Science.gov

Sample records for interventional robotics part

  1. Telepresence and Intervention Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-11-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10628 TITLE: Telepresence and Intervention Robotics DISTRIBUTION...comprise the compilation report: ADPO10609 thru ADP010633 UNCLASSIFIED 20-1 TELEPRESENCE AND INTERVENTION ROBOTICS Nathalie Cislo Laboratoire de...Robotique de Paris 10-12, Avenue de 1’Europe 78140 VWlizy-Villacoublay, FRANCE cislo@robot.uvsq.fr ABSTRACT In the field of Mobile Robotics applications

  2. Preparedness in robotically assisted interventions.

    PubMed

    Coste-Manière, Eve; Adhami, Louaï; Antiphon, Patrick; Abbou, Clément-Claude

    2003-04-01

    For many years, robots have been used in manufacturing to perform a variety of delicate tasks. Their use is now being generalized to other fields, such as biology, domestic applications, and especially medicine, in which they are poised to make a significant contribution. This evolution comes from the progress made in the field of robotics and from recent changes in medical and surgical techniques, namely, developments in medical imaging and a new desire for minimally invasive interventions. This emerging combination of high-precision robotic manipulators, new medical diagnostic techniques, and efficient minimally invasive surgery has not yet been perfected. After a brief discussion of state-of-the-art robotic systems used in urology, this article discusses new challenges presented by robotic minimally invasive surgery. A computer-integrated approach aimed at increasing the efficiency of such interventions through better preparedness is presented. This approach is illustrated by a case study in human nephrectomy and a cardiac animal experiment.

  3. Robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Kettenbach, Joachim; Kronreif, Gernot

    2015-02-01

    Several groups have developed robotic systems for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on selected robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions using CT or MR imaging. We present six interventional robotic systems designed to work with imaging modalities such as CT, Cone-beam CT and MRI. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials performed with each particular robot. Although each of these systems has specific features, they are all of great clinical value since they provide very stable needle guidance -- even for angulated approaches, they may allow access to lesions when the width of the CT- or MR- gantry would limit the access for a biopsy needle or other interventional tools such as thermal ablation probes. Then, such a robot may be able to guide the needle into the most promising region of the lesion without the need for a second contrast injection. Thus, more efficacious characterization and treatment, particularly for lesions that are difficult to target, can be anticipated. Although more research and clinical trials are certainly needed, it is, however, our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions.

  4. "MRI Stealth" robot for prostate interventions.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Song, Danny; Petrisor, Doru; Ursu, Daniel; Mazilu, Dumitru; Muntener, Michael; Mutener, Michael; Schar, Michael; Patriciu, Alexandru

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports an important achievement in MRI instrumentation, a pneumatic, fully actuated robot located within the scanner alongside the patient and operating under remote control based on the images. Previous MRI robots commonly used piezoelectric actuation limiting their compatibility. Pneumatics is an ideal choice for MRI compatibility because it is decoupled from electromagnetism, but pneumatic actuators were hardly controllable. This achievement was possible due to a recent technology breakthrough, the invention of a new type of pneumatic motor, PneuStep 1, designed for the robot reported here with uncompromised MRI compatibility, high-precision, and medical safety. MrBot is one of the "MRI stealth" robots today (the second is described in this issue by Zangos et al.). Both of these systems are also multi-imager compatible, being able to operate with the imager of choice or cross-imaging modalities. For MRI compatibility the robot is exclusively constructed of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, crystals, rubbers and is electricity free. Light-based encoding is used for feedback, so that all electric components are distally located outside the imager's room. MRI robots are modern, digital medical instruments in line with advanced imaging equipment and methods. These allow for accessing patients within closed bore scanners and performing interventions under direct (in scanner) imaging feedback. MRI robots could allow e.g. to biopsy small lesions imaged with cutting edge cancer imaging methods, or precisely deploy localized therapy at cancer foci. Our robot is the first to show the feasibility of fully automated in-scanner interventions. It is customized for the prostate and operates transperineally for needle interventions. It can accommodate various needle drivers for different percutaneous procedures such as biopsy, thermal ablations, or brachytherapy. The first needle driver is customized for fully automated low

  5. Application Study of Vascular Interventional Robotic Mechanism for Remote Steering

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zengmin; Jia, Bo; Lu, Wangsheng; Hui, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, robotic systems have been introduced as a useful method for surgical procedures. But in the field of vascular interventional therapy, the development of robotic system is slower. Objective: The purpose of the study is to verify the reliability and safety of vascular interventional robotic system used in angiography, by the way of in vitro preliminary experiments and animal experiments. Method: The approach is to employ a proprietary vascular interventional robot system to complete glass vessel models and animal angiogram experiments. This robot system consists of a console port (remote steering system), an assistant port (propelled and rotation system) and a hydraulic fixing device, upon which surgeons control remotely to make go forward and rotate in the glass vessel models and animal vessels, on the 3D operation interface. Consequently, the operation time and success rate are counted and evaluated. Result: In the glass vessel model experiments, the Catheter can enter various kinds of vessel models with inside diameter length greater than 3mm and angle less than 90o. In the animal (adult dogs) experiments, surgeons can accomplish smoothly the angiogram of the renal artery, the vertebral renal and the arteria carotis communis, without any complications of surgery. Conclusion: The angiogram by using vascular interventional robot system is safe and reliable. Surgeons can finish the angiogram in part by remote operation, and the result of angiogram can meet a number of simple expectations. However without wire control and force feedback systems, the applicability of this kind of robot system is not flexible enough and need to be improved in the future. PMID:21892373

  6. MRI-powered Actuators for Robotic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Vartholomeos, Panagiotis; Qin, Lei; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel actuation technology for robotically assisted MRI-guided interventional procedures. Compact and wireless, the actuators are both powered and controlled by the MRI scanner. The design concept and performance limits are described and derived analytically. Simulation and experiments in a clinical MR scanner are used to validate the analysis and to demonstrate the capability of the approach for needle biopsies. The concepts of actuator locking mechanisms and multi-axis control are also introduced. PMID:22287082

  7. Marking parts to aid robot vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bales, J. W.; Barker, L. K.

    1981-01-01

    The premarking of parts for subsequent identification by a robot vision system appears to be beneficial as an aid in the automation of certain tasks such as construction in space. A simple, color coded marking system is presented which allows a computer vision system to locate an object, calculate its orientation, and determine its identity. Such a system has the potential to operate accurately, and because the computer shape analysis problem has been simplified, it has the ability to operate in real time.

  8. Robotics Programming Competition Spheres, Russian Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovski, Andrei; Kukushkina, Natalia; Biryukova, Natalia

    2016-07-01

    Spheres" such name was done to Russian part of the Zero Robotics project which is a student competition devoted to programming of SPHERES (SPHERES - Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites are the experimental robotics devices which are capable of rotation and translation in all directions, http://ssl.mit.edu/spheres/), which perform different operations on the board of International Space Station. Competition takes place online on http://zerorobotics.mit.edu. The main goal is to develop a program for SPHERES to solve an annual challenge. The end of the tournament is the real competition in microgravity on the board of ISS with a live broadcast. The Russian part of the tournament has only two years history but the problems, organization and specific are useful for the other educational projects especially for the international ones. We introduce the history of the competition, its scientific and educational goals in Russia and describe the participation of Russian teams in 2014 and 2015 tournaments. Also we discuss the organizational problems.

  9. Robotic burnishing system for solid film lubricant coated parts

    SciTech Connect

    Fureigh, M.L.

    1986-05-01

    A robotic burnishing system in the Painting Department reduced the operation average standard hour content by 64% and maintains a good part-to-part quality level for a group of parts coated with solid film lubricant. Required to be safe and simple to operate, the system uses a small PUMA 260 robot to process coated axisymmetrical pieceparts. Special tooling and seven pairs of robotic fingers were designed and built to handle 24 different small pieceparts. Individual robotic programs were created for each part and stored on 5-1/4 in. floppy disks with backup copies in Numerical Control. The operators and the manufacturing department readily accepted the robotic system. Additional part geometries will be developed for robotic processing. 12 figs.

  10. “MRI Stealth” robot for prostate interventions

    PubMed Central

    STOIANOVICI, DAN; SONG, DANNY; PETRISOR, DORU; URSU, DANIEL; MAZILU, DUMITRU; MUTENER, MICHAEL; SCHAR, MICHAEL; PATRICIU, ALEXANDRU

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports an important achievement in MRI instrumentation, a pneumatic, fully actuated robot located within the scanner alongside the patient and operating under remote control based on the images. Previous MRI robots commonly used piezoelectric actuation limiting their compatibility. Pneumatics is an ideal choice for MRI compatibility because it is decoupled from electromagnetism, but pneumatic actuators were hardly controllable. This achievement was possible due to a recent technology breakthrough, the invention of a new type of pneumatic motor, PneuStep (1), designed for the robot reported here with uncompromised MRI compatibility, high-precision, and medical safety. MrBot is one of the “MRI stealth” robots today (the second is described in this issue by Zangos et al.). Both of these systems are also multi-imager compatible, being able to operate with the imager of choice or cross-imaging modalities. For MRI compatibility the robot is exclusively constructed of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, crystals, rubbers and is electricity free. Light-based encoding is used for feedback, so that all electric components are distally located outside the imager’s room. MRI robots are modern, digital medical instruments in line with advanced imaging equipment and methods. These allow for accessing patients within closed bore scanners and performing interventions under direct (in scanner) imaging feedback. MRI robots could allow e.g. to biopsy small lesions imaged with cutting edge cancer imaging methods, or precisely deploy localized therapy at cancer foci. Our robot is the first to show the feasibility of fully automated in-scanner interventions. It is customized for the prostate and operates transperineally for needle interventions. It can accommodate various needle drivers for different percutaneous procedures such as biopsy, thermal ablations, or brachytherapy. The first needle driver is customized for fully automated low

  11. Safety issues in robotic handling of nuclear weapon parts

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.

    1993-12-31

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive weapon parts. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations that are currently performed manually. The robotic systems at Sandia incorporate several levels of mechanical, electrical, and software safety for handling hazardous materials. For example, tooling used by the robot to handle radioactive parts has been designed with mechanical features that allow the robot to release its payload only at designated locations in the robotic workspace. In addition, software processes check for expected and unexpected situations throughout the operations. Incorporation of features such as these provides multiple levels of safety for handling hazardous or valuable payloads with automated intelligent systems.

  12. Robotic Image-Guided Needle Interventions of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors’ group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image. PMID:19390670

  13. [History of robotics: from archytas of tarentum until Da Vinci robot. (Part II)].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, F M; Jiménez Schlegl, P; Millán Rodríguez, F; Salvador-Bayarri, J; Monllau Font, V; Palou Redorta, J; Villavicencio Mavrich, H

    2007-03-01

    Robotic surgery is a reality. In order to to understand how new robots work is interesting to know the history of ancient (see part i) and modern robotics. The desire to design automatic machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.), Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Bacon, Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors. At 1942 Asimov published the three robotics laws. Mechanics, electronics and informatics advances at XXth century developed robots to be able to do very complex self governing works. At 1985 the robot PUMA 560 was employed to introduce a needle inside the brain. Later on, they were designed surgical robots like World First, Robodoc, Gaspar o Acrobot, Zeus, AESOP, Probot o PAKI-RCP. At 2000 the FDA approved the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), a very sophisticated robot to assist surgeons. Currently urological procedures like prostatectomy, cystectomy and nephrectomy are performed with the da Vinci, so urology has become a very suitable speciality to robotic surgery.

  14. A Parallel Wire Robot for Epicardial Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Costanza, Adam D.; Wood, Nathan A.; Passineau, Michael J.; Moraca, Robert J.; Bailey, Stephen H.; Yoshizumi, Tomo; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of a planar parallel wire robot that adheres to the surface of the beating heart and provides a stable platform for minimally invasive epicardial therapies. The device is deployed through a small subxiphoid skin incision and attaches to the heart using suction. This methodology obviates mechanical stabilization and lung deflation, which are typically required during minimally invasive beating-heart surgery. The prototype design involves three vacuum chambers connected by two flexible arms. The chambers adhere to the epicardium, forming the vertices of a triangular base structure. Three cables connect a movable end-effector head to the three bases; the cables then pass out of the body to external actuators. The surgical tool moves within the triangular workspace to perform injections, ablation, or other tasks on the beating heart. Tests in vitro and in vivo were conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the system. Tests in vivo successfully demonstrated the ability to deploy through a subxiphoid incision, adhere to the surface of the beating heart, move the surgical tool head within the robot’s workspace, and perform injections into the myocardium. PMID:25571402

  15. Robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Scheide, A.W.

    1983-11-01

    This article reviews some of the technical areas and history associated with robotics, provides information relative to the formation of a Robotics Industry Committee within the Industry Applications Society (IAS), and describes how all activities relating to robotics will be coordinated within the IEEE. Industrial robots are being used for material handling, processes such as coating and arc welding, and some mechanical and electronics assembly. An industrial robot is defined as a programmable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for a variety of tasks. The initial focus of the Robotics Industry Committee will be on the application of robotics systems to the various industries that are represented within the IAS.

  16. On the static structural design of climbing robots: part 2.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ausama Hadi; Menon, Carlo

    This manuscript is the second of two parts of a work investigating optimal configurations of legged climbing robots while loitering on vertical surfaces. In this Part 2, a structural analysis based on the finite element method, specifically the stiffness method, is performed to address the problem. Parameters that are investigated in this Part 2 include the inclination of both the body and the legs of the robot. Outcomes of the performed study are validated by analyzing the posture of 150 ants when loitering on vertical surfaces. The obtained validation ensures the predictions of the developed structural model are correct and can be used to identify optimal configurations of legged robots when loitering on vertical surfaces.

  17. Impact of Robotics and Geospatial Technology Interventions on Youth STEM Learning and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Gwen; Barker, Bradley; Grandgenett, Neal; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of robotics and geospatial technologies interventions on middle school youth's learning of and attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Two interventions were tested. The first was a 40-hour intensive robotics/GPS/GIS summer camp; the second was a 3-hour event modeled on the camp…

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of a MRI-compatible Modular Robotic System for MRI-guided Prostate Interventions.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

    2010-09-26

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided robotic interventions have been introduced in order to advance prostate cancer detection and treatment. To overcome problems of such robotic interventions, we have been developing a pneumatically actuated MRI-compatible modular robotic system for MRI-guided transperineal prostate intervention and its interventional procedure. For system evaluation, a series of experiments have been conducted and this paper reports a needle insertion experiment using prostate phantom and patient mockup trials. The needle insertion experiment resulted in noticeable consistent error in one direction, which we will investigate further. Nonetheless, patient mockup experiences suggest that the modular robotic system and its interventional procedure are well integrated and implemented in clinical environment.

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of a MRI-compatible Modular Robotic System for MRI-guided Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan; Tokuda, Junichi; Hata, Nobuhiko; Tempany, Clare; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided robotic interventions have been introduced in order to advance prostate cancer detection and treatment. To overcome problems of such robotic interventions, we have been developing a pneumatically actuated MRI-compatible modular robotic system for MRI-guided transperineal prostate intervention and its interventional procedure. For system evaluation, a series of experiments have been conducted and this paper reports a needle insertion experiment using prostate phantom and patient mockup trials. The needle insertion experiment resulted in noticeable consistent error in one direction, which we will investigate further. Nonetheless, patient mockup experiences suggest that the modular robotic system and its interventional procedure are well integrated and implemented in clinical environment. PMID:21132087

  20. Medical robotics and computer-integrated interventional medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Russell H.

    2012-02-01

    Computer-Integrated Interventional Medicine (CIIM) promises to have a profound impact on health care in the next 20 years, much as and for many of the same reasons that the marriage of computers and information processing methods with other technology have had on manufacturing, transportation, and other sectors of our society. Our basic premise is that the steps of creating patient-specific computational models, using these models for planning, registering the models and plans with the actual patient in the operating room, and using this information with appropriate technology to assist in carrying out and monitoring the intervention are best viewed as part of a complete patient-specific intervention process that occurs over many time scales. Further, the information generated in computer-integrated interventions can be captured and analyzed statistically to improve treatment processes. This paper will explore these themes briefly, using examples drawn from our work at the Engineering Research Center for Computer-Integrated Surgical Systems and Technology (CISST ERC).

