Science.gov

Sample records for intervening coastal basins

  1. Mesozoic basin development beneath the southeastern US coastal plain: evidence from new COCORP profiling

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, J.H.; Nelson, K.D.; Arnow, J.A.; Oliver, J.E.; Brown, L.D.; Kaufman, S.

    1985-01-01

    New COCORP profiling on the Georgia coastal plain indicates that the Triassic/Early Jurassic South Georgia basin is a composite feature, which includes several large half-grabens separated by intervening regions where the Triassic/Early Jurassic section is much thinner. Two half-grabens imaged on the profiles have apparent widths of 125 and 40 km, and at their deepest points contain about 5 km of basin fill. Both basins are bounded on their south flanks by major normal faults that dip moderately steeply toward the north, and are disrupted internally by subsidiary normal faults within the basin fill sequences. The orientation of the main basin-bounding faults suggests that they might have reactivated Paleozoic south-vergent structures formed on the south side of the Alleghenian suture. Evolution of the South Georgia basin appears to follow a model of initial, rapid rifting followed by flexural subsidence. The major episode of normal faulting, and hence extension, within the South Georgia basin occurred prior to extrusion of an areally extensive sequence of Early Jurassic basalt flows. This sequence is traceable across most of the width of the South Georgia basin in western Georgia, and may extend as far east as offshore South Carolina. Jurassic strata above the basalt horizon are notably less faulted and accumulated within a broadly subsiding basin that thins both to the north and south. The occurrence of the basalt relatively late in the rift sequence supports the hypothesis that the southeastern US may have been a major area of incipient spreading after Pangea had begun to separate.

  2. Groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit is approximately 860 square miles and consists of the Santa Monica, Hollywood, West Coast, Central, and Orange County Coastal Plain groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The basins are bounded in part by faults, including the Newport-Inglewood fault zone, and are filled with Holocene-, Pleistocene-, and Pliocene-age marine and alluvial sediments. The Central Basin and Orange County Coastal Plain are divided into a forebay zone on the northeast and a pressure zone in the center and southwest. The forebays consist of unconsolidated coarser sediment, and the pressure zones are characterized by lenses of coarser sediment divided into confined to semi-confined aquifers by lenses of finer sediments. The primary aquifer system in the study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of public-supply wells. The majority of public-supply wells are drilled to depths of 510 to 1,145 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of about 300 to 510 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer systems.

  3. Micropaleontology and biostratigraphy of the coastal basins of West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Kogbe, C.A.; Mehes, K.

    1986-01-01

    This book is intended to meet the need for a single volume on descriptive micropaleontology of West African microfauna assemblage which is different from that of the Boreal, Mediterranean, Pacific and Atlantic regions. The contents include: Preface. Introduction. Systematics: West African foraminifera species: Systematic classification and description. Glossary for the foraminifera. Selected references for the foraminifera. The ostracoda: Systematic classification and description. Glossary for the ostracoda. Selected references for the ostracoda. Stratigraphic Sequences of the West African Coastal Basins: General review. Angola-Cuanza basin. Congo. Gabon. Cameroun-Douala basin. Nigeria. Togo-Benin basin. Ghana. Ivory Coast. Senegal. Appendix: Brief classification of foraminifera. Paleo-ecology of the foraminifera. Testing of samples. Collection of samples. Preparation of samples. Preparation of thin sections. Storage of microfossils. Methods of examination. Index.

  4. Probable flood predictions in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.; Smith, M.E.; Chica, A.M.E.; Litke, D.

    2008-01-01

    A regionalization procedure is presented and used to predict probable flooding in four ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. The flood-prediction problem is sequentially solved for two regions: upstream mountains and downstream alluvial plains. In the upstream mountains, a set of rainfall-runoff parameter values and recurrent peak-flow discharge hydrographs are simultaneously estimated for 20 tributary-basin models. Application of dissimilarity equations among tributary basins (soft prior information) permitted development of a parsimonious parameter structure subject to information content in the recurrent peak-flow discharge values derived using regression equations based on measurements recorded outside the ungauged study basins. The estimated joint set of parameter values formed the basis from which probable minimum and maximum peak-flow discharge limits were then estimated revealing that prediction uncertainty increases with basin size. In the downstream alluvial plain, model application of the estimated minimum and maximum peak-flow hydrographs facilitated simulation of probable 100-year flood-flow depths in confined canyons and across unconfined coastal alluvial plains. The regionalization procedure provides a tool for hydrologic risk assessment and flood protection planning that is not restricted to the case presented herein. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  5. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 4. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 4 contains records for water discharge at 58 gaging stations; stage only at 2 gaging stations; stage and contents at 14 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 30 gaging stations; and data for 13 partial-record stations comprised of 5 flood-hydrograph, 5 low-flow, 1 crest-stage, and 2 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  6. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 4. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 4 contains records for water discharge at 61 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging station; stage and contents at 11 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 30 gaging stations; and data for 13 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph, 5 low-flow, and 2 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic datacollection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  7. Sediment quality in the north coastal basin of Massachusetts, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Ashman, Mary S.; Heath, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, completed a reconnaissance-level study of bottom-sediment quality in selected lakes, rivers, and estuaries in the North Coastal Basin of Massachusetts. Bottom-sediment grab samples were collected from 20 sites in the North River, Lake Quannapowitt, Saugus River, Mill River, Shute Brook, Sea Plane Basin, Pines River, and Bear Creek. The samples were tested for various types of potentially harmful contaminants? including 33 elements, 17 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 22 organochlorine pesticides, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclors)?to benthic organisms (bottom-dwelling) and humans. The results were compared among sampling sites, to background concentrations, and to concen-trations measured in other urban rivers, and sediment-quality guidelines were used to predict toxicity at the sampling sites to benthic organisms and humans. Because there are no standards for human toxicity for aquatic sediment, standards for contaminated upland soil were used. Contaminant concentrations measured in sediment collected from the North Coastal Basin generally were equal to or greater than concentrations in sediment from uncontaminated rivers throughout New England. Contaminants in North Coastal Basin sediment with elevated concentrations (above back-ground levels) included arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, some of the PAHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and dieldrin. No PCBs were measured above the detection limits. Measured concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and lead were also generally greater than those measured in other urban rivers throughout the conter-minous United States. With one exception (arsenic), local con-centrations measured in sediment samples collected from the North Coastal Basin were lower than concentrations measured in sediment collected from two of three urban rivers draining to Boston

  8. The continental sediments of the Nigerian Coastal Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adediran, S. A.; Adegoke, O. S.; Oshin, I. O.

    The development of the coastal basins of Nigeria is examined in terms of a four-stage evolutionary model, viz: intracratonic, synrift, transitional and oceanic. The continental sediments range in age from early Cretaceous to Recent. The oldest sediments in the Western Dahomey Basin (Ise Formation) consist of a predrift sequence of basal conglomerates and loose sands interbedded with clays. Sedimentation in the eastern basins commenced later during the Albian times with the deposition of coarse grained, poorly sorted sands (Mamfe and Awi Formations) of fluviatile origin. These are overlain in all basins by transitional to marine strata. Continental sedimentation resumed in the Maastricthian with the deposition of coarse grained, poorly sorted, sometimes ferruginuous sands and clays (Owelli and Ajali Sandstones). Regression began during the Eocene resulting in the deposition of fine to coarse grained, poorly sorted sands with mudstones (Ilaro Formation) in the west, overlain by crossbedded sandstones with lignites and carbonaceous mudstone (Ogwashi-Asaba Formation). Miocene to Recent limonitic, coarse grained, subangular to well-rounded Benin Sands cap all the basins.

  9. Nitrogen inputs, ouptut, and retention in a coastal suburban basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, W. H.; Daley, M. L.; Gettel, G.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the biogeochemistry of suburban basins is becoming increasingly important due to the rapidly accelerating suburban sprawl in many parts of the US. In southeastern New Hampshire, population density is expected to increase by 50% over 20 years, and most of the development will occur as low-density suburban home lots with wells and on-site waste disposal. We measured the N inputs, outputs, and loss/storage in a 470 sq km basin, the Lamprey River of coastal New Hampshire. Atmospheric deposition and food imported into the basin were both significant inputs, and totaled 13 kg/ha/yr. Output was 0.6 kg/ha/yr, for a net loss/retention of 95% of inputs. Net retention among various sub-watersheds of the Lamprey ranged from 50 to 98%. Because the Lamprey river basin contains a high proportion of wetlands (14% wetlands and open water), has some water courses that undergo periodic oxygen depletion, and has high levels of dissolved organic carbon in surface waters (6 mg/l), in-stream and wetland denitrification may be a major loss pathway for N in the basin. Results from a study of riparian zone biogeochemistry suggest that riparian denitrification may also be a significant loss pathway. Accelerating suburbanization may greatly increase N delivery to the coast if it shortens hydrologic flow paths and decreases wetland coverage while increasing N inputs.

  10. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, Trinity River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage only at 5 gaging stations; stage and contents at 33 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 65 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 7 flood-hydrograph, 2 low-flow, and 3 creststage stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  11. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 3. Colorado River Basin, Lavaca River Basin, Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 126 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 15 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 62 gaging stations; and data for 35 partial-record stations comprised of 8 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 18 creststage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  12. Water Resources Data - Texas, Water Year 2001, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 30 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 40 gaging stations; and data for 12 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 6 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  13. Water-Data Report--Texas 2003, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 72 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 35 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 28 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  14. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 23 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 47 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  15. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 1. Arkansas River Basin, Red River Basin, Sabine River Basin, Neches River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 68 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 37 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 39 gaging stations; and data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  16. Water resources data Texas, water year 2004, volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Susan C. Aragon; Reece, Brian D.; Eames, Deanna R.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 72 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; elevation at 29 lakes and reservoirs; content at 6 lakes and reservoirs; and water quality at 26 gaging stations. Also included are data for 9 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 3 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  17. Water resources data - Texas water year 2002 : Volume 1. Arkansas River basin, Red River basin, Sabine River basin, Neches River basin, and intervening coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 1 contains records for water discharge at 63 gaging stations; stage only at 3 gaging stations; stage and contents at 34 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 35 gaging stations; and data for 8 partial-record stations comprised of 6 flood-hydrograph and 2 low-flow stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  18. Prediction of streamflow from the set of basins flowing into a coastal bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lavenne, A.; Cudennec, C.

    2015-03-01

    Many coastal basins of the Brittany peninsula (France) display a high level of nitrate pollution, nine of them highlighted by the European Commission since 2007, as causing algal blooms in several coastal bays. To precisely diagnose and solve this issue the fluxes of every contributing basin have to be considered. However, this faces a strong data-scarce situation as most of the basins are ungauged. In this context, we propose to transpose hydrological information from one gauged basin to neighbouring points of interest. The methodology uses a simple geomorphology-based transfer function on the gauged basin, which allows assessment of the net rainfall time series through the de-convolution of the gauged discharge series. This net rainfall is then transposed and convoluted on the ungauged basin using its own transfer function in order to estimate discharge. This approach enables the quantification of the whole volume of freshwater entering the controversial Saint-Brieuc Bay.

  19. Impact of river basin management on coastal water quality and ecosystem services: A southern Baltic estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schernewski, Gerald; Hürdler, Jens; Neumann, Thomas; Stybel, Nardine; Venohr, Markus

    2010-05-01

    Eutrophication management is still a major challenge in the Baltic Sea region. Estuaries or coastal waters linked to large rivers cannot be managed independently. Nutrient loads into these coastal ecosystems depend on processes, utilisation, structure and management in the river basin. In practise this means that we need a large scale approach and integrated models and tools to analyse, assess and evaluate the effects of nutrient loads on coastal water quality as well as the efficiency of river basin management measures on surface waters and especially lagoons and estuaries. The Odra river basin, the Szczecin Lagoon and its coastal waters cover an area of about 150,000 km² and are an eutrophication hot-spot in the Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of an optimal nitrogen and phosphorus management scenario in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35 %) would have positive effects on coastal water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased

  20. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only at 4 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 29 gaging stations; and data for 23 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 10 low-flow, 6 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  1. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 84 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 32 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 25 gaging stations; and data for 43 partial-record stations comprised of 18 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, 14 crest-stage, and 3 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  2. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 3. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3 contains records for water discharge at 78 gaging stations; stage only at 7 gaging stations; stage and contents at 28 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 27 gaging stations; and data for 48 partial-record stations comprised of 19 flood-hydrograph, 8 low-flow, and 17 crest-stage, and 4 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  3. Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 5. Guadalupe River Basin, Nueces River Basin, Rio Grande Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Barbie, D.L.; Jones, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas are presented in six volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water-quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 5 contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only at 1 gaging stations; stage and contents at 4 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 38 gaging stations; and data for 30 partial-record stations comprised of 3 flood-hydrograph, 14 low-flow, and 8 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  4. Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 2. San Jacinto River Basin, Brazos River Basin, San Bernard River Basin, and Intervening Coastal Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandara, S.C.; Gibbons, W.J.; Andrews, F.L.; Barbie, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas are presented in four volumes, and consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and canals; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 2 contains records for water discharge at 74 gaging stations; stage only at 9 gaging stations; stage and contents at 21 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 32 gaging stations; and data for 73 partial-record stations comprised of 43 flood-hydrograph, 9 low-flow, and 16 crest-stage, and 5 miscellaneous stations. Also included are lists of discontinued surface-water discharge or stage-only stations and discontinued surface-water-quality stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas. Records for a few pertinent stations in the bordering States also are included.

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Nutrients in two coastal prairie streams draining agricultural areas, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Larry F.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began nationwide implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Long-term goals of NAWQA are to describe the status of and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation?s surface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound, scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources (Leahy and others, 1990). The Trinity River Basin in east-central Texas (fig. 1) was among the first 20 hydrologic areas, called study units, to be assessed by this program. The first intensive data-collection phase for the Trinity River Basin NAWQA began in March 1993 and ended in September 1995. Streams in the Trinity River Basin were assessed by sampling water, bed sediment, and tissue of biota and characterizing the aquatic communities and their habitat. Aquifers were assessed by sampling water from wells. The coastal prairie is a small part of the Trinity River Basin, but it is environmentally important because of its proximity to Galveston Bay and the extensive use of agricultural chemicals on many irrigated farms. Galveston Bay (fig. 1) was selected by Congress as an estuary of national significance and was included on a priority list for the National Estuary Program. The Trinity River is especially important because its watershed dominates the total Galveston Bay drainage area and because its flow contributes substantial amounts of freshwater and water-quality constituents to the bay. Historically, measurements of the quantity and quality of water entering Galveston Bay from the Trinity River Basin have been made using data from a station about 113 kilometers (70 miles) upstream from Trinity Bay, an inlet bay to Galveston Bay. With a focused objective of providing additional water-quality information in the intervening coastal prairie area and an overall objective of improving the understanding of the relations between farming practices

  6. Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range Coastal groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The coastal basins in the Southern Coast Ranges constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. The Pindiro Group (Triassic to Early Jurassic Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania): Definition, palaeoenvironment, and stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, W. E.; Nicholas, C. J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper defines the Pindiro Group of the Mandawa Basin, southern coastal Tanzania based on studies conducted between 2006 and 2009 with the objective of understanding the evolution of this basin. This work draws upon field data, hydrocarbon exploration data, unconventional literature, and the scant published materials available. The paper focuses on the evolution, depositional environments, and definition of the lowermost sedimentary package, which overlies unconformably the metamorphic basement of Precambrian age. The package is described here as the Pindiro Group and it forms the basal group of the Mandawa Basin stratigraphy.

  8. Coastal waters environmental monitoring supported by river basin pluviometry and offshore wave data.

    PubMed

    Abramic, Andrej; Martínez-Alzamora, Nieves; González del Rio Rams, Julio; Ferrer Polo, José

    2015-03-15

    Environmental monitoring in the scope of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) is usually expensive and requires considerable human effort. In this study, we analyzed data obtained by a WFD coastal waters monitoring network over a three-year period (35 campaigns), with the aim to ascertain is it possible to increase the monitoring efficiency and obtain more accurate results. As the trophic condition of the coastal waters of Valencia is primarily, but not entirely, determined by continental loads and hydrodynamic conditions, additionally we analyzed related river basin pluviometry (daily frequency) and oceanographic (one hour frequency) data. Chlorophyll a, salinity, rain and wave data time series were analyzed separately, to identify any possible pattern. Analyzing coastal water bodies integrating all four parameters, it is found strong interactions between coastal waters trophic conditions, sea hydrodynamics and related basin pluviometry. Eight phytoplankton biomass scenarios associated to environmental conditions are identified and finally developed basis for a new efficient monitoring strategy and more accurate coastal waters assessment.

  9. Response of large-scale coastal basins to wind forcing: influence of topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen L.; Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Kumar, Mohit; Zitman, Tjerk J.; M. H. Hulscher, Suzanne J.

    2016-04-01

    Because wind is one of the main forcings in storm surge, we present an idealised process-based model to study the influence of topographic variations on the frequency response of large-scale coastal basins subject to time-periodic wind forcing. Coastal basins are represented by a semi-enclosed rectangular inner region forced by wind. It is connected to an outer region (represented as an infinitely long channel) without wind forcing, which allows waves to freely propagate outward. The model solves the three-dimensional linearised shallow water equations on the f plane, forced by a spatially uniform wind field that has an arbitrary angle with respect to the along-basin direction. Turbulence is represented using a spatially uniform vertical eddy viscosity, combined with a partial slip condition at the bed. The surface elevation amplitudes, and hence the vertical profiles of the velocity, are obtained using the finite element method (FEM), extended to account for the connection to the outer region. The results are then evaluated in terms of the elevation amplitude averaged over the basin's landward end, as a function of the wind forcing frequency. In general, the results point out that adding topographic elements in the inner region (such as a topographic step, a linearly sloping bed or a parabolic cross-basin profile), causes the resonance peaks to shift in the frequency domain, through their effect on local wave speed. The Coriolis effect causes the resonance peaks associated with cross-basin modes (which without rotation only appear in the response to cross-basin wind) to emerge also in the response to along-basin wind and vice versa.

  10. Modern coastal back-barrier environment: analog for coal basin or for carbonaceous black shale

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.R.; Cameron, B.

    1988-04-01

    Coastal back-barrier salt-marsh environments are evaluated as possible modern analogs for some coal-forming basins. Analysis of the amount of organic matter in Holocene salt-marsh peats from 158 core samples at Plum Island, Massachusetts, indicates that the organic matter content is too low to ultimately produce coal. C-14 dates indicate depositional rates of 1 mm/yr. Both the high and low salt-marsh peat facies would probably diagenetically alter to a carbonaceous shale. A review of the organic content reported from other nondeltaic back-barrier and coastal salt-marsh environments indicates that they commonly have too much detrital material to classify as coal precursors. Barrier-island systems, being affected by sea-level changes and subject to landward migrations, also lack long-term stability needed for coal formation. These data suggest that modern back-barrier environments are not good analogs for coal-forming basins.

  11. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  12. Status of groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, 2006-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara; Fram, Miranda S.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 860-square-mile (2,227-square-kilometer) Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study area is located in southern California in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA CLAB study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2006 by the USGS from 69 wells and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the CLAB study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may be different from that in the shallower or deeper water-bearing zones; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. This study assesses the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources in the primary aquifer system of the CLAB study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by the health- or aesthetic-based benchmark concentration) were used for evaluating groundwater quality for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California regulatory or non-regulatory benchmarks for drinking-water quality. A relative

  13. Variability in two deep coastal basins (Santa Monica and San Pedro) off southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, Barbara M.

    1991-09-01

    Time series of midbasin hydrographic samples and of an array of moored temperature-velocity sensors are used to examine subtidal to interannual scale variability in two ˜900-m-deep basins off the southern California coast. The deepest sill that allows entry into the basins is at 740 m, and the two basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, are separated by a sill about 40 m high. The mean flow 40 m above and 60 m below the 740-m sill depth is in the counterclockwise direction and the magnitude is ˜0.5-1.0 cm s-1. The data indicate that the waters at deeper levels of the basins are neither quiescent, at one extreme, nor are they filled with random noise, at the other extreme. Rather, at all scales examined, the variability is significant and much of it is spatially coherent. The amplitude of the subtidal velocity fluctuations is ˜4 cm s-1, almost an order of magnitude greater than that of the mean flow. The amplitude of the subtidal temperature fluctuations is ˜0.1°C at 700 m and ˜0.05°C at 800 m. The temperature variance is roughly a factor of 2 smaller at midbasin than on the basin perimeter. This is not the case with the velocity variance, which is generally greatest at midbasin and on the coastal edges of both basins. Much of the subtidal variability in both temperature and velocity appears to be associated with topographic waves that travel counterclockwise around the pair of basins. The observed period of the waves (˜10-20 days) is roughly consistent with that predicted by a barotropic model of free waves in an elliptical basin (Mysak, 1985). Comparison of time series of currents in the upper (<200 m) water column with those in the lower water column suggests that the waves are forced by the circulation in the upper water column, which is directed over (rather than around) the basins. Seasonal variability was observed in both temperature and velocity fields as deep as 800 m (i.e., below the depth of the deepest sill) along the perimeters of both basins and at

  14. Technical Appendix for Development for Modified Streamflows 1928-1989 : Columbia River & Coastal Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-06-01

    The report ``Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989`` contains listings of historical flows for the sites in the Columbia River and Coastal Basins. This section of the Technical Appendix provides for the site specific procedures used to determine those historical flows. The study purpose, authority, and definitions are given in the main report. The purpose of this section of the Technical Appendix is to document the computational procedures used at each of the project sites to develop historical flows for the period July 1928--September 1989.

  15. Regularized joint inverse estimation of extreme rainfall amounts in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A regularized joint inverse procedure is presented and used to estimate the magnitude of extreme rainfall events in ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. Since streamflow measurements reflect temporal and spatial rainfall information, peak-flow discharge is hypothesized to represent a similarity measure suitable for regionalization. To test this hypothesis, peak-flow discharge values determined from streamflow recurrence information (10-year, 25-year, and 100-year) collected outside the study basins are used to develop regional (country-wide) regression equations. Peak-flow discharge derived from these equations together with preferred spatial parameter relations as soft prior information are used to constrain the simultaneous calibration of 20 tributary basin models. The nonlinear range of uncertainty in estimated parameter values (1 curve number and 3 recurrent rainfall amounts for each model) is determined using an inverse calibration-constrained Monte Carlo approach. Cumulative probability distributions for rainfall amounts indicate differences among basins for a given return period and an increase in magnitude and range among basins with increasing return interval. Comparison of the estimated median rainfall amounts for all return periods were reasonable but larger (3.2-26%) than rainfall estimates computed using the frequency-duration (traditional) approach and individual rain gauge data. The observed 25-year recurrence rainfall amount at La Hachadura in the Paz River basin during Hurricane Mitch (1998) is similar in value to, but outside and slightly less than, the estimated rainfall confidence limits. The similarity in joint inverse and traditionally computed rainfall events, however, suggests that the rainfall observation may likely be due to under-catch and not model bias. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  16. Potential for deep basin-centered gas accumulation in Travis Peak (Hosston) Formation, Gulf Coastal Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartberger, Charles E.; Dyman, Thaddeus S.; Condon, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    The potential of Lower Cretaceous sandstones of the Travis Peak Formation in the northern Gulf Coast Basin to harbor a basin-centered gas accumulation was evaluated by examining (1) the depositional and diagenetic history and reservoir properties of Travis Peak sandstones, (2) the presence and quality of source rocks for generating gas, (3) the burial and thermal history of source rocks and time of gas generation and migration relative to tectonic development of Travis Peak traps, (4) gas and water recoveries from drill-stem and formation tests, (5) the distribution of abnormal pressures based on shut-in-pressure data, and (6) the presence or absence of gas-water contacts associated with gas accumulations in Travis Peak sandstones. The Travis Peak Formation (and correlative Hosston Formation) is a basinward-thickening wedge of terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks that underlies the northern Gulf Coast Basin from eastern Texas across northern Louisiana to southern Mississippi. Clastic infl ux was focused in two main fl uvial-deltaic depocenters?one located in northeastern Texas and the other in southeastern Mississippi and northeastern Louisiana. Across the main hydrocarbon-productive trend in eastern Texas and northern Louisiana, the Travis Peak Formation is about 2,000 ft thick. Most Travis Peak hydrocarbon production in eastern Texas comes from drilling depths between 6,000 and 10,000 ft. Signifi cant decrease in porosity and permeability occurs through that depth interval. Above 8,000-ft drilling depth in eastern Texas, Travis Peak sandstone matrix permeabilities often are signifi cantly higher than the 0.1-millidarcy (mD) cutoff that characterizes tight-gas reservoirs. Below 8,000 ft, matrix permeability of Travis Peak sandstones is low because of pervasive quartz cementation, but abundant natural fractures impart signifi cant fracture permeability. Although pressure data within the middle and lower Travis Peak Formation are limited in eastern Texas

  17. Lower Miocene plant assemblage with coastal-marsh herbaceous monocots from the Vienna Basin (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvaček, Zlatko; Teodoridis, Vasilis; Kováčová, Marianna; Schlögl, Ján; Sitár, Viliam

    2014-06-01

    A new plant assemblage of Cerová-Lieskové from Lower Miocene (Karpatian) deposits in the Vienna Basin (western Slovakia) is preserved in a relatively deep, upper-slope marine environment. Depositional conditions with high sedimentation rates allowed exceptional preservation of plant remains. The plant assemblage consists of (1) conifers represented by foliage of Pinus hepios and Tetraclinis salicornioides, a seed cone of Pinus cf. ornata, and by pollen of the Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, Pinus sp. and Cathaya sp., and (2) angiosperms represented by Cinnamomum polymorphum, Platanus neptuni, Potamogeton sp. and lauroid foliage, by pollen of Liquidambar sp., Engelhardia sp. and Craigia sp., and in particular by infructescences (so far interpreted as belonging to cereal ears). We validate genus and species assignments of the infructescences: they belong to Palaeotriticum Sitár, including P. mockii Sitár and P. carpaticum Sitár, and probably represent herbaceous monocots that inhabited coastal marshes, similar to the living grass Spartina. Similar infructescences occur in the Lower and Middle Miocene deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep (Slup in Moravia), Tunjice Hills (Žale in Slovenia), and probably also in the Swiss Molasse (Lausanne). This plant assemblage demonstrates that the paleovegetation was represented by evergreen woodland with pines and grasses in undergrowth, similar to vegetation inhabiting coastal brackish marshes today. It also indicates subtropical climatic conditions in the Vienna Basin (central Paratethys), similar to those implied by other coeval plant assemblages from Central Europe

  18. Arctic Summer Surface Energy Balance at Two Coastal Drained Lake Basins, Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liljedahl, A.; Hinzman, L.; Harazono, Y.; Zona, D.; Oechel, W.

    2008-12-01

    We examined the partitioning of the summer surface energy balance at two coastal drained lake basins using measurements from two eddy covariance towers in Barrow, Alaska. Drained lake basins are a common land feature covering approximately one fourth of the Arctic Coastal Plain but have been given limited attention. Overall, wetlands are extensive in the region in spite of an annual precipitation close to a desert and a negative summer P-ET. Included in the analysis was summer 2007, which experienced unusually high air temperatures and low precipitation compared to the long term mean. During the five analyzed summers, most of the energy available at the ground surface was partitioned into sensible heat flux despite saturated or nearly saturated near-surface soils. The maritime conditions resulted in a cool and close to saturated air mass with a few exceptions on individual days. With a ground surface often warmer than the air above and limited air vapor pressure deficits, the dissipation of the available heat at the ground surface was mainly partitioned into sensible heat flux resulting in midday Bowen Ratios (sensible divided by latent heat flux) above unity. Total daily latent heat flux presented in mm of water varied between 0.2 - 4.2 mm/day with a Jun-Aug mean of 1.5 mm. In 80% of the analyzed days, mean midday evapotranspiration occurred below the equilibrium rate resulting in a Priestley-Taylor alpha value below unity. The equilibrium evaporation rates of inland arctic wetlands have previously shown to occur at or above equilibrium rate. Further, the energy balance partitioning of a wetland located in a maritime or continental climate show differences such as in the Bowen Ratio. It is therefore necessary to analyze coastal and inland areas separately when examining the hydrological response of wetlands to climate changes.

  19. Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2014-11-01

    Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting dataset was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

  20. Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity in any hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water-column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting data set was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

  1. Integrating river basin management and the coastal zone: the (blue) Danube and the (black) sea.

    PubMed

    Maksimović, C; Makropoulos, C K

    2002-01-01

    In order to effectively manage the wide variety of physical, chemical biological and ecological processes in a sensitive coastal environment such as the Black Sea, current environmental management objectives are no longer sufficient: a new management approach has to address the intimate functional linkage between the river basin and the costal environment. Current water quality legislation requires compliance to emission levels based on the chemical analysis of water samples taken at discharge points, such as treatment plants discharging into rivers. While such measures provide a relative indication of the water quality at the point of discharge, they fail to describe accurately and sufficiently the quality of the water received from the watershed or basin. As water flows through the catchment, rainfall run-off from urban and agricultural areas carries sediments, pesticides, and other chemicals into river systems, which lead to coastal waters. The impact of the Kosovo crisis on the Danube ecosystems provides a poignant example of the effects of such diffused pollution mechanisms and reveals a number of interesting pollution mechanisms. This paper discusses both the effects of diffused pollution on the Black Sea, drawing from state-of-the-art reports on the Danube, and proposes a framework for a decision support system based on distributed hydrological and pollution transport simulation models and GIS. The use of ecological health indicators and fuzzy inference supporting decisions on regional planning within this framework is also advocated. It is also argued that even the recently produced GEF document on Black Sea protection scenarios should benefit significantly if the concept of pollution reduction from both urban, industrial and rural areas should undergo a systematic conceptual update in the view of the recent recommendations of the UNEP IETC (2000) document.

  2. The Santa Barbara Channel - Santa Maria Basin Study: A model for Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winant, C. D.

    2002-12-01

    The need to anticipate the potential impact of oil exploration and production activities on coastal resources, and the information needs of agencies charged with responding to coastal emergencies motivated the development of the oil-spill response system for the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and the Santa Maria Basin (SMB), along the California coast, between Ventura and Morro Bay. In the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), moorings and drifter trajectories document a persistent cyclonic circulation with a typical re-circulation period between three and five days. In the spring currents near the mainland are weaker than near the Channel Islands and the overall flow is toward the southeast. Trajectories document the possibility for water parcels to leave the channel through the inter-island passes. In the late fall and winter, a poleward flow with velocities often exceeding 0.5 m/s is confined within 20 km of the mainland. Between these two seasons, the cyclonic tendency is enhanced although most of the drifters eventually migrate westward. The trajectories of drifters released at the same time from sites only 20 km apart can be remarkably different. In the Santa Maria Basin (SMB), the direction and amplitude of the flow is strongly depth dependent. Near the surface, moorings and drifters show the flow to be equatorward except during late fall and early winter when the surface flow is poleward. Beneath the surface layer the flow is poleward except in March and April, right after the spring transition. The observations provide a basis on which several data assimilating model of the circulation are based. The models reproduce all the major observed features of the circulation, including individual drifter trajectories. With little effort these models could be used to maintain an operational predictive capability with real predictive skills over periods of a few days.

  3. Estimated water use and availability in the South Coastal Drainage Basin, southern Rhode Island, 1995-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Nimiroski, Mark T.

    2005-01-01

    The South Coastal Drainage Basin includes approximately 59.14 square miles in southern Rhode Island. The basin was divided into three subbasins to assess the water use and availability: the Saugatucket, Point Judith Pond, and the Southwestern Coastal Drainage subbasins. Because there is limited information on the ground-water system in this basin, the water use and availability evaluations for these subbasins were derived from delineated surface-water drainage areas. An assessment was completed to estimate water withdrawals, use, and return flow over a 5-year study period from 1995 through 1999 in the basin. During the study period, one major water supplier in the basin withdrew an average of 0.389 million gallons per day from the sand and gravel deposits. Most of the potable water is imported (about 2.152 million gallons per day) from the adjacent Pawcatuck Basin to the northwest. The estimated water withdrawals from the minor water suppliers, which are all in Charlestown, during the study period were 0.064 million gallons per day. The self-supplied domestic, industrial, commercial, and agricultural withdrawals from the basin were 0.574 million gallons per day. Water use in the basin was 2.874 million gallons per day. The average return flow in the basin was 1.190 million gallons per day, which was entirely from self-disposed water users. In this basin, wastewater from service collection areas was exported (about 1.139 million gallons per day) to the Narragansett Bay Drainage Basin for treatment and discharge. During times of little to no recharge, in the form of precipitation, the surface- and ground-water system flows are from storage primarily in the stratified sand and gravel deposits, although there is flow moving through the till deposits at a slower rate. The ground water discharging to the streams, during times of little to no precipitation, is referred to as base flow. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application, was used at the

  4. Trends in Streamflow, River Ice, and Snowpack for Coastal River Basins in Maine During the 20th Century

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.

    2002-01-01

    Trends over the 20th Century were examined in streamflow, river ice, and snowpack for coastal river basins in Maine. Trends over time were tested in the timing and magnitude of seasonal river flows, the occurrence and duration of river ice, and changes in snowpack depth, equivalent water content, and density. Significant trends toward earlier spring peak flow and earlier center-of-volume runoff dates were found in the extended streamflow record spanning 1906-21 and 1929-2000. Only one of the six coastal rivers in the study analyzed for trends in cumulative runoff had a significant change in total annual runoff volume. Last spring river-ice-off dates at most coastal streamflow-gaging stations examined are trending to earlier dates. Trends in later fall initial onset of ice also are evident, although these trends are significant at fewer stations than that observed for ice-off dates. Later ice-on dates in the fall and (or) earlier ice-off dates in the spring contribute to a statistically significant decrease over time in the total number of days of ice occurrence at most gaging stations on coastal rivers in Maine. The longest, most complete snow records in coastal Maine indicate an increase in snow density for the March 1 snow-survey date during the last 60 years. The historical trends in streamflow, ice, and snow are all consistent with an earlier onset of hydrologic spring conditions in coastal Maine.

  5. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  6. Rapid inundation estimates using coastal amplification laws in the Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène; Schindelé, François

    2016-04-01

    Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed and have now reached an impressive level of accuracy, especially in locations such as harbors where the tsunami waves are mostly amplified. In the framework of tsunami warning under real-time operational conditions, the main obstacle for the routine use of such numerical simulations remains the slowness of the numerical computation, which is strengthened when detailed grids are required for the precise modeling of the coastline response of an individual harbor. Thus only tsunami offshore propagation modeling tools using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid are presently included within the French Tsunami Warning Center (CENALT), providing rapid estimation of tsunami impact at Western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic basins scale. We present here a work that performs quick estimates of the coastal impact at individual harbors from these high sea forecasting tsunami simulations. The method involves an empirical correction based on the Green's theoretical amplification law. The main limitation is that its application to a given coastal area would require a large database of previous observations, in order to define the empirical parameters of the correction equation. As no tide gage records of significant tsunamis are available for the Western Mediterranean French coasts, we use a set of points of interest distributed along these coasts, where maximum water heights are calculated for both fake events and well-known historical tsunamigenic earthquakes in the area. This synthetic dataset is obtained through accurate numerical tsunami propagation and inundation modeling by using several nested bathymetric grids of increasingly fine resolution close to the shores. Non linear shallow water tsunami modeling performed on a single 2' coarse bathymetric grid are compared to the values given by time-consuming nested grids simulations, in order to check to which extent the simple approach based on the

  7. 241Pu and 241Am in sediments from coastal basins off California and Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Minoru; Goldberg, Edward D.; Hodge, Vernon F.

    1980-07-01

    In sediments deposited in the coastal basins off the western North American continent since the early 1960's, there is more 241Am activity than one would predict if its presence was solely due to the decay of 241Pu that was produced during the testing of weapons in 1961-1962 (taken as July 1, 1962 for calculations). This excess can be accounted for by the decay of 241Pu, if pre-1962 fallout (fallout from the pre-moratorium testing) has been continuously introduced into the recent sediments along with fallout from post-moratorium testing. This hypothesis is supported by the plutonium depth profiles which do not reflect direct fallout from the atmosphere, as characterized by two peaks corresponding to the two major weapons testing periods, but continuously increasing plutonium and americium concentrations from 1954 to 1974. Thus, the nuclides may be coming from a large reservoir that has accumulated and mixed fallout since 1952. Such a concentration gradient for all of the nuclides requires their immobilization in the sediment after deposition.

  8. Cable Bacteria Control Iron-Phosphorus Dynamics in Sediments of a Coastal Hypoxic Basin.

    PubMed

    Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Seitaj, Dorina; Meysman, Filip J R; Schauer, Regina; Polerecky, Lubos; Slomp, Caroline P

    2016-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for life. The release of phosphorus from sediments is critical in sustaining phytoplankton growth in many aquatic systems and is pivotal to eutrophication and the development of bottom water hypoxia. Conventionally, sediment phosphorus release is thought to be controlled by changes in iron oxide reduction driven by variations in external environmental factors, such as organic matter input and bottom water oxygen. Here, we show that internal shifts in microbial communities, and specifically the population dynamics of cable bacteria, can also induce strong seasonality in sedimentary iron-phosphorus dynamics. Field observations in a seasonally hypoxic coastal basin demonstrate that the long-range electrogenic metabolism of cable bacteria leads to a dissolution of iron sulfides in winter and spring. Subsequent oxidation of the mobilized ferrous iron with manganese oxides results in a large stock of iron-oxide-bound phosphorus below the oxic zone. In summer, when bottom water hypoxia develops and cable bacteria are undetectable, the phosphorus associated with these iron oxides is released, strongly increasing phosphorus availability in the water column. Future research should elucidate whether formation of iron-oxide-bound phosphorus driven by cable bacteria, as observed in this study, contributes to the seasonality in iron-phosphorus cycling in aquatic sediments worldwide.

  9. Biomass of coastal cutthroat trout in unlogged and previously clear-cut basins in the central Coast Range of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connolly, P.J.; Hall, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Populations of coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki clarki were sampled in 16 Oregon headwater streams during 1991-1993. These streams were above upstream migration barriers and distributed among basins that had been logged 20-30 and 40-60 years ago and basins that had not been logged but had burned 125-150 years ago. The objective of our study was to characterize the populations and habitats of age-1 or older cutthroat trout within these three forest management types. Streams within unlogged basins had relatively low levels and a small range of trout biomass (g/m2). Streams in basins logged 40-60 years ago supported low levels but an intermediate range of trout biomass. Streams in basins logged 20-30 years ago supported the widest range of biomass, including the lowest and highest biomasses among all streams sampled. The variable thai best explained the variation of trout biomass among all 16 streams was the amount of large woody debris (LWD). All streams were heavily shaded during at least part of the year by mostly closed tree canopies. Deciduous trees were more prominent in canopies over streams in logged basins, while conifers were more prominent in the stream canopies of unlogged basins. Our results suggest that trout production in basins extensively clear-cut 20-60 years ago may generally decrease or remain low over the next 50 or more years because of decreasing loads of remnant LWD, persistent low recruitment potential for new LWD, and persistent heavy shading by conifers. These logged basins are not likely to show an increase in trout biomass over the next 50 years unless reset by favorable natural disturbances or by habitat restoration efforts.

  10. Biomass of coastal cutthroat trout in unlogged and previously clearcut basins in the central Coast Range of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connolly, P.J.; Hall, J.D.

    1999-01-01

    Populations of coastal cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki clarki were sampled in 16 Oregon headwater streams during 1991–1993. These streams were above upstream migration barriers and distributed among basins that had been logged 20–30 and 40–60 years ago and basins that had not been logged but had burned 125–150 years ago. The objective of our study was to characterize the populations and habitats of age-1 or older cutthroat trout within these three forest management types. Streams within unlogged basins had relatively low levels and a small range of trout biomass (g/m2). Streams in basins logged 40–60 years ago supported low levels but an intermediate range of trout biomass. Streams in basins logged 20–30 years ago supported the widest range of biomass, including the lowest and highest biomasses among all streams sampled. The variable that best explained the variation of trout biomass among all 16 streams was the amount of large woody debris (LWD). All streams were heavily shaded during at least part of the year by mostly closed tree canopies. Deciduous trees were more prominent in canopies over streams in logged basins, while conifers were more prominent in the stream canopies of unlogged basins. Our results suggest that trout production in basins extensively clear-cut 20–60 years ago may generally decrease or remain low over the next 50 or more years because of decreasing loads of remnant LWD, persistent low recruitment potential for new LWD, and persistent heavy shading by conifers. These logged basins are not likely to show an increase in trout biomass over the next 50 years unless reset by favorable natural disturbances or by habitat restoration efforts.

  11. Interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features of the Mediterranean Sea in the surface colour and temperature historical record

    SciTech Connect

    Barale, V.; Filippi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Sea surface colour and temperature images, derived from time series of CZCS (1978-1986) and AVHRR (1982-1990) data, have been used to assess the interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features in the Mediterranean basin. Individual images were processed to apply sensor(s) calibration, to correct for atmospheric contamination, and to estimate chlorophyll-like pigment concentration and surface temperature. Long-term composites show marked differences between western and eastern sub-basins, inshore and offshore domains, northern and southern near-coastal areas. Continental runoff and wind-driven mixing, as well as geomorphology and meteorology of the (northern) basin margins, appear to influence both water dynamics and bio-geo-chemistry. The major sub-basins present a distinct seasonality, superimposed to that of the basin.

  12. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the South Shore and Buzzards Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.; Morgan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins include the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay along the South Shore or into Buzzards Bay. The larger of these basins are the North, South, Jones, Wareham, Weweantic, Mattapoisett, Acushnet, and Slocums River basins. Drainage areas, using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps, were computed for data collection sites. Statistics on streamflow characteristics computed with a new data base are presented for six gaged streams. Daily-flow records through 1982 were used to compute annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 49 partial-record sites and procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of the basin are summarized. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  13. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the North Shore and Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins of the North Shore and Boston Bay include streams draining the Parker River (60.4 square miles), Rowley River (9.9 square miles), Ipswich River (156 miles), Mystic River (66.0 square miles), Charles River (311 square miles), Neponset River (117 square miles), Weymouth Fore and Weymouth Back Rivers (about 63 square miles) and Weir River (about 20 square miles) basins. The study area in eastern and northeastern Massachusetts also includes the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay, Ipswich Bay, or the Atlantic Ocean. Drainage areas using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps were computed for the first time for streams draining more than 3 square miles and were recomputed for data-collection sites. Streamflow characteristics at 15 gaging stations were calculated using a new data base with daily flow records through 1981. These characteristics include annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 95 partial-record sites and the procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of a basin are summarized. Basin characteristics representing 14 commonly used indices to estimate various streamflows are presented for 15 gaged streams. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  14. Effects of basin type on coastal plain-shelf-slope systems during base-level fluctuations: An experimental approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Sequence stratigraphic models emphasize the importance of basin type on the reactions of coastal plain-shelf-slope systems to base-level changes. A series of experiments were performed in a 4.5 m by 7 m flume to examine the effects of a passive margin basin with a shelf/slope break versus a ramp margin basin on coastal plain-shelf-slope deposits that result from base-level fluctuations. Results indicate that basin type has a strong influence on the erosional features and deposits that develop in response to base-level fluctuations. Fluctuations that occur along a shelf/slope break margin result in well-defined, deeply incised valleys, which develop early in lowstand time and have low width:depth ratios. Rivers may incise into and deposit over outer-middle shelf deposits of the previous highstand. Late lowstand deposits are coarser grained than early lowstand deposits and include fine- and coarse-grained slope and basin floor fans. During subsequent base-level rise early transgressive deposits are confined to incised valleys. Fluctuations along a ramp margin result in shallow, wide incised valleys with high width:depth ratios, which develop late in lowstand time. Incision occurs into shelf deltaic deposits and these are overlain by valley fill deposits. Deposits of the lowstand systems tract do not coarsen upward significantly and contain only sand-rich, small, thin delta front fan deposits. During subsequent base-level rise transgressive deposits are not confined to incised valleys. Transgressive deposition within the valleys occurs over a short time interval and is followed closely by flooding of the adjacent shelf.

  15. Water Quality in the New England Coastal Basins, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Keith W.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Campo, Kimberly W.; Chalmers, Ann; Coles, James F.; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1999?2001 assessment of water quality in the New England Coastal Basins. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live and how that water quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the New England Coastal Basins summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from http://nh.water.usgs.gov/CurrentProjects/nawqa/nawqaweb.htm. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  16. Sedimentary budgets of the Tanzania coastal basin and implications for uplift history of the East African rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, Aymen; Moder, Christoph; Clark, Stuart; Abdelmalak, Mohamed Mansour

    2015-11-01

    Data from 23 wells were used to quantify the sedimentary budgets in the Tanzania coastal basin in order to unravel the uplift chronology of the sourcing area located in the East African Rift System. We quantified the siliciclastic sedimentary volumes preserved in the Tanzania coastal basin corrected for compaction and in situ (e.g., carbonates) production. We found that the drainage areas, which supplied sediments to this basin, were eroded in four episodes: (1) during the middle Jurassic, (2) during the Campanian-Palaeocene, (3) during the middle Eocene and (4) during the Miocene. Three of these high erosion and sedimentation periods are more likely related to uplift events in the East African Rift System and earlier rift shoulders and plume uplifts. Indeed, rapid cooling in the rift system and high denudation rates in the sediment source area are coeval with these recorded pulses. However, the middle Eocene pulse was synchronous with a fall in the sea level, a climatic change and slow cooling of the rift flanks and thus seems more likely due to climatic and eustatic variations. We show that the rift shoulders of the East African rift system have inherited their present relief from at least three epeirogenic uplift pulses of middle Jurassic, Campanian-Palaeocene, and Miocene ages.

  17. Coastal freshwater resources management in the frame of climate change: application to three basins (Italy, Morocco, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, E.; Antonellini, M.; Dentinho, T.; Khattabi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change becomes an increasing constraint in IWRM and many effects are expected in coastal watersheds like sea level rise and its consequences (i.e. beach erosion, salt water intrusion, soil salinization, groundwater and surface water pollution…) or water budget changes (i.e. seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations) and an increase of extreme events (i.e. floods, rainfalls and droughts). Beside this physical changes one can also observed the increase of water demand in coastal areas due to population growth and development of tourism activities. Both effects (e.g. physical and socio-economical) must be included into any coastal freshwater management option for a mid-term / long-term approach to set water mass/basin management plans as expected in European countries by the WDF or elsewhere in an IWRM objective. The Waterknow project funded by EraNet-Circle-Med program aims to develop a tool to help decisions makers in the implementation of IWRM plans in coastal areas that will have to cope with climate change effects and socio-economical pressures. This interdisciplinary project is applied to three basins (e.g. Fiumi Uniti Bevano, Italy; Terceira Island, Portugal and Taheddart, Morocco) and seeks to integrate and to develop research achievements in coastal hydrogeology, economical and land use modeling in each basin. In the Fiumi Uniti Bevano basin, a detailed hydrogeological survey was performed during the summer 2008. Twenty auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we collected the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore area below the coastal dunes and that the surface water is all brackish to salty. In the northern part of the study area, the fresh groundwater lens in the backshore zone is missing, as

  18. Basin-Scale Exports vs. Coastal Delivery of Carbon, Nutrients and Particulates Above and Below Arctic River Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Striegl, R. G.; Tank, S. E.; Weeks, G.; Holmes, R. M.; McClelland, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have substantially improved our understanding of water, sediment and materials exports by arctic rivers. Seasonality of exports, particularly during the spring freshet, is better quantified, as are the inland sources of water and sediment discharge and the source and chemical character of other material exports, including carbon and nutrients. Measurements on small rivers discharging directly to the Arctic Ocean and lacking complex deltas can accurately quantify local inputs to coastal regions. However, the majority of hydrologic inputs to the Arctic Ocean derive from 6 major Eurasian and North American rivers. Water, sediment, and chemical exports from these rivers are typically measured above head of tide, far inland, and commonly above large river deltas. These deltas settle particles and provide favorable environments for deposition, storage, and biogeochemical consumption, production, and transformation of aquatic carbon and nutrients. Consequently, basin exports measured above river deltas likely misrepresent actual delivery to coastal regions. In addition to accumulating sediment, observed and modeled arctic delta effects include enrichment of the organic content of suspended solids, increased dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC; DON) concentration, decreased inorganic nutrient concentration, and settling and likely increased bioavailability of particle associated contaminants, such as mercury. Increased DOC concentration in the Mackenzie River delta has also been associated with a change in DOC quality, with increased potential for biodegradation of DOC and decreased potential for photodegradation of DOC from head of tide to within the delta. For the most part, assessments of differences between head of tide basin exports and coastal delivery tend to be qualitative rather than quantitative, largely because of difficulties quantifying tidally affected flow. This points to the need to resolve data gaps, improve quantitative assessments

  19. Potential leakage between aquifers in a deeply anthropized coastal sedimentary basin (Recife, Brazil): Strontium isotope constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Cary, Lise; Hirata, Ricardo; Martins, Veridiana; Bertrand, Guillaume; Montenegro, Suzana; Pauwels, Helene; Kloppmann, Wolfram; Aquilina, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Due to an increasing demographic pressure, the Metropolitan Region of Recife (RMR) went through remarkable changes of water and land uses over the last decades. These evolutions gave rise to numerous environmental consequences, such as a dramatic decline of the piezometric levels, groundwater salinization and contamination. This degradation of natural resources is linked to the increase of water demand, punctually amplified by drought periods which induced the construction of thousands of private wells. Recife was built on the estuarine area of the Capibaribe River and other small rivers. The Recife coastal plain is located in the geographic limits of the sedimentary basins of Cabo and Pernambuco-Paraíba which consist out of fluvial and marine geologic formations. It is composed of three main aquifers: the two semi-confined Cabo and Beberibe aquifers, both underlining the superficial Boa Viagem unconfined aquifer, which is the most directly exposed to contamination, since it is connected to mangroves, rivers, estuaries and highly urbanized areas. The Boa Viagem aquifer is made of marine terraces of sand, silt and clay has an average thickness of 40 m. The Cabo aquifer occurs in the south of Recife and comprises sandstones, siltstones and mudstones, with an average thickness of 90 m. The Beberibe aquifer occurs in the north and central area of Recife with an average thickness of 100 m of sandstones with intercalations of mudstone; it is the most important one, with the highest amount of good quality water. Both the Beberibe and Cabo aquifers contain large clay levels. The hydraulic connections between the three aquifers are not well known but isotopic studies have shown that the recharge processes are similar, suggesting that exchanges may occur and may be modified or amplified by overexploitation especially between the Cabo and Boa Viagem aquifers. Two other aquifers can be found west of the city: the Barreiras aquifer, characterized by alternating well stratified

  20. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 3: lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Chester E.; Cervione, Michael A.; Grossman, I.G.

    1968-01-01

    The lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins have a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from streams entering the area and precipitation that has fallen on the area. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 32 inches to 65 inches and has averaged about 48 inches over a 30-year period. Approximately 22 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the report area through estuaries and coastal streams or as underflow through the deposits beneath. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the report area, whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced stream-flow and lowered ground-water levels. The mean monthly storage of water on an average is about 3.8 inches higher in November than it is in June. The amount of water that flows through and out of the report area represents the total amount of water potentially available for use by man. For the 30-year period 1931 through 1960, the annual runoff from the report area has averaged nearly 26 inches (200 billion gallons), from the entire Thames River basin above Norwich about 24 inches (530 billion gallons), and from the Pawcatuck River basin about 26 inches (130 billion gallons). A total average annual runoff of 860 billion gallons is therefore available. Although runoff indicates the total amount of water potentially available, it is usually not economically feasible for man to use all of it. On the other hand, with increased development, it is possible that some water will be reused several times. The water available may be tapped as it flows through the area or is

  1. Water management sustainability in reclaimed coastal areas. The case of the Massaciuccoli lake basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Guidi, Massimo; Pistocchi, Chiara; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2010-05-01

    land sub-systems, the first one showing an average 4.2 mm net daily water loss during the summer season (about 0.975 m3/s) for the years 2000-2009. Lake inflow is constituted of two main terms: an anthropogenic one related to the drainage of the reclaimed land of about 1.1 m3/s (ranging 75-81% of the total inflow); a natural one defined by recharge through rainfall, the western coastal aquifer and the eastern reliefs, accounting for 0.25 m3/s (varying 19-25% of the total inflow). On the other hand, lake water loss is mainly due to evaporation from water surface and evapotranspiration from the palustrine vegetation for around 56-61% (1.31 m3/s on average), while 13 to 15% (0.325 m3/s) is due to inefficient irrigation schemes using lake water and, being the lake perched, recharge to the reclaimed land aquifer (26 to 29%) by means of water infiltrating along the embankments (0.64 m3/s on average). Since several springs on the eastern margin, which would flow to the lacustrine system for about 0.160 m3/s (Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Serchio, 2007), are tapped (for residential, tourism and industrial users), the anthropogenic impact on the water deficit constitutes about 50% of the total, being 34% due to irrigation and 16% to other users. This demonstrates the naturally induced water deficit, already known by historical sources, is heavily altered by anthropogenic pressure defining a not sustainable balance between the socio-economic system and the natural one. It is then clear, that in order to reduce the water stress, a new water management strategy in the whole basin must be devised by revising and enhancing the irrigation schemes and the residential, industrial and tourism water distribution. Reference Autorità di Bacino del Fiume Serchio, 2007. Piano di Bacino 'Bilancio idrico del bacino del lago di Massaciuccoli' Relazione di piano. Lucca, Italy.

  2. Basin Analysis of Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest Mancini

    2001-03-01

    Part 3 (Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation) objectives are to provide an analysis of the Smackover petroleum system in Years 4 and 5 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work Accomplished (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - Basin flow modeling has been completed and the topical report has been submitted to the U.S. DOE for review. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum source rocks has been integrated into the basin flow model. The information on the source rocks is being prepared for inclusion in the final report. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum reservoirs continues. The cores to be described have been identified and many of the cores for the eastern and western parts of the basin have been described. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Work on reservoir diagenesis continues. Samples from the cores selected for the reservoir characterization are being used for this task. Task 5 - Underdeveloped Reservoirs - Two underdeveloped Smackover reservoirs have been identified. They are the microbial reef and shoal reservoirs. Work Planned (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - This task has been completed and the topical report has been submitted to the U.S. DOE. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Petroleum source rock information will continue to be prepared for the final report. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Characterization of petroleum reservoirs will continue through core studies. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Characterization of reservoir diagenesis will continue through petrographic analysis. Task 5 - Underdeveloped Reservoirs - Study of Smackover underdeveloped reservoirs will continue with focus on the microbial reef and shoal reservoirs.

  3. Study of the United States coal resources. [Appalachian Plateau, Interior Basins, Gulf Coastal Plain, Rocky Mountain Basins, High Plains, North Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ferm, J.C.; Muthig, P.J.

