexico, we demonstrate that this teleconnection predominantly arose from changes in marine productivity, rather than changes in ventilation of the North Pacific, as was originally proposed. One possible interpretation is that the modern balance of El Nin??o-La Nin??a conditions that favors a shallow nutricline and high productivity today and during warm climate intervals of the past 52 k.y. was altered toward more frequent, deep nutricline, low productivity, El Nin??o-like conditions during cool climate intervals. ?? 2004 Geological Society of America.

  8. TIME-INTERVAL MEASURING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Gross, J.E.

    1958-04-15

    An electronic device for measuring the time interval between two control pulses is presented. The device incorporates part of a previous approach for time measurement, in that pulses from a constant-frequency oscillator are counted during the interval between the control pulses. To reduce the possible error in counting caused by the operation of the counter gating circuit at various points in the pulse cycle, the described device provides means for successively delaying the pulses for a fraction of the pulse period so that a final delay of one period is obtained and means for counting the pulses before and after each stage of delay during the time interval whereby a plurality of totals is obtained which may be averaged and multplied by the pulse period to obtain an accurate time- Interval measurement.

  9. Simple Interval Timers for Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, M.; Burgess, G.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses simple interval timers for microcomputers, including (1) the Jiffy clock; (2) CPU count timers; (3) screen count timers; (4) light pen timers; and (5) chip timers. Also examines some of the general characteristics of all types of timers. (JN)

  10. High resolution time interval meter

    DOEpatents

    Martin, A.D.

    1986-05-09

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring the time interval between two events to a higher resolution than reliability available from conventional circuits and component. An internal clock pulse is provided at a frequency compatible with conventional component operating frequencies for reliable operation. Lumped constant delay circuits are provided for generating outputs at delay intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution. An initiation START pulse is input to generate first high resolution data. A termination STOP pulse is input to generate second high resolution data. Internal counters count at the low frequency internal clock pulse rate between the START and STOP pulses. The first and second high resolution data are logically combined to directly provide high resolution data to one counter and correct the count in the low resolution counter to obtain a high resolution time interval measurement.

  11. Finding Nested Common Intervals Efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, Guillaume; Stoye, Jens

    In this paper, we study the problem of efficiently finding gene clusters formalized by nested common intervals between two genomes represented either as permutations or as sequences. Considering permutations, we give several algorithms whose running time depends on the size of the actual output rather than the output in the worst case. Indeed, we first provide a straightforward O(n 3) time algorithm for finding all nested common intervals. We reduce this complexity by providing an O(n 2) time algorithm computing an irredundant output. Finally, we show, by providing a third algorithm, that finding only the maximal nested common intervals can be done in linear time. Considering sequences, we provide solutions (modifications of previously defined algorithms and a new algorithm) for different variants of the problem, depending on the treatment one wants to apply to duplicated genes.

  12. The PDO and Infaunal Foraminfera Isotopic Values: Multi-Decadal Variations in Santa Monica and Santa Barbara Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berelson, W.; Stott, L.

    2002-12-01

    Laminated sediments within Santa Monica, Santa Barbara and Soledad (Mexico) Basins provide an opportunity to study carbon export at sites dominated by coastal upwelling. Multi-cores were collected in 2001 and sampled with mm scale resolution for both solid phase and pore water investigations. The infaunal foram, B. tenuata was analyzed for its del13C value; this down-core record indicates systematic changes in pore water del13C, reflecting differences in the amount of organic carbon oxidation occurring on the sea floor. Two cores collected from Santa Monica Basin, one in the 1980's and the second in 2001 show identical trends and structure in B. tenuata del13C values between 1700 AD and the present. Because B. tenuata is recording pore water del13CO2, it becomes a sensitive proxy for the benthic organic carbon oxidation rate, which in-turn relates to the amount of organic carbon delivered to the sea floor. In Santa Monica Basin we see a trend from 1700 AD to the present toward greater carbon oxidation. This trend is consistent with the observation that the extent of laminated sediments has expanded within this basin over the past 300 years. Within this general trend there are some very well defined patterns and reversals, most notably is the trend toward lower rates of carbon oxidation between 1980 and the present; the documented PDO phase-shift that occurs around 1980 shows up clearly in this analyses. Other similar shifts in `carbon production' have occurred since 1700 AD, notably one occurred in the late 1800's and another around 1800. These both mark periods when there was a reversal from increasing inputs of organic carbon to decreasing inputs. The increase in organic carbon delivery to the sea floor of Santa Monica Basin since 1700 has been quantified by deriving estimates of carbon oxidation rates and combining them with measurements of carbon burial rates. The range in carbon oxidized has fluctuated from about 1 to 3 mmolC m-2 day-1 and the overall carbon

  13. Post-Last Glacial Maximum (Latest Pleistocene to Holocene) geology of the Santa Barbara shelf, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Ritchie, A. C.; Conrad, J. E.; Dartnell, P.; Phillips, E.; Sliter, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution bathymetric and seismic-reflection data collected for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/mapping/csmp/) provide new insights for understanding the post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) evolution of the Santa Barbara shelf, highlighting relationships between tectonics, eustasy, and sediment supply. The west-trending shelf extends offshore for 5 to 7 km and is bounded on the south by the deep Santa Barbara basin and on the north by a narrow coastal zone and the steep, rapidly uplifting Santa Ynez Mountains. The active, west-trending, north-dipping Ventura-Pitas Point-North Channel and Red Mountain fault systems form the structural boundary between two distinct shelf domains. The smooth, gently sloping, southern shelf is flooded by thick (35 to 40 m), prograding Santa Clara and Ventura River deltaic deposits. These thick strata drape the shelfbreak and fill the accommodation space created by rising sea level, largely masking the influence of active tectonics. In contrast, the northern shelf has complex bathymetry and a well-defined, sharp shelfbreak at ~90 m water depth. The northern shelf is relatively sediment starved (mean sediment thickness is 3 to 4 m), with thickest accumulations (up to ~18 m) forming shallow (< 30 m), discontinuous to laterally coalescing, inner-shelf bars that are best developed at the mouths of steep coastal watersheds. These watersheds also feed several distinct, coarse-grained sediment lobes (as large as ~1.5 km2, extending to 3 km offshore and depths of 70 m) that probably formed during massive flood events. The relative lack of offshore deposits on the northern shelf suggests sediment transport is dominated by easterly nearshore drift. Faulting and folding on the northern shelf are significant controls on sediment distribution and thickness, the occurrence of bedrock uplifts, and common hydrocarbon-associated seeps, pockmarks, and mounds. Bedrock, typically "soft" Neogene strata, is especially

  14. Prokaryotic diversity associated with high rate of organic matter mineralization in continental margin sediments in Santa Barbara Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Berelson, W.; Sansone, F.; Orphan, V. J.

    2005-12-01

    In Santa Barbara Basin sediments, sulfate and total carbon dioxide profiles (TCO2) define a 'hot zone' where sulfate concentrations go to 0 and TCO2 gradients decline dramatically. The average linear gradient of sulfate as it approaches the 'hot zone' defines the sulfate flux of 0.426 ? 0.036 mmol-S per m2 per day. The average linear gradient of TCO2 defines diffusion away from this zone = 0.615 ? 0.077 mmol-C per m2 per day. The difference between the sulfate flux to the zone and the TCO2 flux away from the zone requires a source of TCO2 generated within the 'hot zone' which does not involve the simple reaction stoichiometry of anaerobic methane oxidation. Little is known about the diversity and distribution of prokaryotic community in the 'hot zone'. In the present study, a gravity core (1.7 m in length) was collected at a continental margin site in Santa Barbara Basin (water depth of 591 m). The prokaryotic diversity was analyzed for four sediment horizons that are within, above, and below the 'hot zone', Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified using 16S rDNA primers targeting Bacteria and Archaea. Screening of more than 300 colonies from these 16S rDNA clone libraries revealed a diversity of bacterial species, including members from Proteobacteria, Green-Non-Sulfur bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidate division JS1. The detection of sequences related to uncultured Desulfobacter sp. suggests that sulfate reduction is one of the electron-accepting processes. Archaeal populations were affiliated with members from the Crenarchaeota marine benthic group B, the Euryarchaeota marine benthic group D, the Terrestrial Miscellaneous Euryarchaeotal Group (TMEG), and other uncultured relatives of the Thermoplasmatales. Preliminary findings suggest the abundance of marine benthic group B Crenarchaeota decreased with depth, while marine benthic group D Euryarchaeota populations increased with depth. The detection of marine benthic group B and D was consistent with previous

  15. Airborne Mapping of Total Carbon Productivity and Export within Giant Kelp Forests in the Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, D.; Kudela, R. M.; Broughton, J.

    2013-12-01

    Giant Kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) is one of the world's fastest growing autotrophs, able to take up, and potentially release, massive amounts of Carbon daily. This project aims to quantify both Carbon uptake and export from two Giant Kelp forests in the Santa Barbara Channel by quantifying kelp gross primary productivity (GPP), respiration, and dissolved organic Carbon (DOC) export. A mass balance method was employed using three steps: first, the extent of kelp (surface and subsurface) was estimated. Second, gross production was estimated using a photosynthetic model. Third, loss terms including respiration and direct release of DOC were estimated. Remote sensing data of the Channel was obtained using MASTER multispectral imagery while in situ data was used to measure DOC. MASTER imagery was used in ENVI to spectrally map areas of the two kelp beds, including subsurface kelp not perceivable in true color MASTER imagery without manipulation. In order to detect subsurface kelp, spectral analysis was used within ENVI to identify vegetation at varying depths. Productivity was then estimated for surface and subsurface kelp based on the Zimmerman (2003) seagrass model, adapted to account for absorption differences of kelp at depth and life cycle stages (immature, mature, senescent). Respiration values for both beds were calculated by synthesizing data from Cavanaugh et. al, 2010, Arnold and Manley, 1985, and Rassweiller et. al, 2008. Respiration rates were assumed constant with depth, and resulted in nearly 50% of GPP for both beds. DOC values were extrapolated to the top 3m of each bed, as a pycnocline at 3 m was observed in both beds; offshore DOC values were applied to water at depth. Time series CDOM data from the MODIS satellite was utilized to estimate flow rates of DOC out of kelp beds in order to calculate flux. However, the eddy circulation pattern in the Santa Barbara Channel, combined with offshore tidal currents, caused CDOM to consistently be transported in

  16. Latest Quaternary structural and stratigraphic controls on continental shelf morphology along a transpressive transform margin, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Hartwell, S. R.; Sorlien, C. C.; Dartnell, P.; Ritchie, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Santa Barbara mainland continental shelf can be divided into three domains, (from SE to NW) bounded by the blind Oak Ridge and Pitas Point thrust fault systems. (1) South of and in the hanging wall of the blind, south-dipping Oak Ridge fault, the broad (as wide as 17 km), gently dipping Oxnard shelf has a convex-upward shape resulting from thick, deltaic sediment fill. (2) The 5- to 8-km-wide Ventura basin obliquely crosses the shelf and forms an asymmetric trough also filled by thick deltaic sediment. The basin lies between and in the footwalls of the Oak Ridge fault to the south and the blind, north-dipping Pitas Point fault system to the north. (3) The 4- to 7-km-wide central and western Santa Barbara shelf is located north of and in the hanging wall of the Pitas Point fault system. This fault system extends for about 105 km across the shelf and slope from Pitas Point to Point Conception. Numerous discontinuous folds and faults characterize the structurally complex hanging wall, and the concave-up shape of the shelf results from uplift, folding, limited sediment supply, marine erosion, and resulting lack of sediment cover. Two possible segment boundaries (the south strand of the Santa Ynez fault and a structural discontinuity a few km west of Coal Oil Point) coincide with significant shelfbreak submarine landslides. Ages of folded strata and the shelfbreak can be derived from correlation with sea-level curves, allowing estimates of uplift and deformation rates. Post-LGM slip rates on the offshore Oak Ridge fault are about 0.65 to 0.71 mm/yr. Slip rates on the Pitas Point fault system are a minimum of 2.1 to 2.4 mm/yr, and decrease to the west due largely to diminished hanging-wall faulting and folding. Given hanging-wall structural complexity, across-strike (north-south) deformation rates should not be extrapolated from the offshore to the onshore, and along-strike rates should only be extrapolated on the basis of detailed mapping.

  17. Facts relating to Well No. 5, Lease OCS-P 0234, Pitas Point Unit area, and the earthquake of August 13, 1978, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wayland, Russell G.; Acuff, A. Dewey; McCulloh, Thane M.; Raleigh, C. Barry; Vedder, John G.; Yenne, Keith A.

    1978-01-01

    A build-up of pressures developed in an exploratory well being drilled in the Santa Barbara Channel during the period August 9 to 15, 1978. Nearly coincidentally, a sharp earthquake occurred 2 miles south of the city of Santa Barbara at 3:55 p.m. PDT on August 13, 1978. A task group was formed by the Director, Geological Survey, on August 14, mainly because of concern over the high down-hole pressures in the well. The charge to the task group was to study the situation fully in order that appropriate and immediate measures could be directed to protect against a fracturing of rock formations in the vicinity of the hole that might permit the escape of gas or oil to the surface. The task group was also asked to look into the possibility of any relationship between the well problems and the earthquake.

  18. High resolution time interval counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Victor S.; Davis, Dick D.; Lombardi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, we have developed two types of high resolution, multi-channel time interval counters. In the NIST two-way time transfer MODEM application, the counter is designed for operating primarily in the interrupt-driven mode, with 3 start channels and 3 stop channels. The intended start and stop signals are 1 PPS, although other frequencies can also be applied to start and stop the count. The time interval counters used in the NIST Frequency Measurement and Analysis System are implemented with 7 start channels and 7 stop channels. Four of the 7 start channels are devoted to the frequencies of 1 MHz, 5 MHz or 10 MHz, while triggering signals to all other start and stop channels can range from 1 PPS to 100 kHz. Time interval interpolation plays a key role in achieving the high resolution time interval measurements for both counters. With a 10 MHz time base, both counters demonstrate a single-shot resolution of better than 40 ps, and a stability of better than 5 x 10(exp -12) (sigma(sub chi)(tau)) after self test of 1000 seconds). The maximum rate of time interval measurements (with no dead time) is 1.0 kHz for the counter used in the MODEM application and is 2.0 kHz for the counter used in the Frequency Measurement and Analysis System. The counters are implemented as plug-in units for an AT-compatible personal computer. This configuration provides an efficient way of using a computer not only to control and operate the counters, but also to store and process measured data.

  19. Landslides: Geomorphology and Sea Cliff Hazard Potential, Santa Barbara - Isla Vista, California J.F. Klath and E.A. Keller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klath, J. F.; Keller, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal areas are often characterized by high population densities in an ever changing, dynamic environment. The world's coasts are often dominated by steeply sloping sea cliffs, the morphology of which reflects rock type, wave erosion, and surface erosion, as well as human activities such changing vegetation, urban runoff, and construction of coastal defenses. The Santa Barbara and Goleta area, with over 17 km of sea cliffs and beaches, extends from Santa Barbara Point west to the hamlet of Isla Vista. A deeper understanding of the local geology and the physical processes generating slope failure and, thus, landward cliff retreat is important for general public safety, as well as future development and planning. Our research objective includes assessment of landslide hazard potential through investigation of previous landslides and how these events relate to various physical variables and characteristics within the surrounding bedrock. How does landslide frequency, volume, and type relate to varying local bedrock and structure? Two geologic formations dominate the sea cliffs of the Santa Barbara area: Monterey shale (upper, middle, and lower) and Monterey Sisquoc shale. Geology varies from hard cemented shale and diatomaceous, low specific gravity shale to compaction shale. Variations in landslide characteristics are linked closely to the geology of a specific site that affects how easily rock units are weathered and eroded by wave erosion, naturally occurring oil and water seeps, burnt shale events, and landslide type and frequency on steeply dipped bedding planes/daylighting beds. Naturally occurring features linked to human processes often weaken bedrock and, thus, increase the likelihood of landslides. We categorize landslide frequency, type, and triggers; location of beach access, drainage pipes, and water; and oil and tar seeps in order to develop suggestions to minimize landslide potential. Lastly, using previously published erosion cliff retreat rates and

  20. Promoting medical innovation while developing sound social and business policy: a conversation with Thomas G. Roberts. Interview by Barbara J. Culliton.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas G

    2008-01-01

    The development of "targeted biologics" as cancer therapy has made the field ripe for investment from the private sector and is changing the face of cancer medicine, while also raising important policy concerns about price, profit, and continued innovation. In this interview Barbara Culliton talks with Thomas Roberts, who sees this world from a unique perspective. Roberts, an oncologist, has practiced at the Massachusetts General Hospital and is currently thinking about innovation as a hedge fund manager.

  1. Survey for least bell's vireo in riparian habitat on Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1988-01-01

    The least bell's vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) was listed in 1986 as an endangered species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Because of the possibility of the species existing on Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), this survey was conducted to determine if they exist, and if so to prepare a distribution map of the species on the base. Major riparian areas were surveyed on foot for 17 days in April, May, and July 1987. No least bell's vireo were sighted; based on past studies, it is unlikely that there is a significant population on VAFB. There are, however, at least 13 other species of special concern that inhabit VAFB riparian woodlands. Most of these species have declined along the south coast of Santa Barbara County, and many have declined in much of the southern half of California. Riparian areas on VAFB are an important environmental resource for the southern half of California; many of these areas, however, show signs of degradation.

  2. Calcification of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides and carbonate ion concentration: Results from the Santa Barbara Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Emily B.; Thunell, Robert C.; Marshall, Brittney J.; Holm, Jessica A.; Tappa, Eric J.; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Cai, Wei-Jun; Chen, Baoshan

    2016-08-01

    Planktonic foraminiferal calcification intensity, reflected by shell wall thickness, has been hypothesized to covary with the carbonate chemistry of seawater. Here we use both sediment trap and box core samples from the Santa Barbara Basin to evaluate the relationship between the calcification intensity of the planktonic foraminifera species Globigerina bulloides, measured by area density (µg/µm2), and the carbonate ion concentration of seawater ([CO32-]). We also evaluate the influence of both temperature and nutrient concentration ([PO43-]) on foraminiferal calcification and growth. The presence of two G. bulloides morphospecies with systematically different calcification properties and offset stable isotopic compositions was identified within sampling populations using distinguishing morphometric characteristics. The calcification temperature and by extension calcification depth of the more abundant "normal" G. bulloides morphospecies was determined using δ18O temperature estimates. Calcification depths vary seasonally with upwelling and were used to select the appropriate [CO32-], temperature, and [PO43-] depth measurements for comparison with area density. Seasonal upwelling in the study region also results in collinearity between independent variables complicating a straightforward statistical analysis. To address this issue, we use additional statistical diagnostics and a down core record to disentangle the respective roles of each parameter on G. bulloides calcification. Our results indicate that [CO32-] is the primary variable controlling calcification intensity while temperature influences shell size. We report a modern calibration for the normal G. bulloides morphospecies that can be used in down core studies of well-preserved sediments to estimate past [CO32-].

  3. Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in turbid coastal waters of the Santa Barbara Channel with SeaWiFS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Siegel, D.A.; Mackenzie, C.

    2004-01-01

    A technique is presented for estimating suspended sediment concentrations of turbid coastal waters with remotely sensed multi-spectral data. The method improves upon many standard techniques, since it incorporates analyses of multiple wavelength bands (four for Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS)) and a nonlinear calibration, which produce highly accurate results (expected errors are approximately ±10%). Further, potential errors produced by erroneous atmospheric calibration in excessively turbid waters and influences of dissolved organic materials, chlorophyll pigments and atmospheric aerosols are limited by a dark pixel subtraction and removal of the violet to blue wavelength bands. Results are presented for the Santa Barbara Channel, California where suspended sediment concentrations ranged from 0–200+ mg l−1 (±20 mg l−1) immediately after large river runoff events. The largest plumes were observed 10–30 km off the coast and occurred immediately following large El Niño winter floods.

  4. Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record of climate and marine primary productivity change in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelova, Vera; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Hendy, Ingrid, L.; Pedersen, Thomas F.

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts and other marine palynomorphs from the Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A) demonstrate large variability of primary productivity during the Holocene, as the California Current System responded to climate change. Throughout the sequence, dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are characterized by the dominance of cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and particularly by Brigantedinium, accompanied by other upwelling-related taxa such as Echinidinium and cysts of Protoperidinium americanum. During the early Holocene (~12-7 ka), the species richness is relatively low (16 taxa) and genius Brigantedinium reaches the highest relative abundance, thus indicating nutrient-rich and highly productive waters. The middle Holocene (~7-3.5 ka) is characterized by relatively constant cyst concentrations, and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are indicative of a slight decrease in sea-surface temperature. A noticeable increase and greater range of fluctuations in the cyst concentrations during the late Holocene (~3.5-1 ka) indicate enhanced marine primary productivity and increased climatic variability, most likely related to the intensification of El Niño-like conditions. Keywords: dinoflagellate cysts, Holocene, North Pacific, climate, primary productivity.

  5. Detangling the Web of Sulfur Metabolisms in Santa Barbara Basin with High-Resolution δ34S and Genomic Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, M. R.; Adkins, J. F.; Sessions, A. L.; Dawson, K.; Connon, S. A.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfur metabolisms are major drivers of organic matter remineralization and microbial growth in marine sediments. Sulfur-isotope systematics are particularly powerful for interrogating metabolic processes in these systems due to the large sulfur-isotope fractionations associated with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and some other metabolic reactions. Recent analytical advancements have made it possible to measure δ34S values of very small samples (>50 nmol), including aqueous sulfate and sulfide as well as pyrite, elemental sulfur, and multiple fractions of sedimentary organic matter. We have generated comprehensive 2.5 cm-resolution depth profiles of these sulfur pools over a 2-m core from Santa Barbara Basin, a sub-oxic environment off the California coast. We find that the porewater sulfide δ34S values appear to be strongly influenced by anaerobic sulfide oxidation and sulfur disproportionation in addition to BSR. These sulfur-isotope signals can be tracked over the course of several thousand years of sediment diagenesis, moving from the oxic-anoxic transition at the sediment-water interface to the sulfate-methane transition zone in deeper sediments. Shifts in δ34S relationships among sulfur pools correlate with changes in microbial community composition as shown in TAG genomic data, which supports the existence of the metabolisms indicated by δ34S profiles. Our results suggest that the existence and activity of multiple microbial communities and coexisting sulfur metabolisms have the potential to be recorded in sedimentary δ34S records.