  1. A Fully Sensorized Cooperative Robotic System for Surgical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Arriaga, Saúl; Vargas, José Emilio; Ramos, Juan M.; Aceves, Marco A.; Gorrostieta, Efren; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-01-01

    In this research a fully sensorized cooperative robot system for manipulation of needles is presented. The setup consists of a DLR/KUKA Light Weight Robot III especially designed for safe human/robot interaction, a FD-CT robot-driven angiographic C-arm system, and a navigation camera. Also, new control strategies for robot manipulation in the clinical environment are introduced. A method for fast calibration of the involved components and the preliminary accuracy tests of the whole possible errors chain are presented. Calibration of the robot with the navigation system has a residual error of 0.81 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.41 mm. The accuracy of the robotic system while targeting fixed points at different positions within the workspace is of 1.2 mm (rms) with a standard deviation of ±0.4 mm. After calibration, and due to close loop control, the absolute positioning accuracy was reduced to the navigation camera accuracy which is of 0.35 mm (rms). The implemented control allows the robot to compensate for small patient movements. PMID:23012551

  2. Child disaster mental health interventions, part II

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Shaw, Jon A.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on the timing of child disaster mental health intervention delivery, the settings for intervention delivery, the expertise of providers, and therapeutic approaches. Studies have been conducted on interventions delivered during all phases of disaster management from pre event through many months post event. Many interventions were administered in schools which offer access to large numbers of children. Providers included mental health professionals and school personnel. Studies described individual and group interventions, some with parent involvement. The next generation of interventions and studies should be based on an empirical analysis of a number of key areas. PMID:26295009

  3. Closed loop control of a robot assisted smart flexible needle for percutaneous intervention.

    PubMed

    Maria Joseph, F O; Hutapea, P; Dicker, A; Yu, Y; Podder, T

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental evaluation of a coordinated control system for a robot and robot-driven shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated smart flexible needle capable of following a curved path for percutaneous intervention. The robot driving the needle is considered the outer loop and the non-linear SMA actuated flexible needle system comprises the inner loop. The two feedback control loops are coordinated in such a way that the robot drives the needle while monitoring the needle's actual deflection against a preplanned ideal trajectory, so that the needle tip reaches the target location within an acceptable accuracy. In air and in water experimental results are presented to validate the ability of the proposed coordinated controller to track the overall desired trajectory which includes the combined trajectory of the robot driver and the needle.

  4. Fast and Efficient Radiological Interventions via a Graphical User Interface Commanded Magnetic Resonance Compatible Robotic Device

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Alpay; Christoforou, Eftychios; Brown, Daniel; Tsekos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The graphical user interface for an MR compatible robotic device has the capability of displaying oblique MR slices in 2D and a 3D virtual environment along with the representation of the robotic arm in order to swiftly complete the intervention. Using the advantages of the MR modality the device saves time and effort, is safer for the medical staff and is more comfortable for the patient. PMID:17946067

  5. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Mewes, Philip W; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-13

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot performs needle insertion under real-time 3T MR image guidance; workspace requirements, MR compatibility, and workflow have been evaluated on phantoms. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  6. Microsurgery robots: addressing the needs of high-precision surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Leonardo S; Caldwell, Darwin G; Peretti, Giorgio; Mora, Francesco; Guastini, Luca; Cingolani, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Robotics has a significant potential to enhance the overall capacity and efficiency of healthcare systems. Robots can help surgeons perform better quality operations, leading to reductions in the hospitalisation time of patients and in the impact of surgery on their postoperative quality of life. In particular, robotics can have a significant impact on microsurgery, which presents stringent requirements for superhuman precision and control of the surgical tools. Microsurgery is, in fact, expected to gain importance in a growing range of surgical specialties as novel technologies progressively enable the detection, diagnosis and treatment of diseases at earlier stages. Within such scenarios, robotic microsurgery emerges as one of the key components of future surgical interventions, and will be a vital technology for addressing major surgical challenges. Nonetheless, several issues have yet to be overcome in terms of mechatronics, perception and surgeon-robot interfaces before microsurgical robots can achieve their full potential in operating rooms. Research in this direction is progressing quickly and microsurgery robot prototypes are gradually demonstrating significant clinical benefits in challenging applications such as reconstructive plastic surgery, ophthalmology, otology and laryngology. These are reassuring results offering confidence in a brighter future for high-precision surgical interventions.

  7. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve; Mazumdar, Ani; Spencer, Steve

    2015-06-02

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the second in a series, describes the continued development and integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  8. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs, Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Buerger, Steve; Mazumdar, Ani; Spencer, Steve

    2016-07-12

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the second in a series, describes the continued development and integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  9. A robotic assistant system for cardiac interventions under MRI guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Wood, Bradford J.; Horvath, Keith A.; Kapoor, Ankur

    2010-02-01

    In this paper we present a surgical assistant system for implanting prosthetic aortic valve transapically under MRI guidance, in a beating heart. The system integrates an MR imaging system, a robotic system, as well as user interfaces for a surgeon to plan the procedure and manipulate the robot. A compact robotic delivery module mounted on a robotic arm is used for delivering both balloon-expandable and self-expanding prosthesis. The system provides different user interfaces at different stages of the procedure. A compact fiducial pattern close to the volume of interest is proposed for robot registration. The image processing and the transformation recovery methods using this fiducial in MRI are presented. The registration accuracy obtained by using this compact fiducial is comparable to the larger multi-spherical marker registration method. The registration accuracy using these two methods is less than 0.62+/-0.50 deg (mean +/- std. dev.) and 0.63+/-0.72 deg (mean +/- std. dev.), respectively. We evaluated each of the components and show that they can work together to form a complete system for transapical aortic valve replacement.

  10. Advancements in Magnetic Resonance–Guided Robotic Interventions in the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Macura, Katarzyna J.; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides more detailed anatomical images of the prostate compared with the transrectal ultrasound imaging. Therefore, for the purpose of intervention in the prostate gland, diagnostic or therapeutic, MRI guidance offers a possibility of more precise targeting that may be crucial to the success of prostate interventions. However, access within the scanner is limited for manual instrument handling and the MR environment is most demanding among all imaging equipment with respect to the instrumentation used. A solution to this problem is the use of MR-compatible robots purposely designed to operate in the space and environmental restrictions inside the MR scanner allowing real-time interventions. Building an MRI-compatible robot is a very challenging engineering task because, in addition to the material restrictions that MRI instruments have, the robot requires actuators and sensors that limit the type of energies that can be used. Several important design problems have to be overcome before a successful MR-compatible robot application can be built. A number of MR-compatible robots, ranging from a simple manipulator to a fully automated system, have been developed, proposing ingenious solutions to the design challenge. Several systems have been already tested clinically for prostate biopsy and brachytherapy. As technology matures, precise image guidance for prostate interventions performed or assisted by specialized MR-compatible robotic devices may provide a uniquely accurate solution for guiding the intervention directly based on MR findings and feedback. Such an instrument would become a valuable clinical tool for biopsies directly targeting imaged tumor foci and delivering tumor-centered focal therapy. PMID:19512852

  11. Designing HRD Interventions for Employee-Robot Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Se Jin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify critical causes of work stress and job satisfaction of nurses, which can contribute to find appropriate organizational supports to help nurses effectively work with a surgical robot. Delphi method was employed to identify the critical stressors and the key causes of job satisfaction of nurses working with…

  12. The intervention of robot caregivers and the cultivation of children's capability to play.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Yvette; Borenstein, Jason

    2013-03-01

    In this article, the authors examine whether and how robot caregivers can contribute to the welfare of children with various cognitive and physical impairments by expanding recreational opportunities for these children. The capabilities approach is used as a basis for informing the relevant discussion. Though important in its own right, having the opportunity to play is essential to the development of other capabilities central to human flourishing. Drawing from empirical studies, the authors show that the use of various types of robots has already helped some children with impairments. Recognizing the potential ethical pitfalls of robot caregiver intervention, however, the authors examine these concerns and conclude that an appropriately designed robot caregiver has the potential to contribute positively to the development of the capability to play while also enhancing the ability of human caregivers to understand and interact with care recipients.

  13. The immediate intervention effects of robotic training in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Ye, Miao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the immediate effects of robot-assisted therapy on functional activity level after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] Participants included 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy and treadmill exercise on different days. The Timed Up-and-Go test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and maximal extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated in both groups before and after the experiment. [Results] The results for the Timed Up-and-Go Test and the 10-Meter Walk Test improved in the robot-assisted rehabilitation group. Surface electromyography of the vastus medialis muscle showed significant increases in maximum and average discharge after the intervention. [Conclusion] The results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic training. PMID:27512258

  14. Child disaster mental health interventions, part I

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal; Shaw, Jon A.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Noffsinger, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    This review of child disaster mental health intervention studies describes the techniques used in the interventions and the outcomes addressed, and it provides a preliminary evaluation of the field. The interventions reviewed here used a variety of strategies such as cognitive behavioral approaches, exposure and narrative techniques, relaxation, coping skill development, social support, psychoeducation, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and debriefing. A diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or posttraumatic stress reactions were the most commonly addressed outcomes although other reactions such as depression, anxiety, behavior problems, fear, and/or traumatic grief also were examined. Recommendations for future research are outlined. PMID:25914863

  15. Remote ultrasound palpation for robotic interventions using absolute elastography.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Caitlin; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Salcudean, Septimiu

    2012-01-01

    Although robotic surgery has addressed many of the challenges presented by minimally invasive surgery, haptic feedback and the lack of knowledge of tissue stiffness is an unsolved problem. This paper presents a system for finding the absolute elastic properties of tissue using a freehand ultrasound scanning technique, which utilizes the da Vinci Surgical robot and a custom 2D ultrasound transducer for intraoperative use. An external exciter creates shear waves in the tissue, and a local frequency estimation method computes the shear modulus. Results are reported for both phantom and in vivo models. This system can be extended to any 6 degree-of-freedom tracking method and any 2D transducer to provide real-time absolute elastic properties of tissue.

  16. Precision instrument placement using a 4-DOF robot with integrated fiducials for minimally invasive interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, Roland; Lin, Ralph; Cheng, Peng; Kronreif, Gernot; Kornfeld, Martin; Lindisch, David; Wood, Bradford J.; Viswanathan, Anand; Cleary, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are increasingly attractive to patients and medical personnel because they can reduce operative trauma, recovery times, and overall costs. However, during these procedures, the physician has a very limited view of the interventional field and the exact position of surgical instruments. We present an image-guided platform for precision placement of surgical instruments based upon a small four degree-of-freedom robot (B-RobII; ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, Vienna, Austria). This platform includes a custom instrument guide with an integrated spiral fiducial pattern as the robot's end-effector, and it uses intra-operative computed tomography (CT) to register the robot to the patient directly before the intervention. The physician can then use a graphical user interface (GUI) to select a path for percutaneous access, and the robot will automatically align the instrument guide along this path. Potential anatomical targets include the liver, kidney, prostate, and spine. This paper describes the robotic platform, workflow, software, and algorithms used by the system. To demonstrate the algorithmic accuracy and suitability of the custom instrument guide, we also present results from experiments as well as estimates of the maximum error between target and instrument tip.

  17. Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddell, Steve; Doty, Keith L.

    1999-01-01

    "Why Teach Robotics?" (Waddell) suggests that the United States lags behind Europe and Japan in use of robotics in industry and teaching. "Creating a Course in Mobile Robotics" (Doty) outlines course elements of the Intelligent Machines Design Lab. (SK)

  18. Pneumatically Operated MRI-Compatible Needle Placement Robot for Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Mewes, Philip W.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. The strong magnetic field prevents the use of conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intra-prostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. The robot performs needle insertion under real-time 3T MR image guidance; workspace requirements, MR compatibility, and workflow have been evaluated on phantoms. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21686038

  19. Visual servoing of robot manipulators -- Part 1: Projective kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Ruf, A.; Horaud, R.

    1999-11-01

    Visual servoing of robot manipulators is a key technique where the appearance of an object in the image plane is used to control the velocity of the end-effector such that the desired position is reached in the scene. The vast majority of visual servoing methods proposed so far uses calibrated robots in conjunction with calibrated cameras. It has been shown that the behavior of visual control loops does not degrade too much in the presence of calibration errors. Nevertheless, camera and robot calibration are complex and time-consuming processes requiring special-purpose mechanical devices, such as theodolites and calibration jigs. In this paper, the authors, suggest formulating a visual servoing control loop in nonmetric space, which in this case amounts to the projective space in which a triangulation of the scene using an uncalibrated stereo rig is expressed. The major consequence of controlling the robot in nonmetric space rather than in Euclidean space is that both the robot's direct kinematic map and the robot's Jacobian matrix must be defined in this space as well. Finally, they provide a practical method to estimate the projective kinematic model and they describe some preliminary simulated experiments that use this nonmetric model to perform stereo-based servoing. Nevertheless, in-depth analysis of projective control will be the topic of a forthcoming paper.

  20. Low-cost explosive ordnance disposal robot using off-the-shelf parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt; Murphy, James; Zimmerman, Todd

    2005-05-01

    The continuing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan have resulted in a rapidly growing demand for mobile robots to be used during Explosive Ordnance Disposal operations. These robots are predominately used by EOD technicians for surveillance and neutralization of explosive threats from a safe standoff distance. The hazardous nature of the mission these vehicles help perform requires them to be expendable. Current commercially available systems, however, although capable of performing the mission, are costly and are not currently available in the large quantities needed by EOD technicians. The Naval EOD Technology Division (NAVEODTECHDIV) proposes an alternative; a low cost, mobile robot using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) parts that is specifically tailored to perform hazardous EOD missions. The main functions of this robot are efficient surveillance and explosive threat neutralization. The use of COTS parts allows for streamlined field supportability and repair. A proposed speed of five miles per hour is a drastic improvement over many existing EOD robots and will allow EOD teams to quickly survey and assess potentially dangerous situations. The manipulator will be capable of precision placement of neutralization charges. The cost of this proposed robot is 10,000. Current commercial robots capable of performing these EOD tasks range in price from 40,000 to over $150,000. This conference paper will describe the robot design and prototyping process, from gathering requirements to fabrication and testing.

  1. A Step Towards Developing Adaptive Robot-Mediated Intervention Architecture (ARIA) for Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Esubalew T; Lahiri, Uttama; Swanson, Amy R.; Crittendon, Julie A.; Warren, Zachary E.; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technology, especially robotic technology, has been shown to be appealing to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Such interest may be leveraged to provide repeatable, accurate and individualized intervention services to young children with ASD based on quantitative metrics. However, existing robot-mediated systems tend to have limited adaptive capability that may impact individualization. Our current work seeks to bridge this gap by developing an adaptive and individualized robot-mediated technology for children with ASD. The system is composed of a humanoid robot with its vision augmented by a network of cameras for real-time head tracking using a distributed architecture. Based on the cues from the child’s head movement, the robot intelligently adapts itself in an individualized manner to generate prompts and reinforcements with potential to promote skills in the ASD core deficit area of early social orienting. The system was validated for feasibility, accuracy, and performance. Results from a pilot usability study involving six children with ASD and a control group of six typically developing (TD) children are presented. PMID:23221831

  2. Long-term interventions effects of robotic training on patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chunying; Huang, Qiuchen; Yu, Lili; Zhou, Yue; Gu, Rui; Ye, Miao; Ge, Meng; Xu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the long-term interventions effects of robot-assisted therapy rehabilitation on functional activity levels after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 8 patients (6 males and 2 females) who received anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects participated in robot-assisted therapy lasting for one month. The Timed Up-and-Go test, 10-Meter Walk test, Functional Reach Test, surface electromyography of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis, and extensor strength of isokinetic movement of the knee joint were evaluated before and after the intervention. [Results] The average value of the of vastus medialis EMG, Functional Reach Test, and the maximum and average extensor strength of the knee joint isokinetic movement increased significantly, and the time of the 10-Meter Walk test decreased significantly. [Conclusion] These results suggest that walking ability and muscle strength can be improved by robotic walking training as a long-term intervention. PMID:27630396

  3. Robots and manipulator systems. Part 2. [Conference papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1977-01-01

    This book represents a conference on robots and manipulator systems. Topics discussed include: mathematical modeling systems integrators, the use of TV monitors for remote operation of machinery on earth and in space, an evaluation of various control modes, remotely piloted aircraft, undersea operations, and prosthetic devices for the physically handicapped.

  4. NOTE: MRI-guided robotic system for transperineal prostate interventions: proof of principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bosch, Michiel R.; Moman, Maaike R.; van Vulpen, Marco; Battermann, Jan J.; Duiveman, Ed; van Schelven, Leonard J.; de Leeuw, Hendrik; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Moerland, Marinus A.