    1982-09-15

    The objectives of this study were: (1) the identification of geologically significant coal resources for the United States, including Alaska; and (2) the preparation of statistically controlled tonnage estimates for each resource type. Particular emphasis was placed on the identification and description of coals in terms of seam thickness, inclination, depth of cover, discontinuities caused by faulting and igneous intrusion, and occurrence as isolated or multiseam deposits. The national resource was organized into six major coal provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Interior Basins, the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Rocky Mountain Basins, the High Plains, and North Alaska. Total coal tonnage for a subarea was estimated from an analysis of the cumulative coal thickness derived from borehole or surface section records and subsequently categorized in terms of seam thickness, dip, overburden, multiseam proportions, coal quality, and tonnage impacted by severe faulting and igneous intrusions. Results indicate an aggregate resource in place of 11.6 trillion tons, of which North Alaska accounts for 3.5 trillion tons of subbituminous and bituminous coal; the Rocky Mountains, 2.2 trillion tons of bituminous and subbituminous deposits; and the Gulf Coast, 3.8 trillion tons of lignites. The Appalachian Plateau and Interior Basins are estimated to contain slightly less than 1 trillion tons each of bituminous coal, and the High Plains slightly more than 0.5 trillion tons of lignite. The Appalachian Plateau and Interior Basins are estimated to contain slightly less than 1 trillion tons each, and the High Plains Province is estimated to contain a bit more than 0.5 trillion tons. The implications of the results for research on advanced mining systems are discussed. 27 figures, 25 tables.

  4. Sedimentological and geochronological evidences of anthropogenic impacts on river basins in the Northern Latium coastal area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    In this work we aimed to compare sedimentological and geochronological data from three sediment core samples (MIG50, MRT50, and GRT50) taken in the Northern Latium (Italy) coastal area, at -50 m depth, to data regarding rainfall, river flows and the land use in the three most important hydrographic basins (Mignone, Marta and Fiora) and in the coastal area. Different trends of sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) are detected in the three cores: a strongly increasing trend was identified in MIG50 and MRT50 cores while GRT50 doesn't show significant variation. Data from the sedimentological analysis of GRT50 core identify a progressive decrease in the sandy component, which declined from about 30% to the current level of 7% over the last 36 years, while MRT50 and MIG50 cores (mainly composed by pelitic fraction > 95%) showed slight variations of textural ratio between silt and clay. According to the general decrease of pluviometric trend observed in Italy, related to teleconnection pattern tendency (NAO), the statistical analysis of rain identified significative decrease only in the Fiora river basin, whereas in the other two locations the decrease was not as significant. Regarding the Fiora river flow, a significative decreasing trend of average flow is detected, while the flood regime remained unaffected over the past 30 years. The analysis of the land use shows that the human activities are increased of 6-10% over the available time steps (1990 - 2006) in Fiora and Mignone river basins, while the Marta river basin has a strong human impact since 1990 highligting more than 80% of artificial soil covering. The largest variation is observed on the Fiora basin (10%) where the antrhopic activities have expanded to an area of about 85 Km2. Moreover, in the last ten years a large beach nourishment in 2004 (570000 m3) and dredging activities in the early second half of 2000s (1000000 m3 moved) were performed in Marina di Tarquinia beach and in front of the Torrevaldaliga

  5. Hydrology of the coastal springs ground-water basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knochenmus, Lari A.; Yobbi, Dann K.

    2001-01-01

    The coastal springs in Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties, Florida consist of three first-order magnitude springs and numerous smaller springs, which are points of substantial ground-water discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Spring flow is proportional to the water-level altitude in the aquifer and is affected primarily by the magnitude and timing of rainfall. Ground-water levels in 206 Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and surface-water stage, flow, and specific conductance of water from springs at 10 gaging stations were measured to define the hydrologic variability (temporally and spatially) in the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin and adjacent parts of Pasco, Hernando, and Citrus Counties. Rainfall at 46 stations and ground-water withdrawals for three counties, were used to calculate water budgets, to evaluate long-term changes in hydrologic conditions, and to evaluate relations among the hydrologic components. Predictive equations to estimate daily spring flow were developed for eight gaging stations using regression techniques. Regression techniques included ordinary least squares and multiple linear regression techniques. The predictive equations indicate that ground-water levels in the Upper Floridan aquifer are directly related to spring flow. At tidally affected gaging stations, spring flow is inversely related to spring-pool altitude. The springs have similar seasonal flow patterns throughout the area. Water-budget analysis provided insight into the relative importance of the hydrologic components expected to influence spring flow. Four water budgets were constructed for small ground-water basins that form the Coastal Springs Ground-Water Basin. Rainfall averaged 55 inches per year and was the only source of inflow to the Basin. The pathways for outflow were evapotranspiration (34 inches per year), runoff by spring flow (8 inches per year), ground-water outflow from upward leakage (11 inches per year), and ground-water withdrawal (2 inches per year

  6. Towards Predicting Basin-Wide Invertebrate Organic Biomass and Production in Marine Sediments from a Coastal Sea

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Brenda J.; Macdonald, Tara A.; van Roodselaar, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of environmental conditions is required to understand faunal production in coastal seas with topographic and hydrographic complexity. We test the hypothesis that organic biomass and production of subtidal sediment invertebrates throughout the Strait of Georgia, west coast of Canada, can be predicted by depth, substrate type and organic flux modified to reflect lability and age of material. A basin-wide database of biological, geochemical and flux data was analysed using an empirical production/biomass (P/B) model to test this hypothesis. This analysis is unique in the spatial extent and detail of P/B and concurrent environmental measurements over a temperate coastal region. Modified organic flux was the most important predictor of organic biomass and production. Depth and substrate type were secondary modifiers. Between 69–74% of variability in biomass and production could be explained by the combined environmental factors. Organisms <1 mm were important contributors to biomass and production primarily in shallow, sandy sediments, where high P/B values were found despite low organic flux. Low biomass, production, and P/B values were found in the deep, northern basin and mainland fjords, which had silty sediments, low organic flux, low biomass of organisms <1 mm, and dominance by large, slow-growing macrofauna. In the highest organic flux and biomass areas near the Fraser River discharge, production did not increase beyond moderate flux levels. Although highly productive, this area had low P/B. Clearly, food input is insufficient to explain the complex patterns in faunal production revealed here. Additional environmental factors (depth, substrate type and unmeasured factors) are important modifiers of these patterns. Potential reasons for the above patterns are explored, along with a discussion of unmeasured factors possibly responsible for unexplained (30%) variance in biomass and production. We now have the tools for basin-wide first

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the East Coast Mesozoic basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milici, Robert C.; Coleman, James L.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    During the early opening of the Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era, numerous extensional basins formed along the eastern margin of the North American continent from Florida northward to New England and parts of adjacent Canada. The basins extend generally from the offshore Atlantic continental margin westward beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the Appalachian Mountains. Using a geology-based assessment method, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 3,860 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 135 million barrels in continuous accumulations within five of the East Coast Mesozoic basins: the Deep River, Dan River-Danville, and Richmond basins, which are within the Piedmont Province of North Carolina and Virginia; the Taylorsville basin, which is almost entirely within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province of Virginia and Maryland; and the southern part of the Newark basin (herein referred to as the South Newark basin), which is within the Blue Ridge Thrust Belt Province of New Jersey. The provinces, which contain these extensional basins, extend across parts of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

  8. From pre-salt sources to post-salt traps: A specific petroleum system in Congo coastal basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vernet, R.

    1995-08-01

    The Bas Congo basin extends from Gabon to Angola and is a prolific oil province where both pre-salt and post salt sources and reservoirs have been found. In the northern part of the basin referred to as the Congo coastal basin, the proven petroleum system is more specific: mature source rocks are found only in pre-salt series whereas by contrast 99 % proven hydrocarbon reserves am located in post-salt traps. Such a system is controlled by the following factors: Source rocks are mostly organic rich shales deposited in a restricted environment developed in a rift prior to the Atlantic Ocean opening; Migration from pre-salt sources to post-salt traps is finalized by local discontinuities of the regional salt layer acting otherwise as a tight seal; Post-salt reservoirs are either carbonates or sands desposited in the evolutive shelf margin developped during Upper Cretaceous; Geometric traps are linked to salt tectonics (mostly turtle-shaped structures); Regional shaly seals are related to transgressive shales best developped during high rise sea level time interval. Stratigraphically, the age of hydrocarbon fields trends are younger and younger from West to East: lower Albian in Nkossa, Upper Albian and lower Cenomanian in Likouala, Yanga, Sendji, Upper Cenomanian in Tchibouela, Turonian in Tchendo, Turanian and Senonian in Emeraude.

  9. Ecological data collected in the Santee River basin and coastal drainages, North and South Carolina, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrahamsen, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, ecological investigations were conducted in 23 reaches of 16 streams in the Santee River Basin and Coastal Drainages study unit in North and South Carolina during 1996-98. Habitat characteristics, such as stream width and depth, bank composition, bank vegetative cover, stream shading by overhanging vegetation, and streambed composition were recorded. Algal and benthic invertebrate communities were sampled using quantitative and qualitative techniques. These data will provide information needed to: (1) support findings of the effects of human landuse activities on water quality by augmenting or enhancing physical and chemical water-quality data, (2) provide a basic overview of aquatic community structure in selected stream reaches in the study unit, and (3) provide a means for comparing aquatic communities in subsequent years of the assessment program.

  10. Historic and Holocene environmental change in the San Antonio Creek Basin, mid-coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott Anderson, R.; Ejarque, Ana; Rice, Johnathan; Smith, Susan J.; Lebow, Clayton G.

    2015-03-01

    Using a combination of pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs) and charcoal particle stratigraphies from sediment cores from two sites, along with historical records, we reconstructed paleoenvironmental change in mid-coastal California. The San Antonio Creek section contains a discontinuous, Holocene-length record, while Mod Pond includes a continuous late Holocene record. Together the records allow for interpretation of most of the present interglacial. The longer record documents coastal sage scrub and chaparral dominated by woodland elements early in the Holocene to about 9000 yr ago, a potential decline in woodland communities with drying conditions during the middle Holocene to about 4800 yr ago, and an expansion of coastal sage scrub with grassland during the late Holocene. Evidence for climatic fluctuations during the last 1000 yr at Mod Pond is equivocal, suggesting that the Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age had modest impact on the Mod Pond environment. However, evidence of significant environmental change associated with cultural transitions in the 18th-19th centuries is stark. Introduction of non-native plants, establishment of cattle and sheep grazing, missionization of the native population, changes in burning practices during the Spanish period and enhanced cropping activities during North American settlement worked together to substantially modify the mid-California coastal landscape in about a century's time.

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  12. Water-Quality Assessment of the Trinity River Basin, Texas - Pesticides in a Coastal Prairie Agricultural Area, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    Agriculture is a major land use in the coastal prairie area located in the southern part of the Trinity River Basin. Crops grown in the area include rice, sorghum, and soybeans. Pesticide- use estimates for the area show that compounds with the highest use are the herbicides: molinate, propanil, thiobencarb, metolachlor, acifluorfen, bentazon, and atrazine and the insecticides: carbaryl and methyl parathion. More than 20 pesticide samples collected from each of three streams in the coastal prairie resulted in detections of 29 different pesticide compounds. The most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides: atrazine, metolachlor, and molinate, which were detected in more than 75 percent of the samples. Herbicides were detected more frequently than insecticides. Maximum concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, and molinate occurred in the spring and were 4, 1.9, and 200 micrograms per liter (?g/L), respectively. Almost all concentrations of atrazine and metolachlor were below drinking water standards; no standard is available for molinate. Concentrations and estimated loads and percent of applied compound lost to the streams were generally higher in the watersheds where more of the pesticides were applied to crops.

  13. The role of floodplain connections in controlling dissolved organic carbon quality and export in coastal urban sub-basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettel, G. M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Harms, T. K.; Hopkinson, C.

    2009-04-01

    This study examines the role of fluvial wetlands (those connected to the stream via floodplains) in controlling DOC quality and export in urban systems. Human activity in urban basins may impact both DOC quality and export, but river-wetland complexes may dampen this signature. These dynamics are important to understand because the processing of DOC can affect the degree to which land-use affects a number of environmental problems: the eutrophication of coastal ecosystems, interactions with the nitrogen cycle and nitrogen retention, and feedbacks with climate system. We performed synoptic surveys above and below wetlands in urban and rural sub-basins in the headwaters of the Ipswich and Parker River watersheds (Plum Island Estuary Long Term Ecological Research) in northeastern Massachusetts. US. We also instrumented wetland sites to sample wetland sites during storm events. We used the optical characteristics of DOC determined by fluorescence and absorbance to quantify DOC quality. Excitation Emission Matrices (EEMS) were used to determine the relative importance of autochthonous and allochthonous sources of DOM. In addition, we measured metabolism and denitrification to correlate fluorescence characteristics to ecosystem processes. Preliminary results suggest that high flow conditions, DOC export increases, and over-land and sub-surface flow-paths facilitate leaching of more recalcitrant forms of DOC from wetland plant sources. Under low flow conditions, autochthonous sources of DOC from the stream channel may be more prevalent. In contrast, wetlands in rural areas are less flashy and sources of DOC more consistent with autochthonous sources.

  14. A mid-Permian chert event: widespread deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murchey, B.L.; Jones, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radiolarian and conodont of Permian siliceous rocks from twenty-three areas in teh the circum-Pacific and Mediterranean regions reveal a widespread Permian Chert Event during the middle Leonardian to Wordian. Radiolarian- and (or) sponge spicule-rich siliceous sediments accumulated beneath high productivity zones in coastal, island arc and oceanic basins. Most of these deposits now crop out in fault-bounded accreted terranes. Biogenic siliceous sediments did not accumulate in terranes lying beneath infertile waters including the marine sequences in terranes of northern and central Alaska. The Permian Chert Event is coeval with major phosphorite deposition along the western margin of Pangea (Phosphoria Formation and related deposits). A well-known analogue for this event is middle Miocene deposition of biogenic siliceous sediments beneath high productivity zones in many parts of the Pacific and concurrent deposition of phosphatic as well as siliceous sediments in basins along the coast of California. Interrelated factors associated with both the Miocene and Permian depositional events include plate reorientations, small sea-level rises and cool polar waters. ?? 1992.

  15. Effects of oxygen on recycling of biogenic elements from sediments of a stratified coastal Baltic Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekeroth, Nils; Kononets, Mikhail; Walve, Jakob; Blomqvist, Sven; Hall, Per O. J.

    2016-02-01

    Benthic nutrient dynamics in the coastal basin Kanholmsfjärden, NW Baltic proper, were studied by in situ flux measurements and sediment samplings in 2010-2013. The benthic release of NH4 and DIP from anoxic sediments in Kanholmsfjärden were calculated to renew the standing stock inventories of DIN and DIP in the overlying water in roughly 1 year. Starting in summer 2012, mixing of oxygen-rich water into the deep part of the basin temporarily improved the oxygen conditions in the deep water. During the 1 year oxygenated period, the total phosphorus inventory in the surficial sediment increased by 0.4 g P m- 2 or 65%. This was most likely due to stimulated bacterial P assimilation under oxygenated conditions. By July 2013, the bottom water had again turned anoxic, and DIP and DSi fluxes were even higher than earlier in the study period. These high fluxes are attributed to degradation of sedimentary pools of P and Si that had accumulated during the bottom water oxygenation in 2012. The strong correlation between DIP and DSi fluxes and the similar dynamics of DIP and DSi in the sediment pore water and near bottom water, suggest a similar redox dependency of benthic-pelagic exchange for these nutrients.

  16. Integrated Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Sediments from a Coastal Industrial Basin, NE China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Yugang; Luo, Geping; Chen, Xi; Yang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Bin; He, Xingyuan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of metal pollution of the sediments from urban-stream, estuary and Jinzhou Bay of the coastal industrial city, NE China. Forty surface sediment samples from river, estuary and bay and one sediment core from Jinzhou bay were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn. The data reveals that there was a remarkable change in the contents of heavy metals among the sampling sediments, and all the mean values of heavy metal concentration were higher than the national guideline values of marine sediment quality of China (GB 18668-2002). This is one of the most polluted of the world’s impacted coastal systems. Both the correlation analyses and geostatistical analyses showed that Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd have a very similar spatial pattern and come from the industrial activities, and the concentration of Mn mainly caused by natural factors. The estuary is the most polluted area with extremely high potential ecological risk; however the contamination decreased with distance seaward of the river estuary. This study clearly highlights the urgent need to make great efforts to control the industrial emission and the exceptionally severe heavy metal pollution in the coastal area, and the immediate measures should be carried out to minimize the rate of contamination, and extent of future pollution problems. PMID:22768107

  17. Integrated assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediments from a coastal industrial basin, NE China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyu; Liu, Lijuan; Wang, Yugang; Luo, Geping; Chen, Xi; Yang, Xiaoliang; Gao, Bin; He, Xingyuan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of metal pollution of the sediments from urban-stream, estuary and Jinzhou Bay of the coastal industrial city, NE China. Forty surface sediment samples from river, estuary and bay and one sediment core from Jinzhou bay were collected and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Mn. The data reveals that there was a remarkable change in the contents of heavy metals among the sampling sediments, and all the mean values of heavy metal concentration were higher than the national guideline values of marine sediment quality of China (GB 18668-2002). This is one of the most polluted of the world's impacted coastal systems. Both the correlation analyses and geostatistical analyses showed that Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd have a very similar spatial pattern and come from the industrial activities, and the concentration of Mn mainly caused by natural factors. The estuary is the most polluted area with extremely high potential ecological risk; however the contamination decreased with distance seaward of the river estuary. This study clearly highlights the urgent need to make great efforts to control the industrial emission and the exceptionally severe heavy metal pollution in the coastal area, and the immediate measures should be carried out to minimize the rate of contamination, and extent of future pollution problems. PMID:22768107

  18. PAHs and PCBs deposited in surficial sediments along a rural to urban transect in a mid-Atlantic coastal river basin (USA).

    PubMed

    Foster, Gregory D; Cui, Vickie

    2008-10-01

    PAHs and PCBs were measured in river sediments along a 226 km longitudinal transect that spanned rural to urban land use settings through Valley and Ridge, Piedmont Plateau and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces in the Potomac River basin (mid-Atlantic USA). A gradient in PAH concentrations was found in river bed sediments along the upstream transect in the Potomac and Shenandoah Rivers that correlated with population densities in the nearby sub-basins. Sediment PAH concentrations halved per each approximately 40 km of transect distance upstream (i.e., the half-concentration distance) from the urban center (Washington, DC) of the Potomac River basin in direct proportion to population density. The PAH molecular composition was consistent across all geologic provinces, revealing a dominant pyrogenic source. Fluoranthene to perylene ratios served as useful markers for urban inputs, with a ratio > 2.4 observed in sediments near urban structures such as roadways, bridges and sewer outfalls. PCBs in sediments were not well correlated with population densities along the river basin transect, but the highest concentrations were found in the urban Coastal Plain region near Washington, DC and in the Shenandoah River near a known industrial Superfund site. PAHs were moderately correlated with sediment total organic carbon (TOC) in the Shenandoah River and Coastal Plain Potomac River regions, but TOC was poorly correlated with PCB concentrations throughout the entire basin. Although both PAHs and PCBs are widely recognized as urban-derived contaminants, their concentration profiles and geochemistry in river sediments were uniquely different throughout the upper Potomac River basin. PMID:18780210

  19. Geologic appraisal of the petroleum potential of offshore southern California; the borderland compared to onshore coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, James Carlton

    1976-01-01

    Offshore southern California is part of a much larger Pacific continental margin, and the two areas have a similar geologic history at least as far back as middle Tertiary time. Assessment of the petroleum potential of the offshore Southern California borderland is accomplished by examining the adjacent highly explored productive coastal basins in the tectonically unstable area west of the San Andreas fault. Known oil and gas accumulations in this region can be characterized as follows: 88 percent comes from the Los Angeles and Ventura basins; 87 percent has been found in late Miocene and younger strata and only 0.2 percent has been found in Eocene strata; 80 percent has been found in thick deposits of deep-water turbidite reservoirs; and 5 percent has been found in fractured Miocene siliceous shale reservoirs. The percentage of siliceous shale reservoirs will increase as a result of recent discoveries in this rock type in the Santa Barbara Channel. Of the 212 known fields only 5 are giants (greater than 500 million barrels), and these fields account for 52 percent of all past production from the region. Most fields are faulted anticlines, and the largest fields have the highest oil recoveries per acre. Geologic knowledge of the offshore is limited by the availability of data. Data have been obtained from geophysical surveys, analyses of bedrock samples from the sea floor, and extrapolations of data from the mainland and offshore islands. Several factors have a negative effect on the assessment of the petroleum potential of the southern California borderland. They are: 1. The Neogene section is relatively thin, and the Paleogene section is thin and has a limited distribution. 2. Over large areas, Miocene sediments apparently rest directly on basement. 3. Along much of the Santa Rosa-Cortes Ridge, sediments are uplifted and truncated, exposing Paleogene rocks. 4. Organic content in Paleogene sediments is believed too low to generate large amounts of petroleum. 5

  20. The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×104 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward “whale pump” played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

  1. Effects of Human Alterations on Global River Basins and their Associated Coastal Zones: focus on River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, H. H.; Van Cappellen, P.; Meybeck, M.; Laruelle, G. G.; Mayorga, E.; Hartmann, J.; Maavara, T.; Bouwman, L.; Seitzinger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal systems connected to large rivers, mostly major delta systems or river-dominated ocean margins (RiOMars), make up <1% of the worldwide shoreline. Yet, they comprise 28% of the exorheic terrestrial river basins area, and host 26.4% of the population connected via rivers to coastal systems (Dürr et al. 2011). These systems receive 41.6% of the discharge delivered to oceans. 25.7% of the suspended sediment load is processed, with comparable amounts for the total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads. The filter function for incoming riverine nutrients (N, P, C, Si) in these coastal environments is very different from other near-shore environments such as macro-tidal estuaries, lagoons or fjords. In this type, the major biogeochemical transformation of incoming river fluxes takes place in a plume on the continental margins (RiOMars). This effect is even more pronounced at high flow stages when the highest volumes of water and material are delivered. The filtering efficiency of delta systems is highest during low flows, and some of the systems may be influenced by tides when ebb and flood might flow through different channels, creating a braided network of streams and many islands (Dürr et al. 2011). Here, we discuss controls on the different nutrient forms delivered to different coastal environments, and how they are assessed (Global-NEWS and other approaches), with a special focus on large deltas and RiOMars. Drivers and impacts of global change will be explored through the Millenium Assessment Scenarios and how the fluxes to these different coastal systems might change. An increasing role is also played by aquaculture in different coastal types as a non-insignificant source of nutrients. World-wide distribution of coastal types and their related river basins (Dürr et al. 2011). Characteristics of types of near-shore coastal areas and their associated river basins Greenland and Antarctica excepted. Data from Dürr et al. (2011) and the Global-NEWS program

  2. Long-Term Hydrological Changes of Coastal Arctic Tundra Ponds in Drained Thaw Lake Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andresen, C. G.; Lougheed, V.

    2013-12-01

    Given the dominance of these ponds in the tundra landscape, documenting long-term changes in these aquatic systems is essential to understand carbon and energy balance, trophic energy flow, and biodiversity for the Arctic. The combination of remote sensing using historical imagery, as well as rare historical data from the International Biological Program, provides a unique opportunity for understanding long-term changes in hydrology, chemistry and biology of these significant freshwater environments. To assess the changes in pond area and abundance in 22 drained thaw-lake basins (DTLB) across the Barrow Peninsula over the past 60 years, we utilized historic aerial imagery from USGS archives (1948) and modern high-resolution Quickbird (2002, 2008, 2010). Age classification of DTLB was based on Hinkel et al 2003. We compared water temperature, active layer thickness, and aboveground biomass of these systems to historical datasets compiled in the Limnology of Tundra Ponds' by Hobbie et al 1975. We observed an overall decrease of 28% in pond area and 19% decrease in pond number, where smaller ponds (<100m2) had the highest change. These losses were coincident with significantly higher air and water temperature and reduced annual rainfall, which has decreased by 2.5 cm over the past 62 years (-0.4mm/yr). Active layer in ponds increased on average by 15cm. Aquatic grasses increased in density and cover in ponds over the past 40 years. Area and number of ponds loss was independent of DTLB age; however, medium-age DTLBs had significantly higher number of new ponds over old and ancient-age basins. While we observe new ponds due to thaw lake processes, climate seems to be having a stronger effect on these systems by reducing the overall inundated area and pond number in these basins. Increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, permafrost degradation, transpiration from encroaching aquatic grasses and changes in precipitation patterns are likely the current major

  3. A high-resolution angiosperm pollen reference record covering Albian mid-latitude coastal deposits (Lusitanian Basin, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikx, Maurits; Dinis, Jorge L.; Heimhofer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    The Lusitanian Basin in Portugal is one of the most important areas to investigate the rise and radiation of early angiosperms. Here, important micro-, macro- and mesofossil remains including pollen, reproductive organs, fruits and seeds have been found. In this study, a high-resolution Early to Late Albian pollen record from a thick (~160m) coastal succession in the Lusitanian Basin containing mixed carbonate-siliciclastic near-shore deposits is generated. The outcrop is located near the town of Ericeira (São Julião) and exhibits some important new features compared to existing records from the Lusitanian basin. The comparatively proximal depositional setting and high sedimentation rate of the São Julião outcrop is well suited for high-resolution palynological sampling compared to previously studied, more distal outcrops. In addition, the succession covers almost the entire Albian including a thick interval representing Late Albian strata. Dating of the succession was obtained using dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy, bulk C-isotope analysis and strontium isotope analysis of low-Mg oysters and rudist shells. The high-resolution pollen record shows a distinct radiation pattern of early angiosperm pollen as well as significant changes in the accompanying palynoflora. During most of the section gymnosperm pollen types such as Classopollis spp., Inaperturopollenites spp. and Exesipollenites spp. are dominant. Angiosperm pollen abundances do not exceed 20%, although angiosperms increase slightly from the Early Albian onwards. Monoaperturate grains of magnoliid or monocot affinity remain the most dominant angiosperm pollen type, both in abundances and diversity. Tricolpate and zonoaperturate pollen grains are also present. In addition, the occurrence of several odd-shaped Dichastopollenites-type pollen types is intriguing. The palynological results indicate a warm and dry climate during most of the Albian, although a rise in the spores over pollen ratio in the

  4. Effects of Climate Change on Inland Waters of the Pacific Coastal Mountains and Western Great Basin of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melack, John M.; Dozier, Jeff; Goldman, Charles R.; Greenland, David; Milner, Alexander M.; Naiman, Robert J.

    1997-06-01

    The region designated as the Pacific Coastal Mountains and Western Great Basin extends from southern Alaska (64°N) to southern California (34°N) and ranges in altitude from sea level to 6200 m. Orographic effects combine with moisture-laden frontal systems originating in the Pacific Ocean to produce areas of very high precipitation on western slopes and dry basins of internal drainage on eastern flanks of the mountains. In the southern half of the region most of the runoff occurs during winter or spring, while in the northern part most occurs in summer, especially in glaciated basins. Analyses of long-term climatic and hydrological records, combined with palaeoclimatic reconstructions and simulations of future climates, are used as the basis for likely scenarios of climatic variations. The predicted hydrological response in northern California to a climate with doubled CO2 and higher temperatures is a decrease in the amount of precipitation falling as snow, and substantially increased runoff during winter and less in late spring and summer. One consequence of the predicted earlier runoff is higher salinity in summer and autumn in San Francisco Bay. In saline lakes, the incidence of meromixis and the associated reduction in nutrient supply and algal abundance is expected to vary significantly as runoff fluctuates. In subalpine lakes, global warming will probably will lead to increased productivity. Lacustrine productivity can also be altered by changes in wind regimes, drought-enhanced forest fires and maximal or minimal snowpacks associated with atmospheric anomalies such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Reduced stream temperature from increased contributions of glacial meltwater and decreased channel stability from changed runoff patterns and altered sediment loads has the potential to reduce the diversity of zoobenthic communities in predominately glacier-fed rivers. Climatic warming is likely to result in reduced growth and survival of sockeye

  5. Governing change: land-use change and the prevention of nonpoint source pollution in the north coastal basin of California.

    PubMed

    Short, Anne G

    2013-01-01

    Many rural areas in the United States and throughout much of the postindustrial world are undergoing significant ecological, socioeconomic, and political transformations. The migration of urban and suburban dwellers into rural areas has led to the subdivision of large tracts of land into smaller parcels, which can complicate efforts to govern human-environmental problems. Non-point source (NPS) pollution from private rural lands is a particularly pressing human-environmental challenge that may be aggravated by changing land tenure. In this article, I report on a study of the governance and management of sediment (a common NPS pollutant) in the North Coastal basin of California, a region undergoing a transition from traditional extractive and agricultural land uses to rural residential and other alternative land uses. I focus on the differences in the governance and management across private timber, ranch, residential, vacation, and other lands in the region. I find that (1) the stringency and strength of sediment regulations differ by land use, (2) nonregulatory programs tend to target working landscapes, and (3) rural residential landowners have less knowledge of sediment control and report using fewer sediment-control techniques than landowners using their land for timber production or ranching. I conclude with an exploration of the consequences of these differences on an evolving rural landscape.

  6. Bulinus globosus (Planorbidae; Gastropoda) populations in the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya show extreme nuclear genetic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nyakaana, Silvester; Stothard, J Russell; Nalugwa, Allen; Webster, Bonnie L; Lange, Charles N; Jørgensen, Aslak; Rollinson, David; Kristensen, Thomas K

    2013-11-01

    Bulinus globosus, a key intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium that causes urinary schistosomiasis, is a hermaphroditic freshwater Planorbid snail species that inhabits patchy and transient water bodies prone to large seasonal variations in water availability. Although capable of self-fertilizing, this species has been reported to be preferentially out crossing. In this study, we characterized the population genetic structure of 19 B. globosus populations sampled across the Lake Victoria basin and coastal Kenya using four polymorphic microsatellite loci. Population genetic structure was characterized and quantified using FST statistics and Bayesian clustering algorithms. The four loci used in this study contained sufficient statistical power to detect low levels of population genetic differentiation and were highly polymorphic with the number of alleles per locus across populations ranging from 16 to 22. Average observed and expected heterozygosities across loci in each population ranged from 0.13 to 0.69 and from 0.39 to 0.79, respectively. Twenty-five of the seventy-six possible population-locus comparisons significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium proportions after Bonferroni corrections, mostly due to the deficiency of heterozygotes. Significant genetic differentiation was observed between populations and Bayesian inferences identified 15 genetic clusters. The excess homozygosity, significant inbreeding and population genetic differentiation observed in B. globosus populations are likely to be due to the habitat patchiness, mating system and the proneness to cyclic extinction and recolonization in transient habitats. PMID:23266524

  7. Watershed and Lake Influences on the Energetic Base of Coastal Wetland Food Webs across the Great Lakes Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript examines the responses of Great Lakes coastal wetland food webs to nutrient enrichment and identifies three classes of systems whose food webs respond differently. Or is that differentially? Anyway, coastal wetlands with relatively long hydraulic residence times ...

  8. Drought responses of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) in coastal plain tributaries of the Flint River basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gagnon, P.M.; Golladay, S.W.; Michener, W.K.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2004-01-01

    During extreme drought conditions, mussel survival and habitat conditions were monitored weekly at nine locations representing a gradient in stream size in the lower Flint River basin, Georgia, USA. Cumulative unionid mortality ranged from 13 to 93% among sites, and was associated with low flow velocity (below 0.01 m/s) and dissolved oxygen concentrations below 5 mg/L. Species assemblages demonstrated differential mortality under declining dissolved oxygen conditions. Riffle and medium-large stream mussel assemblages had greater mortality than generalist assemblages under reduced dissoloved oxygen (DO < 5 mg/L). Mussel community composition at medium-sized sites shifted toward greater dominance of generalist species and lower proportions of riffle and medium-large stream species. At other sites, community structure changed little, likely due to the dominance of drought-resilient species in small streams and less detrimental changes in stream habitat conditions in large streams. Low flow conditions and severe drought adversely affected mussel distributions and assemblages, particularly in high diversity, medium-sized streams.

  9. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Ernest A.

    2003-02-06

    The project objectives are improving access to information for the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin by inventorying data files and records of the major information repositories in the region, making these inventories easily accessible in electronic format, increasing the amount of information available on domestic sedimentary basins through a comprehensive analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, and enhancing the understanding of the petroleum systems operating in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin.

  10. Application of MODIS Products to Infer Possible Relationships Between Basin Land Cover and Coastal Waters Turbidity Using the Magdalena River, Colombia, as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madrinan, Max Jacobo Moreno; Cordova, Africa Flores; Olivares, Francisco Delgado; Irwin, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Basin development and consequent change in basin land cover have been often associated with an increased turbidity in coastal waters because of sediment yield and nutrients loading. The later leads to phytoplankton abundance further exacerbating water turbidity. This subsequently affects biological and physical processes in coastal estuaries by interfering with sun light penetration to coral reefs and sea grass, and even affecting public health. Therefore, consistent estimation of land cover changes and turbidity trend lines is crucial to design environmental and restoration management plans, to predict fate of possible pollutants, and to estimate sedimentary fluxes into the ocean. Ground solely methods to estimate land cover change would be unpractical and traditional methods of monitoring in situ water turbidity can be very expensive and time consuming. Accurate monitoring on the status and trends of basin land cover as well as the water quality of the receiving water bodies are required for analysis of relationships between the two variables. Use of remote sensing (RS) technology provides a great benefit for both fields of study, facilitating monitoring of changes in a timely and cost effective manner and covering wide areas with long term measurements. In this study, the Magdalena River basin and fixed geographical locations in the estuarine waters of its delta are used as a case to study the temporal trend lines of both, land cover change and the reflectance of the water turbidity using satellite technology. Land cover data from a combined product between sensors Terra and Aqua (MCD12Q1) from MODIS will be adapted to the conditions in the Magdalena basin to estimate changes in land cover since year 2000 to 2009. Surface reflectance data from a MODIS, Terra (MOD09GQ), band 1, will be used in lieu of in situ water turbidity for the time period between 2000 and present. Results will be compared with available existing data.

  11. Water-quality assessment of the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island : environmental settings and implications for water quality and aquatic biota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, Sarah M.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson, Keith W.; Coles, James F.

    1999-01-01

    The New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island constitute one of 59 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. England Coastal Basins study unit encompasses the fresh surface waters and ground waters in a 23,000 square-mile area that drains to the Atlantic Ocean. Major basins include those of the Kennebec, Androscoggin, Saco, Merrimack, Charles, Blackstone, Taunton, and Pawcatuck Rivers. Defining the environmental setting of the study unit is the first step in designing and conducting a multi-disciplinary regional water-quality assessment. The report describes the natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basins and includes descriptions of the physiography, climate, geology, soils, surface- and ground-water hydrology, land use, and the aquatic ecosystem. Although surface-water quality has greatly improved over the past 30 years as a result of improved wastewater treatment at municipal and industrial wastewater facilities, a number of water-quality problems remain. Industrial and municipal wastewater discharges, combined sewer overflows, hydrologic modifications from dams and water diversions, and runoff from urban land use are the major causes of water-quality degradation in 1998. The most frequently detected contaminants in ground water in the study area are volatile organic compounds, petroleum-related products, nitrates, and chloride and sodium. Sources of these contaminants include leaking storage tanks, accidental spills, landfills, road salting, and septic systems and lagoons. Elevated concentrations of mercury are found in fish tissue from streams and lakes throughout the study area.

  12. The magnitude and controls on denitrification during managed aquifer recharge into a shallow, unconfined aquifer in a coastal groundwater basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. M.; Fisher, A. T.; Racz, A. J.; Wheat, C. G.; Sharkey, J.; Lockwood, B. S.

    2009-12-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is used to augment water supplies and limit the adverse impacts of groundwater overdraft in many basins. As groundwater demands continue to increase and MAR projects become more common it is increasingly difficult to secure pristine sources for MAR throughout the year. Instead resource managers must explore options for using MAR sources such as stormwater runoff, treated wastewater, and supplies influenced by agricultural activity. Many such sources are impaired by elevated nutrient concentrations and thus there is a need to understand the conditions under which the quality of managed recharge can be improved. In this study we quantify the rates and controls on denitrification during MAR with an emphasis on the load reduction that occurs during infiltration. Our study site includes a 3 ha percolation pond located in central coastal California into which excess flows are diverted from a nearby wetland system during the rainy season. Recharged water passes through a 20 m to 30 m thick vadose zone below the pond and enters a perched aquifer from which it is recovered and distributed to local growers. The concentration of nitrate in diverted wetland water is generally between 10 μmol and 100 μmol but values ≥1000 µmol have been observed. Major element and stable isotopic analyses of infiltrating water and groundwater in combination with point measurements of infiltration indicate considerable spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic and geochemical conditions beneath the recharge pond. Nitrate concentrations are consistently reduced by 50-90% during infiltration. Nitrate isotopic analyses suggest that most of this reduction in nitrate concentration results from denitrification. The average rate of denitrification during infiltration was 30 µmol N L-1 d-1, although rates as high as 200 µmol N L-1 d-1 were observed. While denitrification rates were highest at high infiltration rates, denitrification was most efficient at

  13. Estimating of suspended sediment loads of rivers in the Seine downstream basin and coastal rivers in Southeastern Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landemaine, Valentin; Cerdan, Olivier; Laignel, Benoit; Fournier, Matthieu; Copard, Yoann

    2014-05-01

    Sediment exports in rivers constitute the essential of materials transfer from the land surface to the ocean and contribute significantly to the transfer of nutrients, pesticides, heavy metals which can affect water quality. Such problems of water pollution are particularly present at the Norman loess plateaus because soil erosion is a frequent phenomena and mudslides are common. In this context, the quantification of sediment load, as well as the short and long term variability analysis are a key component for any sustainable management project of water resources. The quantification of sediment fluxes is based on turbidity, suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and discharge measurements. These measurements must be made with sufficient high frequency for integrating temporal variability of SSC and flows. However, the cost of a high frequency monitoring limits their use at large scale. In France, discharges are monitored using daily frequency (Banque Hydro), while SSC are measured in monthly or bimonthly frequency under the national water quality survey system (RNB). With these low frequency measurements, an algorithm must be used to reconstruct SSC temporal variability and to estimate a sediment flux. Many estimation algorithms have been developed in recent decades, from the simplest to the most elaborate, but no consensus has been reached on the use of a particular algorithm because of the complexity of SSC-discharge relationship. In this study, the analysis focuses on eight Channel coastal watersheds and nine Seine watersheds in the downstream part. We have a several years of high-frequency measurements on nine watersheds with highly variable area (10 km² to 10,000 km²) and low-frequency measurements for all watersheds. From these data, we compared the statistical performance of eleven algorithms to estimate sediment fluxes conventionally used in the literature. These algorithms are: averaging estimator, ratio estimator, linear interpolation, rating curve

  14. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest Mancini

    2000-12-31

    Part 3 (Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation) objectives are to provide an analysis of the Smackover petroleum system in Years 4 and 5 of the project and to transfer effectively the research results to producers through workshops and topical reports. Work Accomplished (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - Basin flow modeling has been completed and the modeling results are being interpreted for report writing (Table 1). Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum source rocks has been integrated into the basin flow model. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Work on the characterization of Smackover petroleum reservoirs continues. The cores to be described have been identified and many of the cores for the eastern part of the basin have been described. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Work on reservoir diagenesis has been initiated. Samples from the cores selected for the reservoir characterization are being used for this task. Work Planned (Year 5): Task 1 - Basin Flow - The report on basin flow will be completed. Task 2 - Petroleum Source Rocks - Petroleum source rock data will be reviewed in light of the basin flow model results. Task 3 - Petroleum Reservoirs - Characterization of petroleum reservoirs will continue through core studies. Task 4 - Reservoir Diagenesis - Characterization of reservoir diagenesis will continue through petrographic analysis.

  15. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the lower Merrimack and coastal river basins, southeastern New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stekl, Peter J.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    1992-01-01

    Communities in the lower Merrimack River basin and coastal river basins of southeastern New Hampshire are experiencing increased demands for water because of a rapid increase in population. The population in 1987 was 225,495 and is expected to increase by 30 percent during the next decade. As of 1987, five towns used the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal supply and withdrew an estimated 6 million gallons per day. Four towns used the bedrock aquifer for municipal supply and withdrew an average of 1 .6 million gallons per day. Stratified-drift deposits cover 78 of the 327 square miles of the study area. These deposits are generally less than 10 square miles in areal extent, and their saturated thickness ranges front less than 20 feet to as much as 100 feet . Transinissivity exceeds 4,000 square feet per day in several locations. Stratified-drift aquifers in the eastern part are predominantly small ice-contact deposits surrounded by marine sediments or till of low hydraulic conductivity. Stratified-drift aquifers in the western part consist of ice-contact and proglacial deposits that are large in areal extent and are commonly in contact with surface-water bodies. Five stratified-drift aquifers, in the towns of Derry, Windham, Kingston, North Hampton, and Greenland, have the greatest potential to supply additional amounts of water. Potential yields and contributing areas of hypothetical supply wells were estimated for an aquifer in Windham near Cobbetts Pond and for an aquifer in Kingston along the Powwow River by use of a method analogous to superposition in conjunction with a numerical ground-waterflow model. The potential yield is estimated to be 0 .6 million gallons per day for the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4 .0 million gallons per day for the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer. Contributing recharge area for supply wells is estimated to be 1.6 square miles in the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4.9 square miles in the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer

  16. The contribution of Fe(III) and humic acid reduction to ecosystem respiration in drained thaw lake basins of the Arctic Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipson, David A.; Raab, Theodore K.; Goria, Dominic; Zlamal, Jaime

    2013-04-01

    research showed that anaerobic respiration using iron (Fe) oxides as terminal electron acceptor contributed substantially to ecosystem respiration (ER) in a drained thaw lake basin (DTLB) on the Arctic coastal plain. As DTLBs age, the surface organic layer thickens, progressively burying the Fe-rich mineral layers. We therefore hypothesized that Fe(III) availability and Fe reduction would decline with basin age. We studied four DTLBs across an age gradient, comparing seasonal changes in the oxidation state of dissolved and extractable Fe pools and the estimated contribution of Fe reduction to ER. The organic layer thickness did not strictly increase with age for these four sites, though soil Fe levels decreased with increasing organic layer thickness. However, there were surprisingly high levels of Fe minerals in organic layers, especially in the ancient basin where cryoturbation may have transported Fe upward through the profile. Net reduction of Fe oxides occurred in the latter half of the summer and contributed an estimated 40-45% to ecosystem respiration in the sites with the thickest organic layers and 61-63% in the sites with the thinnest organic layers. All sites had high concentrations of soluble Fe(II) and Fe(III), explained by the presence of siderophores, and this pool became progressively more reduced during the first half of the summer. Redox titrations with humic acid (HA) extracts and chelated Fe support our view that this pattern indicates the reduction of HA during this interval. We conclude that Fe(III) and HA reductions contribute broadly to ER in the Arctic coastal plain.

  17. Nitrogen Budget in a Lowland Coastal Area Within the Po River Basin (Northern Italy): Multiple Evidences of Equilibrium Between Sources and Internal Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Soana, Elisa; Racchetti, Erica; Pierobon, Enrica; Mastrocicco, Micol; Tesini, Enrico; Fano, Elisa Anna; Bartoli, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Detailed studies on pollutants genesis, path and transformation are needed in agricultural catchments facing coastal areas. Here, loss of nutrients should be minimized in order to protect valuable aquatic ecosystems from eutrophication phenomena. A soil system N budget was calculated for a lowland coastal area, the Po di Volano basin (Po River Delta, Northern Italy), characterized by extremely flat topography and fine soil texture and bordering a network of lagoon ecosystems. Main features of this area are the scarce relevance of livestock farming, the intense agriculture, mainly sustained by chemical fertilizers, and the developed network of artificial canals with long water residence time. Average nitrogen input exceeds output terms by ~60 kg N ha-1 year-1, a relatively small amount if compared to sub-basins of the same hydrological system. Analysis of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in groundwater suggests limited vertical loss and no accumulation of this element, while a nitrogen mass balance in surface waters indicates a net and significant removal within the watershed. Our data provide multiple evidences of efficient control of the nitrogen excess in this geographical area and we speculate that denitrification in soil and in the secondary drainage system performs this ecosystemic function. Additionally, the significant difference between nitrogen input and nitrogen output loads associated to the irrigation system, which is fed by the N-rich Po River, suggests that this basin metabolizes part of the nitrogen excess produced upstream. The traditionally absent livestock farming practices and consequent low use of manure as fertilizer pose the risk of excess soil mineralization and progressive loss of denitrification capacity in this area.

  18. Transport of branched tetraether lipids from the Tagus River basin to the coastal ocean of the Portuguese margin: consequences for the interpretation of the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Balsinha, M.; Dorhout, D.; Fernandes, C.; Baas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), which are thought to be transported from soil to marine sediment by rivers, have been used to reconstruct the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH of the drainage basin using the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT, recently refined as MBT') and cyclization index of branched tetraethers (CBT) from coastal marine sediment records. In this study, we trace the brGDGTs from source to sink in the Tagus River basin, the longest river system on the Iberian Peninsula, by determining their concentration and distribution in soils, river suspended particulate matter (SPM), riverbank sediments, marine SPM, and marine surface sediments. The concentrations of brGDGTs in river SPM were substantially higher and their distributions were different compared to those of the drainage basin soils. This indicates that brGDGTs are mainly produced in the river itself. In the marine environment, the brGDGT concentrations rapidly decreased with increasing distance from the Tagus estuary. At the same time, the brGDGT distributions in marine sediments also changed, indicating that marine in situ production also takes place. These results show that there are various problems that complicate the use of the MBT'/CBT for paleoreconstructions using coastal marine sediments in the vicinity of a river. However, if the majority of brGDGTs are produced in the river, it might be possible to reconstruct the environmental (temperature and pH) conditions of the river water using appropriate aquatic calibrations, provided that marine core locations are chosen in such a way that the brGDGTs in their sediments are predominantly derived from riverine in situ production.

  19. Transport of branched tetraether lipids from the Tagus River basin to the coastal ocean of the Portuguese margin: Consequences for the interpretation of the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Claudia; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Balinsha, Maria; Dorhout, Denise; Santos Fernandez, Cten; Baas, Marianne; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-05-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), which are transported from soil to marine sediment by rivers, have been used to reconstruct the mean annual air temperature(MAAT) and soil pH of the drainage basin using the methylation index of branched tetraethers(MBT, recently refined as MBT') and cyclization index of branched tetraethers (CBT) from coastal marine sediment records. In this study we are tracing the brGDGTs from source to sink in the Tagus River basin, the longest river system on the Iberian Peninsula, by determining their concentration and distribution in soils, river suspended particulate matter (SPM), riverbank sediments, marine SPM, and marine surface sediments. The concentrations of brGDGTs in river SPM were substantially higher and their distributions were different compared to those of the drainage basin soils. This indicates that brGDGTs are mainly produced in the river itself. In the marine environment, the brGDGT concentrations rapidly decreased with increasing distance from the Tagus estuary. At the same time, the brGDGT distributions in marine sediments also changed,indicating that marine in-situ production also takes place. These results show that there are various problems that complicate the use of the MBT'/CBT for paleoreconstructions using coastal marine sediments in the vicinity of a river. However, if the majority of brGDGTs are produced in the river, it might be possible to reconstruct the environmental (temperature and pH) conditions of the river water using appropriate aquatic calibrations, provided that marine core locations are chosen in such a way that the brGDGTs in their sediments are predominantly derived from riverine in-situ production.

  20. Transport of branched tetraether lipids from the Tagus River basin to the coastal ocean of the Portuguese margin: consequences for the interpretation of the MBT'/CBT paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, C.; Kim, J.-H.; Balsinha, M.; Dorhout, D.; Fernandes, C.; Baas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2014-03-01

    Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs), which are transported from soil to marine sediment by rivers, have been used to reconstruct the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and soil pH of the drainage basin using the methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT, recently refined as MBT') and cyclization index of branched tetraethers (CBT) from coastal marine sediment records. In this study we are tracing the brGDGTs from source to sink in the Tagus River basin, the longest river system on the Iberian Peninsula, by determining their concentration and distribution in soils, river suspended particulate matter (SPM), riverbank sediments, marine SPM, and marine surface sediments. The concentrations of brGDGTs in river SPM were substantially higher and their distributions were different compared to those of the drainage basin soils. This indicates that brGDGTs are mainly produced in the river itself. In the marine environment, the brGDGT concentrations rapidly decreased with increasing distance from the Tagus estuary. At the same time, the brGDGT distributions in marine sediments also changed, indicating that marine in-situ production also takes place. These results show that there are various problems that complicate the use of the MBT'/CBT for paleoreconstructions using coastal marine sediments in the vicinity of a river. However, if the majority of brGDGTs are produced in the river, it might be possible to reconstruct the environmental (temperature and pH) conditions of the river water using appropriate aquatic calibrations, provided that marine core locations are chosen in such a way that the brGDGTs in their sediments are predominantly derived from riverine in-situ production.

  1. Nitrogen budget in a lowland coastal area within the Po River basin (northern Italy): multiple evidences of equilibrium between sources and internal sinks.

    PubMed

    Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Soana, Elisa; Racchetti, Erica; Pierobon, Enrica; Mastrocicco, Micol; Tesini, Enrico; Fano, Elisa Anna; Bartoli, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Detailed studies on pollutants genesis, path and transformation are needed in agricultural catchments facing coastal areas. Here, loss of nutrients should be minimized in order to protect valuable aquatic ecosystems from eutrophication phenomena. A soil system N budget was calculated for a lowland coastal area, the Po di Volano basin (Po River Delta, Northern Italy), characterized by extremely flat topography and fine soil texture and bordering a network of lagoon ecosystems. Main features of this area are the scarce relevance of livestock farming, the intense agriculture, mainly sustained by chemical fertilizers, and the developed network of artificial canals with long water residence time. Average nitrogen input exceeds output terms by ~60 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), a relatively small amount if compared to sub-basins of the same hydrological system. Analysis of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in groundwater suggests limited vertical loss and no accumulation of this element, while a nitrogen mass balance in surface waters indicates a net and significant removal within the watershed. Our data provide multiple evidences of efficient control of the nitrogen excess in this geographical area and we speculate that denitrification in soil and in the secondary drainage system performs this ecosystemic function. Additionally, the significant difference between nitrogen input and nitrogen output loads associated to the irrigation system, which is fed by the N-rich Po River, suggests that this basin metabolizes part of the nitrogen excess produced upstream. The traditionally absent livestock farming practices and consequent low use of manure as fertilizer pose the risk of excess soil mineralization and progressive loss of denitrification capacity in this area.

  2. The Influence of Wind and Basin Eddies in Controlling Sea Level Variations in the Coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abualnaja, Yasser O.; Churchill, James H.; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. Roughly half of the coastal sea level variance in central Red Sea is due to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods between 2 days and 1 month. We examined the sea level signal in this band using the data from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters between 20.1 and 23.5 oN. We find that the intermediate-band sea level variations are strongly correlated with the local wind stress measured at a meteorological buoy. The maximum pressure-wind correlation occurs at wind direction closely aligned with the alongshore orientation and at a lag (wind leading) of 45 hr, which is consistent with the expected response of the coastal sea level to local wind forcing. However, less than half of the sea level variance in the intermediate band is related, through linear correlation, with local wind forcing. Our analysis indicates that the residual coastal sea level signal, not associated with wind forcing, is largely driven remotely by the passage of mesoscale eddies, revealed by satellite altimeter-derived sea level anomaly fields of the central Red Sea. These eddy-driven coastal sea level changes occur on time scales of 10-30 days. They span a range of 0.5 m, and thus constitute an import component of the sea level signal in the coastal Red Sea.

  3. Availability of Fe(III) for Anaerobic Respiration across an Age Gradient of Drained Thaw Lake Basins in the Arctic Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipson, D.; Raab, T. K.; Bozzolo, F.; Emerson, C.; Hale, I.; Mauritz, M.; Miller, K.