  6. Historical oceanographic events reflected in13C/12C ratio of total organic carbon in laminated Santa Barbara Basin Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Tegner, Mia J.

    1991-06-01

    An 1844-1987 time series of carbon stable isotope ratios from dated sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) from the center of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) is compared with historical climate and oceanographic records. Four isotopically distinct biogeochemical sources of TOC are important: phytoplankton-derived marine biomass, macroalgal biomass from kelp forests, terrigenous biomass (mainly flushed into the SBB via river discharge), and redeposited fossil organic carbon. The significance of the latter two sources is largely limited to a few unusual flood and oil spill events, whereas the combination of 13C-depleted phytoplankton and 13C-enriched macroalgal biomass appears to be responsible for most of the isotopic variance of the marine coastal biomass as recorded in sedimentary TOC. The isotopic response of marine organic carbon in sediments records strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the frequently associated severe storm and wave events in SBB varved sediments. The plausible major isotopic mechanisms are (1) increased physical liberation of 13C-enriched kelp carbon from locally abundant giant kelp (Macrocystis spp.) forests during times of physical and environmental stress, and (2) decreased productivity of 13C-depleted phytoplankton during ENSO events.

  7. Physique as destiny: William H. Sheldon, Barbara Honeyman Heath and the struggle for hegemony in the science of somatotyping.

    PubMed

    Vertinsky, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    When Ron Rosenbaum unveiled his explosive journalistic report on the "Great Ivy League Nude Posture Photo Scandal" in 1995 it was a story that revealed the uneven evolution of attitudes toward body, race, and gender in the last half century. His intention was to highlight how easily ideas about the body have been taken up by scientists and sustained in elite institutions of higher education well beyond the bounds of common sense. The villain of his story was William H. Sheldon, a constitutional psychologist who appropriated the ritual of taking posture photos for his scientific study of somatotypes, a system built upon the relationship of body type to character. Sheldon's toxic eugenic views and equation of physique with destiny in the years following World War II made him increasingly unpopular. And while Rosenbaum concluded that Sheldon's downfall was due to the anger of women students over the taking of nude photos, the deathknell of his career was dealt by his former female assistant, Barbara Honeyman Heath. Publicly denouncing his methods as fraudulent and his somatotypes inaccurate she went on to build a successful career modifying somatotyping techniques and participating in projects all over the world.

  8. Developmental plasticity in fat patterning of Ache children in response to variation in interbirth intervals: a preliminary test of the roles of external environment and maternal reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jack; Hurtado, Ana Magdalena; Pearson, Osbjorn M; Hill, Kim R; Jones, Troy; Frey, M Anderson

    2009-01-01

    A firm link between small size at birth and later more centralized fat patterning has been established in previous research. Relationships between shortened interbirth intervals and small size at birth suggest that maternal energetic prioritization may be an important, but unexplored determinant of offspring fat patterning. Potential adaptive advantages to centralized fat storage (Baker et al., 2008: In: Trevathan W, McKenna J, Smith EO, editors. Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives. New York: Oxford) suggest that relationships with interbirth intervals may reflect adaptive responses to variation in patterns of maternal reproductive effort. Kuzawa (2005: Am J Hum Biol 17:5-21; 2008: In: Trevathan W, McKenna J, Smith EO, editors. Evolutionary Medicine and Health: New Perspectives. New York: Oxford) has argued that maternal mediation of the energetic quality of the environment is a necessary component of developmental plasticity models invoking predictive adaptive responses (Gluckman and Hanson 2004: Trends Endocrinol Metab 15:183-187). This study tested the general hypothesis that shortened interbirth intervals would predict more centralized fat patterning in offspring. If long-term maternally mediated signals are important determinants of offspring responses, then we expected to observe a relationship between the average interbirth interval of mothers and offspring adiposity, with no relationship with the preceding interval. Such a finding would suggest that maternal, endogenous resource allocation decisions are related to offspring physiology in a manner consistent with Kuzawa's description. We observed exactly such a relationship among the Ache of Paraguay, suggesting that maternally mediated in utero signals of postnatal environments may be important determinants of later physiology. The implications of these findings are reviewed in light of life history and developmental plasticity theories and ourability to generalize the results to other

  9. Extracting a redox signal from Scanning XRF results in Santa Barbara Basin to reconstruct annual shifts in bottom water oxygen concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, I. L.; Napier, T.

    2013-12-01

    Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) is well known for producing high quality paleoclimate reconstructions due to high lithogenic and biogenic sediment input and low bottom water oxygen concentrations which preserve annual scale laminations in basin sediments. An subannually resolved reconstruction of elemental composition of Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) sediments has been produced for the last 150 years based on scanning XRF elemental composition of bulk sediments. The first Principle Component (PC1) of the elemental data contains high loadings of Ti, K, Al, Si, Rb and Fe, and explains 40% of the variance in SPR0901-04BC. We associate PC1 with siliciclastic sediment delivered to SBB by river runoff. The second Principle Component (PC1) of the elemental data contains high loadings of Br/Cl and Sr and we associate with biogenic sediment input. Further variance is explained by S/Cl and Fe/Ti, which we associate with iron sulphide minerals. Here we compare the annually resolved Fe-sulphide record for the last 150 years with ICP-MS derived redox sensitive trace metal results (Mo, Re, Ag, Cd, U) to validate the use of this novel redox proxy in Santa Barbara Basin at an unprecedented resolution. We explore the utility of ultra-high resolution sediment redox chemistry in modern climate reconstruction as the magnitude of anthropogenic environmental impacts increase.

  10. The Santa Barbara Channel-Santa Maria Basin Circulation Study: A National Model for Applied Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    In 1991 the Minerals Management System (MMS) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), through a Cooperative Agreement, devised a multi-year research program to ascertain the various surface circulation patterns characteristic of the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and the Santa Maria Basin (SMB). The resulting SBC-SMB Circulation Study serves as an excellent model for a balanced approach to physical oceanographic research and monitoring. The strategy of blending field observation efforts in these two adjacent, dynamically linked areas has produced a spatially and temporally coherent six-year time series of a suite of oceanographic and meteorological observations for the entire SBC-SMB area. Causal forcing and spatially coherent patterns of the surface circulation have been established from analysis of this carefully planned density and diversity of field measurements. The effects of interannual events, like the 1997 El Nino, on the physical oceanography of the area are being analyzed and reported. This extensive observational effort, combined with numerical modeling of surface current processes, has produced an unusually good understanding of the oceanic surface circulation in an oceanographically complex area. The applied research effort includes the development of a six-year, four-per-day, time series of synoptic current maps of the entire SBC-SMB area based solely on the extensive observational data set. This state-of-the-art data set has tremendous impact on the accuracy of oil spill trajectory and ocean surface circulation models. A second applied research product is a six-year, four-per-day time series of synoptic current maps developed from the application of numerical modeling techniques to the previous observational data driven six-year time series. It will be available in late 2003. This blended observations-modeling product will add increased spatial density of surface current values to the present domain, and will spatially expand the domain from

  11. 19th-20th century rainfall patterns reconstructed from sediment provenance in a Santa Barbara Basin box core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, T.; Hendy, I. L.; Schimmelmann, A.

    2013-12-01

    Rainfall patterns in Southern California directly affect the availability of water resources and induce hazards in this highly populated and water stressed region. Extreme weather consists of heavy rainfall events in winter associated with atmospheric rivers, and drought conditions when winter rains do not arrive. Water availability has a significant societal impact in Southern California. Here we reconstruct 19th-20th century precipitation history of river catchments draining into Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) through a combination of high-resolution elemental and mineralogical analyses. The deep center of the SBB features suboxic bottom waters and high sedimentation rates resulting in minimal bioturbation of annual sedimentation, which enables high-resolution paleoclimate research. Scanning XRF analysis at a 200 μm resolution of box core SPR0901-04BC from SBB was used to determine annual changes in sediment composition. Samples at 1 cm resolution from the same box core were analyzed for a more extensive suite of elements by ICP-MS, while mineralogy in each sample was determined from whole rock and clay fraction (<2 μm) analysis using X-ray defraction. Elements associated with siliciclastic sediment increase in relative abundance during wet years when significant river runoff events (floods) occurred. The relative proportions of these elements differ between flood events, possibly reflecting differences in temporal and/or spatial rainfall patterns that vary the response of each river catchment draining into SBB. Watershed sediment from the Santa Ynez Mountain streams and Ventura and Santa Clara River catchments derives mostly from Cenozoic sedimentary units, except the Santa Clara River catchment, which contains metamorphic and igneous units. As river runoff is responsible for a significant portion of the terrigenous input into SBB, and is primarily the result of precipitation events, characteristic mineralogy and elemental signatures are a direct recorder of

  12. A multidisciplinary study of the complex Santa Barbara-Furrial oilfields, Northern Monagas area, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Bojas, B.; Salazar, A.; Robinson, A.; Meunier, M.; Oviedo, P.; Swallow, J.; Diamond, L. )

    1993-02-01

    A multidisciplinary study has been conducted on the giant oilfields located in the northern Monagas area of the eastern Venezuela basin. The oilfields occur in a lower tertiary and Cretaceous sequence which has been heavily tectonized as a consequence of recent transpression along the Caribbean south American plate boundary. This structurally complex area was initially mapped by using 3000 km. Of 2D seismic data. Experience has shown these data to be inadequate and a 150 sq Km 3D survey was acquired over the Santa Barbara area. These data have been interpreted and several new structural features have been identified. As a consequence of this work the structural model has been modified and applied throughout the area. The Cretaceous to late Oligocene sediments, including the Naricual formation which is the main producing horizon, has been studied systematically. These sediments were deposited initially in a fluvial environment which was gradually inundated by successive marine incursions. Approximately 7000 ft of core has been logged and the sedimentary facies and sequence boundaries recognized were then used to calibrate electric logs which allowed facies extrapolation across the whole area. The final parasequence analysis has provided a detailed and reliable reservoir correlation. Original pressure data and subsequent production histories, together with different known oil-water contacts implies separate producing areas. Complex fluid segregations, from condensates to heavy oil had also to be explained. The integration of the geophysical, geological, fluid and production data has allowed each discipline to refine their field models by removing conflicts between these data, thereby producing a better overall description of the reservoir.

  13. 3D Structural and Stratigraphic Architecture of the Northwest Santa Barbara Channel and Implications for Submarine Landslide Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A.; Kluesner, J. W.; Brothers, D. S.; Johnson, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple submarine landslides have been previously documented on the north flank of the Santa Barbara Channel, and such failures are considered capable of generating local tsunamis. 2D seismic-reflection datasets provide a general view of regional framework geology, including faulting and folding associated with north-south compression. However, better understanding of the relationships between faults, folds, stratigraphic architecture, and submarine landslides can be obtained with 3D seismic datasets. In this study we use an industry 3D seismic-reflection volume that encompasses the slope and shelfbreak surrounding the Gaviota submarine landslide (3.8 km2) to investigate structural and stratigraphic controls on slope failure in this region. The depth-migrated seismic volume shows a network of stacked thrust faults, backthrusts, and splays that results in both broad and local zones of compression and folding along the slope and shelf. One localized zone of enhanced folding associated with small-offset thrust faults is located directly beneath the Gaviota landslide headwall, while another zone is located directly below an imaged seafloor fissure. In addition, 3D seismic attribute analysis provides insight into the shallow sedimentary section of the failed and non-failed sedimentary packages. Calculation of RMS amplitude and dominant frequency within a windowed region below the seafloor horizon delineates an apparent zone of gas-charged strata that onlaps onto older folded sediments. The up-dip limit of these gas-charged sediments aligns with the location of a seafloor fissure that extends westward from the Gaviota landslide headwall. We propose that the combination of deformation and fluid charging acted to pre-condition and trigger the failure of the Gaviota landslide, and as a result, the presence of these conditions along the fissure adjacent to the Gaviota landslide suggests this area should be considered landslide prone.

  14. A Geomorphic Investigation of the Tectonic Transition between the Santa Barbara and Ventura Fold Belts near Rincon Point, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredrickson, S. M.; Keller, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Santa Barbara and Ventura Fold Belts have very different uplift rates: ~1-2 m/ky and ~6-8 m/ky, respectively. Differences are probably related to the position of the two belts relative to the big bend of the San Andreas fault. The onshore transition between these fold belts occurs at Rincon Creek, near Carpinteria. We use a combination of geomorphology and geochronology to describe patterns and rates of crustal deformation near Rincon Creek and test whether the known change in uplift rate is spatially discrete or distributed across the transition zone.Five sediment samples from the first emergent marine terrace between Carpinteria and Rincon Creek are being processed for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. We expect the age of this terrace to be either MIS 3 or MIS 5. An age of MIS 3 will suggest that the terrace is continuous with the Punta Gorda terrace across Rincon Creek. An age of MIS 5 will suggest that a geologic discontinuity exists across Rincon Creek, supporting the existence of a cross-fault at Rincon Creek. Terrace chronology will also help constrain the growth rate of the Rincon Creek anticline and the slip rates of several faults that vertically displace the marine terrace.Uplift patterns may be inferred from stream profile analysis via digital topography. Preliminary analysis of normalized stream steepness indices and stream concavities from Carpinteria to La Conchita indicate a gradational change in uplift rate rather than a sharp transition at Rincon Creek. Chi analysis and knickpoint identification are in progress and will also help delineate patterns of uplift.

  15. Integration of sequence stratigraphy and process sedimentology: Miocene Rincon and Topanga Formations, Santa Barbara basin near Point Mugu, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.W.; Marquard, R.S. )

    1990-05-01

    The Miocene Rincan and Topanga formations exposed at Point Mugu comprise over 1,200 ft of interbedded sandstones, siltstones, claystones, and clay shales that were deposited in a tectonically active marine basin adjacent to the present Santa Monica Mountains. Integration of sequence stratigraphic interpretation techniques and process sedimentology demonstrates that this section originated as shelfal deposits during sea level rise that were cut by a submarine canyon during subsequent sea level lowstand. The base of the sequence contains a bioturbated silty sandstone indicative of a transgressive deposit within the sequence stratigraphic framework. Upsection, dark clay shales of a condensed section contain fish fragments and sponge progradational highstand shelf sandstones. An erosional surface flooring a deep-water canyon cuts the highstand deposits and marks a sequence boundary. Within the submarine canyon fill, deep-water deposits represent at least two episodes of sediment gravity flows. A predominantly deformed lower section is cut by an erosional surface (another sequence boundary ) overlain by undeformed strata. The deformed section was caused by slumping of a canyon wall within a slope environment and deposition of high-density turbidites and debris flows. The undeformed section contains Bouma sequences, graded beds, dish structures, and biogenic structures. Interstratified bed-thinning and bed-thickening sequences suggest minor progradational events and small feeder channels within the undeformed section. These relationships demonstrate that not all sequences comprising deep-water deposits can be easily assigned to facies, such as channels and lobes, based on vertical and lateral profiles. This integration of sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology has assisted in understanding the vertical and lateral heterogeneities present within exploration and production areas in the adjacent Santa Barbara Channel.

  16. An Event Restriction Interval Theory of Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Brandon Robert

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel theory of tense and tense-like constructions. It is named after a key theoretical component of the theory, the event restriction interval. In Event Restriction Interval (ERI) Theory, sentences are semantically evaluated relative to an index which contains two key intervals, the evaluation interval and the event…

  17. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, K.J.

    1994-07-26

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured. 3 figs.

  18. High resolution time interval counter

    DOEpatents

    Condreva, Kenneth J.

    1994-01-01

    A high resolution counter circuit measures the time interval between the occurrence of an initial and a subsequent electrical pulse to two nanoseconds resolution using an eight megahertz clock. The circuit includes a main counter for receiving electrical pulses and generating a binary word--a measure of the number of eight megahertz clock pulses occurring between the signals. A pair of first and second pulse stretchers receive the signal and generate a pair of output signals whose widths are approximately sixty-four times the time between the receipt of the signals by the respective pulse stretchers and the receipt by the respective pulse stretchers of a second subsequent clock pulse. Output signals are thereafter supplied to a pair of start and stop counters operable to generate a pair of binary output words representative of the measure of the width of the pulses to a resolution of two nanoseconds. Errors associated with the pulse stretchers are corrected by providing calibration data to both stretcher circuits, and recording start and stop counter values. Stretched initial and subsequent signals are combined with autocalibration data and supplied to an arithmetic logic unit to determine the time interval in nanoseconds between the pair of electrical pulses being measured.

  19. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 3, development of a three-dimensional digital ground-water flow model for storage unit I of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter; Berenbrock, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Water-bearing rocks within the 7 sq mi of Storage Unit I of the Santa Barbara Groundwater Basin, consist of unconsolidated deposits that range in thickness from < 300 ft along the north perimeter of the unit to > 1,000 ft near the Pacific Ocean. The groundwater system was simulated as two horizontal layers separated by a confining bed. The model boundaries coincide with mapped faults on all sides. The faults were considered no-flow boundaries except for the offshore fault that forms the south boundary. This boundary was simulated as a general-head boundary , which allows water to move into and out of the modeled area. The model was calibrated by simulating both steady-state conditions (approximated by July 1978 and February 1983 water levels) and transient-state conditions (represented by May 1978 through December 1979 water level changes). The calibrated model was then used to simulate the period from January 1980 through December 1983 in order to verify the model. Model results generally closely matched measured data throughout Storage Unit I. During the transient and verification simulations, 9,980 acre-ft of groundwater was pumped from Storage Unit I for municipal use. Results of the model indicate that 42% (4,190 acre-ft) of the water pumped from the system was withdrawn from storage, 33% (3,290 acre-ft) was derived from changes in underflow across the offshore fault, and 25% (2,500 acre-ft) was derived from decreased groundwater discharge to drains. The model simulated that municipal pumpage induced about 1,380 acre-ft of water to move across the offshore fault toward Storage Unit I. Several model simulations were used to estimate aquifer response to different municipal pumpage patterns that could be used as management alternatives. Results of the simulations indicate that spreading municipal pumpage more evenly throughout Storage Unit I, by increasing the number of wells while reducing the pumping rate at the individual wells to maintain the same total

  20. Variations in archaeal and bacterial diversity associated with the sulfate-methane transition zone in continental margin sediments (Santa Barbara Basin, California).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Benjamin K; Zhang, Husen; Berelson, Will; Orphan, Victoria J

    2009-03-01

    The sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) is a widespread feature of continental margins, representing a diffusion-controlled interface where there is enhanced microbial activity. SMTZ microbial activity is commonly associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), which is carried out by syntrophic associations between sulfate-reducing bacteria and methane-oxidizing archaea. While our understanding of the microorganisms catalyzing AOM has advanced, the diversity and ecological role of the greater microbial assemblage associated with the SMTZ have not been well characterized. In this study, the microbial diversity above, within, and beneath the Santa Barbara Basin SMTZ was described. ANME-1-related archaeal phylotypes appear to be the primary methane oxidizers in the Santa Barbara Basin SMTZ, which was independently supported by exclusive recovery of related methyl coenzyme M reductase genes (mcrA). Sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria phylotypes affiliated with the Desulfobacterales and Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus clades were also enriched in the SMTZ, as confirmed by analysis of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) gene diversity. Statistical methods demonstrated that there was a close relationship between the microbial assemblages recovered from the two horizons associated with the geochemically defined SMTZ, which could be distinguished from microbial diversity recovered from the sulfate-replete overlying horizons and methane-rich sediment beneath the transition zone. Comparison of the Santa Barbara Basin SMTZ microbial assemblage to microbial assemblages of methane seeps and other organic matter-rich sedimentary environments suggests that bacterial groups not typically associated with AOM, such as Planctomycetes and candidate division JS1, are additionally enriched within the SMTZ and may represent a common bacterial signature of many SMTZ environments worldwide.

  1. Functional Group Chemistry (by James R. Hanson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karty, Joel M.

    2002-06-01

    Given its density and brevity and the apparent requirement of previous organic chemistry knowledge, Functional Group Chemistry is inappropriate as a stand-alone text for first-year organic students. It is also difficult to imagine using it as a supplement to a traditional textbook, since the textbook would presumably provide the same material in greater depth and with better clarity. The end-of-chapter problems in Functional Group Chemistry, however, would provide excellent exam and supplemental homework questions, and would be appropriate given the greater emphasis on reaction mechanisms in the traditional textbook. Perhaps the best use for Functional Group Chemistry, then, is for students returning after having had a year of organic chemistry, either for a quick reference, or for an in-depth review in studying for a standardized exam.

  2. Blue oak plant communities of southern San Luis Obispo and northern Santa Barbara Counties, California. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Borchert, M.I.; Cunha, N.D.; Krosse, P.C.; Lawrence, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    An ecological classification system has been developed for the Pacific Southwest Region of the Forest Service. As part of that classification effort, blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodlands and forests of southern San Luis Obispo and northern Santa Barbara Counties in Los Padres National Forest were classified into 13 plant communities using vegetation collected from 208 plots, 0.1 acre each. Three distinct regions of vegetation were identified in the study area: Avenales, Miranda Pine Mountain and Branch Mountain. Communities were classified separately for plots in each region. Each region has a woodland community that occupies flat or gently sloping benches, toeslopes, and valley bottoms.

  3. Modeling of depth to base of Last Glacial Maximum and seafloor sediment thickness for the California State Waters Map Series, eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Sliter, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Models of the depth to the base of Last Glacial Maximum and sediment thickness over the base of Last Glacial Maximum for the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are a key part of the maps of shallow subsurface geology and structure for offshore Refugio to Hueneme Canyon, California, in the California State Waters Map Series. A satisfactory interpolation of the two datasets that accounted for regional geologic structure was developed using geographic information systems modeling and graphics software tools. Regional sediment volumes were determined from the model. Source data files suitable for geographic information systems mapping applications are provided.

  4. Orders on Intervals Over Partially Ordered Sets: Extending Allen's Algebra and Interval Graph Results

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Francisco; Kreinovich, Vladik; Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.

    2013-08-01

    To make a decision, we need to compare the values of quantities. In many practical situations, we know the values with interval uncertainty. In such situations, we need to compare intervals. Allen’s algebra describes all possible relations between intervals on the real line, and ordering relations between such intervals are well studied. In this paper, we extend this description to intervals in an arbitrary partially ordered set (poset). In particular, we explicitly describe ordering relations between intervals that generalize relation between points. As auxiliary results, we provide a logical interpretation of the relation between intervals, and extend the results about interval graphs to intervals over posets.

  5. Differences in semen freezability and intracellular ATP content between the rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara).