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the proof of principle of the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU) robot dedicated to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided interventions in patients. The UMCU robot consists of polymers and non-ferromagnetic materials. For transperineal prostate interventions, it can be placed between the patient's legs inside a closed bore 1.5T MR scanner. The robot can manually be translated and rotated resulting in five degrees of freedom. It contains a pneumatically driven tapping device to automatically insert a needle stepwise into the prostate using a controller unit outside the scanning room. To define the target positions and to verify the needle insertion point and the needle trajectory, a high-resolution 3D balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) scan that provides a T2/T1-weighted contrast is acquired. During the needle insertion fast 2D bSSFP images are generated to track the needle on-line. When the target position is reached, the radiation oncologist manually places a fiducial gold marker (small seed) at this location. In total two needle trajectories are used to place all markers. Afterwards, a high-resolution 3D bSSFP scan is acquired to visualize the fiducial gold markers. Four fiducial gold markers were placed transperineally into the prostate of a patient with a clinical stage T3 prostate cancer. In the generated scans, it was possible to discriminate the patient's anatomy, the needle and the markers. All markers were delivered inside the prostate. The procedure time was 1.5 h. This study proves that MRI-guided needle placement and seed delivery in the prostate with the UMCU robot are feasible.

  5. An Online Change of Activity in Energy Spectrum for Detection on an Early Intervention Robot

    SciTech Connect

    Boudergui, K.; Laine, F.; Montagu, T.; Blanc, P.; Deltour, A.; Mozziconacci, S.

    2015-07-01

    With the growth of industrial risks and the multiplication of CBRNe (Chemical Biological Radiological and explosive) attacks through toxic chemicals, biological or radiological threats, public services and military authorities face with increasingly critical situations, whose management is strongly conditioned by fast and reliable establishment of an informative diagnostic. Right after an attack, the five first minutes are crucial to define the various scenarios and the most dangerous for a human intervention. Therefore the use of robots is considered essential by all stakeholders of security. In this context, the SISPEO project (Systeme d'Intervention Sapeurs Pompiers Robotise) aims to create/build/design a robust response through a robotic platform for early intervention services such as civil and military security in hostile environments. CEA LIST has proposed an adapted solution to detect and characterize nuclear and radiological risks online and in motion, using a miniature embedded CdZnTe (CZT) crystal Gamma-ray spectrometer. This paper presents experimental results for this miniature embedded CZT spectrometer and its associated mathematical method to detect and characterize radiological threats online and in motion. (authors)

  6. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part I: imaging.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah; Slattery, Michael M; Lee, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Interventional radiology stands to benefit greatly from advances in nanotechnology because much of the ongoing research is focused toward novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapy through minimally invasive means. Through the development of new techniques and therapies, nanotechnology has the potential to broaden the horizon of interventional radiology and ensure its continued success. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part I of the article deals with an introduction to some of the basic concepts of nanotechnology and outlines some of the potential imaging applications, concentrating mainly on advances in oncological and vascular imaging.

  7. Participation Patterns among Families Receiving Part C Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khetani, Mary Alunkal

    2010-01-01

    Participation in the natural settings of home and community is one of four major goals for families receiving Part C early intervention services. While participation has been formally recognized as an important service-related outcome, there is a need to build knowledge about its key features to adequately apply the concept in practice. The need…

  8. A new AS-display as part of the MIRO lightweight robot for surgical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossmann, Christoph M.

    2010-02-01

    The DLR MIRO is the second generation of versatile robot arms for surgical applications, developed at the Institute for Robotics and Mechatronics at Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. With its low weight of 10 kg and dimensions similar to those of the human arm, the MIRO robot can assist the surgeon directly at the operating table where space is scarce. The planned scope of applications of this robot arm ranges from guiding a laser unit for the precise separation of bone tissue in orthopedics to positioning holes for bone screws, robot assisted endoscope guidance and on to the multi-robot concept for endoscopic minimally invasive surgery. A stereo-endoscope delivers two full HD video streams that can even be augmented with information, e.g vectors indicating the forces that act on the surgical tool at any given moment. SeeFront's new autostereoscopic 3D display SF 2223, being a part of the MIRO assembly, will let the surgeon view the stereo video stream in excellent quality, in real time and without the need for any viewing aids. The presentation is meant to provide an insight into the principles at the basis of the SeeFront 3D technology and how they allow the creation of autostereoscopic display solutions ranging from smallest "stamp-sized" displays to 30" desktop versions, which all provide comfortable freedom of movement for the viewer along with excellent 3D image quality.

  9. Low-cost EOD robot using off-the-shelf parts: revisions and performance testing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czop, Andrew; Hacker, Kurt; Murphy, James; Zimmerman, Todd

    2006-05-01

    With the large number of Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) and Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) being encountered during recent military operations, there exists a need for Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) mobile robots. These robots are predominately used for surveillance and neutralization of these explosive threats from a safe distance. The nature of the mission means that these vehicles are prone to being damaged or destroyed. Current commercially available systems, although capable of performing the mission, are costly and in too short of supply to be lost or damaged in large numbers. At last year's SPIE conference the NAVEODTECHDIV proposed an alternative: a low cost, mobile robot which used commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts and was tailored to the types of missions that EOD soldiers commonly perform. The prototype of this low-cost robot, the RAMBOT (Readily Available Maintainable Robot), has been continuously improved over the past year. There have been significant improvements to the original design in the areas of communication, manipulation, and electronics. The result of this work is a final prototype design, which is currently undergoing extensive testing to characterize its capabilities. Some of these tests include vehicle characteristics such as vehicle speed and mobility, vehicle weight and size, as well as maximum effective communication range, susceptibility to temperature, manipulator load limitations, and battery longevity. This conference paper will present the design changes to the robot and fully report on the results from the test series conducted thus far.

  10. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An overview of research being done into the use of robotic devices in space by MSFC is discussed. The video includes footage and explanations of robots being used to blast layers of thermal coating from the Space Shuttle's external tanks, the Shuttle's Remote Manipulator Arm, and animations of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle to retrieve and repair satellites.

  11. Influence of part orientation on the geometric accuracy in robot-based incremental sheet metal forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Störkle, Denis Daniel; Seim, Patrick; Thyssen, Lars; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    This article describes new developments in an incremental, robot-based sheet metal forming process (`Roboforming') for the production of sheet metal components for small lot sizes and prototypes. The dieless kinematic-based generation of the shape is implemented by means of two industrial robots, which are interconnected to a cooperating robot system. Compared to other incremental sheet metal forming (ISF) machines, this system offers high geometrical form flexibility without the need of any part-dependent tools. The industrial application of ISF is still limited by certain constraints, e.g. the low geometrical accuracy. Responding to these constraints, the authors present the influence of the part orientation and the forming sequence on the geometric accuracy. Their influence is illustrated with the help of various experimental results shown and interpreted within this article.

  12. In vivo bioprinting for computer- and robotic-assisted medical intervention: preliminary study in mice.

    PubMed

    Keriquel, Virginie; Guillemot, Fabien; Arnault, Isabelle; Guillotin, Bertrand; Miraux, Sylvain; Amédée, Joëlle; Fricain, Jean-Christophe; Catros, Sylvain

    2010-03-01

    We present the first attempt to apply bioprinting technologies in the perspective of computer-assisted medical interventions. A workstation dedicated to high-throughput biological laser printing has been designed. Nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) was printed in the mouse calvaria defect model in vivo. Critical size bone defects were performed in OF-1 male mice calvaria with a 4 mm diameter trephine. Prior to laser printing experiments, the absence of inflammation due to laser irradiation onto mice dura mater was shown by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Procedures for in vivo bioprinting and results obtained using decalcified sections and x-ray microtomography are discussed. Although heterogeneous, these preliminary results demonstrate that in vivo bioprinting is possible. Bioprinting may prove to be helpful in the future for medical robotics and computer-assisted medical interventions.

  13. Magnetic resonance-compatible robotic and mechatronics systems for image-guided interventions and rehabilitation: a review study.

    PubMed

    Tsekos, Nikolaos V; Khanicheh, Azadeh; Christoforou, Eftychios; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    The continuous technological progress of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as its widespread clinical use as a highly sensitive tool in diagnostics and advanced brain research, has brought a high demand for the development of magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible robotic/mechatronic systems. Revolutionary robots guided by real-time three-dimensional (3-D)-MRI allow reliable and precise minimally invasive interventions with relatively short recovery times. Dedicated robotic interfaces used in conjunction with fMRI allow neuroscientists to investigate the brain mechanisms of manipulation and motor learning, as well as to improve rehabilitation therapies. This paper gives an overview of the motivation, advantages, technical challenges, and existing prototypes for MR-compatible robotic/mechatronic devices.

  14. Robotic resection of an ectopic goiter in the mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Johannes; Fish, John; Lottersberger, Andreas C; Wetscher, Gerold; Schmid, Thomas

    2005-08-01

    We report the first robotic resection of an ectopic mediastinal thyroid adenoma in a 72-year-old woman. This intervention was part of staged management for excessive bilateral cervical goiter with intrathoracic dispersion. The robotic resection was found to be feasible and safe. The robotic operating system offers better visual control and operative accuracy than does conventional thoracoscopy.

  15. Experiments in Aligning Threaded Parts Using a Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Walker, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    Techniques for determining and correcting threaded part alignment using force and angular position data are developed to augment currently limited techniques for align- ing threaded parts. These new techniques are based on backspinning a nut with respect to a bolt and measuring the force change that occurs when the bolt "falls" into the nut. Kinematic models that describe the relationship between threaded parts during backspinning are introduced and are used to show how angular alignment may be determined. The models indicate how to distinguish between the aligned and misaligned cases of a bolt and a nut connection by using axial force data only. In addition, by tracking the in-plane relative attitude of the bolt during spinning, data can be obtained on the direction of the angular misalignment which, in turn, is used to correct the misalignment. Results from experiments using a bolt held in a specialized fixture and a three fingers Stanford/JPL hand are presented.

  16. Robotic Acquisition Of Jumbled Parts From Bins By Visual And Tactile Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Rajarshi; Wilder, Joseph

    1984-02-01

    The i-bot system is a flexible, adaptive and programmable sensory device for industrial robots. The system consists of independent modules for vision and gripper control, that guide the robot to perform acquisition of jumbled or isolated parts from a bin. The acquired parts are transported to a fixture and properly aligned by the robot-arm. The parts in the bin are identical except for minor dimensional and textural variations. These parts may be colored, contain graphics, possess multiple diameters or other cross sections, mixed material content and reflectivities. The system operates by taking a high resolution grey scale image of the bin of parts using an overhead camera under ambient illumination. The image is preprocessed by video range expansion, windowing, histogram based enhancement techniques and is segmented into multiple clusters by analyzing spatial characteristics. Algorithms are developed for fast and iterative data compression and for estimation of location and orientation of a cluster irrespective of its shape. The photobeam, collision, and pressure sensors on the parallel jaw gripper aremonitored during the acquisition process. Experiments have been performed with fuel filters, curved plier blanks, multicolored markers, "L" shaped fuel links, ball bearings and a mixture of semi-rusted threaded and unthreaded bolts of various lengths. In one image processing cycle of 2 seconds, i-bot can compute locations and orientations of a maximum of 3 work-pieces at a successful acquisition rate of approximately 95%.

  17. MRI-guided robotics at the U of Houston: evolving methodologies for interventions and surgeries.

    PubMed

    Tsekos, Nikolaos V

    2009-01-01

    Currently, we witness the rapid evolution of minimally invasive surgeries (MIS) and image guided interventions (IGI) for offering improved patient management and cost effectiveness. It is well recognized that sustaining and expand this paradigm shift would require new computational methodology that integrates sensing with multimodal imaging, actively controlled robotic manipulators, the patient and the operator. Such approach would include (1) assessing in real-time tissue deformation secondary to the procedure and physiologic motion, (2) monitoring the tool(s) in 3D, and (3) on-the-fly update information about the pathophysiology of the targeted tissue. With those capabilities, real time image guidance may facilitate a paradigm shift and methodological leap from "keyhole" visualization (i.e. endoscopy or laparoscopy) to one that uses a volumetric and informational rich perception of the Area of Operation (AoO). This capability may eventually enable a wider range and level of complexity IGI and MIS.

  18. Design of an MRI-compatible robotic stereotactic device for minimally invasive interventions in the breast.

    PubMed

    Larson, Blake T; Erdman, Arthur G; Tsekos, Nikolaos V; Yacoub, Essa; Tsekos, Panagiotis V; Koutlas, Ioannis G

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a robotic device to perform biopsy and therapeutic interventions in the breast with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The device was designed to allow for (i) stabilization of the breast by compression, (ii) definition of the interventional probe trajectory by setting the height and pitch of a probe insertion apparatus, and (iii) positioning of an interventional probe by setting the depth of insertion. The apparatus is fitted with five computer-controlled degrees of freedom for delivering an interventional procedure. The entire device is constructed of MR compatible materials, i.e. nonmagnetic and non-conductive, to eliminate artifacts and distortion of the MR images. The apparatus is remotely controlled by means of ultrasonic motors and a graphical user interface, providing real-time MR-guided planning and monitoring of the operation. Joint motion measurements found probe placement in less than 50 s and sub-millimeter repeatability of the probe tip for same-direction point-to-point movements. However, backlash in the rotation joint may incur probe tip positional errors of up to 5 mm at a distance of 40 mm from the rotation axis, which may occur for women with large breasts. The imprecision caused by this backlash becomes negligible as the probe tip nears the rotation axis. Real-time MR-guidance will allow the physician to correct this error Compatibility of the device within the MR environment was successfully tested on a 4 Tesla MR human scanner

  19. Biopsy Needle Artifact Localization in MRI-guided Robotic Transrectal Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan B.; Iordachita, Iulian; Guion, Peter; Fichtinger, Gabor; Kaushal, Aradhana; Camphausen, Kevin; Whitcomb, Louis L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a number of robotic intervention systems for magnetic resonance image (MRI) guided needle placement in the prostate have been reported. In MRI-guided needle interventions, after a needle is inserted, the needle position is often confirmed with a volumetric MRI scan. Commonly used titanium needles are not directly visible in an MR image, but they generate a susceptibility artifact in the immediate neighborhood of the needle. This paper reports the results of a quantitative study of the relationship between the true position of titanium biopsy needle and the corresponding needle artifact position in MR images, thereby providing a better understanding of the influence of needle artifact on targeting errors. The titanium needle tip artifact extended 9 mm beyond the actual needle tip location with tendency to bend towards the scanner’s B0 magnetic field direction, and axially displaced 0.38 mm and 0.32 mm (mean) in scanner’s frequency and phase encoding direction, respectively. PMID:22481805

  20. Interactive autonomy and robotic skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, A.; Maediger, B.

    1994-01-01

    Current concepts of robot-supported operations for space laboratories (payload servicing, inspection, repair, and ORU exchange) are mainly based on the concept of 'interactive autonomy' which implies autonomous behavior of the robot according to predefined timelines, predefined sequences of elementary robot operations and within predefined world models supplying geometrical and other information for parameter instantiation on the one hand, and the ability to override and change the predefined course of activities by human intervention on the other hand. Although in principle a very powerful and useful concept, in practice the confinement of the robot to the abstract world models and predefined activities appears to reduce the robot's stability within real world uncertainties and its applicability to non-predefined parts of the world, calling for frequent corrective interaction by the operator, which in itself may be tedious and time-consuming. Methods are presented to improve this situation by incorporating 'robotic skills' into the concept of interactive autonomy.

  1. Modelling of a biologically inspired robotic fish driven by compliant parts.

    PubMed

    El Daou, Hadi; Salumäe, Taavi; Chambers, Lily D; Megill, William M; Kruusmaa, Maarja

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by biological swimmers such as fish, a robot composed of a rigid head, a compliant body and a rigid caudal fin was built. It has the geometrical properties of a subcarangiform swimmer of the same size. The head houses a servo-motor which actuates the compliant body and the caudal fin. It achieves this by applying a concentrated moment on a point near the compliant body base. In this paper, the dynamics of the compliant body driving the robotic fish is modelled and experimentally validated. Lighthill's elongated body theory is used to define the hydrodynamic forces on the compliant part and Rayleigh proportional damping is used to model damping. Based on the assumed modes method, an energetic approach is used to write the equations of motion of the compliant body and to compute the relationship between the applied moment and the resulting lateral deflections. Experiments on the compliant body were carried out to validate the model predictions. The results showed that a good match was achieved between the measured and predicted deformations. A discussion of the swimming motions between the real fish and the robot is presented.