    2010-12-01

    Our previous work demonstrated that Fe(III) reduction is an important respiratory pathway in a drained thaw lake basin (DTLB) of the Arctic coastal plain in northern Alaska (Lipson et al. 2010). When Fe(III) is available in anoxic environments that otherwise lack electron acceptors, it can act as a terminal electron acceptor, allowing anaerobic respiration to occur in favor of methanogenesis. Therefore, Fe(III) availability could be a key control over CO2 and CH4 emission from such ecosystems. Our previous work focused on a DTLB of medium age (50-300 years old). As DTLB’s age, the organic layer thickens, eventually to the point where the underlying mineral layers are buried completely in permafrost. The mineral layers are likely to be the source for the majority of Fe available for redox transformations by soil microbes. We therefore hypothesized that older basins with permanently frozen mineral layers would have lower Fe(III) availability than younger basins with active layers that include mineral material. To test this hypothesis we studied a gradient that comprised four DTLB, including young (<50 y), medium (50-300 y), old (300-2000 y) and ancient (2000-5500 y). We compared extractable Fe minerals in depth profiles from each DTLB, soluble Fe species in soil pore water, and other properties of soils and soil water. As expected, the youngest DTLB had the thinnest organic layer, a shallow mineral layer, and hence the largest total amount of HCl-extractable Fe(III) in the upper 25 cm. The medium DTLB had the lowest amounts of extractable Fe(III), while the old and ancient basins had intermediate amounts of extractable Fe(III). The amount of total Fe(III) present was related to the amount of mineral material found in the profile; the larger amounts in the old and ancient site relative to the medium site could be explained by cryoturbation, a process which mixes organic and mineral layers in older gelisols. S and Mn followed the same trends, but were orders of

  4. A large scale survey of trace metal levels in coastal waters of the Western Mediterranean basin using caged mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Benedicto, José; Andral, Bruno; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Guitart, Carlos; Deudero, Salud; Cento, Alessandro; Scarpato, Alfonso; Caixach, Josep; Benbrahim, Samir; Chouba, Lassaad; Boulahdid, Mostefa; Galgani, François

    2011-05-01

    A large scale study of trace metal contamination (Hg, Cd, Pb and Ni) by means of caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was undertaken along the coastal waters of the Western Mediterranean Sea within the context of the MYTILOS project. Individual mussels from an homogeneous population (shell size 50 ± 5 mm) obtained from an aquaculture farm were consecutively caged and deployed at 123 sites located in the Alborán, North-Western, South-Western and Tyrrhenian sub-basins for 12 weeks (April-July) in 2004, 2005 and 2006. After cage recoveries, both the metal content in the whole mussel tissue and the allometric parameters were measured. Statistical analysis of the datasets showed significant differences in concentrations between sub-basins for some metals and mussel condition index (CI). Linear regression models coupled to the CI were revisited for the data adjustment of certain trace metals (Hg, Cd and Ni), and four level categories were statistically derived to facilitate interregional comparison. Seawater masses surrounding coastal areas impacted by run-off from land mineralised coasts and industrial activities displayed the highest concentration ranges (Hg: 0.15-0.31 mg kg(-1) dw; Cd: 1.97-2.11; Ni: 2.18-3.20 and Pb: 3.1-3.8), although the levels obtained in most of the sites fitted within moderate or low categories, and they could be considered as baseline concentrations. However, few sites considered little-influenced by human activities, at present, showed high concentrations of Cd, Ni and Pb, which constitute new areas of concern. Overall, the use of active biomonitoring (ABM) approach allowed to investigate trace metal contamination in order to support policy makers in establishing regional strategies (particularly, with regard to the European Marine Strategy Directive). PMID:21384032

  5. Coupled Dynamics of Iron and Phosphorus in Sediments of an Oligotrophic Coastal Basin and the Impact of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    PubMed Central

    Slomp, Caroline P.; Mort, Haydon P.; Jilbert, Tom; Reed, Daniel C.; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Wolthers, Mariette

    2013-01-01

    Studies of phosphorus (P) dynamics in surface sediments of lakes and coastal seas typically emphasize the role of coupled iron (Fe), sulfur (S) and P cycling for sediment P burial and release. Here, we show that anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) also may impact sediment P cycling in such systems. Using porewater and sediment profiles for sites in an oligotrophic coastal basin (Bothnian Sea), we provide evidence for the formation of Fe-bound P (possibly vivianite; Fe3(PO4)2.8H2O) below the zone of AOM with sulfate. Here, dissolved Fe2+ released from oxides is no longer scavenged by sulfide and high concentrations of both dissolved Fe2+ (>1 mM) and PO4 in the porewater allow supersaturation with respect to vivianite to be reached. Besides formation of Fe(II)-P, preservation of Fe-oxide bound P likely also contributes to permanent burial of P in Bothnian Sea sediments. Preliminary budget calculations suggest that the burial of Fe-bound P allows these sediments to act as a major sink for P from the adjacent eutrophic Baltic Proper. PMID:23626815

  6. Analysis of environmental isotopes in groundwater to understand the response of a vulnerable coastal aquifer to pumping: Western Port Basin, south-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currell, Matthew; Cendón, Dioni I.; Cheng, Xiang

    2013-11-01

    The response of a multi-layered coastal aquifer in southeast Australia to decades of groundwater pumping, and the groundwater age, flow paths and salinization processes were examined using isotopic tracers. Groundwater radiocarbon and tritium contents decline with distance and depth away from basin margins; however, in the main zone of pumping, radiocarbon activities are generally homogeneous within a given depth horizon. A lack of tritium and low radiocarbon activities (<25 pMC) in groundwater in and around the pumping areas indicate that seasonal recovery of water levels is related to capture of old water with low radioisotope activities, rather than arrival of recently recharged water. Mechanisms facilitating seasonal recovery include release of water from low-permeability layers and horizontal transfer of water from undeveloped parts of the basin. Overall stability in seasonally recovered water levels and salinities for the past three decades indicate that the system has reached a dynamic equilibrium with respect to water balance and salinity, following a major change in flow paths and solute distributions after initial development. Groundwater δ18O, δ2H and chloride contents indicate mixing between fresh meteoric-derived groundwater and marine water at the coast, with the most saline groundwater approximating an 80:20 mixture of fresh to oceanic water.

  7. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; Taunton and Ten Mile River basins and coastal river basins of Mount Hope Bay, Narragansett Bay, and Rhode Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.; Keezer, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The study area includes streams draining the Taunton River (562 square miles), the Tenmile River (53.1 square miles), and the minor streams flowing into Mount Hope Bay, Narragansett Bay, and Rhode Island Sound in southern Massachusetts, and adjacent areas of Rhode Island. Drainage areas, using the latest available 1:24 ,000 scale topographic maps, were computed for the first time for streams draining more than 3 square miles and were re-computed for data-collection sites. Streamflow characteristics, at 10 gaging stations were calculated using a new data base with daily flow records through 1981. These characteristics include annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 44 partial-record sites and the procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of a basin are summarized. Basin characteristics representing 14 commonly used indices to estimate various streamflows are presented for selected gaged streams. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and managing of water-resources related activities, and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  8. Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: a case study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment. PMID:25112823

  9. Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: a case study in Greece.

    PubMed

    Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment.

  10. The Distribution of The Physico-chemical Parameters Within The Coastal Groundwater of The Mamora Basin (morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouhri, Lahcen

    In the arid countries, aquifers are increasingly exploited due to important water needs in drinky water, agriculture and industry activities. Several cities (Rabat, Kenitra, Casablanca) are alimented by the groundwater of the Mamora basin. It is located between two domains: the Rif Cordillera locate at the north and the Meseta at the south. The Mamora basin is limited to the east by Beht river, to the north by the Rharb basin, to the south by the city of Tiflet and to the west by Atlantic Ocean. The Mamora aquifer is constituted by the Plio-Quaternary sequences resting on the Miocene basement (blues marls). The objective of this study is to identify the different aquifers, determine the distribution of the physico-chemical parameters and the factors controlling this repartition. The collected data allow to determine the global minerelization, which is characterized by a variable electrical conductivity (between 595 and 2930 mS.cm-1), whose spatial distribution underlines a partition of the groundwater in three sectors where the mineralization is strong. The correlation between the chemical parameters and the electrical conductivity is generally good. It reveals the probability of a salt water intrusion.

  11. Application and evaluation of electromagnetic methods for imaging saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers: Seaside Groundwater Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nenna, Vanessa; Herckenrather, Daan; Knight, Rosemary; Odlum, Nick; McPhee, Darcy

    2013-01-01

    Developing effective resource management strategies to limit or prevent saltwater intrusion as a result of increasing demands on coastal groundwater resources requires reliable information about the geologic structure and hydrologic state of an aquifer system. A common strategy for acquiring such information is to drill sentinel wells near the coast to monitor changes in water salinity with time. However, installation and operation of sentinel wells is costly and provides limited spatial coverage. We studied the use of noninvasive electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods as an alternative to installation of monitoring wells for characterizing coastal aquifers. We tested the feasibility of using EM methods at a field site in northern California to identify the potential for and/or presence of hydraulic communication between an unconfined saline aquifer and a confined freshwater aquifer. One-dimensional soundings were acquired using the time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) and audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) methods. We compared inverted resistivity models of TDEM and AMT data obtained from several inversion algorithms. We found that multiple interpretations of inverted models can be supported by the same data set, but that there were consistencies between all data sets and inversion algorithms. Results from all collected data sets suggested that EM methods are capable of reliably identifying a saltwater-saturated zone in the unconfined aquifer. Geophysical data indicated that the impermeable clay between aquifers may be more continuous than is supported by current models.

  12. Arsenic, metals, and nutrients in runoff from two detention basins to Raccoon Creek, New Jersey Coastal Plain, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Szabo, Zoltan; Bonin, Jennifer L.; McGee, Craig K.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic (As) concentrations in the waters of Raccoon Creek in southern New Jersey commonly exceed the State\\'s Surface Water Quality Standard (SWQS) for freshwater of 0.017 microgram per liter (mu or ug/L). In order to assess contributions of As from residential runoff to the creek, samples of runoff water were collected from a detention basin in each of two residential developments underlain by different geologic formations and at the outlets of those basins. Samples of streamwater also were collected from Raccoon Creek adjacent to the developments. The samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of As, selected metals, organic carbon, and nutrients. Soil samples in and downgradient from the basins also were collected and analyzed. Concentrations of As in unfiltered water samples of runoff from the basin underlain by glauconitic clays generally were higher (up to 4.35 mu or ug/L) than in runoff from the basin underlain by predominantly quartz sands and silts (up to 2.68 mu or ug/L). Chromium (Cr) concentrations also were higher in runoff from the basin underlain by glauconitic clays than in runoff from the basin underlain by quartz sand and silt. In addition, Cr concentrations were higher in the glauconitic soils than in the quartz-rich soils. Metals such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and manganese (Mn) in the runoff and in the streamwater were mostly in particulate form. Arsenic, most metals, and phosphorus (P) however, were mostly in dissolved form in runoff but in particulate form in the streamwater. Total organic carbon concentrations in the runoff ranged from about 10 to nearly 16 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Given such levels of organic carbon and strong correlations between concentrations of some metals and organic carbon, it may be that many of the metals were complexed with dissolved organic carbon and transported in that form in the runoff. Although underlying geologic materials and soils appear to be major contributors of As to the

  13. Freshwater Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination as an Indicator of Sustainability and Resilience within the Water-Energy-Food Nexus of the California Coastal Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Geyer, G.; Gurdak, J. J.; Orencio, P. M.; Endo, A.; Taniguchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The California Coastal Basin (CCB) aquifers are representative of many coastal aquifers that are vulnerable to nonpoint-source (NPS) contamination from intense agriculture and increased urbanization combined with historical groundwater use and overdraft conditions. Overdraft has led to seawater intrusion along parts of the central California coast, which negatively affects food production because of high salinity concentrations in groundwater used for irrigation. Recent drought conditions in California have led to an increased need to further understand freshwater sustainability and resilience within the water-energy-food (WEF) nexus. Assessing the vulnerability of NPS contamination in groundwater provides valuable information for optimal resource management and policy. Vulnerability models of nitrate contamination in the CCB were developed as one of many indicators to evaluate risk in terms of susceptibility of the physical environment at local and regional scales. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to predict the probability of NPS nitrate contamination in recently recharged groundwater and to identify significant explanatory variables as controlling factors in the CCB. Different factors were found to be significant in the sub-regions of the CCB and issues of scale are important. For example, land use is scale dependent because of the difference in land management practices between the CCB sub-regions. However, dissolved oxygen concentrations in groundwater, farm fertilizer, and soil thickness are scale invariant because they are significant both regionally and sub-regionally. Thus, the vulnerability models for the CCB show that different explanatory variables are scale invariant. This finding has important implications for accurately quantifying linkages between vulnerability and consequences within the WEF nexus, including inherent tradeoffs in water and food production in California and associated impacts on the local and regional economy

  14. Ground-water flow, geochemistry, and effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport at study sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, Patuxent River basin, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve water quality in Chesapeake Bay, agricultural practices are being promoted that are intended to reduce contaminant transport to the Bay. The effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport were assessed at two 10-acre study sites in the Patuxent River basin, Maryland, during 1986-92. Nitrogen load was larger in ground water than in surface runoff at both sites. At the study site in the Piedmont Province, nitrogen load in ground water decreased from 12 to 6 (lb/acre)/yr (pound per acre per year) as corn under no-till cultivation was replaced by no-till soybeans, continuous alfalfa, and contoured strip crops alternated among corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. At the study site in the Coastal Plain Province, no-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 12.55 (lb/acre)/yr, whereas conventional-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 11.51 (lb/acre)/yr.

  15. Food web of a confined and anthropogenically affected coastal basin (the Mar Piccolo of Taranto) revealed by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analyses.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Fiorentino, Federica; Auriemma, Rocco; Aubry, Fabrizio Bernardi; Camatti, Elisa; Camin, Federica; Nasi, Federica; Pansera, Marco; Ziller, Luca; Grall, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis was used to examine the food web of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, a coastal basin experiencing several anthropogenic impacts. Main food sources (algal detritus, seaweeds, particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment organic matter (SOM)) and benthic and pelagic consumers were collected during two contrasting seasons (June and April), at four sites distributed over two inlets, and characterized by different level of confinements, anthropogenic inputs and the presence of mussels farming. δ(13)C values of organic sources revealed an important contribution of POM to both planktonic and benthic pathways, as well as the influence of terrigenous inputs within both inlets, probably due to high seasonal land runoff. Although δ(13)C of both sources and consumers varied little between sampling sites and dates, δ(15)N spatial variability was higher and clearly reflected the organic enrichment in the second inlet as well as the uptake of anthropogenically derived material by benthic consumers. On the other hand, within the first inlet, the isotopic composition of consumers did not change in response to chemical contamination. However, the impact of polluted sediments near the Navy Arsenal in the first inlet was detectable at the level of the macrobenthic trophic structure, showing high dominance of motile, upper level consumers capable to face transient conditions and the reduction of the more resident deposit feeders. We therefore underline the great potential of matching stable isotope analysis with quantitative studies of community structure to assess the effects of multiple anthropogenic stressors.

  16. Food web of a confined and anthropogenically affected coastal basin (the Mar Piccolo of Taranto) revealed by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analyses.

    PubMed

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Fiorentino, Federica; Auriemma, Rocco; Aubry, Fabrizio Bernardi; Camatti, Elisa; Camin, Federica; Nasi, Federica; Pansera, Marco; Ziller, Luca; Grall, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis was used to examine the food web of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, a coastal basin experiencing several anthropogenic impacts. Main food sources (algal detritus, seaweeds, particulate organic matter (POM) and sediment organic matter (SOM)) and benthic and pelagic consumers were collected during two contrasting seasons (June and April), at four sites distributed over two inlets, and characterized by different level of confinements, anthropogenic inputs and the presence of mussels farming. δ(13)C values of organic sources revealed an important contribution of POM to both planktonic and benthic pathways, as well as the influence of terrigenous inputs within both inlets, probably due to high seasonal land runoff. Although δ(13)C of both sources and consumers varied little between sampling sites and dates, δ(15)N spatial variability was higher and clearly reflected the organic enrichment in the second inlet as well as the uptake of anthropogenically derived material by benthic consumers. On the other hand, within the first inlet, the isotopic composition of consumers did not change in response to chemical contamination. However, the impact of polluted sediments near the Navy Arsenal in the first inlet was detectable at the level of the macrobenthic trophic structure, showing high dominance of motile, upper level consumers capable to face transient conditions and the reduction of the more resident deposit feeders. We therefore underline the great potential of matching stable isotope analysis with quantitative studies of community structure to assess the effects of multiple anthropogenic stressors. PMID:26381790

  17. Hydrologic data of the coastal drainage basins of southeastern Massachusetts, Weir River, Hingham, to Jonas River, Kingston

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1975-01-01

    This report presents, in tabular form, selected records of wells, test wells, borings, and springs; measurements of stream discharge, specific conductance, and temperature at partial-record stations; chemical analyses of ground water and surface water; and a summary of municipal water sources and additional sources available. The data were collected during a study of the drainage basins from 1969 to 1971 in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission. The report is released in order to make available to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies basic hydrologic information that may aid in planning water-resources development. Basic records contained in this report and streamflow data published elsewhere (U.S. Geol. Survey, 1960 et seq.) complement an interpretive report (Williams and Tasker, 1974).

  18. Definition of Intervener Services and Interveners in Educational Settings. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This technical report synthesizes the process and information used by National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB) in the development of a consistently applied definition of intervener services. It addresses challenges and questions, provides comparisons between interveners and paraprofessionals, and offers definitions, roles and concepts used by…

  19. Ground-water quality of coastal aquifer systems in the West Coast Basin, Los Angeles County, California, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Reichard, Eric G.; Crawford, Steven M.; Everett, Rhett; Newhouse, Mark W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2004-01-01

    The extensive use of ground water throughout the Central and West Coast Basins of Los Angeles County during the first half of the 20th century resulted in declining water levels, widespread seawater intrusion, and deterioration of water quality along most reaches of the coast. In order to control seawater intrusion in the West Coast Basin, freshwater is injected into a series of wells at two seawater barrier projects. In order to better understand the processes of seawater intrusion and the efficiency of current barrier operation, data were collected from multiple-well monitoring sites installed by the U.S. Geological Survey, from local observation wells, and from production wells. The occurrence and areal extent of native, saline, and recently injected ground water near the coast were defined through the collection and analysis of inorganic and isotopic water-quality data and geophysical logs. Most water in the West Coast Basin with a dissolved-solids concentration less than 500 milligrams per liter generally has a sodium-bicarbonate to sodium/calcium-bicarbonate character. Water with a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter also contains variable amounts of calcium and sodium, but chloride is predominant. Most of these high-dissolved-solids wells are perforated in the Upper aquifer systems; several have dissolved-chloride values near that of seawater. Elevated chloride concentrations were measured at many wells in both the Upper and Lower aquifer systems inland from the barrier projects. Although water levels have increased in many wells over the last 30 years, some of the wells do not show a corresponding decrease in dissolved chloride. A detailed assessment of saline ground water was provided by examining the ratios of chloride to bromide, iodide, and boron. Seawater-freshwater mixing lines were constructed using all three ratios. These ion ratios also identify water affected by mixing with injected imported water and oil

  20. Water quality of selected rivers in the New England Coastal Basins in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campo, Kimberly W.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Robinson, Keith W.

    2003-01-01

    Nine rivers were monitored routinely for a variety of field conditions, dissolved ions, and nutrients during 1998-2000 as part of the New England Coastal Basins (NECB) study of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The nine rivers, located primarily in the Boston metropolitan area, represented a gradient of increasing urbanization from 1 to 68 percent urban land use. Additional water samples were collected and analyzed for pesticides and volatile organic compounds at two of the nine rivers. Specific conductance data from all rivers were correlated with urban land use; specific conductance values increased during winter at some sites indicating the effect of road de-icing applications. In the more intensely urbanized basins, concentrations of sodium and chloride were high during winter and likely are attributed to road de-icing applications. Concentrations of total nitrogen and the various inorganic and organic nitrogen species were correlated with the percentage of urban land in the drainage basin. Total phosphorus concentrations also were correlated with urbanization in the drainage basin, but only for rivers draining less than 50 square miles. Preliminary U.S. Environmental Protection Agency total nitrogen and total phosphorus criteria for the rivers in the area were frequently exceeded at many of the rivers sampled. At the two sites monitored for pesticides and volatile organic compounds, the Aberjona and Charles Rivers near Boston, greater detection frequencies of pesticides were in samples from the spring and summer when pesticide usage was greatest. At both sites, herbicides were detected more commonly than insecticides. The herbicides prometon and atrazine and the insecticide diazinon were detected in over 50 percent of all samples collected from both rivers. No water samples contained pesticide concentrations exceeding any U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard or criteria for protecting

  1. Organofacies and kerogen tranformation kinetics: Implications for hydrocarbon generation in the Bucomazi Formation, lower Congo coastal basin

    SciTech Connect

    Burwood, R.; Fortems, G.; Mycke, B.; Paulet, J.; De Witte, S.M. )

    1993-09-01

    Deposited under lacustrine conditions during the rift-phase opening of the southern Atlantic, the lower Congo Bucomazi Formation is a highly productive source rock sequence. Reaching considerable thickness (1.8 km), a heterogeneous organofacies reflects both rapid accumulation and changing conditions during Early Cretaceous Barremian sedimentation. As a component of organofacies, low resolution studies showed kerogen kinetic parameters (Ea/A) varied widely according to the gross paleoenvironmental conditions prevailing during deposition. As a a general trend, refractory (type I, higher Ea) kerogens of the [open quotes]basin fill[close quotes] Organic Rich Zone (ORZ) give way to more labile (type II, lower Ea) assemblages in the up-section [open quotes]sheet drape[close quotes] sediments. At higher resolution, a considerable fine structure in Ea fluctuation, presumably reflecting micropaleoenvironment control, becomes evident. Using Ea values assembled for the Bucomazi type section, subsidence modeling for a Ponta Vermelha depocenter section showed a wide disparity in behavior. Being more representative of the sheet-drape episode, type II assemblages matured earlier, at lesser overburdens, and provided the initial hydrocarbon charge. For the ORZ assemblages, the dominant type I component was of retarded maturation, only becoming productive at commensurately greater overburdens. Cumulatively, these events merge to provide an extended period of hydrocarbon generation with implications for production of aggregate oils of varied emplacement histories. Significantly, the net effect of the observed Ea contrast results in the less prolific (but more labile) uppermost Bucomazi assuming a more important charging role than the ORZ of superior source richness. The latter can only realize its full potential under the greatest overburdens attainable in the most subsident depocenters.

  2. Relation of arsenic, iron, and manganese in ground water to aquifer type, bedrock lithogeochemistry, and land use in the New England coastal basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Moore, Richard B.

    1999-01-01

    In a study of arsenic concentrations in public-supply wells in the New England Coastal Basins, concentrations at or above 0.005 mg/L (milligrams per liter) were detected in more samples of water from wells completed in bedrock (25 percent of all samples) than in water from wells completed in stratified drift (7.5 percent of all samples). Iron and manganese were detected (at concentrations of 0.05 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) at approximately the same frequency in water from wells in both types of aquifers. Concentrations of arsenic in public-supply wells drilled in bedrock (in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program New England Coastal Basins study unit) vary with the bedrock lithology. Broad groups of lithogeochemical units generalized from bedrock lithologic units shown on state geologic maps were used in the statistical analyses. Concentrations of arsenic in water from public-supply wells in metasedimentary bedrock units that contain slightly to moderately calcareous and calcsilicate rocks (lithogeochemical group Mc) were significantly higher than the concentrations in five other groups of bedrock units in the study unit. Arsenic was detected, at or above 0.005 mg/L, in water from 44 percent of the wells in the lithogeochemical group M c and in water from less than 28 percent of wells in the five other groups. Additionally, arsenic concentrations in ground water were the lowest in the metasedimentary rocks that are characterized as variably sulfidic (group Ms ). Generally, concentrations of arsenic were low in water from bedrock wells in the felsic igneous rocks (group If ) though locally some bedrock wells in granitic rocks are known to have ground water with high arsenic concentrations, especially in New Hampshire. The concentrations of arsenic in ground water also correlate with land-use data; significantly higher concentrations are found in areas identified as agricultural land use than in undeveloped areas. There is, however, more agricultural land in

  3. Restoring the Mississippi River Basin from the Catchment to the Coast Defines Science and Policy Issues of Ecosystem Services Associated with Alluvial and Coastal Deltaic Floodplains: Soil Conservation, Nutrient Reduction, Carbon Sequestration, and Flood Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twilley, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large river systems are major economic engines that provide national economic wealth in transporting commerce and providing extensive agriculture production, and their coastal deltas are sites of significant ports, energy resources and fisheries. These coupled natural and social systems from the catchment to the coast depend on how national policies manage the river basins that they depend. The fundamental principle of the Mississippi River Basin, as in all basins, is to capitalize on the ability of fertile soil that moves from erosional regions of a large watershed, through downstream regions of the catchment where sediment transport and storage builds extensive floodplains, to the coastal region of deposition where deltas capture sediment and nutrients before exported to the oceans. The fate of soil, and the ability of that soil to do work, supports the goods and services along its path from the catchment to the coast in all large river basin and delta systems. Sediment is the commodity of all large river basin systems that together with the seasonal pulse of floods across the interior of continents provide access to the sea forming the assets that civilization and economic engines have tapped to build national and global wealth. Coastal landscapes represent some of the most altered ecosystems worldwide and often integrate the effects of processes over their entire catchment, requiring systemic solutions to achieve restoration goals from alluvial floodplains upstream to coastal deltaic floodplains downstream. The urgent need for wetland rehabilitation at landscape scales has been initiated through major floodplain reclamation and hydrologic diversions to reconnect the river with wetland processes. But the constraints of sediment delivery and nutrient enrichment represent some critical conflicts in earth surface processes that limit the ability to design 'self sustaining' public work projects; particularly with the challenges of accelerated sea level rise. Only

  4. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Range-Coastal study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range–Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May through November 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Range hydrologic province and includes parts of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The assessments for the SCRC study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2008 by the USGS from 55 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. Water-quality and ancillary data were collected from an additional 15 wells for the understanding assessment. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The first component of this study, the status assessment of groundwater quality, used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Although the status assessment applies to untreated

  5. Eustatic and tectonic control of sedimentation in the Pennsylvanian strata of the Central Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.R. Jr. . Kentucky Geological Survey)

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the Breathitt Group of the Central Appalachian Basin reveals three orders of depositional cycles or trends. The Breathitt coarsening-upward trend (20 million years (my)) represents increasing intensity of the Alleghenian Orogeny. The major transgression (MT) cycle (2.5 my) was controlled by an unknown eustatic or tectonic mechanism. The major coal beds and intervening strata make up the coal-clastic cycle (CC cycle) (=Appalachian cyclothem) which has a 0.4 my periodicity. This periodicity supports eustatic control of sedimentation modulated by an orbital periodicity. Extensive coastal peats deposited at lowstand (CC cycle) were preserved as coals, whereas highstand peats were eroded during the subsequent drop in sea level. Autocyclic processes such as delta switching and avulsion occurred within CC cycles. An Early Pennsylvanian unconformity represents uplift and erosion of mid-Carboniferous foreland basin deposits. Alluvial deposits (Breathitt Group) derived from the highlands were transported to the northwest toward the forebulge. During lowstand, the only outlet available to further sediment transport (Lee sandstones) was toward the southwest (Ouachita Trough), along the Black Warrior-Appalachian foreland basins. The Middle Pennsylvanian marks a period of intermittent overfilling of the foreland basin and cresting of the forebulge. Marine transgressions entered through the foreland basins and across saddles in the forebulge. After the Ouachita Trough was destroyed during the late Middle Pennsylvanian, marine transgressions migrated only across saddles in the forebulge. In the Late Pennsylvanian, marine waters entered the basin only across the diminished forebulge north of the Jessamine Dome.

  6. Ground-water data as of 1967, Central Coastal Subregion, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bader, J.S.

    1969-01-01

    Most usable ground water in the predominantly mountainous Central Coastal Subregion occurs in alluvium-filled valleys and coastal plains and in deeper aquifers of Quaternary and Tertiary age. The intervening mountainous areas are underlain by consolidated sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks, mainly of Mesozoic age. These older rocks contain only small quantities of recoverable ground water and, therefore, are not considered a major source of ground water. In the Central Coastal Subregion, 24 basins have been identified as significant sources of ground water. The total area of the 24 basins is about 3,500 square miles. The water-bearing deposits range in thickness from about 200 to 4,000 feet. Depending on local conditions, recharge infiltrates at rates of less than 1½ feet per day to more than 10 feet per day in the upper part of alluvial fans and stream channels and at the outcrops of the deeper aquifers. The maximum measured depth to water in the water-bearing deposits is 568 ft. In several valleys there are flowing wells. Total storage capacity of 16 of the basins is more than 20,000,000 acre-feet . The usable storage capacity of 18 of the basins is more than 7,600,000 acre-feet; the limiting factors are sea-water intrusion and high pumping lift. Ground-water temperature ranges from about 55° to about 75°F . The dissolved-solids content of the water is generally less than 800 parts per million, but locally is more than 11,000 parts per million. The predominant water type is calcium bicarbonate, but sodium, magnesium, sulfate, and chloride are present locally in significant quantities. Properly constructed wells in some areas can yield 425 gallons per minute.

  7. Tertiary Basins of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Peter F.; Dabrio, Cristino J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Tertiary, Spain suffered compressional collision between France and Africa, and its Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts have been further modified by extensional rifting. Because it includes sectors of two separate foreland basins, and an intervening craton with basins that have been influenced by extensional and strikeSHslip deformation, Spain provides excellent material for the development and testing of theories on the study of sedimentary basin formation and filling. This book is one of the few studies available in English of the important Tertiary geology of Spain.

  8. 47 CFR 1.223 - Petitions to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... leave to intervene not later than 30 days after the publication in the Federal Register of the full text... leave to intervene later than 30 days after the publication in the Federal Register of the full text...

  9. 47 CFR 1.223 - Petitions to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... leave to intervene not later than 30 days after the publication in the Federal Register of the full text... leave to intervene later than 30 days after the publication in the Federal Register of the full text...

  10. 47 CFR 1.223 - Petitions to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... leave to intervene not later than 30 days after the publication in the Federal Register of the full text... leave to intervene later than 30 days after the publication in the Federal Register of the full text...

  11. 34 CFR 300.711 - Early intervening services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... funds), to develop and implement coordinated, early intervening services, which may include interagency... coordinated early intervening services in accordance with section 613(f) of the Act and § 300.226...

  12. 34 CFR 300.711 - Early intervening services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... funds), to develop and implement coordinated, early intervening services, which may include interagency... coordinated early intervening services in accordance with section 613(f) of the Act and § 300.226...

  13. Ravens intervene in others' bonding attempts.

    PubMed

    Massen, Jorg J M; Szipl, Georgine; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-11-17

    The competition for power in a complex social world is hypothesized to be a driving force in the evolution of intelligence. More specifically, power may be obtained not only by brute force but also by social strategies resembling human politics. Most empirical evidence comes from primate studies that report unprovoked aggression by dominants to maintain power by spreading fear and third-party interventions in conflicts. Coalitionary support has also been described in other animals and is often linked to social bonding. As coalitions can lead to a gain in power and fitness benefits, individuals may try to prevent coalitionary support or indirectly prevent others from forming social bonds that might lead to coalitions. Although there is some empirical evidence that coalitionary support can be manipulated, little is known about the indirect strategy. We show here that wild ravens (Corvus corax) regularly intervene in affiliative interactions of others even though such interventions are potentially risky and without immediate benefits. Moreover, the identities of both interveners and intervened pairs are not randomly distributed. Ravens with existing ties initiate most interventions, and ravens that are creating new ties are most likely to be the targets of interventions. These patterns are consistent with the idea that interventions function to prevent others from forming alliances and consequently becoming future competitors. We thus show previously undescribed social maneuvers in the struggle for power. These maneuvers are likely to be of importance in other social species as well.

  14. Relations of surface-water quality to streamflow in the Atlantic Coastal, lower Delaware River, and Delaware Bay basins, New Jersey, water years 1976-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Buxton, Debra E.; Hickman, R. Edward

    1999-01-01

    Relations of water quality to streamflow were determined for 18 water-quality constituents at 28 surface-water-quality stations within the drainage area of the Atlantic Coastal, lower Delaware River, and Delaware Bay Basins for water years 1976-93. Surface-water-quality and streamflow data were evaluated for trends (through time) in constituent concentrations during high and low flows, and relations between constituent concentration and streamflow, and between constituent load and streamflow, were determined. Median concentrations were calculated for the entire period of study (water years 1976-93) and for the last 5 years of the period of study (water years 1989-93) to determine whether any large variation in concentration exists between the two periods. Medians also were used to determine the seasonal Kendall\\'s tau statistic, which was then used to evaluate trends in concentrations during high and low flows. Trends in constituent concentrations during high and low flows were evaluated to determine whether the distribution of the observations changes through time for intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) and constant (point sources and ground water) sources, respectively. High- and low-flow trends in concentrations were determined for some constituents at 26 of the 28 water-quality stations. Seasonal effects on the relations of concentration to streamflow are evident for 10 constituents at 14 or more stations. Dissolved oxygen shows seasonal dependency at all stations. Negative slopes of relations of concentration to streamflow, which indicate a decrease in concentration at high flows, predominate over positive slopes because of dilution of instream concentrations from storm runoff. The slopes of the regression lines of load to streamflow were determined in order to show the relative contributions to the instream load from constant (point sources and ground water) and intermittent sources (storm runoff). Greater slope values indicate larger contributions from

  15. Coastal groundwater salinization: Focus on the vertical variability in a multi-layered aquifer through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Roussillon Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Négrel, Philippe; Aunay, Bertrand; Ladouche, Bernard; Bailly-Comte, Vincent; Guerrot, Catherine; Flehoc, Christine; Pezard, Philippe; Lofi, Johanna; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    The Roussillon sedimentary Basin (South France) is a complex multi-layered aquifer, close to the Mediterranean Sea facing seasonally increases of water abstraction and salinization issues. We report geochemical and isotopic vertical variability in this aquifer using groundwater sampled with a Westbay System® at two coastal monitoring sites: Barcarès and Canet. The Westbay sampling allows pointing out and explaining the variation of water quality along vertical profiles, both in productive layers and in the less permeable ones where most of the chemical processes are susceptible to take place. The aquifer layers are not equally impacted by salinization, with electrical conductivity ranging from 460 to 43,000μS·cm(-1). The δ(2)H-δ(18)O signatures show mixing between seawater and freshwater components with long water residence time as evidenced by the lack of contribution from modern water using (3)H, (14)C and CFCs/SF6. S(SO4) isotopes also evidence seawater contribution but some signatures can be related to oxidation of pyrite and/or organically bounded S. In the upper layers (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios are close to that of seawater and then increase with depth, reflecting water-rock interaction with argillaceous formations while punctual low values reflect interaction with carbonate. Boron isotopes highlight secondary processes such as adsorption/desorption onto clays in addition to mixings. At the Barcarès site (120m deep), the high salinity in some layers appear to be related neither to present day seawater intrusion, nor to Salses-Leucate lagoonwater intrusion. Groundwater chemical composition thus highlights binary mixing between fresh groundwater and inherited salty water together with cation exchange processes, water-rock interactions and, locally, sedimentary organic matter mineralisation probably enhanced by pyrite oxidation. Finally, combining the results of this study and those of Caballero and Ladouche (2015), we discuss the possible future evolution of

  16. Coastal groundwater salinization: Focus on the vertical variability in a multi-layered aquifer through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Roussillon Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Négrel, Philippe; Aunay, Bertrand; Ladouche, Bernard; Bailly-Comte, Vincent; Guerrot, Catherine; Flehoc, Christine; Pezard, Philippe; Lofi, Johanna; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    The Roussillon sedimentary Basin (South France) is a complex multi-layered aquifer, close to the Mediterranean Sea facing seasonally increases of water abstraction and salinization issues. We report geochemical and isotopic vertical variability in this aquifer using groundwater sampled with a Westbay System® at two coastal monitoring sites: Barcarès and Canet. The Westbay sampling allows pointing out and explaining the variation of water quality along vertical profiles, both in productive layers and in the less permeable ones where most of the chemical processes are susceptible to take place. The aquifer layers are not equally impacted by salinization, with electrical conductivity ranging from 460 to 43,000μS·cm(-1). The δ(2)H-δ(18)O signatures show mixing between seawater and freshwater components with long water residence time as evidenced by the lack of contribution from modern water using (3)H, (14)C and CFCs/SF6. S(SO4) isotopes also evidence seawater contribution but some signatures can be related to oxidation of pyrite and/or organically bounded S. In the upper layers (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios are close to that of seawater and then increase with depth, reflecting water-rock interaction with argillaceous formations while punctual low values reflect interaction with carbonate. Boron isotopes highlight secondary processes such as adsorption/desorption onto clays in addition to mixings. At the Barcarès site (120m deep), the high salinity in some layers appear to be related neither to present day seawater intrusion, nor to Salses-Leucate lagoonwater intrusion. Groundwater chemical composition thus highlights binary mixing between fresh groundwater and inherited salty water together with cation exchange processes, water-rock interactions and, locally, sedimentary organic matter mineralisation probably enhanced by pyrite oxidation. Finally, combining the results of this study and those of Caballero and Ladouche (2015), we discuss the possible future evolution of

  17. Scientific management of Mediterranean coastal zone: a hybrid ocean forecasting system for oil spill and search and rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Jordi, A; Ferrer, M I; Vizoso, G; Orfila, A; Basterretxea, G; Casas, B; Alvarez, A; Roig, D; Garau, B; Martínez, M; Fernández, V; Fornés, A; Ruiz, M; Fornós, J J; Balaguer, P; Duarte, C M; Rodríguez, I; Alvarez, E; Onken, R; Orfila, P; Tintoré, J

    2006-01-01

    The oil spill from Prestige tanker showed the importance of scientifically based protocols to minimize the impacts on the environment. In this work, we describe a new forecasting system to predict oil spill trajectories and their potential impacts on the coastal zone. The system is formed of three main interconnected modules that address different capabilities: (1) an operational circulation sub-system that includes nested models at different scales, data collection with near-real time assimilation, new tools for initialization or assimilation based on genetic algorithms and feature-oriented strategic sampling; (2) an oil spill coastal sub-system that allows simulation of the trajectories and fate of spilled oil together with evaluation of coastal zone vulnerability using environmental sensitivity indexes; (3) a risk management sub-system for decision support based on GIS technology. The system is applied to the Mediterranean Sea where surface currents are highly variable in space and time, and interactions between local, sub-basin and basin scale increase the non-linear interactions effects which need to be adequately resolved at each one of the intervening scales. Besides the Mediterranean Sea is a complex reduced scale ocean representing a real scientific and technological challenge for operational oceanography and particularly for oil spill response and search and rescue operations.

  18. Ravens Intervene in Others’ Bonding Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Massen, Jorg J.M.; Szipl, Georgine; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary The competition for power in a complex social world is hypothesized to be a driving force in the evolution of intelligence [1]. More specifically, power may be obtained not only by brute force but also by social strategies resembling human politics [2]. Most empirical evidence comes from primate studies that report unprovoked aggression by dominants to maintain power by spreading fear [3] and third-party interventions in conflicts [4–6]. Coalitionary support has also been described in other animals [7, 8] and is often linked to social bonding [9, 10]. As coalitions can lead to a gain in power [5, 11] and fitness benefits [12], individuals may try to prevent coalitionary support or indirectly prevent others from forming social bonds that might lead to coalitions. Although there is some empirical evidence that coalitionary support can be manipulated [13], little is known about the indirect strategy. We show here that wild ravens (Corvus corax) regularly intervene in affiliative interactions of others even though such interventions are potentially risky and without immediate benefits. Moreover, the identities of both interveners and intervened pairs are not randomly distributed. Ravens with existing ties initiate most interventions, and ravens that are creating new ties are most likely to be the targets of interventions. These patterns are consistent with the idea that interventions function to prevent others from forming alliances and consequently becoming future competitors. We thus show previously undescribed social maneuvers in the struggle for power. These maneuvers are likely to be of importance in other social species as well. PMID:25455033

  19. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Range-Coastal study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range–Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May through November 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Range hydrologic province and includes parts of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The assessments for the SCRC study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2008 by the USGS from 55 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. Water-quality and ancillary data were collected from an additional 15 wells for the understanding assessment. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The first component of this study, the status assessment of groundwater quality, used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Although the status assessment applies to untreated

  20. The Impact of Intervening Tasks on Response Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangals, Jorg; Sommer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Response preparation usually facilitates performance, but it may also interfere with other concurrent tasks. In this article, the authors used event-related brain potentials to study how intervening tasks affect response preparation. In 3 experiments, participants performed intervening tasks during the preparation of a precued hand choice…

  1. 42 CFR 411.26 - Subrogation and right to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subrogation and right to intervene. 411.26 Section 411.26 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Limits Medicare Payment: General Provisions § 411.26 Subrogation and right to intervene. (a)...

  2. 47 CFR 1.223 - Petitions to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petitions to intervene. 1.223 Section 1.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Participants and Issues § 1.223 Petitions to intervene. (a) Where, in cases involving applications for construction permits and station licenses,...

  3. 47 CFR 1.223 - Petitions to intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Petitions to intervene. 1.223 Section 1.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearing Proceedings Participants and Issues § 1.223 Petitions to intervene. (a) Where, in cases involving applications for construction permits and station licenses,...

  4. Baseflow and stormflow metal fluxes from two small agricultural catchments in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.V.; Foster, G.D.; Majedi, B.F.

    2003-01-01

    Annual yields (fluxes per unit area) of Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, As and Se were estimated for two small non-tidal stream catchments on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay, United States - a poorly drained dissected-upland watershed in the Nanticoke River Basin, and a well-drained feeder tributary in the lower reaches of the Chester River Basin. Both watersheds are dominated by agriculture. A hydrograph-separation technique was used to determine the baseflow and stormflow components of metal yields, thus providing important insights into the effects of hydrology and climate on the transport of metals. Concentrations of suspended-sediment were used as a less-costly proxy of metal concentrations which are generally associated with particles. Results were compared to other studies in Chesapeake Bay and to general trends in metal concentrations across the United States. The study documented a larger than background yield of Zn and Co from the upper Nanticoke River Basin and possibly enriched concentrations of As, Cd and Se from both the upper Nanticoke River and the Chesterville Branch (a tributary of the lower Chester River). The annual yield of total Zn from the Nanticoke River Basin in 1998 was 18,000 g/km2/a, and was two to three times higher than yields reported from comparable river basins in the region. Concentrations of Cd also were high in both basins when compared to crustal concentrations and to other national data, but were within reasonable agreement with other Chesapeake Bay studies. Thus, Cd may be enriched locally either in natural materials or from agriculture.

  5. Coastal Prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The coastal prairie, located along the coastal plain of southwestern Louisiana and southcentral Texas, is the southernmost tip of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem so prevalent in the Midwest. The coastal prairie ecosystem once covered as much as 3.8 million ha (9 million acres); today, more than 99% of this land has been lost to agriculture, range improvement, and urbanization. The remainder is highly fragmented and severely threatened by invasions of exotic species and urban sprawl. In Louisiana, the former 1 million ha of coastal prairie have now been reduced to about 100 ha. In Texas, only about 100,000 ha of coastal prairie remain intact.

  6. Across Hydrological Interfaces from Coastal Watersheds to the Open Lake: Finding Landscape Signals in the Great Lakes Coastal Zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, our group has been working to bring coastal ecosystems into integrated basin-lakewide monitoring and assessment strategies for the Great Lakes. We have conducted a wide range of research on coastal tributaries, coastal wetlands, semi-enclosed embayments an...

  7. Three decadal inputs of total organic carbon from four major coastal river basins to the summer hypoxic zone of the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    He, Songjie; Xu, Y Jun

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated long-term (1980-2009) yields and variability of total organic carbon (TOC) from four major coastal rivers in Louisiana entering the Northern Gulf of Mexico where a large-area summer hypoxic zone has been occurring since the middle 1980s. Two of these rivers drain agriculture-intensive (>40%) watersheds, while the other two rivers drain forest-pasture dominated (>50%) watersheds. The study found that these rivers discharged a total of 13.0×10(4)t TOC annually, fluctuating from 5.9×10(4) to 22.8×10(4)t. Seasonally, the rivers showed high TOC yield during the winter and early spring months, corresponding to the seasonal trend of river discharge. While river hydrology controlled TOC yields, land use has played an important role in fluxes, seasonal variations, and characteristics of TOC. The findings fill in a critical information gap of quantity and quality of organic carbon transport from coastal watersheds to one of the world's largest summer hypoxic zones.

  8. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Final Report and Topical Reports 5-8 on Smackover Petroleum system and Underdevelopment Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Puckett, T. Markham; Parcell, William C.; Llinas, Juan Carlos; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Townsend, Roger N.

    2002-03-05

    The Smackover Formation, a major hydrocarbon-producing horizon in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB), conformably overlies the Norphlet Formation and is conformably overlain by the Buckner Anhydrite Member of the Haynesville Formation. The Norphlet-Smackover contact can be either gradational or abrupt. The thickness and lithofacies distribution of the Smackover Formation were controlled by the configuration of incipient paleotopography. The Smackover Formation has been subdivided into three informal members, referred to as the lower, middle and upper members.

  9. 34 CFR 300.226 - Early intervening services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., instruction on the use of adaptive and instructional software; and (2) Providing educational and behavioral... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.226 Early intervening services....

  10. Facies analysis of a Toarcian-Bajocian shallow marine/coastal succession (Bardas Blancas Formation) in northern Neuquén Basin, Mendoza province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Graciela S.; Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.

    2013-04-01

    Strata of the Bardas Blancas Formation (lower Toarcian-lower Bajocian) are exposed in northern Neuquén Basin. Five sections have been studied in this work. Shoreface/delta front to offshore deposits predominate in four of the sections studied exhibiting a high abundance of hummocky cross-stratified, horizontally bedded and massive sandstones, as well as massive and laminated mudstones. Shell beds and trace fossils of the mixed Skolithos-Cruziana ichnofacies appear in sandstone beds, being related with storm event deposition. Gravel deposits are frequent in only one of these sections, with planar cross-stratified, normal graded and massive orthoconglomerates characterizing fan deltas interstratified with shoreface facies. A fifth outcrop exhibiting planar cross-stratified orthoconglomerates, pebbly sandstones with low-angle stratification and laminated mudstones have been interpreted as fluvial channel deposits and overbank facies. The analysis of the vertical distribution of facies and the recognition of stratigraphic surfaces in two sections in Río Potimalal area let recognized four transgressive-regressive sequences. Forced regressive events are recognized in the regressive intervals. Comparison of vertical distribution of facies also shows differences in thickness in the lower interval among the sections studied. This would be related to variations in accommodation space by previous half-graben structures. The succession shows a retrogradational arrangement of facies related with a widespread transgressive period. Lateral variation of facies let recognize the deepening of the basin through the southwest.

  11. Salt marsh dieback in coastal Louisiana: survey of plant and soil conditions in Barataria and Terrebonne basins, June 2000-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen L.; Mendelssohn, Irving A.; Materne, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Sudden and extensive dieback of the perennial marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora Loisel (smooth cordgrass), which dominates regularly flooded salt marshes along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines, occurred in the coastal zone of Louisiana. The objectives of this study were to assess soil and plant conditions in dieback areas of the Barataria-Terrebonne estuarine system as well as vegetative recovery during and after this dieback event. Multiple dieback sites were examined along 100 km of shoreline from the Atchafalaya River to the Mississippi River during the period from June 2000 through September 2001. The species primarily affected was S. alterniflora; sympatric species such as Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn (black mangrove) and Juncus roemerianus Scheele (needlegrass rush) showed no visible signs of stress. The pattern of marsh dieback was distinctive with greatest mortality in the marsh interior, suggesting a correlation with local patterns of soil chemistry and/or hydrology. Little or no expansion of dieback occurred subsequent to the initial event, and areas with 50 percent or less mortality in the fall of 2000 had completely recovered by April 2001. Recovery was slower in interior marshes with 90 percent or greater mortality initially. However, regenerating plants in dieback areas showing some recovery were robust, and reproductive output was high, indicating that the causative agent was no longer present and that post-dieback soil conditions were actually promoting plant growth. Stands of other species within or near some dieback sites remained largely unchanged or expanded (A. germinans) into the dead salt marsh. The cause of the dieback is currently unknown. Biotic agents and excessive soil waterlogging/high sulfide were ruled out as primary causes of this acute event, although they could have contributed to overall plant stress and/or interacted with the primary agent to cause plant mortality. Our observations over the 15 month study

  12. Benthic macrofaunal colonization patterns and preservation of laminated sediments: Observations in an extreme coastal basin environment in the lower Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herguera, J.; Paull, C. K.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.; Lundsten, E. M.; Kundz, L.; Edwards, B. D.; McGann, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    New observations and cores obtained with the ROV Doc Ricketts operated from the RV/Western Flyer provide a glimpse into a macrofauna barren sea-floor where laminated sediments are known to accumulate on the sea-floor of Alfonso Basin. This basin, located north of La Paz Bay, Baja California, is known to be an important repository of laminated sediments due to a combination of the relatively high input of terrigenous sediments brought in by summer rains, a moderate to high export productivity from its surface waters, and the very low oxygen concentrations at depth bathed by tropical subsurface waters. These laminated sediments are unique repositories of paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic information for its very high resolution records of past conditions comparable to ice core, tree ring, coral and cave records although spanning continuously much further back in time. However, the paleoceanographic community rarely has had the opportunity to visualize the seafloor surface where these sediments are accumulating and examine the biological abundance patterns in these extreme environments. Here we will show results from ROV Doc Ricketts quantitative video transects providing benthic faunal abundance patterns on the seafloor in these highly oxygen depleted bottom waters. These observations are further compared with the underlying stratigraphy. A coring system carried on the ROV allowed us to replicate cores and to collect a transect of 5 closely spaced cores to evaluate the horizontal extent of the observed variability down-core. We will also show some preliminary results from x-radiographs showing the nature of the laminations and its sediment composition based on elemental analysis on organic carbon, carbonate and biogenic opal analysis. New XRF results from a box core will be used to calibrate its terrigenous components with the historical rainfall record and evaluate its potential to reconstruct summer precipitation patterns in this region.

  13. Geochemistry and characteristics of nitrogen transport at a confined animal feeding operation in a coastal plain agricultural watershed, and implications for nutrient loading in the Neuse River basin, North Carolina, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.; Tesoriero, A.J.; Mew, H.E.; Farrell, K.M.; Harden, S.L.; Colosimo, A.B.; Kraemer, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Chemical, geologic, hydrologic, and age-dating information collected between 1999 and 2002 were used to examine the transport of contaminants, primarily nitrogen, in ground water and the pathways to surface water in a coastal plain setting in North Carolina. Data were collected from more than 35 wells and 4 surface-water sampling sites located in a 0.59 square-mile basin to examine detailed hydrogeology and geochemical processes affecting nutrient fate and transport. Two additional surface-water sampling sites were located downstream from the primary study site to evaluate basin-scale effects. Chemical and flow data also were collected at an additional 10 sites in the Coastal Plain portion of the Neuse River basin located between Kinston and New Bern, North Carolina, to evaluate loads transported in the Neuse River and primary tributary basins. At the Lizzie Research Station study site in North Carolina, horizontal flow is induced by the presence of a confining unit at shallow depth. Age-dating, chemical, and piezometric data indicate that horizontal flow from the surficial aquifer is the dominant source of ground water to streamflow. Nitrogen applied on cultivated fields at the Lizzie Research Station is substantially reduced as it moves from recharge to discharge areas. Denitrification in deeper parts of the aquifer and in riparian zones is indicated by a characterization of redox conditions in the aquifer and by the presence of excess nitrogen gas. Direct ground-water discharge of nitrate to surface water during base-flow conditions is unlikely to be significant because of strongly reducing conditions that occur in the riparian zones of these streams. Nitrate loads from a drainage tile at the study site may account for much of the nitrate load in the receiving stream, indicating that a major source of nutrients from ground water to this stream is artificial drainage. During base-flow conditions when the streams are not flowing, it is hypothesized that the

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of winter cover crop on nitrate reduction in two-paired sub-basins on the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Yeo, I. Y.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Mccarty, G.; Hively, W. D.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely adopted to improve water quality throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW). Winter cover crops (WCC) use has been highlighted for the reduction of nitrate leaching over the fallow season. Although various WCC practices are currently conducted in local croplands, the water quality improvement benefits of WCC have not been studied thoroughly at the watershed scale. The objective of this study is to assess the long-term impacts of WCC on reducing nitrate loadings using a processed-based watershed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Remote sensing based estimates of WCC biomass will be used to calibrate plant growth processes of SWAT and its nutrient cycling. The study will be undertaken in two-paired agricultural watersheds in the Coastal Plain of CBW. Multiple WCC practice scenarios will be prepared to investigate how nitrate loading varies with crop species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The performance of WCC on two-paired watersheds will be compared in order to understand the effects of different watershed characteristics on nitrate uptake by crops. The results will demonstrate the nitrate reduction efficiency of different WCC practices and identify the targeting area for WCC implementation at the watershed scale. This study will not only integrate remote sensing data into the physically based model but also extend our understandings of WCC functions. This will provide key information for effective conservation decision making. Key words: Water quality, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Winter Cover Crop, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

  15. Evaluation of Methods Used for Estimating Selected Streamflow Statistics, and Flood Frequency and Magnitude, for Small Basins in North Coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, Michael P.; Rizzardo, Jule; Satkowski, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Accurate streamflow statistics are essential to water resource agencies involved in both science and decision-making. When long-term streamflow data are lacking at a site, estimation techniques are often employed to generate streamflow statistics. However, procedures for accurately estimating streamflow statistics often are lacking. When estimation procedures are developed, they often are not evaluated properly before being applied. Use of unevaluated or underevaluated flow-statistic estimation techniques can result in improper water-resources decision-making. The California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) uses two key techniques, a modified rational equation and drainage basin area-ratio transfer, to estimate streamflow statistics at ungaged locations. These techniques have been implemented to varying degrees, but have not been formally evaluated. For estimating peak flows at the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence intervals, the SWRCB uses the U.S. Geological Surveys (USGS) regional peak-flow equations. In this study, done cooperatively by the USGS and SWRCB, the SWRCB estimated several flow statistics at 40 USGS streamflow gaging stations in the north coast region of California. The SWRCB estimates were made without reference to USGS flow data. The USGS used the streamflow data provided by the 40 stations to generate flow statistics that could be compared with SWRCB estimates for accuracy. While some SWRCB estimates compared favorably with USGS statistics, results were subject to varying degrees of error over the region. Flow-based estimation techniques generally performed better than rain-based methods, especially for estimation of December 15 to March 31 mean daily flows. The USGS peak-flow equations also performed well, but tended to underestimate peak flows. The USGS equations performed within reported error bounds, but will require updating in the future as peak-flow data sets grow larger. Little correlation was discovered between

  16. Nutrient and chlorophyll relations in selected streams of the New England Coastal Basins in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, June-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Deacon, J.R.; Liebman, M.L.; Robinson, K.W.

    2003-01-01

    study exceeded the preliminary U.S. Environmental Protection Agency nutrient criteria values for the coastal region of New England. In an effort to establish more appropriate nutrient and chlorophyll criteria for streams in the New England coastal region, relations between total nitrogen and total phosphorus to periphyton chlorophyll a in wadeable streams from this study were quantified to present potential techniques for determining nutrient concentrations. Linear regression was used to estimate the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations that corresponded to various chlorophyll a concentrations. On the basis of this relation, a median concentration for moderately enriched streams of 21 milligrams per square meter (mg/m2) of periphyton chlorophyll a from the literature corresponded to estimated concentrations of 1.3 milligrams per liter (mg/L) for total nitrogen and 0.12 mg/L for total phosphorus. The median concentration for periphyton chlorophyll a from the literature is similar to the 50th-percentile concentration of periphyton chlorophyll a (17 mg/m2) calculated with the data from open-canopy sites in this study. The 25th-percentile concentration for periphyton chlorophyll a of all open-canopy sites (5.2 mg/m2) and the 75th-percentile concentration for periphyton chlorophyll a of open-canopy reference sites (16 mg/m2) also were plotted to provide additional estimates and methods for developing total nitrogen and total phosphorus criteria. The 25th-percentile concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were calculated based on all sites in this study and were used as another potential criteria estimation. A concentration of 0.64 mg/L for total nitrogen and 0.030 mg/L for total phosphorus were calculated. As another possible method to develop threshold concentrations, the 10th-percentile concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were calculated based on all the impaired sites in this study. A concentration threshold of 0

  17. Coastal Fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and Its Basin from the 15 to the Early 20th Centuries

    PubMed Central

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch. PMID:24204735

  18. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland) and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Lajus, Julia; Kraikovski, Alexei; Lajus, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th) centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th) century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th) century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th) century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  19. Coastal Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey dedicated its new Center for Coastal Geology June 12 at the University of South Florida in St. Petersburg. Robert Halley leads the staff of nine USGS scientists studying coastal erosion and pollution and underwater mineral resources in cooperation with the university's Marine Science Department. Current research is on erosion along Lake Michigan and the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The number of USGS scientists at the center should increase to 30 over five years.