    PubMed

    Madeddu, M; Berlinguer, F; Pasciu, V; Succu, S; Satta, V; Leoni, G G; Zinellu, A; Muzzeddu, M; Carru, C; Naitana, S

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to compare viability, ATP content, and DNA integrity of rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) fresh and frozen spermatozoa in order to identify factors possibly related to differences in semen freezability. Ejaculates were obtained from March to May by the abdominal massage method from 3 adult roosters and 12 adult Barbary partridges. Semen was frozen with different cryoprotectants using Lake's diluents as a base medium: 1) glycerol 11%; 2) glycerol 11% and trehalose 70 mmol/L; 3) dimethylacetamide (DMA) 6%; 4) DMA 6% and trehalose 70 mmol/L. Both fresh and frozen semen showed a lower viability and higher intracellular ATP concentrations in the Barbary partridge compared with the rooster (P < 0.05). In the Barbary partridge, semen viability after thawing did not differ among the 4 media used, but glycerol showed positive effects in avoiding a significant loss of ATP after thawing, compared with DMA containing media (P < 0.05). On the other hand, in the rooster a higher viability was recorded when semen was frozen in glycerol containing media compared to DMA (P < 0.0001), while ATP values significantly decreased after thawing (P < 0.05) without showing any differences among the semen frozen in the 4 different media. DNA integrity, as evaluated by the comet assay, was assessed only in frozen semen. In the Barbary partridge, mean scored parameter did not differ significantly among semen frozen in the 4 different media. In the rooster DNA fragmentation was higher in DMA ctr medium compared with the other media and with values found in Barbary partridge semen frozen in the same medium (P < 0.001). In both species, the addition of trehalose did not show any positive effects on viability, ATP levels and DNA integrity after thawing. In conclusion, species-related differences in semen features exist between the rooster and the Barbary partridge and the wide variation observed in ATP levels may account for differences

  6. Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

  7. Pigeons' Choices between Fixed-Interval and Random-Interval Schedules: Utility of Variability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E.; Cardinal, Claudia D.; Field, Douglas P.; Flannery, Barbara A.; Johnson, Michael; Bailey, Kathleen; Hineline, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    Pigeons' choosing between fixed-interval and random-interval schedules of reinforcement was investigated in three experiments using a discrete-trial procedure. In all three experiments, the random-interval schedule was generated by sampling a probability distribution at an interval (and in multiples of the interval) equal to that of the…

  8. Weighted regression analysis and interval estimators

    Treesearch

    Donald W. Seegrist

    1974-01-01

    A method for deriving the weighted least squares estimators for the parameters of a multiple regression model. Confidence intervals for expected values, and prediction intervals for the means of future samples are given.

  9. Interpregnancy interval and obstetrical complications.

    PubMed

    Shachar, Bat Zion; Lyell, Deirdre J

    2012-09-01

    Obstetricians are often presented with questions regarding the optimal interpregnancy interval (IPI). Short IPI has been associated with adverse perinatal and maternal outcomes, ranging from preterm birth and low birth weight to neonatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Long IPI has in turn been associated with increased risk for preeclampsia and labor dystocia. In this review, we discuss the data regarding these associations along with recent studies revealing associations of short IPI with birth defects, schizophrenia, and autism. The optimal IPI may vary for different subgroups. We discuss the consequences of short IPI in women with a prior cesarean section, in particular the increased risk for uterine rupture and the considerations regarding a trial of labor in this subgroup. We review studies examining the interaction between short IPI and advanced maternal age and discuss the risk-benefit assessment for these women. Finally, we turn our attention to women after a stillbirth or an abortion, who often desire to conceive again with minimal delay. We discuss studies speaking in favor of a shorter IPI in this group. The accumulated data allow for the reevaluation of current IPI recommendations and management guidelines for women in general and among subpopulations with special circumstances. In particular, we suggest lowering the current minimal IPI recommendation to only 18 months (vs 24 months according to the latest World Health Organization recommendations), with even shorter recommended minimal IPI for women of advanced age and those who conceive after a spontaneous or induced abortion.

  10. The Measurement of the QT Interval

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Pieter G; Wilde, Arthur A.M

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of every electrocardiogram should also include an effort to interpret the QT interval to assess the risk of malignant arrhythmias and sudden death associated with an aberrant QT interval. The QT interval is measured from the beginning of the QRS complex to the end of the T-wave, and should be corrected for heart rate to enable comparison with reference values. However, the correct determination of the QT interval, and its value, appears to be a daunting task. Although computerized analysis and interpretation of the QT interval are widely available, these might well over- or underestimate the QT interval and may thus either result in unnecessary treatment or preclude appropriate measures to be taken. This is particularly evident with difficult T-wave morphologies and technically suboptimal ECGs. Similarly, also accurate manual assessment of the QT interval appears to be difficult for many physicians worldwide. In this review we delineate the history of the measurement of the QT interval, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the current standards of the measurement of the QT interval, we provide a glimpse into the future and we discuss several issues troubling accurate measurement of the QT interval. These issues include the lead choice, U-waves, determination of the end of the T-wave, different heart rate correction formulas, arrhythmias and the definition of normal and aberrant QT intervals. Furthermore, we provide recommendations that may serve as guidance to address these complexities and which support accurate assessment of the QT interval and its interpretation. PMID:24827793

  11. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  12. Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles and the California Current System: Planktonic foraminiferal response to rapid climate change in Santa Barbara Basin, Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, Ingrid L.; Kennett, James P.

    2000-02-01

    High-resolution planktonic foraminiferal census data from Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program hole 893A) demonstrate major assemblage switches between 25 and 60 ka that were associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. Stadials dominated by Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral), and Globigerinoides glutinata suggest a strong subpolar California Current influence, while interstadials marked by abundant N. pachyderma (dextral) and G. bulloides indicate a relative increase in subtropical countercurrent influence. Modern analog technique and transfer function (F-20RSC) temperature reconstructions support δ18O evidence of large rapid (70 years or less) sea surface temperature shifts (3° to 5°C) between stadials and interstadials. Changes in the vertical temperature gradient and water column structure (thermocline depth) are recorded by planktonic faunal oscillations suggest bimodal stability in the organization of North Pacific surface ocean circulation. Santa Barbara Basin surface water demonstrates the rapid response of the California Current System to reorganization of North Pacific atmospheric circulation during rapid climate change. Supporting assemblage data are, available on diskette or via Anonymous FTP from Kosmos.agu.org, Directory APEND (username = anonymous, Password = guest). Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by phone at 800-966-2481; $5.00. Payment must accompany order.

  13. A 150 year record of inter-annual climate variability and organic carbon burial in Santa Monica and Santa Barbara Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hagadorn, J.W.; Stott, L.D.; Sinha, A.; Rincon, M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Schimmelmann, A. . Scripps Inst. of Oceanography)

    1992-01-01

    Stable isotopic measurements were conducted on total organic carbon (TOC) and fossil planktonic foraminifera in laminated sediments collected from Santa Monica and Santa Barbara Basins, California Borderland, in order to investigate relationships between climatic variability and organic carbon burial. These data currently provide biannual sample resolution back to 1750 AD. During the past 150 years, there has been a positive covariance between the carbon isotopic composition of fossil planktonic foraminifera and of TOC. Periods of increased delta C-13 of TOC and foraminifera correspond to higher organic carbon burial in Santa Monica and Santa Barbara Basins. When combined, these patterns are interpreted as variation in productivity within the basins. Isotopic variability in TOC and planktonic foraminifera is significantly higher prior to 1900 AD. Although spring sea surface temperatures were also significantly more variable during this period, the authors do not recognize a systematic relationship between temperature and organic carbon burial. Spectral analysis of isotopic compositions of fossil foraminifera calcite, TOC, organic carbon burial and lamination frequency in the sediments reveal distinct spectral peaks at 5 and 7.7 years, corresponding to ENSO/El Nino frequencies. Additional spectral peaks occur at 19 and 20 years. Previous time series analyses of tree ring width records indicate similar decadal-scale frequencies and suggest a possible link to solar and/or lunar nodal tidal cycles. While these initial results suggest a relationship between climate-cyclicity, primary productivity and organic carbon burial, the phase relationship cannot be deciphered from this preliminary data set.

  14. The marine geology of the eastern Santa Barbara Channel, with particular emphasis on the ground water basins offshore from the Oxnard Plain, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H. Gary; Wolf, Stephen C.; Blom, Ken G.

    1978-01-01

    Marine geophysical investigations provide new data concerning the stratigraphy, tectonic and sedimentary history, and the ground water geology of the southeastern Santa Barbara Channel region. The offshore stratigraphy identified in seismic reflection profiles includes a succession of Neogene to Quaternary strata. The middle Miocene Conejo volcanics form an acoustical basement and the overlying late Cenozoic sedimentary rocks attain a thickness greater than 2,500 m. These sedimentary deposits fill a structurally controlled, physiographic and depositional depression called the Ventura Basin. Structure consists generally of a gently folded, east-trending Tertiary synclinorium bordered on the north by a regional thrust fault and on the south by a steep asymmetrical anticlinal ridge. Most structures show evidence of north-south compression that occurred during early Pleistocene time. Three well-defined unconformities represent widespread erosion in late Miocene, early to middle Pleistocene, and late Pleistocene time. The boundaries of Miocene, Pliocene, and lower Pleistocene strata continue uninterrupted eastward along the southern part of Santa Barbara basin to Hueneme Canyon, where they turn northeast and can be traced to the coast near Port Hueneme. These limits probably represent the south edge of the Santa Barbara basin during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. Fresh water-bearing materials of the Oxnard plain are unconsolidated Quaternary sediment laid down on more consolidated Tertiary rocks. Offshore, the total fresh water-bearing materials distinguished in the seismic reflection profiles attain a thickness of about 356 m and have an areal extent of over 760 km2. Strata that contain the offshore continuation of the five major on-land aquifers (Grimes Canyon, Fox Canyon, Hueneme, Mugu, and Oxnard aquifers) are identified in the seismic reflection profiles. These strata make up the two offshore ground-water basins, the Mound and Oxnard plain ground-water basins

  15. Tracking Identity: Opportunity, Success, and Affiliation with Science among Fifth-Grade Latina/o Youth of Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Grayson Ford

    This dissertation is an investigation into the American public education system at the elementary school level. It highlights important factors that shape the organizational structure of schools and classrooms, and in turn, how they engender disparities in the ways students experience education, namely, in the opportunities made available to them to achieve and succeed at a high level. This dissertation operates at the confluence of notions about class, gender, language, and race, especially as they revolve around public education and the hegemonic meritocratic discourse on which it is founded. This dissertation engages and contributes to scholarship within the following areas: The political economy of education; discourse and the dialectical relationship between agency and structure; cultural perspectives on identity, voice, and learning; and, Latinas/os in science education. The data that serve as the basis for the findings presented in this dissertation were collected throughout a three-phase yearlong ethnographic study of the two tracked fifth-grade classrooms at Amblen Elementary School, serving a socioeconomically disadvantaged Latina/o student population in Santa Barbara, California. In classrooms all across the nation, while it remains true that Latina/o students disproportionally take up space in the lower-tracked courses and not in the higher ones, this study does not examine inequality in tracking assignments made along ethnic/racial lines (as 100% of the students that participated in this research identify as Latina/o), rather, it investigates the consequences of what happens when Latina/o students are tracked according to symbolic markers of their ethnic/racial identity, that is, their varying levels of English language competency. Using data from participant observation, semi-structured interviews, students' drawings, as well as free-list and rank-order exercises, I was able to answer the following central research questions: In what ways do the

  16. Intervals in evolutionary algorithms for global optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    Optimization is of central concern to a number of disciplines. Interval Arithmetic methods for global optimization provide us with (guaranteed) verified results. These methods are mainly restricted to the classes of objective functions that are twice differentiable and use a simple strategy of eliminating a splitting larger regions of search space in the global optimization process. An efficient approach that combines the efficient strategy from Interval Global Optimization Methods and robustness of the Evolutionary Algorithms is proposed. In the proposed approach, search begins with randomly created interval vectors with interval widths equal to the whole domain. Before the beginning of the evolutionary process, fitness of these interval parameter vectors is defined by evaluating the objective function at the center of the initial interval vectors. In the subsequent evolutionary process the local optimization process returns an estimate of the bounds of the objective function over the interval vectors. Though these bounds may not be correct at the beginning due to large interval widths and complicated function properties, the process of reducing interval widths over time and a selection approach similar to simulated annealing helps in estimating reasonably correct bounds as the population evolves. The interval parameter vectors at these estimated bounds (local optima) are then subjected to crossover and mutation operators. This evolutionary process continues for predetermined number of generations in the search of the global optimum.

  17. Capacitated max -Batching with Interval Graph Compatibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonner, Tim

    We consider the problem of partitioning interval graphs into cliques of bounded size. Each interval has a weight, and the weight of a clique is the maximum weight of any interval in the clique. This natural graph problem can be interpreted as a batch scheduling problem. Solving a long-standing open problem, we show NP-hardness, even if the bound on the clique sizes is constant. Moreover, we give a PTAS based on a novel dynamic programming technique for this case.

  18. Confidence Interval Procedures for Reliability Growth Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    Plj2s tSAA - TECHNICAL RPORT NO. 197 CONFIDENCE INTERVAL PROCEDURES FOR RELIABILITY, GROWTH ANALYSIS LARRY H. CROW JUNE 1977 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...dence Intervals for M(T). ¶-. fl [ ] 1 Siion IIS0III0N/AVAI Ale ITY ClOtS Next page is blank. So3 CONFIDENCE INTERVAL PROCIEDURIS• FOR RELTABILITY...and confidence interval procedures for the parameters B and P = X are presented in [l , [2], [4]. In the application of the Weibull process model to

  19. Confidence intervals for the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Munley, P H

    1991-08-01

    The confidence intervals for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) clinical scales were investigated. Based on the clinical scale reliabilities published in the MMPI-2 manual, estimated true scores, standard errors of measurement for estimated true scores, and 95% confidence intervals centered around estimated true scores were calculated at 5-point MMPI-2 T-score intervals. The relationships between obtained T-scores, estimated true T-scores, scale reliabilities, and confidence intervals are discussed. The possible role of error measurement in defining scale high point and code types is noted.

  20. WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data and Sensitivity Plots from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search II and the University of California at Santa Barbara

    DOE Data Explorer

    Expectations for non-baryonic dark matter are founded principally in Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, which indicate that the missing mass of the universe is not likely to be baryonic. The supersymmetric standard model (SUSY) offers a promising framework for expectations of particle species which could satisfy the observed properties of dark matter. WIMPs are the most likely SUSY candidate for a dark matter particle. The High Energy Physics Group at University of California, Santa Barbara, is part of the CDMSII Collaboration and have provided the Interactive Plotter for WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data on their website. They invite other collaborations working on dark matter research to submit datasets and, as a result, have more than 150 data sets now available for use with the plotting tool. The published source of the data is provided with each data set.

  1. Interval and Contour Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group…

  2. Optimal Approximation of Quadratic Interval Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshelev, Misha; Taillibert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Measurements are never absolutely accurate, as a result, after each measurement, we do not get the exact value of the measured quantity; at best, we get an interval of its possible values, For dynamically changing quantities x, the additional problem is that we cannot measure them continuously; we can only measure them at certain discrete moments of time t(sub 1), t(sub 2), ... If we know that the value x(t(sub j)) at a moment t(sub j) of the last measurement was in the interval [x-(t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j))], and if we know the upper bound D on the rate with which x changes, then, for any given moment of time t, we can conclude that x(t) belongs to the interval [x-(t(sub j)) - D (t - t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j)) + D (t - t(sub j))]. This interval changes linearly with time, an is, therefore, called a linear interval function. When we process these intervals, we get an expression that is quadratic and higher order w.r.t. time t, Such "quadratic" intervals are difficult to process and therefore, it is necessary to approximate them by linear ones. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that gives the optimal approximation of quadratic interval functions by linear ones.

  3. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Porting Intervals. 52.35 Section 52.35 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Number Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port...

  4. SINGLE-INTERVAL GAS PERMEABILITY ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

  5. SINGLE-INTERVAL GAS PERMEABILITY ESTIMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-interval, steady-steady-state gas permeability testing requires estimation of pressure at a screened interval which in turn requires measurement of friction factors as a function of mass flow rate. Friction factors can be obtained by injecting air through a length of pipe...

  6. Interval and Contour Processing in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group…

  7. Interpretation of Confidence Interval Facing the Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Luisa; Fernández, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    As literature has reported, it is usual that university students in statistics courses, and even statistics teachers, interpret the confidence level associated with a confidence interval as the probability that the parameter value will be between the lower and upper interval limits. To confront this misconception, class activities have been…

  8. Prehistoric fires and the shaping of colonial transported landscapes in southern California: A paleoenvironmental study at Dune Pond, Santa Barbara County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejarque, Ana; Anderson, R. Scott; Simms, Alexander R.; Gentry, Beau J.

    2015-03-01

    Using a novel combination of paleoecologic proxies including pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), macroscopic charcoal, and Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles (SCPs), 5000 years of landscape change, fire history and land-use have been reconstructed from Dune Pond, Santa Barbara County, California. The pond was sensitive to Holocene regional climatic variability, showing different phases of lower (4600-3700 cal yr BP, 2100-700 cal yr BP, historical period) and higher (3700-2100 cal yr BP, 700-150 cal yr BP) local moisture availability. During this period the landscape was dominated by a coastal mosaic vegetation including dune mats, coastal scrub and salt marshes on the dunes and backdunes, with chaparral and oak woodland growing in the valley plains and foothills. Fire was intimately linked with such dominating mosaic vegetation, and the combination of wet conditions and the presence of nearby human settlement were a trigger favoring coastal fires for at least two periods: from 3100 to 1500 cal yr BP and from 650 cal yr BP until the 18th century. In both cases fire was an important tool to keep an open coastal landscape attractive to hunting wildlife. Finally, matching this varied range of high-resolution paleoecological proxies with historical records we could characterize the development of colonial transported landscapes following the Euro-American settlement of Santa Barbara. The introduction of livestock grazing by Spanish colonists favored erosive processes and the introduction of fecal-borne parasites in freshwater bodies, negatively impacted salt and brackish coastal marshes, and promoted the invasion of alien grasses and ruderals. This agro-pastoral landscape was consolidated during the American period, with a greater role for cultivation, the development of industrial activities and increased population. Despite negative environmental consequences such as the loss of native habitats, exotic land-uses and plants introduced during the historical period

  9. Seventh progress report on the cooperative investigation of springs and streamflow in the Tecolote tunnel area of Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, W.C.

    1957-01-01

    This report is the seventh in a a continuing series of progress reports giving the results of discharge measurements made at selected springs and streams in the Tecolote Tunnel are area of the Santa Ynez Mountains. The mountains. The measurement program was begun on its present scale in the latter part of 1948 by the Geological Survey at the request of the Santa Barbara County Water Agency and is being continued under a cooperative agreement whereby each agency pays half the cost of the investigation. The purpose of the program is to obtain sufficient factual data to determine what effect, if any, the inflow of ground water into Tecolote Tunnel will have on the flow of springs and streams in the vicinity of the tunnel. The area involved in the study, shown by plate 1, was made large enough to include a number of springs and steams believe to be outside the zone of influence of the tunnel. Tecolote Tunnel, completed late in 1955, was built by the Bureau of Reclamation for the purpose of conveying water stored in Cachuma Reservoir to the city of Santa Barbara and adjacent coastal communities. The alinement of the tunnel is roughly north and south through the center of the arbitrarily chosen study area which extends from the Painted Cave area on the east to Refugio Pass on the west and from the Santa Ynez River on the North to the Pacific Ocean on the south. The purpose of this report is to make available the factual data obtained from July 1954 to June 1956, together with a brief presentation of precipitation, springflow, and tunnel outflow for the entire period of investigation.

  10. Response of diatoms and silicoflagellates to climate change in the Santa Barbara Basin during the past 250 years and the rise of the toxic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David; Field, David B.; Finney, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Diatoms and silicoflagellate assemblages were examined in two year-increments of varved samples spanning the interval from 1748 through 2007 in Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) box core SBBC0806 to determine the timing and impact of possible 20th century warming on several different components of the plankton. Diatoms (Thalassionema nitzschioides =TN) and silicoflagellates (Distephanus speculum s.l. =DS) indicative of cooler waters and a shallow thermocline begin to decline in the 1920s and persistently compose a lower percentage of the assemblage in the SBB by about 1940. Prior to 1940, TN constituted on average ~30% of the Chaetoceros-free diatom sediment assemblage and DS on average ~36% of the silicoflagellate assemblage. Between 1940 and 1996 these relative abundances were ~20% (TN) and ~8% (DS). These results are consistent with results from planktonic foraminifera and radiolarians that indicate an influence of 20th century warming on marine ecosystems before most scientific observations began. Cooling of surface waters coincident with the one of the strongest La Niña events of the 20th century (and a return to negative PDO conditions) in late 1998 brought about a return to pre-1940 values of these cool water taxa (TN ~31%, DS ~25%). However, this recent regional cooling appears to have been accompanied by profound changes in the diatom assemblage. Pseudo-nitzschia australis, and Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, diatom species associated with domoic acid, a neurotoxin that causes shellfish poisoning and marine mammal deaths, rapidly became dominant in the SBB sediment record at the time of the regional cooling (1999) and increased substantially in numbers as a bloom-forming taxon (relative to Chaetoceros spores) in 2003. Prior to 2003 diatom blooms recorded in the SBB sediment record consisted predominantly of Chaetoceros spores and less commonly of Rhizosolenia-related species (Neocalyptrella robusta and R. setigera). Fecal pellets dominated by valves of P. australis

  11. Biomathematics and Interval Analysis: A Prosperous Marriage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, S. M.

    2010-11-01

    In this survey paper we focus our attention on dynamical bio-systems involving uncertainties and the use of interval methods for the modelling study of such systems. The kind of envisioned uncertain systems are those described by a dynamical model with parameters bounded in intervals. We point out to a fruitful symbiosis between dynamical modelling in biology and computational methods of interval analysis. Both fields are presently in the stage of rapid development and can benefit from each other. We point out on recent studies in the field of interval arithmetic from a new perspective—the midpoint-radius arithmetic which explores the properties of error bounds and approximate numbers. The midpoint-radius approach provides a bridge between interval methods and the "uncertain but bounded" approach used for model estimation and identification. We briefly discuss certain recently obtained algebraic properties of errors and approximate numbers.