  2. A Workspace-oriented Needle Guiding Robot for 3T MRI-guided Transperineal Prostate Intervention: Evaluation of In-bore Workspace and MRI Compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Hata, Nobuhiko; Iordachita, Iulian; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare; Tokuda, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) guided prostate interventions have been introduced to enhance the cancer detection. For accurate needle positioning, in-bore operated robotic systems have been developed and optimal use of the confined in-bore space become a critical engineering challenge. Methods As preliminary evaluation of our prostate intervention robot, we conducted a workspace design analysis using a new evaluation method that we developed for in-bore operated robots for transperineal prostate interventions, and an MRI compatibility study. Results The workspace analysis resulted in the effective workspace (VW) of 0.32, which is greater than that of our early prototype despite that the current robot is approximately 50% larger than the early prototype in sectional space. The MRI compatibility study resulted in less than 15% signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) reduction. Conclusions The new workspace evaluation method quantifies the workspace utilization of the in-bore operated robots for MRI-guided transperineal prostate interventions, providing a useful tool for evaluation and new robot design. The robot creates insignificant electromagnetic noise during typical prostate imaging sequences. PMID:22492680

  3. Preclinical evaluation of an MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for angulated needle placement in transperineal prostate interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Junichi; Song, Sang-Eun; Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Seifabadi, Reza; Cho, Bong Joon; Tuncali, Kemal; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the targeting accuracy of a small profile MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement that can angulate a needle insertion path into a large accessible target volume. Methods We extended our MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement to utilize its four degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) mechanism with two parallel triangular structures and support transperineal prostate biopsies in a closed-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The robot is designed to guide a needle towards a lesion so that a radiologist can manually insert it in the bore. The robot is integrated with navigation software that allows an operator to plan angulated needle insertion by selecting a target and an entry point. The targeting error was evaluated while the angle between the needle insertion path and the static magnetic field was between −5.7° and 5.7° horizontally and between −5.7° and 4.3° vertically in the MRI scanner after sterilizing and draping the device. Results The robot positioned the needle for angulated insertion as specified on the navigation software with overall targeting error of 0.8 ± 0.5 mm along the horizontal axis and 0.8 ± 0.8 mm along the vertical axis. The two-dimensional root-mean-square targeting error on the axial slices as containing the targets was 1.4 mm. Conclusions Our preclinical evaluation demonstrated that the MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement with the capability to angulate the needle insertion path provides targeting accuracy feasible for clinical MRI-guided prostate interventions. The clinical feasibility has to be established in a clinical study. PMID:22678723

  4. Development and Evaluation of an Actuated MRI-Compatible Robotic System for MRI-Guided Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Axel; Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan B.; Iordachita, Iulian; Guion, Peter; Fichtinger, Gabor; Whitcomb, Louis L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the design, development, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility evaluation of an actuated transrectal prostate robot for MRI-guided needle intervention in the prostate. The robot performs actuated needle MRI-guidance with the goals of providing (i) MRI compatibility, (ii) MRI-guided needle placement with accuracy sufficient for targeting clinically significant prostate cancer foci, (iii) reducing interventional procedure times (thus increasing patient comfort and reducing opportunity for needle targeting error due to patient motion), (iv) enabling real-time MRI monitoring of interventional procedures, and (v) reducing the opportunities for error that arise in manually actuated needle placement. The design of the robot, employing piezo-ceramic-motor actuated needle guide positioning and manual needle insertion, is reported. Results of a MRI compatibility study show no reduction of MRI signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) with the motors disabled. Enabling the motors reduces the SNR by 80% without RF shielding, but SNR is only reduced by 40% to 60% with RF shielding. The addition of radio-frequency shielding is shown to significantly reduce image SNR degradation caused by the presence of the robotic device. An accuracy study of MRI-guided biopsy needle placements in a prostate phantom is reported. The study shows an average in-plane targeting error of 2.4 mm with a maximum error of 3.7 mm. These data indicate the system’s needle targeting accuracy is similar to that obtained with a previously reported manually actuated system, and is sufficient to reliably sample clinically significant prostate cancer foci under MRI-guidance. PMID:23326181

  5. Brief Report: Development of a Robotic Intervention Platform for Young Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Zachary; Zheng, Zhi; Das, Shuvajit; Young, Eric M.; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly researchers are attempting to develop robotic technologies for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This pilot study investigated the development and application of a novel robotic system capable of dynamic, adaptive, and autonomous interaction during imitation tasks with embedded real-time performance evaluation and…

  6. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.

    2007-01-01

    Lunar robotic functions include: 1. Transport of crew and payloads on the surface of the moon; 2. Offloading payloads from a lunar lander; 3. Handling the deployment of surface systems; with 4. Human commanding of these functions from inside a lunar vehicle, habitat, or extravehicular (space walk), with Earth-based supervision. The systems that will perform these functions may not look like robots from science fiction. In fact, robotic functions may be automated trucks, cranes and winches. Use of this equipment prior to the crew s arrival or in the potentially long periods without crews on the surface, will require that these systems be computer controlled machines. The public release of NASA's Exploration plans at the 2nd Space Exploration Conference (Houston, December 2006) included a lunar outpost with as many as four unique mobility chassis designs. The sequence of lander offloading tasks involved as many as ten payloads, each with a unique set of geometry, mass and interface requirements. This plan was refined during a second phase study concluded in August 2007. Among the many improvements to the exploration plan were a reduction in the number of unique mobility chassis designs and a reduction in unique payload specifications. As the lunar surface system payloads have matured, so have the mobility and offloading functional requirements. While the architecture work continues, the community can expect to see functional requirements in the areas of surface mobility, surface handling, and human-systems interaction as follows: Surface Mobility 1. Transport crew on the lunar surface, accelerating construction tasks, expanding the crew s sphere of influence for scientific exploration, and providing a rapid return to an ascent module in an emergency. The crew transport can be with an un-pressurized rover, a small pressurized rover, or a larger mobile habitat. 2. Transport Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) equipment and construction payloads. 3. Transport habitats and

  7. Brief Report: Development of a Robotic Intervention Platform for Young Children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Zachary; Zheng, Zhi; Das, Shuvajit; Young, Eric M.; Swanson, Amy; Weitlauf, Amy; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly researchers are attempting to develop robotic technologies for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This pilot study investigated the development and application of a novel robotic system capable of dynamic, adaptive, and autonomous interaction during imitation tasks with embedded real-time performance evaluation and feedback. The system was designed to incorporate both a humanoid robot and a human examiner. We compared child performance within system across these conditions in a sample of preschool children with ASD (n=8) and a control sample of typically developing children (n=8). The system was well-tolerated in the sample, children with ASD exhibited greater attention to the robotic system than the human administrator, and for children with ASD imitation performance appeared superior during the robotic interaction. PMID:25503680

  8. Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2012-01-01

    Earth's upper atmosphere is an extreme environment: dry, cold, and irradiated. It is unknown whether our aerobiosphere is limited to the transport of life, or there exist organisms that grow and reproduce while airborne (aerophiles); the microenvironments of suspended particles may harbor life at otherwise uninhabited altitudes[2]. The existence of aerophiles would significantly expand the range of planets considered candidates for life by, for example, including the cooler clouds of a hot Venus-like planet. The X project is an effort to engineer a robotic exploration and biosampling payload for a comprehensive survey of Earth's aerobiology. While many one-shot samples have been retrieved from above 15 km, their results are primarily qualitative; variations in method confound comparisons, leaving such major gaps in our knowledge of aerobiology as quantification of populations at different strata and relative species counts[1]. These challenges and X's preliminary solutions are explicated below. X's primary balloon payload is undergoing a series of calibrations before beginning flights in Spring 2012. A suborbital launch is currently planned for Summer 2012. A series of ground samples taken in Winter 2011 is being used to establish baseline counts and identify likely background contaminants.

  9. Integration and evaluation of a needle-positioning robot with volumetric microcomputed tomography image guidance for small animal stereotactic interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Waspe, Adam C.; McErlain, David D.; Pitelka, Vasek; Holdsworth, David W.; Lacefield, James C.; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Preclinical research protocols often require insertion of needles to specific targets within small animal brains. To target biologically relevant locations in rodent brains more effectively, a robotic device has been developed that is capable of positioning a needle along oblique trajectories through a single burr hole in the skull under volumetric microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) guidance. Methods: An x-ray compatible stereotactic frame secures the head throughout the procedure using a bite bar, nose clamp, and ear bars. CT-to-robot registration enables structures identified in the image to be mapped to physical coordinates in the brain. Registration is accomplished by injecting a barium sulfate contrast agent as the robot withdraws the needle from predefined points in a phantom. Registration accuracy is affected by the robot-positioning error and is assessed by measuring the surface registration error for the fiducial and target needle tracks (FRE and TRE). This system was demonstrated in situ by injecting 200 {mu}m tungsten beads into rat brains along oblique trajectories through a single burr hole on the top of the skull under micro-CT image guidance. Postintervention micro-CT images of each skull were registered with preintervention high-field magnetic resonance images of the brain to infer the anatomical locations of the beads. Results: Registration using four fiducial needle tracks and one target track produced a FRE and a TRE of 96 and 210 {mu}m, respectively. Evaluation with tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms showed that locations could be targeted with a mean error of 154{+-}113 {mu}m. Conclusions: The integration of a robotic needle-positioning device with volumetric micro-CT image guidance should increase the accuracy and reduce the invasiveness of stereotactic needle interventions in small animals.

  10. Basic Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Frank

    This curriculum outline consists of instructional materials and information concerning resources for use in teaching a course in robotics. Addressed in the individual sections of the outline are the following topics: the nature of an industrial robot; the parts of an industrial robot (the manipulator, the power structure, and the control system);…

  11. Lapabot: a compact telesurgical robot system for minimally invasive surgery: part II. Telesurgery evaluation.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Woo; Lee, Duck Hee; Kim, Young Woo; Lee, Byeong Han; Jo, Yung Ho

    2012-05-01

    As described in Part I, the Lapabot was developed considering telesurgery from the initial design stage. The robot configuration is based on the master-slave structure in which the operator can be separated spatially from the patient. The distributed control architecture communicating through high-speed network enables remote control of surgical robot manipulators. In this work, we added network communication modules using user datagram protocol/internet protocol for implementation of the telesurgical system. For a stable network environment, a dedicated research network was adopted. To characterize the network environment, a data packet sender and a repeater whose packet length and packet structure are similar to those of the real data packet were developed. The developed system was evaluated through in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. With the developed system, we have successfully performed remote control of the Lapabot. The roundtrip time delay for the control signal ranged from 1.4 to 4.1 ms. The total time delay for the operator including image signal acquisition and transmission delays was under 333 ms. It did not impede surgical procedures. Initial evaluation results demonstrate the feasibility of the developed telesurgical system.

  12. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy: how I do it. Part I: Patient preparation and positioning.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Roger F; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Zorn, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Radical prostatectomy remains the standard treatment for long term cure of clinically localized prostate cancer, offering excellent oncologic outcomes, with cancer-specific survival approaching 95% at 15 years after surgery. The introduction of the "da Vinci Robotic Surgical System" (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been another important step toward a minimally invasive approach to radical prostatectomy. Technologic peculiarities, such as three-dimensional vision, wristed instrumentation with seven degrees of freedom of motion, lack of tremor, a 10x-magnification and a comfortable seated position for the surgeon has added value to the surgeon and patient. In this first part of a two article series, we describe preoperative patient preparation and positioning protocols for robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) that are currently used in our institution (University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM)-Hopital St-Luc). We use the four-arm da Vinci Si Surgical System. Our experience with RARP is now over 250 cases with the senior surgeon having performed over 1200 RARPs and we have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes.

  13. An Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) Part II: Pilot Clinical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) is an intervention approach for children with reading difficulties that emphasizes reading as an important occupation of children. Part I presented the theoretical basis of the OPARI. Part II describes a pilot clinical application of the OPARI. Guided by Schkade and…

  14. Task-level robot programming: Integral part of evolution from teleoperation to autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, James C.

    1987-01-01

    An explanation is presented of task-level robot programming and of how it differs from the usual interpretation of task planning for robotics. Most importantly, it is argued that the physical and mathematical basis of task-level robot programming provides inherently greater reliability than efforts to apply better known concepts from artificial intelligence (AI) to autonomous robotics. Finally, an architecture is presented that allows the integration of task-level robot programming within an evolutionary, redundant, and multi-modal framework that spans teleoperation to autonomy.

  15. Operation and force analysis of the guide wire in a minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery robot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Wang, Hongbo; Sun, Li; Yu, Hongnian

    2015-03-01

    To develop a robot system for minimally invasive surgery is significant, however the existing minimally invasive surgery robots are not applicable in practical operations, due to their limited functioning and weaker perception. A novel wire feeder is proposed for minimally invasive vascular interventional surgery. It is used for assisting surgeons in delivering a guide wire, balloon and stenting into a specific lesion location. By contrasting those existing wire feeders, the motion methods for delivering and rotating the guide wire in blood vessel are described, and their mechanical realization is presented. A new resistant force detecting method is given in details. The change of the resistance force can help the operator feel the block or embolism existing in front of the guide wire. The driving torque for rotating the guide wire is developed at different positions. Using the CT reconstruction image and extracted vessel paths, the path equation of the blood vessel is obtained. Combining the shapes of the guide wire outside the blood vessel, the whole bending equation of the guide wire is obtained. That is a risk criterion in the delivering process. This process can make operations safer and man-machine interaction more reliable. A novel surgery robot for feeding guide wire is designed, and a risk criterion for the system is given.

  16. Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

  17. Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities. Volume 10. Part A: Theoretical Perspectives [and] Part B: Intervention Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Thomas E., Ed.; Mastropieri, Margo A., Ed.

    This two-volume set presents 11 papers on the state of the art in learning and behavioral disabilities, the first volume, Part A, includes 6 papers providing theoretical perspectives and, the second volume, Part B, includes 5 papers on intervention research. The theoretical papers are: "Defining Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Divergence…

  18. A Model Based Approach to Increase the Part Accuracy in Robot Based Incremental Sheet Metal Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Horst; Laurischkat, Roman; Zhu Junhong

    2011-01-17

    One main influence on the dimensional accuracy in robot based incremental sheet metal forming results from the compliance of the involved robot structures. Compared to conventional machine tools the low stiffness of the robot's kinematic results in a significant deviation of the planned tool path and therefore in a shape of insufficient quality. To predict and compensate these deviations offline, a model based approach, consisting of a finite element approach, to simulate the sheet forming, and a multi body system, modeling the compliant robot structure, has been developed. This paper describes the implementation and experimental verification of the multi body system model and its included compensation method.

  19. 3D geometrical inspection of complex geometry parts using a novel laser triangulation sensor and a robot.

    PubMed

    Brosed, Francisco Javier; Aguilar, Juan José; Guillomía, David; Santolaria, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses different non contact 3D measuring strategies and presents a model for measuring complex geometry parts, manipulated through a robot arm, using a novel vision system consisting of a laser triangulation sensor and a motorized linear stage. First, the geometric model incorporating an automatic simple module for long term stability improvement will be outlined in the article. The new method used in the automatic module allows the sensor set up, including the motorized linear stage, for the scanning avoiding external measurement devices. In the measurement model the robot is just a positioning of parts with high repeatability. Its position and orientation data are not used for the measurement and therefore it is not directly "coupled" as an active component in the model. The function of the robot is to present the various surfaces of the workpiece along the measurement range of the vision system, which is responsible for the measurement. Thus, the whole system is not affected by the robot own errors following a trajectory, except those due to the lack of static repeatability. For the indirect link between the vision system and the robot, the original model developed needs only one first piece measuring as a "zero" or master piece, known by its accurate measurement using, for example, a Coordinate Measurement Machine. The strategy proposed presents a different approach to traditional laser triangulation systems on board the robot in order to improve the measurement accuracy, and several important cues for self-recalibration are explored using only a master piece. Experimental results are also presented to demonstrate the technique and the final 3D measurement accuracy.

  20. From medical images to minimally invasive intervention: Computer assistance for robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Lin; Lerotic, Mirna; Vitiello, Valentina; Giannarou, Stamatia; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Visentini-Scarzanella, Marco; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been established as an important way forward in surgery for reducing patient trauma and hospitalization with improved prognosis. The introduction of robotic assistance enhances the manual dexterity and accuracy of instrument manipulation. Further development of the field in using pre- and intra-operative imaging guidance requires the integration of the general anatomy of the patient with clear pathologic indications and geometrical information for preoperative planning and intra-operative manipulation. It also requires effective visualization and the recreation of haptic and tactile sensing with dynamic active constraints to improve consistency and safety of the surgical procedures. This paper describes key technical considerations of tissue deformation tracking, 3D reconstruction, subject-specific modeling, image guidance and augmented reality for robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery. It highlights the importance of adapting preoperative surgical planning according to intra-operative data and illustrates how dynamic information such as tissue deformation can be incorporated into the surgical navigation framework. Some of the recent trends are discussed in terms of instrument design and the usage of dynamic active constraints and human-robot perceptual docking for robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery.