  20. Marine vertebrates from the Santonian coastal carbonates of northwestern Germany - a tool for the reconstruction of a Proto- North Sea Basin intertidal dinosaur-exchange bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.; Scheer, Udo

    2015-09-01

    A diverse vertebrate fauna, dominated by shark teeth, is recorded from conglomerates within the limestones of the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) Burgsteinfurt Formation of northwestern Germany. The conglomerate beds comprise carbonatic, glauconitic and phosphate nodules, as well as Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous extraclasts. The Burgsteinfurt Formation conglomerates contain fining-upwards parasequences 2-20 cm in thickness, interpreted as tempestite layers within a unit formed by larger-scale Milankovitch Cycles. The presence of the inoceramid Sphenoceramus patootensis and belemnite Gonioteuthis granulata indicate a late Santonian age for the unit. The studied vertebrate fauna from the Weiner Esch locality consists of 20 selachian species (14 macroselachians and 6 microselachians), a few teleosts, rare marine mosasaur remains, and one tooth from a theropod dinosaur. 95% of the vertebrates in the assemblage are depositionally autochthonous, with the remaining material reworked from older underlying Cenomanian-Coniacian (lower Upper Cretaceous) limestones. On the basis of observed sedimentary structures, the scarcity of deep-sea selachians, and the dominance of the Mitsukurinidae (59% of the preserved shark fauna) in the fossil assemblage, the unit is interpreted as a shallow (0-3 metres deep), subtidal, nearshore environment, or even subaerial carbonate-sand islands, located on the southern margin of a submarine swell. The presence of a Santonian theropod in this deposit, and other dinosaur records in northern Germany, together support the interpretation of a short-lived uplift event with strong upwelling influence for the Northwestphalian-Lippe submarine swell north of the Rhenish Massif in the southern Proto- North Sea Basin. A new migration model for dinosaurs moving along carbonate coasts or intertidal zones of shallow carbonate-sand islands in Central Europe is presented, which may explain the scattered distribution of dinosaur remains across Europe in the

  1. Local and Cumulative Impervious Cover of Massachusetts Stream Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Sara L.; Steeves, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Impervious surfaces such as paved roads, parking lots, and building roofs can affect the natural streamflow patterns and ecosystems of nearby streams. This dataset summarizes the percentage of impervious area for watersheds across Massachusetts by using a newly available statewide 1-m binary raster dataset of impervious surface for 2005. In order to accurately capture the wide spatial variability of impervious surface, it was necessary to delineate a new set of finely discretized basin boundaries for Massachusetts. This new set of basins was delineated at a scale finer than that of the existing 12-digit Hydrologic Unit Code basins (HUC-12s) of the national Watershed Boundary Dataset. The dataset consists of three GIS shapefiles. The Massachusetts nested subbasins and the hydrologic units data layers consist of topographically delineated boundaries and their associated percentage of impervious cover for all of Massachusetts except Cape Cod, the Islands, and the Plymouth-Carver region. The Massachusetts groundwater-contributing areas data layer consists of groundwater contributing-area boundaries for streams and coastal areas of Cape Cod and the Plymouth-Carver region. These boundaries were delineated by using groundwater-flow models previously published by the U.S. Geological Survey. Subbasin and hydrologic unit boundaries were delineated statewide with the exception of Cape Cod and the Plymouth-Carver Region. For the purpose of this study, a subbasin is defined as the entire drainage area upstream of an outlet point. Subbasins draining to multiple outlet points on the same stream are nested. That is, a large downstream subbasin polygon comprises all of the smaller upstream subbasin polygons. A hydrologic unit is the intervening drainage area between a given outlet point and the outlet point of the next upstream unit (Fig. 1). Hydrologic units divide subbasins into discrete, nonoverlapping areas. Each hydrologic unit corresponds to a subbasin delineated from the

  2. 12 CFR 907.11 - Requests to Intervene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests to Intervene. 907.11 Section 907.11 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION AND... information required by § 907.10(b), where applicable, and a concise statement of the position and interest...

  3. 34 CFR 300.226 - Early intervening services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.226 Early intervening services. (a..., instruction on the use of adaptive and instructional software; and (2) Providing educational and behavioral... Act or to delay appropriate evaluation of a child suspected of having a disability. (d)...

  4. 77 FR 13590 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Extension of Time for Filing of Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Motions To Intervene and Protests, Comments, Recommendations, Preliminary Terms and Conditions... date for filing of motions to intervene and protests, comments, recommendations, preliminary terms and... Motions to Intervene and Protests, Ready for Environmental Analysis, and Soliciting...

  5. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  6. Coastal alert

    SciTech Connect

    Holing, D.

    1990-01-01

    This book explains: how offshore drilling affects the environment and the quality of life; how the government auctions off our threatened coast to the oil industry; how offshore oil and gas are developed; how the lease sale process works; how energy alternatives can replace offshore drilling; how citizen action works and how one can become involved; letters and press announcements; important contacts. The author believes that America needs to get off the energy consumption treadmill and onto the track that leads to reliance on renewable resources and energy efficiency. This book is intended to tell citizens how they can help bring about this transition and protect unique coastal resources.

  7. When physicians intervene in their relatives' health care.

    PubMed

    Scarff, Jonathan R; Lippmann, Steven

    2012-06-01

    Physicians often struggle with ethical issues surrounding intervention in their relatives' health care. Many editorials, letters, and surveys have been written on this topic, but there is no systematic review of its prevalence. An Ovid Medline search was conducted for articles in English, written between January 1950 and December 2010, using the key words family member, relatives, treatment, prescribing, physician, and ethics. The search identified 41 articles (editorials, letters, and surveys). Surveys were reviewed to explore demographics of these treating physicians and reasons for and against intervention. Physicians often intervene directly or indirectly in the health care of relatives. The most common reasons were convenience, cost savings, and the perception of having greater knowledge or concern than colleagues. Lost objectivity, fear of misdiagnosis, and inability to provide complete care were the main considerations against intervention. The characteristics of treating doctors were nonspecific. Most surveys recommend against this practice except for emergencies or minor ailments. This review included only a few surveys with small sample size and only assessed scientific literature written in English after 1950. Survey data may be biased by physicians' self-reporting. In conclusion, most doctors occasionally intervene in their relatives' care. The decision to do so is determined by multiple factors. Physicians should treat only short-term or minor illnesses within their scope of practice. Future research should evaluate doctors' attitudes toward their relatives, medical student feelings about treating family, and intervention frequencies of medical and nonmedical professionals. PMID:22262264

  8. Financial Toxicity of Cancer Care: It's Time to Intervene.

    PubMed

    Zafar, S Yousuf

    2016-05-01

    Evidence suggests that a considerably large proportion of cancer patients are affected by treatment-related financial harm. As medical debt grows for some with cancer, the downstream effects can be catastrophic, with a recent study suggesting a link between extreme financial distress and worse mortality. At least three factors might explain the relationship between extreme financial distress and greater risk of mortality: 1) overall poorer well-being, 2) impaired health-related quality of life, and 3) sub-par quality of care. While research has described the financial harm associated with cancer treatment, little has been done to effectively intervene on the problem. Long-term solutions must focus on policy changes to reduce unsustainable drug prices and promote innovative insurance models. In the mean time, patients continue to struggle with high out-of-pocket costs. For more immediate solutions, we should look to the oncologist and patient. Oncologists should focus on the value of care delivered, encourage patient engagement on the topic of costs, and be better educated on financial resources available to patients. For their part, patients need improved cost-related health literacy so they are aware of potential costs and resources, and research should focus on how patients define high-value care. With a growing list of financial side effects induced by cancer treatment, the time has come to intervene on the "financial toxicity" of cancer care.

  9. Characteristics of Southern California coastal aquifer systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, B.D.; Hanson, R.T.; Reichard, E.G.; Johnson, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Most groundwater produced within coastal Southern California occurs within three main types of siliciclastic basins: (1) deep (>600 m), elongate basins of the Transverse Ranges Physiographic Province, where basin axes and related fluvial systems strike parallel to tectonic structure, (2) deep (>6000 m), broad basins of the Los Angeles and Orange County coastal plains in the northern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province, where fluvial systems cut across tectonic structure at high angles, and (3) shallow (75-350 m), relatively narrow fluvial valleys of the generally mountainous southern part of the Peninsular Ranges Physiographic Province in San Diego County. Groundwater pumped for agricultural, industrial, municipal, and private use from coastal aquifers within these basins increased with population growth since the mid-1850s. Despite a significant influx of imported water into the region in recent times, groundwater, although reduced as a component of total consumption, still constitutes a significant component of water supply. Historically, overdraft from the aquifers has caused land surface subsidence, flow between water basins with related migration of groundwater contaminants, as well as seawater intrusion into many shallow coastal aquifers. Although these effects have impacted water quality, most basins, particularly those with deeper aquifer systems, meet or exceed state and national primary and secondary drinking water standards. Municipalities, academicians, and local water and governmental agencies have studied the stratigraphy of these basins intensely since the early 1900s with the goals of understanding and better managing the important groundwater resource. Lack of a coordinated effort, due in part to jurisdictional issues, combined with the application of lithostratigraphic correlation techniques (based primarily on well cuttings coupled with limited borehole geophysics) have produced an often confusing, and occasionally conflicting

  10. Modeled Global vs. Coastal Impacts on 1970 and 2005 Summer Daytime Temperature Trends in Coastal California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, B. L.; Gonzalez, J.; Bornstein, R. D.

    2010-12-01

    California summertime July to August (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures (1970-2005) were analyzed for two California air basins: South Coast (SoCAB) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), which extended into the Central Valley (CV). Daily Tmin and Tmax values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of and Tmax values trends for each air basin. Results showed concurrent cooling in coastal areas and warming at further inland areas. This pattern suggests that the regional-warming of inland areas resulted in increased coastal sea breeze activity. Further investigations by use of mesoscale model simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) meso-met model with a horizontal grid resolution of 4 km on an inner grid over SoCAB were undertaken to investigate the effects of long-term changes due to green house gas (GHG) warming and land-use land-cover changes on coastal flows. Comparison of simulated present (2000-4) and past climate (1970-4) conditions showed significant increases in sea breeze activity and thus coastal cooling, which supports the observational analysis results that coastal cooling is an indirect “reverse reaction” of GHG warming. The magnitude and location of the simulated and observed coastal-cooling region were in good agreement. Urbanization effects on coastal environment were twofold: increased urban mechanical surface roughness retards sea breeze flows, while urban heat islands (UHIs) enhance them. Significant beneficial societal impacts will result from this observed reverse-reaction to global-warming, especially during UHI-growth periods, include decreased maximum: agricultural production, O3 levels, per-capita energy requirements for cooling, and human thermal-stress levels. Similar “reverse-reaction” effects should be found in other mid-latitude western coastal-regions.

  11. Early, middle, and late Miocene basin development, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.

    1988-03-01

    Contrary to earlier models of progressive basin development related to northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction, it can now be documented that the major basins of coastal California developed at about the same time in the late Oligocene to early Miocene. This basin development is marked by rapid deepening of basin floors, subsequent changes in depositional facies from nonmarine and shallow marine to deep marine, and widespread volcanism dated at 23-20 Ma. The coastal basins likely formed by rifting and subsidence linked to the proximity of the Farallon-pacific spreading ridge and the subduction of hot young oceanic crust, but cannot be correlated to any existing models of triple junction migration. Indeed, strike-slip restored positions of the coastal basins at their inception indicate that the basins were spread out over about 800 km of the southern coast of California. The Miocene basins were likely larger than the present coastal basins, although their configurations are obscured by late Neogene faulting and erosion. It is likely, however, that paleohighs separated at least some of the margin into proximal and distal basins. With local exceptions, structuring in the Miocene basins was primarily extensional, with widespread strike-slip and thrust tectonics restricted mainly to latest Miocene and younger events. Plate reconstructions suggest several hundred kilometers of transform motion occurred along the California margin during the Miocene, but there is only limited evidence of this movement in the known history of either the basins or the major faults of California. Sedimentation during the Miocene was controlled by both oceanic conditions (biogenic component) and the relative abundance of clastic input. The clastic input was controlled by a combination of proximal vs distal basinal positions, eustatic sea level changes, and local tectonics.

  12. Multiple Stressors: Lessons from Louisiana Coastal Waters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a Mississippi River-dominated landscape driven by the long-term (millennia) and short-term (decades to hundreds of years) changes in materials flux, nature and human activities. The results are a highly productive coastal landscape and nearshore coastal waters that support rich natural and non-renewable resources. The ecosystem and socio-economic systems are intimately linked. Several factors have led to the demise of many of the healthy features of this coastal system, including long-term changes in the landscape of the Mississippi River basin watershed, alterations to the structure and flow of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, coastal landscape alterations leading to loss of productive marshes and protective barrier islands, increases in nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the coastal ocean and their detrimental effects, and reduction in the sediments delivered by the river. Increases in population and extraction of living resources and oil and gas reserves continue to drive many actions taken in the coastal landscape and waters. As a result, Louisiana is in a state of major disrepair (to be charitable) and needs thoughtful consideration of restoration actions taken in the river basin and within the coastal landscape. The first thought is to cause no further harm. The second is to proceed acknowledging that human and natural forces (particularly climate change, rising sea level and changing global economies) must be taken into account. Thirdly, a broader consideration of the river basin and coastal landscapes, their interconnectivity, and ecosystem health and social welfare must be taken into account.

  13. The Intervenor Effect in Masked Priming: How Does Masked Priming Survive across an Intervening Word?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Kenneth I.

    2009-01-01

    Four masked priming experiments are reported investigating the effect of inserting an unrelated word between the masked prime and the target. When the intervening word is visible, identity priming is reduced to the level of one-letter-different form priming, but form priming is largely unaffected. However, when the intervening word is itself…

  14. 27 CFR 70.27 - Right to intervene; right to institute a proceeding to quash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to intervene; right... ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES....27 Right to intervene; right to institute a proceeding to quash. (a) Notified person. Under 26...

  15. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 3 to Subpart E... - Petition for Leave To Intervene

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Petition for Leave To Intervene No. Exhibit No. 3 to... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies Pt. 502, Subpt. E, Exh. 3 Exhibit No. 3 to... Leave To Intervene ___ v. ___ Docket No. ___. Your petitioner, , respectfully represents that he...

  16. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 3 to Subpart E... - Petition for Leave To Intervene

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petition for Leave To Intervene No. Exhibit No. 3 to... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies Pt. 502, Subpt. E, Exh. 3 Exhibit No. 3 to... Leave To Intervene ___ v. ___ Docket No. ___. Your petitioner, , respectfully represents that he...

  17. The influence of ice on southern Lake Michigan coastal erosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, P.W.; Kempema, E.W.; Reimnitz, E.; McCormick, M.

    1994-01-01

    Coastal ice does not protect the coast but enhances erosion by displacing severe winter wave energy from the beach to the shoreface and by entraining and transporting sediment alongshore and offshore. Three aspects of winter ice in Lake Michigan were studied over a 3-year period and found to have an important influence on coastal sediment dynamics and the coastal sediment budget: (1) the influence of coastal ice on shoreface morphology, (2) the transport of littoral sediments by ice, and (3) the formation of anchor and underwater ice as a frequent and important event entraining and transporting sediment. The nearshore ice complex contains a sediment load (0.2 - 1.2 t/m of coast) that is roughly equivalent to the average amount of sand eroded from the coastal bluffs and to the amount of sand ice- rafted offshore to the deep lake basin each year. -from Authors

  18. Environmental enteropathy and malnutrition: do we know enough to intervene?

    PubMed

    Petri, William A; Naylor, Caitlin; Haque, Rashidul

    2014-10-14

    Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a poorly defined state of intestinal inflammation without overt diarrhea that occurs in individuals exposed over time to poor sanitation and hygiene. It is implicated as a cause of stunting and malnutrition, oral vaccine failure and impaired development in children from low-income countries. The burden on child health of malnutrition alone, which affects 25% of all children and is estimated to result in more than a million deaths annually due to heightened susceptibility to infection, makes urgent a solution to EE. Efforts are thus underway to treat EE even while work continues to identify it through the use of non-invasive biomarkers, and delineate its pathogenesis. A recent study published in BMC Medicine reports the first randomized controlled phase I trial of an anti-inflammatory drug for EE. The aminosalicylate mesalazine was found to be safe in short-term treatment of a small number of severely malnourished children, although efficacy was not established. Whether such treatment trials are premature, or instead a way both to understand and intervene in EE, is the focus of this article. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/133.

  19. Intervening sequences in an Archaea DNA polymerase gene.

    PubMed

    Perler, F B; Comb, D G; Jack, W E; Moran, L S; Qiang, B; Kucera, R B; Benner, J; Slatko, B E; Nwankwo, D O; Hempstead, S K

    1992-06-15

    The DNA polymerase gene from the Archaea Thermococcus litoralis has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. It is split by two intervening sequences (IVSs) that form one continuous open reading frame with the three polymerase exons. To our knowledge, neither IVS is similar to previously described introns. However, the deduced amino acid sequences of both IVSs are similar to open reading frames present in mobile group I introns. The second IVS (IVS2) encodes an endonuclease, I-Tli I, that cleaves at the exon 2-exon 3 junction after IVS2 has been deleted. IVS2 self-splices in E. coli to yield active polymerase, but processing is abolished if the IVS2 reading frame is disrupted. Silent changes in the DNA sequence at the exon 2-IVS2 junction that maintain the original protein sequence do not inhibit splicing. These data suggest that protein rather than mRNA splicing may be responsible for production of the mature polymerase. PMID:1608969

  20. A Review of Selected Ecosystem Services Supplied by Coastal Wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant ecosystem services derive from the coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes even though they have undergone substantial declines since European settlement. Basin-wide, two-thirds of the original coastal wetlands have been lost, and the remaining 126,000 ha of US...

  1. 77 FR 13591 - Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Extension of Time for Filing of Motions To Intervene and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Motions To Intervene and Protests, Comments, Recommendations, Preliminary Terms and Conditions... date for filing of motions to intervene and protests, comments, recommendations, preliminary terms and... has been extended to June 18, 2012. \\1\\ Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

  2. The Intervening Sequence of Coxiella burnetii: Characterization and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Indu; Walter, Mathias C.; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Raghavan, Rahul; Hicks, Linda D.; Minnick, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The intervening sequence (IVS) of Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is a 428-nt selfish genetic element located in helix 45 of the precursor 23S rRNA. The IVS element, in turn, contains an ORF that encodes a hypothetical ribosomal S23 protein (S23p). Although S23p can be synthesized in vitro in the presence of an engineered E. coli promoter and ribosome binding site, results suggest that the protein is not synthesized in vivo. In spite of a high degree of IVS conservation among different strains of C. burnetii, the region immediately upstream of the S23p start codon is prone to change, and the S23p-encoding ORF is evidently undergoing reductive evolution. We determined that IVS excision from 23S rRNA was mediated by RNase III, and IVS RNA was rapidly degraded, thereafter. Levels of the resulting 23S rRNA fragments that flank the IVS, F1 (~1.2 kb) and F2 (~1.7 kb), were quantified over C. burnetii's logarithmic growth phase (1–5 d). Results showed that 23S F1 quantities were consistently higher than those of F2 and 16S rRNA. The disparity between levels of the two 23S rRNA fragments following excision of IVS is an interesting phenomenon of unknown significance. Based upon phylogenetic analyses, IVS was acquired through horizontal transfer after C. burnetii's divergence from an ancestral bacterium and has been subsequently maintained by vertical transfer. The widespread occurrence, maintenance and conservation of the IVS in C. burnetii imply that it plays an adaptive role or has a neutral effect on fitness.

  3. The Intervening Sequence of Coxiella burnetii: Characterization and Evolution.

    PubMed

    Warrier, Indu; Walter, Mathias C; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Raghavan, Rahul; Hicks, Linda D; Minnick, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    The intervening sequence (IVS) of Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is a 428-nt selfish genetic element located in helix 45 of the precursor 23S rRNA. The IVS element, in turn, contains an ORF that encodes a hypothetical ribosomal S23 protein (S23p). Although S23p can be synthesized in vitro in the presence of an engineered E. coli promoter and ribosome binding site, results suggest that the protein is not synthesized in vivo. In spite of a high degree of IVS conservation among different strains of C. burnetii, the region immediately upstream of the S23p start codon is prone to change, and the S23p-encoding ORF is evidently undergoing reductive evolution. We determined that IVS excision from 23S rRNA was mediated by RNase III, and IVS RNA was rapidly degraded, thereafter. Levels of the resulting 23S rRNA fragments that flank the IVS, F1 (~1.2 kb) and F2 (~1.7 kb), were quantified over C. burnetii's logarithmic growth phase (1-5 d). Results showed that 23S F1 quantities were consistently higher than those of F2 and 16S rRNA. The disparity between levels of the two 23S rRNA fragments following excision of IVS is an interesting phenomenon of unknown significance. Based upon phylogenetic analyses, IVS was acquired through horizontal transfer after C. burnetii's divergence from an ancestral bacterium and has been subsequently maintained by vertical transfer. The widespread occurrence, maintenance and conservation of the IVS in C. burnetii imply that it plays an adaptive role or has a neutral effect on fitness. PMID:27595093

  4. Childhood adversity and adult health: Evaluating intervening mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Turner, R Jay; Thomas, Courtney S; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-05-01

    Substantial evidence has accumulated supporting a causal link between childhood adversity and risk for poor health years and even decades later. One interpretation of this evidence is that this linkage arises largely or exclusively from a process of biological embedding that is not modifiable by subsequent social context or experience - implying childhood as perhaps the only point at which intervention efforts are likely to be effective. This paper considers the extent to which this long-term association arises from intervening differences in social context and/or environmental experiences - a finding that would suggest that post-childhood prevention efforts may also be effective. Based on the argument that the selected research definition of adult health status may have implications for the early adversity-adult health linkage, we use a representative community sample of black and white adults (N = 1252) to evaluate this relationship across three health indices: doctor diagnosed illnesses, self-rated health, and allostatic load. Results generally indicate that observed relationships between childhood adversity and dimensions of adult health status were totally or almost totally accounted for by variations in adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult stress exposure. One exception is the childhood SEP-allostatic load association, for which a statistically significant relationship remained in the context of adult stress and SEP. This lone finding supports a conclusion that the impact of childhood adversity is not always redeemable by subsequent experience. However, in general, analyses suggest the likely utility of interventions beyond childhood aimed at reducing exposure to social stress and improving social and economic standing. Whatever the effects on adult health that derive from biological embedding, they appear to be primarily indirect effects through adult social context and exposure. PMID:27030896

  5. The Intervening Sequence of Coxiella burnetii: Characterization and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Indu; Walter, Mathias C.; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Raghavan, Rahul; Hicks, Linda D.; Minnick, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The intervening sequence (IVS) of Coxiella burnetii, the agent of Q fever, is a 428-nt selfish genetic element located in helix 45 of the precursor 23S rRNA. The IVS element, in turn, contains an ORF that encodes a hypothetical ribosomal S23 protein (S23p). Although S23p can be synthesized in vitro in the presence of an engineered E. coli promoter and ribosome binding site, results suggest that the protein is not synthesized in vivo. In spite of a high degree of IVS conservation among different strains of C. burnetii, the region immediately upstream of the S23p start codon is prone to change, and the S23p-encoding ORF is evidently undergoing reductive evolution. We determined that IVS excision from 23S rRNA was mediated by RNase III, and IVS RNA was rapidly degraded, thereafter. Levels of the resulting 23S rRNA fragments that flank the IVS, F1 (~1.2 kb) and F2 (~1.7 kb), were quantified over C. burnetii's logarithmic growth phase (1–5 d). Results showed that 23S F1 quantities were consistently higher than those of F2 and 16S rRNA. The disparity between levels of the two 23S rRNA fragments following excision of IVS is an interesting phenomenon of unknown significance. Based upon phylogenetic analyses, IVS was acquired through horizontal transfer after C. burnetii's divergence from an ancestral bacterium and has been subsequently maintained by vertical transfer. The widespread occurrence, maintenance and conservation of the IVS in C. burnetii imply that it plays an adaptive role or has a neutral effect on fitness. PMID:27595093

  6. 78 FR 32384 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Notice Denying Motion to Intervene and Rejecting Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission South Carolina Electric and Gas Company; Notice Denying Motion to Intervene..., Richland, and Saluda Counties, South Carolina.\\1\\ On May 7, 2013, Pat Kelleher filed a motion to intervene... relevant part that a motion to intervene must show in sufficient detail that the movant's participation...

  7. Psychological modulation in patients surgically intervened for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Lara, F J Pérez; Carranque, G; Oehling, H; Hernández, J M; Oliva, H

    2014-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been related with certain psychological dimensions. The influence of mood, emotional intelligence, and perceived quality of life on clinical symptoms and outcome of antireflux surgery was evaluated in GERD patients with and without hiatal hernia. The study included 61 patients who were diagnosed with GERD between 2003 and 2008: 16 of them without hiatal hernia (group A) and 45 of them with hiatal hernia (group B). All of these patients had undergone laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Patients were clinically examined and evaluated with the following instruments: Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey, Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale, and Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS)-24. Proportions were compared by using the chi-squared test; averages were compared by using the Student's t-test (with Bonferroni's correction). In general, our patients intervened for GERD showed results lower than normal or close to the lower limit of normal in the administered tests. Patients in the group without hernia were younger (P < 0.001) and with lower American Society of Anaesthesiologists risk. They showed higher scores in the SF-36 dimensions: Physical Functioning, Physical Role and Emotional Role, and lower scores in the Social Role (P < 0.001). They showed lower scores in the Emotional dimension of Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (P = 0.0068) and worse results in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression subscales of Anxiety (P < 0.001) and Depression (not significant). Men in the group without hernia showed higher scores than men in the group with hernia in the TMMS subscales corresponding to Emotional Clarity and Emotional Repair (P < 0.001). Women in the group with hernia showed higher scores than women in the group without hernia regarding Emotional Clarity (P = 0.0012). GERD patients showed poor results in all the tests, and patients without hiatal hernia compared with patients with hernia showed

  8. 75 FR 34725 - Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications; Mahoning Hydropower, LLC June 10, 2010. On May 25, 2010, Mahoning Hydropower, LLC filed an application, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act,...

  9. Intervening sequence of DNA identified in the structural portion of a mouse beta-globin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Tilghman, S M; Tiemeier, D C; Seidman, J G; Peterlin, B M; Sullivan, M; Maizel, J V; Leder, P

    1978-01-01

    The unusual electron microscopic appearance of a hybrid formed between 9S mouse beta-globin mRNA and its corresponding cloned gene segment is caused by at least one, and possibly two, intervening sequences of DNA that interrupt the mouse beta-globin gene. Such an interpretation is consistent with a paradoxical restriction site pattern previously noted in this gene and with the nucleotide sequence of that portion of the gene that spans both structural and intervening sequences. The large intervening sequence, approximately 550 base pairs in length, occurs in the structural globin sequence and immediately follows the beta-globin codon corresponding to amino acid 104. A smaller, putative intervening sequence is located close to the 5' end of the beta-globin-coding sequence but may reside beyond its initiation codon. The beta-globin gene thus appears to be encoded in two, and possibly three, discontinuous segments. Images PMID:273235

  10. Conceptual hydrogeological model of a coastal hydrosystem in the mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitropapas, Anastasios; Pouliaris, Christos; Apostolopoulos, Georgios; Vasileiou, Eleni; Schüth, Christoph; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater resources management in the Mediterranean basin is an issue of paramount importance that becomes a necessity in the case of the coastal hydrosystems. Coastal aquifers are considered very sensitive ecosystems that are subject to several stresses being of natural or anthropogenic origin. The coastal hydrosystem of Lavrion can be used as a reference site that incorporates multi-disciplinary environmental problems, which are typical for Circum-Mediterranean. This study presents the synthesis of a wide range of field activities within the area of Lavrion including the monitoring of water resources within all hydrologic zones (surface, unsaturated and saturated) and geophysical (invasive and non-invasive) surveys. Different monitoring approaches -targeting to the collection of hydrochemical, geophysical, geological, hydrological data- were applied, that proved to provide a sound characterization of the groundwater flows within the coastal karstic system in connection to the surrounding water bodies of the study area. The above are used as input parameters process during the development of the conceptual model of the coastal hydrosystem of Lavrion. Key-words: Coastal hydrosystems, Mediterranean basin, seawater intrusion

  11. Keuper stratigraphic cycles in the Paris basin and comparison with cycles in other peritethyan basins (German basin and Bresse-Jura basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourquin, Sylvie; Guillocheau, François

    1996-09-01

    High-resolution sequence stratigraphy of the Keuper, Paris Basin, is used to establish correlations between the basin-centre evaporite series and the basin-margin clastics series. The high-resolution correlations show stratigraphic cycle geometries. The Keuper consists of five minor base-level cycles whth occur in the upper portion of the Scythian-Carnian major base-level cycle and the lower part of the Carnian-Liassic major base-level cycle. The maximum relative rate of subsidence for the base-level fall phase of the Scythian-Carnian major cycle occurs in the eastern part of the Paris Basin. During the base-level rise phase of the Carnian-Liassic major cycle, the area of highest rate of subsidence shifted westwards and northwards. This shift records the first occurrence of an independent Paris Basin which was no longer merely the western margin of the German Basin. Two phases of tectonic movement influenced evaporite sedimentation and sequence geometries by creating areas of subsidence where halite could accumulate. The second, within the 'Marnes irisées supérieures', induced a general westward and northward tilt of the basin. Concurrent migration of depocentres to the west and north produced an intra-'Marnes irisées supérieures' truncation. Comparison of the stratigraphic records of the Paris Basin and of other Triassic Peritethyan basins (German Basin, Bresse-Jura Basin and South-East Basin) reveals numerous similarities. The coastal onlap curve of the German Keuper (Aigner and Bachmann, 1992) exhibits many similarities with the sequence evolution of the Paris Basin. But the Triassic succession is more complete in the German Basin and more cycles are observed. The major difference between these two basins during the Keuper is that the 'Marnes irisées inférieures' minor base-level cycle does not occur in the German Basin. In the Bresse-Jura Basin, the major difference concerns the Lettenkohle. One minor base-level cycle is recorded in the Paris Basin while

  12. Effect of a stimulus intervening between CS and US in autoshaping.

    PubMed

    Rescorla, R A

    1982-04-01

    Five experiments explored the effect of placing a stimulus between the termination of a key light CS and the onset of a food US in an autoshaping preparation with pigeon subjects. Whether that stimulus was itself a key light evoking pecking or an auditory event failing to evoke pecking, it facilitated performance to the key light CS. The use of a within-subjects design made differential conditioning of background cues and stimulus generalization unlikely accounts. Experiment 3 found that extinction of the intervening stimulus did not remove the facilitative effect. Experiment 4 found that pairing the CS with food and the intervening stimulus did not produce the effect unless both occurred on the same trial. Together, these experiments rule out an account in terms of second-order conditioning of the CS by the intervening stimulus. Experiment 5 used an intervening stimulus in a second-order conditioning design to demonstrate that the stimulus acted to improve the association between the CS and the reinforcer. That experiment found the intervening stimulus to make responding to the CS more vulnerable to subsequent extinction of its reinforcer. Together, these experiments document a kind of catalytic effect of the intervening stimulus on the CS-reinforcer association.

  13. Coastal connectivity in the Gulf of Maine in spring and summer of 2004-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yizhen; He, Ruoying; Manning, James P.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal ocean connectivity associated with the Gulf of Maine (GOM) surface flows in spring and summer seasons of 2004-2009 is studied using surface numerical particle tracking based on realistic regional ocean circulation hindcast solutions. Seven initial particle release sites are selected in key gulf regions often affected by harmful algal (Alexandrium fundyense) blooms, including Massachusetts Bay, the western GOM coastal area, the eastern GOM coastal area, the Bay of Fundy, Wilkinson Basin, the Jordan Basin, and a region seaward of Penobscot Bay. Surface particles are released every 5 days between February 1st and August 1st in each year, and the variability in their trajectories on interannual time scales is quantified by Lagrangian probability density function calculations. Coastal connectivity is further quantified using a connectivity matrix, identifying source and destination functions. Our results suggest that the interannual variability in coastal connectivity has strong impact on the spatial distribution of A. fundyense blooms in each year.

  14. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT III

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waers in the US include estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, ,mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The n...

  15. Paleothermometry of the Sydney Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, M.F.; Schmidt, P.W.

    1982-07-10

    Evidence from overprinting of magnetizations of Late Permian and Mesozoic rocks and from the rank of Permian coals and Mesozoic phytoclasts (coal particles) suggests that surface rocks in the Sydney Basin, eastern Australia, have been raised to temperatures of the order of 200 /sup 0/C or higher. As vitrinite reflectance, an index of coal rank or coalification, is postulated to vary predictably with temperature and time, estimates of the paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin based on observed vitrinite reflectance measurements can be made in conjunction with reasonable assumptions about the tectonic and thermal histories of the basin. These estimates give maximum paleotemperatures of present day surface rocks in the range 60--249 /sup 0/C, depending on factors such as location in the basin, the thickness of the sediment eroded, and the maximum paleogeothermal gradient. Higher coal rank and, consequently, larger eroded thicknesses and paleogeothermal gradients occur along the eastern edge of the basin and may be related to seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea on the basin's eastern margin. A theory of thermal activation of magnetization entailing the dependence of magnetic viscosity on the size distribution of the magnetic grains is used to obtain an independent estimate of the maximum paleotemperatures in the Sydney Basin. This estimate places the maximum paleotemperature in the range 250--300 /sup 0/C along the coastal region. Both coalification and thermal activation of magnetization models provide strong evidence of elevated paleotemperatures, which in places exceed 200 /sup 0/C, and the loss of sediment thicknesses in excess of 1 km due to erosion.

  16. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA.

  17. NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on a state, regional and national basis. Based on NCA monitoring from 1999-2001, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 2500 locati...

  18. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  19. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  20. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition report compiles several available data sets from different agencies and areas of the country and summarizes them to present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters. Although data sets presented in this report do not cover all coa...

  1. Space Station Views of African Sedimentary Basins-Analogs for Subsurface Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    Views of African sedimentary basins from the International Space Station (ISS) is presented. The images from ISS include: 1) Inland deltas; 2) Prediction; 3) Significance; 4) Exploration applications; and 5) Coastal megafans

  2. Frontier sedimentary basins of New Zealand region

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum-prospective basins of New Zealand began to form by mid-Cretaceous rifting of crustal elements previously assembled at the Gondwana continental margin. During the latest Cretaceous-early Cenozoic New Zealand separated from Australia and Antarctica by sea-floor spreading. An overall transgression in widely recorded in this post-rift phase, with decreasing clastic sediment supply as land area and relief were reduced. Mid-Cenozoic initiation of the modern plate boundary has resulted in uplift of mountain ranges, subsidence and filling of troughs, progradation of the shelf, and common reactivation or eversion of older structures. Petroleum potential of less explored basins can be compared to the productive Taranki basin. Source rocks are coal-rich deposits of the rift phase, also developed in Great South, Canterbury/Chatham, Western Southland, West Coast, and Northland basins. A different source contributes to oil and gas seeps on the East Coast, a continental margin during Late Cretaceous. The main reservoirs of Taranaki are early Cenozoic coastal and fluvial sands, also present in Great South, Canterbury, and West Coast and possibly other basins. Other Taranaki reservoirs include mid-Cenozoic limestone and Miocene turbidites, which are widespread in most other basins. Pliocene limestones have excellent reservoir potential on the East Coast. Late Cenozoic tectonics, essential to trap development and significant for maturation in Taranaki, have created similar structures in basins near the plate boundary but are less significant in the development of Great South, eastern Canterbury/Chatham, and Northland basins.

  3. Coastal land loss in Texas - An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.A.; Paine, J.G. )

    1990-09-01

    Each year in Texas more than 1,500 acres of prime real estate and productive wetlands are destroyed along the Gulf shoreline and near the bay margins primarily as a result of coastal erosion and submergence. Wetland losses constitute about half of the total land losses. Historical analyses of maps and aerial photographs since the mid-1800s indicate that land losses are accelerating and that human activities are either directly or indirectly responsible for the increased losses, Natural decreases in sediment supply since the modern sea-level stillstand have been exacerbated by (1) river basin projects that reduce the volume of sediment transported to the coast and (2) coastal structures and navigation projects that prevent redistribution of littoral sediments along the coast. Erosion is primarily caused by high wave and current energy combined with an inadequate supply of sediment. Erosion is responsible for higher local rates of land loss than submergence, and the erosion losses are more perceptible, especially after major storms when the greatest losses occur. The principal components of submergence are subsidence and the eustatic rise in sea level. Together these components are recorded by tide gauges as a relative rise in sea level. Submergence converts uplands to wetlands and wetlands to open water. These surficial changes occur mostly on the coastal plain but are also observed on barrier islands and bayhead deltas and within entrenched valleys. Although compactional subsidence is a natural process operating in the Gulf Coast basin, most of the accelerated land-surface subsidence in Texas is attributed to extraction of shallow ground water or production of hydrocarbons at moderate depths. Faults activated by the withdrawal of these fluids concentrate the subsidence near the fault planes. Coastal land losses caused by dredging are less than those caused by erosion and submergence, but they constitute a growing percentage of total land losses.

  4. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  5. Buried Mesozoic rift basins of Moroccan Atlantic continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, N.; Jabour, H.; El Mostaine, M.

    1995-08-01

    The Atlantic continental margin is the largest frontier area for oil and gas exploration in Morocco. Most of the activity has been concentrated where Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks have been the drilling objectives, with only one significant but non commercial oil discovery. Recent exploration activities have focused on early Mesozoic Rift basins buried beneath the post-rift sediments of the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Many of these basins are of interest because they contain fine-grained lacustrine rocks that have sufficient organic richness to be classified as efficient oil prone source rock. Location of inferred rift basins beneath the Atlantic coastal plain were determined by analysis of drilled-hole data in combination with gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic maps. These rift basins are characterized by several half graben filled by synrift sediments of Triassic age probably deposited in lacustrine environment. Coeval rift basins are known to be present in the U.S. Atlantic continental margin. Basin modeling suggested that many of the less deeply bored rift basins beneath the coastal plain are still within the oil window and present the most attractive exploration targets in the area.

  6. Coastal fog, climate change, and the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torregrosa, Alicia; O'Brien, Travis A.; Faloona, Ian C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal marine fog, a characteristic feature of climates generated at the eastern boundaries of ocean basins worldwide, evokes different feelings in those who experience it (see Figure 1). Authors and poets use fog to represent mystery, bleakness, and confusion. Film directors seek out fog to shroud scenes in eerie gloominess. Tourists visiting beaches bemoan the cool and damp conditions that create a striking contrast to the sunny warm conditions typically found less than a few kilometers inland. Airline passengers delayed by fog impatiently wait for the skies to clear. Residents get used to the Sun “rising” in midday after fog dissipates.

  7. Coastal Fog, Climate Change, and the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, Alicia; O'Brien, Travis A.; Faloona, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal marine fog, a characteristic feature of climates generated at the eastern boundaries of ocean basins worldwide, evokes different feelings in those who experience it (see Figure 1). Authors and poets use fog to represent mystery, bleakness, and confusion. Film directors seek out fog to shroud scenes in eerie gloominess. Tourists visiting beaches bemoan the cool and damp conditions that create a striking contrast to the sunny warm conditions typically found less than a few kilometers inland. Airline passengers delayed by fog impatiently wait for the skies to clear. Residents get used to the Sun "rising" in midday after fog dissipates.

  8. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  9. Intrashelf basins: A geologic model for source-bed and reservoir facies deposition within carbonate shelves

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, G. Jr. )

    1993-09-01

    Intrashelf basins (moats, inshore basins, shelf basins, differentiated shelf, and deep-water lagoons of others) are depressions of varying sizes and shapes that occur within tectonically passive and regionally extensive carbonate shelves. Intrashelf basins grade laterally and downdip (seaward) into shallow-water carbonates of the regional shelf, are separated from the open marine basin by the shelf margin, and are largely filled by fine-grained subtidal sediments having attributes of shallow- and deeper water sedimentation. These basins are commonly fringed or overlain by carbonate sands, reefs, or buildups. These facies may mimic those that occur along the regional shelf margin, and they can have trends that are at a high angle to that of the regional shelf. Intrashelf basins are not intracratonic basins. The history of most intrashelf basins is a few million to a few tens of million of years. Examples of intrashelf basins are known throughout the Phanerozoic; the southern portion of the Holocene Belize shelf is a modern example of an intrashelf basin. Two types of intrashelf basins are recognized. Coastal basins pass updip into coastal clastics of the craton with the basin primarily filled by fine clastics. Shelf basins occur on the outer part of the shelf, are surrounded by shallow-water carbonate facies, and are filled by peloidal lime mud, pelagics, and argillaceous carbonates. Intrashelf basins are commonly the site of organic-rich, source-bed deposition, resulting in the close proximity of source beds and reservoir facies that may fringe or overlie the basin. Examples of hydrocarbon-charged reservoirs that were sourced by an intrashelf basin include the Miocene Bombay High field, offshore India; the giant Jurassic (Arab-D) and Cretaceous (Shuaiba) reservoirs of the Arabian Shelf; the Lower Cretaceous Sunniland trend, South Florida basin; and the Permian-Pennsylvanian reservoirs surrounding the Tatum basin in southeastern New Mexico.

  10. Characteristics of adolescents who intervene to stop the risky and dangerous behavior of their friends.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents value protecting friends from harm and report that they do intervene as bystanders in friends' risky and dangerous behavior. Moreover intervention can be effective in reducing such behaviors. The Protection-Risk Framework was used to explain bystander intervention. There were 962 students from 13 Australian high schools (mean age at time 1=13.44 years) surveyed in their 9th grade and again 1-year later when students were in 10th grade. We found that protective factors of self-efficacy, support, prosocial models, social control, and ease of opportunity related to greater intervening behavior after 12-months. Among those who reported that they had intervened in a 3-month period, a cumulative measure of protective factors was associated with their reports of intervening. Risk factors were non-significant predictors after accounting for earlier, time 1, bystander intervening behavior and demographic factors. The findings highlight potential mechanisms to promote adolescents' looking out for their friends and provide an assessment over time of bystander behavior. The theory-guided inquiry into such behavior provides a foundation on which to better develop our understanding of benefits to adolescent friendship in the injury field. PMID:26799326

  11. EVIDENCE OF CONTRIBUTION OF INTERVENING CLOUDS TO GAMMA-RAY BURST'S X-RAY COLUMN DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.

    2013-10-20

    The origin of excess of X-ray column density with respect to optical extinction in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still a puzzle. A proposed explanation of the excess is the photoelectric absorption due to the intervening clouds along a GRB's line of sight. Here, we test this scenario by using the intervening Mg II absorption as a tracer of the neutral hydrogen column density of the intervening clouds. We identify a connection between the large X-ray column density (and large column density ratio of log (N{sub H,X}/N{sub H{sub I}})∼0.5) and large neutral hydrogen column density probed by the Mg II doublet ratio (DR). In addition, GRBs with large X-ray column density (and large ratio of log (N{sub H,X}/N{sub H{sub I}})>0) tend to have multiple saturated intervening absorbers with DR < 1.2. These results therefore indicate an additional contribution from the intervening system to the observed X-ray column density in some GRBs, although the contribution from the host galaxy alone cannot be excluded based on this study.

  12. Efficiency Improvement of Dentistry Clinics: Introducing an Intervening Package for Dentistry Clinics, Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alaghemandan, Hamed; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.; Khorasani, Elahe; Rezaee, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Isfahan, the second metropolitan in Iran, there are 1448 dentistry treatment centers that most of them are inefficient. Today, efficiency is the most important issue in health care centers as well as dentistry clinics. The goal of this research is to investigate the affordability and efficiency of dentistry clinics in Isfahan province, Iran. Methods: The current work is a quantitative research, designed in three methodological steps, including two surveys and experimental studies, for understanding current deficiencies of Iranian dentistry clinics. First, we ran a survey. Then, we analyzed the results of the questionnaires which guided us to find a particular intervening package to improve the efficiency of the clinics. At the second step, we chose an inefficient clinic named Mohtasham (Iran, Isfahan) to evaluate our intervening package. Results: Based on what the interviewees answered, we mention the most important issues to be considered for improving the efficiency of dental clinics in Isfahan. By considering mentioned problematic issues, an intervening package was designed. This intervening package was applied in Mohtasham clinic, since June 2010. It improved the clinic's income from 16328 US$ with 4125 clients in 2010, to 420,000 US$ with 14784 patients in 2012. Conclusions: The proposed intervening package changed this clinic to an efficient and economic one. Its income increased 5.08 times and its patient's numbers grew 4.01 times simultaneously. In other words, Mohtasham's experience demonstrates the reliability of the package and its potentiality to be applied in macro level to improve other dentistry clinics. PMID:24627744

  13. Characteristics of adolescents who intervene to stop the risky and dangerous behavior of their friends.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents value protecting friends from harm and report that they do intervene as bystanders in friends' risky and dangerous behavior. Moreover intervention can be effective in reducing such behaviors. The Protection-Risk Framework was used to explain bystander intervention. There were 962 students from 13 Australian high schools (mean age at time 1=13.44 years) surveyed in their 9th grade and again 1-year later when students were in 10th grade. We found that protective factors of self-efficacy, support, prosocial models, social control, and ease of opportunity related to greater intervening behavior after 12-months. Among those who reported that they had intervened in a 3-month period, a cumulative measure of protective factors was associated with their reports of intervening. Risk factors were non-significant predictors after accounting for earlier, time 1, bystander intervening behavior and demographic factors. The findings highlight potential mechanisms to promote adolescents' looking out for their friends and provide an assessment over time of bystander behavior. The theory-guided inquiry into such behavior provides a foundation on which to better develop our understanding of benefits to adolescent friendship in the injury field.

  14. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  15. Modelling depositional shifts between sedimentary basins: Sediment pathways in Paratethys basins during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartol, J.; Matenco, L.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Leever, K.

    2012-04-01

    The evolution of sedimentary basins separated by uplifted topographic barriers is characterised by gradual regressive deposition until one of the basins is filled and its sedimentation bypasses to the adjacent basin, defining a depositional shift. One of the critical parameters controlling these depositional shifts is sea level variation, its drop potentially triggering a depositional shift by cancelling the available accommodation space. Conversely, a sea level rise can create new accommodation space resulting in a depositional shift towards a previously overfilled basin. Here we use a three dimensional numerical model to study the sedimentary response to sea level variations of a system of two basins. In this model, a single mountainous source area is feeding an intra-continental basin that is separated by a submarine barrier from another basin with normal marine bathymetry. The sedimentary response is modelled during a cycle of sea-level drop and subsequent rebound that exposes the barrier to sub-aerial erosion. The examined parameters are the barrier height, magnitude and duration of sea level change, climate and flexural rigidity. Modelling demonstrates that shifting the bulk of sedimentation from the continental basin to the open marine environment requires some minimum magnitudes and durations of sea level drop. Moreover, given the specific geometry and parameters of our model, an intervening barrier causes a delay of up to 0.35 Myr, depending on the magnitude and duration of sea level change, to the onset of an outward depositional shift when compared to a situation without a barrier. These depositional shifts depend on changes in climate, magnitude and duration of sea level change. Model results are applied to the connectivity between the Black Sea and the Dacic Basin, suggesting that depositional shifts observed during the Messinian Salinity Crisis can be explained by a sea level drop of > 1000 m in the Black Sea.

  16. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in coastal plain rivers.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; Chapelle, Francis H; Lowery, Mark A; Conrads, Paul A

    2010-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  17. Flood hydrology and methylmercury availability in Coastal Plain rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) burdens in top-predator fish differ substantially between adjacent South Carolina Coastal Plain river basins with similar wetlands coverage. In the Congaree River, floodwaters frequently originate in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont regions, where wetlands coverage and surface water dissolved methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations are low. Piedmont-driven flood events can lead to downward hydraulic gradients in the Coastal Plain riparian wetland margins, inhibiting MeHg transport from wetland sediments, and decreasing MeHg availability in the Congaree River habitat. In the adjacent Edisto River basin, floodwaters originate only within Coastal Plain sediments, maintaining upward hydraulic gradients even during flood events, promoting MeHg transport to the water column, and enhancing MeHg availability in the Edisto River habitat. These results indicate that flood hydrodynamics contribute to the variability in Hg vulnerability between Coastal Plain rivers and that comprehensive regional assessment of the relationship between flood hydrodynamics and Hg risk in Coastal Plain streams is warranted.

  18. Coastal mapping handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; Ellis, Melvin Y.

    1978-01-01

    Passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's coastal land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the coastal zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire coastal community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of coastal zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on coastal mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of coastal programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the coastal zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State coastal zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.

  19. Chapter 44: Geology and petroleum potential of the Lincoln Sea Basin, offshore North Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorensen, K.; Gautier, D.; Pitman, J.; Ruth, Jackson H.; Dahl-Jensen, T.

    2011-01-01

    A seismic refraction line crossing the Lincoln Sea was acquired in 2006. It proves the existence of a deep sedimentary basin underlying the Lincoln Sea. This basin appears to be comparable in width and depth to the Sverdrup Basin of the Canadian Arctic Islands. The stratigraphy of the Lincoln Sea Basin is modelled in analogy to the Sverdrup Basin and the Central Spitsbergen Basin, two basins between which the Lincoln Sea intervened before the onset of seafloor spreading in the Eurasian Basin. The refraction data indicates that the Lincoln Sea Basin is capped by a kilometre-thick, low-velocity layer, which is taken to indicate an uplift history similar to, or even more favourable than, the fairway part of the Sverdrup Basin. Tectonic activity in the Palaeogene is likely to constitute the major basin scale risk. We conclude that the Lincoln Sea Basin is likely to be petroliferous and contains risked resources on the order of 1 ?? 109 barrels of oil, to which comes an equivalent amount of (associated and nonassociated) gas. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  20. Tectonics and Quaternary sequence development of basins along the active Vienna Basin strike-slip fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcher, B.; Lomax, J.; Meurers, B.; Smit, J.; Preusser, F.; Decker, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Vienna Basin strike-slip fault is a continent scale active fault extending over a distance of some 300 km from the Eastern Alps through the Vienna Basin into the Western Carpathians. Sinistral movement causes the formation of several tight Pleistocene strike-slip basins within the older Miocene Vienna Basin. These sub-basins not only have a high relevance for groundwater exploitation but their fault activities depict serious seismic hazards. Basins are filled with fluvial sediments from the Danube and, closer to the Alpine front, with thick alluvial fan deposits. However, knowledge on the stratigraphy and tectonics is sparse and rather limited to the Miocene part of the Vienna Basin as it hosts giant hydrocarbon fields. This study tackles two major questions: (i) What is the effect of Quaternary climatic oscillations and subsidence on the sequence development of the alluvial fans and (ii) what is the deformation style of these basins? To answer (i) we present a series of new OSL ages and biotic data from both, surface and cores, to better constrain the timing of fan activity, fan abandonment but also to constrain the onset of Pleistocene basin formation. For (ii) we utilize information from unparalleled geophysical and geological data. Specifically we utilize industrial Bouguer gravity's derivatives to highlight shallow structures and to compensate for the lag of fault trace information. The integration of geological and geophysical data highlights textbook-like models of strike-slip basins, with typical features like Riedel shears with intervening relay ramps, en-echelon sidewall faults and a cross-basin fault zone delimiting opposite depocenters. The infill reflects a distinct cyclicity with thick sequences of coarse sediments deposited during colder periods and thin sequences of paleosol and flood sediments deposited during warmer periods. Ages indicate main activity around the short peak glacial periods and basin formation starting c. 300 ka ago. The

  1. The Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin : Volume XVII : Effects of Ocean Covariates and Release Timing on First Ocean-Year Survival of Fall Chinook Salmon from Oregon and Washington Coastal Hatcheries.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin; Skalski, John R.

    2001-05-01

    Effects of oceanographic conditions, as well as effects of release-timing and release-size, on first ocean-year survival of subyearling fall chinook salmon were investigated by analyzing CWT release and recovery data from Oregon and Washington coastal hatcheries. Age-class strength was estimated using a multinomial probability likelihood which estimated first-year survival as a proportional hazards regression against ocean and release covariates. Weight-at-release and release-month were found to significantly effect first year survival (p < 0.05) and ocean effects were therefore estimated after adjusting for weight-at-release. Negative survival trend was modeled for sea surface temperature (SST) during 11 months of the year over the study period (1970-1992). Statistically significant negative survival trends (p < 0.05) were found for SST during April, June, November and December. Strong pairwise correlations (r > 0.6) between SST in April/June, April/November and April/December suggest the significant relationships were due to one underlying process. At higher latitudes (45{sup o} and 48{sup o}N), summer upwelling (June-August) showed positive survival trend with survival and fall (September-November) downwelling showed positive trend with survival, indicating early fall transition improved survival. At 45{sup o} and 48{sup o}, during spring, alternating survival trends with upwelling were observed between March and May, with negative trend occurring in March and May, and positive trend with survival occurring in April. In January, two distinct scenarios of improved survival were linked to upwelling conditions, indicated by (1) a significant linear model effect (p < 0.05) showing improved survival with increasing upwelling, and (2) significant bowl-shaped curvature (p < 0.05) of survival with upwelling. The interpretation of the effects is that there was (1) significantly improved survival when downwelling conditions shifted to upwelling conditions in January (i

  2. Community and School Practices to Reduce Delinquent Behavior: Intervening on the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippen, Margaret E.; Patterson, DaShaunda; Green, Kemeche L.; Smitherman, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Youth at risk for school failure need community and school supports to reduce the likelihood of developing delinquent behavior. This article provides an overview of community and school approaches aimed at intervening on the school-to-prison pipeline. Community and school efforts are emerging that take into account empirical evidence demonstrating…

  3. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D Appendix D to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. D Appendix D to Part 300—Maintenance...

  4. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Eija, Paavilainen; Mika, Helminen; Aune, Flinck; Leila, Lehtomäki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38), intervene in it better (4.15), and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6). Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better (P < 0.001), intervene better (P < 0.001), and implement the guideline better (P < 0.001) than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice. PMID:25505986

  5. Identity Styles and Interpersonal Behavior in Emerging Adulthood: The Intervening Role of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, Ilse; Doumen, Sarah; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the intervening role of empathy in the relations between identity styles (i.e., information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant styles), and inter-personal behaviors (i.e., prosocial behavior, self- and other-oriented helping, and physical and relational aggression). In a sample of 341 emerging adults, it was found that…

  6. Behavioral Intention of Teachers, School Psychologists, and Counselors to Intervene and Prevent Harassment of LGBTQ Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Rubinson, Florence; Dragowski, Eliza A.; Elizalde-Utnick, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    A national sample of educators were surveyed to identity the attitudes, beliefs, school culture, and perceived barriers that would predict whether educators would intervene to stop bias and harassment directed at lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth in schools. The survey questionnaire was organized according to the…

  7. On the shedding of impaled droplets: The role of transient intervening layers

    PubMed Central

    Stamatopoulos, Christos; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Köppl, Christian J.; Hayek, Nicolas El; Maitra, Tanmoy; Hemrle, Jaroslav; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the non-wetting property of textured hydrophobic surfaces is directly related to the preservation of an intervening fluid layer (gaseous or immiscible liquid) between the droplet and substrate; once displaced, it cannot be recovered spontaneously as the fully penetrated Wenzel wetting state is energetically favorable. Here, we identify pathways for the “lifting” of droplets from the surface texture, enabling a complete Wenzel-to-Cassie-Baxter wetting state transition. This is accomplished by the hemiwicking of a transient (limited lifetime due to evaporation) low surface tension (LST) liquid, which is capable of self-assembling as an intervening underlayer, lifting the droplet from its impaled state and facilitating a skating-like behavior. In the skating phase, a critical substrate tilting angle is identified, up to which underlayer and droplet remain coupled exhibiting a pseudo-Cassie-Baxter state. For greater titling angles, the droplet, driven by inertia, detaches itself from the liquid intervening layer and transitions to a traditional Cassie-Baxter wetting state, thereby accelerating and leaving the underlayer behind. A model is also presented that elucidates the mechanism of mobility recovery. Ultimately, this work provides a better understanding of multiphase mass transfer of immiscible LST liquid-water mixtures with respect to establishing facile methods towards retaining intervening layers. PMID:26743806

  8. 76 FR 24467 - Fire Mountain Lodge; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Fire Mountain Lodge; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To Intervene and Protests, Ready for Environmental Analysis, and Soliciting Comments, Recommendations, Terms and Conditions,...