  12. Improved interval estimation of comparative treatment effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Krevelen, Ryne Christian

    Comparative experiments, in which subjects are randomized to one of two treatments, are performed often. There is no shortage of papers testing whether a treatment effect exists and providing confidence intervals for the magnitude of this effect. While it is well understood that the object and scope of inference for an experiment will depend on what assumptions are made, these entities are not always clearly presented. We have proposed one possible method, which is based on the ideas of Jerzy Neyman, that can be used for constructing confidence intervals in a comparative experiment. The resulting intervals, referred to as Neyman-type confidence intervals, can be applied in a wide range of cases. Special care is taken to note which assumptions are made and what object and scope of inference are being investigated. We have presented a notation that highlights which parts of a problem are being treated as random. This helps ensure the focus on the appropriate scope of inference. The Neyman-type confidence intervals are compared to possible alternatives in two different inference settings: one in which inference is made about the units in the sample and one in which inference is made about units in a fixed population. A third inference setting, one in which inference is made about a process distribution, is also discussed. It is stressed that certain assumptions underlying this third type of inference are unverifiable. When these assumptions are not met, the resulting confidence intervals may cover their intended target well below the desired rate. Through simulation, we demonstrate that the Neyman-type intervals have good coverage properties when inference is being made about a sample or a population. In some cases the alternative intervals are much wider than necessary on average. Therefore, we recommend that researchers consider using our Neyman-type confidence intervals when carrying out inference about a sample or a population as it may provide them with more

  13. Empirical Bayes interval estimates that are conditionally equal to unadjusted confidence intervals or to default prior credibility intervals.

    PubMed

    Bickel, David R

    2012-02-21

    Problems involving thousands of null hypotheses have been addressed by estimating the local false discovery rate (LFDR). A previous LFDR approach to reporting point and interval estimates of an effect-size parameter uses an estimate of the prior distribution of the parameter conditional on the alternative hypothesis. That estimated prior is often unreliable, and yet strongly influences the posterior intervals and point estimates, causing the posterior intervals to differ from fixed-parameter confidence intervals, even for arbitrarily small estimates of the LFDR. That influence of the estimated prior manifests the failure of the conditional posterior intervals, given the truth of the alternative hypothesis, to match the confidence intervals. Those problems are overcome by changing the posterior distribution conditional on the alternative hypothesis from a Bayesian posterior to a confidence posterior. Unlike the Bayesian posterior, the confidence posterior equates the posterior probability that the parameter lies in a fixed interval with the coverage rate of the coinciding confidence interval. The resulting confidence-Bayes hybrid posterior supplies interval and point estimates that shrink toward the null hypothesis value. The confidence intervals tend to be much shorter than their fixed-parameter counterparts, as illustrated with gene expression data. Simulations nonetheless confirm that the shrunken confidence intervals cover the parameter more frequently than stated. Generally applicable sufficient conditions for correct coverage are given. In addition to having those frequentist properties, the hybrid posterior can also be motivated from an objective Bayesian perspective by requiring coherence with some default prior conditional on the alternative hypothesis. That requirement generates a new class of approximate posteriors that supplement Bayes factors modified for improper priors and that dampen the influence of proper priors on the credibility intervals. While

  14. The microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, G. David; Weiss, Bernard; Laties, Victor G.

    1983-01-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation in shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. PMID:16812324

  15. Microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Weiss, B.; Laties, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  16. Bipolar control in fixed interfood intervals

    PubMed Central

    Palya, William L.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of stimuli correlated with successive periods in a fixed interfood interval to support a response that produced or removed them was examined using pigeons. The degree to which those correlated stimuli elicited directed key pecks was also obtained. Stimuli early in the interval functioned as negative reinforcers, and stimuli late in the interval functioned as positive reinforcers. Stimuli correlated with successively later portions of the second half of the interval supported successively higher rates of elicited pecking and, with the exception of the final stimulus, supported successively higher rates of stimulus production. Stimuli in successively earlier portions of the first half of the interval supported successively higher rates of correlated-stimulus removal. This effect occurred in spite of the addition of a conjoint variable-interval dependency for food. An ogive fit to the mean normalized response distributions resulted in r2s demonstrating that most of the variance in the temporal organization of the behavior was accounted for. The findings were taken to indicate that fixed interfood intervals establish bipolar control. PMID:16812702

  17. Acceleration-induced electrocardiographic interval changes.

    PubMed

    Whinnery, C C; Whinnery, J E

    1988-02-01

    The electrocardiographic intervals (PR, QRS, QT, and RR) before, during, and post +Gz stress were measured in 24 healthy male subjects undergoing +Gz centrifuge exposure. The PR and QRS intervals responded in a predictable manner, shortening during stress and returning to baseline resting values post-stress. The QT interval, however, was not observed to be dependent solely on heart rate. Bazett's formula, which was developed to correct for heart rate variability, did not adequately result in a homogeneous correction of the QT interval for each stress-related period. During +Gz stress, the QT was shortened, and the QTc prolonged. The QT interval remained shortened even though the heart rate returned to baseline (with the QTc undercorrected) in the post-stress period. The QT (QTc) interval variations probably reflect the effects of both heart rate and autonomic balance during and after +Gz stress, and may provide a measure of the prevailing autonomic (sympathetic or parasympathetic) tone existing at a given point associated with +Gz stress. These electrocardiographic interval changes define the normal response for healthy individuals. Individuals with exaggerated autonomic responses could be identified by comparing their responses to these normal responses resulting from +Gz stress.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    PubMed

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T1 and T2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially resolved

  19. Fast transfer of crossmodal time interval training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lihan; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    Sub-second time perception is essential for many important sensory and perceptual tasks including speech perception, motion perception, motor coordination, and crossmodal interaction. This study investigates to what extent the ability to discriminate sub-second time intervals acquired in one sensory modality can be transferred to another modality. To this end, we used perceptual classification of visual Ternus display (Ternus in Psychol Forsch 7:81-136, 1926) to implicitly measure participants' interval perception in pre- and posttests and implemented an intra- or crossmodal sub-second interval discrimination training protocol in between the tests. The Ternus display elicited either an "element motion" or a "group motion" percept, depending on the inter-stimulus interval between the two visual frames. The training protocol required participants to explicitly compare the interval length between a pair of visual, auditory, or tactile stimuli with a standard interval or to implicitly perceive the length of visual, auditory, or tactile intervals by completing a non-temporal task (discrimination of auditory pitch or tactile intensity). Results showed that after fast explicit training of interval discrimination (about 15 min), participants improved their ability to categorize the visual apparent motion in Ternus displays, although the training benefits were mild for visual timing training. However, the benefits were absent for implicit interval training protocols. This finding suggests that the timing ability in one modality can be rapidly acquired and used to improve timing-related performance in another modality and that there may exist a central clock for sub-second temporal processing, although modality-specific perceptual properties may constrain the functioning of this clock.

  20. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  1. Interval arithmetic in power flow analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Alvarado, F.L. )

    1992-08-01

    The power flow is the fundamental tool for the study of power systems. The data for this problem are subject to uncertainty. This paper uses interval arithmetic to solve the power flow problem. Interval arithmetic takes into consideration the uncertainty of the nodal information, and is able to provide strict bounds for the solution to the problem: all possible solutions are included within the bounds given by interval arithmetic. Results are compared with those obtainable by Monte Carlo simulations and by the use of stochastic power flows.

  2. Learned interval time facilitates associate memory retrieval

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue–time–target associations between cue–target pairs and specific cue–target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying matching cue–target pairs if the time interval during testing matched the implicitly learned interval. A control experiment showed that participants had no explicit knowledge about the cue–time associations. We suggest that “elapsed time” can act as a temporal mnemonic associate that can facilitate retrieval of events associated in memory. PMID:28298554

  3. Sampling Theory and Confidence Intervals for Effect Sizes: Using ESCI To Illustrate "Bouncing"; Confidence Intervals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yunfei

    This paper discusses the impact of sampling error on the construction of confidence intervals around effect sizes. Sampling error affects the location and precision of confidence intervals. Meta-analytic resampling demonstrates that confidence intervals can haphazardly bounce around the true population parameter. Special software with graphical…

  4. Interval Estimates of Multivariate Effect Sizes: Coverage and Interval Width Estimates under Variance Heterogeneity and Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Melinda R.; Hogarty, Kristine Y.; Ferron, John M.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods were used to examine techniques for constructing confidence intervals around multivariate effect sizes. Using interval inversion and bootstrapping methods, confidence intervals were constructed around the standard estimate of Mahalanobis distance (D[superscript 2]), two bias-adjusted estimates of D[superscript 2], and Huberty's…

  5. Interval cancers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma screening: comparing two screening intervals after a negative initial screening result.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Huang, Qi-Hong; Fang, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Ke; Xie, Shang-Hang; Liu, Qing; Hong, Ming-Huang; Liao, Zhen-Er; Ye, Wei-Min; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Cao, Su-Mei

    2012-12-01

    To examine the optimal screening interval among the individuals who received a negative Epstein-Barr virus immunoglobulin A antibodies against viral capsid antigen (VCA-IgA) serum test result and who comprised the majority of the population screened for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Screening was performed in Sihui, Guangdong, China, offering a repeated screening for participants with an initial negative test either after 4-5 years in one centre (short interval centre), or 9-10 years in another (long interval centre). The characteristics and incidence rates (IRs) of interval NPCs (defined as cases diagnosed outside the screening protocol while within the screening interval) were compared between these two centres. Standard incidence ratios (SIRs) were also calculated using the general Sihui population as the reference. Seven interval NPCs were detected in the short interval centre (IR: 17.8/10(5) person-years) and 20 in the long interval centre (IR: 20.8/10(5) person-years during the first four years and 43.5/10(5) person-years during the remaining years). The SIR in the short interval centre was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.89); SIR in the long interval centre was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.17-1.02) during the first four years and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.49-1.51) during the remaining years. No aggressive interval NPC was observed in the short interval centre; four were identified in the long interval centre. The incidence of NPC, especially aggressive NPC, was low during the first few years after a negative screening; the incidence increased to the general population level afterwards. A screening interval of 4-5 years may therefore be more suitable than 9-10 years after a negative VCA-IgA test in NPC screening.

  6. A robust measure of food web intervality

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Daniel B.; Camacho, Juan; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2006-01-01

    Intervality of a food web is related to the number of trophic dimensions characterizing the niches in a community. We introduce here a mathematically robust measure for food web intervality. It has previously been noted that empirical food webs are not strictly interval; however, upon comparison to suitable null hypotheses, we conclude that empirical food webs actually do exhibit a strong bias toward contiguity of prey, that is, toward intervality. Further, our results strongly suggest that empirically observed species and their diets can be mapped onto a single dimension. This finding validates a critical assumption in the recently proposed static niche model and provides guidance for ongoing efforts to develop dynamic models of ecosystems. PMID:17146055

  7. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/− and −/− mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  8. Efficient Computation Of Confidence Intervals Of Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1992-01-01

    Study focuses on obtaining efficient algorithm for estimation of confidence intervals of ML estimates. Four algorithms selected to solve associated constrained optimization problem. Hybrid algorithms, following search and gradient approaches, prove best.

  9. Application of Interval Analysis to Error Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    We give simple examples of ways in which interval arithmetic can be used to alert instabilities in computer algorithms , roundoff error accumulation, and even the effects of hardware inadequacies. This paper is primarily tutorial. (Author)

  10. Efficient Computation Of Confidence Intervals Of Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1992-01-01

    Study focuses on obtaining efficient algorithm for estimation of confidence intervals of ML estimates. Four algorithms selected to solve associated constrained optimization problem. Hybrid algorithms, following search and gradient approaches, prove best.

  11. A robust measure of food web intervality.

    PubMed

    Stouffer, Daniel B; Camacho, Juan; Amaral, Luís A Nunes

    2006-12-12

    Intervality of a food web is related to the number of trophic dimensions characterizing the niches in a community. We introduce here a mathematically robust measure for food web intervality. It has previously been noted that empirical food webs are not strictly interval; however, upon comparison to suitable null hypotheses, we conclude that empirical food webs actually do exhibit a strong bias toward contiguity of prey, that is, toward intervality. Further, our results strongly suggest that empirically observed species and their diets can be mapped onto a single dimension. This finding validates a critical assumption in the recently proposed static niche model and provides guidance for ongoing efforts to develop dynamic models of ecosystems.

  12. Geological map and digital database of the San Rafael Mtn. 7.5-minute quadrangle, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vedder, John G.; Stanley, Richard G.; Graham, S.E.; Valin, Z.C.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the San Rafael Primitive Area (now the San Rafael Wilderness) by Gower and others (1966) and Vedder and others (1967) did not include all of the San Rafael Mtn. quadrangle, and the part that was mapped was done in reconnaissance fashion. To help resolve some of the structural and stratigraphic ambiguities of the earlier mapping and to complete the mapping of the quadrangle, additional field work was done during short intervals in 1980 and 1981 and from 1996 to 1998. Contacts within the belt of Franciscan rocks at the southwestern corner of the quadrangle were generalized from the detailed map by Wahl (1998). Because extensive areas were inaccessible owing to impenetrable chaparral, observations from several helicopter overflights (1965, 1980, 1981) and interpretations from aerial photographs were used as compilation aids. Consequently, some of the depicted contacts and faults are highly inferential, particularly within the Upper Cretaceous rocks throughout the middle part of the quadrangle.

  13. Periodicity In The Intervals Between Primes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    statistically strong periodicity is identified in the counting function giving the total number of intervals of a certain size. The nature of the periodic...positive intervals among the first n<=10^6 prime numbers as a probe of the global nature of the sequence of primes. A statistically strong periodicity is...Let x = x1, x2, . . . be an increasing sequence of real numbers which may be either finite or infinitely long. Throughout the following every bold

  14. Interval and contour processing in autism.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Pamela

    2005-12-01

    High functioning children with autism and age and intelligence matched controls participated in experiments testing perception of pitch intervals and musical contours. The finding from the interval study showed superior detection of pitch direction over small pitch distances in the autism group. On the test of contour discrimination no group differences emerged. These findings confirm earlier studies showing facilitated pitch processing and a preserved ability to represent small-scale musical structures in autism.

  15. Establishing reference intervals in the coagulation laboratory.

    PubMed

    Castellone, D D

    2017-05-01

    Obtaining a reference interval (RI) is a challenge for any laboratory and becomes more complicated in the coagulation laboratory due to testing on samples with limited stability on reagents that are poorly standardized. Reference intervals are required to be able to evaluate results in relation to a patients' hemostatic disorder. This becomes one of the most important tasks conducted in the coagulation laboratory. However, many laboratories lack the time, finances and in many cases the expertise to conduct this study. Many RI are obtained from package inserts, or from publications written by experts in lieu of laboratories conducting their own studies. An overview of validating reference intervals and options for verifying or transference of reference intervals is discussed. Based on the confidence interval and the acceptability of risk laboratories are willing to accept, coagulation laboratories have options to conduct robust studies for their RI. Data mining or global reference studies may help to provide data for age specific ranges. Pre-analytical variables and selection of healthy subjects have the largest impact on coagulation testing outcomes and need to be well controlled during the establishment of reference intervals. Laboratories have options in lieu of conducting a full validation on how to verify RI based on smaller RI studies or transference of RI after determining compatibility of the original RI study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  17. [The QT interval: standardization, limits and interpretation].

    PubMed

    Ouali, S; Ben Salem, H; Gribaa, R; Kacem, S; Hammas, S; Fradi, S; Neffeti, E; Remedi, F; Boughzela, E

    2012-02-01

    Despite clinical importance of ventricular repolarisation, it remains difficult to analyse. Conventionally, quantification of the electrocardiographic ventricular repolarization is usually performed with reference to axis of the T wave and QT interval duration. A variety of factors can prolong the QT interval, such as drug effects, electrolyte imbalances, and myocardial ischemia. The biggest risk with prolongation of the QT interval is the development of torsades de pointes. Commonly accepted reference ranges for the electrocardiogram (ECG) have been in use, with little change, for many years. Populations throughout the world present several differences: age, ethnic compositions, and are exposed to different environmental factors. Recent studies have reported reference data for QT interval in healthy population and have evaluated the influence of age, gender, QRS duration and heart rate on this interval. In this review, we address several issues relative to the measurement, and interpretation of QT interval and its adjustment for rate, age, gender and QRS duration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Probability Distribution for Flowing Interval Spacing

    SciTech Connect

    S. Kuzio

    2004-09-22

    Fracture spacing is a key hydrologic parameter in analyses of matrix diffusion. Although the individual fractures that transmit flow in the saturated zone (SZ) cannot be identified directly, it is possible to determine the fractured zones that transmit flow from flow meter survey observations. The fractured zones that transmit flow as identified through borehole flow meter surveys have been defined in this report as flowing intervals. The flowing interval spacing is measured between the midpoints of each flowing interval. The determination of flowing interval spacing is important because the flowing interval spacing parameter is a key hydrologic parameter in SZ transport modeling, which impacts the extent of matrix diffusion in the SZ volcanic matrix. The output of this report is input to the ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, the analysis of data and development of a data distribution reported herein is used to develop the uncertainty distribution for the flowing interval spacing parameter for the SZ transport abstraction model. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this report to other model reports that also pertain to flow and transport in the SZ. Figure 1-1 also shows the flow of key information among the SZ reports. It should be noted that Figure 1-1 does not contain a complete representation of the data and parameter inputs and outputs of all SZ reports, nor does it show inputs external to this suite of SZ reports. Use of the developed flowing interval spacing probability distribution is subject to the limitations of the assumptions discussed in Sections 5 and 6 of this analysis report. The number of fractures in a flowing interval is not known. Therefore, the flowing intervals are assumed to be composed of one flowing zone in the transport simulations. This analysis may overestimate the flowing interval spacing because the number of fractures that contribute to a flowing interval cannot be

  19. Analysis of regression confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals for uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Dan; Ye, Ming; Hill, Mary C.

    2012-09-01

    Confidence intervals based on classical regression theories augmented to include prior information and credible intervals based on Bayesian theories are conceptually different ways to quantify parametric and predictive uncertainties. Because both confidence and credible intervals are used in environmental modeling, we seek to understand their differences and similarities. This is of interest in part because calculating confidence intervals typically requires tens to thousands of model runs, while Bayesian credible intervals typically require tens of thousands to millions of model runs. Given multi-Gaussian distributed observation errors, our theoretical analysis shows that, for linear or linearized-nonlinear models, confidence and credible intervals are always numerically identical when consistent prior information is used. For nonlinear models, nonlinear confidence and credible intervals can be numerically identical if parameter confidence regions defined using the approximate likelihood method and parameter credible regions estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo realizations are numerically identical and predictions are a smooth, monotonic function of the parameters. Both occur if intrinsic model nonlinearity is small. While the conditions of Gaussian errors and small intrinsic model nonlinearity are violated by many environmental models, heuristic tests using analytical and numerical models suggest that linear and nonlinear confidence intervals can be useful approximations of uncertainty even under significantly nonideal conditions. In the context of epistemic model error for a complex synthetic nonlinear groundwater problem, the linear and nonlinear confidence and credible intervals for individual models performed similarly enough to indicate that the computationally frugal confidence intervals can be useful in many circumstances. Experiences with these groundwater models are expected to be broadly applicable to many environmental models. We suggest that for

  20. Interpregnancy interval and risk of autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Gunnes, Nina; Surén, Pål; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hornig, Mady; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W Ian; Magnus, Per; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schjølberg, Synnve; Susser, Ezra Saul; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2013-11-01

    A recent California study reported increased risk of autistic disorder in children conceived within a year after the birth of a sibling. We assessed the association between interpregnancy interval and risk of autistic disorder using nationwide registry data on pairs of singleton full siblings born in Norway. We defined interpregnancy interval as the time from birth of the first-born child to conception of the second-born child in a sibship. The outcome of interest was autistic disorder in the second-born child. Analyses were restricted to sibships in which the second-born child was born in 1990-2004. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by fitting ordinary logistic models and logistic generalized additive models. The study sample included 223,476 singleton full-sibling pairs. In sibships with interpregnancy intervals <9 months, 0.25% of the second-born children had autistic disorder, compared with 0.13% in the reference category (≥ 36 months). For interpregnancy intervals shorter than 9 months, the adjusted OR of autistic disorder in the second-born child was 2.18 (95% confidence interval 1.42-3.26). The risk of autistic disorder in the second-born child was also increased for interpregnancy intervals of 9-11 months in the adjusted analysis (OR = 1.71 [95% CI = 1.07-2.64]). Consistent with a previous report from California, interpregnancy intervals shorter than 1 year were associated with increased risk of autistic disorder in the second-born child. A possible explanation is depletion of micronutrients in mothers with closely spaced pregnancies.

  1. Genetic analyses of a seasonal interval timer.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Renstrom, Randall A; Nelson, Randy J

    2004-08-01

    Seasonal clocks (e.g., circannual clocks, seasonal interval timers) permit anticipation of regularly occurring environmental events by timing the onset of seasonal transitions in reproduction, metabolism, and behavior. Implicit in the concept that seasonal clocks reflect adaptations to the local environment is the unexamined assumption that heritable genetic variance exists in the critical features of such clocks, namely, their temporal properties. These experiments quantified the intraspecific variance in, and heritability of, the photorefractoriness interval timer in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), a seasonal clock that provides temporal information to mechanisms that regulate seasonal transitions in body weight. Twenty-seven families consisting of 54 parents and 109 offspring were raised in a long-day photoperiod and transferred as adults to an inhibitory photoperiod (continuous darkness; DD). Weekly body weight measurements permitted specification of the interval of responsiveness to DD, a reflection of the duration of the interval timer, in each individual. Body weights of males and females decreased after exposure to DD, but 3 to 5 months later, somatic recrudescence occurred, indicative of photorefractoriness to DD. The interval timer was approximately 5 weeks longer and twice as variable in females relative to males. Analyses of variance of full siblings revealed an overall intraclass correlation of 0.71 +/- 0.04 (0.51 +/- 0.10 for male offspring and 0.80 +/- 0.06 for female offspring), suggesting a significant family resemblance in the duration of interval timers. Parent-offspring regression analyses yielded an overall heritability estimate of 0.61 +/- 0.2; h(2) estimates from parent-offspring regression analyses were significant for female offspring (0.91 +/- 0.4) but not for male offspring (0.35 +/- 0.2), indicating strong additive genetic components for this trait, primarily in females. In nature, individual differences, both within and between

  2. Heart rate dependency of JT interval sections.

    PubMed

    Hnatkova, Katerina; Johannesen, Lars; Vicente, Jose; Malik, Marek

    2017-08-09

    Little experience exists with the heart rate correction of J-Tpeak and Tpeak-Tend intervals. In a population of 176 female and 176 male healthy subjects aged 32.3±9.8 and 33.1±8.4years, respectively, curve-linear and linear relationship to heart rate was investigated for different sections of the JT interval defined by the proportions of the area under the vector magnitude of the reconstructed 3D vectorcardiographic loop. The duration of the JT sub-section between approximately just before the T peak and almost the T end was found heart rate independent. Most of the JT heart rate dependency relates to the beginning of the interval. The duration of the terminal T wave tail is only weakly heart rate dependent. The Tpeak-Tend is only minimally heart rate dependent and in studies not showing substantial heart rate changes does not need to be heart rate corrected. For any correction formula that has linear additive properties, heart rate correction of JT and JTpeak intervals is practically the same as of the QT interval. However, this does not apply to the formulas in the form of Int/RR(a) since they do not have linear additive properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sunspot Time Series: Passive and Active Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zięba, S.; Nieckarz, Z.