  1. So Long, Robot Reader! A Superhero Intervention Plan for Improving Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcell, Barclay; Ferraro, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an engaging means for turning disfluent readers into prosody superstars. Each week students align with Poetry Power Man and his superhero friends to battle the evil Robot Reader and his sidekicks. The Fluency Foursome helps students adhere to the multidimensional aspects of fluency where expression and comprehension are…

  2. Robotic intelligence kernel

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J.

    2009-11-17

    A robot platform includes perceptors, locomotors, and a system controller. The system controller executes a robot intelligence kernel (RIK) that includes a multi-level architecture and a dynamic autonomy structure. The multi-level architecture includes a robot behavior level for defining robot behaviors, that incorporate robot attributes and a cognitive level for defining conduct modules that blend an adaptive interaction between predefined decision functions and the robot behaviors. The dynamic autonomy structure is configured for modifying a transaction capacity between an operator intervention and a robot initiative and may include multiple levels with at least a teleoperation mode configured to maximize the operator intervention and minimize the robot initiative and an autonomous mode configured to minimize the operator intervention and maximize the robot initiative. Within the RIK at least the cognitive level includes the dynamic autonomy structure.

  3. Population-based public health interventions: innovations in practice, teaching, and management. Part II.

    PubMed

    Keller, Linda Olson; Strohschein, Susan; Schaffer, Marjorie A; Lia-Hoagberg, Betty

    2004-01-01

    The Intervention Wheel is a population-based practice model that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. Each intervention and practice level contributes to improving population health. The Intervention Wheel, previously known as the Public Health Intervention Model, was originally introduced in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health, Section of Public Health Nursing (PHN). The model has been widely disseminated and used throughout the United States since that time. The evidence supporting the Intervention Wheel was recently subjected to a rigorous critique by regional and national experts. This critical process, which involved hundreds of public health nurses, resulted in a more robust Intervention Wheel and established the validity of the model. The critique also produced basic steps and best practices for each of the 17 interventions. Part I describes the Intervention Wheel, defines population-based practice, and details the recommended modifications and validation process. Part II provides examples of the innovative ways that the Intervention Wheel is being used in public health/PHN practice, education, and administration. The two articles provide a foundation and vision for population-based PHN practice and direction for improving population health.

  4. Population-based public health interventions: practice-based and evidence-supported. Part I.

    PubMed

    Keller, Linda Olson; Strohschein, Susan; Lia-Hoagberg, Betty; Schaffer, Marjorie A

    2004-01-01

    The Intervention Wheel is a population-based practice model that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. Each intervention and practice level contributes to improving population health. The Intervention Wheel, previously known as the Public Health Intervention Model, was originally introduced in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health, Section of Public Health Nursing. The model has been widely disseminated and used throughout the United States since that time. The evidence supporting the Intervention Wheel was recently subjected to a rigorous critique by regional and national experts. This critical process, which involved hundreds of public health nurses, resulted in a more robust Intervention Wheel and established the validity of the model. The critique also produced basic steps and best practices for each of the 17 interventions. Part I describes the Intervention Wheel, defines population-based practice, and details the recommended modifications and validation process. Part II provides examples of the innovative ways that the Intervention Wheel is being used in public health/public health nursing practice, education, and administration. The two articles provide a foundation and vision for population-based public health nursing practice and direction for improving population health.

  5. Improving Collaborative Play between Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Siblings: The Effectiveness of a Robot-Mediated Intervention Based on Lego® Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huskens, Bibi; Palmen, Annemiek; Van der Werff, Marije; Lourens, Tino; Barakova, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a brief robot-mediated intervention based on Lego® therapy on improving collaborative behaviors (i.e., interaction initiations, responses, and play together) between children with ASD and their siblings during play sessions, in a therapeutic setting. A concurrent multiple baseline design…

  6. 75 FR 68613 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... be transferring Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C funds as a Non-Competitive Replacement Award, to... treatment services and avoid a disruption of HIV/AIDS clinical care to clients in East and Central Harlem... Health will receive $577,174 of fiscal year (FY) 2010 funds to ensure ongoing clinical HIV/ AIDS...

  7. Integrating socially assistive robotics into mental healthcare interventions: applications and recommendations for expanded use.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Sarah M; Kazdin, Alan E; Scassellati, Brian

    2015-02-01

    As a field, mental healthcare is faced with major challenges as it attempts to close the huge gap between those who need services and those who receive services. In recent decades, technological advances have provided exciting new resources in this battle. Socially assistive robotics (SAR) is a particularly promising area that has expanded into several exciting mental healthcare applications. Indeed, a growing literature highlights the variety of clinically relevant functions that these robots can serve, from companion to therapeutic play partner. This paper reviews the ways that SAR have already been used in mental health service and research and discusses ways that these applications can be expanded. We also outline the challenges and limitations associated with further integrating SAR into mental healthcare. SAR is not proposed as a replacement for specially trained and knowledgeable professionals nor is it seen as a panacea for all mental healthcare needs. Instead, robots can serve as clinical tools and assistants in a wide range of settings. Given the dramatic growth in this area, now is a critical moment for individuals in the mental healthcare community to become engaged in this research and steer it toward our field's most pressing clinical needs.

  8. Integrated navigation and control software system for MRI-guided robotic prostate interventions

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Junichi; Fischer, Gregory S.; DiMaio, Simon P.; Gobbi, David G.; Csoma, Csaba; Mewes, Philip W.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2010-01-01

    A software system to provide intuitive navigation for MRI-guided robotic transperineal prostate therapy is presented. In the system, the robot control unit, the MRI scanner, and the open-source navigation software are connected together via Ethernet to exchange commands, coordinates, and images using an open network communication protocol, OpenIGTLink. The system has six states called “workphases” that provide the necessary synchronization of all components during each stage of the clinical workflow, and the user interface guides the operator linearly through these workphases. On top of this framework, the software provides the following features for needle guidance: interactive target planning; 3D image visualization with current needle position; treatment monitoring through real-time MR images of needle trajectories in the prostate. These features are supported by calibration of robot and image coordinates by fiducial-based registration. Performance tests show that the registration error of the system was 2.6 mm within the prostate volume. Registered real-time 2D images were displayed 1.97 s after the image location is specified. PMID:19699057

  9. A MR-conditional High-torque Pneumatic Stepper Motor for MRI-guided and Robot-assisted Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging allows for visualizing detailed pathological and morphological changes of soft tissue. This increasingly attracts attention on MRI-guided intervention; hence, MR-conditional actuations have been widely investigated for development of image-guided and robot-assisted surgical devices under the MRI. This paper presents a simple design of MR-conditional stepper motor which can provide precise and high-torque actuation without adversely affecting the MR image quality. This stepper motor consists of two MR-conditional pneumatic cylinders and the corresponding supporting structures. Alternating the pressurized air can drive the motor to rotate each step in 3.6° with the motor coupled to a planetary gearbox. Experimental studies were conducted to validate its dynamics performance. Maximum 800mNm output torque can be achieved. The motor accuracy independently varied by two factors: motor operating speed and step size, was also investigated. The motor was tested within a Siemens 3T MRI scanner. The image artifact and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were evaluated in order to study its MRI compliancy. The results show that the presented pneumatic stepper motor generated 2.35% SNR reduction in MR images and no observable artifact was presented besides the motor body itself. The proposed motor test also demonstrates a standard to evaluate the motor capability for later incorporation with motorized devices used in robot-assisted surgery under MRI. PMID:24957635

  10. Mentalizing Family Violence Part 2: Techniques and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Asen, Eia; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-03-01

    This is the second of two companion papers that provide an overview of mentalization-based concepts and techniques when working with the seeming "mindlessness" of intra-family violence. The focus of this paper is on general mentalization-oriented approaches and specific interventions that aim to (1) disrupt the non-mentalizing cycles that can generate intra-family violence and (2) encourage the emergence of patterns of family interactions that provide the foundation for non-violent alternatives. Various playful exercises and activities are described, including the taking of "mental state snapshots" and "selfies" in sessions and staging inverted role-plays, as well as using theatrical masks and creating body-mind maps and scans. These can make "chronic" relationship issues come alive in session and permit "here and now" experiences that generate a safe context for mentalizing to take place. At the core of the work is the continuous focus on integrating experience and reflection. Without acute awareness of the thoughts and feelings occurring in the sessions, mere reflection is not likely to enable change. By increasing mentalizing in the family system, family members' trusting attitudes grow, both within and outside the family.

  11. NASA automation and robotics. Information exchange workshop: proceedings. Volume 2, Part A, presentations material

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Objective of the workshop were to produce an information exchange between the NASA centers on current efforts in advanced artificial intelligence, robotics, and automation and to provide the identification of current efforts throughout NASA, and gaps in the current efforts, in relation to Space Station automation and robotics. The agenda was a set of technical overview presentations from the NASA centers on current efforts in advanced artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, and a joint session with the (SSIS) workshop being held at JSC the same week.

  12. NASA automation and robotics. Information exchange workshop proceedings. Volume 2, Part B. Presentations material

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Objectives of the workshop were to produce an information exchange between the NASA centers on current efforts in advanced artificial intelligence, robotics, and automation and to provide the identification of current efforts throughout NASA, and gaps in the current efforts, in relation to Space Station automation and robotics. The agenda was a set of technical overview presentations from the NASA centers on current efforts in advanced artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, and a joint session with the (SSIS) workshop being held at JSC the same week.

  13. A comparison of the effects of rhythm and robotic interventions on repetitive behaviors and affective states of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Park, Isabel K.; Neelly, Linda B.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive behaviors and poor affect regulation are commonly seen in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We compared the effects of two novel interventions - rhythm and robotic therapies, with those of a standard-of-care intervention, on the repetitive behaviors and affective states of 36 children with ASD between 5 and 12 years using a randomized controlled trial design. We coded for frequencies of sensory, negative, and stereotyped behaviors and the duration of positive, negative, and interested affective states in children during early, mid, and late training sessions. In terms of repetitive behaviors, in the early session, the rhythm and robot groups engaged in greater negative behaviors, whereas the comparison group engaged in greater sensory behaviors. With training, the rhythm group reduced negative behaviors whereas there were no training-related changes in the other groups. In terms of affective states, the rhythm and robot groups showed greater negative affect, whereas the comparison group demonstrated greater interested affect across all sessions. With training, the rhythm group showed a reduction in negative affect and an increase in interested affect whereas the robot group showed a reduction in positive affect. Overall, it appears that rhythm-based interventions are socially engaging treatment tools to target core impairments in autism. PMID:26251668

  14. An Occupation and Participation Approach to Reading Intervention (OPARI) Part I: Defining Reading as an Occupation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajo, Lenin C.; Candler, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This is the first of two papers that explore a role that occupational therapy can play in supporting children with reading challenges. Part I presents the grounding framework for an occupation and participation approach to reading intervention (OPARI) and serves to introduce the clinical application of the approach presented in Part II. In this…

  15. 75 FR 3746 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early..., Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part C, Early Intervention Services (EIS), HIV/AIDS care and...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County,...

  16. Predicting the long-term effects of human-robot interaction: a reflection on responsibility in medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Datteri, Edoardo

    2013-03-01

    This article addresses prospective and retrospective responsibility issues connected with medical robotics. It will be suggested that extant conceptual and legal frameworks are sufficient to address and properly settle most retrospective responsibility problems arising in connection with injuries caused by robot behaviours (which will be exemplified here by reference to harms occurred in surgical interventions supported by the Da Vinci robot, reported in the scientific literature and in the press). In addition, it will be pointed out that many prospective responsibility issues connected with medical robotics are nothing but well-known robotics engineering problems in disguise, which are routinely addressed by roboticists as part of their research and development activities: for this reason they do not raise particularly novel ethical issues. In contrast with this, it will be pointed out that novel and challenging prospective responsibility issues may emerge in connection with harmful events caused by normal robot behaviours. This point will be illustrated here in connection with the rehabilitation robot Lokomat.

  17. Towards explaining the health impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions - A realist review. Part 1: Pathways.

    PubMed

    Willand, Nicola; Ridley, Ian; Maller, Cecily

    2015-05-01

    This paper is Part 1 of a realist review that tries to explain the impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions (REEIs) on householder health. According to recent systematic reviews residential energy efficiency interventions may benefit health. It is argued that home energy improvement are complex interventions and that a better understanding of the latent mechanisms and contextual issues that may shape the outcome of interventions is needed for effective intervention design. This realist review synthesises the results of 28 energy efficiency improvement programmes. This first part provides a review of the explanatory factors of the three key pathways, namely warmth in the home, affordability of fuel and psycho-social factors, and the pitfall of inadequate indoor air quality. The review revealed that REEIs improved winter warmth and lowered relative humidity with benefits for cardiovascular and respiratory health. In addition, residential energy efficiency improvements consolidated the meaning of the home as a safe haven, strengthened the householder's perceived autonomy and enhanced social status. Although satisfaction with the home proved to be an important explanation for positive mental health outcomes, financial considerations seemed to have played a secondary role. Evidence for negative impacts was rare but the risk should not be dismissed. Comprehensive refurbishments were not necessarily more effective than thermal retrofits or upgrades. A common protocol for the quantitative and qualitative evaluation of interventions would facilitate the synthesis of future studies. Householder and contextual influences are addressed in Part 2.

  18. Parents' Judgments of the Acceptability and Importance of Socially Interactive Robots for Intervening with Young Children with Disabilities. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon

    2013-01-01

    A number of different types of socially interactive robots are being used as part of interventions with young children with disabilities to promote their joint attention and language skills. Parents' judgments of two dimensions (acceptance and importance) of the social validity of four different social robots were the focus of the study described…

  19. Personalized, relevance-based Multimodal Robotic Imaging and augmented reality for Computer Assisted Interventions.

    PubMed

    Navab, Nassir; Fellow, Miccai; Hennersperger, Christoph; Frisch, Benjamin; Fürst, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    In the last decade, many researchers in medical image computing and computer assisted interventions across the world focused on the development of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), aiming at changing the practice of medicine from classification and treatment of diseases to that of modeling and treating patients. These projects resulted in major advancements in segmentation, registration, morphological, physiological and biomechanical modeling based on state of art medical imaging as well as other sensory data. However, a major issue which has not yet come into the focus is personalizing intra-operative imaging, allowing for optimal treatment. In this paper, we discuss the personalization of imaging and visualization process with particular focus on satisfying the challenging requirements of computer assisted interventions. We discuss such requirements and review a series of scientific contributions made by our research team to tackle some of these major challenges.

  20. Parent Perspectives of Participation in Home and Community Activities when Receiving Part C Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khetani, Mary A.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Law, Mary C.; Coster, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which parent expectations, perceptions about resource availability and supports, and strategies used to promote participation in home and community activities varied by setting and activity type. Sixteen 90-min semistructured interviews were completed with families receiving Part C early intervention services in…

  1. How Does the Narrowing of Eligibility Criteria Affect Enrollment in Part C Early Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbaum, Batya; Celimli-Aksoy, Seniz; Marshall, Jennifer T.; Berkovits, Michelle D.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many states have narrowed their eligibility criteria for participation in the IDEA Part C early intervention (EI) program for infants and toddlers with or at risk for developmental delays. However, there is scant research on the effects of such a policy change on the population of children served or on the timing of children's…

  2. Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-06

    I~D~·L Paper Number Collaborative Robotics Design Considerations ABSTRACT As research advances individual robot capabilities, a logical...progression is the use of multiple robots to complete a task more effectively. Mission performance can be improved by the ability to allocate robots with...diverse capabilities to perform different parts of a complex task. To paraphrase [[10], there are many advantages to enabling robotic collaborative

  3. Design of a decoupled MRI-compatible force sensor using fiber bragg grating sensors for robot-assisted prostate interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfaredi, Reza; Seifabadi, Reza; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian

    2013-03-01

    During prostate needle insertion, the gland rotates and displaces resulting in needle placement inaccuracy. To compensate for this error, we proposed master-slave needle steering under real-time MRI in a previous study. For MRI-compatibility and accurate motion control, the master (and the slave) robot uses piezo actuators. These actuators however, are non-backdrivable. To cope with this issue, force sensor is required. Force sensor is also required at the slave side to reflect the insertion force to clinician's hand through the master robot. Currently, there is no MRI-compatible force sensor commercially available. In order to generate a combination of linear and rotary motions for needle steering, this study is seeking to develop a MRI-compatible 2 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) force/torque sensor. Fiber Brag Grating (FBG) strain measuring sensors which are proven to be MRI-compatible are used. The active element is made of phosphor-bronze and other parts are made of brass. The force and torque measurements are designed to be entirely decoupled. The sensor measures -20 to 20 N axial force with 0.1 N resolution, and -200 to 200 Nmm axial torque with 1 Nmm resolution. Analytical and Finite Element (FE) analyses are performed to ensure the strains are within the measurable range of the FBG sensors. The sensor is designed to be compact (diameter =15 mm, height =20 mm) and easy to handle and install. The proposed sensor is fabricated and calibrated using a commercial force/torque sensor.