  9. 10 CFR 2.309 - Hearing requests, petitions to intervene, requirements for standing, and contentions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hearing requests, petitions to intervene, requirements for standing, and contentions. 2.309 Section 2.309 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability: Hearing Requests, Petitions To...

  10. 10 CFR 2.309 - Hearing requests, petitions to intervene, requirements for standing, and contentions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearing requests, petitions to intervene, requirements for standing, and contentions. 2.309 Section 2.309 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... litigated in the hearing. In a proceeding under 10 CFR 52.103, the Commission, acting as the...

  11. 10 CFR 2.309 - Hearing requests, petitions to intervene, requirements for standing, and contentions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hearing requests, petitions to intervene, requirements for standing, and contentions. 2.309 Section 2.309 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability: Hearing Requests, Petitions To...

  12. Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Episodes among Middle School Students: Individual and Peer-Group Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy; Green, Harold; Polanin, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations among gender, empathy, attitudes toward bullying, willingness to intervene, and bullying within peer groups in a sample of sixth and seventh-grade students (N = 346; M Age = 12.22 years). Peer groups were identified via social network analysis using NEGOPY (Richards, 1995) and peer-group predictors were…

  13. Contextual Attributes of Indirect Bullying Situations that Influence Teachers' Decisions to Intervene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Smith, J. David; Cunningham, Charles E.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Indirect bullying occurs frequently yet receives little attention by teachers. Using conjoint analysis, we examined the influence of situational attributes on teachers' decisions to intervene in indirect bullying. Results revealed that teachers (N = 235) were most influenced by victimized children's distress. Additional analyses identified two…

  14. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D Appendix D to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. D Appendix D to Part 300—Maintenance...

  15. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D Appendix D to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. D Appendix D to Part 300—Maintenance...

  16. 34 CFR Appendix D to Part 300 - Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of Effort and Early Intervening Services D Appendix D to Part 300 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued... THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Pt. 300, App. D Appendix D to Part 300—Maintenance...

  17. Faraday Rotation Measure Synthesis of Intermediate Redshift Quasars as a Probe of Intervening Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Seong; Lilly, Simon J.; Miniati, Francesco; Bernet, Martin L.; Beck, Rainer; O’Sullivan, Shane P.; Gaensler, Bryan M.

    2016-10-01

    There is evidence that magnetized material along the line of sight to distant quasars is detectable in the polarization properties of the background sources. The polarization properties appear to be correlated with the presence of intervening Mg ii absorption, which is thought to arise in outflowing material from star forming galaxies. In order to investigate this further, we have obtained high spectral resolution polarization measurements, with the Very Large Array and the Australia Telescope Compact Array, of a set of 49 unresolved quasars for which we have high quality optical spectra. These enable us to produce a Faraday Depth spectrum for each source, using Rotation Measure (RM) Synthesis. Our new independent radio data confirms that interveners are strongly associated with depolarization. We characterize the complexity of the Faraday Depth spectrum using a number of parameters and show how these are related, or not, to the depolarization and to the presence of Mg ii absorption along the line of sight. We argue that complexity and structure in the Faraday Depth distribution likely arise from both intervening material and intrinsically to the background source and attempt to separate these. We find that the strong radio depolarization effects associated with intervening material at redshifts out to z≈ 1 arise from inhomogeneous Faraday screens producing a dispersion in RM across individual sources of around 10 rad m‑2. This is likely produced by disordered fields with strengths of at least 3 μG.

  18. 10 CFR 2.309 - Hearing requests, petitions to intervene, requirements for standing, and contentions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing requests, petitions to intervene, requirements for standing, and contentions. 2.309 Section 2.309 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... litigated in the hearing. In a proceeding under 10 CFR 52.103, the Commission, acting as the...

  19. Alcohol and Other Chemicals. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougelet, Robert M.; Nelson, E. Don

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study are designed to help the physician know the different classes of drugs, recognize common presenting symptoms of drug overdose, and place use and abuse…

  20. 76 FR 65506 - Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Intervene, and Protests; Consolidated Water Power Company Take notice that the following hydroelectric..., 2011, and supplemented September 2 and 28, 2011. d. Applicant: Consolidated Water Power Company. e.... Applicant Contact: Thomas J. Witt, Consolidated Water Power Company, P.O. Box 8050, Wisconsin Rapids,...

  1. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  2. A comparative study of intervening and associated H I 21-cm absorption profiles in redshifted galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, S. J.; Duchesne, S. W.; Divoli, A.; Allison, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    The star-forming reservoir in the distant Universe can be detected through H I 21-cm absorption arising from either cool gas associated with a radio source or from within a galaxy intervening the sight-line to the continuum source. In order to test whether the nature of the absorber can be predicted from the profile shape, we have compiled and analysed all of the known redshifted (z ≥ 0.1) H I 21-cm absorption profiles. Although between individual spectra there is too much variation to assign a typical spectral profile, we confirm that associated absorption profiles are, on average, wider than their intervening counterparts. It is widely hypothesised that this is due to high velocity nuclear gas feeding the central engine, absent in the more quiescent intervening absorbers. Modelling the column density distribution of the mean associated and intervening spectra, we confirm that the additional low optical depth, wide dispersion component, typical of associated absorbers, arises from gas within the inner parsec. With regard to the potential of predicting the absorber type in the absence of optical spectroscopy, we have implemented machine learning techniques to the 55 associated and 43 intervening spectra, with each of the tested models giving a ≳80% accuracy in the prediction of the absorber type. Given the impracticability of follow-up optical spectroscopy of the large number of 21-cm detections expected from the next generation of large radio telescopes, this could provide a powerful new technique with which to determine the nature of the absorbing galaxy.

  3. A comparative study of intervening and associated H I 21-cm absorption profiles in redshifted galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, S. J.; Duchesne, S. W.; Divoli, A.; Allison, J. R.

    2016-11-01

    The star-forming reservoir in the distant Universe can be detected through H I 21-cm absorption arising from either cool gas associated with a radio source or from within a galaxy intervening the sightline to the continuum source. In order to test whether the nature of the absorber can be predicted from the profile shape, we have compiled and analysed all of the known redshifted (z ≥ 0.1) H I 21-cm absorption profiles. Although between individual spectra there is too much variation to assign a typical spectral profile, we confirm that associated absorption profiles are, on average, wider than their intervening counterparts. It is widely hypothesized that this is due to high-velocity nuclear gas feeding the central engine, absent in the more quiescent intervening absorbers. Modelling the column density distribution of the mean associated and intervening spectra, we confirm that the additional low optical depth, wide dispersion component, typical of associated absorbers, arises from gas within the inner parsec. With regard to the potential of predicting the absorber type in the absence of optical spectroscopy, we have implemented machine learning techniques to the 55 associated and 43 intervening spectra, with each of the tested models giving a ≳ 80 per cent accuracy in the prediction of the absorber type. Given the impracticability of follow-up optical spectroscopy of the large number of 21-cm detections expected from the next generation of large radio telescopes, this could provide a powerful new technique with which to determine the nature of the absorbing galaxy.

  4. Groundwater quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  5. American Indian influence on fire regimes in Calfornia's coastal ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the historical pattern of human impacts on landscapes is critical to correctly interpreting the ecological basis for vegetation distribution. In some parts of the world, such as the Mediterranean Basin, a long and intensive utilization of resources has greatly altered the distribution of forests and woodlands. Was vegetation distribution in the coastal ranges of California similarly influenced by humans before Euro-American colonization?

  6. Groundwater Quality in the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, T.A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2016-10-03

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California established the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The Santa Barbara Coastal Plain is one of the study units.

  7. Louisiana coastal ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Louisiana's coast and its degradation and restoration are major environmental issues being studied at the National Wetlands Research Center. Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable because of the tremendous amount of human activity that takes place along the coast. Information on ecological processes is essential to guide the development along the coast as well as to protect and restore wildlife habitat.Louisiana has about 40% of coastal wetlands in the lower 48 states; they support fish, waterfowl, and fur-bearing animals as well as unique cultures like that of the Acadians. The fish and wildlife resources of Louisiana's coast produce over $1 billion each year in revenues.But Louisiana has the highest coastal loss rate because of natural and human causes. Over the past three decades, Louisiana has lost as much as 35-40 mi2 (90-104 km2) of coastal wetlands a year.The National Wetlands Research Center is qualified to assess and monitor this ecosystem because of its proximity to the study area, a staff chosen for their expertise in the system, and a number of established partnerships with others who study the areas. The Center is often the lead group in partnerships with universities, other federal agencies, and private entities who study this ecosystem.Most of the Center's research and technology development performed for coastal wetlands are done at the Lafayette headquarters; some work is performed at the National Wetlands Research Center's project office in Baton Rouge, LA.

  8. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  9. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents. PMID:16114636

  10. Modelling the transport and accumulation of floating marine debris in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Mansui, J; Molcard, A; Ourmières, Y

    2015-02-15

    In the era of plastic and global environmental issues, when large garbage patches have been observed in the main oceanic basins, this work is the first attempt to explore the possibility that similar permanent accumulation structures may exist in the Mediterranean Sea. The questions addressed in this work are: can the general circulation, with its sub-basins scale gyres and mesoscale instabilities, foster the concentration of floating items in some regions? Where are the more likely coastal zones impacted from open ocean sources? Multi-annual simulations of advected surface passive debris depict the Tyrrhenian Sea, the north-western Mediterranean sub-basin and the Gulf of Sirte as possible retention areas. The western Mediterranean coasts present very low coastal impact, while the coastal strip from Tunisia to Syria appears as the favourite destination. No permanent structure able to retain floating items in the long-term were found, as the basin circulation variability brings sufficient anomalies. PMID:25534631

  11. The East Falcon Basin: Its Caribbean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Bartok, P.; Boesi, T.

    1996-08-01

    The East Falcon Basin has been described persistently in the context of the Maracaibo Basin tectonic framework. It is the objective of the present study to demonstrate that the Falcon Basin is, in effect, a Caribbean basin juxtaposed on South America and affected by Caribbean tectonics. The oldest rocks outcropping in the region are Late Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks rafted from northcentral Colombia, Middle Jurassic ophiolite complexes, sediments and metasediments and Cretaceous ophiolites transported by a melange of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary sediments. The south vergence of the Caribbean Nappe province has been documented and extends to the present limit of the Andean uplift and to the southern limit of the Coastal Range. The migrating foredeep that developed during the Paleocene-Eocene deposited dominantly basinal shales and thin sandstones. During the Oligocene the Caribbean faults of the Oca system and conjugates began with a dominantly transtensional regime becoming progressively transpressional by Miocene time. The facies development of the Oligocene-Miocene documents the tectonic history. Unique blocks remained as resistant blocks creating ramparts and modifying the basin configuration. During transpression northward-verging thrusting progressively migrated towards the present coastline. The most evident structures of the region are Caribbean in affinity and combined with the sedimentary history of the region can serve to unravel the complex Caribbean-South American plate interaction.

  12. Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert G.; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    The world's coastlines, dividing land from sea, are geological environments that are unique in their composition and the physical processes affecting them. At the dynamically active intersection of land and the oceans, humans have been building structures throughout history. Initially used for naval and commercial purposes, more recently recreation and tourism have increased activity in the coastal zone dramatically. Shoreline development is now causing a significant conflict with natural coastal processes. This text on coastal engineering will help the reader understand these coastal processes and develop strategies to cope effectively with shoreline erosion. The book is organized in four parts: (1) an overview of coastal engineering, using case studies to illustrate problems; (2) hydrodynamics of the coastal zone, reviewing storm surges, water waves, and low frequency motions within the nearshore and surf zone; (3) coastal responses including equilibrium beach profiles and sediment transport; (4) applications such as erosion mitigation, beach nourishment, coastal armoring, tidal inlets, and shoreline management.

  13. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waters in the US include estuaries, coastalwetlands, coral reefs, mangrove and kep forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. the nat...

  14. Sedimentary sequence evolution in a Foredeep basin: Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, C.; Funes, D.; Sarzalho, S.; Audemard, F.; Flores, G.

    1996-08-01

    Well log-seismic sequence stratigraphy analysis in the Eastern Venezuela Foreland Basin leads to study of the evolution of sedimentary sequences onto the Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin. This basin comprises two different foredeep sub-basins: The Guarico subbasin to the west, older, and the Maturin sub-basin to the east, younger. A foredeep switching between these two sub-basins is observed at 12.5 m.y. Seismic interpretation and well log sections across the study area show sedimentary sequences with transgressive sands and coastal onlaps to the east-southeast for the Guarico sub-basin, as well as truncations below the switching sequence (12.5 m.y.), and the Maturin sub-basin shows apparent coastal onlaps to the west-northwest, as well as a marine onlap (deeper water) in the west, where it starts to establish. Sequence stratigraphy analysis of these sequences with well logs allowed the study of the evolution of stratigraphic section from Paleocene to middle Miocene (68.0-12.0 m.y.). On the basis of well log patterns, the sequences were divided in regressive-transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles caused by changes in relative sea level. Facies distributions were analyzed and the sequences were divided into simple sequences or sub- sequences of a greater frequencies than third order depositional sequences.

  15. Coastal laws strike a balance

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, M.S.

    1993-04-01

    Although the coastal zone comprises less than 10% of the nation`s land mass, more than 75% of the population lives within 50 miles of coastal areas. Commercial enterprises, including manufacturing facilities, industrial plants, resort hotels and marinas, are built in coastal areas along with the usual beachfront homes condominiums. These enterprises can adversely impact coastal environment through pollution-generation activities. Government regulators have sought to curtail activities that give rise to pollution.

  16. Phase I for the Use of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason-1 Radar Altimetry to Monitor Coastal Wetland Inundation and Sea Level Rise in Coastal Louisiana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brozen, Madeline; Batina, Matthew; Parker, Stephen; Brooks, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the first phase of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying satellite altimetry data to monitor sea level rise and inundation within coastal Louisiana. Global sea level is rising, and coastal Louisiana is subsiding. Therefore, there is a need to monitor these trends over time for coastal restoration and hazard mitigation efforts. TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-data are used for global sea level estimates and have also been demonstrated successfully in water level studies of lakes, river basins, and floodplains throughout the world. To employ TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason-1 data in coastal regions, the numerous steps involved in processing the data over non-open ocean areas must be assessed. This project outlined the appropriate methodology for processing non-open ocean data, including retracking and atmospheric corrections. It also inventoried the many factors in coastal land loss including subsidence, sea level rise, coastal geomorphology, and salinity levels, among others, through a review of remote sensing and field methods. In addition, the project analyzed the socioeconomic factors within the Coastal Zone as compared to the rest of Louisiana. While sensor data uncertainty must be addressed, it was determined that it is feasible to apply radar altimetry data from TOPEX/POSEIDON and Jason 1 to see trends in change within Coastal Louisiana since

  17. Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño-Southern Oscillation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Short, Andrew D.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Vitousek, Sean; Turner, Ian L.; Allan, Jonathan; Banno, Masayuki; Bryan, Karin R.; Doria, André; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kato, Shigeru; Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Randall-Goodwin, Evan; Ruggiero, Peter; Walker, Ian J.; Heathfield, Derek K.

    2015-01-01

    To predict future coastal hazards, it is important to quantify any links between climate drivers and spatial patterns of coastal change. However, most studies of future coastal vulnerability do not account for the dynamic components of coastal water levels during storms, notably wave-driven processes, storm surges and seasonal water level anomalies, although these components can add metres to water levels during extreme events. Here we synthesize multi-decadal, co-located data assimilated between 1979 and 2012 that describe wave climate, local water levels and coastal change for 48 beaches throughout the Pacific Ocean basin. We find that observed coastal erosion across the Pacific varies most closely with El Niño/Southern Oscillation, with a smaller influence from the Southern Annular Mode and the Pacific North American pattern. In the northern and southern Pacific Ocean, regional wave and water level anomalies are significantly correlated to a suite of climate indices, particularly during boreal winter; conditions in the northeast Pacific Ocean are often opposite to those in the western and southern Pacific. We conclude that, if projections for an increasing frequency of extreme El Niño and La Niña events over the twenty-first century are confirmed, then populated regions on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean basin could be alternately exposed to extreme coastal erosion and flooding, independent of sea-level rise.

  18. Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Niño/Southern Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Short, Andrew D.; Harley, Mitchell D.; Splinter, Kristen D.; Vitousek, Sean; Turner, Ian L.; Allan, Jonathan; Banno, Masayuki; Bryan, Karin R.; Doria, André; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kato, Shigeru; Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Randall-Goodwin, Evan; Ruggiero, Peter; Walker, Ian J.; Heathfield, Derek K.

    2015-10-01

    To predict future coastal hazards, it is important to quantify any links between climate drivers and spatial patterns of coastal change. However, most studies of future coastal vulnerability do not account for the dynamic components of coastal water levels during storms, notably wave-driven processes, storm surges and seasonal water level anomalies, although these components can add metres to water levels during extreme events. Here we synthesize multi-decadal, co-located data assimilated between 1979 and 2012 that describe wave climate, local water levels and coastal change for 48 beaches throughout the Pacific Ocean basin. We find that observed coastal erosion across the Pacific varies most closely with El Niño/Southern Oscillation, with a smaller influence from the Southern Annular Mode and the Pacific North American pattern. In the northern and southern Pacific Ocean, regional wave and water level anomalies are significantly correlated to a suite of climate indices, particularly during boreal winter; conditions in the northeast Pacific Ocean are often opposite to those in the western and southern Pacific. We conclude that, if projections for an increasing frequency of extreme El Niño and La Niña events over the twenty-first century are confirmed, then populated regions on opposite sides of the Pacific Ocean basin could be alternately exposed to extreme coastal erosion and flooding, independent of sea-level rise.

  19. Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins of Western China as example of partitioned retro-arc foreland basin system

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, S.A.; Zuchang, X.; Carroll, A.; McKnight, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, western China, occupy a retro-arc foreland position with respect to the southern Eurasian convergent continental margin. Yet these basins differ in many ways from retro-arc foreland basins in other parts of the world. In North America, for instance, the Cretaceous Rocky Mountain foreland basin overlies basement that has been an integral part of cratonal North America since the Precambrian. The region had a long early Paleozoic history as a divergent continental margin and was later modified by relatively modest continental growth through accretionary tectonics. Once established in the Mesozoic, the Rocky Mountain foreland basin was a structurally simple, large, integrated basin, with the exception of the Laramide time-space segment of the foreland system. In contrast, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic foreland basins of Xinjiang are markedly partitioned, reflecting the process and architecture of major tectonic accretion from the Paleozoic through the collision of India in the Tertiary. The stage was set for a partitioned Mesozoic foreland with the Paleozoic suturing of the Siberia and Tarim cratons and intervening terranes. Although the margins of these blocks were deformed and uplifted during collision, their interiors persisted as depocenters into the foreland basin phase during the Mesozoic. The foreland basins of western China apparently represent poorly documented end members in the spectrum of retro-arc foreland basins. The Chinese examples occur in a region characterized by extreme continental growth through tectonic accretion. Reactivation of structural trends inherited from pre-foreland history were key factors in segmentation of the foreland.

  20. Style and rate of quaternary deformation of the Hosgri Fault Zone, offshore south-central coastal California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Kathryn L.; Lettis, William R.; McLaren, Marcia; Savage, William U.; Hall, N. Timothy; Keller, Mararget A.

    2004-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone is the southernmost component of a complex system of right-slip faults in south-central coastal California that includes the San Gregorio, Sur, and San Simeon Faults. We have characterized the contemporary style of faulting along the zone on the basis of an integrated analysis of a broad spectrum of data, including shallow high-resolution and deep penetration seismic reflection data; geologic and geomorphic data along the Hosgri and San Simeon Fault Zones and the intervening San Simeon/Hosgri pull-apart basin; the distribution and nature of near-coast seismicity; regional tectonic kinematics; and comparison of the Hosgri Fault Zone with worldwide strike-slip, oblique-slip, and reverse-slip fault zones. These data show that the modern Hosgri Fault Zone is a convergent right-slip (transpressional) fault having a late Quaternary slip rate of 1 to 3 mm/yr. Evidence supporting predominantly strike-slip deformation includes (1) a long, narrow, linear zone of faulting and associated deformation; (2) the presence of asymmetric flower structures; (3) kinematically consistent localized extensional and compressional deformation at releasing and restraining bends or steps, respectively, in the fault zone; (4) changes in the sense and magnitude of vertical separation both along trend of the fault zone and vertically within the fault zone; (5) strike-slip focal mechanisms along the fault trace; (6) a distribution of seismicity that delineates a high-angle fault extending through the seismogenic crust; (7) high ratios of lateral to vertical slip along the fault zone; and (8) the separation by the fault of two tectonic domains (offshore Santa Maria Basin, onshore Los Osos domain) that are undergoing contrasting styles of deformation and orientations of crustal shortening. The convergent component of slip is evidenced by the deformation of the early-late Pliocene unconformity. In characterizing the style of faulting along the Hosgri Fault Zone, we assessed

  1. Intervening sequences in ribosomal RNA genes and bobbed phenotype in Drosophila hydei.

    PubMed

    Franz, G; Kunz, W

    1981-08-13

    The "bobbed' (bb) mutation in Drosophila is represented phenotypically by shortened and abnormally thin scutellar bristles and by delayed development. There is a direct correlation between bristle size and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, and the bb mutation was at first explained as a deficiency of rRNA genes (rDNA). However, the bb phenotype can occur in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila hydei with high rDNA content, while phenotypically wild-type flies are known with few rRNA genes, suggesting that what matters is not the number of rRNA genes but their transcriptional activity. In D. melanogaster, it has recently emerged that rRNA genes interrupted by an intervening sequence are not transcribed. We now report that in D. hydei, the length of the scutellar bristle is directly proportional to the number of rRNA genes without this intervening sequence.

  2. MANAGING COASTAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To answer broad-scale questions on environmental conditions, the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and its partners have collected estuarine and coastal data from hundreds of stations along the coasts of the continental United States. Types of data include w...

  3. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  4. CHAPTER 7: COASTAL ZONES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic's coastal areas, especially the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and Albemarle/Pamlico Sounds (Figure 3), have important aesthetic and economic values. In Delaware, for example, Parsons and Powell (1998) estimated that $90,000 of the value of a $200,000 home along t...

  5. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  6. How do tutors intervene when conflicts on knowledge arise in tutorial groups?

    PubMed

    Aarnio, Matti; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Nieminen, Juha; Pyörälä, Eeva

    2014-08-01

    Recent research on problem-based learning (PBL) has shown that students need support when dealing with conflicting ideas in PBL-tutorial discussions. In the present study, we examined tutor facilitation during tutorial discussions, and particularly how the facilitation helped students to collaboratively resolve conflicts on knowledge. The study involved four PBL-tutorial sessions that included altogether 33 first-year medical and dental students. The sessions were videotaped and analysed using qualitative interaction analysis. Our aim was to find out how the tutor interventions encouraged students to elaborate on conflicting ideas, and how the interventions differed between conflict and non-conflict situations. We also examined how the tutors intervened during conflicts about factual or conceptual knowledge. The tutorial discussions included 92 tutor intervention episodes and 43 conflict episodes. The tutors intervened during 24 of the conflict episodes and resolved 13 of these episodes. Generally, the tutors often intervened by confirming what the students had said or by giving explanations, but they rarely asked questions that would stimulate the elaboration of knowledge. During conflicts on knowledge the tutors gave more explanations, but did little to encourage the students to deal with conflicting ideas. The tutors more often resolved conflicts on factual knowledge than conceptual knowledge. The findings suggest that tutor training should focus on promoting tutors' understanding on when to give direct explanations, and when and how to encourage students to collaboratively elaborate on conflicting ideas.

  7. Sustainable Management of Coastal Environments Through Coupled Terrestrial-Coastal Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrenz, S. E.; Cai, W.; Tian, H.; He, R.; Xue, Z.; Fennel, K.; Hopkinson, C.; Howden, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Changing climate and land use practices have the potential to dramatically alter coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical processes and associated movement of water, carbon and nutrients through various terrestrial reservoirs into rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters. Consequences of climate- and land use-related changes will be particularly evident in large river basins and their associated coastal outflow regions. The large spatial extent of such systems necessitates a combination of satellite observations and model-based approaches coupled with targeted ground-based site studies to adequately characterize relationships among climate forcing (e.g., wind, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, humidity, extreme weather), land use practice/land cover change, and transport of materials through watersheds and, ultimately, to coastal regions. Here, we describe a NASA Interdisciplinary Science project that employs an integrated suite of models in conjunction with remotely sensed as well as targeted in situ observations with the objectives of describing processes controlling fluxes on land and their coupling to riverine, estuarine and ocean ecosystems. The objectives of this effort are to 1) assemble and evaluate long term datasets for the assessment of impacts of climate variability, extreme weather events, and land use practices on transport of water, carbon and nitrogen within terrestrial systems and the delivery of materials to waterways and rivers; 2) using the Mississippi River as a testbed, develop and evaluate an integrated suite of models to describe linkages between terrestrial and riverine systems, transport of carbon and nutrients in the Mississippi river and its tributaries, and associated cycling of carbon and nutrients in coastal ocean waters; and 3) evaluate uncertainty in model products and parameters and identify areas where improved model performance is needed through model refinement and data assimilation. The effort employs the Dynamic Land

  8. Coastal hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal erosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Mersfelder, Lynne; Farrar, Frank; France, Rigoberto Guardado; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be living within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many ways, we treat the coast just like any other type of land area, as a safe and stable place to live and play. However, coastal environments are dynamic, and they constantly change in response to natural processes and to human activities.

  9. Morphological evolution of the Pyrenees and Ebro drainage basin: effect of a capture on the erosion of a mountain chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babault, J.; van den Driessche, J.; Bonnet, S.; Crave, A.

    2003-04-01

    In the Pyrenees, the existence of summit flat erosional surfaces is well known for a long time. This smoothed topography meets around 2000 m above sea level in the Axial Zone. The current relief is characterized by the deeply dissection of this surfaces by rivers of the Ebro drainage basin. These observations lead Boissevin (1934) and De Sitter (1952) to argue for a 2000 m post-orogenic uplift of the Pyrenean chain. However Molnar and England (1990) argue that climatic changes can also be responsible for the acceleration of erosional processes and the isostatic uplift of summit flat of the Pyrenees. The southern Pyrenees foreland fold thrust belt undergone a syn-tectonic and pos-tectonic burial allowing the development of the smoothed topography in the Axial Zone (Coney, 1996). Then it has been re-excavated to its present relief. It is assumed that the opening of the Valencia Trough and the Messinian desiccation crisis favoured the growth of a proto-Ebro river along the Catalan coastal range and the subsequent capture and re-excavation of the Pyrenees. In order to test the assumption of a burial of the Pyrenees and Ebro basin we reconstructed the paleo-topography of the Pyrenees and Ebro basin before the capture and we compare it to the present-day relief. The paleotopographic reconstruction is based on the field recognition of end-burial, post-tectonic sedimentary deposits and flat surfaces of the Axial Zone. We use elevations of the summit flat and crests plus elevations of the top of post-tectonic deposits to build a DEM of the Pyrenean paleotopography. From reconstruction, the volume of eroded material we calculate since capture (2.8 1013 m^3) is on the same order than the volume of sediments deposited within the Ebro margin calculated by Nelson (1990). The architecture of the sedimentary bodies on the Ebro margin shows an increase in sedimentary flux during the Pleistocene by 3 times superior than the flux of sediments during Pliocene and the amount of

  10. Intensification and spatial homogenization of coastal upwelling under climate change.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daiwei; Gouhier, Tarik C; Menge, Bruce A; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2015-02-19

    The timing and strength of wind-driven coastal upwelling along the eastern margins of major ocean basins regulate the productivity of critical fisheries and marine ecosystems by bringing deep and nutrient-rich waters to the sunlit surface, where photosynthesis can occur. How coastal upwelling regimes might change in a warming climate is therefore a question of vital importance. Although enhanced land-ocean differential heating due to greenhouse warming has been proposed to intensify coastal upwelling by strengthening alongshore winds, analyses of observations and previous climate models have provided little consensus on historical and projected trends in coastal upwelling. Here we show that there are strong and consistent changes in the timing, intensity and spatial heterogeneity of coastal upwelling in response to future warming in most Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUSs). An ensemble of climate models shows that by the end of the twenty-first century the upwelling season will start earlier, end later and become more intense at high but not low latitudes. This projected increase in upwelling intensity and duration at high latitudes will result in a substantial reduction of the existing latitudinal variation in coastal upwelling. These patterns are consistent across three of the four EBUSs (Canary, Benguela and Humboldt, but not California). The lack of upwelling intensification and greater uncertainty associated with the California EBUS may reflect regional controls associated with the atmospheric response to climate change. Given the strong linkages between upwelling and marine ecosystems, the projected changes in the intensity, timing and spatial structure of coastal upwelling may influence the geographical distribution of marine biodiversity.

  11. Coastal vulnerability assessment of the Northern Gulf of Mexico to sea-level rise and coastal change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, E.A.; Barras, J.A.; Williams, S.J.; Twichell, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise along the Northern Gulf of Mexico from Galveston, TX, to Panama City, FL. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rate, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable are combined and an index value is calculated for 1-kilometer grid cells along the coast. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. The CVI assessment presented here builds on an earlier assessment conducted for the Gulf of Mexico. Recent higher resolution shoreline change, land loss, elevation, and subsidence data provide the foundation for a better assessment for the Northern Gulf of Mexico. The areas along the Northern Gulf of Mexico that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are parts of the Louisiana Chenier Plain, Teche-Vermillion Basin, and the Mississippi barrier islands, as well as most of the Terrebonne and Barataria Bay region and the Chandeleur Islands. These very high vulnerability areas have the highest rates of relative sea-level rise and the highest rates of shoreline change or land area loss. The information provided by coastal vulnerability assessments can be used in long-term coastal management and policy decision making.

  12. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Chloroform, simazine, and perchlorate were observed in the Interior Basins and Coastal Basins study areas, predominantly at shallow sites with top-of-perforation depths ≤70 feet below land surface, with modern water (post-1950s), and with oxic groundwater conditions.

  13. Delineating Contaminants and Transport Pathways Within a Coastal Watershed in Southeast Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coastal water quality decline due to point and non-point source pollution from terrestrial sources is a serious concern throughout the Caribbean basin and worldwide. Toxic and noxious algal blooms, declines in mangrove forests and seagrass meadows, depletion of fishery stocks, coral reef die-off, pu...

  14. Simulating decadal coastal morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; van Maanen, Barend

    2016-03-01

    Coastal geomorphic systems provide many services of key importance to humankind, including protection from flood and erosion hazards, diverse habitats and amenity values (Agardy et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2011). However, these systems are widely undergoing degradation that can be substantially attributed to the cumulative direct and indirect effects of human interference. Declining sediment inputs and throughputs are frequently a factor driving a shift towards progressive coastal erosion (Valiela, 2006; Nicholls et al., 2007). Such sediment starved systems have reduced resilience and are further threatened by human-induced climate change, not only due to accelerated sea-level rise, but also through possible shifts in wave and surge climate (Wong et al., 2014).

  15. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  16. The effects of intervening interference on working memory for sound location as a function of inter-comparison interval.

    PubMed

    Ries, Dennis T; Hamilton, Traci R; Grossmann, Aurora J

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the effects of inter-comparison interval duration and intervening interference on auditory working memory (AWM) for auditory location. Interaural phase differences were used to produce localization cues for tonal stimuli and the difference limen for interaural phase difference (DL-IPD) specified as the equivalent angle of incidence between two sound sources was measured in five different conditions. These conditions consisted of three different inter-comparison intervals [300 ms (short), 5000 ms (medium), and 15,000 ms (long)], the medium and long of which were presented both in the presence and absence of intervening tones. The presence of intervening stimuli within the medium and long inter-comparison intervals produced a significant increase in the DL-IPD compared to the medium and long inter-comparison intervals condition without intervening tones. The result obtained in the condition with a short inter-comparison interval was roughly equivalent to that obtained for the medium inter-comparison interval without intervening tones. These results suggest that the ability to retain information about the location of a sound within AWM decays slowly; however, the presence of intervening sounds readily disrupts the retention process. Overall, the results suggest that the temporal decay of information within AWM regarding the location of a sound from a listener's environment is so gradual that it can be maintained in trace memory for tens of seconds in the absence of intervening acoustic signals. Conversely, the presence of intervening sounds within the retention interval may facilitate the use of context memory, even for shorter retention intervals, resulting in a less detailed, but relevant representation of the location that is resistant to further degradation. PMID:20547219

  17. Reflected GPS Power for the Detection of Surface Roughness Patterns in Coastal Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oertel, George, F.; Allen, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    Coastal bays formed by the barrier islands of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia are parts of a coastal region known as a "Coastal Compartment". The coastal compartment between the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays is actually the mosaic of landscapes on the headland of the interfluve that separates these large drainage basins. The coastal compartments form a variety of different-shaped waterways landward of the coastline. Shape differences along the boundaries produce differences in exposure to wind and waves. Different shoreface topographies seaward of the coastline also influence surface roughness by changing wave-refraction patterns. Surface-water roughness (caused by waves) is controlled by a number of parameters, including fetch, shielding, exposure corridors, water-mass boundary conditions, wetland vegetation and water depth in coastal bays. In the coastal ocean, surface roughness patterns are controlled by shoreface shoaling and inlet refraction patterns in the coastal ocean. Knowledge of wave phenomena in the nearshore and backbarrier areas is needed to understand how wave climate influences important ecosystems in estuaries and bays.

  18. Mercury in tropical and subtropical coastal environments

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Monica F.; Landing, William M.; Kehrig, Helena A.; Barletta, Mário; Holmes, Christopher D.; Barrocas, Paulo R. G.; Evers, David C.; Buck, David G.; Vasconcellos, Ana Claudia; Hacon, Sandra S.; Moreira, Josino C.; Malm, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities influence the biogeochemical cycles of mercury, both qualitatively and quantitatively, on a global scale from sources to sinks. Anthropogenic processes that alter the temporal and spatial patterns of sources and cycling processes are changing the impacts of mercury contamination on aquatic biota and humans. Human exposure to mercury is dominated by the consumption of fish and products from aquaculture operations. The risk to society and to ecosystems from mercury contamination is growing, and it is important to monitor these expanding risks. However, the extent and manner to which anthropogenic activities will alter mercury sources and biogeochemical cycling in tropical and sub-tropical coastal environments is poorly understood. Factors as (1) lack of reliable local/regional data; (2) rapidly changing environmental conditions; (3) governmental priorities and; (4) technical actions from supra-national institutions, are some of the obstacles to overcome in mercury cycling research and policy formulation. In the tropics and sub-tropics, research on mercury in the environment is moving from an exploratory “inventory” phase towards more process-oriented studies. Addressing biodiversity conservation and human health issues related to mercury contamination of river basins and tropical coastal environments are an integral part of paragraph 221 paragraph of the United Nations document “The Future We Want” issued in Rio de Janeiro in June 2012. PMID:22901765

  19. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments.

  20. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments. PMID:26994618

  1. Phase I for the use of TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason-1 Radar Altimetry to Monitor Coastal Wetland Inundation and Sea Level Rise in Coastal Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozen, M.; Batina, M.; Brooks, C.; Parker, S.

    2009-12-01

    Loss of land to open water in the Coastal Zone of Louisiana is an ongoing threat to the state’s people, economy and the environment. This land loss is largely attributed to land subsidence, but also a variety of other factors. The purpose of this study is to outline the methodology in order to apply altimetry data from the TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason-1 missions to tracking land loss in the coastal zone of Louisiana. The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason -1 data is typically used to determine global sea level change rates, but has also been demonstrated successfully in water level studies of lakes, river basins, and floodplains throughout the world. Beyond land subsidence, relative sea level rise is estimated at anywhere between 0.1 - 2 cm/year along the coast of Louisiana, which is higher than the most recent estimates of global sea level rise. This study inventoried the many factors in coastal land loss including subsidence and sea level rise, but also coastal geomorphology and salinity levels among others. The many remote sensing and field methods of tracking coastal land loss in Louisiana were examined. The study included a comparison of socioeconomic factors within the Louisiana Coastal Zone as compared to the northern portion of the state. This research has the potential to provide analysis of elevation changes from 1992 to present and can contribute insight into the complex issue of coastal wetland inundation and seal level rise in Louisiana.

  2. Detailed kinematics of the Mediterranean: 2-relative motions and basin dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, J.F.; Helman, M.L.

    1988-08-01

    The detailed motion of Africa with respect to Europe provides a powerful tool that can be used in analyzing sedimentary basins in the Mediterranean. The interaction of the large lithospheric plates and intervening microplates results in changing patterns of in-plane lithospheric stress. Such stress variation has ramifications in both the intra- and interplate realm. In an actively subsiding sedimentary basin, such stress variation is reflected in the basin stratigraphy, particularly in the patterns of apparent sea level change on the margins of the basin. In preliminary analysis of our new relative motion model, we noted a correlation between changes in the motion vector of Africa as it moves with respect to Europe and subsidence changes, as seen on burial history curves, in some basins around the Mediterranean. Many of these changes occurred long after the initial rifting phase which formed these basins. Reflection seismic data from these basins shows no indication of renewed fault motion when the thermal subsidence phase of these basins was disrupted. We show that the motion of Africa relative to Europe is sensitively reflected in the sequence stratigraphy of Mediterranean sedimentary basins.

  3. Geology and petroleum resources of West Siberian Basin, USSR

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.; Klemme, H.D.; Peterson, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    The West Siberian basin occupies an area of approximately 3.3 million km/sup 2/ (1.3 million mi/sup 2/) in northwestern Siberia east of the Ural Mountains. Thickness of the Phanerozoic sedimentary cover ranges from approximately 3-5 km (10,000-15,000 ft) in the central area of the basin, to 8-12 km (25,000-40,000 ft) in the northern part. The basin is filled with approximately 10 million km/sup 3/ (2.4 million mi/sup 3/) of Mesozoic-Cenozoic clastic sedimentary rocks ranging in thickness from 3-4 km (10,000-13,000 ft) in the central area to 6-9 km (20,000-30,000 ft) in the north. The basement in the basin is Precambrian and Precambrian-Paleozoic granitic rocks and in places is highly metamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. In other parts of the basin, Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks are only lightly metamorphosed and are targets for petroleum exploration. The Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill was initiated in the northern part of the basin during the Triassic. By the Late Jurassic, marine clastic deposition had spread throughout the basin, and the basin configuration was established for the remainder of geologic time. Cretaceous and lower Tertiary rocks are primarily shallow marine shelf, coastal plain, and lowland clastic deposits formed during several transgressive-regressive phases. Major oil accumulations, mainly in Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic sandstone reservoirs, are located in the central and west-central parts of the basin. The largest reserves of natural gas in the world are located in the northern part of the basin, primarily in Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) sandstone reservoirs. In 1982, estimated cumulative production from the basin was approximately 10 billion bbl of oil. Estimated mean undiscovered resources (1981) are approximately 80 billion bbl of oil and 700 tcf of gas.

  4. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  5. Neurophysiology of Hungarian subject-verb dependencies with varying intervening complexity.

    PubMed

    Jolsvai, Hajnal; Sussman, Elyse; Csuhaj, Roland; Csépe, Valéria

    2011-12-01

    Non-adjacent dependencies are thought to be more costly to process than sentences wherein dependents immediately follow or precede what they depend on. In English locality effects have been revealed, while in languages with rich case marking (German and Hindi) sentence final structures show anti-locality-effects. The motivation of the current study is to test whether locality effects can be directly applied to a typologically different language than those investigated so far. Hungarian is a "topic prominent" language; it permits a variation of possible word sequencing for semantic reasons, including SVO word order. Hungarian also has a rich morphological system (e.g., rich case system) and postpositions to indicate grammatical functions. In the present ERP study, Hungarian subject-verb dependencies were compared by manipulating the mismatch of number agreement between the sentence's initial noun phrase and the sentence's final intransitive verb as well as the complexity of the intervening sentence material, interrupting the dependencies. Possible lexical class and frequency or cloze-probability effects for the first two words of the intervening sentence material were revealed when used separate baseline for each word, while at the third word of the intervening material as well as at the main verb ERPs were not modulated by complexity but at the verb ERPs were enhanced by grammaticality. Ungrammatical sentences enlarged the amplitude of both LAN and P600 components at the main verb. These results are in line with studies suggesting that the retrieval of the first element of a dependency is not influenced by distance from the second element, as the first element is directly accessible when needed for integration (e.g., McElree, 2000).

  6. An introduction to coastal geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Pethick, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an introduction to wave and tidally dominated coastal forms, including beaches, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, mudflats and marshlands. The book emphasises the physical mechanisms by which this variety of landforms is produced and maintained. It introduces the energy outputs - waves, currents, tides - into the coastal 'machine', examines the way in which this energy is converted into water and sediment movement, and leads to an account of coastal landform development.

  7. Repulsive Casimir forces between solid materials with high-refractive-index intervening liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Zwol, P. J. van; Palasantzas, G.

    2010-06-15

    In order to explore repulsive Casimir or van der Waals forces between solid materials with liquid as the intervening medium, we analyze dielectric data for a wide range of materials as, for example, (p)olytetrafluoroethylene, polystyrene, silica, and more than 20 liquids. Although significant variation in the dielectric data from different sources exists, we provide a scheme based on measured static dielectric constants, refractive indices, and applying Kramers-Kronig consistency to dielectric data to create accurate dielectric functions at imaginary frequencies. The latter is necessary for more accurate force calculations via the Lifshitz theory, thereby allowing reliable predictions of repulsive Casimir forces.

  8. Denitrification in coastal Louisiana: A spatial assessment and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Lenaker, Peter; Twilley, Robert R.; Delaune, Ronald D.; Lindau, Charles W.; Nuttle, William; Habib, Emad; Fulweiler, Robinson W.; Castañeda-Moya, Edward

    2010-04-01

    By transforming fixed nitrogen (N) into nitrogen gas, the biochemical processes that support denitrification provide a function critical to maintaining the integrity of ecosystems subjected to increased loading of N from anthropogenic sources. The Louisiana coastal region receives high nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations (> 100 µM) from the Mississippi-Ohio-Missouri River Basin and is also an area undergoing high rates of wetland loss. Ongoing and anticipated changes in the Louisiana coastal region promise to alter biogeochemical cycles including the net rate of denitrification by ecosystems. Projecting what these changes could mean for coastal water quality and natural resources requires an understanding of the magnitude and patterns of variation in denitrification rates and their connection to estuarine water quality at large temporal and spatial scales under current conditions. We compile and review denitrification rates reported in 32 studies conducted in a variety of habitats across coastal Louisiana during the period 1981- 2008. The acetylene inhibition and 15N flux were the preferred techniques (95%); most of the studies used sediment slurries rather than intact sediment cores. There are no estimates of denitrification rates using the N 2/Ar ratio and isotope pairing techniques, which address some of the problems and limitations of the acetylene inhibition and 15N flux techniques. These studies have shown that sediments from estuaries, lakes, marshes, forested wetlands, and the coastal shelf region are capable of high potential denitrification rates when exposed to high NO 3- concentrations (> 100 µM). Maximum potential denitrification rates in experimental and natural settings can reach values > 2500 µmol m 2 h - 1 . The lack of contemporary studies to understand the interactions among critical nitrogen transformations (e.g., organic matter mineralization, immobilization, aquatic plant assimilation, nitrification, nitrogen fixation, dissimilatory nitrate

  9. A NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL SEDIMENT CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One element of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National Coastal Assessment is to estimate the current status, extent, changes and trends in the condition of the Nation's coastal sediments on a national basis. Based on NCA monitoring activities from 1999-2001...

  10. Portable coastal observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  11. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  12. Deciphering the forcing factors of coastal evolution from a numerical chronology for a coastal sediment succession, Eastern Hengchun Peninsula, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüthgens, Christopher; Ho, Lih-Der; Jen, Chia-Hung; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng

    2016-04-01

    Taiwan, an island with a high mountain area attaining almost 4000 m, is located in a unique position in East Asia at the transition from the subtropical to the tropical zone. The climate is driven by the East-Asian monsoon, which is responsible for a humid climate during the whole year. In addition, earthquakes, tropical storms, and typhoons trigger morphodynamic processes. Taiwan's coastal landscape is the result of complex interactions between marine and subaerial processes, sediment supply and local geology, plate tectonics, climate change, and global sea-level fluctuations. Unconsolidated sediments in coastal areas are known to preserve valuable information about these processes driving the coastal landscape evolution. In the Ganko river basin, located on the Eastern Hengchun peninsula in south-eastern Taiwan, climatic and tectonic forcing factors may have significantly influenced the natural sediment yield and sediment storage over time. In addition, in the recent past human influence within the river catchment may significantly have altered the sediment yield in the coastal areas close to the rivermouth. In order to reconstruct such variations and ideally relate them to either tectonic, climatic and anthropogenic forcing, a detailed analysis of sedimentary archives is essential. The area under investigation comprises a complex terrestrial river terrace record as well as a coastal sediment succession at the river outlet, both in parts aggraded above presumably tectonically uplifted near-shore sediments. Establishing a high resolution numerical chronology for these sediments may allow a reconstruction of sediment aggradation phases and stability phases for different sections of the catchment area from upstream fluvial terraces to coastal deposits, as well as the underlying near-shore deposits. A combination of two independent dating methods, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating using the pIRIR150 signal of feldspar, as well as radiocarbon dating, was

  13. UK health visitors' role in identifying and intervening with infants at risk of developing obesity.

    PubMed

    Redsell, Sarah A; Swift, Judy A; Nathan, Dilip; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Atkinson, Philippa; Glazebrook, Cris

    2013-07-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of modifiable risk factors that can be identified during infancy or earlier. In the UK, health visitors advise parents about infant feeding, but little is known about their role in obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the beliefs and current practices of UK health visitors in relation to recognising and intervening with infants at risk of developing obesity. Thirty members of the health visiting team were interviewed. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Health visitors were aware of some of the modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity such as infant feeding practices. They felt they had a role in advising parents about diet but did not formally identify and/or intervene with larger infants. Infant overweight was considered a sensitive issue that was difficult to raise with parents. They believed some parents preferred larger infants and were unaware that their feeding practices might be contributing to obesity risk. A need for training and guidance was identified together with strategies to overcome system barriers. Health visitors do not currently target parents of infants at risk of obesity largely because they do not perceive they have appropriate guidance and skills to enable them to do so. There is an urgent need for tools and training to enable all health care professionals to recognise and manage infants at risk of developing obesity without creating a sense of blame.

  14. Participation in High School Sports and Bystander Intentions, Efficacy to Intervene, and Rape Myth Beliefs.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Debate exists as to whether male athletes are more prone to commit acts of sexual violence and maintain problematic attitudes about sexual assault. To contribute to the literature on this relationship, this study posed the following research questions: (1) Do those students who participated in high school sports and those who did not differ significantly in their attitudes about sexual violence and willingness to intervene as a bystander? Do these differ among types of rape myths and bystander intervention situations? (2) Within a group of athletes, are there significant differences by gender or type of sport (contact sport vs. non-contact?) To answer these questions, surveys were analyzed with a sample of recent high school graduates the summer before entering college (N = 3,588). Results indicate that there were only minor differences between those students who participated in high school varsity sports and those who did not. Students who participated in sports had greater acceptance of three out of five types of rape myths, and less willingness to intervene with perpetrators after an assault; however, the effect sizes were small. There were no significant differences for bystander efficacy. The interaction between sport and gender was significant, but contact sport was not. The findings suggest that there may be aspects of male athletic participation in sports that needs to be addressed, yet there also exists the potential for engaging athletes as leaders who can act as prosocial bystanders.

  15. 76 FR 56189 - Symbiotics, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions to Intervene and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... powerhouse located on the northwest side of the existing concrete stilling basin with one generating unit... powerhouse draft tube to prevent non-native fish species from surviving Kaplan turbine passage into...

  16. Wave model downscaling for coastal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valchev, Nikolay; Davidan, Georgi; Trifonova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Nataliya

    2010-05-01

    Downscaling is a suitable technique for obtaining high-resolution estimates from relatively coarse-resolution global models. Dynamical and statistical downscaling has been applied to the multidecadal simulations of ocean waves. Even as large-scale variability might be plausibly estimated from these simulations, their value for the small scale applications such as design of coastal protection structures and coastal risk assessment is limited due to their relatively coarse spatial and temporal resolutions. Another advantage of the high resolution wave modeling is that it accounts for shallow water effects. Therefore, it can be used for both wave forecasting at specific coastal locations and engineering applications that require knowledge about extreme wave statistics at or near the coastal facilities. In the present study downscaling is applied to both ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis of atmospheric pressure over the Black Sea with 2.5 degrees spatial resolution. A simplified regional atmospheric model is employed for calculation of the surface wind field at 0.5 degrees resolution that serves as forcing for the wave models. Further, a high-resolution nested WAM/SWAN wave model suite of nested wave models is applied for spatial downscaling. It aims at resolving the wave conditions in a limited area at the close proximity to the shore. The pilot site is located in the northern part the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. The system involves the WAM wave model adapted for basin scale simulation at 0.5 degrees spatial resolution. The WAM output for significant wave height, mean wave period and mean angle of wave approach is used in terms of external boundary conditions for the SWAN wave model, which is set up for the western Black Sea shelf at 4km resolution. The same model set up on about 400m resolution is nested to the first SWAN run. In this case the SWAN 2D spectral output provides boundary conditions for the high-resolution model run. The models are implemented for a

  17. Stratigraphy of the Mesaverde Group in the central and eastern greater Green River basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roehler, Henry W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper establishes a stratigraphic framework for the Mesaverde Group, nearly 5,000 ft thick, in the central and eastern greater Green River basin based on data from measured outcrop sections and drill holes. Stratigraphic correlations are supported by ammonite zonation. No new stratigraphic names are introduced, and no nomenclature problems are discussed. Five long measured sections through the Mesaverde Group are described. The lower part of the Mesaverde Group, comprising the Rock Springs, Blair, Haystack Mountains, Allen Ridge, and Iles Formations, was deposited during a major eastward regression of the interior Cretaceous seaway of North America during the late Santonian and early Campanian. This regression was followed by regional uplift of the central Rocky Mountain area during the middle Campanian. The regional uplift was accompanied by widespread nondeposition and erosion, which, in turn, were followed by deposition of the Ericson and Pine Ridge Sandstones. The upper part of the Mesaverde Group, comprising the Almond and Williams Fork Formations, was deposited during a major westward transgression of the interior seaway in the early Maestrichtian. The major marine transgressions and regressions of the interior seaway were caused by eustatic changes of sea level, whereas intervening periods of nondeposition and erosion resulted from tectonism in the Sevier orogenic belt west of the study area. Formations of the Mesaverde Group are composed of sediments deposited in a landward-seaward progression of alluvial-plain, floodplain, coastal-plain, barrier-plain, tidal-flat, delta-plain, marine-shoreline, and marine-shelf and slope depositional environments. Each of these depositional environments is represented by specific lithofacies, sedimentary structures, and fossils, which are characteristic of depositional settings determined by water salinity, water depth, sedimentary and diagenetic processes, and the nature of sediment source terranes. The Mesaverde

  18. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of EPA's National Coastal Assessment (NCA) program is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on state, regional and national scales. During 1999-2003, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters were representatively sampled at ...

  19. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  20. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  1. Ocean and Coastal Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David A.

    First of all, this is not the typical book that one expects to see reviewed in Eos, but, read on. It should be clear, by now, even to the most esoteric geophysicist, that lawyers and jurists are taking very close looks at many coastal zone and offshore marine activities. More importantly, there are a wide variety of laws (both at the state and the national levels) and international regulations that determine how we now use or will use our coastal region including how and where we will do marine scientific research. Recently, a Presidential Proclamation (March 1983) declared a 200-mile exclusive economic zone for the United States. The President, in the accompanying statements to the Proclamation, has called special attention to polymetallic sulfide deposits (Is someone in the White House reading Eos?) in what will now be U.S. waters (i.e., the Juan de Fuca region). Well, if you or your colleagues want to know more about U.S. and individual state rules for management and use of our marine areas, this might be the book for you.

  2. Reserves in Western Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of overpressured tight (OPT) gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins. These are the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB), Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin. By documenting productive characteristics in these basins and characterizing the nature of the vast gas resources in place, the reserves potential may be understood and quantified. Through this understanding, it is hoped that the oil and gas industry will be encouraged to pursue exploitation of this resource. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and the final report submitted for publication. Work on the Uinta basin has just commenced and work on the Piceance basin will commence next year. Since the GGRB portion of this project has been completed, further discussion centers upon this Basin.

  3. Coastal mangrove forests mitigated tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Rajendran, Narayanasamy

    2005-11-01

    A study conducted after the 26th of December 2004 tsunami in 18 coastal hamlets along the south-east coast of India reiterates the importance of coastal mangrove vegetations and location characteristics of human inhabitation to protect lives and wealth from the fury of tsunami. The tsunami caused human death and loss of wealth and these decreased with the area of coastal vegetation, distance and elevation of human inhabitation from the sea. Human inhabitation should be encouraged more than 1 km from the shoreline in elevated places, behind dense mangroves and or other coastal vegetation. Some plant species, suitable to grow in between human inhabitation and the sea for coastal protection, are suggested.

  4. Patterns of pollution in the Hudson-Raritan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, R.U.; Rod, S.R.

    1986-05-01

    By 1987 fully 100 percent of New York City's 1.6 billion gallons of waste water will receive at least primary sewage treatment. Eliminating the addition of raw sewage into New York Harbor is one example of the slow but steady progress being made in cleaning up the rivers and coastal waters of the Hudson-Raritan basin. This paper examined the historical patterns of pollution and the steps required to reduce future pollution of the Hudson-Raritan basin. 21 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Effects of urbanization on agricultural lands and river basins: case study of Mersin (South of Turkey).