    2014-07-01

    Solar activity slowly and irregularly decreases from the first spotless day (FSD) in the declining phase of the old sunspot cycle and systematically, but also in an irregular way, increases to the new cycle maximum after the last spotless day (LSD). The time interval between the first and the last spotless day can be called the passive interval (PI), while the time interval from the last spotless day to the first one after the new cycle maximum is the related active interval (AI). Minima of solar cycles are inside PIs, while maxima are inside AIs. In this article, we study the properties of passive and active intervals to determine the relation between them. We have found that some properties of PIs, and related AIs, differ significantly between two group of solar cycles; this has allowed us to classify Cycles 8 - 15 as passive cycles, and Cycles 17 - 23 as active ones. We conclude that the solar activity in the PI declining phase (a descending phase of the previous cycle) determines the strength of the approaching maximum in the case of active cycles, while the activity of the PI rising phase (a phase of the ongoing cycle early growth) determines the strength of passive cycles. This can have implications for solar dynamo models. Our approach indicates the important role of solar activity during the declining and the rising phases of the solar-cycle minimum.

  4. Musical intervals and relative pitch: frequency resolution, not interval resolution, is special.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Josh H; Keebler, Michael V; Micheyl, Christophe; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2010-10-01

    Pitch intervals are central to most musical systems, which utilize pitch at the expense of other acoustic dimensions. It seemed plausible that pitch might uniquely permit precise perception of the interval separating two sounds, as this could help explain its importance in music. To explore this notion, a simple discrimination task was used to measure the precision of interval perception for the auditory dimensions of pitch, brightness, and loudness. Interval thresholds were then expressed in units of just-noticeable differences for each dimension, to enable comparison across dimensions. Contrary to expectation, when expressed in these common units, interval acuity was actually worse for pitch than for loudness or brightness. This likely indicates that the perceptual dimension of pitch is unusual not for interval perception per se, but rather for the basic frequency resolution it supports. The ubiquity of pitch in music may be due in part to this fine-grained basic resolution.

  5. Perceptual interference decays over short unfilled intervals.

    PubMed

    Schulkind, M D

    2000-09-01

    The perceptual interference effect refers to the fact that object identification is directly related to the amount of information available at initial exposure. The present article investigated whether perceptual interference would dissipate when a short, unfilled interval was introduced between exposures to a degraded object. Across three experiments using both musical and pictorial stimuli, identification performance increased directly with the length of the unfilled interval. Consequently, significant perceptual interference was obtained only when the interval between exposures was relatively short (< 500 msec for melodies; < 300 msec for pictures). These results are consistent with explanations that attribute perceptual interference to increased perceptual noise created by exposures to highly degraded objects. The data also suggest that perceptual interference is mediated by systems that are not consciously controlled by the subject and that perceptual interference in the visual domain decays more rapidly than perceptual interference in the auditory domain.

  6. Intervality and coherence in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Johnson, Samuel; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2016-06-01

    Food webs—networks of predators and prey—have long been known to exhibit "intervality": species can generally be ordered along a single axis in such a way that the prey of any given predator tend to lie on unbroken compact intervals. Although the meaning of this axis—usually identified with a "niche" dimension—has remained a mystery, it is assumed to lie at the basis of the highly non-trivial structure of food webs. With this in mind, most trophic network modelling has for decades been based on assigning species a niche value by hand. However, we argue here that intervality should not be considered the cause but rather a consequence of food-web structure. First, analysing a set of 46 empirical food webs, we find that they also exhibit predator intervality: the predators of any given species are as likely to be contiguous as the prey are, but in a different ordering. Furthermore, this property is not exclusive of trophic networks: several networks of genes, neurons, metabolites, cellular machines, airports, and words are found to be approximately as interval as food webs. We go on to show that a simple model of food-web assembly which does not make use of a niche axis can nevertheless generate significant intervality. Therefore, the niche dimension (in the sense used for food-web modelling) could in fact be the consequence of other, more fundamental structural traits. We conclude that a new approach to food-web modelling is required for a deeper understanding of ecosystem assembly, structure, and function, and propose that certain topological features thought to be specific of food webs are in fact common to many complex networks.

  7. Intervality and coherence in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-García, Virginia; Johnson, Samuel; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2016-06-01

    Food webs-networks of predators and prey-have long been known to exhibit "intervality": species can generally be ordered along a single axis in such a way that the prey of any given predator tend to lie on unbroken compact intervals. Although the meaning of this axis-usually identified with a "niche" dimension-has remained a mystery, it is assumed to lie at the basis of the highly non-trivial structure of food webs. With this in mind, most trophic network modelling has for decades been based on assigning species a niche value by hand. However, we argue here that intervality should not be considered the cause but rather a consequence of food-web structure. First, analysing a set of 46 empirical food webs, we find that they also exhibit predator intervality: the predators of any given species are as likely to be contiguous as the prey are, but in a different ordering. Furthermore, this property is not exclusive of trophic networks: several networks of genes, neurons, metabolites, cellular machines, airports, and words are found to be approximately as interval as food webs. We go on to show that a simple model of food-web assembly which does not make use of a niche axis can nevertheless generate significant intervality. Therefore, the niche dimension (in the sense used for food-web modelling) could in fact be the consequence of other, more fundamental structural traits. We conclude that a new approach to food-web modelling is required for a deeper understanding of ecosystem assembly, structure, and function, and propose that certain topological features thought to be specific of food webs are in fact common to many complex networks.

  8. Interval Estimation of Seismic Hazard Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw

    2017-03-01

    The paper considers Poisson temporal occurrence of earthquakes and presents a way to integrate uncertainties of the estimates of mean activity rate and magnitude cumulative distribution function in the interval estimation of the most widely used seismic hazard functions, such as the exceedance probability and the mean return period. The proposed algorithm can be used either when the Gutenberg-Richter model of magnitude distribution is accepted or when the nonparametric estimation is in use. When the Gutenberg-Richter model of magnitude distribution is used the interval estimation of its parameters is based on the asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimator. When the nonparametric kernel estimation of magnitude distribution is used, we propose the iterated bias corrected and accelerated method for interval estimation based on the smoothed bootstrap and second-order bootstrap samples. The changes resulted from the integrated approach in the interval estimation of the seismic hazard functions with respect to the approach, which neglects the uncertainty of the mean activity rate estimates have been studied using Monte Carlo simulations and two real dataset examples. The results indicate that the uncertainty of mean activity rate affects significantly the interval estimates of hazard functions only when the product of activity rate and the time period, for which the hazard is estimated, is no more than 5.0. When this product becomes greater than 5.0, the impact of the uncertainty of cumulative distribution function of magnitude dominates the impact of the uncertainty of mean activity rate in the aggregated uncertainty of the hazard functions. Following, the interval estimates with and without inclusion of the uncertainty of mean activity rate converge. The presented algorithm is generic and can be applied also to capture the propagation of uncertainty of estimates, which are parameters of a multiparameter function, onto this function.

  9. Children's artistic responses to musical intervals.

    PubMed

    Smith, L D; Williams, R N

    1999-01-01

    In one experiment, White South African boys drew pictures in response to four musical intervals. In the second, the subjects were of both sexes and drawn from White, urban Black, and rural Black populations. Six intervals were used. Drawing content was similar cross-culturally. Consonances were perceived as generally positive; dissonances, generally negative. There was also an activity dimension. Children in a lower grade drew more concrete pictures than did those in a higher grade, regardless of age. Even young listeners were fairly consistent in their responses. This suggests that perception of musical meaning is a universal rather than culturally based phenomenon.

  10. Report on the Program “Fluid-mediated particle transport in geophysical flows” at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, UC Santa Barbara, September 23 to December 12, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, James T.; Meiburg, Eckart; Valance, Alexandre

    2015-09-15

    The Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics (KITP) program held at UC Santa Barbara in the fall of 2013 addressed the dynamics of dispersed particulate flows in the environment. By focusing on the prototypes of aeolian transport and turbidity currents, it aimed to establish the current state of our understanding of such two-phase flows, to identify key open questions, and to develop collaborative research strategies for addressing these questions. Here, we provide a brief summary of the program outcome.

  11. Geochemical characterization of tarballs on beaches along the California coast. Part I - Shallow seepage impacting the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Miguel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Dougherty, J.

    2004-01-01

    Tarballs are common along the southern California coastline. This study investigates tarballs from beaches along this coastline, with a focus on Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miquel Islands in the Santa Barbara Channel. The tarballs were fingerprinted using biomarker and stable carbon isotope parameters, and then grouped according to genetic similarities. The data show that the tarballs are of natural and not anthropogenic origin and that all originate from source rock within the Miocene Monterey Formation via shallow seeps offshore. Sterane biomarker parameters were found to vary widely in the sample set. Biodegradation, especially of the regular steranes, is the primary process impacting the biomarker distributions in a large group of samples. The most common tarball occurrences appear to come from offshore seepage near the west end of Santa Cruz Island. Another major group most likely was transported north from near Santa Monica Bay. Several individual occurrences of some of these tarball groups also were found on beaches as far north as Pt. Reyes and as far south as San Diego, indicating significant long-distance dispersal by ocean currents. This study begins a library of tarball fingerprints to be used as a database to help distinguish between natural and anthropogenic tar occurrences all along the California coast, and to compare shallow seepage with future samples of deeper production oils from the same area.

  12. Brief communication: Additional cases of maxillary canine-first premolar transposition in several prehistoric skeletal assemblages from the Santa Barbara Channel Islands of California.

    PubMed

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Clement, Anna F; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2010-09-01

    This article identifies and discusses seven new cases of complete maxillary canine-premolar transposition in ancient populations from the Santa Barbara Channel region of California. A high frequency of this tooth transposition has been previously documented within a single prehistoric cemetery on one of the Channel Islands. A total of 966 crania representing 30 local sites and about 7,000 years of human occupation were examined, revealing an abnormally high prevalence of this transposition trait among islanders during the Early period of southern California prehistory ( approximately 5500-600 B.C.). One of the affected crania is from a cemetery more than 7,000-years-old and constitutes the earliest case of tooth transposition in humans so far reported. The results are consistent with findings by other studies that have indicated inbreeding among the early Channel Islands groups. Together with the normal transposition rates among mainland populations, the decreasing prevalence of maxillary canine-first premolar transposition among island populations across the Holocene suggests that inbreeding on the northern Channel Islands had all but ceased by the end of the first millennium B.C., most likely as a result of increased cross-channel migration and interaction.

  13. The Role of Disturbance, Larval Supply, and Native Community on the Establishment of a Non-Native Species on Oil Platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, S.; Page, M.; Miller, R. J.; Zaleski, S.; Doheny, B.; Dugan, J.; Schroeder, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    Disturbance facilitates the establishment of non-native species in a variety of ecosystems. In marine ecosystems, offshore structures, such as oil and gas platforms, provide hard substrate habitat that can be colonized by non-native species. Periodic platform cleaning and storm events are disturbances that remove the attached epibenthic community and may promote the establishment of non-native species. The non-native crustose bryozoan, Watersipora subtorquata (=W. subatra?), has colonized a number of oil platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel. In this study, we experimentally 1) tested the role of disturbance and water depth on the establishment of Watersipora on an offshore platform, 2) explored how larval supply might influence observed patterns, and 3) evaluated the importance of biotic interactions, specifically predation on Watersipora larvae. To attain these objectives, we 1) quantified Watersipora cover in cleared and undisturbed plots, 2) measured monthly variation in larval supply using settlement plates, and 3) deployed tethered live mussels and sealed mussel shells and compared recruitment to these two surfaces. Our results suggest that disturbance greatly enhances the establishment of Watersipora, but that this effect varies with depth and associated larval availability. Additionally, predation of larvae by native suspension feeders appears to limit the recruitment rate of Watersipora. Our findings on the factors influencing the establishment of Watersipora could inform decisions to manage the spread of non-native species to artificial and natural marine habitats, as well as decisions related to the maintenance of offshore structures as artificial reefs.

  14. Ground-water quality in the Santa Rita, Buellton, and Los Olivos hydrologic subareas of the Santa Ynez River basin, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the upper Santa Ynez River Valley in Santa Barbara County has degraded due to both natural and anthropogenic causes. The semiarid climate and uneven distribution of rainfall has limited freshwater recharge and caused salt buildup in water supplies. Tertiary rocks supply mineralized water. Agricultural activities (irrigation return flow containing fertilizers and pesticides, cultivation, feedlot waste disposal) are a primary cause of water quality degradation. Urban development, which also causes water quality degradation (introduced contaminants, wastewater disposal, septic system discharge, and land fill disposal of waste), has imposed stricter requirements on water supply quality. A well network was designed to monitor changes in groundwater quality related to anthropogenic activities. Information from this network may aid in efficient management of the groundwater basins as public water supplies, centered around three basic goals. First is to increase freshwater recharge to the basins by conjunctive surface/groundwater use and surface-spreading techniques. Second is to optimize groundwater discharge by efficient timing and spacing of pumping. Third is to control and reduce sources of groundwater contamination by regulating wastewater quality and distribution and, preferably, by exporting wastewaters from the basin. (USGS)

  15. Examining the interactive effects of ocenaographic and anthropogenic influences with the SST anomaly, or Warm Blob on the bloom response of the toxigenic HAB genus Pseudo-nitzschia in the Santa Barbara Channel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, S.

    2016-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HAB's) include a large subset of toxigenic phytoplankton and microbial species responsible for shutting down major fisheries, impairing water quality and threatening public health. Oceanographic and anthropogenic effects on HAB's in concert with climactic stressors may have interactive effects influencing HAB blooms to persist longer than historically documented. This 3 year time-series explores the interactive effects of the SST anomaly known as the Warm Blob across the coastal Pacific on the bloom progression and persistence of the toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom across the West Coast, ranging from the gulf of Alaska to the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC). This study also explores direct links of the Warm Blob event on nutrient and oxygen concentrations spatially across the Santa Barbara Channel with the highest levels of domoic acid concentrations recorded from the coast wide mega bloom. MODIS and SeaWIFS Satellite imagery of chlorophyll and SST monthly averaged values of the SBC were identified to better understand the regional distribution of the Warm Blob on phytoplankton community structure. These images were ground truthed with monthly samples from 7 transects across the SBC with the Plumes and Blooms time-series, LTER sites and local pier sites across the Santa Barbara County. Preliminary data suggest an interesting correlation with Pseudo-nitzschia species outcompeting other phytoplankton species within the SBC during the 3 degree averaged increase of SST conditions with the Warm Blob event. *Data is still being processed and results should be analyzed before October 2016.

  16. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  17. Precise Interval Timer for Software Defined Radio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A precise digital fractional interval timer for software defined radios which vary their waveform on a packet-by-packet basis. The timer allows for variable length in the preamble of the RF packet and allows to adjust boundaries of the TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) Slots of the receiver of an SDR based on the reception of the RF packet of interest.

  18. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  19. Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous…

  20. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  1. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  2. MEETING DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES WITH INTERVAL INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test kits are promising technologies for measuring analytes under field conditions. Frequently, these field-test kits report the analyte concentrations as falling in an interval between minimum and maximum values. Many project managers use field-test kits only for scr...

  3. Confidence Trick: The Interpretation of Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2014-01-01

    The frequent misinterpretation of the nature of confidence intervals by students has been well documented. This article examines the problem as an aspect of the learning of mathematical definitions and considers the tension between parroting mathematically rigorous, but essentially uninternalized, statements on the one hand and expressing…

  4. Interval coding. II. Dendrite-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Brent; Oswald, Anne-Marie M; Maler, Leonard

    2007-04-01

    The rich temporal structure of neural spike trains provides multiple dimensions to code dynamic stimuli. Popular examples are spike trains from sensory cells where bursts and isolated spikes can serve distinct coding roles. In contrast to analyses of neural coding, the cellular mechanics of burst mechanisms are typically elucidated from the neural response to static input. Bridging the mechanics of bursting with coding of dynamic stimuli is an important step in establishing theories of neural coding. Electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL) pyramidal neurons respond to static inputs with a complex dendrite-dependent burst mechanism. Here we show that in response to dynamic broadband stimuli, these bursts lack some of the electrophysiological characteristics observed in response to static inputs. A simple leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF)-style model with a dendrite-dependent depolarizing afterpotential (DAP) is sufficient to match both the output statistics and coding performance of experimental spike trains. We use this model to investigate a simplification of interval coding where the burst interspike interval (ISI) codes for the scale of a canonical upstroke rather than a multidimensional stimulus feature. Using this stimulus reduction, we compute a quantization of the burst ISIs and the upstroke scale to show that the mutual information rate of the interval code is maximized at a moderate DAP amplitude. The combination of a reduced description of ELL pyramidal cell bursting and a simplification of the interval code increases the generality of ELL burst codes to other sensory modalities.

  5. Equidistant Intervals in Perspective Photographs and Paintings

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human vision is extremely sensitive to equidistance of spatial intervals in the frontal plane. Thresholds for spatial equidistance have been extensively measured in bisecting tasks. Despite the vast number of studies, the informational basis for equidistance perception is unknown. There are three possible sources of information for spatial equidistance in pictures, namely, distances in the picture plane, in physical space, and visual space. For each source, equidistant intervals were computed for perspective photographs of walls and canals. Intervals appear equidistant if equidistance is defined in visual space. Equidistance was further investigated in paintings of perspective scenes. In appraisals of the perspective skill of painters, emphasis has been on accurate use of vanishing points. The current study investigated the skill of painters to depict equidistant intervals. Depicted rows of equidistant columns, tiles, tapestries, or trees were analyzed in 30 paintings and engravings. Computational analysis shows that from the middle ages until now, artists either represented equidistance in physical space or in a visual space of very limited depth. Among the painters and engravers who depict equidistance in a highly nonveridical visual space are renowned experts of linear perspective. PMID:27698983

  6. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  7. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  8. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  9. 47 CFR 52.35 - Porting Intervals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Portability § 52.35 Porting Intervals. (a) All telecommunications carriers required by the Commission to port telephone numbers must complete a simple wireline-to-wireline or simple intermodal port request within one... p.m. local time for a simple port request to be eligible for activation at midnight on the same...

  10. MEETING DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES WITH INTERVAL INFORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test kits are promising technologies for measuring analytes under field conditions. Frequently, these field-test kits report the analyte concentrations as falling in an interval between minimum and maximum values. Many project managers use field-test kits only for scr...

  11. Physiological adjustments to intensive interval treadmill training

    PubMed Central

    Pyke, F. S.; Elliott, B. C.; Morton, A. R.; Roberts, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    During a one month training period, eight active men, aged 23-35 years, completed sixteen 30 minute sessions of high intensity interval (5 second work bouts at 16.9 km/hr up 20-25% grade alternated with 10 second rest intervals) treadmill work. In this training period, V̇O2, V̇E and blood lactate in a 10 minute run at 12.9 km/hr on a level treadmill were unchanged but heart rate during this work decreased by an average of 9 beats/min. During a 4 minute interval work effort at the training intensity, blood lactate accumulation decreased by 40.4%. In exhausting work, mean values of V̇O2, V̇E and blood lactate increased by 6.2%, 8.2% and 31.6% respectively. Maximal heart rate decreased by an average of 4 beats/min. The average work production of the men in the training sessions improved by 64.5% from 28,160 kgm to 43,685 kgm. No significant improvements were observed in either a short sprint or a stair climbing test which assessed the ability to generate mechanical power from alactacid anaerobic sources. It was concluded that the training regime is an effective method of producing a high total work output in competitive athletes and results in improvements in aerobic power, glycolytic capacity and ability to tolerate the short duration interval work encountered in many games.

  12. Learned Interval Time Facilitates Associate Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying…

  13. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  14. Toward Using Confidence Intervals to Compare Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Guang Yong

    2007-01-01

    Confidence intervals are widely accepted as a preferred way to present study results. They encompass significance tests and provide an estimate of the magnitude of the effect. However, comparisons of correlations still rely heavily on significance testing. The persistence of this practice is caused primarily by the lack of simple yet accurate…

  15. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...