  4. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy: how I do it. Part II: Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Roger F; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Zorn, Kevin C

    2013-12-01

    The introduction of the "da Vinci Robotic Surgical System" (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been an important step towards a minimally invasive approach to radical prostatectomy. Technologic peculiarities, such as three-dimensional vision, wristed instrumentation with seven degrees of freedom of motion, lack of tremor, a 10x-magnification and a comfortable seated position for the surgeon has added value to the procedure for the surgeon and the patient. In this article, we describe the 9 step surgical technique for robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) that is currently used in our institution (University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM) - Hopital St-Luc). We use the four-arm da Vinci Surgical System. Our experience with RARP is now over 250 cases with the senior surgeon having performed over 1200 RARPs and we have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes.

  5. Simple robust control laws for robot manipulators. Part 1: Non-adaptive case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, J. T.; Bayard, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of exponentially stabilizing control laws for joint level control of robot arms is introduced. It has been recently recognized that the nonlinear dynamics associated with robotic manipulators have certain inherent passivity properties. More specifically, the derivation of the robotic dynamic equations from the Hamilton's principle gives rise to natural Lyapunov functions for control design based on total energy considerations. Through a slight modification of the energy Lyapunov function and the use of a convenient lemma to handle third order terms in the Lyapunov function derivatives, closed loop exponential stability for both the set point and tracking control problem is demonstrated. The exponential convergence property also leads to robustness with respect to frictions, bounded modeling errors and instrument noise. In one new design, the nonlinear terms are decoupled from real-time measurements which completely removes the requirement for on-line computation of nonlinear terms in the controller implementation. In general, the new class of control laws offers alternatives to the more conventional computed torque method, providing tradeoffs between robustness, computation and convergence properties. Furthermore, these control laws have the unique feature that they can be adapted in a very simple fashion to achieve asymptotically stable adaptive control.

  6. Cancer concepts and principles: primer for the interventional oncologist-part I.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Ryan; Vouche, Michael; Sze, Daniel Y; Hohlastos, Elias; Collins, Jeremy; Schirmang, Todd; Memon, Khairuddin; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent; Chen, Richard; Gupta, Ramona; Resnick, Scott; Carr, James; Chrisman, Howard B; Nemcek, Albert A; Vogelzang, Robert L; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2013-08-01

    A sophisticated understanding of the rapidly changing field of oncology, including a broad knowledge of oncologic disease and the therapies available to treat them, is fundamental to the interventional radiologist providing oncologic therapies, and is necessary to affirm interventional oncology as one of the four pillars of cancer care alongside medical, surgical, and radiation oncology. The first part of this review intends to provide a concise overview of the fundamentals of oncologic clinical trials, including trial design, methods to assess therapeutic response, common statistical analyses, and the levels of evidence provided by clinical trials.

  7. An MRI-Compatible Robotic System With Hybrid Tracking for MRI-Guided Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Guion, Peter; Singh, Anurag K.; Kaushal, Aradhana; Ménard, Cynthia; Pinto, Peter A.; Camphausen, Kevin; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the development, evaluation, and first clinical trials of the access to the prostate tissue (APT) II system—a scanner independent system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transrectal prostate interventions. The system utilizes novel manipulator mechanics employing a steerable needle channel and a novel six degree-of-freedom hybrid tracking method, comprising passive fiducial tracking for initial registration and subsequent incremental motion measurements. Targeting accuracy of the system in prostate phantom experiments and two clinical human-subject procedures is shown to compare favorably with existing systems using passive and active tracking methods. The portable design of the APT II system, using only standard MRI image sequences and minimal custom scanner interfacing, allows the system to be easily used on different MRI scanners. PMID:22009867

  8. Concept for practical exercises for studying autonomous flying robots in a university environment: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gageik, Nils; Dilger, Erik; Montenegro, Sergio; Schön, Stefan; Wildenhein, Rico; Creutzburg, Reiner; Fischer, Arno

    2015-03-01

    The present paper demonstrates the application of quadcopters as educational material for students in aerospace computer science, as it is already in usage today. The work with quadrotors teaches students theoretical and practical knowledge in the fields of robotics, control theory, aerospace and electrical engineering as well as embedded programming and computer science. For this the material, concept, realization and future view of such a course is discussed in this paper. Besides that, the paper gives a brief overview of student research projects following the course, which are related to the research and development of fully autonomous quadrotors.

  9. Psychoeducational Interventions with Pediatric Cancer Patients: Part II. Effects of Information and Skills Training on Health-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Ivan L.; Bradlyn, Andrew S.; Kato, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, we described a model that was used as a framework for reviewing studies of psychoeducational interventions intended to influence illness- and treatment-related behaviors and attitudes in pediatric cancer patients. In Part II, we distinguish between interventions that attempt to influence patients' behaviors just by…

  10. 78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan...

  11. Simple robust control laws for robot manipulators. Part 2: Adaptive case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, D. S.; Wen, J. T.

    1987-01-01

    A new class of asymptotically stable adaptive control laws is introduced for application to the robotic manipulator. Unlike most applications of adaptive control theory to robotic manipulators, this analysis addresses the nonlinear dynamics directly without approximation, linearization, or ad hoc assumptions, and utilizes a parameterization based on physical (time-invariant) quantities. This approach is made possible by using energy-like Lyapunov functions which retain the nonlinear character and structure of the dynamics, rather than simple quadratic forms which are ubiquitous to the adaptive control literature, and which have bound the theory tightly to linear systems with unknown parameters. It is a unique feature of these results that the adaptive forms arise by straightforward certainty equivalence adaptation of their nonadaptive counterparts found in the companion to this paper (i.e., by replacing unknown quantities by their estimates) and that this simple approach leads to asymptotically stable closed-loop adaptive systems. Furthermore, it is emphasized that this approach does not require convergence of the parameter estimates (i.e., via persistent excitation), invertibility of the mass matrix estimate, or measurement of the joint accelerations.

  12. Potential impact of pharmacist interventions to reduce cost for Medicare Part D beneficiaries.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Erin E; Vanwert, Elizabeth M; Erickson, Steven R

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to determine the impact of simulated pharmacist interventions on out-of-pocket cost, time to coverage gap, and cost per patient to the Medicare Part D program using actual patient cases from an adult general medicine clinic. Medication profiles of 100 randomly selected Medicare-eligible patients from a university-affiliated general internal medicine clinic were reviewed by a pharmacist to identify opportunities to cost-maximize the patients' therapies based on the plan. An online Part-D calculator, Aetna Medicare Rx Essentials, was used as the standard plan to determine medication cost and time to gap. The primary analysis was comparison of the patients' pre-review and post-review out-of-pocket cost, time to coverage gap, and cost to Medicare. A total of 65 patients had at least 1 simulated pharmacist cost intervention. The most common intervention was substituting for a less costly generic, followed by substituting a generic for a brand name. Projected patient cost savings was $476 per year. The average time to coverage gap was increased by 0.7 ±1.2 months. This study illustrates that the pharmacists may be able to reduce cost to some patients as well as to the Medicare Part D program.

  13. Combining psychological and engineering approaches to utilizing social robots with children with autism.

    PubMed

    Dickstein-Fischer, Laurie; Fischer, Gregory S

    2014-01-01

    It is estimated that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 68 children. Early identification of an ASD is exceedingly important to the introduction of an intervention. We are developing a robot-assisted approach that will serve as an improved diagnostic and early intervention tool for children with autism. The robot, named PABI® (Penguin for Autism Behavioral Interventions), is a compact humanoid robot taking on an expressive cartoon-like embodiment. The robot is affordable, durable, and portable so that it can be used in various settings including schools, clinics, and the home. Thus enabling significantly enhanced and more readily available diagnosis and continuation of care. Through facial expressions, body motion, verbal cues, stereo vision-based tracking, and a tablet computer, the robot is capable of interacting meaningfully with an autistic child. Initial implementations of the robot, as part of a comprehensive treatment model (CTM), include Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) therapy where the child interacts with a tablet computer wirelessly interfaced with the robot. At the same time, the robot makes meaningful expressions and utterances and uses stereo cameras in eyes to track the child, maintain eye contact, and collect data such as affect and gaze direction for charting of progress. In this paper we present the clinical justification, anticipated usage with corresponding requirements, prototype development of the robotic system, and demonstration of a sample application for robot-assisted ABA therapy.

  14. Center of Cardiac Surgery Robotic Computerized Telemanipulation as Part of a Comprehensive Approach to Advanced Heart Care

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    Robotic OR Appendix E: Comparison Chart of daVinci Simulator Skill Sets and Training Exercise Activities 1 INTRODUCTION Robotic surgery recently...techniques in endoscopic cardiac bypass surgery is important not only for surgeons and surgical teams just beginning to perform robotic surgery , but also...Director, Robotic Surgery Scott Keith, PhD Faculty, Division of Biostatistics Rebecca O’Shea, MBA Senior Vice President for Clinical

  15. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections.

  16. From training to robot behavior: towards custom scenarios for robotics in training programs for ASD.

    PubMed

    Gillesen, J C C; Barakova, E I; Huskens, B E B M; Feijs, L M G

    2011-01-01

    Successful results have been booked with using robotics in therapy interventions for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, to make the best use of robots, the behavior of the robot needs to be tailored to the learning objectives and personal characteristics of each unique individual with ASD. Currently training practices include adaptation of the training programs to the condition of each individual client, based on the particular learning goals or the mood of the client. To include robots in such training will imply that the trainers are enabled to control a robot through an intuitive interface. For this purpose we use a visual programming environment called TiViPE as an interface between robot and trainer, where scenarios for specific learning objectives can easily be put together as if they were graphical LEGO-like building blocks. This programming platform is linked to the NAO robot from Aldebaran Robotics. A process flow for converting trainers' scenarios was developed to make sure the gist of the original scenarios was kept intact. We give an example of how a scenario is processed, and implemented into the clinical setting, and how detailed parts of a scenario can be developed.

  17. Effects of a Socially Interactive Robot on the Conversational Turns between Parents and Their Young Children with Autism. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a socially interactive robot on the conversational turns between four young children with autism and their mothers were investigated as part of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes where a practitioner facilitated…

  18. Robotics and human factors: current status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Mcilvaine Parsons, H.; Kearsley, G.P.

    1982-10-01

    From the perspective of human factors engineering, the most important question is the division of labor between robots and humans, who participate in robot systems in nine activities: surveillance, intervention, maintenance, backup, input, output, supervision, inspection, and synergy. Additional concerns include hardware and software design of interfaces with operators, procedure development, accident prevention, and training. There have been a few human factors studies but more are needed, drawing in part on research in artificial intelligence, to support robotics for industrial productivity and military requirements. 49 references.

  19. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) as an integral part of nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Finnell, Deborah S; Nowzari, Shahrzad; Reimann, Brie; Fischer, Leigh; Pace, Elizabeth; Goplerud, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) should be an integral part of the scope of nursing practice. This commentary is an appeal for nurses to advance their knowledge and competencies related to SBIRT. The question of how to move SBIRT into the mainstream of nursing practice was posed to several leaders of federal agencies, health care and nursing organizations, nurse educators, and nurse leaders. The authors provide recommendations for moving this set of clinical strategies (i.e., SBIRT) into day-to-day nursing practice.

  20. Exploratorium: Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium Magazine focuses on the topic robotics. It explains how to make a vibrating robotic bug and features articles on robots. Contents include: (1) "Where Robot Mice and Robot Men Run Round in Robot Towns" (Ray Bradbury); (2) "Robots at Work" (Jake Widman); (3) "Make a Vibrating Robotic Bug" (Modesto Tamez); (4) "The Robot…

  1. Impairment-Based 3-D Robotic Intervention Improves Upper Extremity Work Area in Chronic Stroke: Targeting Abnormal Joint Torque Coupling With Progressive Shoulder Abduction Loading

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Michael D.; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa M.; Dewald, Julius P. A.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of a robotic system (ACT3D) that allowed for a quantitative measurement of abnormal joint torque coupling in chronic stroke survivors and, most importantly, a quantitative means of initiating and progressing an impairment-based intervention, is described. Individuals with chronic moderate to severe stroke (n = 8) participated in this single-group pretest-posttest design study. Subjects were trained over eight weeks by progressively increasing the level of shoulder abduction loading experienced by the participant during reaching repetitions as performance improved. Reaching work area was evaluated pre- and postintervention for ten different shoulder abduction loading levels along with isometric single-joint strength and a qualitative clinical assessment of impairment. There was a significant effect of session (pre versus post) with an increase in reaching work area, despite no change in single-joint strength. This data suggests that specifically targeting the abnormal joint torque coupling impairment through progressive shoulder abduction loading is an effective strategy for improving reaching work area following hemiparetic stroke. Application of robotics, namely, the ACT3D, allowed for quantitative control of the exercise parameters needed to directly target the synergistic coupling impairment. The targeted reduction of abnormal joint torque coupling is likely the key factor explaining the improvements in reaching range of motion achieved with this intervention. PMID:20657711

  2. Robotic surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Robot-assisted surgery; Robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery; Laparoscopic surgery with robotic assistance ... computer station and directs the movements of a robot. Small surgical tools are attached to the robot's ...

  3. An overview of artificial intelligence and robotics. Volume 1: Artificial intelligence. Part B: Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, W. B.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an emerging technology that has recently attracted considerable attention. Many applications are now under development. This report, Part B of a three part report on AI, presents overviews of the key application areas: Expert Systems, Computer Vision, Natural Language Processing, Speech Interfaces, and Problem Solving and Planning. The basic approaches to such systems, the state-of-the-art, existing systems and future trends and expectations are covered.

  4. Human Factors in Automated and Robotic Space Systems: Proceedings of a symposium. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Human factors research likely to produce results applicable to the development of a NASA space station is discussed. The particular sessions covered in Part 2 include: (1) computer aided monitoring and decision making; (2) telepresence and supervisory control; (3) social factors in productivity and performance; and (4) the human role in space systems. Papers from each subject area are reproduced and the discussions from each area are summarized.

  5. Human Factors in Automated and Robotic Space Systems: Proceedings of a symposium. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Thomas B. (Editor); Kruser, Dana S. (Editor); Deutsch, Stanley (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Human factors research likely to produce results applicable to the development of a NASA space station is discussed. The particular sessions covered in Part 1 include: (1) system productivity -- people and machines; (2) expert systems and their use; (3) language and displays for human-computer communication; and (4) computer aided monitoring and decision making. Papers from each subject area are reproduced and the discussions from each area are summarized.

  6. Robot Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Mecanotron, now division of Robotics and Automation Corporation, developed a quick-change welding method called the Automatic Robotics Tool-change System (ARTS) under Marshall Space Flight Center and Rockwell International contracts. The ARTS system has six tool positions ranging from coarse sanding disks and abrasive wheels to cloth polishing wheels with motors of various horsepower. The system is used by fabricators of plastic body parts for the auto industry, by Texas Instruments for making radar domes, and for advanced composites at Aerospatiale in France.

  7. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services E Appendix E to Part 57 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE... SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early...

  8. The effects of embodied rhythm and robotic interventions on the spontaneous and responsive verbal communication skills of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A further outcome of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Sudha M; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Gifford, Timothy; Bhat, Anjana N

    2016-07-01

    The current manuscript is the second in a mini-series of manuscripts reporting the effects of alternative, movement-based, rhythm and robotic interventions on the social communication skills of 36 school-age children with ASD. This pilot randomized controlled trial compared the effects of 8-weeks of rhythm and robotic interventions to those of a standard-of-care, comparison intervention. The first manuscript reported intervention effects on the spontaneous and responsive social attention skills of children. In this manuscript, we report intervention effects on the spontaneous and responsive verbal communication skills of children. Communication skills were assessed within a standardized test of responsive communication during the pretest and posttest as well as using training-specific measures of social verbalization during early, mid, and late training sessions. The rhythm and comparison groups improved on the standardized test in the posttest compared to the pretest. The rhythm and robot groups increased levels of social verbalization across training sessions. Movement-based and stationary contexts afforded different types and amounts of communication in children with ASD. Overall, movement-based interventions are a promising tool to enhance verbal and non-verbal communication skills in children with ASD.