    PubMed

    Duran, Celalettin; Gunek, Halil; Sandal, Ersin Kaya

    2012-04-01

    Largely, Turkey is a hilly and mountainous country. Many rivers rise from the mountains and flow into the seas surrounding the country. Mean while along fertile plains around the rivers and coastal floodplains of Turkey were densely populated than the other parts of the country. These characteristics show that there is a significant relationship between river basins and population or settlements. It is understood from this point of view, Mersin city and its vicinity (coastal floodplain and nearby river basins) show similar relationship. The city of Mersin was built on the southwest comer of Cukurova where Delicay and Efrenk creeks create narrow coastal floodplain. The plain has rich potential for agricultural practices with fertile alluvial soils and suitable climate. However, establishment of the port at the shore have increased commercial activity. Agricultural and commercial potential have attracted people to the area, and eventually has caused rapid spatial expansion of the city, and the urban sprawls over fertile agricultural lands along coastal floodplain and nearby river basins of the city. But unplanned, uncontrolled and illegal urbanization process has been causing degradation of agricultural areas and river basins, and also causing flooding in the city of Mersin and its vicinity. Especially in the basins, urbanization increases impervious surfaces throughout watersheds that increase erosion and runoff of surface water. In this study, the city of Mersin and its vicinity are examined in different ways, such as land use, urbanization, morphology and flows of the streams and given some directions for suitable urbanization.

  6. Vulnerability assessment for preliminary flood risk mapping and management in coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Michele; Martino, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Planning and management of coastal environment, both terrestrial and marine, is affected by several actions in environment resource conservation and improvement paying specific attention to risk forecasting and preventing. In such context the EU flood Directive 2007/60/EC, which requires Member States the assessment and management of flood risk, and the EU water framework Directive (2000/60/EC) are the key factors in the integrated river basin management to assure an efficient and rational use of resources. Afterwards, coastal risk assessment and mapping is a propaedeutic phase to plan and manage coastal areas. In this work risk analysis refers to the results obtained by the combined application of coastal flooding and erosion risks in the activities carried out to prepare Regional Coast Management Plan for the Ionian coast of Basilicata Region located in the south of Italy. In order to define the driving forces acting on the shore, high resolution lidar data, bathymetric information and wave climate statistics acquired by meteorological analyses on wind field data referred to different acquisition times are used. The systemic vulnerability estimation is achieved by composing both hazard factors combined in the Criticality Coastal Index depending on of the assessment of Coastal Flood Index and Coastal Erosion Index based on morphologic and socio-economic variables.

  7. A Rossby whistle: A resonant basin mode observed in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Joanne; Hibbert, Angela; Boening, Carmen; Oram, James

    2016-07-01

    We show that an important source of coastal sea level variability around the Caribbean Sea is a resonant basin mode. The mode consists of a baroclinic Rossby wave which propagates westward across the basin and is rapidly returned to the east along the southern boundary as coastal shelf waves. Almost two wavelengths of the Rossby wave fit across the basin, and it has a period of 120 days. The porous boundary of the Caribbean Sea results in this mode exciting a mass exchange with the wider ocean, leading to a dominant mode of bottom pressure variability which is almost uniform over the Grenada, Venezuela, and Colombia basins and has a sharp spectral peak at 120 day period. As the Rossby waves have been shown to be excited by instability of the Caribbean Current, this resonant mode is dynamically equivalent to the operation of a whistle.

  8. Coastal erosion in Sicily: geomorphologic impact and mitigation (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, V.; Manno, G.

    2009-04-01

    coastal units, in low-coastline and mountainous, with average rates of 29%. The main methods available today for the protection of coastlines in Sicily, are falling in the first approximation in hard (structural), and soft and soft, based not only on nutrition artificial beaches but also on interventions with low environmental impact as the reduction of losses sediments. The right approach is not only in stabilizing the various shores, but also in not induce or accelerate the erosion of the adjacent areas. Indeed this impact accompanies almost all the hard interventions achieved in past years. It is essential to carry out a verification of the effectiveness of the defence of the coast from erosion and structural interventions of nourishment in terms of impact on coastal marine and coastal environment. We started a series of experimental analysis based on the application of new techniques for relief based on remote sensing as the major techniques performed with satellite radar (SAR), measurements morph-altitude high resolution made with the laser system by plane (LIDAR) and precise measurements on the behaviour of works and river mouths with intelligences cameras. The most dominant climate change involve the precipitation and temperature. Temperature is particularly important in snow-dominated basins and in coastal areas, the latter due to the impact of temperature on sea level. Moreover we must say that (as mentioned in 4th Report IPCC) the shores are projected to be exposed to increasing risks, including coastal erosion, due to climate change and sea level rise. Infrastructure in coastal areas is vulnerable to damage from sea-level rise, flooding, and other storms. This effect will be exacerbated by increasing human-induced pressures on coastal areas. Keywords: erosion, shores, coastal defend, monitoring.

  9. Understanding Extreme Spanish Coastal Flood Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, J. Javier; Esteban, M. Dolores; Silvestre, J. Manuel

    2013-04-01

    The Santa Irene flood event, at the end of October 1982, is one of the most dramatically widely reported flood events in Spain. Its renown is mainly due to the collapse of the Tous dam, but its main message is to be the paradigm of the incidence of the maritime/littoral weather and its temporal sea level rise by storm surge accompanying rain process on the coastal plains inland floods. Looking at damages the presentation analyzes the adapted measures from the point of view of the aims of the FP7 SMARTeST Project related to the Flood Resilience improvement in urban areas through looking for Technologies, Systems and Tools an appropriate "road to de market". The event was due to the meteorological phenomenon known as "gota fría" (cold drop), a relatively frequent and intense rainy phenomenon affecting one or more basins on the Iberian Peninsula, particularly on the Spanish east to southeast inlands and coasts. There are some circumstances that can easily come together to unleash the cold drop there: cold and dry polar air masses coming onto the whole Iberian Peninsula and the north of Africa, high sea water temperatures, and low atmospheric pressure (cyclone) areas in the western Mediterranean basin; these circumstances are quite common during the autumn season there, and, as it happens, in other places around the world (East/Southeast Africa). Their occurrence, however shows a great space-temporal variability (in a similar way to hurricanes, on Caribbean and western North-Atlantic areas, or to typhoons do). As a matter of fact, all of these equivalent though different phenomena may have different magnitude each time. An overview of the very main events since 11th century in the East to Southeast areas in Spain is shown in the presentation, looking for relation with climatic conditions and Climate changes on one hand, and with geomorphologic and geotechnical conditions on the other It also describes the results of a detailed analysis and reflection about this cold

  10. The Integrated Design Plan for the Coastal Module of GOOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T.; Knap, T.

    2003-04-01

    Changes in the ocean-climate system and land-use in coastal drainage basins are major drivers of change in coastal waters of the U.S. EEZ. Consequent changes in physical, biological, chemical and geological processes affect public health and well being, the health of coastal marine ecosystems, and the sustainability of living marine resources. Such changes are related through a hierarchy of interactions that can be represented by robust models of ecosystems dynamics. These observations make a compelling case for an ecosystem-based approach to the management of living marine resources, environmental protection, coastal zone management, and coastal engineering, especially in coastal systems where erosion, flooding, habitat alterations, over-fishing, water pollution, fish kills, invasions of non-indigenous species, and harmful algal blooms are collectively most severe. Implementing an ecosystem-based strategy requires the capability to engage in adaptive management, a decision-making activity that depends on the ability to (1) routinely and rapidly detect changes in the environment and living resources and to (2) provide timely predictions of changes in or the occurrence of the phenomena that affect the capacity of ecosystems to provide goods and services (from surface currents and coastal flooding to habitat modification and the loss of biodiversity). We do not have this capability today. Effective management and sustainable use also depend on efficient and timely coupling of the processes by which new scientific knowledge is gained and the fruits of this knowledge are used for the public good. Today, there is an unacceptable disconnect between these processes. A new approach to detecting and predicting environmental changes is needed that enables adaptive management through routine, continuous and rapid provision of data and information. The Coastal Module of the Global Ocean Observing System is being developed as part of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy to

  11. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  12. Influences of peers, teachers, and climate on students' willingness to intervene when witnessing anti-transgender harassment.

    PubMed

    Wernick, Laura J; Kulick, Alex; Inglehart, M H

    2014-08-01

    Transgender young people are at increased risk for bullying, harassment, and negative mental health and academic outcomes compared to the general population as well as compared to other members of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and similarly identified (LGBTQQ) communities. To inform interventions to support transgender students, the present study investigates students' willingness to intervene when witnessing anti-transgender harassment, using data collected from a participatory action research project investigating school climate. Multi-step linear regression was used to test the impacts of hearing transphobic language and witnessing teachers and others students intervene, while controlling for demographics and school. Hostile climate negatively predicted intervention intentions while witnessing peer intervention positively predicted likelihood to intervene. Witnessing teacher intervention did not significantly predict the outcome. These findings suggest that youth-led interventions in peer networks might be effective in diminishing transphobic bullying and supporting the healthy development of transgender young people. PMID:25032899

  13. Effects of the Fataki campaign: addressing cross-generational sex in Tanzania by mobilizing communities to intervene.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Mooney, Alyssa; Kamala, Benjamin; Modarres, Najmeh; Karam, Robert; Ng'wanansabi, Deo

    2013-07-01

    The national multimedia "Fataki" campaign aired in Tanzania from 2008 to 2011 with the goal of addressing cross-generational sex (CGS) by mobilizing communities to intervene in CGS relationships. A cross-sectional household survey was used to evaluate the campaign. Logistic regression analysis found a dose-response relationship between campaign exposure and interpersonal communication about CGS, intervening in CGS relationships, and lower CGS engagement among women. No association was found between campaign exposure and current CGS involvement among men, though longer-term data collection may be needed to assess changes in relationship patterns. Findings indicated that engaging in interpersonal communication about CGS was associated with a higher likelihood of actually intervening. Strategies to generate further discussion surrounding CGS and increase impact, such as through community-based components to supplement campaigns, are discussed. PMID:23443976

  14. Influences of peers, teachers, and climate on students' willingness to intervene when witnessing anti-transgender harassment.

    PubMed

    Wernick, Laura J; Kulick, Alex; Inglehart, M H

    2014-08-01

    Transgender young people are at increased risk for bullying, harassment, and negative mental health and academic outcomes compared to the general population as well as compared to other members of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and similarly identified (LGBTQQ) communities. To inform interventions to support transgender students, the present study investigates students' willingness to intervene when witnessing anti-transgender harassment, using data collected from a participatory action research project investigating school climate. Multi-step linear regression was used to test the impacts of hearing transphobic language and witnessing teachers and others students intervene, while controlling for demographics and school. Hostile climate negatively predicted intervention intentions while witnessing peer intervention positively predicted likelihood to intervene. Witnessing teacher intervention did not significantly predict the outcome. These findings suggest that youth-led interventions in peer networks might be effective in diminishing transphobic bullying and supporting the healthy development of transgender young people.

  15. Effects of the Fataki campaign: addressing cross-generational sex in Tanzania by mobilizing communities to intervene.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Mooney, Alyssa; Kamala, Benjamin; Modarres, Najmeh; Karam, Robert; Ng'wanansabi, Deo

    2013-07-01

    The national multimedia "Fataki" campaign aired in Tanzania from 2008 to 2011 with the goal of addressing cross-generational sex (CGS) by mobilizing communities to intervene in CGS relationships. A cross-sectional household survey was used to evaluate the campaign. Logistic regression analysis found a dose-response relationship between campaign exposure and interpersonal communication about CGS, intervening in CGS relationships, and lower CGS engagement among women. No association was found between campaign exposure and current CGS involvement among men, though longer-term data collection may be needed to assess changes in relationship patterns. Findings indicated that engaging in interpersonal communication about CGS was associated with a higher likelihood of actually intervening. Strategies to generate further discussion surrounding CGS and increase impact, such as through community-based components to supplement campaigns, are discussed.

  16. Surface water data and geographic relation to Tertiary age intrusions and hydrothermal alteration in the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests (GMUG) and intervening Bureau of Land Management (BLM) lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Knepper, Daniel H.

    2000-01-01

    This data set covering the western part of Colorado includes water quality data from eight different sources (points), nine U.S. Geological Survey Digital Raster Graph (DRG) files for topographic bases, a compilation of Tertiary age intrusions (polygons and lines), and two geotiff files showing areas of hydrothermally altered rock. These data were compiled for use with an ongoing mineral resource assessment of theGrand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests (GMUG) and intervening Bureau of Land Management(BLM) lands. This compilation was assembled to give federal land managers a preliminary view of water within sub-basinal areas, and to show possible relationships to Tertiary age intrusion and areas of hydrothermal alteration.

  17. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  18. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  19. Physical activity promotion in the preschool years: a critical period to intervene.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S; Harvey, Alysha; Grattan, Kimberly; Adamo, Kristi B

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this paper is to provide a rationale for the necessity of intervening with a physical activity intervention in the preschool years and why the daycare environment is amenable to such intervention. We also review the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and obesity in the preschool population and the impact that these lifestyle behaviours and conditions have on the health of preschool aged children, as secondary objectives. Moreover we discuss implications for intervention and research using a "lessons learned" model based on our research team's experience of conducting a randomized controlled trial aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour and improving motor skill development and body composition in preschoolers. Lastly, we make conclusions based on the literature and highlight issues and directions that need to be addressed in future research in order to maximize health promotion and chronic disease prevention in the pediatric population.

  20. [Intervening conditions on governance of the nursing practice at an obstetrics centre].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Roberta Juliane Tono; da Copelli, Fernanda Hannah Silva; Pestana, Aline Lima; dos Santos, José Luís Guedes; Gregório, Vitória Regina Petters; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2014-03-01

    Governance refers to all processes that grant nurses autonomy, control and authority over the nursing practice. The aim of this study was to identify intervening conditions on governance of nursing practice at an obstetrics centre. This is a qualitative study based on the grounded theory method. Data were collected between January and May 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews with 27 participants of a university hospital in southern Brazil, divided into four sampling groups. Data were analysed using open, axial and selective coding. Governance is reinforced by experience and professional autonomy, coordination of the care and management dimension, interpersonal communication, satisfaction and engagement with the profession. It is limited by difficulties with interpersonal relationships, work overload and precarious physical structure of the maternity units. This study provides arguments for the discussion on improvements in healthcare and the professional satisfaction of nurses and nursing teams. PMID:24930272

  1. An inhomogeneous reference catalogue of identified intervening heavy element systems in spectra of QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Donald G.; Yanny, Brian; Crotts, Arlin; Carilli, Chris; Garrison, Etoi

    1991-01-01

    Identifications of heavy element line systems, observed in spectra of quasi-stellar objects between 1965 and 1989 inclusive, are collected and tabulated with references. Each system is assigned a quality grade based on the apparent reliability of the data. The highest quality systems are used to characterize the absorbers as a sample. A decrease in C IV line strength with redshift (z), and the corresponding decrease in line density per unit z with z are confirmed. The weakest C IV systems, at high z, are accompanied by relatively stronger Si IV lines, compared to the relative line strengths at low z. The space density of systems with strong lines of first ions is nearly independent of z below z = 3, though it drops at z greater than 3. Preliminary tests for quasar lensing by intervening systems and for clustering of absorbers on large scales are presented.

  2. Intervening in Earth's climate system through space-based solar reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F. J. T.; McInnes, C. R.; Winter, O. C.

    2016-07-01

    Several space-based climate engineering methods, including shading the Earth with a particle ring for active cooling, or the use of orbital reflectors to increase the total insolation of Mars for climate warming have been considered to modify planetary climates in a controller manner. In this study, solar reflectors on polar orbits are proposed to intervene in the Earth's climate system, involving near circular polar orbits normal to the ecliptic plane of the Earth. Similarly, a family of displaced polar orbits (non-Keplerian orbits) are also characterized to mitigate future natural climate variability, producing a modest global temperature increase, again to compensate for possible future cooling. These include deposition of aerosols in the stratosphere from large volcanic events. The two-body problem is considered, taking into account the effects of solar radiation pressure and the Earth's J2 oblateness perturbation.

  3. Three-year-old children intervene in third-party moral transgressions.

    PubMed

    Vaish, Amrisha; Missana, Manuela; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-03-01

    We investigated children's moral behaviour in situations in which a third party was harmed (the test case for possession of agent-neutral moral norms). A 3-year-old and two puppets each created a picture or clay sculpture, after which one puppet left the room. In the Harm condition, the remaining (actor) puppet then destroyed the absent (recipient) puppet's picture or sculpture. In a Control condition, the actor acted similarly but in a way that did not harm the recipient. Children protested during the actor's actions, and, upon the recipient's return, tattled on the actor and behaved prosocially towards the recipient more in the Harm than in the Control condition. This is the first study to show that children as young as 3 years of age actively intervene in third-party moral transgressions. PMID:21288257

  4. Paluxy of the Central Basin-East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Presley, M.W. )

    1993-09-01

    The Paluxy Formation (Lower Cretaceous) has been a consistent sandstone exploration objective in the central East Texas basin, occurring at moderate depths on the order of 5000-8000 ft with oil in reservoirs with good permeability and porosity and reserves in the range of 200,000 to 500,000 bbl per well. Since the 1940s, the pace of Paluxy field discovery has been steady, generally a new field or two every one or two years, and there is every reason to believe that there is continued potential for the Paluxy in the future. The central part of the East Texas basin, in Smith County and adjacent areas, has complex structure with numerous salt domes and intervening sediment wedges (turtles) that formed during movement of the salt. Paluxy oil and gas in this area occurs mainly in combination structural-stratigraphic traps along normal faults that cut turtles. Major exploration trends in the central basin include (1) the Lindale turtle with a number of widely spaced fields, generally with only a few wells but with relatively good per-well reserves, (2) the Tyler turtle with the largest fields and some of the most prolific Paluxy production in the central basin, (3) the Flint and Irene turtles with relatively thin sandstones and modest production, (4) the Lane Chapel turtle with some exciting new Paluxy discoveries, and (5) the rim areas of salt domes.

  5. [Hurricanes and tropical coastal biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2002-06-01

    Tropical coastal biodiversity has been modulated by tropical storms during a long time and it is currently facing a heavy human impact. The purpose of this review is to compile the available information to improve our understanding of hurricane impacts and to promote the establishment of coastal landscape monitoring, because that is the best way to assess these impacts. Although generalizations on hurricane effects are elusive, some historical dynamics and temporal relationships are included and some details are presented on the impacts by resuspension and movement of sediments, storm waves, and breaking off of coral reef organisms. Some effects on marine turtles and coastal forests are also briefly pointed out.

  6. 24 CFR 574.645 - Coastal barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastal barriers. 574.645 Section....645 Coastal barriers. In accordance with the Coastal Barrier Resources Act, 16 U.S.C. 3501, no financial assistance under this part may be made available within the Coastal Barrier Resources System....

  7. Quaternary incised valleys in southern Brazil coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weschenfelder, Jair; Baitelli, Ricardo; Corrêa, Iran C. S.; Bortolin, Eduardo C.; dos Santos, Cristiane B.

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution seismic records obtained in the Rio Grande do Sul coastal zone, southern Brazil, revealed that prominent valleys and channels developed in the area before the installation of actual coastal plain. Landwards, the paleoincisions can be linked with the present courses of the main river dissecting the area. Oceanwards, they can be linked with related features previously recognized in the continental shelf and slope by means of seismic and morphostructural studies. Based mainly on seismic, core data and geologic reasoning, it can be inferred that the coastal valleys were incised during forced regression events into the coastal prism deposited during previous sea level highstand events of the Quaternary. Seismic data has revealed paleovalleys up to 10 km wide and, in some places, infilled with up to 40 m thick of sediments. The results indicated two distinct periods of cut-and-fill events in the Patos Lagoon area. The filling of the younger incision system is mainly Holocene and its onset is related to the last main regressive event of the Pleistocene, when the sea level fell about 130 m below the actual position. The older incision and filling event is related to the previous regressive-transgressive events of the Middle and Late Pleistocene. The fluvial discharge fed delta systems on the shelf edge during the sea level lowstands. The subsequent transgressions drowned the incised drainage, infilling it and closing the inlets formerly connecting the coastal river to the ocean. The incised features may have played a significant role on the basin-margin architecture, facies distribution and accommodation space during the multitude of up and down sea level events of the Quaternary.

  8. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  9. Factors affecting the evolution of coastal wetlands of the Laurential Great Lakes: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, T.; Edsall, T.; Munawar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal wetlands play a pivotal role in the Great Lakes ecosystem. As buffer zones between the land and open waters of the Great Lakes, they perform a variety of essential functions providing both direct and indirect anthropogenic benefits. Geology, morphology and climate are the dominant variables that influence Laurentian Great Lakes wetland development. However, anthropogenic factors are the major contributors to alteration of natural wetland processes. This paper provides an overview of natural and anthropogenic factors important in Great Lakes coastal wetland development and provides statistical information describing the Great Lakes Basin. A brief description of wetlands classification and research issues is also presented.

  10. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  11. Basin and range-age reactivation of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Texas Panhandle: evidence from Ogallala Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1984-04-01

    The Ogallala Formation (Neogene) is a widespread syntectonic alluvial apron that was shed eastward from the Rio Grande rift and related uplifts in Colorado and New Mexico during Basin and Range extension. In the Texas Panhandle, the Ogallala completely buried Ancestral Rocky Mountain (Pennsylvanian) structures. Renewed movement on these older structures during the Neogene influenced the thickness and facies distribution of the Ogallala. The Ogallala thickens into the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko basins. Major distributary channels on Ogallala alluvial fans coincide with the axes of these basins, whereas major interchannel areas overlie intervening uplifts. Second-order structures subtly influenced the unit as well. For example, the Carson basin, a Pennsylvanian rhomb graben along the Amarillo uplift, the Ogallala is over 250 m (820 ft) thick compared with 90 m (275 ft) in adjacent areas. Within the Palo Duro basin, local highs controlled the distribution of thin, interchannel flood-basin and lacustrine deposits. Thicker, braided-stream channel deposits follow local lows. Later movement on the Amarillo uplift broadly folded the Ogallala. The southern high plains surface subtly reflects basement structure, with topographic highs overlying basement highs, suggesting post-Ogallala deformation within the Palo Duro basin. The Amarillo uplift is approximately perpendicular to the Rio Grande rift and parallel to the direction of Basin and Range extension. Thus, the stress field that produced the rift may have caused strike-slip movement and reactivation of the Carson basin along the Amarillo uplift.

  12. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  13. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  14. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  15. Megacities in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the coastal waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the coastal ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to coastal ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. Coastal megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.

  16. Individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying: the influence of children's provictim attitudes and teachers' ability to intervene.

    PubMed

    Christian Elledge, L; Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron J; Depaolis, Kathryn J; Little, Todd D; Salmivalli, Christina

    2013-05-01

    Electronic social communication has provided a new context for children to bully and harass their peers and it is clear that cyberbullying is a growing public health concern in the US and abroad. The present study examined individual and contextual predictors of cyberbullying in a sample of 16, 634 students in grades 3-5 and 7-8. Data were obtained from a large cluster-randomized trial of the KiVa antibullying program that occurred in Finland between 2007 and 2009. Students completed measures at pre-intervention assessing provictim attitudes (defined as children's beliefs that bullying is unacceptable, victims are acceptable, and defending victims is valued), perceptions of teachers' ability to intervene in bullying, and cyberbullying behavior. Students with higher scores on provictim attitudes reported lower frequencies of cyberbullying. This relationship was true for individual provictim attitudes as well as the collective attitudes of students within classrooms. Teachers' ability to intervene assessed at the classroom level was a unique, positive predictor of cyberbullying. Classrooms in which students collectively considered their teacher as capable of intervening to stop bullying had higher mean levels of cyberbullying frequency. Our findings suggest that cyberbullying and other indirect or covert forms of bullying may be more prevalent in classrooms where students collectively perceive their teacher's ability to intervene in bullying as high. We found no evidence that individual or contextual effects were conditional on age or gender. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  17. Intervening in Bullying: Differences across Elementary School Staff Members in Attitudes, Perceptions, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing body of research has investigated the experiences of certified school staff in antibullying efforts, a dearth of research exists on noncertified staff. To that end, the present study examined differences in attitudes, perceptions, and self-efficacy beliefs to intervene among certified (for example, teachers, counselors, school…

  18. Peer Victimization and Social Dominance as Intervening Variables of the Link between Peer Liking and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bartlett, Nancy H.; Bukowski, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined social dominance and peer victimization as possible intervening and moderating variables of the association between peer liking and relational aggression because previous findings suggest that social dominance and peer victimization are important for predicting the acceptableness and success of aggression. A total of 367…

  19. 76 FR 79673 - PacifiCorp; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PacifiCorp; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Protests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been...

  20. Teacher and Staff Perceptions of School Environment as Predictors of Student Aggression, Victimization, and Willingness to Intervene in Bullying Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espelage, Dorothy L.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Low, Sabina K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who…

  1. The Effect of Perceived Child Anxiety Status on Parental Latency to Intervene with Anxious and Nonanxious Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschenbrand, Sasha G.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined the effect of perceived child anxiety status on parental latency to intervene with anxious and nonanxious youth. Method: Parents (68) of anxiety-disordered (PAD) and nonanxiety-disordered (PNAD; 56) children participated. Participants listened and responded to an audio vignette of a parent-child interaction: Half were told…

  2. Identifying and Intervening with Students Exhibiting Signs of Gaming Addiction and Other Addictive Behaviors: Implications for Professional School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Young, Tabitha

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses strategies professional school counselors can use to recognize and intervene with students who are presenting with signs of addictive behaviors. First, the authors present a definition of addictive behaviors. The authors then define and discuss the most common addictive behaviors impacting adolescents, with a special…

  3. 18-Month-Olds Predict Specific Action Mistakes through Attribution of False Belief, Not Ignorance, and Intervene Accordingly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudsen, Birgit; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a new "anticipatory intervening" paradigm to tease apart false belief and ignorance-based interpretations of 18-month-olds' helpful informing. We investigated in three experiments whether 18-month-old infants inform an adult selectively about one of the two locations depending on the adult's belief about which of the two…

  4. Health promotion messages in entertainment media: crime drama viewership and intentions to intervene in a sexual assault situation.

    PubMed

    Hust, Stacey J T; Marett, Emily Garrigues; Lei, Ming; Chang, Hua; Ren, Chunbo; McNab, Anna Lazárová; Adams, Paula M

    2013-01-01

    Popular crime dramas have tackled sensitive issues such as sexual assault with increasing frequency over the past 20 years. These popular programs increasingly demonstrate the emotional and physical effect of sexual assault on its victims, and in some instances they depict individuals being rewarded for intervening to prevent or stop an assault in progress. It is possible that this content could affect attitudes related to sexual assault prevention. However, no previous research has examined this possibility. In the fall 2008 semester, 508 undergraduates at a large northwestern university completed a questionnaire about media use and bystander intervention in a sexual assault situation. Results from hierarchical regressions lend support for the integrative model of behavioral prediction in that instrumentality, rape myth acceptance, perceived social norms, perceived efficacy related to intervening, and exposure to primetime crime dramas were associated with participants' intentions to intervene in a sexual assault. The results suggest that crime dramas may be a useful venue for prevention messages as exposure to crime dramas uniquely contributed to intentions to intervene in a sexual assault.

  5. Geology of the Eel River basin and adjacent region: implications for late Cenozoic tectonics of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and Mendocino triple junction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    Two upper Cenozoic depositional sequences of principally marine strata about 4000m thick overlie accreted basement terranes of the Central and Coastal belts of the Franciscan Complex in the onshore-offshore Eel River basin of northwestern California. The older depositional sequence is early to middle Miocene in age and represents slope basin and slope-blanket deposition, whereas the younger sequence, late Miocene to middle Pleistocene in age, consists largely of forearc basin deposits. -from Author

  6. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera): A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history

    PubMed Central

    Frank, J. H.; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae. By ‘coastal habitats’ we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs. The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state). Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database. The ‘Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes’ section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history. The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the Pacific. This

  7. Coastal Staphylinidae (Coleoptera): A worldwide checklist, biogeography and natural history.

    PubMed

    Frank, J H; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2011-01-01

    We provide a list of the 392 described species of Staphylinidae confined to coastal habitats worldwide. The list is in taxonomic sequence by subfamily, tribe, and genus and includes 91 genera. We provide the page reference of the original description of every species and genus listed and of many synonyms. We note the existence of recent reviews, phylogenies and keys of each of the tribes and genera included. Coastal Staphylinidae contain eight subfamilies: Microsilphinae, Omaliinae, Pselaphinae, Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Scydmaeninae, Paederinae, and Staphylininae.By 'coastal habitats' we mean habitats existing on the sea coast and subject to inundation or at least splashing by the very highest tides. This includes rocky, boulder, coral, sandy, and muddy seashores, and at least portions of salt-marshes, estuaries, and mangrove swamps. We exclude the sand dune habitat and higher parts of sea-cliffs.The list notes distribution of all the species, first according to the ocean or sea on whose shores it has been recorded, and second by country (and for the larger countries by province or state). Although this distribution is undoubtedly incomplete, it provides a basis for future development of a dedicated database.The 'Habitats, Habits, and Classificatory Notes' section is designed to provide ecologists with further taxonomic and ecological information. It includes references to descriptions of the immature stages, behavior of adults and immatures, their food, natural enemies, and habitat. We would have preferred to separate these entities, but current knowledge of ecology is developed in few instances beyond natural history.The Pacific Ocean basin was the origin and contributed to the dispersal of the majority of specialist coastal Staphylinidae at the level of genus. However, at the level of species, species belonging to non-coastal-specialist genera are about as likely to occur on the shores of other oceans as on the shores of the Pacific. This difference is a

  8. Environmental Impact of Eu Policies On Acheloos River Basin, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoulikidis, N.; Nikolaidis, N. P.; Oikonomopoulou, A.; Batzias, F.

    The environmental impact of EU policies aiming at protecting surface and ground wa- ters are being assessed in the Acheloos River Basin, Greece as part of a Joint Research Centre (JRC) / DG Environment (DG Env) funded project. The basin offers the possi- bility of studying the impact of EU policies on a multitude of aquatic ecosystems: four artificial and four natural lakes and a large estuary with important hydrotops (lagoons, coastal salt lacustrine and freshwater marshes, etc.) that belong to the NATURA 2000 sites or are protected by the RAMSAR Convention. A database has been developed that includes all available information on sources, fluxes, and concentration levels of nutrients and selected heavy metals from prior and current research programs at the Acheloos River Basin and coastal environment. This information has been used to identify the environmental pressures and develop nutrient budgets for each sub-basin of the watershed to assess the relative contributions of nutrients from various land uses. The mathematical model HSPF is being used to model the hydrology and nitro- gen fate and transport in the watershed. Management scenarios will be developed and modelling exercises will be carried out to assess the impacts of the scenarios. Eco- nomic analysis of the nutrient management scenarios will be conducted to evaluate the costs associated with management practices for reaching acceptable water quality status.

  9. Oil plays in Smackover reservoirs of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Mink, R.M.; Tew, B.H.; Kopaskamerkel, D.C.; Mann, S.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Five Smackover (Upper Jurassic, Oxfordian) oil plays can be delineated in the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. These include the basement ridge play, the regional peripheral fault trend play, the Mississippi interior salt basin play, the Mobile graben fault system play, and the Wiggins arch complex play. Plays are recognized by basinal position, relationships to regional structural features, and characteristic petroleum traps. Within two plays, subplays can be distinguished based on oil gravities and reservoir characteristics. Reservoirs are distinguished primarily by depositional setting and diagenetic overprint. The geology and petroleum characteristics of these plays are discussed.

  10. Sedimentology and hydrocarbon potential of Yager structural complex--possible paleogene source rocks in Eel River Basin, Northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, M.B.

    1985-07-01

    The Yager structural complex of coastal northern California is composed of Paleogene mudrocks, turbidites, and related deep marine deposits. The strata are folded but lack the severe and pervasive stratal disruption that characterizes surrounding accreted terranes, such as the Franciscan Coastal belt. Lithofacies associations and depositional cycles define three environmental settings: slope, feeder channel, and restricted basin. The rocks probably represent a sequence of trench-slope and slope-basin deposits that accumulated above a broadly coeval basement of accreted Coastal belt rocks. Yager strata are possible source beds for hydrocarbons within the late Cenozoic Eel River basin. Type III kerogen is dominant, and organic carbon content and hydrocarbon yield are relatively low. Nevertheless, the thermal maturity of Yager shales is well within the window of peak hydrocarbon generation. This level of maturation is attributed to a combination of middle Tertiary thrust faulting and subsequent depositional burial beneath the Neogene Wildcat Group.

  11. Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System: Ongoing project work and synthesis activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Sturm, M.; Ashjian, C. J.; Jorgensen, T.; Oechel, W. C.; Ping, C.; Rhew, R. C.; Stieglitz, M.

    2006-12-01

    Six ongoing projects focus on a better understanding of processes occurring along the Arctic Alaskan Coast. These projects, grouped as "Studies of the Northern Alaskan Coastal System", or SNACS, combine field, laboratory, modeling and human dimensions research. They include: 1) an investigation of climate variability, ocean processes, sea ice, bowhead whales, and Inupiat subsistence whaling, 2) research on the impact of variability within the ocean and atmosphere on terrestrial fluxes of carbon dioxide, dissolved organic matter and energy, 3) an inventory and description of soil organic carbon fluxes and ground ice in the coastal environment, 4) a determination of whether arctic coastal terrestrial ecosystems are significant sources or sinks of atmospheric methyl halides, chloroform and methane, 5) development of generalized discharge- constituent relationships for arctic basins, and 6) an investigation of the processes controlling mercury deposition to the coastal system. Three broad themes unite the projects: 1) nutrient fluxes from rivers and shoreline erosion in the Arctic coastal zone, 2) impacts of cryospheric changes on the Alaskan Arctic Coast, and 3) potential rapid regime shifts controlled by atmospheric and meteorological processes that could affect the Alaskan Arctic Coast. Warming of the Arctic, particularly its impact on sea ice and nutrient transport in arctic rivers is already affecting fundamental coastal system processes. The six SNACS projects are helping to understand how these impacts will evolve and what their ramifications will be both within and outside of the Arctic.

  12. Teacher and staff perceptions of school environment as predictors of student aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Polanin, Joshua R; Low, Sabina K

    2014-09-01

    This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who completed survey measures of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Teachers and staff (n = 1,447) completed a school environment survey. Bivariate associations between school-level and student self-reports indicated that as teacher and staff perceive aggression as a problem in their school, students reported greater bully perpetration, fighting, peer victimization, and less willingness to intervene. Further, as staff and teacher report greater commitment to prevent bullying and viewed positive teacher and student relationships, there was less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization, and greater willingness to intervene. In a model where all school environment scales were entered together, a school commitment to prevent bullying was associated with less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization. Student-reports of bully perpetration and peer victimization were largely explained by staff and teacher commitment to bully prevention, whereas fighting and willingness to intervene were largely explained by student characteristics (e.g., gender). We conclude that efforts to address bullying and victimization should involve support from the school administration. School psychologists should play an active role in the school climate improvement process, by creating a school climate council consisting of students, parents, and teachers; administering school climate measures; identifying specific school improvement targets from these data, and engaging all stakeholders in the ongoing school improvement plan. PMID:25089334

  13. Teacher and staff perceptions of school environment as predictors of student aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations.

    PubMed

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Polanin, Joshua R; Low, Sabina K

    2014-09-01

    This study examines how teacher and staff perceptions of the school environment correlate with student self-reports of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying incidents using multi-informant, multilevel modeling. Data were derived from 3,616 6th grade students across 36 middle schools in the Midwest, who completed survey measures of bullying, aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. Teachers and staff (n = 1,447) completed a school environment survey. Bivariate associations between school-level and student self-reports indicated that as teacher and staff perceive aggression as a problem in their school, students reported greater bully perpetration, fighting, peer victimization, and less willingness to intervene. Further, as staff and teacher report greater commitment to prevent bullying and viewed positive teacher and student relationships, there was less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization, and greater willingness to intervene. In a model where all school environment scales were entered together, a school commitment to prevent bullying was associated with less bullying, fighting, and peer victimization. Student-reports of bully perpetration and peer victimization were largely explained by staff and teacher commitment to bully prevention, whereas fighting and willingness to intervene were largely explained by student characteristics (e.g., gender). We conclude that efforts to address bullying and victimization should involve support from the school administration. School psychologists should play an active role in the school climate improvement process, by creating a school climate council consisting of students, parents, and teachers; administering school climate measures; identifying specific school improvement targets from these data, and engaging all stakeholders in the ongoing school improvement plan.

  14. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (<63µm) from the piedmont glacier to the coastal zone (0-30m depth), (ii) establish the role of this coastal zone in sediment transfer and (iii) identify the impact of sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of

  15. College Men's Perception of the Risks and Benefits of Intervening against Sexual Assault and the Influence of Social Norms and Masculine Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is a major problem facing colleges and universities, and prevention efforts have begun to examine how student peers can be encouraged to intervene as active bystanders. This study investigated what male students perceived as the most salient risks and benefits of intervening in a situation involving a hypothetical sexual assault and…

  16. Tectonic control of coastal onlap cycles, southwest Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Armentrout, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    Local coastal onlap and paleobiobathymetric curves for 14 sections define three Cenozoic depositional onlap-offlap cycles separated by regionally significant unconformities. A paleoclimatic curve for western Oregon and Washington, based on paleoecologic data sets, demonstrates that the local transgressions are coincident with cool climates and the regressions with warm climates, and are therefore not driven by glacioeustatic cycles. Comparison of the local coastal onlap and paleobiobathymetric curves with the global Cenozoic Cycle Chart (modified Exxon Sea Level Chart - May, 1986) further demonstrates the uniqueness of the western Washington curves. The global Cenozoic cycle Chart curve represents coastal onlap and sea level curves based on integration of both climate and tectonic variations. The non-parallel cycle pattern for southwest Washington suggests a unique tectonically forced system. Evidence derived from stratigraphic sequences, igneous rock geochemistry, radiometric dating, remnant magnetic patterns, sandstone provenance studies, and paleogeographic reconstructions is used to identify the tectonic events controlling the local depositional cycles. The principal events are (1) middle Eocene accretion of a seamount chain; (2) early-late Eocene westward relocation of subduction; (3) late Eocene onset of Cascade arc volcanism; (4) late-early Miocene plate readjustment due to back-arc extension in the Columbia River Plateau and Great Basin; and (5) late Pliocene to early Pleistocene northeast compression forced by continued subduction of remnants of the Kula Plate beneath North America.

  17. First dedicated hydrographic survey of the Comoros Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C.; Hermes, J. C.; Roman, R. E.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Comoros Basin, a region of eddies that propagate into the Mozambique Channel and subsequently the Agulhas Current, has not been well studied. This paper presents the findings from the first dedicated research cruise in the basin. ADCP data collected during the cruise show that the circulation in the Comoros Basin is dominated by the strong westward flowing North East Madagascar Current, which bifurcates twice: once upon encountering the Davie Ridge and again upon reaching the East African coast. One of the branches flows southward along the African coastline and appears to continue into the Mozambique Channel while the other branch turns northward to become the East African Coastal Current. The ADCP data also show evidence of a cyclonic eddy along the northwest coast of Madagascar. Water mass analysis indicates that all the major Indian Ocean water masses are present in the Comoros Basin. Surprisingly, North Atlantic Deep Water, a water mass previously assumed to only occur south of ˜16°S in the Mozambique Channel, was found to be present in the basin at depths below 2000 m. Antarctic Intermediate Water is found to enter the basin via two routes; from the west within the North East Madagascar Current and from the south within the northward flowing Mozambique Undercurrent.

  18. Devonian shelf basin, Michigan basin, Alpena region

    SciTech Connect

    Gutschick, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    This biostratigraphic study involves the Devonian paleogeography-paleoecology-paleobathymetry of the transition from carbonate platform shelf margin to basinal sedimentation for the northern part of the Michigan basin in the Alpena region. Shelf-basin analysis is based on lithofacies, rock colors, concretion, biostratigraphy, paleoecology of faunas - especially microfaunas and trace fossils - stratified water column, eustasy, and application of Walther's Law. Field observations were made on Partridge Point along Lake Huron, where type sections of the Middle Devonian Thunder Bay Limestone and Late Devonian Squaw Bay Limestone are exposed; and the Antrim black shale at Paxton quarry. The Thunder Bay Limestone evolved as a carbonate platform, subtidal shelf-margin aerobic environment dominated by sessile benthic coralline organisms and shelly fauna, but not reef framework. The Squaw Bay Limestone is transitional shelf to basin, with aspects of slope environment and deeper water off-platform, pelagic organic biostromal molluscan-conodont carbonate deposited during the onset of a stratified water column (dysaerobic benthos-polychaete. agglutinated tubes, sulfides) and pycnocline. The Antrim Shale, in an exceptional black shale exposure in the Paxton quarry, represents deep-water basinal deposition whose bottom waters lacked oxygen. Faunas (conodonts, styliolines, radiolarians) and floras (tasmanitids, calamitids, palynomorphs) are from the aerobic pelagic realm, as indicated from concretions and shale fossil evidence. A benthos is lacking, except for bioturbation from organisms introduced by entrained oxygenated distal turbidite dispersion into the barren bottom black muds. Basinal hydrocarbon source rocks are abundant and updip carbonate reservoirs rim the basin. The Antrim Shale sequence contains the interval of Frasnian-Famennian faunal extinction.

  19. Origin of cratonic basins

    SciTech Connect

    de V. Klein, G.; Hsui, A.T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520-460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530-500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation, histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian supercontinent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  20. Quantifying Holocene Coastal Retreat From River Morphology in Southern England and Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attal, M.; Mudd, S. M.; Hurst, M. D.; Crickmore, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Southern England and Wales have been undergoing subsidence since the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, with average rates varying between 0.5 and 1.2 mm/yr over the last 10 ka (Shennan and Horton, 2002). Rivers typically respond to subsidence by aggrading (e.g., Ishihara et al., 2012), yet many English and Welsh rivers incise into bedrock at their outlet and exhibit river profiles convexities typical of systems experiencing a drop in base level (e.g., Snyder et al., 2002; Attal et al., 2011). Scientists have proposed that coastal erosion could result in such river morphology (Snyder et al., 2002; Leyland & Darby, 2008, 2009). We combine modelling with topographic analysis of a series of basins along the coast of Southern England and Wales to test whether coastal erosion could explain the occurrence of rivers incising into bedrock at the coast. We further assess whether the distribution of such rivers and the shape of river profiles could be used to constrain amounts of coastal erosion during the Holocene. Within zones characterized by similar lithologies and coastal exposure (i.e. the orientation of the coast and the type of water body it faces), we find that rivers with the smallest basins incise into bedrock at their mouth while rivers with the largest basins experience aggradation. The transition between these two types of basins occurs at a consistent basin size. This signal conforms to model predictions, assuming that the slope of rivers at the coast decreases with increasing basin size. Whereas rivers in basins comprising igneous and/or metamorphic rocks tend to be steeper than rivers flowing on sedimentary bedrock, we find that the critical drainage area does not vary significantly with varying lithology, suggesting that other factors such as spatial variations in coastal retreat exert a stronger control on the spatial distribution of the two types of rivers throughout the study area. Reconstruction of river profiles prior to base level rise allows estimates

  1. Sediment budget variation at watershed scale due to anthropogenic pressures, and its relationship to coastal erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, Antonello; Adamo, Maria; Canora, Filomena

    2014-05-01

    The transfer of sediments from hydrographic basins towards the coast is a significant pathway of material transfer on Earth. In sedimentary environment, the main portion of sediment that enters the coastal areas is derived originally from erosion in the coastal watersheds. Extensive anthropogenic pressures carried out within coastal basins have long shown negative impacts on littoral environments. In fluvial systems, sediments trapped behind dams and in-stream gravel mining cause the reduction in sediment supply to the coast. Along the Jonian littoral of the Basilicata Region (southern Italy), natural coastal processes have been severely disrupted since the second half of the 20th century as a result of riverbed sand and gravel mining and dam construction, when economic advantages were measured in terms of the development of infrastructure, water storage, and hydropower production for the agricultural, industrial and socio-economic development of the area. Particularly, the large numbers of dams and impoundments that have been built in the hydrographic basins have led a signi?cant reduction on river sediment loads. As a result, the Jonian littoral is experiencing a catalysed erosion phenomenon. In order to increase understanding of the morpho-dynamics of the Jonian littoral environment and more fully appreciate the amount of coastal erosion, an evaluation of the sediment budget change due to dam construction within the hydrographic basins of the Basilicata Region needs to be explored. Since quantitative data on decadal trends in river sediment supply before and after dam construction are lacking, as well as updated dam silting values, river basin assessment of the spatial patterns and estimated amount of sediment erosion and deposition are important in evaluating changes in the sediment budget. As coastal areas are being affected by an increasing number of population and socio-economic activities, the amount of sediment deficit at the littoral can permit to

  2. Neotectonics of coastal Jeffara (southern Tunisia): State of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedhoui, Rim; Deffontaines, Benoît; Rabia, Mohamed Chedly

    2016-04-01

    Helped by the studies and results of previous researchers, we herein study the neotectonic of the coastal Jeffara with the input of numerous 2D reflection seismic profiles onshore, combined with Digital Elevation Model analyses (issued from SRTM) and field works. Acquired and available data were then integrated within a GIS Geodatabase, where Jerba, Zarzis and Jorf appear to be part of a N-S pull-apart basin within a NW-SE transtensive right-lateral major fault zone. Our structural geologic and geomorphologic analyses confirm and prove the presence of NNW-SSE right-lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous active folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so-on… They are associated with this major right-lateral NW-SE transtensive major coastal Jeffara fault zone that affect the Holocene and the Villafranchian deposits. We therefore confirm herein a new structural geodynamic Jeffara model, due to the post Lower Cretaceous northward migration of northern African to the Eurasian plates, this NW-SE transtensive fault zone is interpreted as a part of the southern branch of the eastward Sahel block extrusion toward the free Mediterranean Sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement may explain the presence, offshore, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW transtensive basins and grabens with petroleum interest. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and 2D reflection seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove and confirm the NW-SE right-lateral transtensive extrusion fault zone of the coastal Jeffara.

  3. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, John; Palmer, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    A pilot Coastal Observatory has been established in Liverpool Bay which integrates (near) real-time measurements with coupled models and whose results are displayed on the web. The aim is to understand the functioning of coastal seas, their response to natural forcing and the consequences of human activity. The eastern Irish Sea is an apt test site, since it encompasses a comprehensive range of processes found in tidally dominated coastal seas, including near-shore physical and biogeochemical processes influenced by estuarine inflows, where both vertical and horizontal gradients are important. Applications include hypernutrification, since the region receives significantly elevated levels of nutrient inputs, shoreline management (coastal flooding and beach erosion/accretion), and understanding present conditions to predict the impact of climate change (for instance if the number and severity of storms, or of high or low river flows, change). The integrated measurement suite which started in August 2002 covers a range of space and time scales. It includes in situ time series, four to six weekly regional water column surveys, an instrumented ferry, a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves, coastal tide gauges and visible and infra-red satellite data. The time series enable definition of the seasonal cycle, its inter-annual variability and provide a baseline from which the relative importance of events can be quantified. A suite of nested 3D hydrodynamic, wave and ecosystem models is run daily, focusing on the observatory area by covering the ocean/shelf of northwest Europe (at 12-km resolution) and the Irish Sea (at 1.8 km), and Liverpool Bay at the highest resolution of 200 m. The measurements test the models against events as they happen in a truly 3D context. All measurements and model outputs are displayed freely on the Coastal Observatory website (http://cobs.pol.ac.uk) for an audience of researchers, education, coastal managers and the

  4. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  5. Intra-arc basins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Convergent-margin tectonic models feature forearc and back-arc basins and generally portray the arc itself as structurally static. However, intra-arc tectonics not only control distribution and petrology of extrusives and plutons, but also generate basins along the magmatic axis. Magma withdrawal and crustal loading by volcanic edifices contribute to subsidence, but most intra-arc basins are grabens or half-grabens indicative of extension. Grabens are isolated or continuous along long segments of the arc. Basin development may alternate with periods of arc uplife. No unique set of conditions causes intra-arc extension; numerous scenarios may initiate extension and subsidence of thermally weakened arc crust. Transtension related to oblique convergence contributed to the formation of most modern intra-arc basins. Andean basins may result from gravitational spreading of an unusually highstanding arc. Intra-arc basin sediment traps may starve arc-adjacent basins from coarse volcaniclastic detritus. Terrestrial intra-arc basins accommodate thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sediment sections, including lacustrine sequences. Marine intra-arc basins include bounding carbonate shelves, marginal and local intrabasinal submarine fans and aprons, and basin plains receiving pelagic and hemipelagic sediments. Structural patterns are appropriate for trapping hydrocarbons, source rocks are commonly present, and high heat flow favors early maturation. Reservoir quality is typically poor because of volcaniclastic diagenesis, but secondary porosity from dissolution of framework feldspars and carbonate or laumontite cements, and the known productivity of some volcanic reservoirs, suggest the potential for hydrocarbon accumulations. Geothermal resources and modest coal potential have also been recognized.

  6. Amphiphilic carbonaceous material-intervened solvothermal synthesis of LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-ming; Ma, Qian-qian; Wang, Cheng-yang; Sun, Xin; Wang, Li-qun; Zhang, Cui

    2014-10-01

    LiFePO4 samples with preferred facets on the ac plane were prepared by the solvothermal method with or without well-dispersed amphiphilic carbonaceous material (ACM). The effects of ACM on the particle morphology, crystal orientation and electrochemical reactivity of the prepared LiFePO4 nanoparticles were investigated in detail. ACM serves a dual purpose. One purpose is facilitating the plate-like morphologies of LiFePO4 nanoparticles parallel to the bPnma axis by decreasing the surface energy of (010) facets of newly created LiFePO4 nuclei. The other purpose is suppressing crystal growth along the [010] direction by adhering onto the (010) surface of LiFePO4 nanoplates. Furthermore, ACM coating was performed and optimized using a carbon coating precursor. The electrochemical properties of the prepared LiFePO4 particles were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling tests. After the optimized coating of ACM, the ACM-intervened LiFePO4 composite was observed to deliver discharge capacities of 151.3 mAh g-1 at 1C and 132.2 mAh g-1 at 10C. Even after 1000 cycles at a high rate of 10C, the LiFePO4 cathode could maintain 80% of its initial capacity.

  7. Critical moments in preschool obesity: the call for nurses and communities to assess and intervene.

    PubMed

    Water, Tineke

    2011-12-01

    Thirty years ago obesity was rarely seen in children but is now described as a world wide pandemic. Previous research has focused on school age children; however, researchers have now identified critical moments of development during uterine life and early infancy where negative factors or insults could cause permanent changes in the structure and function of tissues and lead to epigenetic changes. Obesity in preschool children can cause premature and long term chronic health problems; has been associated with academic and social difficulties in kindergarten children; difficulty with social relationships; increased feelings of sadness, loneliness and anxiety; and negative self image in children as young as 5 years of age. The importance of identifying children under the age of five with obesity and associated risks is important yet less than half of health professionals intervene in cases of preschool obesity. This paper explores the concerns around antenatal and preschool obesity and the challenges for nurses and midwives in assessing and providing appropriate interventions for children and families in community settings.

  8. Effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions by intervening -bearing clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofengeim, D. D.; Balashev, S. A.; Ivanchik, A. V.; Kaminker, A. D.; Klimenko, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    We consider the effect of a partial coverage of quasar broad-line regions (QSO BLRs) by intervening -bearing clouds when a part of quasar (QSO) radiation passes by a cloud not taking part in absorption-line system formation of the QSO spectrum. That leads to modification of observable absorption line profiles and consequently to a bias in physical parameters derived from standard absorption line analysis. In application to the absorption systems the effect has been revealed in the analysis of absorption system in the spectrum of Q 1232+082 (see Ivanchik et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 404:1583, 2010, Balashev et al. in Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 418:357, 2011). We estimate a probability of the effect to be detected in QSO spectra. To do this we derive distribution of BLR sizes of high-z QSOs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) catalogue and assume different distributions of cloud sizes. We conclude that the low limit of the probability is about 11 %. The latest researches shows that about a fifth of observed absorption systems can be partially covered. Accounting of the effect may allow to revise significantly physical parameters of interstellar clouds obtained by the spectral analysis.

  9. Eye-movements intervening between two successive sounds disrupt comparisons of auditory location

    PubMed Central

    Pavani, Francesco; Husain, Masud; Driver, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Summary Many studies have investigated how saccades may affect the internal representation of visual locations across eye-movements. Here we studied instead whether eye-movements can affect auditory spatial cognition. In two experiments, participants judged the relative azimuth (same/different) of two successive sounds presented from a horizontal array of loudspeakers, separated by a 2.5 secs delay. Eye-position was either held constant throughout the trial (being directed in a fixed manner to the far left or right of the loudspeaker array), or had to be shifted to the opposite side of the array during the retention delay between the two sounds, after the first sound but before the second. Loudspeakers were either visible (Experiment1) or occluded from sight (Experiment 2). In both cases, shifting eye-position during the silent delay-period affected auditory performance in the successive auditory comparison task, even though the auditory inputs to be judged were equivalent. Sensitivity (d′) for the auditory discrimination was disrupted, specifically when the second sound shifted in the opposite direction to the intervening eye-movement with respect to the first sound. These results indicate that eye-movements affect internal representation of auditory location. PMID:18566808

  10. Electronic structure, vibrational spectral and intervening orbital interactions studies of NLO material: Guanidinium 4-nitrobenzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikala, V.; Sajan, D.; Job Sabu, K.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-03-01

    Single crystals of guanidinium 4-nitrobenzoate (GPNB) have been grown by slow evaporation method. Grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis absorption and UV-Vis transmission spectroscopies. Crystal defects and surface morphology were studied by etching method. Dielectric properties of the crystal such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC electrical conductivity as function of frequency (50 Hz-5 MHz) at two temperatures (35 °C and 100 °C) were measured. The frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric behaviour were investigated. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational spectral analysis, intramolecular charge transfer interactions using NBO method, first order hyperpolarizability, molecular electrostatic potential and frontier molecular orbital analysis for GPNB have been studied using density functional theory at B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. Vibrational spectral study reveals the presence of moderate and weak Nsbnd H⋯O bonds in GPNB. NBO analysis also confirms the presence of intramolecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding and investigates the stability as well as the intervening orbital interactions. The electronic absorption spectrum of the gas and water phases of GPNB were simulated using time dependent density functional theory and NBO transitions for the three lowest excited states were assigned and studied.