  16. Haematological Reference Intervals in a Multiethnic Population

    PubMed Central

    Ambayya, Angeli; Su, Anselm Ting; Osman, Nadila Haryani; Nik-Samsudin, Nik Rosnita; Khalid, Khadijah; Chang, Kian Meng; Sathar, Jameela; Rajasuriar, Jay Suriar; Yegappan, Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC) intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals. Methods Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup. Results Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men) were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800. Conclusion Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs. PMID:24642526

  17. Exact and Asymptotic Weighted Logrank Tests for Interval Censored Data: The interval R package

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Michael P.; Shaw, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    For right-censored data perhaps the most commonly used tests are weighted logrank tests, such as the logrank and Wilcoxon-type tests. In this paper we review several generalizations of those weighted logrank tests to interval-censored data and present an R package, interval, to implement many of them. The interval package depends on the perm package, also presented here, which performs exact and asymptotic linear permutation tests. The perm package performs many of the tests included in the already available coin package, and provides an independent validation of coin. We review analysis methods for interval-censored data, and we describe and show how to use the interval and perm packages. PMID:25285054

  18. Electrocardiographic intervals associated with incident atrial fibrillation: Dissecting the QT interval.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jason D; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Alonso, Alvaro; Vittinghoff, Eric; Chen, Lin Y; Loehr, Laura; Marcus, Gregory M

    2017-05-01

    Prolongation of the QT interval has been associated with an increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF), but the responsible mechanism remains unknown. The aims of this study were to subdivide the QT interval into its components and identify the resultant electrocardiographic interval(s) responsible for the association with AF. Predefined QT-interval components were assessed for association with incident AF in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study using Cox proportional hazards models. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated per 1-SD increase in each component. Among QT-interval components exhibiting significant associations, additional analyses evaluating long extremes, defined as greater than the 95(th) percentile, were performed. Of the 14,625 individuals, 1505 (10.3%) were diagnosed with incident AF during a mean follow-up period of 17.6 years. After multivariable adjustment, QT-interval components involved in repolarization, but not depolarization, exhibited significant associations with incident AF, including a longer ST segment (HR 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.41; P < .001) and a prolonged T-wave onset to T-wave peak (T-onset to T-peak) (HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.07-1.20; P < .001). Marked prolongation of the ST segment (HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.04-1.64; P = .022) and T-onset to T-peak (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.09-1.69; P = .006) was also associated with an increased risk of incident AF. The association between a prolonged QT interval and incident AF is primarily explained by components involved in ventricular repolarization: prolongation of the ST segment and T-onset to T-peak. These observations suggest that prolongation of phases 2 and 3 of the cardiac action potential drives the association between the QT interval and AF risk. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of 1972 and 1996 water levels in the Goleta central ground-water subbasin, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaehler, Charles A.; Pratt, David A.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water levels for 1996 were compared with 1972 water levels to determine if a "drought buffer" currently exists. The drought buffer was defined previously, in a litigated settlement involving the Goleta Water District, as the 1972 water level in the Central ground-water subbasin. To make this deter mination, a network of 15 well sites was selected, water levels were measured monthly from April through December 1996, and the 1996 water-level data were compared with1972 data. The study was done in cooperation with the Goleta Water District. The 1972-1996 water-level-altitude changes for corresponding months of the comparison years were averaged for each network well. These averaged changes ranged from a rise of 9.4 ft for well 2N2 to a decline of 45.0 ft for well 8K8. The results of the comparison indicate a rise in water level at 1 site (well 2N2) and a decline at 14 sites. The mean of the 14 negative average values was a decline of 24.0 ft. The altitude of the bottom of well 2N2 was higher than the bottom altitudes at the other network sites, and this well is located a few feet from a fault that acts as a hydrologic barrier. The results of the water-level comparison for the Central subbasin were influenced to some unknown degree by the areal distribution of the set of wells selected for the network and the vertical dis tribution of the perforated intervals of the wells. For this reason, the mean water-level change--a decline of 21.8 ft--calculated from the averages of the month-to-month changes for the 15 network sites, should be used with caution. In addition, the number of usable individual monthly comparison measurements available for an individual site ranged from one to nine, and averaged six. Therefore, a weighted mean of the monthly averages was calculated on the basis of the number of comparison measurements available for each site. The weighted mean is a decline of 20.9 ft. All Central subbasin wells that were idle (that is, were not being pumped

  20. A Robust Confidence Interval for Samples of Five Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    A robust confidence interval using biweights for the case of five observations is proposed when the underlying distribution has somewhat heavier...probabilities, the intervals proposed are highly efficient, in terms of the expected length of the confidence interval . (Author)

  1. Reliable prediction intervals with regression neural networks.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Harris; Haralambous, Haris

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes an extension to conventional regression neural networks (NNs) for replacing the point predictions they produce with prediction intervals that satisfy a required level of confidence. Our approach follows a novel machine learning framework, called Conformal Prediction (CP), for assigning reliable confidence measures to predictions without assuming anything more than that the data are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). We evaluate the proposed method on four benchmark datasets and on the problem of predicting Total Electron Content (TEC), which is an important parameter in trans-ionospheric links; for the latter we use a dataset of more than 60000 TEC measurements collected over a period of 11 years. Our experimental results show that the prediction intervals produced by our method are both well calibrated and tight enough to be useful in practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficient computation of parameter confidence intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1987-01-01

    An important step in system identification of aircraft is the estimation of stability and control derivatives from flight data along with an assessment of parameter accuracy. When the maximum likelihood estimation technique is used, parameter accuracy is commonly assessed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound. It is known, however, that in some cases the lower bound can be substantially different from the parameter variance. Under these circumstances the Cramer-Rao bounds may be misleading as an accuracy measure. This paper discusses the confidence interval estimation problem based on likelihood ratios, which offers a more general estimate of the error bounds. Four approaches are considered for computing confidence intervals of maximum likelihood parameter estimates. Each approach is applied to real flight data and compared.

  3. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  4. Efficient computation of parameter confidence intervals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1987-01-01

    An important step in system identification of aircraft is the estimation of stability and control derivatives from flight data along with an assessment of parameter accuracy. When the maximum likelihood estimation technique is used, parameter accuracy is commonly assessed by the Cramer-Rao lower bound. It is known, however, that in some cases the lower bound can be substantially different from the parameter variance. Under these circumstances the Cramer-Rao bounds may be misleading as an accuracy measure. This paper discusses the confidence interval estimation problem based on likelihood ratios, which offers a more general estimate of the error bounds. Four approaches are considered for computing confidence intervals of maximum likelihood parameter estimates. Each approach is applied to real flight data and compared.

  5. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  6. Partitioned-Interval Quantum Optical Communications Receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed quantum receiver in this innovation partitions each binary signal interval into two unequal segments: a short "pre-measurement" segment in the beginning of the symbol interval used to make an initial guess with better probability than 50/50 guessing, and a much longer segment used to make the high-sensitivity signal detection via field-cancellation and photon-counting detection. It was found that by assigning as little as 10% of the total signal energy to the pre-measurement segment, the initial 50/50 guess can be improved to about 70/30, using the best available measurements such as classical coherent or "optimized Kennedy" detection.

  7. Using interval logic for order assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Z.

    1994-12-31

    Temporal logic, in particular, interval logic has been used to represent genome maps and to assist genome map constructions. However, interval logic itself appears to be limited in its expressive power because genome mapping requires various information such as partial order, distance and local orientation. In this paper, we first propose an integrated formalism based on a spatial-temporal logic where the concepts of metric information, local orientation and uncertainty are merged. Then, we present and discuss a deductive and object-oriented data model based on this formalism for a genetic deductive database, and the inference rules required. The formalism supports the maintenance of coarser knowledge of unordered, partially ordered and completely ordered genetic data in a relational hierarchy. We believe that this integrated formalism also provides a formal basis for designing a declarative query language.

  8. The Rotator Interval of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Taylor, Dean; Verma, Nikhil N.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Mologne, Timothy S.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical studies have shown that repair or plication of rotator interval (RI) ligamentous and capsular structures decreases glenohumeral joint laxity in various directions. Clinical outcomes studies have reported successful outcomes after repair or plication of these structures in patients undergoing shoulder stabilization procedures. Recent studies describing arthroscopic techniques to address these structures have intensified the debate over the potential benefit of these procedures as well as highlighted the differences between open and arthroscopic RI procedures. The purposes of this study were to review the structures of the RI and their contribution to shoulder instability, to discuss the biomechanical and clinical effects of repair or plication of rotator interval structures, and to describe the various surgical techniques used for these procedures and outcomes. PMID:26779554

  9. Temporal control mechanism in equaled interval tapping.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M

    1996-05-01

    Subjects who were at intermediate levels of musical performance made equaled interval tapping in several tempos. The temporal fluctuation for the tapping was observed and analysed. The power spectrum of the fluctuation showed a critical phenomenon at around a frequency which corresponds to the period of 20 taps, for all tempos and all subjects, i.e., the slope of the spectrum was flat or had a positive value in the high frequency region above the critical frequency but it increased as the frequency decreased in the low frequency region below the critical frequency. Moreover, auto-regressive models and Akaike's information criterion were introduced to determine the critical tap number. The order of the best auto-regressive model for the temporal fluctuation data was distributed around 20 taps. These results show that the memory capacity of 20 taps governs the control of equaled interval tapping. To interpret the critical phenomenon of 20 taps with the memory capacity of the short term memory, the so called magic number seven, a simple chunking assumption was introduced; subjects might have unconsciously chunked every three taps during the tapping. If the chunking assumption is true, when subjects consciously chunk every seven taps, the memory capacity of taps should shift to about 50 taps. To test if the assumption is true or not, subjects made a three-beat rhythm tapping and a seven-beat rhythm tapping with equaled intervals. As a result, the memory capacity for these accented tappings were also estimated as 20 taps. This suggests that the critical phenomenon cannot be explained by the chunking assumption and the magic number seven, rather this finding suggests that there exists a memory capacity of 20 taps and this is used for equaled interval tapping.

  10. New Madrid seismic zone recurrence intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Schweig, E.S. Center for Earthquake Research and Information, Memphis, TN ); Ellis, M.A. )

    1993-03-01

    Frequency-magnitude relations in the New Madrid seismic zone suggest that great earthquakes should occur every 700--1,200 yrs, implying relatively high strain rates. These estimates are supported by some geological and GPS results. Recurrence intervals of this order should have produced about 50 km of strike-slip offset since Miocene time. No subsurface evidence for such large displacements is known within the seismic zone. Moreover, the irregular fault pattern forming a compressive step that one sees today is not compatible with large displacements. There are at least three possible interpretations of the observations of short recurrence intervals and high strain rates, but apparently youthful fault geometry and lack of major post-Miocene deformation. One is that the seismological and geodetic evidence are misleading. A second possibility is that activity in the region is cyclic. That is, the geological and geodetic observations that suggest relatively short recurrence intervals reflect a time of high, but geologically temporary, pore-fluid pressure. Zoback and Zoback have suggested such a model for intraplate seismicity in general. Alternatively, the New Madrid seismic zone is geologically young feature that has been active for only the last few tens of thousands of years. In support of this, observe an irregular fault geometry associated with a unstable compressive step, a series of en echelon and discontinuous lineaments that may define the position of a youthful linking fault, and the general absence of significant post-Eocene faulting or topography.

  11. Fluctuations of healthy and unhealthy heartbeat intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Boon Leong; Toda, Mikito

    2013-04-01

    We show that the RR-interval fluctuations, defined as the difference between successive natural-logarithm of the RR interval, for healthy, congestive-heart-failure (CHF) and atrial-fibrillation (AF) subjects are well modeled by non-Gaussian stable distributions. Our results suggest that healthy or unhealthy RR-interval fluctuation can generally be modeled as a sum of a large number of independent physiological effects which are identically distributed with infinite variance. Furthermore, we show for the first time that one indicator —the scale parameter of the stable distribution— is sufficient to robustly distinguish the three groups of subjects. The scale parameters for healthy subjects are smaller than those for AF subjects but larger than those for CHF subjects —this ordering suggests that the scale parameter could be used to objectively quantify the severity of CHF and AF over time and also serve as an early warning signal for a healthy person when it approaches either boundary of the healthy range.

  12. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  13. Radiocarbon Evidence for Active Turnover of Pore-Water Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Methanogenic and Sulfate-Methane-Transition Zones of Santa Barbara Basin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komada, T.; Li, H. L.; Cada, A. K.; Burdige, D.; Magen, C.; Chanton, J.; Grose, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Diverse metabolic activities have been documented in the deep biosphere. However, how these activities affect carbon cycling in the subsurface, and how they in turn affect the marine and global cycles of carbon are still unclear. Here we present natural-abundance 14C and 13C data from the uppermost 4.5 m of the sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California Borderland, showing active turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within, and immediately below, the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ; ~1.25 m). DOC concentrations increased with depth throughout the core, indicating net production within the sediment column. Enhanced DOC production was observed near the sediment-water interface, and also at ~30 cm below the SMTZ (~1.55 m). ∆14C values of DOC increased across the sediment-water interface, then decreased with depth, consistent with net production of modern DOC near the sediment-water interface, and input of 14C-depleted DOC from deeper horizons. An isotope mixing plot constructed with these data shows that the DOC diffusing upward at the base of the core is devoid of 14C, yet the DOC diffusing into and out of the SMTZ is relatively enriched (-460‰ and -300‰, respectively). This difference in 14C content of the DOC flux can only be reconciled if the following two are occurring within, and immediately below, the SMTZ: (1) >90% of the 14C-dead basal DOC flux is removed from the pore water (by, e.g., oxidation, fermentation, methanogenesis, precipitation), and (2) this DOC is replaced by material produced in this region at a rate that exceeds the upward basal flux. The 14C and 13C signatures suggest sedimentary organic matter to be the dominant source of DOC in process (2). Our data provide a unique insight into the active transformation of DOC and sedimentary organic matter in the subsurface.

  14. A History of Warming Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Acidification Recorded by Planktonic Foraminifera Geochemistry from the Santa Barbara Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.; Bizimis, M.; Buckley, W. P., Jr.; benitez-Nelson, C. R.; Chartier, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geochemistry of foraminiferal shells has been widely used to reconstruct past conditions of the ocean and climate. Since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenically produced CO2 has resulted in an increase in global temperatures and a decline in the mean pH of the world's oceans. The California Current System is a particularly susceptible region to ocean acidification due to natural upwelling processes that also cause a reduction in seawater pH. The trace element concentration of magnesium and boron in planktonic foraminiferal shells are used here as proxies for temperature and carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]), respectively. Newly developed calibrations relating Mg/Ca ratios to temperature (R2 0.91) and B/Ca ratios to [CO32-] (R2 0.84) for the surface-mixed layer species Globogerina bulloides were generated using material collected in the Santa Barbara Basin sediment trap time-series. Using these empirical relationships, temperature and [CO32-] are reconstructed using a 0.5 meter long multi-core collected within the basin. 210Pb activities were used to determine a sedimentation rate for the core to estimate ages for core samples (sedimentation rate: 0.341 cm/yr). A spike in 137Cs activity is used as a tie-point to the year 1965 coinciding with the peak of nuclear bomb testing. Our down-core record extends through the mid-19th century to create a history of rising sea surface temperatures and declining [CO32-] as a result of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  15. Satellite assessment of particulate matter and phytoplankton variations in the Santa Barbara Channel and its surrounding waters: Role of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderikx Freitas, Fernanda; Siegel, David A.; Maritorena, Stéphane; Fields, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Satellite observations of chlorophyll in coastal waters are often described in terms of changes in productivity in response to regional upwelling processes while optical backscattering coefficients are more often linked to episodic inputs of suspended sediments from storm runoff. Here we show that the surface gravity wave resuspension of sediments has a larger role in controlling backscatter than previously considered. Almost 18 years of SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS, and VIIRS satellite imagery of the Santa Barbara Channel, California and its surrounding waters spectrally merged with the Garver-Siegel-Maritorena bio-optical model were used to assess the controls on suspended particle distributions. Analysis revealed that chlorophyll blooms in the warmer portions of the domain occur in phase with SST minima, usually in early spring, while blooms in the cooler regions lag SST minima and occur simultaneously to the strongest equatorward winds every year, often in the summer. Tight coupling between the optical variables was seen in offshore areas, as expected for productive waters. However, values of backscatter near the coast were primarily modulated by surface waves. This relationship holds throughout all seasons and is stronger within the 100 m isobath, but often extends tens of kilometers offshore. This forcing of particle resuspension by surface waves is likely a feature ubiquitous in all coastal oceans characterized by fine sediments. The implication of surface wave processes determining suspended particle loads far beyond the surf zone has large consequences for the interpretation of satellite ocean color signals in coastal waters and potentially redefines the extent of the littoral zone.

  16. Sources of phytoplankton to the inner continental shelf in the Santa Barbara Channel inferred from cross-shelf gradients in biological, physical and chemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Jo; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Halewood, Elisa R.; Carlson, Craig A.

    2012-10-01

    Phytoplankton are a major food resource for filter-feeding organisms occupying intertidal and subtidal habitats of the inner continental shelf. Phytoplankton in these nearshore waters experience different anthropogenic and natural forcing compared to those offshore such that cross-shelf exchange would allow phytoplankton that were produced offshore to serve as a subsidy to inner shelf consumers when phytoplankton production on the shelf is negatively impacted. In the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) the continental shelf is only a few kilometers wide facilitating exchange with offshore waters. Physical, chemical and biological gradients were examined monthly along a 3-km cross-shelf transect in the SBC from January, 2008 through April, 2009. Chemical and biological distributions followed temporal changes in physical forcing with higher nutrient concentrations and a more intense period of biological production associated with spring upwelling. Chlorophyll was relatively evenly distributed across the shelf during upwelling, but was present at higher concentrations on the inner shelf under stratified conditions. Similarly, cross-shelf gradients in the distribution of dominant phytoplankton genera were weakest during upwelling when blooms of the prymnesiophyte, Phaeocystis, and the diatoms, Eucampia spp. and Thalassiosira spp. occurred across most of the shelf. Upon stratification, blooms were largely confined to the inner shelf within 0.75 km of the shoreline with an initial bloom of the diatom Leptocylindrus spp. followed by Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and series of dinoflagellate blooms with Prorocentrum spp. and Lingulodinium spp. attaining the highest abundances. Phytoplankton taxonomic similarity decreased with increasing distance separating stations along the transect and was inversely related to stratification intensity. The observed distribution patterns and the trends in taxonomic similarity imply that for most of the year consumers within rocky intertidal and subtidal

  17. One-way ANOVA based on interval information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesamian, Gholamreza

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with extending the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to the case where the observed data are represented by closed intervals rather than real numbers. In this approach, first a notion of interval random variable is introduced. Especially, a normal distribution with interval parameters is introduced to investigate hypotheses about the equality of interval means or test the homogeneity of interval variances assumption. Moreover, the least significant difference (LSD method) for investigating multiple comparison of interval means is developed when the null hypothesis about the equality of means is rejected. Then, at a given interval significance level, an index is applied to compare the interval test statistic and the related interval critical value as a criterion to accept or reject the null interval hypothesis of interest. Finally, the method of decision-making leads to some degrees to accept or reject the interval hypotheses. An applied example will be used to show the performance of this method.

  18. Feedback functions for variable-interval reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A.; Baum, William M.

    1980-01-01

    On a given variable-interval schedule, the average obtained rate of reinforcement depends on the average rate of responding. An expression for this feedback effect is derived from the assumptions that free-operant responding occurs in bursts with a constant tempo, alternating with periods of engagement in other activities; that the durations of bursts and other activities are exponentially distributed; and that the rates of initiating and terminating bursts are inversely related. The expression provides a satisfactory account of the data of three experiments. PMID:16812187

  19. [Normal confidence interval for a summary measure].

    PubMed

    Bernard, P M

    2000-10-01

    This paper proposes an approach for calculating the normal confidence interval of a weighted summary measure which requires a particular continuous transformation for its variance estimation. By using the transformation properties and applying the delta method, the variance of transformed measure is easily expressed in terms of the transformed specific measure variances and the squared weights. The confidence limits of the summary measure are easily deduced by inverse transformation of those of transformed measure. The method is illustrated by applying it to some well known epidemiological measures. It seems appropriate for application in stratified analysis context where size allows normal approximation.

  20. Differential pulse interval and width modulated code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Murata, M.; Namekawa, T.

    1980-03-01

    The Differential PIWM Code is described as an application of PIWM Code in voice signal transmission. The differential value between adjacent sampled amplitudes is coded into PIWM Code in such a way as, making the sampling interval shorter for the steeper slope of the signal as well as companding in amplitude, coding and transmitting an absolute value, (say 0 to avoid accumulating the error) and differentiating between the digital signals instead of analogs. The relation among signal frequency, amplitude and S/N was determined.

  1. Asymptotic Theory for Nonparametric Confidence Intervals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    distributions. Ann. Math Statist. 14, 56-62. 24. ROY, S.N. and POTTHOFF, R.F. (1958). Confidence bounds on vector analogues of the "ratio of the mean" and...fl c,~_________ 14L TITLE feed &MV) S. TYPE or REPORT a PeftOo COVx:REC Asympeocic Theory for Nonaparuetric Technical Report Confidence Intevals 6...S..C-0S78 UNCLASSIFIED TŗU *uuuuumuuumhhhhmhhhm_4 ASYMPTOTIC THEORY FOR NONPARAMETRIC CONFIDENCE INTERVALS by Peter W. Glynn TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 63

  2. Easy identification of generalized common and conserved nested intervals.

    PubMed

    de Montgolfier, Fabien; Raffinot, Mathieu; Rusu, Irena

    2014-07-01

    In this article we explain how to easily compute gene clusters, formalized by classical or generalized nested common or conserved intervals, between a set of K genomes represented as K permutations. A b-nested common (resp. conserved) interval I of size |I| is either an interval of size 1 or a common (resp. conserved) interval that contains another b-nested common (resp. conserved) interval of size at least |I|-b. When b=1, this corresponds to the classical notion of nested interval. We exhibit two simple algorithms to output all b-nested common or conserved intervals between K permutations in O(Kn+nocc) time, where nocc is the total number of such intervals. We also explain how to count all b-nested intervals in O(Kn) time. New properties of the family of conserved intervals are proposed to do so.

  3. Reinforcement value and fixed-interval performance.

    PubMed

    Buriticá, Jonathan; Dos Santos, Cristiano V

    2017-08-29

    The concept of reinforcement value summarizes the effect of different variables, such as reinforcement delay, reinforcement magnitude, and deprivation level, on behavior. In the present set of experiments, we evaluated the effect of reinforcement devaluation on performance under FI schedules. The literature on timing and reinforcement value suggests that devaluation generates longer expected times to reinforcement than the same intervals trained under control conditions. We devalued reinforcement with delay in Experiments 1A, 1B, and 2, and diminished deprivation in Experiments 3A and 3B. Devaluation reduced response rates, increased the number of one-response intervals, and lengthened postreinforcement pauses, but had inconsistent effects on other timing measures such as quarter life and breakpoint. The results of delayed reinforcement and diminished deprivation manipulations are well summarized as reinforcement devaluation effects. These results suggest that devaluation may reduce stimulus control. In addition, we argue that the process by which delayed reinforcement affects behavior might also explain some effects observed in other devaluation procedures through the concept of reinforcement value. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Optimal ABC inventory classification using interval programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Jafar; Salimi, Negin

    2015-08-01

    Inventory classification is one of the most important activities in inventory management, whereby inventories are classified into three or more classes. Several inventory classifications have been proposed in the literature, almost all of which have two main shortcomings in common. That is, the previous methods mainly rely on an expert opinion to derive the importance of the classification criteria which results in subjective classification, and they need precise item parameters before implementing the classification. While the problem has been predominantly considered as a multi-criteria, we examine the problem from a different perspective, proposing a novel optimisation model for ABC inventory classification in the form of an interval programming problem. The proposed interval programming model has two important features compared to the existing methods: it provides optimal results instead of an expert-based classification and it does not require precise values of item parameters, which are not almost always available before classification. Finally, by illustrating the proposed classification model in the form of numerical example, conclusion and suggestions for future works are presented.