  9. Going Green Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jacqueline M.

    2011-01-01

    In looking at the interesting shapes and sizes of old computer parts, creating robots quickly came to the author's mind. In this article, she describes how computer parts can be used creatively. Students will surely enjoy creating their very own robots while learning about the importance of recycling in the society. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  10. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; McCain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  11. Space robotics in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittaker, William; Lowrie, James W.; Mccain, Harry; Bejczy, Antal; Sheridan, Tom; Kanade, Takeo; Allen, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Japan has been one of the most successful countries in the world in the realm of terrestrial robot applications. The panel found that Japan has in place a broad base of robotics research and development, ranging from components to working systems for manufacturing, construction, and human service industries. From this base, Japan looks to the use of robotics in space applications and has funded work in space robotics since the mid-1980's. The Japanese are focusing on a clear image of what they hope to achieve through three objectives for the 1990's: developing long-reach manipulation for tending experiments on Space Station Freedom, capturing satellites using a free-flying manipulator, and surveying part of the moon with a mobile robot. This focus and a sound robotics infrastructure is enabling the young Japanese space program to develop relevant systems for extraterrestrial robotics applications.

  12. Ground operation of robotics on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojcik, Z. Alex; Hunter, David G.; Cantin, Marc R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reflects work carried out on Ground Operated Telerobotics (GOT) in 1992 to refine further the ideas, procedures, and technologies needed to test the procedures in a high latency environment, and to integrate GOT into Space Station Freedom operations. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be in operation for 30 years, and will depend on robots to carry out a significant part of the assembly, maintenance, and utilization workload. Current plans call for on-orbit robotics to be operated by on-board crew members. This approach implies that on-orbit robotics operations use up considerable crew time, and that these operations cannot be carried out when SSF is unmanned. GOT will allow robotic operations to be operated from the ground, with on-orbit crew interventions only when absolutely required. The paper reviews how GOT would be implemented, how GOT operations would be planned and supported, and reviews GOT issues, critical success factors, and benefits.

  13. Effectiveness of brief interventions as part of the Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model for reducing the nonmedical use of psychoactive substances: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the effectiveness of brief interventions (BIs) as part of the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model for reducing the nonmedical use of psychoactive substances. Methods Bibliographic databases (including MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to April 2012) and gray literature sources were searched. We included randomized controlled trials that opportunistically screened adolescents or adults and then provided a one-to-one, verbal BI to those at risk of substance-use harm. Of interest was the nonmedical use of psychoactive substances (for example, drugs prohibited by international law), excluding alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine. Interventions comprised four or fewer sessions and were compared with no/delayed intervention or provision of information only. Studies were assessed for bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results were synthesized narratively. Evidence was interpreted according to the GRADE framework. Results We identified 8,836 records. Of these, five studies met our inclusion criteria. Two studies compared BI with no BI, and three studies compared BI with information only. Studies varied in characteristics such as substances targeted, screening procedures, and BI administered. Outcomes were mostly reported by a single study, leading to limited or uncertain confidence in effect estimates. Conclusions Insufficient evidence exists as to whether BIs, as part of SBIRT, are effective or ineffective for reducing the use of, or harms associated with nonmedical use of, psychoactive substances when these interventions are administered to nontreatment-seeking, screen-detected populations. Updating this review with emerging evidence will be important. Trial registration CRD42012002414 PMID:24887418

  14. [Robotic surgery in gynecology].

    PubMed

    Csorba, Roland

    2012-06-24

    Minimally invasive surgery has revolutionized gynecological interventions over the past 30 years. The introduction of the da Vinci robotic surgery in 2005 has resulted in large changes in surgical management. The robotic platform allows less experienced laparoscopic surgeons to perform more complex procedures. It can be utilized mainly in general gynecology and reproductive gynecology. The robot is being increasingly used for procedures such as hysterectomy, myomectomy, adnexal surgery, and tubal anastomosis. In urogynecology, the robot is being utilized for sacrocolopexy as well. In the field of gynecologic oncology, the robot is being increasingly used for hysterectomy and lymphadenectomy in oncologic diseases. Despite the rapid and widespread adaption of robotic surgery in gynecology, there are no randomized trials comparing its efficacy and safety to other traditional surgical approaches. This article presents the development, technical aspects and indications of robotic surgery in gynecology, based on the previously published reviews. Robotic surgery can be highly advantageous with the right amount of training, along with appropriate patient selection. Patients will have less blood loss, less post-operative pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to open surgery and laparoscopy. However, until larger randomized control trials are completed which report long-term outcomes, robotic surgery cannot be stated to have priority over other surgical methods.

  15. Facts, fallacies, and politics of comparative effectiveness research: Part 2 - implications for interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Falco, Frank J E; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2010-01-01

    times it becomes an orphan. Part 2 of this comprehensive review will provide facts, fallacies, and politics of CER along with discussion of potential outcomes, impact of CER on health care delivery, and implications for interventional pain management in the United States.

  16. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 80 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Families A Appendix A to Part 80 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES AND THEIR FAMILIES, AND SPECIAL EDUCATION CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES WITHIN...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 80 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Families A Appendix A to Part 80 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES AND THEIR FAMILIES, AND SPECIAL EDUCATION CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES WITHIN...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 80 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Families A Appendix A to Part 80 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES AND THEIR FAMILIES, AND SPECIAL EDUCATION CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES WITHIN...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 80 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Families A Appendix A to Part 80 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES AND THEIR FAMILIES, AND SPECIAL EDUCATION CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES WITHIN...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 80 - Procedures for the Provision of Early Intervention Services for Infants and Toddlers With...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Families A Appendix A to Part 80 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES AND THEIR FAMILIES, AND SPECIAL EDUCATION CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES WITHIN...

  1. An Eligibility Determination Algorithm for Part C Early Intervention Enrollment. TRACE Practice Guide, Volume 1, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2006-01-01

    Procedures for using a decision algorithm for determining whether an infant or toddler is eligible for Part C early intervention is the focus of this eligibility determination practice guideline. An algorithm is a step-by-step problem-solving procedure or decision-making process that results in a solution or accurate decision in a finite number of…

  2. 78 FR 18989 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  3. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... prevent a lapse in comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will...

  4. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  5. 78 FR 10182 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  6. 78 FR 10183 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... a lapse in comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will...

  7. 75 FR 5603 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA),...

  8. 78 FR 78976 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...

  9. Robot and robot system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E. (Inventor); Marzwell, Neville I. (Inventor); Wall, Jonathan N. (Inventor); Poole, Michael D. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A robot and robot system that are capable of functioning in a zero-gravity environment are provided. The robot can include a body having a longitudinal axis and having a control unit and a power source. The robot can include a first leg pair including a first leg and a second leg. Each leg of the first leg pair can be pivotally attached to the body and constrained to pivot in a first leg pair plane that is substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the body.

  10. Drink Refusal Training as Part of a Combined Behavioral Intervention: Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Donovan, Dennis M.; Hartzler, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence, yet few studies have examined why particular treatments are effective. This study was designed to evaluate whether drink refusal training was an effective component of a combined behavioral intervention (CBI) and whether change…

  11. Interventional physiology. Part XVI: normal coronary flow velocity patterns: considerations of artifacts, arrhythmias, and anomalies.

    PubMed

    Tron, C; Donohue, T J; Kern, M J

    1995-04-01

    During normal flow velocity recording, various physiologic or technical problems may appear which can produce confusing flow signals. This section of Interventional Physiology reviews the patterns of normal coronary flow velocity and examines several artifacts and other features encountered in clinical practice. Recognition of these variations will help the interventional cardiologist to differentiate between physiologic and pathologic events.

  12. A review of nutritional intervention on delayed onset muscle soreness. Part I.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jooyoung; Lee, Joohyung

    2014-12-01

    This review is focused on the effect of nutritional intervention on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occurs after exercise. In general, high force eccentric contractions and/or unaccustomed exercise result in DOMS attributed to reduction in performance such as muscle strength and range of motion (ROM) for both athletes and non-athletes. Nutritional intervention is one of the preventive or therapeutic ways to reduce DOMS. Previous research studies have suggested the following nutrition intervention: caffeine, omega-3 fatty acids, taurine, polyphenols, and so on. Nutritional intervention with these nutrients before and after exercise was reported to be effective in reducing DOMS. These nutritional interventions have also been reported to affect inflammatory responses and oxidative stress leading to DOMS reduction. However, other studies have reported that these nutritional interventions have no effect on DOMS. It is suggested that intake of proper nutrition intervention can effectively reduce DOMS after exercise and quickly help an athlete return to exercise or training program. In addition, nutritional intervention may help both athletes and non-athletes who engage in physical therapy or rehabilitative programs after surgery or any injurious events.

  13. A review of nutritional intervention on delayed onset muscle soreness. Part I

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jooyoung; Lee, Joohyung

    2014-01-01

    This review is focused on the effect of nutritional intervention on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occurs after exercise. In general, high force eccentric contractions and/or unaccustomed exercise result in DOMS attributed to reduction in performance such as muscle strength and range of motion (ROM) for both athletes and non-athletes. Nutritional intervention is one of the preventive or therapeutic ways to reduce DOMS. Previous research studies have suggested the following nutrition intervention: caffeine, omega-3 fatty acids, taurine, polyphenols, and so on. Nutritional intervention with these nutrients before and after exercise was reported to be effective in reducing DOMS. These nutritional interventions have also been reported to affect inflammatory responses and oxidative stress leading to DOMS reduction. However, other studies have reported that these nutritional interventions have no effect on DOMS. It is suggested that intake of proper nutrition intervention can effectively reduce DOMS after exercise and quickly help an athlete return to exercise or training program. In addition, nutritional intervention may help both athletes and non-athletes who engage in physical therapy or rehabilitative programs after surgery or any injurious events. PMID:25610818

  14. Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This award funded in part, the travel of three investigators to the international conference on Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots. The three...investigators participated in a conference held at Northeastern University May 14-16 on the subject of ’ Neurotechnology for Biomimetic Robots’. Each

  15. [Robotics in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Possibilities, chances, risks].

    PubMed

    Hassfeld, S; Raczkowsky, J; Bohner, P; Hofele, C; Holler, C; Mühling, J; Rembold, U

    1997-11-01

    Robot systems are being tested in stereotactic neurosurgical interventions, orthopedic surgery of the hip or knee and advancal endoscopic systems for minimally invasive surgery. In contrast to most industrially manufactured products, objects for medical treatment are characterized by plasticity as well as by complex and individual forms. Thus, features of robots in this field have to be further developed in terms of advanced sensory and specific micromotoric systems. Safety and cooperation between surgeon and robot on the patient in the operating room have to be guaranteed. Extensive three-dimensional diagnosis, computer-aided planning and simulation of the intervention as well as sensory systems that monitor the actual performance of the operation are mandatory parts of this concept. In our interdisciplinary study, we aim to examine whether a robot-given a complete preoperative planning and simulation procedure-is able to perform certain surgical operations more precisely than the surgeon. Examples are drilling with depth control, shaping of bone surface by milling, sawing with defined depth in cranial osteotomies, defined preparation of implant sites and the positioning and insertion of dental and other surgical implants, whereby autonomous employment of the robot is not that which is aspired to in these interventions but rather the interactive support of the surgeon.

  16. MRH-5 Robot/Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Valley Technical Coll., Appleton, WI.

    This student manual for the Miller MRH-5 welding robot contains nine modules on how to: safely operate the MRH-5 robot; recognize different types of data; weld a part programming the MRH-5; re-teach an already taught program; weld various joints with the MRH-5 robot; weld a desk plaque with the MRH-5 robot; perform editing functions; check/edit…

  17. Direct Adaptive Control Of An Industrial Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Lee, Thomas; Delpech, Michel

    1992-01-01

    Decentralized direct adaptive control scheme for six-jointed industrial robot eliminates part of overall computational burden imposed by centralized controller and degrades performance of robot by reducing sampling rate. Control and controller-adaptation laws based on observed performance of manipulator: no need to model dynamics of robot. Adaptive controllers cope with uncertainties and variations in robot and payload.

  18. An MR-conditional high-torque pneumatic stepper motor for MRI-guided and robot-assisted intervention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging allows for visualizing detailed pathological and morphological changes of soft tissue. MR-conditional actuations have been widely investigated for development of image-guided and robot-assisted surgical devices under the Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper presents a simple design of MR-conditional stepper motor which can provide precise and high-torque actuation without adversely affecting the MR image quality. This stepper motor consists of two MR-conditional pneumatic cylinders and the corresponding supporting structures. Alternating the pressurized air can drive the motor to rotate each step in 3.6° with the motor coupled to a planetary gearbox. Experimental studies were conducted to validate its dynamics performance. Maximum 800 mN m output torque is achieved. The motor accuracy independently varied by two factors: motor operating speed and step size, was also investigated. The motor was tested within a 3T Siemens MRI scanner (MAGNETOM Skyra, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) and a 3T GE MRI scanner (GE SignaHDx, GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA). The image artifact and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were evaluated for study of its MRI compliancy. The results show that the presented pneumatic stepper motor generated 2.35% SNR reduction in MR images. No observable artifact was presented besides the motor body itself. The proposed motor test also demonstrates a standard to evaluate the pneumatic motor capability for later incorporation with motorized devices used under MRI.

  19. Robotic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A complicated design project, successfully carried out by New York manufacturing consultant with help from NERAC, Inc., resulted in new type robotic system being marketed for industrial use. Consultant Robert Price, operating at E.S.I, Inc. in Albany, NY, sought help from NERAC to develop an automated tool for deburring the inside of 8 inch breech ring assemblies for howitzers produced by Watervliet Arsenal. NERAC conducted a search of the NASA data base and six others. From information supplied, Price designed a system consisting of a standard industrial robot arm, with a specially engineered six-axis deburring tool fitted to it. A microcomputer and computer program direct the tool on its path through the breech ring. E.S.I. markets the system to aerospace and metal cutting industries for deburring, drilling, routing and refining machined parts.

  20. Robotic servicing of EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

  1. Preliminary results in force-guided assembly for teams of heterogeneous robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Juan; Peters, R. A., II

    2009-05-01

    The missions to the Moon and to Mars currently being planned by NASA require the advanced deployment of robots to prepare sites for human life support prior to the arrival of astronauts. Part of the robot's work will be the assembly of modular structures such as solar arrays, radiators, antennas, propellant tanks, and habitation modules. The construction will require teams of robots to work cooperatively and with a certain degree of independence. Such systems are complex and require of human intervention in the form of teleoperation attending unexpected contingencies. Latency in communications, however, will require that robots perform autonomous tasks during this time window. This paper proposes an approach to maximize the likelihood of success for teams of heterogeneous robots as they autonomously perform assembly tasks using force feedback to guide the process. An evaluation of the challenges related to the cooperation of two heterogeneous robots to join two parts into a stable, rigid configuration in a loosely structured environment is conducted. A control basis is such approach: it recasts a control problem by concurrently running a series of controllers to encode complex robot behavior. Each controller represents a control law that parses the underlying continuous control space and provides asymptotic stability, even under local perturbations. The control basis approach allows several controllers to be active concurrently through the null space control technique. Preliminary experimental results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of the control basis to address the challenges of assembly tasks by teams of heterogeneous robots.

  2. [Robots and intellectual property].

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    This topic is part of the global issue concerning the necessity to adapt intellectual property law to constant changes in technology. The relationship between robots and IP is dual. On one hand, the robots may be regarded as objects of intellectual property. A robot, like any new machine, could qualify for a protection by a patent. A copyright may protect its appearance if it is original. Its memory, like a database, could be covered by a sui generis right. On the other hand, the question of the protection of the outputs of the robot must be raised. The robots, as the physical embodiment of artificial intelligence, are becoming more and more autonomous. Robot-generated works include less and less human inputs. Are these objects created or invented by a robot copyrightable or patentable? To whom the ownership of these IP rights will be allocated? To the person who manufactured the machine ? To the user of the robot? To the robot itself? All these questions are worth discussing.

  3. An assembly-type master-slave catheter and guidewire driving system for vascular intervention.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyo-Jeong; Yi, Byung-Ju; Won, Jong Yun

    2017-01-01

    Current vascular intervention inevitably exposes a large amount of X-ray to both an operator and a patient during the procedure. The purpose of this study is to propose a new catheter driving system which assists the operator in aspects of less X-ray exposure and convenient user interface. For this, an assembly-type 4-degree-of-freedom master-slave system was designed and tested to verify the efficiency. First, current vascular intervention procedures are analyzed to develop a new robotic procedure that enables us to use conventional vascular intervention devices such as catheter and guidewire which are commercially available in the market. Some parts of the slave robot which contact the devices were designed to be easily assembled and dissembled from the main body of the slave robot for sterilization. A master robot is compactly designed to conduct insertion and rotational motion and is able to switch from the guidewire driving mode to the catheter driving mode or vice versa. A phantom resembling the human arteries was developed, and the master-slave robotic system is tested using the phantom. The contact force of the guidewire tip according to the shape of the arteries is measured and reflected to the user through the master robot during the phantom experiment. This system can drastically reduce radiation exposure by replacing human effort by a robotic system for high radiation exposure procedures. Also, benefits of the proposed robot system are low cost by employing currently available devices and easy human interface.