  11. Electronic structure, vibrational spectral and intervening orbital interactions studies of NLO material: guanidinium 4-nitrobenzoate.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, V; Sajan, D; Sabu, K Job; Arumanayagam, T; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-03-15

    Single crystals of guanidinium 4-nitrobenzoate (GPNB) have been grown by slow evaporation method. Grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis absorption and UV-Vis transmission spectroscopies. Crystal defects and surface morphology were studied by etching method. Dielectric properties of the crystal such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC electrical conductivity as function of frequency (50 Hz-5 MHz) at two temperatures (35°C and 100°C) were measured. The frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric behaviour were investigated. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational spectral analysis, intramolecular charge transfer interactions using NBO method, first order hyperpolarizability, molecular electrostatic potential and frontier molecular orbital analysis for GPNB have been studied using density functional theory at B3LYP/cc-pVTZ level. Vibrational spectral study reveals the presence of moderate and weak N-H⋯O bonds in GPNB. NBO analysis also confirms the presence of intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding and investigates the stability as well as the intervening orbital interactions. The electronic absorption spectrum of the gas and water phases of GPNB were simulated using time dependent density functional theory and NBO transitions for the three lowest excited states were assigned and studied.

  12. Hydrodynamic evaluation of long term impacts of climate change and coastal effluents in the Arabian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Elhakeem, Abubaker; Elshorbagy, Walid

    2015-12-30

    A comprehensive basin wide hydrodynamic evaluation has been carried out to assess the long term impacts of climate change and coastal effluents on the salinity and seawater temperature of the Arabian Gulf (AG) using Delft3D-Flow model. The long term impacts of climate change scenarios A2 and B1 of the IPCC-AR4 on the AG hydrodynamics were evaluated. Using the current capacity and production rates of coastal desalination, power, and refinery plants, two projection scenarios until the year 2080 with 30 year intervals were developed namely the realistic and the optimistic discharge scenarios. Simulations of the individual climate change scenarios ascertained overall increase of the AG salinity and temperature and decrease of precipitation. The changes varied spatially with different scenarios as per the depth, proximity to exchange with ocean water, flushing, vertical mixing, and flow restriction. The individual tested scenarios of coastal projected discharges showed significant effects but within 10-20 km from the outfalls.

  13. Modelling the global coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jason; Harle, James; Proctor, Roger; Michel, Sylvain; Ashworth, Mike; Batstone, Crispian; Allen, Icarus; Holmes, Robert; Smyth, Tim; Haines, Keith; Bretherton, Dan; Smith, Gregory

    2009-03-13

    Shelf and coastal seas are regions of exceptionally high biological productivity, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and immense socio-economic importance. They are, however, poorly represented by the present generation of Earth system models, both in terms of resolution and process representation. Hence, these models cannot be used to elucidate the role of the coastal ocean in global biogeochemical cycles and the effects global change (both direct anthropogenic and climatic) are having on them. Here, we present a system for simulating all the coastal regions around the world (the Global Coastal Ocean Modelling System) in a systematic and practical fashion. It is based on automatically generating multiple nested model domains, using the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System coupled to the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model. Preliminary results from the system are presented. These demonstrate the viability of the concept, and we discuss the prospects for using the system to explore key areas of global change in shelf seas, such as their role in the carbon cycle and climate change effects on fisheries. PMID:19087928

  14. Nitrous oxide in coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bange, H.W.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Andreae, M.O.

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of dissolved and atmospheric nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are presented for three coastal environments: (1) the central North Sea, (2) the German Bight, and (3) the Gironde estuary. The contribution of coastal regions to the oceanic emissions of atmospheric N{sub 2}O were also determined. N{sub 2}O was measured with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and analyzed. The surface waters of the central North Sea and the German bight were found to be near equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere, while the mean saturation in the Gironde estuary was 132%. Mean saturations in coastal regions without estuaries or upwelling phenomena were only slightly higher than in the open ocean. When estuaries and regions with upwelling are included, however, approximately 60% of the oceanic N{sub 2}O flux is attributable to coastal regions. A review of published data indicated that previous studies have seriously underestimated N{sub 2}O sea-to-air flux from coastal regions. 69 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.

    PubMed

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-06-13

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. PMID:23759556

  16. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. 

  17. Aeromagnetic and aeromagnetic-based geologic maps of the Coastal Belt, Franciscan Complex, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex represents a Late Cretaceous to Miocene accretionary prism and overlying slope deposits. Its equivalents may extend from the offshore outer borderland of southern California to north of the Mendocino Triple Junction under the Eel River Basin and in the offshore of Cascadia. The Coastal belt is exposed on land in northern California, yet its structure and stratigraphy are incompletely known because of discontinuous exposure, structural disruption, and lithologically non-distinctive clastic rocks. The intent of this report is to make available, in map form, aeromagnetic data covering the Coastal belt that provide a new dataset to aid in mapping, understanding, and interpreting the incompletely understood geology and structure in northern California. The newly merged aeromagnetic data over the Coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex reveal long, linear anomalies that indicate remarkably coherent structure within a terrane where mapping at the surface indicates complex deformation and that has been described as "broken formation" and, even locally as "melange". The anomalies in the Coastal belt are primarily sourced by volcanic-rich graywackes and exotic blocks of basalt. Some anomalies along the contact of the Coastal belt with the Central belt are likely caused by local interleaving of components of the Coast Ranges ophiolite. These data can be used to map additional exotic blocks within the Coastal belt and to distinguish lithologically indistinct graywackes within the Coastal terrane. Using anomaly asymmetry allows projection of these "layers" into the subsurface. This analysis indicates predominant northeast dips consistent with tectonic interleaving of blocks within a subduction zone.

  18. Pliocene-Pleistocene coastal events and history along the western margin of Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendrick, G.W.; Wyrwoll, K.-H.; Szabo, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Coastal deposits along the western coastal margin of Australia, a region of relative tectonic stability, record Plio-Pleistocene events and processes affecting the inner shelf and adjacent hinterland. Tectonic deformation of these deposits is more apparent in the Carnarvon Basin, and rather less so in the Perth Basin. The most complete record comes from the Perth Basin, where units of Pliocene and Pleistocene ages are well represented. In the Perth Basin, the predominantly siliciclastic Yoganup Formation, Ascot Formation and Bassendean Sand represent a complex of shoreline, inner shelf and regressive-dune facies equivalents, the deposition of which began at an undetermined stage of the Pliocene, through to the Early Pleistocene. The deposition of this sequence closed with a major regression and significant faunal extinction. Bioclastic carbonates characterize the Middle and Late Pleistocene of the Perth and Carnarvon basins. Fossil assemblages include a distinct subtropical element, unknown from the Ascot Formation and suggesting a strengthening of the Leeuwin Current. The estuarine arcoid bivalve Anadara trapezia characterizes assemblages of Oxygen Isotope Stages 5 and 7 in the Perth and Carnarvon basins, where it is now extinct. Deposits of Substage 5e (Perth Basin) also record a southerly expansion of warm-water corals and other fauna consistent with shelf temperatures warmer than present. New uranium-series ages on corals from marine sequences of the Tantabiddi Member, of the Bundera Calcarenite of the western Cape Range are consistent with the 'double peak' hypothesis for levels of Substage 5e but the evidence remains less than conclusive. Initial uranium-series dates from the Bibra and Dampier formations of Shark Bay indicate that both derive from the Late Pleistocene. These numerical ages contradict previous interpretations of relative ages obtained from field studies. The age relationship of the units requires further investigation. ?? 1991.

  19. Hydrogeologic setting and potential for denitrification in ground water, coastal plain of southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krantz, David E.; Powars, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The types and distribution of Coastal Plain sediments in the Patuxent River Basin may contribute to relatively low concentrations of nitrate (typically less than 1 milligram per liter) in stream base flow because of the chemical reduction of dissolved nitrate (denitrification) in ground water. Water chemistry data from synoptic stream base-flow surveys in the Patuxent River Basin show higher dissolved nitrate concentrations in the Piedmont than in the Coastal Plain section of the watershed. Stream base flow reflects closely the chemistry of ground water discharging from the surficial (unconfined) aquifer to the stream. Because land use in the sampled subbasins is virtually the same in each section, differences in the physical and geochemical characteristics of the surficial aquifer may explain the observed differences in water chemistry. One possible cause of lower nitrate concentrations in the Coastal Plain is denitrification within marine sediments that contain chemically reduced compounds. During denitrification, the oxygen atoms on the nitrate (N03-) molecule are transferred to a reduced compound and N gas is produced. Organic carbon and ferrous iron (Fe2+), derived from the dissolution of minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) and glauconite (an iron aluminosilicate clay), can act as reducing substrates; these reduced chemical species are common in the marine and estuarine deposits in Southern Maryland. The spatial distribution of geologic units and their lithology (sediment type) has been used to create a map of the potential for denitrification of ground water in the surficial aquifer of the Coastal Plain in Southern Maryland.

  20. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems.

  1. Regional Risk Assessment for climate change impacts on coastal aquifers.

    PubMed

    Iyalomhe, F; Rizzi, J; Pasini, S; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Marcomini, A

    2015-12-15

    Coastal aquifers have been identified as particularly vulnerable to impacts on water quantity and quality due to the high density of socio-economic activities and human assets in coastal regions and to the projected rising sea levels, contributing to the process of saltwater intrusion. This paper proposes a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology integrated with a chain of numerical models to evaluate potential climate change-related impacts on coastal aquifers and linked natural and human systems (i.e., wells, river, agricultural areas, lakes, forests and semi-natural environments). The RRA methodology employs Multi Criteria Decision Analysis methods and Geographic Information Systems functionalities to integrate heterogeneous spatial data on hazard, susceptibility and risk for saltwater intrusion and groundwater level variation. The proposed approach was applied on the Esino River basin (Italy) using future climate hazard scenarios based on a chain of climate, hydrological, hydraulic and groundwater system models running at different spatial scales. Models were forced with the IPCC SRES A1B emission scenario for the period 2071-2100 over four seasons (i.e., winter, spring, summer and autumn). Results indicate that in future seasons, climate change will cause few impacts on the lower Esino River valley. Groundwater level decrease will have limited effects: agricultural areas, forests and semi-natural environments will be at risk only in a region close to the coastline which covers less than 5% of the total surface of the considered receptors; less than 3.5% of the wells will be exposed in the worst scenario. Saltwater intrusion impact in future scenarios will be restricted to a narrow region close to the coastline (only few hundred meters), and thus it is expected to have very limited effects on the Esino coastal aquifer with no consequences on the considered natural and human systems. PMID:26282744

  2. Coastal America Program going forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Coastal America, a new multiagency initiative developed by the Bush administration to address coastal resource problems, seems to be ignoring the fact that Congress did not fund it for FY92. Although $23 million was requested by Bush for four agencies for FY92, Congress zeroed the funding for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Department of the Interior. The appropriations bill that covers the Environmental Protection Agency has not been voted on by its joint conference committee. Until they are federally funded, Coastal America will use money from the agencies that has already been authorized in specific areas, such as dredging for the Corps of Engineers. They will also rely on state and private support.

  3. Coastal eutrophication and temperature variation

    SciTech Connect

    Ganoulis, J.; Rafailidis, S.; Bogardi, I.; Duckstein, L.; Matyasovszky, I.

    1994-12-31

    A 3-D hydroecological model has been developed to simulate the impact of climate-change-induced daily temperature variation on coastal water quality and eutrophication. Historical daily temperature time series over a thirty-year period have been used to link local meteorological variables to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs). Then, CPs generated under a 2{times}CO{sub 2} scenario have been used to simulate climate-change-induced local daily temperature variations. Both historical and climate-change-induced temperature time series have been introduced as inputs into the hydroecological model to simulate coastal water quality and eutrophication. Subject to model validation with available data, a case study in the bay of Thessaloniki (N. Greece) indicates a risk of increasing eutrophication and oxygen depletion in coastal areas due to possible climate change.

  4. Late Quaternary environments and biogeography in the Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. S.; Mead, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Plant and animal remains found in packrat ( Neotoma spp.) middens and cave fill from the eastern and southern Great Basin region reveal the presence of subalpine conifers and boreal mammals at relatively low elevations during the Late Wisconsin. Limber pine ( Pinus flexilis) and bristlecone pine ( P. longaeva) were important in the late Pleistocene plant communities throughout this region. Spruce ( Picea cf. engelmannii) and common juniper ( Juniperus communis) were present in some of the more northerly localities, and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) and white fir ( Abies concolor) were present in southern and eastern localities. Single needle pinyon pine ( Pinus monophylla), common across this region today, was apparently not present north of the Sheep Range of southern Nevada during the Late Wisconsin. Pikas ( Ochotona cf. princeps), small boreal mammals present in only a few Great Basin mountain ranges today, were common throughout the region. Heather voles ( Phenacomys cf. intermedius) have been found in two cave fill deposits in Nevada, though they are unknown in the Great Basin today. Limber and bristlecone pines are generally restricted to rocky substrates in modern subalpine habitats in the Great Basin, and this may also have been the case when these plants grew at lower elevations during the Late Wisconsin. Subalpine conifers were present on the rock outcrops sampled by the packrat middens, but shrub communities, perhaps dominated by sagebrush ( Artemisia spp.), may have been present on alluvial valley-bottom substrates. Forested habitats would thus have been isolated habitat islands, as they are today. Boreal small mammals, including pikas and heather voles, were able to colonize the Great Basin mountain ranges during the late Pleistocene. We suggest that these mammals were able to survive in the intervening valley-bottoms under a cool-summer climatic regime, and that continuous forest or woodland corridors were not necessary for migration.

  5. Flood Damage Estimation of Coastal Area Considering Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kim, K.; Choi, C.; Han, D.; Kim, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are various researches to respond to the natural disasters efficiently such as floods caused by climate change. Most of the studies have assessed the impact of climate change on floods by the increase of future rainfall and the sea level rise separately. However, we have to consider the effects of the combined floods by future heavy rainfall and sea level rise. This means the urban floods in coastal area can be occurred due to the combined inundation by overflow of urban drainage system and by sea level rise. Then we can estimate the flood damage from the combined floods due to the climate change. Hence, this study selected Taehwa River basin, Korea which flows from the west to the east and extends to Ulsan bay. This study analysed on the influence of hydrologic alteration in the coastal area by considering the sea level rise as well as the future precipitation according to climate change. It is prepared the flood inundation map which is related to the increase of precipitation and sea level for assuring how the sea level rise effects on the coastal area caused by the climate change, and the flood damage assessment is estimated to compare the hydrologic alteration quantitatively. The study result showed that flood level in the channel flows to the mouth rose as the water surface elevation rose due to the rise in sea level. In addition, the extent of increase in flood level caused by sea level rise was greater at a location nearer the outlet and it was smaller at a place farther from the outlet. It could be verified that the change of the inundation depth and damage area caused by the rise in sea level can have an effect on the flood damage assessment. It is important factor to analyse not only the increase of precipitation cuased of climate change in coastal rivers but also the change of rise in sea level, the flood water level, the flood inundation and the flood damage assessment. The result of this study could be used as basic data for creating technology

  6. Copper corrosion in coastal Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S. Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is studying the atmospheric corrosion performance of copper and other metals along the Oregon coast. Only the copper results will be presented in this paper. Atmospheric corrosion measurements of copper samples were made at seven bridges, eight coastal communities, and three inland reference sites to quantify and understand the effect of high chloride environments on the corrosion performance of copper. The materials were atmospherically exposed for 1, 2, and 3 years to examine the effects of sheltering, orientation, distance from the ocean, and coastal microclimates on the rate of corrosion and the composition of the corrosion film.

  7. Geology and total petroleum systems of the West-Central Coastal province (7203), West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The West-Central Coastal Province of the Sub-Saharan Africa Region consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Angola (including the disputed Cabinda Province), and Namibia. The area stretches from the east edge of the Niger Delta south to the Walvis Ridge. The West-Central Coastal Province includes the Douala, Kribi-Campo, Rio Muni, Gabon, Congo, Kwanza, Benguela, and Namibe Basins, which together form the Aptian salt basin of equatorial west Africa. The area has had significant exploration for petroleum; more than 295 oil fields have been discovered since 1954. Since 1995, several giant oil fields have been discovered, especially in the deep-water area of the Congo Basin. Although many total petroleum systems may exist in the West-Central Coastal Province, only four major total petroleum systems have been defined. The area of the province north of the Congo Basin contains two total petroleum systems: the Melania-Gamba Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous source and reservoir rocks, and the Azile-Senonian Total Petroleum System, consisting of Albian to Turonian source rocks and Cretaceous reservoir rocks. Two assessment units are defined in the West-Central Coastal Province north of the Congo Basin: the Gabon Subsalt and the Gabon Suprasalt Assessment Units. The Congo Basin contains the Congo Delta Composite Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary source and reservoir rocks. The Central Congo Delta and Carbonate Platform and the Central Congo Turbidites Assessment Units are defined in the Congo Delta Composite Total Petroleum System. The area south of the Congo Basin contains the Cuanza Composite Total Petroleum System, consisting of Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary source and reservoir rocks. The Cuanza-Namibe Assessment Unit is defined in the Cuanza Composite Total Petroleum System. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the

  8. Effects of divided doses of a bronchodilator aerosol and the intervening time interval on the forced expiration.

    PubMed

    Hidinger, K G; Bake, B

    1986-01-01

    Twelve patients with bronchial asthma participated in a blind, randomized, crossover study comparing the effects of 500 micrograms terbutaline in one inhalation, 125 micrograms in four inhalations taken in rapid succession, and 125 micrograms in four inhalations taken with an intervening time interval of 30 min. There were no significant differences between the three modes of inhalation of 500 micrograms terbutaline in any of the spirometric variables, i.e., 1-second forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, and maximal airflows when 50 and 75% of the forced vital capacity was exhaled from the total lung capacity. However, there were neither any significant differences between the levels of bronchodilation reached after administration of 500 micrograms and 2 or 3 X 125 micrograms terbutaline with an intervening time interval of 30 min. The time interval between the divided doses was possibly too long to achieve maximum accumulated effect of the four divided doses.

  9. Volcanic facies, structure, and geochemistry of the marginal basin rocks of central Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, M. P.; Webb, S.

    The western part of the Mesozoic Peruvian Trough, the Huarmey Basin, has a fill of pillow lavas, sheet lavas, hyaloclastites, tuffs and minor cherts, siliceous and calcareous oozes. Maximum subsidence occurred in the Albian when 9000 meters of basin fill accumulated. This was later intruded by gabbros and dikes and then the Coastal Batholith. The basin is an extensional marginal basin continuous with other basins of similar age to the south. Facies analyses indicate that the basin was relatively deep, with no continental influx, and not dissimilar to spreading and off-axis systems on the ocean floor. Structures at the surface and at depth indicate the crust has split and the basin was floored by mantle material. The basin shows a marked polarity, with tholeiitic basaltic rocks at the center and high-K acid rocks at the eastern margin, with intermediate types between. These changes in petrology and chemistry relate to lateral changes in source composition. Secular variations are also present and indicate a calcalkali source giving way to a more MORB-like source with a variable continental component. The basin is part of the major rifting event in the Cretaceous which affected the whole western margin of South America and was an important and necessary precursor to major batholith intrusion.

  10. When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to <2%. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics both recommend routine HIV testing of all pregnant women and at-risk newborn infants. When pregnant women decline HIV testing and/or treatment, public health, legal, and ethical dilemmas can result. Federal courts consistently uphold a woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences.

  11. Hsp31 Is a Stress Response Chaperone That Intervenes in the Protein Misfolding Process.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chai-Jui; Aslam, Kiran; Drendel, Holli M; Asiago, Josephat M; Goode, Kourtney M; Paul, Lake N; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Hazbun, Tony R

    2015-10-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock protein Hsp31 is a stress-inducible homodimeric protein that is involved in diauxic shift reprogramming and has glyoxalase activity. We show that substoichiometric concentrations of Hsp31 can abrogate aggregation of a broad array of substrates in vitro. Hsp31 also modulates the aggregation of α-synuclein (αSyn), a target of the chaperone activity of human DJ-1, an Hsp31 homolog. We demonstrate that Hsp31 is able to suppress the in vitro fibrillization or aggregation of αSyn, citrate synthase and insulin. Chaperone activity was also observed in vivo because constitutive overexpression of Hsp31 reduced the incidence of αSyn cytoplasmic foci, and yeast cells were rescued from αSyn-generated proteotoxicity upon Hsp31 overexpression. Moreover, we showed that Hsp31 protein levels are increased by H2O2, in the diauxic phase of normal growth conditions, and in cells under αSyn-mediated proteotoxic stress. We show that Hsp31 chaperone activity and not the methylglyoxalase activity or the autophagy pathway drives the protective effects. We also demonstrate reduced aggregation of the Sup35 prion domain, PrD-Sup35, as visualized by fluorescent protein fusions. In addition, Hsp31 acts on its substrates prior to the formation of large aggregates because Hsp31 does not mutually localize with prion aggregates, and it prevents the formation of detectable in vitro αSyn fibrils. These studies establish that the protective role of Hsp31 against cellular stress is achieved by chaperone activity that intervenes early in the protein misfolding process and is effective on a wide spectrum of substrate proteins, including αSyn and prion proteins. PMID:26306045

  12. National Coastal Condition Assessment Report 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    This National Coastal Condition Assessment 2010 (NCCA 2010) is the fifth in a series of reports assessing the condition of the coastal waters of the United States, including a vast array of estuarine, Great Lakes, and coastal embayment waters. It is part of the National Aquatic R...

  13. 77 FR 40586 - Coastal Programs Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... request for comments in the Federal Register at 77 FR 12245 on the request of Lockheed Martin Corp. to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Programs Division AGENCY: Coastal Programs Division... licenses. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kerry Kehoe, Coastal Programs Division (NORM/3), Office of...

  14. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  15. Water exchange on a geological timescale - examples from two coastal sites in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Christin; Engqvist, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The water turnover of two coastal areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, has been modeled for 13 selected years between 6500 BC and 9000 AD by utilizing information about past, present, and future bathymetry. The Forsmark area can be described as an open-ended funnel, and is analyzed with a 3D-model (MIKE 3-FM); the Laxemar area is partitioned into clusters of sub-basins treated with a discrete coupled basin model (CouBa). In all simulations, the main variation factor is the land uplift. The 3D-model domain is successively modified. For the CouBa approach the successive basin configurations are objectively deduced based on the 3D domain modifications. The average age (AvA) of the resident water relative to the open coast is generally lower for the Forsmark area. A typical progression is that the AvA values increase until a sub-basin ceases to be connected to the coastal zone. This disconnection is often preceded by a lowered AvA.

  16. Modeled future peak streamflows in four coastal Maine rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    To safely and economically design bridges and culverts, it is necessary to compute the magnitude of peak streamflows that have specified annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs). Annual precipitation and air temperature in the northeastern United States are, in general, projected to increase during the 21st century. It is therefore important for engineers and resource managers to understand how peak flows may change in the future. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT), presents modeled changes in peak flows at four basins in coastal Maine on the basis of projected changes in air temperature and precipitation. To estimate future peak streamflows at the four basins in this study, historical values for climate (temperature and precipitation) in the basins were adjusted by different amounts and input to a hydrologic model of each study basin. To encompass the projected changes in climate in coastal Maine by the end of the 21st century, air temperatures were adjusted by four different amounts, from -3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) (-2 degrees Celsius (ºC)) to +10.8 ºF (+6 ºC) of observed temperatures. Precipitation was adjusted by three different percentage values from -15 percent to +30 percent of observed precipitation. The resulting 20 combinations of temperature and precipitation changes (includes the no-change scenarios) were input to Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) watershed models, and annual daily maximum peak flows were calculated for each combination. Modeled peak flows from the adjusted changes in temperature and precipitation were compared to unadjusted (historical) modeled peak flows. Annual daily maximum peak flows increase or decrease, depending on whether temperature or precipitation is adjusted; increases in air temperature (with no change in precipitation) lead to decreases in peak flows, whereas increases in precipitation (with no change in temperature) lead to increases in peak flows. As

  17. Sediment fluxes from California Coastal Rivers: the influences of climate, geology, and topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.; Antweiler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The influences of geologic and climatic factors on erosion and sedimentation processes in rivers draining the western flank of the California Coast Range are assessed. Annual suspended, bedload, and total sediment fluxes were determined for 16 river basins that have hydrologic records covering all or most of the period from 1950 to 2006 and have been relatively unaffected by flow storage, regulation, and depletion, which alter the downstream movement of water and sediment. The occurrence of relatively large annual sediment fluxes are strongly influenced by the El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The frequency of relatively large annual sediment fluxes decreases from north to south during La Nina phases and increases from north to south during El Nino phases. The influence of ENSO is modulated over a period of decades by the PDO, such that relatively large annual sediment fluxes are more frequent during a La Nina phase in conjunction with a cool PDO and during an El Nino phase in conjunction with a warm PDO. Values of mean annual sediment flux, , were regressed against basin and climatic characteristics. Basin area, bedrock erodibility, basin relief, and precipitation explain 87% of the variation in from the 16 river basins. Bedrock erodibility is the most significant characteristic influencing . Basin relief is a superior predictor of compared with basin slope. is nearly proportional to basin area and increases with increasing precipitation. For a given percentage change, basin relief has a 2.3-fold greater effect on than a similar change in precipitation. The estimated natural from all California coastal rivers for the period 1950–2006 would have been approximately 85 million tons without flow storage, regulation, and depletion; the actual has been approximately 50 million tons, because of the effects of flow storage, regulation, and depletion.

  18. River basin administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  19. Coastal floods and decadal changes: the climate factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, J. Javier; Silvestre, J. Manuel; Lopez-Gutierrez, Jose S.

    2013-04-01

    Observation has widely shown for nearly all last century that the Spanish (Dynamic) Maritime Climate was following around 10 to 11 year cycles in its most significant figure, wind wave, despite it being better to register cycles of 20 to 22 years, in analogical way with the semi-diurnal and diurnal cycles of Cantabrian tides. Those cycles were soon linked to sun activity and, at the end of the century, the latter was related to the Solar System evolution. We know now that waves and storm surges are coupled and that (Dynamic) Maritime Climate forms part of a more complex "Thermal Machine" including Hydrological cycle. The analysis of coastal floods could so facilitate the extension of that experience. According to their immediate cause, simple flood are usually sorted out into flash, pluvial, fluvial, groundwater and coastal types, considering the last as caused by sea waters. But the fact is that most of coastal floods are the result of the concomitance of several former simple types. Actually, the several Southeastern Mediterranean coastal flood events show to be the result of the superposition within the coastal zone of flash, fluvial, pluvial and groundwater flood types under boundary condition imposed by the concomitant storm sea level rise. This work shall be regarded as an attempt to clarify that cyclic experience, through an in-depth review of a past flood events in Valencia (Turia and Júcar basins), as in Murcia (Segura's) as well. The Valencia case study has been specifically studied in relation to the FP7 SMARTeST Project. The historical records of the Turia/Jucar River basins floods are highly large, most of them affecting to Valencia City or surroundings. The following years are considered as having registered great major floods: 1321, 1328, 1340, 1358, 1406, 1427, 1475, 1476, 1487, 1517, 1540, 1546, 1555, 1557, 1577, 1581, 1589, 1590, 1610, 1651, 1672, 1731, 1737, 1766, 1770, 1776, 1783, 1793, 1845, 1860, 1864, 1870, 1897, 1949, 1957, 1982 and 2000

  20. Seasonal sea surface temperature anomaly prediction for coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Charles A.; Pegion, Kathy; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Alexander, Michael A.; Tommasi, Desiree; Bond, Nicholas A.; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Gudgel, Richard G.; Kristiansen, Trond; O'Brien, Todd D.; Xue, Yan; Yang, Xiasong

    2015-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are often both leading indicators and important drivers of marine resource fluctuations. Assessment of the skill of SST anomaly forecasts within coastal ecosystems accounting for the majority of global fish yields, however, has been minimal. This reflects coarse global forecast system resolution and past emphasis on the predictability of ocean basin-scale SST variations. This paper assesses monthly to inter-annual SST anomaly predictions in coastal "Large Marine Ecosystems" (LMEs). We begin with an analysis of 7 well-observed LMEs adjacent to the United States and then examine how mechanisms responsible for prediction skill in these systems are reflected in predictions for LMEs globally. Historical SST anomaly estimates from the 1/4° daily Optimal Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature reanalysis (OISST.v2) were first found to be highly consistent with in-situ measurements for 6 of the 7 U.S. LMEs. Thirty years of retrospective forecasts from climate forecast systems developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (CM2.5-FLOR) and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (CFSv2) were then assessed against OISST.v2. Forecast skill varied widely by LME, initialization month, and lead but there were many cases of high skill that also exceeded that of a persistence forecast, some at leads greater than 6 months. Mechanisms underlying skill above persistence included accurate simulation of (a) seasonal transitions between less predictable locally generated and more predictable basin-scale SST variability; (b) seasonal transitions between different basin-scale influences; (c) propagation of SST anomalies across seasons through sea ice; and (d) re-emergence of previous anomalies upon the breakdown of summer stratification. Globally, significant skill above persistence across many tropical systems arises via mechanisms (a) and (b). Combinations of all four mechanisms contribute to less prevalent but nonetheless

  1. Coastal storm monitoring in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Coastal communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other coastal low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of coastal flooding. In coastal Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring sites located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.

  2. Coastal Studies for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a set of field trips for participants of the Coastal Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)

  3. Coastal Adaptation and Ecological Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological engineering combines ecology and engineering to sustain coastal environment and facilitate adaptation to climate change. This paper discusses how the cases of mangroves, oyster reefs, and marshes help mainstream climate change with ecosystem conservation. It demonstrates the benefits of combining strategies to combat changing climate given the financial and political constraints.

  4. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  5. Coastal change analysis program implemented in Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Nelson, G.A.; Sapkota, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper images from 1990 to 1996 and collateral data sources were used to classify the land cover of the Mermentau River Basin (MRB) within the Chenier Plain of coastal Louisiana. Landcover classes followed the definition of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coastal Change Analysis Program; however, classification methods had to be developed as part of this study for attainment of these national classification standards. Classification method developments were especially important when classes were spectrally inseparable, when classes were part of spatial and spectral continuums, when the spatial resolution of the sensor included more than one landcover type, and when human activities caused abnormal transitions in the landscape. Most classification problems were overcome by using one or a combination of techniques, such as separating the MRB into subregions of commonality, applying masks to specific land mixtures, and highlighting class transitions between years that were highly unlikely. Overall, 1990, 1993, and 1996 classification accuracy percentages (associated kappa statistics) were 80% (0.79), 78% (0.76), and 86% (0.84), respectively. Most classification errors were associated with confusion between managed (cultivated land) and unmanaged grassland classes; scrub shrub, grasslands and forest classes; water, unconsolidated shore and bare land classes; and especially in 1993, between water and floating vegetation classes. Combining cultivated land and grassland classes and water and floating vegetation classes into single classes accuracies for 1990, 1993, and 1996 increased to 82%, 83%, and 90%, respectively. To improve the interpretation of landcover change, three indicators of landcover class stability were formulated. Location stability was defined as the percentage of a landcover class that remained as the same class in the same location at the beginning and the end of the monitoring period. Residence stability was

  6. Source facies and oil families of the Malay Basin, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Creaney, S.; Hussein, A.H. ); Curry, D.J.; Bohacs, K.M. ); Hassan, R. )

    1994-07-01

    The Malay Basin consists of a number of separate petroleum systems, driven exclusively by nonmarine source rocks. These systems range from lower Oligocene to middle Miocene and show a progression from lacustrine-dominated source facies in the lower Oligocene to lower Miocene section to coastal plain/delta plain coal-related sources in the lower to middle Miocene section. Two lacustrine sources are recognized in the older section, and multiple source/reservoir pairs are recognized in the younger coaly section. The lacustrine sources can be recognized using well-log analysis combined with detailed core and sidewall core sampling. Chemically, they are characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios, low oleanane contents, and a general absence of resin-derived terpanes. These sources have TOCs in the 1.0-4.0% range and hydrogen indices of up to 750. In contrast, the coal-related sources are chemically distinct with pristane/phytane ratios of up to 8, very high oleanane contents, and often abundant resinous compounds. All these sources are generally overmature in the basin center and immature toward the basin margin. The oils sourced from all sources in the Malay Basin are generally low in sulfur and of very high economic value. Detailed biomarker analysis of the oils in the Malay Basin has allowed the recognition of families associated with the above sources and demonstrated that oil migration has been largely strata parallel with little cross-stratal mixing of families.

  7. Interbasin underflow between closed Altiplano basins in Chile.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Errol L; Rosko, Michael J; Castro, Santiago O; Keller, Barry R; Bevacqua, Paolo S

    2003-01-01

    Interbasin ground water movement of 200 to 240 L/sec occurs as underflow beneath a mountainous surface water divide separating the topographically higher Salar de Michincha from the topographically lower Salar de Coposa internally drained basins in the Altiplano of northern Chile. Salt-encrusted flats (salars) and saline lakes occur on the lowest parts of the basin floors and comprise the principal evaporative discharge areas for the basins. Because a surface water divide separates the basins, surface water drainage boundaries do not coincide with ground water drainage boundaries. In the region, interbasin ground water movement is usually not recognized, but occurs for selected basins, and at places is an important component of ground water budgets. With increasing development of water for mining industry and potential exportation of ground water from the Altiplano for use at coastal cities, demonstration and quantification of interbasin movement is important for assessment of sustainable ground water development in a region of extreme aridity. Recognition and quantification of interbasin ground water underflow will assist in management of ground water resources in the arid Chilean Altiplano environment.

  8. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A.

    1996-12-31

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  9. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lamu basin of south-east Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Nyagah, K.; Cloeter, J.J.; Maende, A. )

    1996-01-01

    The Lamu basin occupies the coastal onshore and offshore areas of south-east Kenya. This fault bounded basin formed as a result of the Paleozoic-early Mesozoic phase of rifting that developed at the onset of Gondwana dismemberment. The resultant graben was filled by Karroo (Permian-Early Jurassic) continental siliciclastic sediments. Carbonate deposits associated with the Tethyan sea invasion, dominate the Middle to Late Jurassic basin fill. Cessation of the relative motion between Madagascar and Africa in the Early Cretaceous, heralded passive margin development and deltaic sediment progradation until the Paleogene. Shallow seas transgressed the basin in the Miocene when another carbonate regime prevailed. The basin depositional history is characterized by pulses of transgressive and regressive cycles, bounded by tectonically enhanced unconformities dividing the total sedimentary succession into discrete megasequences. Source rock strata occur within Megasequence III (Paleogene) depositional cycle and were lowered into the oil window in Miocene time, when the coastal parts of the basin experienced the greatest amount of subsidence. The tectono-eustatic pulses of the Tertiary brought about source and reservoir strata into a spatial relationship in which hydrocarbons could be entrapped. A basement high on the continental shelf has potential for Karroo sandstone and Jurassic limestone reservoirs. Halokinesis of Middle Jurassic salt in Miocene time provides additional prospects in the offshore area. Paleogene deltaic sands occur in rotated listric fault blacks. A Miocene reef Play coincides with an Eocene source rock kitchen.

  10. Characterisation of coastal counter-currents on the inner shelf of the Gulf of Cadiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garel, E.; Laiz, I.; Drago, T.; Relvas, P.

    2016-03-01

    At the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC), poleward currents leaning along the coast alternate with coastal upwelling jets of opposite direction. Here the patterns of these coastal countercurrents (CCCs) are derived from ADCP data collected during 7 deployments at a single location on the inner shelf. The multiyear (2008-2014) time-series, constituting ~ 18 months of hourly records, are further analysed together with wind data from several sources representing local and basin-scale conditions. During one deployment, temperature sensors were also installed near the mooring site to examine the vertical thermal stratification associated with periods of poleward flow. These observations indicate that the coastal circulation is mainly alongshore and barotropic. However, a baroclinic flow is often observed shortly at the time of flow inversion to poleward. CCCs develop all year-round and exclusively control the occurrence of warm coastal water during the upwelling season. On average, one poleward flow lasting 3 days was observed every week, corresponding to CCCs during ~ 40% of the time without seasonal variability. Thus, the studied region is distinct from typical upwelling systems where equatorward coastal upwelling jets largely predominate. CCCs often start to develop near the bed and are frequently associated with 2-layer cross-shore flows characteristic of downwelling conditions (offshore near the bed). In general, the action of alongshore wind stress alone does not justify the development of CCCs. The coastal circulation is best correlated and shows the highest coherence with south-eastward wind in the basin that proceeds from the rotation of southward wind at the West coast of Portugal, hence suggesting a dominant control of large-scale wind conditions. In agreement, wavelet analyses indicate that CCCs are best correlated with alongshore wind occurring in a band period characteristic of the upwelling system (8-32 days). Furthermore, in the absence of wind coastal currents tend

  11. Coastal resource and sensitivity mapping of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Odin, L.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes a project to establish a relationship between environmental sensitivity (primarily to oil pollution) and response planning and prevention priorities for Vietnamese coastal regions. An inventory of coastal environmental sensitivity and the creation of index mapping was performed. Satellite and geographical information system data were integrated and used for database creation. The database was used to create a coastal resource map, coastal sensitivity map, and a field inventory base map. The final coastal environment sensitivity classification showed that almost 40 percent of the 7448 km of mapped shoreline has a high to medium high sensitivity to oil pollution.

  12. Integrated modelling and management of nutrients and eutrophication in river basin - coast - sea systems: A southern Baltic Sea perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schernewski, Gerald

    2014-05-01

    The Odra river basin (area: 120,000 km2, average discharge: 550 m³/s, annual N-load 60,000 t) and the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon (687 km²) are the eutrophication hot-spot in the south-western Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus management scenarios in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal and Baltic Sea water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35%) would have positive effects on lagoon water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased potentially toxic, blue-green algae blooms. The presentation will a) summarize recent results (Schernewski et al. 2009, Schernewski et al. 2011, 2012), b) give an overview how the models were used to provide a comprehensive and consistent set of water quality thresholds and maximum allowable riverine loads for the Water Framework Directive and c) will show the implications for an optimised river basin - lagoon quality management.

  13. Synthesis of natural flows at selected sites in and near the Milk River basin, Montana, 1928-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cary, L.E.; Parrett, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Natural monthly streamflows were synthesized for the years 1928-89 at 2 sites in the St. Mary River Basin and 11 sites in the Milk River Basin in north- central Montana. The sites are represented as nodes in a streamflow accounting model being developed by the Bureau of Reclamation for the Milk River Basin. Recorded flows at most sites have been affected by human activities, including reservoir storage and irrigation diversions. The flows at the model nodes were corrected for the effects of these activities to obtain synthesized flows. The synthesized flows at nodes with seasonal and short-term records were extended using a statistical technique. The methods of synthesis varied, depending on upstream activities and information available. Flows at sites in the St. Mary River Basin and at the Milk River at Eastern Crossing of International Boundary pre- viously had been synthesized. The flows at mainstem sites downstream from the Milk River at Eastern Crossing were synthesized by adding synthesized natural runoff from intervening drainage areas to natural flows for Milk River at Eastern Crossing. Natural runoff from intervening drainage areas was estimated by multiplying recorded flows at selected index gaging stations on tributary streams by the ratio of the intervening drainage area to the combined drainage area of the index stations. The recorded flows for Milk River at Western Crossing of International Boundary and for Peoples Creek near Dodson, Montana, were assumed to be natural flows. The synthesized annual flows at the mouth of the Milk River compared favorably with the recorded flows near the mouth when the effects of upstream irrigation were considered.

  14. Sedimentological Signatures of Transient Depositional Events in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, A. C.; Thunell, R. C.; Black, D. E.; Murray, R. W.; Martinez, N. C.

    2004-12-01

    The varved sediments that have accumulated in the Cariaco Basin throughout the Holocene provide a detailed archive of the region's climatic history, and act as a historical record for the occurrence of phenomena such as earthquakes and coastal flooding. In this study we compare the sedimentological characteristics of lithogenic material collected from the water column during transient depositional events to those of normal hemipelagic sedimentation in the basin. Specifically, we have examined the clay mineralogy and grain size distribution of detrital material delivered to the basin by the July 9, 1997 earthquake near Cumana, Venezuela and the coastal flooding of Venezuela in late 1999. The sample material used in our study was collected as part of an ongoing sediment trap time series in the Cariaco Basin. The sedimentological signatures associated with these two events are distinctive from the typical lithogenic input to the basin. Preliminary data for biweekly samples collected from 1997-1999 shows a tri-modal particle size distribution, with peaks at 3, 22, and 80 im. However, material collected from the deep basin immediately following the 1997 earthquake is characterized by a particle diameter distribution at 6 and 22 im with a smaller than normal peak at 80 im; this variance suggests an alternate source of material was delivered to the basin via a turbidity flow induced by the earthquake. Supporting this theory, the clay mineralogy of the same sediment trap samples shows a higher than average ratio of kaolinite to quartz for sediments delivered to the basin following both the earthquake and flooding. We hope to extend the use of these sedimentological methods to identify past transient depositional events in Cariaco Basin cores.

  15. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A. J.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Middelburg, J. J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Peña, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N. N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A. K.

    2010-05-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  16. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  17. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  18. Mapping the economic benefits to livestock keepers from intervening against bovine trypanosomosis in Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A P M; Cecchi, G; Wint, G R W; Mattioli, R C; Robinson, T P

    2014-02-01

    Endemic animal diseases such as tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis are a constant drain on the financial resources of African livestock keepers and on the productivity of their livestock. Knowing where the potential benefits of removing animal trypanosomosis are distributed geographically would provide crucial evidence for prioritising and targeting cost-effective interventions as well as a powerful tool for advocacy. To this end, a study was conducted on six tsetse-infested countries in Eastern Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. First, a map of cattle production systems was generated, with particular attention to the presence of draught and dairy animals. Second, herd models for each production system were developed for two scenarios: with or without trypanosomosis. The herd models were based on publications and reports on cattle productivity (fertility, mortality, yields, sales), from which the income from, and growth of cattle populations were estimated over a twenty-year period. Third, a step-wise spatial expansion model was used to estimate how cattle populations might migrate to new areas when maximum stocking rates are exceeded. Last, differences in income between the two scenarios were mapped, thus providing a measure of the maximum benefits that could be obtained from intervening against tsetse and trypanosomosis. For this information to be readily mappable, benefits were calculated per bovine and converted to US$ per square kilometre. Results indicate that the potential benefits from dealing with trypanosomosis in Eastern Africa are both very high and geographically highly variable. The estimated total maximum benefit to livestock keepers for the whole of the study area amounts to nearly US$ 2.5 billion, discounted at 10% over twenty years--an average of approximately US$ 3300 per square kilometre of tsetse-infested area--but with great regional variation from less than US$ 500 per square kilometre to well over US$ 10,000. The

  19. Thermal contribution of compact bone to intervening tissue-like media exposed to planar ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Moros, Eduardo G; Novak, Petr; Straube, William L; Kolluri, Prashant; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A; Myerson, Robert J

    2004-03-21

    than fourfold) were induced in soft tissue-like phantom materials adjacent (within approximately 5 mm) to a bovine bone as compared to similar experiments without bone inclusions. For low-power long-exposure experiments, where thermal conduction effects are significant, the thermal impact of bone reached at distances > 10 mm from the bone surface (upstream of the bone). Therefore, we hypothesize that underlying bone exposed to planar ultrasound hyperthermia creates a high-temperature thermal boundary at depth that compensates for beam attenuation, thus producing more uniform temperature distribution in the intervening tissue layers. With appropriate technology, this finding may lead to improved thermal doses in superficial treatment sites such as the chest wall and the head/neck. PMID:15104313

  20. Mapping the economic benefits to livestock keepers from intervening against bovine trypanosomosis in Eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A P M; Cecchi, G; Wint, G R W; Mattioli, R C; Robinson, T P

    2014-02-01

    Endemic animal diseases such as tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis are a constant drain on the financial resources of African livestock keepers and on the productivity of their livestock. Knowing where the potential benefits of removing animal trypanosomosis are distributed geographically would provide crucial evidence for prioritising and targeting cost-effective interventions as well as a powerful tool for advocacy. To this end, a study was conducted on six tsetse-infested countries in Eastern Africa: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. First, a map of cattle production systems was generated, with particular attention to the presence of draught and dairy animals. Second, herd models for each production system were developed for two scenarios: with or without trypanosomosis. The herd models were based on publications and reports on cattle productivity (fertility, mortality, yields, sales), from which the income from, and growth of cattle populations were estimated over a twenty-year period. Third, a step-wise spatial expansion model was used to estimate how cattle populations might migrate to new areas when maximum stocking rates are exceeded. Last, differences in income between the two scenarios were mapped, thus providing a measure of the maximum benefits that could be obtained from intervening against tsetse and trypanosomosis. For this information to be readily mappable, benefits were calculated per bovine and converted to US$ per square kilometre. Results indicate that the potential benefits from dealing with trypanosomosis in Eastern Africa are both very high and geographically highly variable. The estimated total maximum benefit to livestock keepers for the whole of the study area amounts to nearly US$ 2.5 billion, discounted at 10% over twenty years--an average of approximately US$ 3300 per square kilometre of tsetse-infested area--but with great regional variation from less than US$ 500 per square kilometre to well over US$ 10,000. The

  1. Intervening O vi Quasar Absorption Systems at Low Redshift: A Significant Baryon Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Tripp; Savage; Jenkins

    2000-05-01

    Far-UV echelle spectroscopy of the radio-quiet QSO H1821+643 (zem=0.297), obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) at approximately 7 km s-1 resolution, reveals four definite O vi absorption-line systems and one probable O vi absorber at 0.15intervening systems unrelated to the background QSO. In the case of the strong O vi system at zabs=0.22497, multiple components are detected in Si iii and O vi as well as H i Lyman series lines, and the differing component velocity centroids and b-values firmly establish that this is a multiphase absorption system. A weak O vi absorber is detected at zabs=0.22637, i.e., offset by approximately 340 km s-1 from the zabs=0.22497 system. Lyalpha absorption is detected at zabs=0.22613, but no Lyalpha absorption is significantly detected at 0.22637. Other weak O vi absorbers at zabs=0.24531 and 0.26659 and the probable O vi system at 0.21326 have widely diverse O vi/H i column density ratios with N(O vi)/N(H i) ranging from

  2. Thermal contribution of compact bone to intervening tissue-like media exposed to planar ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moros, Eduardo G.; Novak, Petr; Straube, William L.; Kolluri, Prashant; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Myerson, Robert J.

    2004-03-01

    than fourfold) were induced in soft tissue-like phantom materials adjacent (within ~5 mm) to a bovine bone as compared to similar experiments without bone inclusions. For low-power long-exposure experiments, where thermal conduction effects are significant, the thermal impact of bone reached at distances >10 mm from the bone surface (upstream of the bone). Therefore, we hypothesize that underlying bone exposed to planar ultrasound hyperthermia creates a high-temperature thermal boundary at depth that compensates for beam attenuation, thus producing more uniform temperature distribution in the intervening tissue layers. With appropriate technology, this finding may lead to improved thermal doses in superficial treatment sites such as the chest wall and the head/neck.

  3. Structure of the la VELA Offshore Basin, Western Venezuela: AN Obliquely-Opening Rift Basin Within the South America-Caribbean Strike-Slip Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, J. M.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    Bathymetric, gravity and magnetic maps show that the east-west trend of the Cretaceous Great Arc of the Caribbean in the Leeward Antilles islands is transected by an en echelon series of obliquely-sheared rift basins that show right-lateral offsets ranging from 20 to 40 km. The basins are 75-100 km in length and 20-30 km in width and are composed of sub-parallel, oblique slip normal faults that define deep, bathymetric channels that bound the larger islands of the Leeward Antilles including Aruba, Curacao and Bonaire. A single basin of similar orientation and structure, the Urumaco basin, is present to the southwest in the Gulf of Venezuela. We mapped structures and sedimentation in the La Vela rift basin using a 3D seismic data volume recorded down to 6 seconds TWT. The basin can be mapped from the Falcon coast where it is correlative with the right-lateral Adicora fault mapped onshore, and its submarine extension. To the southeast of the 3D survey area, previous workers have mapped a 70-km-wide zone of northeast-striking, oblique, right-lateral faults, some with apparent right-lateral offsets of the coastline. On seismic data, the faults vary in dip from 45 to 60 degrees and exhibit maximum vertical offsets of 600 m. The La Vela and other obliquely-opening rifts accommodate right-lateral shear with linkages to intervening, east-west-striking right-lateral faults like the Adicora. The zone of oblique rifts is restricted to the trend of the Great Arc of the Caribbean and may reflect the susceptiblity of this granitic basement to active shearing. The age of onset for the basins known from previous studies on the Leeward Antilles is early Miocene. As most of these faults occur offshore their potential to generate damaging earthquakes in the densely populated Leeward Antilles is not known.

  4. Formation and Evolution of the Junggar basin basement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, D.

    2015-12-01

    Junggar Basin is located in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Its basement nature is a highly controversial scientific topic, involving the basic style and processes of crustal growth.Based on the borehole data from over 300 wells drilled into the Carboniferous System, together with the high-resolution gravity and magnetic data (in a 1:50,000 scale), we made a detailed analysis of the basement structure, formation timing and process and later evolution on basis of core geochemical and isotopic analysis. Firstly, we defined the Mahu Precambrian micro-continental block in the juvenile crust of Junggar Basin according to the Hf isotopic analysis of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks. Secondly, the results of the tectonic setting and basin analysis suggest that the Junggar area incorporates three approximately E-W trending island arc belts (from north to south: Yemaquan-Wulungu-Chingiz, Jiangjunmiao-Luliang-Darbut and Zhongguai-Mosuowan-Baijiahai-Qitai respectively) and intervened three approximately E-W trending retro-arc or inter-arc basin belts from north to south, such as Santanghu-Suosuoquan-Emin, Wucaiwan-Dongdaohaizi-Mahu (Mahu block sunk as a bathyal basin during this phase) and Fukang-western well Pen1 accordingly. Thirdly, the closure of these retro-arc or inter-arc basins gradually toward the south led to the occurrence of collision and amalgamation of the above-mentioned island arcs during the Carboniferous, constituting the basic framework of the Junggar "block". Fourthly, the emplacement of large-scale mantle-derived magmas occurred in the latest Carboniferous or Early Permian. For instance, the well Mahu 5 penetrate the latest Carboniferous basalts with a thickness of over 20m, and these mantle-derived magmas concreted the above-mentioned island arc-collaged body. Therefore, the Junggar basin basement mainly comprises pre-Carboniferous collaged basement, and its formation is characterized by two-stage growth model, involving the

  5. Modeled future peak streamflows in four coastal Maine rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    To safely and economically design bridges and culverts, it is necessary to compute the magnitude of peak streamflows that have specified annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs). These peak flows are also needed for effective floodplain management. Annual precipitation and air temperature in the northeastern United States are in general projected to increase during the 21st century (Hayhoe and other, 2007). It is therefore important for engineers and resource managers to understand how peak flows may change in the future. This Fact Sheet, prepared in cooperation with the Maine Department of Transportation, presents a summary of modeled changes in peak flows at four basins in coastal Maine on the basis of projected changes in air temperature and precipitation. The full Scientific Investigations Report (Hodgkins and Dudley, 2013) is available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2013/5080/.

  6. Land-cover change in upper Barataria Basin estuary, Louisiana, 1972-1992: increases in Wetland area.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stacy A C; Soranno, Patricia A; Qi, Jiaguo

    2002-05-01

    The Barataria Basin, Louisiana, USA, is an extensive wetland and coastal estuary system of great economic and intrinsic value. Although high rates of wetland loss along the coastal margin of the Barataria Basin have been well documented, little information exists on whether freshwater wetlands in the upper basin have changed. Our objectives were to quantify land-cover change in the upper basin over 20 years from 1972-1992 and to determine land-cover transition rates among land-cover types. Using 80-m resolution Landsat MSS data from the North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) data archive, we classified images from three time steps (1972, 1985, 1992) into six land-cover types: agriculture, urban, bottomland hardwood forest, swamp forest, freshwater marsh, and open water. Significant changes in land cover occurred within the upper Barataria Basin over the study period. Urban land increased from 8% to 17% of the total upper basin area, primarily due to conversions from agricultural land, and to a lesser degree, bottomland forest. Swamp forest increased from 30% to 41%, associated with conversions from bottomland hardwood forest and freshwater marsh. Overall, bottomland forest decreased 38% and total wetland area increased 21%. Within the upper Barataria, increases in total wetland area may be due to land subsidence. Based on our results, if present trends in the reduction of bottomland forest land cover were to continue, the upper Barataria Basin may have no bottomland hardwood forests left by the year 2025, as it is subjected to multiple stressors both in the higher elevations (from urbanization) and lower elevations (most likely from land subsidence). These results suggest that changes in the upper freshwater portions of coastal estuaries can be large and quite different from patterns observed in the more saline coastal margins.

  7. Developing a NIDIS Drought Early Warning Information System for Coastal Ecosystems in the Carolinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, L. S.; Dow, K.; Lackstrom, K.; Brennan, A.; Tufford, D. L.; Conrads, P.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Webb, R. S.; Verdin, J. P.; Mcnutt, C. A.; Deheza, V.

    2013-12-01

    The National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) is in the process of developing drought early warning systems in areas of the U.S. where the coordination of drought information is critically needed. These regional drought early warning systems will become the backbone of a national drought early warning information system. Plans for the first drought early warning system started in the fall of 2008 in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), with an initial focus on the water supply in the head waters region of the Colorado River and the impacts of changes in the water supply on the UCRB. Since the establishment of the UCRB drought early warning system, other regional programs have begun in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, four regions in the state of California, the Southern Plains, and the Four Corners region. (At this time these are considered pilot drought early warning programs, not full-fledged drought early warning systems such as the UCRB.) Activities in each of these regions are tailored to the needs of stakeholders, and all incorporate hydrometeorological predictions. However, in all of these areas NIDIS has not focused on the specific needs of coastal ecosystems during times of drought. Over the past year, NIDIS has started a pilot drought early warning system that addresses drought in the coastal ecosystems of North and South Carolina. This pilot is being developed in partnership with the Carolinas Integrated Sciences and Assessments (CISA), a NOAA Regional Sciences and Assessments program housed at the University of South Carolina. Currently the focus of the Carolinas pilot includes the promotion of enhanced drought impact reporting to better understand the impacts of low flows on coastal ecosystems and the development of a USGS real-time salinity network for a few coastal gage stations in the Carolinas. The roles of the enhanced drought impact assessments in coastal ecosystems and the knowledge gained from a real

  8. Flowpath delineation and ground water age, Allequash Basin, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pint, Christine D.; Hunt, Randall J.; Anderson, Mary P.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis of ground water flowpaths to a lake and creek in northern Wisconsin shows the flow system in a geologically simple basin dominated by lakes can be surprisingly complex. Differences in source area, i.e., lakes or terrestrial, combined with the presence of intervening lakes, which may or may not capture underflowing ground water as water moves downgradient from recharge areas, contribute to a complex mix of flowpaths. The result is water of different chemistry and vastly different ages may discharge in close proximity. Flowpaths, travel times, and capture zones in the Allequash Basin in northern Wisconsin were delineated using particle tracking based on a calibrated steady-state ground water flow model. The flowpath analysis supports the conclusions of Walker et al. (2003) who made inferences about flowpath characteristics from isotope and major ion chemistry. Simulated particle tracking agreed with Walker et al.'s measurements of water source (lake or terrestrial recharge) in the stream subsurface and also supported their assertion that ground water with a high calcium concentration in the lower basin of Allequash Lake is derived from long flowpaths. Numerical simulations show that ground water discharging in this area originates more than 5 km away in a source area located upgradient of Big Muskellunge Lake, which is upgradient of Allequash Lake. These results graphically illustrate that in settings with multiple sources of water with different age characteristics and converging flowlines (like the Allequash Basin) it may be difficult to obtain accurate estimates of ground water age by chemical analyses of ground water.