  5. Neurocomputational Models of Interval and Pattern Timing

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Nicholas F.; Buonomano, Dean V.

    2016-01-01

    Most of the computations and tasks performed by the brain require the ability to tell time, and process and generate temporal patterns. Thus, there is a diverse set of neural mechanisms in place to allow the brain to tell time across a wide range of scales: from interaural delays on the order of microseconds to circadian rhythms and beyond. Temporal processing is most sophisticated on the scale of tens of milliseconds to a few seconds, because it is within this range that the brain must recognize and produce complex temporal patterns—such as those that characterize speech and music. Most models of timing, however, have focused primarily on simple intervals and durations, thus it is not clear whether they will generalize to complex pattern-based temporal tasks. Here, we review neurobiologically based models of timing in the subsecond range, focusing on whether they generalize to tasks that require placing consecutive intervals in the context of an overall pattern, that is, pattern timing. PMID:27790629

  6. [Severe craniocerebral injuries with a lucid interval].

    PubMed

    Vilalta, J; Rubio, E; Castaño, C H; Guitart, J M; Bosch, J

    1993-02-01

    Some variables were analyzed in 35 patients with severe cranioencephalic injuries following a lucid interval according to mortality. The variables analyzed were: age of less than 40 years, interval of time accident-admission (TAA), admission-operation (TAO), level of consciousness (Glasgow scale), associated extracranial lesions, type of intracranial lesion, and tomodensitometric signs of intracranial hypertension. The only variables demonstrating significant statistical differences (p < 0.05) were the level of consciousness (Glasgow scale < 6 points) and the presence of subdural hematoma. Twelve (70.5%) patients who died had less than 6 on the Glasgow scale and in contrast only 5 (27.7%) of the living. Eleven (64.7%) of the group who died and 4 (22.2%) of the living had subdural hematoma. These data suggest that the level of consciousness and the type of lesion are determining factors of the mortality in this type of patients. Early detection and energic treatment of secondary lesions contribute to prognostic improvement of cranioencephalic injuries.

  7. Prenatal care and subsequent birth intervals.

    PubMed

    Teitler, Julien O; Das, Dhiman; Kruse, Lakota; Reichman, Nancy E

    2012-03-01

    Prenatal care generally includes contraceptive and health education that may help women to control their subsequent fertility. However, research has not examined whether receipt of prenatal care is associated with subsequent birthspacing. Longitudinally linked birth records from 113,662 New Jersey women who had had a first birth in 1996-2000 were used to examine associations between the timing and adequacy of prenatal care prior to a woman's first birth and the timing of her second birth. Multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for social and demographic characteristics, hospital and year of birth. Most women (85%) had initiated prenatal care during the first trimester. Women who had not obtained prenatal care until the second or third trimester, or at all, were more likely than those who had had first-trimester care to have a second child within 18 months, rather than in 18-59 months (odds ratios, 1.2-1.6). Similarly, women whose care had been inadequate were more likely than those who had had adequate care to have a short subsequent birth interval (1.2). The associations were robust to alternative measures of prenatal care and birth intervals, and were strongest for mothers with less than 16 years of education. Providers should capitalize on their limited encounters with mothers who initiate prenatal care late or use it sporadically to ensure that these women receive information about family planning. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  8. Sprint vs. interval training in football.

    PubMed

    Ferrari Bravo, D; Impellizzeri, F M; Rampinini, E; Castagna, C; Bishop, D; Wisloff, U

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) training on aerobic and anaerobic physiological variables in male football players. Forty-two participants were randomly assigned to either the interval training group (ITG, 4 x 4 min running at 90 - 95 % of HRmax; n = 21) or repeated-sprint training group (RSG, 3 x 6 maximal shuttle sprints of 40 m; n = 21). The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 7 weeks of training: maximum oxygen uptake, respiratory compensation point, football-specific endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, YYIRT), 10-m sprint time, jump height and power, and RSA. Significant group x time interaction was found for YYIRT (p = 0.003) with RSG showing greater improvement (from 1917 +/- 439 to 2455 +/- 488 m) than ITG (from 1846 +/- 329 to 2077 +/- 300 m). Similarly, a significant interaction was found in RSA mean time (p = 0.006) with only the RSG group showing an improvement after training (from 7.53 +/- 0.21 to 7.37 +/- 0.17 s). No other group x time interactions were found. Significant pre-post changes were found for absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake and respiratory compensation point (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that the RSA training protocol used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing aerobic and football-specific training adaptations.

  9. Pediatric reference intervals for alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Zierk, Jakob; Arzideh, Farhad; Haeckel, Rainer; Cario, Holger; Frühwald, Michael C; Groß, Hans-Jürgen; Gscheidmeier, Thomas; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Krebs, Alexander; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Neumann, Michael; Ruf, Hans-Georg; Steigerwald, Udo; Streichert, Thomas; Rascher, Wolfgang; Metzler, Markus; Rauh, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation of alkaline phosphatase activity in children is challenging due to extensive changes with growth and puberty leading to distinct sex- and age-specific dynamics. Continuous percentile charts from birth to adulthood allow accurate consideration of these dynamics and seem reasonable for an analyte as closely linked to growth as alkaline phosphatase. However, the ethical and practical challenges unique to pediatric reference intervals have restricted the creation of such percentile charts, resulting in limitations when clinical decisions are based on alkaline phosphatase activity. We applied an indirect method to generate percentile charts for alkaline phosphatase activity using clinical laboratory data collected during the clinical care of patients. A total of 361,405 samples from 124,440 patients from six German tertiary care centers and one German laboratory service provider measured between January 2004 and June 2015 were analyzed. Measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity was performed on Roche Cobas analyzers using the IFCC's photometric method. We created percentile charts for alkaline phosphatase activity in girls and boys from birth to 18 years which can be used as reference intervals. Additionally, data tables of age- and sex-specific percentile values allow the incorporation of these results into laboratory information systems. The percentile charts provided enable the appropriate differential diagnosis of changes in alkaline phosphatase activity due to disease and changes due to physiological development. After local validation, integration of the provided percentile charts into result reporting facilitates precise assessment of alkaline phosphatase dynamics in pediatrics.

  10. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  11. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception. PMID:23964258

  12. AMS 14C and 210Pb dating on a 51-cm sediment core from Santa Barbara Basin, CA: old carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, YiWei; Berelson, William M.; Li, HongChun

    2017-04-01

    A 51-cm gravity core, SBB-8-2012, was collected from Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) of California in 2012. Lamination counting of the core yields ˜160 layers. A total of 17 horizons of the core have been analyzed for 210Pb dating through alpha spectrometry method which provides a mean sedimentation rate of 0.24cm/y. Thus, the 51-cm long core covers about 210 years of depositional history of the sampling site in the basin. Up-to-date, we have measured AMS 14C dates on TOC of the bulk sediments in 34 layers from the upper 40.1 cm of the core. Except the 14C date (2983 yr BP) at 35-35.2 cm depth, the 33 uncorrected 14C dates range from 508 yr BP to 2214 yr BP, and form two groups which give two linear lines: age = 417 + 35.9 depth (cm), R2 = 0.976 and age = 665 + 37.4 depth (cm), R2 = 0.949. These equations allow us to observe the following phenomena: (1) TOC of the bulk sediments in the SSB contains old carbon. The old carbon may come from terrestrial input (allogenic/allochthonous) and/or from endogenic input (autochthonous) through photosynthesis in the water column. (2) The reservoir age can exist for both organic carbon of TOC and carbonate. At 35.5-37 cm depth, the AMS 14C date of a plant remain sample was 520±12 yr BP. If this age subtracts the reservoir age of 417 years, the corrected age is close to the result of 210Pb dating. A shell sample at 38.5 cm depth provides a 14C age of 915±47 yr BP, showing older reservoir age for carbonate. (3) The reservoir age for TOC may vary through time depending on water mixing rate in the basin. This is because the endogenic input may be a function of water mixing in the basin. When the mixing rate of the water column in the basin was slower, the reservoir age became older. Based on the chronology from the 210Pb dating, we are able to determine the Δ14C fluctuations of the TOC in the bulk sediments of the core. The variation of the Δ14C may let us evaluate basin mixing during the past 200 years.

  13. Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Exercise Differing in Interval Duration.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Wesley J; Sawyer, Brandon J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2015-12-01

    We determined the oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate responses to 2 high-intensity interval exercise protocols differing in interval length. On separate days, 14 recreationally active males performed a 4 × 4 (four 4-minute intervals at 90-95% HRpeak, separated by 3-minute recovery at 50 W) and 16 × 1 (sixteen 1-minute intervals at 90-95% HRpeak, separated by 1-minute recovery at 50 W) protocol on a cycle ergometer. The 4 × 4 elicited a higher mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (2.44 ± 0.4 vs. 2.36 ± 0.4 L·min) and "peak" V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (90-99% vs. 76-85% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and HR (95-98% HRpeak vs. 81-95% HRpeak) during the high-intensity intervals. Average power maintained was higher for the 16 × 1 (241 ± 45 vs. 204 ± 37 W), and recovery interval V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and HR were higher during the 16 × 1. No differences were observed for blood lactate concentrations at the midpoint (12.1 ± 2.2 vs. 10.8 ± 3.1 mmol·L) and end (10.6 ± 1.5 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 mmol·L) of the protocols or ratings of perceived exertion (7.0 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 1.4) and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale scores (91 ± 15 vs. 93 ± 12). Despite a 4-fold difference in interval duration that produced greater between-interval transitions in V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and HR and slightly higher mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2 during the 4 × 4, mean HR during each protocol was the same, and both protocols were rated similarly for perceived exertion and enjoyment. The major difference was that power output had to be reduced during the 4 × 4 protocol to maintain the desired HR.

  14. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    PubMed Central

    Love, Tanzy M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs) for QTL. Support interval (SI) methods based on the shape of the QTL likelihood curve have proven adequate for standard interval mapping, but have not been shown to be appropriate for use with composite interval mapping (CIM), which is one of the most commonly used QTL mapping methods. Results Based on a non-parametric confidence interval (NPCI) method designed for use with the Haley-Knott regression method for mapping QTL, a CIM-specific method (CIM-NPCI) was developed to appropriately account for the selection of background markers during analysis of bootstrap-resampled data sets. Coverage probabilities and interval widths resulting from use of the NPCI, SI, and CIM-NPCI methods were compared in a series of simulations analyzed via CIM, wherein four genetic effects were simulated in chromosomal regions with distinct marker densities while heritability was fixed at 0.6 for a population of 200 isolines. CIM-NPCIs consistently capture the simulated QTL across these conditions while slightly narrower SIs and NPCIs fail at unacceptably high rates, especially in genomic regions where marker density is high, which is increasingly common for real studies. The effects of a known CIM bias toward locating QTL peaks at markers were also investigated for each marker density case. Evaluation of sub-simulations that varied according to the positions of simulated effects relative to the nearest markers showed that the CIM-NPCI method overcomes this bias, offering an explanation for the improved coverage probabilities when marker densities are high. Conclusions Extensive simulation studies herein demonstrate that the QTL confidence interval methods typically used to positionally evaluate CIM results can be dramatically improved

  15. Estimating entropy rates with Bayesian confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    Kennel, Matthew B; Shlens, Jonathon; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Chichilnisky, E J

    2005-07-01

    The entropy rate quantifies the amount of uncertainty or disorder produced by any dynamical system. In a spiking neuron, this uncertainty translates into the amount of information potentially encoded and thus the subject of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. Estimating this quantity in observed, experimental data is difficult and requires a judicious selection of probabilistic models, balancing between two opposing biases. We use a model weighting principle originally developed for lossless data compression, following the minimum description length principle. This weighting yields a direct estimator of the entropy rate, which, compared to existing methods, exhibits significantly less bias and converges faster in simulation. With Monte Carlo techinques, we estimate a Bayesian confidence interval for the entropy rate. In related work, we apply these ideas to estimate the information rates between sensory stimuli and neural responses in experimental data (Shlens, Kennel, Abarbanel, & Chichilnisky, in preparation).

  16. A primer on confidence intervals in psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-02-01

    Research papers and research summaries frequently present results in the form of data accompanied by 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Not all students and clinicians know how to interpret CIs. This article provides a nontechnical, nonmathematical discussion on how to understand and glean information from CIs; all explanations are accompanied by simple examples. A statistically accurate explanation about CIs is also provided. CIs are differentiated from standard deviations, standard errors, and confidence levels. The interpretation of narrow and wide CIs is discussed. Factors that influence the width of a CI are listed. Explanations are provided for how CIs can be used to assess statistical significance. The significance of overlapping and nonoverlapping CIs is considered. It is concluded that CIs are far more informative than, say, mere P values when drawing conclusions about a result.

  17. Neural Circuitry for Recognizing Interspike Interval Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarbanel, Henry D. I.; Talathi, Sachin S.

    2006-04-01

    Sensory systems present environmental information to central nervous system as sequences of action potentials or spikes. How do animals recognize these sequences carrying information about their world? We present a biologically inspired neural circuit designed to enable spike pattern recognition. This circuit is capable of training itself on a given interspike interval (ISI) sequence and is then able to respond to presentations of the same sequence. The essential ingredients of the recognition circuit are (a) a tunable time delay circuit, (b) a spike selection unit, and (c) a tuning mechanism using spike timing dependent plasticity of inhibitory synapses. We have investigated this circuit using Hodgkin-Huxley neuron models connected by realistic excitatory and inhibitory synapses. It is robust in the presence of noise represented as jitter in the spike times of the ISI sequence.

  18. How do I interpret a confidence interval?

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Yi, Qi Long

    2016-07-01

    A 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean is a range with an upper and lower number calculated from a sample. Because the true population mean is unknown, this range describes possible values that the mean could be. If multiple samples were drawn from the same population and a 95% CI calculated for each sample, we would expect the population mean to be found within 95% of these CIs. CIs are sensitive to variability in the population (spread of values) and sample size. When used to compare the means of two or more treatment groups, a CI shows the magnitude of a difference between groups. This is helpful in understanding both the statistical significance and the clinical significance of a treatment. In this article we describe the basic principles of CIs and their interpretation.

  19. Representing spike trains using constant sampling intervals.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2009-10-15

    Sensory neurons encode external information by a series of times of action potentials, which is called a spike train. However, since it is a point process, it is hard to analyze. Here we propose a method for converting a spike train into a real-valued time series with a fixed sampling interval under the assumption of temporal codes. The proposed method yields time series that represent encoded signals. Especially when the method is applied to spike trains generated using integrate-and-fire models, the yielded time series look very similar to those of encoded information. The method works robustly even when a spike train is contaminated with noise. Since unlike filters it does not use its original signals for the conversion, the proposed method can be widely used for investigating spike train data in the real world.

  20. Short interval testing of solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saylor, C. R.; Lathrop, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    A drawback of conventional electrical evaluation procedures regarding solar cells is related to time consuming operations required in the determination of specific parameters, such as the maximum power point, from the plotted curves, and to the transfer of data to a large digital computer for analysis and manipulation. This is especially true when large numbers of cells must be measured. To overcome such drawbacks, a digital short interval tester was designed and constructed. The new tester provides rapid and accurate measurements at constant temperature. The utilization of a light shutter makes it possible to measure up to 200 data points along the I-V curve in less than a second, thus avoiding thermal effects. Because the system is digital, parameters such as the maximum power may be calculated directly from the data.

  1. On the convergence of validity interval analysis.

    PubMed

    Maire, F

    2000-01-01

    Validity interval analysis (VIA) is a generic tool for analyzing the input-output behavior of feedforward neural networks. VIA is a rule extraction technique that relies on a rule refinement algorithm. The rules are of the form R(i)-->R(0) which reads if the input of the neural network is in the region R(i), then its output is in the region R(0), where regions are axis parallel hypercubes. VIA conjectures, then refines and checks rules for inconsistency. This process can be computationally expensive, and the rule refinement phase becomes critical. Hence, the importance of knowing the complexity of these rule refinement algorithms. In this paper, we show that the rule refinement part of VIA always converges in one run for single-weight-layer networks, and has an exponential average rate of convergence for multilayer networks. We also discuss some variations of the standard VIA formulae.

  2. Prenatal Care and Subsequent Birth Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Teitler, Julien O.; Das, Dhiman; Kruse, Lakota; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Context Research on the effectiveness of prenatal care has focused primarily on birth outcomes, finding small effects at the population level. However, prenatal care generally includes postpartum contraceptive and health education that may enable women to better control their subsequent fertility. Associations between prenatal care and subsequent fertility have not been previously explored. Methods Using longitudinally-linked birth records from New Jersey between 1996 and 2006, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models to investigate associations between prenatal care (timing or adequacy) in a mother’s first birth and timing of her second birth, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and hospital and year of birth. Results Most mothers initiated prenatal care in the first (85%) or second (12%) trimester. Initiation of care after the first trimester is strongly associated with short subsequent birth intervals. The odds of having a second child in fewer than 18 months (compared to 18–59 months) were 19% higher if the mother initiated care in the second versus the first trimester, 26% higher if she initiated care in the third trimester, and 61% higher if she did not receive any care, all else equal. The associations are robust to alternative measures of prenatal care and birth intervals and are stronger for mothers with low levels of education. Conclusions The findings suggest that prenatal providers should capitalize on their limited encounters with mothers who initiate prenatal care late or use it sporadically to make information about family planning available. This issue is timely given recent and proposed budget cuts to public family planning. PMID:22405147

  3. Confidence Intervals Make a Difference: Effects of Showing Confidence Intervals on Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rink; Johnson, Addie; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of confidence intervals (CIs) as an addition or as an alternative to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has been promoted as a means to make researchers more aware of the uncertainty that is inherent in statistical inference. Little is known, however, about whether presenting results via CIs affects how readers judge the…

  4. Confidence Intervals Make a Difference: Effects of Showing Confidence Intervals on Inferential Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Rink; Johnson, Addie; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of confidence intervals (CIs) as an addition or as an alternative to null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) has been promoted as a means to make researchers more aware of the uncertainty that is inherent in statistical inference. Little is known, however, about whether presenting results via CIs affects how readers judge the…

  5. Pigeons' Memory for Number of Events: Effects of Intertrial Interval and Delay Interval Illumination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Chris; Santi, Angelo

    2004-01-01

    In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained at a 0-s baseline delay to discriminate sequences of light flashes (illumination of the feeder) that varied in number but not time (2f/4s and 8f/4s). During training, the intertrial interval was illuminated by the houselight for Group Light, but it was dark for Group Dark. Testing conducted with dark delay…

  6. Interval Estimation of the Population Squared Multiple Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlmann, John T.; Moore, James F.

    1977-01-01

    A technique is presented which applies the Neyman theory of confidence intervals to interval estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient. A computer program is presented which can be used to apply the technique. (Author/JKS)

  7. A survey of Australian haematology reference intervals.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Leanne; Hall, Sara; Badrick, Tony

    2014-10-01

    This study was designed to create a snapshot of Australian haematology reference intervals (RIs) in use, in particular red cell parameters. We present an analysis of survey results conducted across Australian laboratories between November 2012 and January 2013.All Australian laboratories enrolled in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP) were invited to participate in the December 2012 Survey Monkey survey, with a response from 85 laboratories (17%) received. The scope included laboratory demographics (location, size/throughput, and network), RIs in use for the full blood count and selected derived parameters, their frequency of revision, source and statistical approach for derivation. Further questions related to uncertainty of measurement, pregnancy values, paediatric/adult cut-off, haematology profiles reported and the use of extended parameters.There is more consistency with some upper and lower limits than others, and wide ranges for reported uncertainty of measurement (UM). There is no apparent consistency with RIs used for particular instruments and technologies. When laboratories change their RIs, most obtain them from a text book, paper or another laboratory and have difficulty in determining the source. If they do determine their own, most don't have a standard operating procedure and calculations are not consistent in terms of sample size and statistical methods used.We have presented evidence of the wide variations in RIs used in Australian laboratories and that arguably these do not differ significantly from each other. The paediatric age cut-off requires standardisation.

  8. Interval bisection in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Orduña, Vladimir; Hong, Enrique; Bouzas, Arturo

    2007-01-10

    An interval bisection procedure was used to study time discrimination in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), which have been proposed as an animal model for the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats were used as comparison groups. In this procedure, after subjects learn to make one response (S) following a short duration stimulus, and another (L) following a long duration stimulus, stimuli of intermediate durations are presented, and the percentage of L is calculated for each duration. A logistic function is fitted to these data, and different parameters that describe the time discrimination process are obtained. Four conditions, with different short and long durations (1-4, 2-8, 3-12, 4-16s) were used. The results indicate that time discrimination is not altered in SHR, given that no difference in any of the parameters obtained were significant. Given that temporal processing has been proposed as a fundamental factor in the development of the main symptoms of ADHD, and that deficits in time discrimination have been found in individuals with that disorder, the present results suggest the necessity of exploring time perception in SHR with other procedures and sensory modalities, in order to assess its validity as an animal model of ADHD.

  9. The Interval approach to braneworld gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Lykken, Joseph D.; Park, Minjoon; /Chicago U., EFI

    2005-06-01

    Gravity in five-dimensional braneworld backgrounds may exhibit extra scalar degrees of freedom with problematic features, including kinetic ghosts and strong coupling behavior. Analysis of such effects is hampered by the standard heuristic approaches to braneworld gravity, which use the equations of motion as the starting point, supplemented by orbifold projections and junction conditions. Here we develop the interval approach to braneworld gravity, which begins with an action principle. This shows how to implement general covariance, despite allowing metric fluctuations that do not vanish on the boundaries. We reproduce simple Z{sub 2} orbifolds of gravity, even though in this approach we never perform a Z{sub 2} projection. We introduce a family of ''straight gauges'', which are bulk coordinate systems in which both branes appear as straight slices in a single coordinate patch. Straight gauges are extremely useful for analyzing metric fluctuations in braneworld models. By explicit gauge fixing, we show that a general AdS{sub 5}/AdS{sub 4} setup with two branes has at most a radion, but no physical ''brane-bending'' modes.

  10. An Investigation of Interval Management Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swieringa, Kurt A.; Wilson, Sara R.; Shay, Rick

    2015-01-01

    NASA's first Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration (ATD-1) was created to transition the most mature ATM technologies from the laboratory to the National Airspace System. One selected technology is Interval Management (IM), which uses onboard aircraft automation to compute speeds that help the flight crew achieve and maintain precise spacing behind a preceding aircraft. Since ATD-1 focuses on a near-term environment, the ATD-1 flight demonstration prototype requires radio voice communication to issue an IM clearance. Retrofit IM displays will enable pilots to both enter information into the IM avionics and monitor IM operation. These displays could consist of an interface to enter data from an IM clearance and also an auxiliary display that presents critical information in the primary field-of-view. A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted to examine usability and acceptability of retrofit IM displays, which flight crews found acceptable. Results also indicate the need for salient alerting when new speeds are generated and the desire to have a primary field of view display available that can display text and graphic trend indicators.

  11. Statistical coding and decoding of heartbeat intervals.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Príncipe, José C; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems.

  12. Statistical Coding and Decoding of Heartbeat Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Fausto; Barros, Allan Kardec; Príncipe, José C.; Ohnishi, Noboru

    2011-01-01

    The heart integrates neuroregulatory messages into specific bands of frequency, such that the overall amplitude spectrum of the cardiac output reflects the variations of the autonomic nervous system. This modulatory mechanism seems to be well adjusted to the unpredictability of the cardiac demand, maintaining a proper cardiac regulation. A longstanding theory holds that biological organisms facing an ever-changing environment are likely to evolve adaptive mechanisms to extract essential features in order to adjust their behavior. The key question, however, has been to understand how the neural circuitry self-organizes these feature detectors to select behaviorally relevant information. Previous studies in computational perception suggest that a neural population enhances information that is important for survival by minimizing the statistical redundancy of the stimuli. Herein we investigate whether the cardiac system makes use of a redundancy reduction strategy to regulate the cardiac rhythm. Based on a network of neural filters optimized to code heartbeat intervals, we learn a population code that maximizes the information across the neural ensemble. The emerging population code displays filter tuning proprieties whose characteristics explain diverse aspects of the autonomic cardiac regulation, such as the compromise between fast and slow cardiac responses. We show that the filters yield responses that are quantitatively similar to observed heart rate responses during direct sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve stimulation. Our findings suggest that the heart decodes autonomic stimuli according to information theory principles analogous to how perceptual cues are encoded by sensory systems. PMID:21694763

  13. Cost effective mass standard calibration intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, A.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1995-11-01

    National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable standard weights serve as the foundation of mass measurement control programs. These standards are normally recalibrated annually at a cost of approximately $100 per weight. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has more than 4,000 standard weights. Most have recalibration intervals of 1 year. The cost effectiveness of the current practice was questioned. Are these mass standards being calibrated too often, and are all of these standards needed for calibration and QC activities? Statistical analyses of data from the calibration histories were performed on a random sample of eight weight sets. The analyses indicated no time effects or significant trends in the weight masses for periods of from 5 to 8 years. In other words, calibration checks were being performed too frequently. In addition, current electronic balance technology does not require a traditional set of standard weights that cover the entire weighing range of a balance. At the most, only 2 or 3 standards are needed for most weighing systems. Hence, by increasing weight set recalibration frequencies from 1 to 3 years, and by reducing the number standards calibrated by 80%, annual cost savings of over $400,000 are attainable at SRS. Details of the data analysis, technological advances, and cost savings are included in the paper.

  14. A bedr way of genomic interval processing.

    PubMed

    Haider, Syed; Waggott, Daryl; Lalonde, Emilie; Fung, Clement; Liu, Fei-Fei; Boutros, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is making it critical to robustly and rapidly handle genomic ranges within standard pipelines. Standard use-cases include annotating sequence ranges with gene or other genomic annotation, merging multiple experiments together and subsequently quantifying and visualizing the overlap. The most widely-used tools for these tasks work at the command-line (e.g. BEDTools) and the small number of available R packages are either slow or have distinct semantics and features from command-line interfaces. To provide a robust R-based interface to standard command-line tools for genomic coordinate manipulation, we created bedr. This open-source R package can use either BEDTools or BEDOPS as a back-end and performs data-manipulation extremely quickly, creating R data structures that can be readily interfaced with existing computational pipelines. It includes data-visualization capabilities and a number of data-access functions that interface with standard databases like UCSC and COSMIC. bedr package provides an open source solution to enable genomic interval data manipulation and restructuring in R programming language which is commonly used in bioinformatics, and therefore would be useful to bioinformaticians and genomic researchers.

  15. Function approximation using adaptive and overlapping intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A problem common to many disciplines is to approximate a function given only the values of the function at various points in input variable space. A method is proposed for approximating a function of several to one variable. The model takes the form of weighted averaging of overlapping basis functions defined over intervals. The number of such basis functions and their parameters (widths and centers) are automatically determined using given training data and a learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be seen as placing a nonuniform multidimensional grid in the input domain with overlapping cells. The non-uniformity and overlap of the cells is achieved by a learning algorithm to optimize a given objective function. This approach is motivated by the fuzzy modeling approach and a learning algorithms used for clustering and classification in pattern recognition. The basics of why and how the approach works are given. Few examples of nonlinear regression and classification are modeled. The relationship between the proposed technique, radial basis neural networks, kernel regression, probabilistic neural networks, and fuzzy modeling is explained. Finally advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  16. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. Objectives In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Methods Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg·m2] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%–100%) (2MIN-HIIT). Results There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg−1·min−1) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml·kg−1·min−1). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ −2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. Conclusion HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males. PMID:25913937

  17. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg · m(2)] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%-100%) (2MIN-HIIT). There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg(-1) · min(-1)) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ-2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males.

  18. Overestimation of the second time interval replaces time-shrinking when the difference between two adjacent time intervals increases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Hasuo, Emi; Yamashita, Miki; Haraguchi, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    When the onsets of three successive sound bursts mark two adjacent time intervals, the second time interval can be underestimated when it is physically longer than the first time interval by up to 100 ms. This illusion, time-shrinking, is very stable when the first time interval is 200 ms or shorter (Nakajima et al., 2004, Perception, 33). Time-shrinking had been considered a kind of perceptual assimilation to make the first and the second time interval more similar to each other. Here we investigated whether the underestimation of the second time interval was replaced by an overestimation if the physical difference between the neighboring time intervals was too large for the assimilation to take place; this was a typical situation in which a perceptual contrast could be expected. Three experiments to measure the overestimation/underestimation of the second time interval by the method of adjustment were conducted. The first time interval was varied from 40 to 280 ms, and such overestimations indeed took place when the first time interval was 80-280 ms. The overestimations were robust when the second time interval was longer than the first time interval by 240 ms or more, and the magnitude of the overestimation was larger than 100 ms in some conditions. Thus, a perceptual contrast to replace time-shrinking was established. An additional experiment indicated that this contrast did not affect the perception of the first time interval substantially: The contrast in the present conditions seemed unilateral.

  19. About Hemispheric Differences in the Processing of Temporal Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grondin, S.; Girard, C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify differences between cerebral hemispheres for processing temporal intervals ranging from .9 to 1.4s. The intervals to be judged were marked by series of brief visual signals located in the left or the right visual field. Series of three (two standards and one comparison) or five intervals (four…

  20. A METHOD OF DETERMINING A CONFIDENCE INTERVAL FOR AVAILABILITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report presents a method of determining a confidence interval for availability when it is estimated from the mean time between equipment...for a confidence interval for availability. An example is included to demonstrate the procedure of placing a confidence interval about the estimated availability.

  1. Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Departure Interval: Does Patient Age Matter?

    PubMed

    Schnegg, Bruno; Pasquier, Mathieu; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Yersin, Bertrand; Dami, Fabrice

    2016-12-01

    Introduction The concept of response time with minimal interval is intimately related to the practice of emergency medicine. The factors influencing this time interval are poorly understood. Problem In a process of improvement of response time, the impact of the patient's age on ambulance departure intervals was investigated.

  2. Central Difference Interval Method for Solving the Wave Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Szyszka, Barbara

    2010-09-30

    This paper presents path of construction the interval method of second order for solving the wave equation. Taken into consideration is the central difference interval method for one-dimensional partial differential equation. Numerical results, obtained by two presented algorithms, in floating-point interval arithmetic are considered.

  3. Application of Sequential Interval Estimation to Adaptive Mastery Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuan-chin Ivan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we apply sequential one-sided confidence interval estimation procedures with beta-protection to adaptive mastery testing. The procedures of fixed-width and fixed proportional accuracy confidence interval estimation can be viewed as extensions of one-sided confidence interval procedures. It can be shown that the adaptive mastery…

  4. Dissimilar Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Sprint Interval Training and High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kimberly M; Olive, Brittany; LaValle, Kaylyn; Thompson, Heather; Greer, Kevin; Astorino, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) elicit similar cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations vs. endurance training. No study, however, has investigated acute physiological changes during HIIT vs. SIT. This study compared acute changes in heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), oxygen uptake (VO2), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during HIIT and SIT. Active adults (4 women and 8 men, age = 24.2 ± 6.2 years) initially performed a VO2max test to determine workload for both sessions on the cycle ergometer, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training consisted of 8 bouts of 30 seconds of all-out cycling at 130% of maximum Watts (Wmax). High-intensity interval training consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax. Heart rate, VO2, BLa, affect, and RPE were continuously assessed throughout exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between HIIT and SIT for VO2 (p < 0.001), HR (p < 0.001), RPE (p = 0.03), and BLa (p = 0.049). Conversely, there was no significant difference between regimens for affect (p = 0.12). Energy expenditure was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in HIIT (209.3 ± 40.3 kcal) vs. SIT (193.5 ± 39.6 kcal). During HIIT, subjects burned significantly more calories and reported lower perceived exertion than SIT. The higher VO2 and lower BLa in HIIT vs. SIT reflected dissimilar metabolic perturbation between regimens, which may elicit unique long-term adaptations. If an individual is seeking to burn slightly more calories, maintain a higher oxygen uptake, and perceive less exertion during exercise, HIIT is the recommended routine.

  5. RR-Interval variance of electrocardiogram for atrial fibrillation detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryani, N.; Solikhah, M.; Nugoho, A. S.; Afdala, A.; Anzihory, E.

    2016-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a serious heart problem originated from the upper chamber of the heart. The common indication of atrial fibrillation is irregularity of R peak-to-R-peak time interval, which is shortly called RR interval. The irregularity could be represented using variance or spread of RR interval. This article presents a system to detect atrial fibrillation using variances. Using clinical data of patients with atrial fibrillation attack, it is shown that the variance of electrocardiographic RR interval are higher during atrial fibrillation, compared to the normal one. Utilizing a simple detection technique and variances of RR intervals, we find a good performance of atrial fibrillation detection.

  6. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, W.-S.; Wang, F. Z.; Havlin, S.; Kaizoji, T.; Moon, H.-T.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold q for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval τ and its mean <τ>. We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  7. Differences in Physiological Responses to Interval Training in Cyclists With and Without Interval Training Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hebisz, Rafal; Borkowski, Jacek; Zatoń, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine differences in glycolytic metabolite concentrations and work output in response to an all-out interval training session in 23 cyclists with at least 2 years of interval training experience (E) and those inexperienced (IE) in this form of training. The intervention involved subsequent sets of maximal intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Each set comprised four 30 s repetitions interspersed with 90 s recovery periods; sets were repeated when blood pH returned to 7.3. Measurements of post-exercise hydrogen (H+) and lactate ion (LA-) concentrations and work output were taken. The experienced cyclists performed significantly more sets of maximal efforts than the inexperienced athletes (5.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 sets, respectively). Work output decreased in each subsequent set in the IE group and only in the last set in the E group. Distribution of power output changed only in the E group; power decreased in the initial repetitions of set only to increase in the final repetitions. H+ concentration decreased in the third, penultimate, and last sets in the E group and in each subsequent set in the IE group. LA- decreased in the last set in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced cyclists were able to repeatedly induce elevated levels of lactic acidosis. Power output distribution changed with decreased acid–base imbalance. In this way, this group could compensate for a decreased anaerobic metabolism. The above factors allowed cyclists experienced in interval training to perform more sets of maximal exercise without a decrease in power output compared with inexperienced cyclists. PMID:28149346

  8. Differences in Physiological Responses to Interval Training in Cyclists With and Without Interval Training Experience.

    PubMed

    Hebisz, Rafal; Hebisz, Paulina; Borkowski, Jacek; Zatoń, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine differences in glycolytic metabolite concentrations and work output in response to an all-out interval training session in 23 cyclists with at least 2 years of interval training experience (E) and those inexperienced (IE) in this form of training. The intervention involved subsequent sets of maximal intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Each set comprised four 30 s repetitions interspersed with 90 s recovery periods; sets were repeated when blood pH returned to 7.3. Measurements of post-exercise hydrogen (H+) and lactate ion (LA-) concentrations and work output were taken. The experienced cyclists performed significantly more sets of maximal efforts than the inexperienced athletes (5.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.3 ± 0.9 sets, respectively). Work output decreased in each subsequent set in the IE group and only in the last set in the E group. Distribution of power output changed only in the E group; power decreased in the initial repetitions of set only to increase in the final repetitions. H+ concentration decreased in the third, penultimate, and last sets in the E group and in each subsequent set in the IE group. LA- decreased in the last set in both groups. In conclusion, the experienced cyclists were able to repeatedly induce elevated levels of lactic acidosis. Power output distribution changed with decreased acid-base imbalance. In this way, this group could compensate for a decreased anaerobic metabolism. The above factors allowed cyclists experienced in interval training to perform more sets of maximal exercise without a decrease in power output compared with inexperienced cyclists.

  9. Investigating TMS-EEG Indices of Long-Interval Intracortical Inhibition at Different Interstimulus Intervals.

    PubMed

    Opie, George M; Rogasch, Nigel C; Goldsworthy, Mitchell R; Ridding, Michael C; Semmler, John G

    Long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) is a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm that uses paired magnetic stimuli separated by 100-200 ms to investigate the activity of cortical GABAergic interneurons. While commonly applied, the mechanisms contributing to LICI are not well understood, and growing evidence suggests that inhibition observed at different interstimulus intervals (ISI) may involve non-identical processes. This study aims to utilise combined TMS-EEG to more thoroughly characterise LICI at different ISIs, as the TMS-evoked EEG potential (TEP) can provide more direct insight into the cortical response to stimulation that is not subject to variations in spinal cord excitability that can confound the motor evoked potential (MEP). In 12 subjects (22.6 ± 0.9 years), LICI was applied using two ISIs of 100 ms (LICI100) and 150 ms (LICI150), while TEPs were recorded using simultaneous high-definition EEG. Analysis of EEG data within a region of interest (C3 electrode) showed that test alone stimulation produced three consistent TEP peaks (corresponding to P30, N100 and P180) that were all significantly inhibited following paired-pulse stimulation. However, for P30, inhibition varied between LICI conditions, with reduced amplitude following LICI100 (P = 0.03) but not LICI150 (P = 0.3). In contrast, the N100 and P180 were significantly reduced by LICI at both intervals (all P-values < 0.05). In addition, topographical analyses suggested that the global change in P30, N40 and P180 differed between LICI conditions. These findings suggest that LICI100 and LICI150 reflect complex measurements of cortical inhibition with differential contributions from comparable circuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    PubMed

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  11. Alternative Confidence Interval Methods Used in the Diagnostic Accuracy Studies.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Semra; Gülhan, Orekıcı Temel

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim. It is necessary to decide whether the newly improved methods are better than the standard or reference test or not. To decide whether the new diagnostics test is better than the gold standard test/imperfect standard test, the differences of estimated sensitivity/specificity are calculated with the help of information obtained from samples. However, to generalize this value to the population, it should be given with the confidence intervals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the confidence interval methods developed for the differences between the two dependent sensitivity/specificity values on a clinical application. Materials and Methods. In this study, confidence interval methods like Asymptotic Intervals, Conditional Intervals, Unconditional Interval, Score Intervals, and Nonparametric Methods Based on Relative Effects Intervals are used. Besides, as clinical application, data used in diagnostics study by Dickel et al. (2010) has been taken as a sample. Results. The results belonging to the alternative confidence interval methods for Nickel Sulfate, Potassium Dichromate, and Lanolin Alcohol are given as a table. Conclusion. While preferring the confidence interval methods, the researchers have to consider whether the case to be compared is single ratio or dependent binary ratio differences, the correlation coefficient between the rates in two dependent ratios and the sample sizes.

  12. The factors influence compatibility of pulse-pulse intervals with R-R intervals.

    PubMed

    Liu, An-Bang; Wu, Hsien-Tsai; Liu, Cyuan-Cin; Hsu, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Ding-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic dysfunction assessed by power spectral analysis of electrocardigographic (ECG) R-R intervals (RRI) is a useful method in clinical research. The compatibility of pulse-pulse intervals (PPI) acquired by photoplethysmography (PPG) with RRI is equivocal. In this study, we would like to investigate factors influence the compatibility. We recruited 25 young and health subjects divided into two groups: normal subjects (Group1, BMI < 24, n=15) and overweight subjects (Group2, BMI >/= 24, n=10). ECG and PPG were measured for 5 minutes. Used cross-approximate entropy (CAE) and Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtained compatibility between RRI and PPI. The CAE value in Group1 were significantly lower than in Group2 (1.71 ± 0.12 vs. 1.83 ± 0.11, P = 0.011). A positive linear relationship between CAE value and risk factors of metabolic syndrome. No significantly difference between LFP/HFP ratio of RRI (LHRRRI) and LFP/HFP ratio of PPI (LHRPPI) in Group1 (1.42 ± 0.19 vs. 1.38 ± 0.17, P = 0.064), LHRRRI significantly higher than LHRPPI in Group2 (2.18 ± 0.37 vs. 1.93 ± 0.30, P = 0.005). It should be careful that using PPI to assess autonomic function in the obese subjects or the patients with metabolic syndrome.

  13. Interval timing in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Higa, J J; Simm, L A

    2004-11-30

    The present study evaluated the temporal performance of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) given short-term exposure to four fixed interval (FI) schedules of reinforcement, FI 30, 60, 120, and 240 s, during which a reinforcer (mirror image) was given for the first response (swimming through a hoop) after the interval requirement had elapsed. Response levels were generally low early in an interval and increased as the interval elapsed; wait times and break points in an interval increased with increases in the FI requirement. The results were similar to that obtained with other species and different types of responses and reinforcers, and demonstrate that the procedure is a feasible method for studying interval timing in fish.

  14. Reference intervals data mining: no longer a probability paper method.

    PubMed

    Katayev, Alexander; Fleming, James K; Luo, Dajie; Fisher, Arren H; Sharp, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    To describe the application of a data-mining statistical algorithm for calculation of clinical laboratory tests reference intervals. Reference intervals for eight different analytes and different age and sex groups (a total of 11 separate reference intervals) for tests that are unlikely to be ordered during routine screening of disease-free populations were calculated using the modified algorithm for data mining of test results stored in the laboratory database and compared with published peer-reviewed studies that used direct sampling. The selection of analytes was based on the predefined criteria that include comparability of analytical methods with a statistically significant number of observations. Of the 11 calculated reference intervals, having upper and lower limits for each, 21 of 22 reference interval limits were not statistically different from the reference studies. The presented statistical algorithm is shown to be an accurate and practical tool for reference interval calculations. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  15. Extended flowering intervals of bamboos evolved by discrete multiplication.

    PubMed

    Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A; Davis, Charles C

    2015-07-01

    Numerous bamboo species collectively flower and seed at dramatically extended, regular intervals - some as long as 120 years. These collective seed releases, termed 'masts', are thought to be a strategy to overwhelm seed predators or to maximise pollination rates. But why are the intervals so long, and how did they evolve? We propose a simple mathematical model that supports their evolution as a two-step process: First, an initial phase in which a mostly annually flowering population synchronises onto a small multi-year interval. Second, a phase of successive small multiplications of the initial synchronisation interval, resulting in the extraordinary intervals seen today. A prediction of the hypothesis is that mast intervals observed today should factorise into small prime numbers. Using a historical data set of bamboo flowering observations, we find strong evidence in favour of this prediction. Our hypothesis provides the first theoretical explanation for the mechanism underlying this remarkable phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  16. Contrasting Diversity Values: Statistical Inferences Based on Overlapping Confidence Intervals

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Payton, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(α) = 0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance). PMID:23437239

  17. Contrasting diversity values: statistical inferences based on overlapping confidence intervals.

    PubMed

    MacGregor-Fors, Ian; Payton, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Ecologists often contrast diversity (species richness and abundances) using tests for comparing means or indices. However, many popular software applications do not support performing standard inferential statistics for estimates of species richness and/or density. In this study we simulated the behavior of asymmetric log-normal confidence intervals and determined an interval level that mimics statistical tests with P(α) = 0.05 when confidence intervals from two distributions do not overlap. Our results show that 84% confidence intervals robustly mimic 0.05 statistical tests for asymmetric confidence intervals, as has been demonstrated for symmetric ones in the past. Finally, we provide detailed user-guides for calculating 84% confidence intervals in two of the most robust and highly-used freeware related to diversity measurements for wildlife (i.e., EstimateS, Distance).

  18. Recommended confidence intervals for two independent binomial proportions.

    PubMed

    Fagerland, Morten W; Lydersen, Stian; Laake, Petter

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between two independent binomial proportions is commonly estimated and presented using the difference between proportions, the number needed to treat, the ratio of proportions or the odds ratio. Several different confidence intervals are available, but they can produce markedly different results. Some of the traditional approaches, such as the Wald interval for the difference between proportions and the Katz log interval for the ratio of proportions, do not perform well unless the sample size is large. Better intervals are available. This article describes and compares approximate and exact confidence intervals that are - with one exception - easy to calculate or available in common software packages. We illustrate the performances of the intervals and make recommendations for both small and moderate-to-large sample sizes. © The Author(s) 2011 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. IBM system/360 assembly language interval arithmetic software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Computer software designed to perform interval arithmetic is described. An interval is defined as the set of all real numbers between two given numbers including or excluding one or both endpoints. Interval arithmetic consists of the various elementary arithmetic operations defined on the set of all intervals, such as interval addition, subtraction, union, etc. One of the main applications of interval arithmetic is in the area of error analysis of computer calculations. For example, it has been used sucessfully to compute bounds on sounding errors in the solution of linear algebraic systems, error bounds in numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations, as well as integral equations and boundary value problems. The described software enables users to implement algorithms of the type described in references efficiently on the IBM 360 system.

  20. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was