  9. Water resources of the Waccasassa River Basin and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, G.F.; Snell, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    This map report was prepared in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District which, with the Waccasassa River Basin Board, had jurisdiction over waters within the Waccasassa River basin, the coastal areas adjacent to the basin, and other adjacent areas outside the basin. New water management district boundaries, effective January 1977, place most of the Waccasassa River basin in the Suwannee River Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide water information for consideration in land-use and water development which is accelerating, especially in the northeastern part of the study area. It is based largely on existing data in the relatively undeveloped area. Of the total area included in the topographic drainage basin for the Waccasassa River about 72 percent is in Levy County, 18 percent in Alachua County, 9 percent in Gilchrist County, and 1 percent in Marion County. The elongated north-south drainage basin is approximately 50 mi in length, averages 13 mi in width, and lies between the Suwannee River, the St. Johns River, and the Withlacoochee River basins. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Geologic and hydrologic controls on coalbed methane producibility, Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Nance, H.S.; McMurry, R.G. )

    1996-01-01

    Structural and depositional setting, coal rank, gas content, permeability, hydrodynamics, and reservoir heterogeneity control the producibility of coalbed methane in the Piceance Basin. The coal-rich Upper Cretaceous, Williams Fork Formation is genetically defined and regionally correlated to the genetic sequences in the Sand Wash Basin, to the north. Net coal is thickest in north-south oriented belts which accumulated on a coastal plain, behind west-east prograding shoreline sequences. Face cleats of Late Cretaceous age strike E-NE and W-NW in the southern and northern parts of the basin, respectively, normal to the Grand Hogback thrust front. Parallelism between face-cleat strike and present-day maximum horizontal stresses may enhance or inhibit coal permeability in the north and south, respectively. Geopressure and hydropressure are both present in the basin with regional hydrocarbon overpressure dominant in the central part of the basin and hydropressure limited to the basin margins. The most productive gas wells in the basin are associated with structural terraces, anticlines, and/or correspond to Cameo-Wheeler-Fairfield coal-sandstone development, reflecting basement detached thrust-faulting, fracture-enhanced permeability, and reservoir heterogeneity. Depositional heterogeneties and thrusts faults isolate coal reservoirs along the Grand Hogback from the subsurface by restricting meteoric recharge and basinward flow of ground water. An evolving coalbed methane producibility model predicts that in the Piceance Basin extraordinary coalbed methane production is precluded by low permeability and by the absence of dynamic ground-water flow.

  11. Geologic and hydrologic controls on coalbed methane producibility, Williams Fork Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Scott, A.R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Nance, H.S.; McMurry, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Structural and depositional setting, coal rank, gas content, permeability, hydrodynamics, and reservoir heterogeneity control the producibility of coalbed methane in the Piceance Basin. The coal-rich Upper Cretaceous, Williams Fork Formation is genetically defined and regionally correlated to the genetic sequences in the Sand Wash Basin, to the north. Net coal is thickest in north-south oriented belts which accumulated on a coastal plain, behind west-east prograding shoreline sequences. Face cleats of Late Cretaceous age strike E-NE and W-NW in the southern and northern parts of the basin, respectively, normal to the Grand Hogback thrust front. Parallelism between face-cleat strike and present-day maximum horizontal stresses may enhance or inhibit coal permeability in the north and south, respectively. Geopressure and hydropressure are both present in the basin with regional hydrocarbon overpressure dominant in the central part of the basin and hydropressure limited to the basin margins. The most productive gas wells in the basin are associated with structural terraces, anticlines, and/or correspond to Cameo-Wheeler-Fairfield coal-sandstone development, reflecting basement detached thrust-faulting, fracture-enhanced permeability, and reservoir heterogeneity. Depositional heterogeneties and thrusts faults isolate coal reservoirs along the Grand Hogback from the subsurface by restricting meteoric recharge and basinward flow of ground water. An evolving coalbed methane producibility model predicts that in the Piceance Basin extraordinary coalbed methane production is precluded by low permeability and by the absence of dynamic ground-water flow.

  12. Communicative challenges of bystander intervention: impact of goals and message design logic on strategies college students use to intervene in drinking situations.

    PubMed

    White, Cindy H; Malkowski, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    A key concern on college campuses is how to help students avoid negative outcomes related to alcohol use. One way to address this is to encourage students to intervene when they see others engaged in high-risk behavior. This approach, referred to as bystander intervention, requires that individuals seek to influence others; however, research on bystander intervention has not explored how students communicate when they intervene. Drawing from a multiple goals perspective, we examined individuals' goals during intervention, the types of messages individuals use to intervene, and the relationship of design logic to sense of efficacy and messages used. Participants (n = 212) identified their goals and indicated what they would say to intervene in two college-drinking scenarios. We found that differences in goals were related to the types of messages used, with more specific goals leading to messages better aligned with achieving those goals. Additionally, more sophisticated design logic was related to a higher sense of efficacy and was reflected in the types of messages individuals used to intervene. The study views bystander intervention as an influence process and highlights the communicative challenges that can impact how people intervene.

  13. Geohydrologic summary of the Pearl River basin, Mississippi and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, Joseph W.

    1972-01-01

    little or no treatment for most uses. The water is a soft, sodium bicarbonate type and therefore has a low to moderate dissolved-solids content. Mineral content increases generally downdip in an aquifer. Excessive iron, common in shallow aquifers, is objectionable for some water uses. Water from the streams, except in salty tidal reaches, is less mineralized than ground water; in 10 sites the median dissolved-solids content in streamflow was 50 milligrams per liter or less. Moderately intensive ground-water development has been made in the Bogalusa area, Louisiana; at the Mississippi Test Facility, Hancock County, Miss. ; and in the Jackson area, Mississippi. Wells with pumping rates of 500 to 1,000 gallons per minute each are common throughout the Pearl River basin, and some deep wells flow more than 3,000 gallons per minute in the coastal lowland areas. Probably 20 million gallons per day of artesian water flows uncontrolled from wells in the southern part of the basin. Ground-water levels, except in the higher altitudes, are within 60 feet of the surface, and flowing wells are common in the valleys and in the coastal Pine Meadows. Decline of water level is a problem in only a few small areas. Saline water as a resource is available for development from aquifers and streams near the coast and from aquifers at considerable depth in most of the Pearl River basin. Pollution is a problem in oil fields and in reaches of some streams below sewage and other waste-disposal points. The basin estuary contains water of variable quality but has potential for certain water-use developments that will require special planning and management.

  14. Assessment of differences in physical watershed characteristics between gaged and ungaged portions of the Great Lakes basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. S.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.; Kult, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Prediction of hydrologic response in ungaged basins often relies on regression relationships between physical watershed characteristics in gaged basins and either calibrated rainfall-runoff model parameters or model-independent hydrologic response indices (e.g. runoff, runoff ratio, baseflow index, etc.). Predictive skill using these types of modeling approaches may be compromised when watershed characteristics in the ungaged areas are substantially different from those in the gaged areas used to establish the regression relationships. In the case of the Great Lakes basin, regionalization may be complicated by characteristics unique to coastal regions. For example, coastal regions of the Great Lakes contain eight large urbanized metro areas (Milwaukee, Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Windsor, Toronto, and Buffalo), unique coastal wetland areas, and distinctive meteorological conditions (e.g. lake effect snow). This research investigates the extent to which a set of physical watershed characteristics may vary between gaged (inland) and ungaged (coastal) portions of the Great Lakes basin and therefore complicate regionalization schemes. The work is conducted alongside development of a new regionalization scheme for simulating discharge to the Great Lakes.

  15. DETECTION OF GROUNDWATER AGES WITH 85 KR IN ARSENIC-BEARING, FRACTURED CRYSTALLINE BEDROCK OF THE GOOSE RIVER BASIN, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young groundwater from various depths in crystalline bedrock of the Goose River basin, mid-coastal Maine, is documented from 85Kr isotope age analyses (1963 ? 1987) but not from 3H isotope age analyses. Elevated geogenic arsenic in drinking water from groundwater wells and sprin...

  16. A coastal perspective on security.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John

    2003-11-14

    This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with coastal waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in coastal environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations.

  17. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  18. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  19. Paleogeography of the upper Paleozoic basins of southern South America: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limarino, Carlos O.; Spalletti, Luis A.

    2006-12-01

    The paleogeographic evolution of Late Paleozoic basins located in southern South America is addressed. Three major types of basins are recognized: infracratonic or intraplate, arc-related, and retroarc. Intraplate basins (i.e., Paraná, Chaco-Paraná, Sauce Grande-Colorado, and La Golondrina) are floored by continental or quasi-continental crust, with low or moderate subsidence rates and limited magmatic and tectonic activity. Arc-related basins (northern and central Chile, Navidad-Arizaro, Río Blanco, and Calingasta-Uspallata basins and depocenters along Chilean Patagonia) show a very complex tectonic history, widespread magmatic activity, high subsidence rates, and in some cases metamorphism of Late Paleozoic sediments. An intermediate situation corresponds to the retroarc basins (eastern Madre de Dios, Tarija, Paganzo, and Tepuel-Genoa), which lack extensive magmatism and metamorphism but in which coeval tectonism and sedimentation rates were likely more important than those in the intraplate region. According to the stratigraphic distribution of Late Paleozoic sediments, regional-scale discontinuities, and sedimentation pattern changes, five major paleogeographic stages are proposed. The lowermost is restricted to the proto-Pacific and retroarc basins, corresponds to the Mississippian (stage 1), and is characterized by shallow marine and transitional siliciclastic sediments. During stage 2 (Early Pennsylvanian), glacial-postglacial sequences dominated the infracratonic (or intraplate) and retroarc basins, and terrigenous shallow marine sediments prevailed in arc-related basins. Stage 3 (Late Pennsylvanian-Early Cisuralian) shows the maximum extension of glacial-postglacial sediments in the Paraná and Sauce Grande-Colorado basins (intraplate region), whereas fluvial deposits interfingering with thin intervals of shallow marine sediments prevailed in the retroarc basins. To the west, arc-related basins were dominated by coastal to deep marine conditions

  20. Geologic map of the Redwood Creek drainage basin, Humboldt County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Deborah Reid; Kelsey, H.M.; Morrison, S.D.; Stephens, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A 1:62,500-scale geologic map with 14 rock stratigraphic units and an accompanying explanatory text are used to describe the geology of the Redwood Creek drainage basin of northwestern California. A large part of Redwood National Park is located in the downstream part of this actively eroding drainage basin. The bedrock consists primarily of Mesozoic sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The structurally complex Franciscan assemblage of rocks underlies most of the basin, but rocks of the Klammath Mountain tectonic province occurs in a small eastern part of the basin. Most major boundaries between Mesozoic rock units are north-northwest trending faults parallel to the regional structural trend. Extensive areas of surficial coastal plain sediments, landslide deposits, stream terrace deposits and modern alluvium are also present; these areas help identify loci of vigorous recent erosion. (USGS)

  1. Closure of a seaway: stratigraphic record and facies (Guadix basin, Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzler, Christian; Braga, Juan Carlos; Martín, José M.; Sánchez-Almazo, Isabel M.; Lindhorst, Sebastian

    2006-09-01

    During the late Tortonian (upper Miocene), the Guadix Basin in S Spain formed one of the Betic corridors that connected the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean. The closure of this connection occurred in a series of steps, documented by three sedimentary units. A lower unit, consisting of basinal marls, shallow-water calcarenites and sands records the formation of a wide seaway. During deposition of the following unit this narrowed to a strait no more than 2 km in wide, triggering an intensification of currents that caused migration of submarine dunes preserved as giant cross-beds in bioclastic sands and conglomerates. Current flowed from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. The third unit constitutes the youngest marine episode of the filling of the Guadix Basin. At this stage, the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean was broken, and a system of coastal coral reefs was established in the northern part of the Basin.

  2. Holocene coastal glaciation of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkin, Parker E.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Barclay, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Holocene fluctuations of the three cirque glaciers on the Seward Peninsula and five groups of tidewater- and land-terminating glaciers along the northernmost Gulf of Alaska, provide a proxy record of late Holocene climatic change. Furthermore, the movements of the coastal glaciers were relevant to late Holocene native American migration. The earliest expansion was recorded about 6850 yr BP by Hubbard Glacier at the head of Yakutat Bay in the Gulf of Alaska; however, its down-fjord advance to the bay mouth was delayed until ˜2700 BP. Similarly, expansions of the Icy Bay, Bering, and McCarty glaciers occurred near their present termini by ˜3600-3000 BP, compatible with marked cooling and precipitation increases suggested by the Alaskan pollen record. Decrease in glacier activity ˜2000 BP was succeeded by advances of Gulf coastal glaciers between 1500 and 1300 BP, correlative with early Medieval expansions across the Northern Hemisphere. A Medieval Optimum, encompassing at least a few centuries prior to AD 1200 is recognized by general retreat of land-terminating glaciers, but not of all tidewater glaciers. Little Ice Age advances of land-based glaciers, many dated with the precision of tree-ring cross-dating, were centered on the middle 13th or early 15th centuries, the middle 17th and the last half of the 19th century A.D. Strong synchrony of these events across coastal Alaska is evident.

  3. Tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the northeastern Pyrenean Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophoul, Frédéric; Ford, Mary; Grool, Arjan; Géraldine, Rougier; Louis, Hemmer

    2016-04-01

    The Aquitaine basin, on the northern flank of the Pyrenees was subject to intense hydrocarbon exploration until the 1990's, generating a huge dataset that has been under-exploited until now. In the framework of the French Pyramid ANR project this dataset was used, together with new field data, to reconstruct the evolution of this retroforeland basin. This study focuses on the eastern retroforeland, from the Corbières to east to the Toulouse Fault to the west. In terms of age, the main depocentres are however contemporary along the whole eastern basin: 1) From Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene (Campanian to Selandian) the early foreland basin, known as the "Flysch Trough", was filled by a succession of turbidites passing upward into fluvial sediments that prograded axially from the east. 2) From Thanetian to Oligocene, a second cycle started with a deepening upward trend until the Ypresian (inner carbonate platform to mixed open marine) and changed to a shallowing upward succession, passing from open marine sediments, coastal clastic deposits and then to coarse fluvial deposits from Upper Ypresian to Oligocene. Progradation was again initially axial from the east. However, a new south to north fluvial drainage developed from the emerging relief of the Pyrenees to the south. In terms of location and structural style of these depocentres, the salt-free eastern basin (from the Corbières in the east to the Toulouse Fault to the west) reveals a distinctive style to the salt-rich western basin. In eastern foreland (Corbières to Aude Valley), syntectonic depocentres migrated north as a series of wedge-top basins between Late Cretaceous and Late Eocene. The thick-skinned syn-sedimentary foreland structures progressively die out westward. In the western part of the study area (Plantaurel to Petites Pyrenees) stacked depocentres of the same age are preserved in the footwall of the North Pyrenean Frontal thrust recording a slower northward migration associated with a northward

  4. Coastal eutrophication in Europe caused by production of energy crops.

    PubMed

    van Wijnen, Jikke; Ivens, Wilfried P M F; Kroeze, Carolien; Löhr, Ansje J

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, the use of biodiesel may increase rapidly in the coming decades as a result of policies aiming to increase the use of renewable fuels. Therefore, the production of biofuels from energy crops is expected to increase as well as the use of fertilisers to grow these crops. Since fertilisers are an important cause of eutrophication, the use of biodiesel may have an effect on the water quality in rivers and coastal seas. In this study we explored the possible effects of increased biodiesel use on coastal eutrophication in European seas in the year 2050. To this end, we defined a number of illustrative scenarios in which the biodiesel production increases to about 10-30% of the current diesel use. The scenarios differ with respect to the assumptions on where the energy crops are cultivated: either on land that is currently used for agriculture, or on land used for other purposes. We analysed these scenarios with the Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model. We used an existing Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenario for 2050, Global Orchestration (GO2050), as a baseline. In this baseline scenario the amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) exported by European rivers to coastal seas decreases between 2000 and 2050 as a result of environmental and agricultural policies. In our scenarios with increased biodiesel production the river export of N and P increases between 2000 and 2050, indicating that energy crop production may more than counterbalance this decrease. Largest increases in nutrient export were calculated for the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Differences in nutrient export among river basins are large. PMID:25536176

  5. Coastal eutrophication in Europe caused by production of energy crops.

    PubMed

    van Wijnen, Jikke; Ivens, Wilfried P M F; Kroeze, Carolien; Löhr, Ansje J

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, the use of biodiesel may increase rapidly in the coming decades as a result of policies aiming to increase the use of renewable fuels. Therefore, the production of biofuels from energy crops is expected to increase as well as the use of fertilisers to grow these crops. Since fertilisers are an important cause of eutrophication, the use of biodiesel may have an effect on the water quality in rivers and coastal seas. In this study we explored the possible effects of increased biodiesel use on coastal eutrophication in European seas in the year 2050. To this end, we defined a number of illustrative scenarios in which the biodiesel production increases to about 10-30% of the current diesel use. The scenarios differ with respect to the assumptions on where the energy crops are cultivated: either on land that is currently used for agriculture, or on land used for other purposes. We analysed these scenarios with the Global NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model. We used an existing Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Scenario for 2050, Global Orchestration (GO2050), as a baseline. In this baseline scenario the amount of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) exported by European rivers to coastal seas decreases between 2000 and 2050 as a result of environmental and agricultural policies. In our scenarios with increased biodiesel production the river export of N and P increases between 2000 and 2050, indicating that energy crop production may more than counterbalance this decrease. Largest increases in nutrient export were calculated for the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Differences in nutrient export among river basins are large.

  6. Response of ground-water levels of flood control operations in three basins, south-eastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Three basins in southeastern Florida were investigated to determine the changes in ground-water levels and canal flows that occurred in response to operation of coastal water-control structures in each canal. All three basins are underlain by the Biscayne aquifer. They are, Snapper Creek Canal basin, where the Biscayne aquifer is of high permeability; the Snake Creek Canal basin, where the aquifer is of moderate permeability; and the Pompano-Cypress Canal basin, where the aquifer is of low permeability. In each basin, drainage is a function of permeability; thus, where the permeability of the aquifer is high, drainage is excellent. The coastal water-conrol structures are intended to afford flood protection in the three basins. In general the control operation criteria for flood control in newly developing areas in southeastern Florida do not provide adequate protection from flooding because of the time required for the aquifer to respond to changes in the controls. Adequate protection would require increasing the density of secondary drainage canals, but this could achieved only by reducing the quantity of water available for recharging those segments of the Biscayne aquifer adjacent to the canals. (Woodrad-USGS)

  7. GRACE captures basin mass dynamic changes in China based on a multi-basin inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Shuang; Wang, Qiuyu; Sun, Wenke

    2016-04-01

    Complex landform, miscellaneous climate and enormous population have enriched China with geophysical phenomena ranging from water depletion in the underground to glaciers retreat on the high mountains and have aroused large scientific interests. This paper, utilizing gravity observations 2003-2014 from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), intends to make a comprehensive estimation of mass status in 16 drainage basins in the whole region. We proposed a multi-basin inversion method, which is featured by resistance to the stripe noise and ability to alleviate signal attenuation due to truncation and smoothing of GRACE data. The results show both positive and negative trends: there is a tremendous mass accumulation spreading from the Tibetan plateau (12.2 ± 0.6 Gt/yr) to the Yangtze River (7.6 ± 1.3 Gt/yr), and further to the southeast coastal areas, which is suggested to involve an increase in the ground water storage, lake and reservoir water volume and likely materials flowed in by tectonic process; a mass loss is occurring in Huang-Huai-Hai-Liao River Basin (-10.5 ± 0.8 Gt/yr), as well as the Brahmaputra-Nujiang-Lancang River Basin (-15.0 ± 0.9 Gt/yr) and Tienshan Mountain (-4.1 ± 0.3 Gt/yr), which is a result of groundwater pumping and glacier melting. The groundwater depletion area is well consistent with the distribution of land subsidence in North China. In the end, we find intensified precipitation can alter the local water supply and GRACE is proficient to capture this dynamics, which could be instructive for the South-to-North Water Diversion - one China's giant hydrologic project.

  8. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  9. Age-related alterations in the vertebral spinous processes and intervening soft tissues: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Sartoris, D J; Resnick, D; Tyson, R; Haghighi, P

    1985-11-01

    A radiologic-pathologic correlative investigation of the normal age-related alterations in the spinous processes and intervening soft tissues was performed using cadaveric spines and both ancient and modern macerated vertebral specimens. Extreme lordosis in the cervical or lumbar spine results in spinous process apposition, formation of interspinous bursae, eburnation with osteophytosis, and creation of synovial articulations. A concomitant degenerative enthesopathy involves the supraspinous or interspinous ligamentous attachments in any spinal segment. The differential diagnosis of this phenomenon, the clinical significance of which in a given patient is controversial, includes rheumatoid and other inflammatory arthritides as well as crystal deposition disease.

  10. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  11. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National... Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (Commerce). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: By operation of Alaska...

  12. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones.

  13. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  14. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  15. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  16. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  17. Upper Permian (Guadalupian) facies and their association with hydrocarbons - Permian basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.F.; Kendall, C.G.S.C.; Harris, P.M.

    1986-03-01

    Outcrops of Guadalupian sedimentary rocks in the Permian basin of west Texas and southeastern New Mexico are a classic example of the facies relationships that span a carbonate shelf. In the subsurface, these rocks form classic hydrocarbon-facies taps. Proceeding from basin to the updip termination of the shelf, the facies are (1) deep-water basin, (2) an apron of allochthonous carbonates, (3) carbonate shelf margin or reef, (4) carbonate sand flats, (5) carbonate barrier islands, (6) lagoon, and (7) coastal playas and supratidal salt flats (sabkhas). Over a half century of exploration drilling has shown that hydrocarbons in the Permian rocks of the Permian basin have accumulated at the updip contact of the lagoonal dolomites and clastics with the coastal evaporites, and in the basinal channel-fill clastics. The shelf marginal (reef) facies contain cavernous porosity, but commonly are water saturated. These facies relationships and hydrocarbon occurrences provide an exploration model with which to explore and rank hydrocarbon potential in other carbonate provinces. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Coastal resources management guidelines. Coastal Management Publication No. 2. Renewable Resources Information Series

    SciTech Connect

    Snedaker, S.C.; Getter, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The guidebook is one in a series of publications being produced for the Agency for International Development (AID) by the National Park Service (NPS). Its purpose is to provide expert guidance in planning and management for sustainable coastal development and for the conservation of coastal resources. In addition to the book the coastal series includes a casebook with eight case studies, a report on institutional arrangements for coastal resource management, and a condensed design aids booklet.

  19. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  20. Taunton River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    This report presents in tabular form selected records of wells, test wells, and borings collected during a study of the basin from 1966 to 1968 in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission, and during earlier studies. This report is released in order to make available to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies basic ground-water information that may aid in planning water-resources development. Basic records contained in this report will complement an interpretative report on the Taunton River basin to be released at a later date.

  1. Decomposition of saltmeadow cordgrass (Spartina patens) in Louisiana coastal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, A.L.; Reynolds, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    In Louisiana, plant production rates and associated decomposition rates may be important in offsetting high rates of land loss and subsidence in organic marsh soils. Decomposition of Spartina patens shoot and leaf material was studied by using litter bags in mesohaline marshes in the Barataria and Terrebonne basins of coastal Louisiana. Spartina patens decomposed very slowly with an average decay constant of 0.0007, and approximately 50% of the material remained after 2 years in the field. Material at the Barataria site decomposed faster than did Terrebonne material with trend differences apparent during the first 150 days. This difference might be explained by the higher content of phosphorus in the Barataria material or a flooding period experienced by the Barataria bags during their first 10 days of deployment. Nitrogen and carbon content of the plant material studied did not differ between the two basins. We detected no consistent significant differences in decomposition above, at, or below sediment/water level. Because S. patens is the dominant plant in these marshes, and because it is so slow to decompose, we believe that S. patens shoots are an important addition to vertical accretion and, therefore, marsh elevation.

  2. Integrated Research Approaches to Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandini Menon, N.; Singh, Tanya; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal zones around the world are extremely vulnerable today because of the unprecedented pressures of industrial and urban development as well as climate change related devastations, such as the growing intensities of cyclonic storms, the rise in sea surface temperature, sea surges, and sea level rise. In India, where about 35% of the population lives within 100 kilometers of the coastline, fisheries are a major driver and safety net for economic development and coastal livelihoods. Coastal ecosystems are closely linked with socio-economic systems, which require carefully planned coastal zone management (CZM) actions.

  3. The wave criteria for coastal zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnot, J. V.; Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; del Saz Cordero, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WAVE CRITERIA FOR THE COASTAL ZONE DEFINITION Coastal nations define along their shores a strip of intense administrative intervention entailing strong restrictions to landowners domainial powers. The exact determination of the spatial extent of this zone is always blurred by coastal dynamics which cast some degree of legal uncertainty on the adjacent real rights. Criterion adopted for this determination shall seek to be practical enough to be effectively implemented, and at the same time robust enough in order to remain reliable at least in the mid term. In short, the aim of this paper is to integrate technical tools taken from coastal engineering and coastal law in order to better understand the relationship between human societies and the coastal substratum. The first step of our document aims to highlight those reasons that lead human societies to set back from the coast, and for this purpose we will proceed to a systematical scanning through the "Legal Findings" sections of several coastal laws. As a second step, we will make a review of the most common coastal features that constitute the final object of the administrative protection. Those coastal features, present in almost all coastal laws, are cliffs, dunes, wetlands and beaches, all of them closely related to waves. In this second point, the review will point out the reasons for the protection of those geomorphological elements and their role and utility for coastal human societies. The last part of this document will take advantage of the elements resulting from the first two steps in order to draw some conclusions. As a first achievement, and at the light of the fundamentals for coastal administrative protection identified in the first part, we will sort out a classification of coastal setbacks, according to the leading idea by which they are based. Finally will we will put into practice the concepts obtained from both the first and second steps - fundamentals for coastal administrative

  4. Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deep gas reservoir play, central and eastern Gulf coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mancini, E.A.; Li, P.; Goddard, D.A.; Ramirez, V.O.; Talukdar, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous) deeply buried gas reservoir play in the central and eastern Gulf coastal plain of the United States has high potential for significant gas resources. Sequence-stratigraphic study, petroleum system analysis, and resource assessment were used to characterize this developing play and to identify areas in the North Louisiana and Mississippi Interior salt basins with potential for deeply buried gas reservoirs. These reservoir facies accumulated in Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Norphlet, Haynesville, Cotton Valley, and Hosston continental, coastal, and marine siliciclastic environments and Smackover and Sligo nearshore marine shelf, ramp, and reef carbonate environments. These Mesozoic strata are associated with transgressive and regressive systems tracts. In the North Louisiana salt basin, the estimate of secondary, nonassociated thermogenic gas generated from thermal cracking of oil to gas in the Upper Jurassic Smackover source rocks from depths below 3658 m (12,000 ft) is 4800 tcf of gas as determined using software applications. Assuming a gas expulsion, migration, and trapping efficiency of 2-3%, 96-144 tcf of gas is potentially available in this basin. With some 29 tcf of gas being produced from the North Louisiana salt basin, 67-115 tcf of in-place gas remains. Assuming a gas recovery factor of 65%, 44-75 tcf of gas is potentially recoverable. The expelled thermogenic gas migrated laterally and vertically from the southern part of this basin to the updip northern part into shallower reservoirs to depths of up to 610 m (2000 ft). Copyright ?? 2008. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  5. The Mimallonidae (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea) of the Caribbean Basin,
    with the descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Ryan A St; Mccabe, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Mimallonidae of the Caribbean Basin are discussed, with attention primarily given to species endemic to the Caribbean islands and the northern coast of Venezuela. The Caribbean Basin is a political term for tropical regions circumscribed by the Gulf of Mexico. Cicinnus bahamensis sp. n. is described from the Bahamas, the first species of Mimallonidae from this country. The Cuban species Cicinnus packardii (Grote, 1865), the closest relative of C. bahamensis sp. n., is figured and compared. A third, similar, species from northern coastal Venezuela, C. falcoargenteus sp. n., is described and compared to the previous two species. PMID:27394281

  6. Turbidity and suspended-sediment transport in the Russian River Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.; Brown, William M.

    1971-01-01

    The Russian River in north coastal California has a persistent turbidness, which has reportedly caused a decline in the success of the sports fishermen. As a consequence, the number of sports fishermen angling in the river has declined, and industries dependent on their business have suffered. To determine the source of the turbidity and the rate of sediment transport in the basin, a network of sampling station was established in February 1964 along the river, on some of its tributaries, and near Lake Pillsbury in the upper Eel River basin.

  7. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K.; Gusmeroli, A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Zhang, T.; Parsekian, A. D.; Zebker, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on arctic tundra lowlands, but their present-day dynamic states are seldom investigated. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area analyzed exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3-4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs analyzed exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10-35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on arctic coastal lowlands.

  8. Peru onshore-deepwater basins should have large potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zuniga-Rivero, F.; Keeling, J.A.; Hay-Roe, H.

    1998-10-19

    Perupetro`s recent announcement that 13 offshore exploration blocks of nearly 1 million acres each will be offered for bids in the fourth quarter of 1998 has reawakened interest in this extensive, largely unexplored area. The new government policy, combined with the results of modern, deep-probing seismic surveys, has already led to a stepped-up search for oil and gas that will probably escalate. Most of Peru`s ten coastal basins are entirely offshore, but at both ends of the 1,500-mile coastline the sedimentary basins stretch from onshore across the continental shelf and down the continental slope. Two of these basin areas, both in the north, have commercial production. The third, straddling the country`s southern border, has never been drilled either on land or offshore. The Peruvian sectors of these three basins total roughly 50,000 sq miles in area, 75% offshore. All have major oil and gas potential. They are described individually in this article, an update in the ongoing studies last reported at the 1998 Offshore Technology Conference and in the first article of this series.

  9. Integration of the Gila River drainage system through the Basin and Range province of southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2015-05-01

    The Gila River and its tributaries in southern Arizona and adjoining states incorporate several dozen individual extensional basins of the central Basin and Range province into a single integrated drainage network. Forty basins in the Gila domain contain more than 1000 m (maximum ~ 3500 m) of post-12 Ma basin fill. Subsurface evaporites in many basins document internal drainages terminating in isolated playa lakes during early phases of basin history. The nature of intrabasinal and interbasinal divides and of eroded or sedimented stream passages through mountain ranges intervening between the basins reveal the geomorphic mechanisms that achieved drainage integration over late Miocene to early Pleistocene time. Drainage integration accompanied by headward erosion eastward toward Gila headwaters was a response to Miocene opening of the Gulf of California, into which the Gila River debouched directly before the Pliocene (< 5 Ma) lower course of the Colorado River was established. Residual basins of internal drainage where headward erosion has not yet penetrated into basin fill are most common in the easternmost Gila domain but also persist locally farther west. Most basin fill was dissected during drainage integration within the upstream Gila domain but continued accumulation of undissected basin fill by sediment aggradation is dominant in the downstream Gila domain. Basin dissection was initiated by Pliocene time in the central Gila domain but was delayed until Pleistocene time farther east. In the westernmost Gila domain, interaction with erosional and depositional episodes along the Colorado River influenced the development of Quaternary landscapes along the tributary Gila River. The sedimentary history of the Gila drainage network illustrates the means by which trunk rivers can establish courses across corrugated topography produced by the extensional rupture of continental blocks.

  10. Isopach and isoresource maps for oil shale deposits in the Eocene Green River Formation for the combined Uinta and Piceance Basins, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The in-place oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and the Uinta Basin of western Colorado and eastern Utah are estimated at 1.53 trillion barrels and 1.32 trillion barrels, respectively. The oil shale strata were deposited in a single large saline lake, Lake Uinta, that covered both basins and the intervening Douglas Creek arch, an area of comparatively low rates of subsidence throughout the history of Lake Uinta. Although the Green River Formation is largely eroded for about a 20-mile area along the crest of the arch, the oil shale interval is similar in both basins, and 17 out of 18 of the assessed oil shale zones are common to both basins. Assessment maps for these 17 zones are combined so that the overall distribution of oil shale over the entire extent of Lake Uinta can be studied. The combined maps show that throughout most of the history of Lake Uinta, the richest oil shale was deposited in the depocenter in the north-central part of the Piceance Basin and in the northeast corner of the Uinta Basin where it is closest to the Piceance Basin, which is the only area of the Uinta Basin where all of the rich and lean oil shale zones, originally defined in the Piceance Basin, can be identified. Both the oil shale and saline mineral depocenter in the Piceance Basin and the richest oil shale area in the Uinta Basin were in areas with comparatively low rates of subsidence during Lake Uinta time, but both areas had low rates of clastic influx. Limiting clastic influx rather than maximizing subsidence appears to have been the most important factor in producing rich oil shale.

  11. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission referred the matter to NMFS, under... out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the measures it failed to...

  12. Land area changes in coastal Louisiana after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Chapter 5B in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barras, John A.

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of classified Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery acquired before and after the landfalls of Hurricanes Katrina (August 29, 2005) and Rita (September 24, 2005) demonstrated that water area increased by 217 mi2 (562 km2) in coastal Louisiana. Approximately 82 mi2 (212 km2) of new water areas were in areas primarily impacted by Katrina (Mississippi River Delta basin, Breton Sound basin, Pontchartrain basin, Pearl River basin), whereas 117 mi2 (303 km2) were in areas primarily impacted by Rita (Calcasieu/ Sabine basin, Mermentau basin, Teche/Vermilion basin, Atchafalaya basin, Terrebonne basin). Barataria basin contained new water areas caused by both hurricanes, resulting in some 18 mi2 (46.6 km2) of new water areas. The fresh marsh and intermediate marsh communities' land areas decreased by 122 mi2 (316 km2) and 90 mi2 (233.1 km2), respectively. The brackish marsh and saline marsh communities' land areas decreased by 33 mi2 (85.5 km2) and 28 mi2 (72.5 km2), respectively. These new water areas identify permanent losses caused by direct removal of wetlands. They also indicate transitory water area changes caused by remnant flooding, removal of aquatic vegetation, scouring of marsh vegetation, and water-level variation attributed to normal tidal and meteorological variation between satellite images. Permanent losses cannot be estimated until several growing seasons have passed and the transitory impacts of the hurricanes are minimized. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary information on water area changes in coastal Louisiana acquired shortly after both hurricanes' landfalls (detectable with Landsat TM imagery) and to serve as a regional baseline for monitoring posthurricane wetland recovery.

  13. August median streamflow on ungaged streams in Eastern Coastal Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Methods for estimating August median streamflow were developed for ungaged, unregulated streams in eastern coastal Maine. The methods apply to streams with drainage areas ranging in size from 0.04 to 73.2 square miles and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer ranging from 0 to 71 percent. The equations were developed with data from three long-term (greater than or equal to 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 23 partial-record streamflow- gaging stations, and 5 short-term (less than 10 years of record) continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations. A mathematical technique for estimating a standard low-flow statistic, August median streamflow, at partial-record streamflow-gaging stations and short-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations was applied by relating base-flow measurements at these stations to concurrent daily streamflows at nearby long-term continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (index stations). Generalized least-squares regression analysis (GLS) was used to relate estimates of August median streamflow at streamflow-gaging stations to basin characteristics at these same stations to develop equations that can be applied to estimate August median streamflow on ungaged streams. GLS accounts for different periods of record at the gaging stations and the cross correlation of concurrent streamflows among gaging stations. Thirty-one stations were used for the final regression equations. Two basin characteristics?drainage area and fraction of basin underlain by a sand and gravel aquifer?are used in the calculated regression equation to estimate August median streamflow for ungaged streams. The equation has an average standard error of prediction from -27 to 38 percent. A one-variable equation uses only drainage area to estimate August median streamflow when less accuracy is acceptable. This equation has an average standard error of prediction from -30 to 43 percent. Model error is larger than

  14. Flood risk trends in coastal watersheds in South Spain: direct and indirect impact of river regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egüen, M.; Polo, M. J.; Gulliver, Z.; Contreras, E.; Aguilar, C.; Losada, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    Spain is one of the world's countries with a large number of reservoirs per inhabitant. This intense regulation of the fluvial network during the 20th century has resulted in a decrease in flood events, a higher availability of water resources, and a high development of the irrigated crop area, even in the drier regions. For decades, flood perception was reduced since the development of reservoirs protected the floodplains of river; this resulted in later occupation of soil by urban, agricultural and industrial uses. In recent years, an increasing perception of flood events is observed, associated to the higher damage associated to extreme events in the now occupied areas, especially in coastal watersheds. This work shows the change on flood risk in the coastal areas of three hydrographic basins in Andalusia (South Spain) during the reservoir expansion period: the Guadalete, Guadalquivir and Guadalhorce river basins. The results differentiate the impact of the regulation level on both the cumulative distribution functions of the fluvial discharge near the river mouth, for different time scales, and the associated damage related to the enhanced soil occupation during this period. The different impact on the final medium and long term flood risk is also assessed in terms of the storage capacity per unit area throughout the basins, the effective annual runoff/precipitation index, the frequency of sea storms, and the human factor (change in social perception of floods), for different intervals in the flood extreme regime. The implications for adaptation actions is also assessed.

  15. Portraits of our coastal waters. Supplement to the national water quality inventory. Report from the EPA regions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Contents: pathogen contamination in great bay, new hampshire; water quality problems in the middle atlantic bight; red tide in the eastern Gulf of Mexico; oxygen depleted coastal and estuarine waters in Louisiana and Texas; sediment deficit and saltwater intrusion in Barataria Basin, Louisiana; toxic contamination in San Diego Bay, California; salmon mortality problems in Port Townsend Bay, Washington; multimedia pollutants effect Green Bay/Fox River, Wisconsin.

  16. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, W.; Middelburg, J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Pena, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A.

    2009-11-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes deterioration of structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include fresh water runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses; their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. However, whether the coastal environment becomes hypoxic or not, under the combination of external forcings, depends also on the nature of the ecosystem, e.g. physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences can be compression and loss of habitat, as well as change in life cycle and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in a non-linear way and has pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, hence affecting human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behaviour that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  17. Characterizing the role benthos plays in large coastal seas and estuaries: A modular approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tenore, K.R.; Zajac, R.N.; Terwin, J.; Andrade, F.; Blanton, J.; Boynton, W.; Carey, D.; Diaz, R.; Holland, Austin F.; Lopez-Jamar, E.; Montagna, P.; Nichols, F.; Rosenberg, R.; Queiroga, H.; Sprung, M.; Whitlatch, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Ecologists studying coastal and estuarine benthic communities have long taken a macroecological view, by relating benthic community patterns to environmental factors across several spatial scales. Although many general ecological patterns have been established, often a significant amount of the spatial and temporal variation in soft-sediment communities within and among systems remains unexplained. Here we propose a framework that may aid in unraveling the complex influence of environmental factors associated with the different components of coastal systems (i.e. the terrestrial and benthic landscapes, and the hydrological seascape) on benthic communities, and use this information to assess the role played by benthos in coastal ecosystems. A primary component of the approach is the recognition of system modules (e.g. marshes, dendritic systems, tidal rivers, enclosed basins, open bays, lagoons). The modules may differentially interact with key forcing functions (e.g. temperature, salinity, currents) that influence system processes and in turn benthic responses and functions. Modules may also constrain benthic characteristics and related processes within certain ecological boundaries and help explain their overall spatio-temporal variation. We present an example of how benthic community characteristics are related to the modular structure of 14 coastal seas and estuaries, and show that benthic functional group composition is significantly related to the modular structure of these systems. We also propose a framework for exploring the role of benthic communities in coastal systems using this modular approach and offer predictions of how benthic communities may vary depending on the modular composition and characteristics of a coastal system. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Observed 1970-2005 cooling of summer daytime temperatures in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.; Fabris, D.; Maurer, E.; Miller, N.; Milesi, C.; Bornstein, R.

    2009-05-15

    The study evaluated 1948-2004 summer (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures for two California air basins: SoCAB and SFBA. The study focuses on the more rapid post-1970 warming period, and its daily T{sub min} and T{sub max} values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of trends for each air basins. Additional analyses included T{sub D} values at two NWS sites, SSTs, NCEP reanalysis sea-level pressures, and GCM T{sub ave}-values. Results for all California COOP sites together showed increased JJA T{sub ave}-values; asymmetric warming, as T{sub min}-values increase faster than T{sub max}-values; and thus decreased DTR values. The spatial distribution of observed SoCAB and SFBA T{sub max} values exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling in low-elevation coastal-areas open to marine air penetration and warming at inland areas. Results also showed that decreased DTR values in the valleys arose from small increases at 'inland' sites combined with large decreases at 'coastal' sites. Previous studies suggest that cooling JJA T{sub max}-values in coastal California were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover, while the current hypothesis is that they arises from GHG-induced global-warming of 'inland' areas, which results in increased sea breeze flow activity. Sea level pressure trends showed increases in the oceanic Pacific High and decreases in the central-California Thermal Low. The corresponding gradient thus showed a trend of 0.02 hPa 100-km{sup -1} decade{sup -1}, supportive of the hypothesis of increased sea breeze activity. Trends in T{sub D} values showed a larger value at coastal SFO than at inland SEC, which indicative of increased sea breeze activity; calculated SST trends (0.15 C decade{sup -1}) could also have increase T{sub D}-values. GCM model Tave-values showed warming that decreases from 0.13 C decade{sup -1} at inland California to 0.08 C decade{sup -1} at coastal areas. Significant societal impacts may

  19. Neighborhood context and adjustment in African American youths from single mother homes: the intervening role of hopelessness.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah J; Kincaid, Carlye Y; Cuellar, Jessica

    2012-04-01

    African American youths from single mother homes are more likely to live in neighborhoods characterized by greater risk and fewer resources than youth from two parent homes or European American youths; in turn, such adverse conditions are associated with increased adjustment problems. Despite this well-established vulnerability, relatively little is known about variables linking neighborhood context to youth adjustment. With the aim of identifying a potential youth-focused intervening variable amenable to intervention, this study examined the intervening role of hopelessness in the association between neighborhood context and adjustment problems in a sample of 171 African American youths (11-16 year olds) from single mother homes. Findings revealed direct associations between neighborhood context and youth adjustment, as well as indirect associations through youth hopelessness, although findings varied by the marker of neighborhood context (sense of community or perceived crime) and adjustment (internalizing or externalizing problems). Building on prior work noting that hopelessness is amenable to psychosocial intervention, the present findings suggest that hopelessness may afford a valuable target for prevention and intervention programming among African American youths from single mother homes in the context of adverse neighborhood conditions. PMID:22506815

  20. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters <2.5 μm), during CLs. Further, we speculate that the Caletones plume may trigger or promote secondary aerosol formation during CLs in the Santiago basin.

  1. Analysis of sedimentary facies and petrofacies of lower Morrowan-upper Chesterian sandstones, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keighin, C. William; Flores, Romeo M.

    1989-01-01

    Three major lithofacies have been identified within the Morrow (Pennsylvanian) and Springer (Pennsylvanian-Mississippian) units, in core from 30 drill holes ranging from the Oklahoma Panhandle to the southwestern portion of the Anadarko basin. The study included inspection of ~6,500 ft of core, examination of ~100 thin sections, and a scanning-electron-microscope study of butts of the material used for thin-section preparation. The lithofacies identified are (1) fluvial-influenced coastal, which includes the deltaic facies described by Swanson (1979), (2) tidal-influenced nearshore, and (3) mixed, which shows mixed tidal and nontidal marine influence. Our interpretation is supported by the investigations of Moore (1979), Haiduk (1987), and Swanson (1979). The fluvial-influenced coastal facies is restricted to the northwestern (Panhandle) portion of the Anadarko basin.

  2. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Impact Statement (DEIS) prepared by NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. The...

  3. Coastal zone color scanner retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    1994-04-01

    The following special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is dedicated to a retrospective of scientific studies using the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) instrument. The CZCS was launched in late 1978 aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite as a "proof-of-concept" instrument to demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite platforms to monitor the distribution of oceanic phytoplankton in the world's oceans. It provided data until the middle of 1986. Phytoplankton primary production contributes approximately one half of the global biospheric fixation of organic matter by photosynthesis, thereby forming the base of the oceanic food web and providing a major sink for atmospheric CO2.

  4. GREATEM survey in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd allah, S.; Mogi, T.; Femonko, E.

    2014-12-01

    To determine the electric-resistivity structure in coastal areas, airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been used many places. These results showed AEM can reveal seawater depth, sediment thickness, and depth to bedrock. However, until now, AEM could only reveal the resistivity structure to a depth of ˜200 m in coastal areas. Conventional AEM, using an airborne inductive source limits the depth of exploration because the presence of a conductor, such as saline surface water, decreases the penetration of the AEM signal. In order to enhance the depth of exploration, we used a grounded electrical source aligned parallel to the coast line and towed a magnetic receiver in the air. The method, called grounded-electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics, or GREATEM (Mogi et al., 1998), should enhance survey depth in coastal areas, since this method galvanically injects electric current into the ground. The method has increased the depth of exploration to 800 m in on-shore areas (Mogi et al., 2009, Ito et al. 2014). We have carried out a GREATEM survey at Kujukuri beach in central Japan, where an alluvial plain is dominated by sedimentary rocks and shallow water. Another GREATEM survey was performed at northwestern Awaji Island, where granitic rocks crop out onshore. In these studies, we faced issues how do we evaluate an effect of sea water on the data. To circumvent this problem, we used a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) modeling scheme based on the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method (Fomenko and Mogi, 2002) to study the effects of oceanic saltwater on GREATEM survey data at coastal areas. The models consisted of two adjacent layers where sea is a conductive thin sheet placed on top of a unifirm half space ( 100 Ohm-m). Then, we performed numerical forward modeling using the SFD method to generate a 3-D resistivity structure models from GREATEM field survey data at both of Kujukuri beach and the Nojima fault. As a result, we have

  5. Impacts on the Deep-Sea Ecosystem by a Severe Coastal Storm

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M.; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B.; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26th of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem. PMID:22295084

  6. Impacts on the deep-sea ecosystem by a severe coastal storm.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Calafat, Antoni M; Lastras, Galderic; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Menéndez, Melisa; Medina, Raúl; Company, Joan B; Hereu, Bernat; Romero, Javier; Alcoverro, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Major coastal storms, associated with strong winds, high waves and intensified currents, and occasionally with heavy rains and flash floods, are mostly known because of the serious damage they can cause along the shoreline and the threats they pose to navigation. However, there is a profound lack of knowledge on the deep-sea impacts of severe coastal storms. Concurrent measurements of key parameters along the coast and in the deep-sea are extremely rare. Here we present a unique data set showing how one of the most extreme coastal storms of the last decades lashing the Western Mediterranean Sea rapidly impacted the deep-sea ecosystem. The storm peaked the 26(th) of December 2008 leading to the remobilization of a shallow-water reservoir of marine organic carbon associated with fine particles and resulting in its redistribution across the deep basin. The storm also initiated the movement of large amounts of coarse shelf sediment, which abraded and buried benthic communities. Our findings demonstrate, first, that severe coastal storms are highly efficient in transporting organic carbon from shallow water to deep water, thus contributing to its sequestration and, second, that natural, intermittent atmospheric drivers sensitive to global climate change have the potential to tremendously impact the largest and least known ecosystem on Earth, the deep-sea ecosystem.

  7. Stratigraphic evidence for anthropogenically induced coastal environmental change from Oaxaca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goman, Michelle; Joyce, Arthur; Mueller, Raymond

    2005-05-01

    Previous interdisciplinary paleoenvironmental and archaeological research along the Río Verde Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico, showed that Holocene erosion in the highland valleys of the upper drainage basin triggered geomorphic changes in the river's coastal floodplain. This article uses stratigraphic data from sediment cores extracted from Laguna Pastoría, an estuary in the lower Río Verde Valley, to examine changes in coastal geomorphology potentially triggered by highland erosion. Coastal lagoon sediments contain a stratigraphically and chronologically distinct record of major hurricane strikes during late Holocene times. Three distinct storm facies are identified from sediment cores obtained from Laguna Pastoría, which indicate that profound coastal environmental changes occurred within the region and are correlated with increased sediment supplied from highland erosion. The Chione/ Laevicardium facies was deposited in an open bay while the Mytella/barnacle facies and sand facies were deposited in an enclosed lagoon following bay barrier formation. We argue that highland erosion triggered major geomorphic changes in the lowlands including bay barrier formation by ˜2500 cal yr B.P. These environmental changes may have had significant effects on human populations in the region. The lagoon stratigraphy further indicates an increase in mid-late Holocene hurricane activity, possibly caused by increased El Niño frequencies.

  8. Long-term accumulation and transport of anthropogenic phosphorus in three river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Stephen M.; Bruulsema, Thomas W.; Burt, Tim P.; Chan, Neng Iong; Elser, James J.; Haygarth, Philip M.; Howden, Nicholas J. K.; Jarvie, Helen P.; Lyu, Yang; Peterson, Heidi M.; Sharpley, Andrew N.; Shen, Jianbo; Worrall, Fred; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-05-01

    Global food production depends on phosphorus. Phosphorus is broadly applied as fertilizer, but excess phosphorus contributes to eutrophication of surface water bodies and coastal ecosystems. Here we present an analysis of phosphorus fluxes in three large river basins, including published data on fertilizer, harvested crops, sewage, food waste and river fluxes. Our analyses reveal that the magnitude of phosphorus accumulation has varied greatly over the past 30-70 years in mixed agricultural-urban landscapes of the Thames Basin, UK, the Yangtze Basin, China, and the rural Maumee Basin, USA. Fluxes of phosphorus in fertilizer, harvested crops, food waste and sewage dominate over the river fluxes. Since the late 1990s, net exports from the Thames and Maumee Basins have exceeded inputs, suggesting net mobilization of the phosphorus pool accumulated in earlier decades. In contrast, the Yangtze Basin has consistently accumulated phosphorus since 1980. Infrastructure modifications such as sewage treatment and dams may explain more recent declines in total phosphorus fluxes from the Thames and Yangtze Rivers. We conclude that human-dominated river basins may undergo a prolonged but finite accumulation phase when phosphorus inputs exceed agricultural demand, and this accumulated phosphorus may continue to mobilize long after inputs decline.

  9. Paleogeography of the Mesozoic Jeanne d'Arc basin, Grand Banks, Newfoundland, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Mccracken, J.N. )

    1991-03-01

    The major stratigraphic sequences of the Jeanne d'Arc basin, Grand Banks, offshore Newfoundland, Canada, and their relationship to the tectonic events involved in the opening of the North Atlantic are summarized. This basin has been a major exploration area for Mobil and industry since 1971. This activity has resulted in the shooting of over 300,000 km of reflection seismic lines and the drilling of 65 wells. Fifteen discoveries have been found in the basin to date by industry. The Hibernia project is underway with production planned in 1996. Government basin analysis estimates for total ultimate recoverable reserves in the Jeanne d'Arc basin range from 3.3 to 10 billion bbl of oil equivalent. The major stratigraphic events from the Late Jurassic to the Early Eocene within the Jeanne d'Arc basin are illustrated by six isometric paleogeographic reconstructions. These geological sequences are then related on the stratigraphic column to the tectonics and coastal onlap curves. The major controls on Jeanne d'Arc basin deposition were the tectonics created as a result of the northward propagation of the rifting of the Atlantic Ocean and its effect locally on the broad arch to the south called the Avalon Uplift. This provided the major clastic source throughout the Mesozoic. Changes in relative sea level then overprinted these tectonic events.

  10. River diversions, avulsions and captures in the Tortuguero coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galve, Jorge Pedro; Alvarado, Guillermo; Pérez Peña, José Vicente; Azañón, José Miguel; Mora, Mauricio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The Tortuguero area is a coastal plain that forms part of the North Limón sedimentary basin, the back-arc region of the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. This coastal plain is characterised by an abnormal drainage pattern with river captures, diversions and shifts in channel directions. We are analyzing this anomalous drainage network adopting a classical geomorphological approach combined with geomorphometric techniques. The SRTM DEM at 1 arc-second of resolution (~30 m) from NASA, topographic maps 1:50,000, satellital images and the digital cartography of the drainage network have been used for inventorying the channel pattern anomalies. River segments were categorized according to sinuosity, orientation, slope changes and incision using GIS tools. Initially, anomalies in the analyzed river courses suggested that buried thrust fronts could disrupt their natural pattern. However, we have not identified any evidence to link the activity of buried structures with the disruption of natural drainage. Blind thrusts detected through seismic subsurface exploration in the SE sector of the Tortuguero plain do not seem to produce changes in the sinuosity, orientation, slope and incision of rivers as those observed in the deeply studied tectonically active area of the Po Plain (Italy). The identified river pattern anomalies have been explained due to other alternative causes: (1) the migration of the mouths of Reventazón, Pacuare and Matina rivers is produced by sand sedimentation in the coast because of a successive ridge beach formation. This migration to the SE has the same direction than the main ocean currents those deposited the sand. (2) The anomalous course of Parismina river is most probably conditioned by the fracturation of the dissected volcanic apron of Turrialba volcano. (3) Channel migration and capture of Barbilla river by Matina river can be triggered by the tectonic tilting of the coastal plain towards the SE. The subsidence of the SE sector of the plain was

  11. Modeled large-scale warming impacts on summer California coastal-cooling trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebassi-Habtezion, Bereket; GonzáLez, Jorge; Bornstein, Robert

    2011-10-01

    Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) meso-meteorological model simulations with a horizontal grid resolution of 4 km on an inner grid over the South Coast Air Basin of California were used to investigate effects from long-term (i.e., past 35 years) large-scale warming impacts on coastal flows. Comparison of present- and past-climate simulations showed significant increases in summer daytime sea breeze activity by up to 1.5 m s-1 (in the onshore component) and a concurrent coastal cooling of average-daily peak temperatures of up to -1.6°C, both of which support observations that the latter is an indirect "reverse reaction" to the large-scale warming of inland areas.

  12. Sedimentary basins and crustal thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, P. R.; Davy, P.; Gapais, D.; Rossello, E. A.; Sadybakasov, E.; Thomas, J. C.; Tondji Biyo, J. J.; de Urreiztieta, M.

    1993-07-01

    We consider the development of sedimentary basins in a tectonic context dominated by horizontal shortening and vertical thickening of the crust. Well-known examples are foreland basins; others are ramp basins and buckle basins. We have reproduced various styles of compressional