  4. The burden of disaster: part II. applying interventions across the child's social ecology.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Jacobs, Anne K; Noffsinger, Mary A; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H

    2012-01-01

    This second of two articles describes the application of disaster mental health interventions within the context of the childs social ecology consisting of the Micro-, Meso-, Exo-, and Macrosystems. Microsystem interventions involving parents, siblings, and close friends include family preparedness planning andpractice, psychoeducation, role modeling, emotional support, and redirection. Mesosystem interventions provided by schools and faith-based organizations include safety and support, assessment, referral, and counseling. Exosystem interventions include those provided through community-based mental health programs, healthcare organizations, the workplace, the media, local volunteer disaster organizations, and other local organizations. Efforts to build community resilience to disasters are likely to have influence through the Exosystem. The Macrosystem - including the laws, history, cultural and subcultural characteristics, and economic and social conditions that underlie the other systems - affects the child indirectly through public policies and disaster programs and services that become available in the child's Exosystem in the aftermath of a disaster The social ecology paradigm, described more fully in a companion article (Noffsinger Pfefferbaum, Pfefferbaum, Sherrieb, & Norris,2012), emphasizes relationships among systems and can guide the development and delivery of services embedded in naturally-occurring structures in the child's environment.

  5. Trauma-Informed Part C Early Intervention: A Vision, A Challenge, A New Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda; Graham, Mimi; Harris, Deborah; Oser, Cindy; Clarke, Jane; Hairston-Fuller, Tody C.; Lertora, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Federal directives require that any child less than 3 years old with a substantiated case of abuse be referred to the early intervention (EI) system. This article details the need and presents a vision for a trauma-informed EI system. The authors describe two exemplary program models which implement this vision and recommend steps which the field…

  6. Health Care Policy and Part H Services: Early Intervention as a Concept (Not a Separate Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonkoff, Jack P.

    This paper argues that there is a critical need to reframe the fundamental policy questions which fragment early childhood intervention services and health care, in order to construct an integrated system of comprehensive services that includes basic health care and developmental support for all children and their families and that provides…

  7. Beyond Part C: Reducing Middle School Special Education for Early Intervention Children with Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullery, Mary Anne; Katz, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the rates of special education placement during middle school grades (sixth through eighth) among children who participated in the Linda Ray Intervention Program (LRIP) center-based and home-based learning modalities. The study sample included 113 children in Miami Dade County Public Schools who had gestational cocaine exposure…

  8. The Burden of Disaster: Part II. Applying Interventions Across the Child’s Social Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Jacobs, Anne K.; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Norris, Fran H.

    2014-01-01

    This second of two articles describes the application of disaster mental health interventions within the context of the child’s social ecology consisting of (he Micro-, Meso-, Exo-, and Macrosystems. Microsystem interventions involving parents, siblings, and close friends include family preparedness planning and practice, psychoeducation, role modeling, emotional support, and redirection. Mesosystem interventions provided by schools and faith-based organizations include safety and support, assessment, referral, and counseling. Exosystem interventions include those provided through community-based mental health programs, healthcare organizations, the workplace, the media, local volunteer disaster organizations, and other local organizations. Efforts to build community resilience to disasters are likely to have influence through the Exosystem. The Macrosystem – including the laws, history, cultural and subcultural characteristics, and economic and social conditions that underlie the other systems – affects the child indirectly through public policies and disaster programs and services that become available in the child’s Exosystem in the aftermath of a disaster. The social ecology paradigm, described more fully in a companion article (Noffsinger, Pfefferbaum, Pfefferbaum, Sherrieb, & Norris,2012), emphasizes relationships among systems and can guide the development and delivery of services embedded in naturally-occurring structures in the child’s environment. PMID:23894798

  9. Psychoeducational Interventions with Pediatric Cancer Patients: Part I. Patient Information and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradlyn, Andrew S.; Beale, Ivan L.; Kato, Pamela M.

    2003-01-01

    We present a systematic review of published research on psychoeducational interventions for children with cancer. The current lack of an organizational model for this literature makes it difficult to form a coherent picture of the scattered literature and draw nomothetic conclusions. A model is described that is based on functional concepts from…

  10. Registration of a needle-positioning robot to high-resolution 3D ultrasound and computed tomography for image-guided interventions in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waspe, Adam C.; Lacefield, James C.; Holdsworth, David W.; Fenster, Aaron

    2008-03-01

    Preclinical research often requires the delivery of biological substances to specific locations in small animals. Guiding a needle to targets in small animals with an error < 200 μm requires accurate registration. We are developing techniques to register a needle-positioning robot to high-resolution three-dimensional ultrasound and computed tomography small animal imaging systems. Both techniques involve moving the needle to predetermined robot coordinates and determining corresponding needle locations in image coordinates. Registration accuracy will therefore be affected by the robot positioning error and is assessed by measuring the target registration error (TRE). A point-based registration between robot and micro-ultrasound coordinates was accomplished by attaching a fiducial phantom onto the needle. A TRE of 145 μm was achieved when moving the needle to a set of robot coordinates and registering the coordinates to needle tip locations determined from ultrasound fiducial measurements. Registration between robot and micro-CT coordinates was accomplished by injecting barium sulfate into tracks created when the robot withdraws the needle from a phantom. Points along cross-sectional slices of the segmented needle tracks were determined using an intensity-weighted centroiding algorithm. A minimum distance TRE of 194 +/- 18 μm was achieved by registering centroid points to robot trajectories using the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm. Simulations, incorporating both robot and ultrasound fiducial localization errors, verify that robot error is a significant component of the experimental registration. Simulations of micro-CT to robot ICP registration similarly agree with the experimental results. Both registration techniques produce a TRE < 200 μm, meeting design specification.

  11. ARIES NDA Robot operators` manual

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, N.L.; Nelson, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The ARIES NDA Robot is an automation device for servicing the material movements for a suite of Non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. This suite of instruments includes a calorimeter, a gamma isotopic system, a segmented gamma scanner (SGS), and a neutron coincidence counter (NCC). Objects moved by the robot include sample cans, standard cans, and instrument plugs. The robot computer has an RS-232 connection with the NDA Host computer, which coordinates robot movements and instrument measurements. The instruments are expected to perform measurements under the direction of the Host without operator intervention. This user`s manual describes system startup, using the main menu, manual operation, and error recovery.

  12. Ericksonian Approach to Experiential Education, Part 1: Developing the Stance of the Practitioner; Part 2: Tailoring Interventions; Part 3: Applying Specific Ericksonian Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itin, Christian

    This three-part workshop presentation explores the ideas of Milton Erickson on the therapeutic relationship and the therapeutic use of metaphor, and applies these ideas to experiential education and adventure therapy. Part 1 introduces the practitioner to the core philosophy within an Ericksonian approach: "utilization" of a client's…

  13. Teleprogramming a cooperative space robotic workcell for space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haule, Damian D.; Noorhosseini, S. M.; Malowany, Alfred S.

    1992-11-01

    The growing insight into the complexity and cost of in-orbit operations of future space missions strengthens the belief that a significant amount of automation will be needed to operate the orbital laboratories in a safe, efficient, and economic way. Thus, Automation & Robotics (A&R) technology is vital for unmanned exploration missions to comets and planets. While part of the space worksite may be structured, the space environment is generally unstructured. By `structured,' we mean environments that are designed and engineered to somehow `cooperate' with the machine. In addition, the structured part of the space worksite may be damaged or in an unknown condition. This lack of structure, as well as the non- repetitive nature of the tasks, require constant adaptation to the space environment by the robot. This is the motivation for increased space robot autonomy. However, complete autonomy is still beyond the scope of today's state-of-the-art in the case of a system executing a complete mission in a hazardous environment such as space. A systematic approach for the development of A&R technologies will reduce the lead-times and costs of facilities for recurrent basic tasks. A space robotic workcell (SRW) is a collection of robots, sensors, and other industrial equipment grouped in a cooperative environment to perform various complex tasks in space. Due to their distributed nature, the control and programming of SRWs is often a difficult task. The issues involved in order to design a real-time teleprogrammable SRW system that performs intervention tasks at remote unstructured sites are summarized. The concept of `remotely operated autonomous robots' (i.e., robots teleprogrammed and telesupervised at the task level while at a space worksite) is also developed via telepresence for human-machine interface and voice/speech programming. This paper makes an assessment of the role that teleprogramming may have in furthering the automation capabilities of space teleoperated

  14. Socially intelligent robots: dimensions of human-robot interaction.

    PubMed

    Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2007-04-29

    Social intelligence in robots has a quite recent history in artificial intelligence and robotics. However, it has become increasingly apparent that social and interactive skills are necessary requirements in many application areas and contexts where robots need to interact and collaborate with other robots or humans. Research on human-robot interaction (HRI) poses many challenges regarding the nature of interactivity and 'social behaviour' in robot and humans. The first part of this paper addresses dimensions of HRI, discussing requirements on social skills for robots and introducing the conceptual space of HRI studies. In order to illustrate these concepts, two examples of HRI research are presented. First, research is surveyed which investigates the development of a cognitive robot companion. The aim of this work is to develop social rules for robot behaviour (a 'robotiquette') that is comfortable and acceptable to humans. Second, robots are discussed as possible educational or therapeutic toys for children with autism. The concept of interactive emergence in human-child interactions is highlighted. Different types of play among children are discussed in the light of their potential investigation in human-robot experiments. The paper concludes by examining different paradigms regarding 'social relationships' of robots and people interacting with them.

  15. Early intervention, IDEA Part C services, and the medical home: collaboration for best practice and best outcomes.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard C; Tapia, Carl

    2013-10-01

    The medical home and the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act Part C Early Intervention Program share many common purposes for infants and children ages 0 to 3 years, not the least of which is a family-centered focus. Professionals in pediatric medical home practices see substantial numbers of infants and toddlers with developmental delays and/or complex chronic conditions. Economic, health, and family-focused data each underscore the critical role of timely referral for relationship-based, individualized, accessible early intervention services and the need for collaborative partnerships in care. The medical home process and Individuals With Disabilities Education Act Part C policy both support nurturing relationships and family-centered care; both offer clear value in terms of economic and health outcomes. Best practice models for early intervention services incorporate learning in the natural environment and coaching models. Proactive medical homes provide strategies for effective developmental surveillance, family-centered resources, and tools to support high-risk groups, and comanagement of infants with special health care needs, including the monitoring of services provided and outcomes achieved.

  16. An Effective Psychoeducational Intervention for Early Childhood Caries Prevention: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Warren, John J.; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Dawson, Deborah V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in behavior concerning their children's oral health than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one- and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49- month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires regarding their child's dietary/oral hygiene habits. Chi-square, Wilcoxon Signed Rank, Mann-Whitney, and McNemar tests were used to analyze data (P<0.05). Results Significantly more positive changes were observed for dietary/oral hygiene behaviors among the intervention group mothers at one- and six-month follow-ups than for the controls. Significantly fewer mothers in the intervention group shared dining ware with their child at both one- (P=0.0046) and six-month follow-ups (P<0.0001); this practice was decreased only at six-months for the control group mothers (P=0.05). Restricting consideration only to mothers who were not checking for white spot lesions at baseline, a significantly greater proportion of mothers in the intervention group performed this behavior at six-months (P=0.0044). Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the SDT videotaped oral health message relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756309

  17. Pharmacological Interventions Including Medical Injections for Neck Pain: An Overview as Part of the ICON§ Project

    PubMed Central

    Peloso, Paul M; Khan, Mahweesh; Gross, Anita R; Carlesso, Lisa; Santaguida, Lina; Lowcock, Janet; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, Dave; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Langevin, Pierre; Shi, Qiyun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an overview (review-of-reviews) on pharmacological interventions for neck pain. Search Strategy: Computerized databases and grey literature were searched from 2006 to 2012. Selection Criteria: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) in adults with acute to chronic neck pain reporting effects of pharmacological interventions including injections on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Data Collection & Analysis: Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias and extracted data The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel provided critical review. Main Results: We found 26 reviews reporting on 47 RCTs. Most pharmacological interventions had low to very low quality methodologic evidence with three exceptions. For chronic neck pain, there was evidence of: a small immediate benefit for eperison hydrochloride (moderate GRADE, 1 trial, 157 participants);no short-term pain relieving benefit for botulinum toxin-A compared to saline (strong GRADE; 5 trial meta-analysis, 258 participants) nor for subacute/chronic whiplash (moderate GRADE; 4 trial meta-analysis, 183 participants) including reduced pain, disability or global perceived effect; andno long-term benefit for medial branch block of facet joints with steroids (moderate GRADE; 1 trial, 120 participants) over placebo to reduce pain or disability; Reviewers' Conclusions: While in general there is a lack of evidence for most pharmacological interventions, current evidence is against botulinum toxin-A for chronic neck pain or subacute/chronic whiplash; against medial branch block with steroids for chronic facet joint pain; but in favour of the muscle relaxant eperison hydrochloride for chronic neck pain. PMID:24155805

  18. Medication adherence and patient outcomes: part 2: interventions and resources to overcome low health literacy.

    PubMed

    Petty, Janet L

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the influence of health literacy on medication adherence. With health literacy skills nearly flat for over a decade and an aging population receiving multiple and complex medication regimens, literacy is becoming a more important factor in nursing assessment and intervention. Concrete tools are provided to help the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) assess literacy and evaluate written resources for patient education and to improve medication adherence.

  19. Robotic systems in spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Onen, Mehmet Resid; Naderi, Sait

    2014-01-01

    Surgical robotic systems have been available for almost twenty years. The first surgical robotic systems were designed as supportive systems for laparoscopic approaches in general surgery (the first procedure was a cholecystectomy in 1987). The da Vinci Robotic System is the most common system used for robotic surgery today. This system is widely used in urology, gynecology and other surgical disciplines, and recently there have been initial reports of its use in spine surgery, for transoral access and anterior approaches for lumbar inter-body fusion interventions. SpineAssist, which is widely used in spine surgery, and Renaissance Robotic Systems, which are considered the next generation of robotic systems, are now FDA approved. These robotic systems are designed for use as guidance systems in spine instrumentation, cement augmentations and biopsies. The aim is to increase surgical accuracy while reducing the intra-operative exposure to harmful radiation to the patient and operating team personnel during the intervention. We offer a review of the published literature related to the use of robotic systems in spine surgery and provide information on using robotic systems.

  20. Robotics: A Bridge for Education and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnat, Winifred I.

    Robotics (robot usage) is discussed from a historical perspective with regard to its role in employment and education. Part 1 examines the transition from an industrial to an information society and speculates what the future might hold, particularly in terms of employment. Part 2 gives a historical overview of the robotics industry and discusses…

  1. Feasibility of using a humanoid robot to elicit communicational response in children with mild autism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Norjasween Abdul; Shamsuddin, Syamimi; Yussof, Hanafiah; Azfar Miskam, Mohd; Che Hamid, Aminullah

    2013-12-01

    Research evidences are accumulating with regards to the potential use of robots for the rehabilitation of children with autism. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the results of communicational response in two children with autism during interaction with the humanoid robot NAO. Both autistic subjects in this study have been diagnosed with mild autism. Following the outcome from our first pilot study; the aim of this current experiment is to explore the application of NAO robot to engage with a child and further teach about emotions through a game-centered and song-based approach. The experiment procedure involved interaction between humanoid robot NAO with each child through a series of four different modules. The observation items are based on ten items selected and referenced to GARS-2 (Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-second edition) and also input from clinicians and therapists. The results clearly indicated that both of the children showed optimistic response through the interaction. Negative responses such as feeling scared or shying away from the robot were not detected. Two-way communication between the child and robot in real time significantly gives positive impact in the responses towards the robot. To conclude, it is feasible to include robot-based interaction specifically to elicit communicational response as a part of the rehabilitation intervention of children with autism.

  2. Evaluation of automated decisionmaking methodologies and development of an integrated robotic system simulation, volume 2, part 1. Appendix A: Software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowrie, J. W.; Fermelia, A. J.; Haley, D. C.; Gremban, K. D.; Vanbaalen, J.; Walsh, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Documentation of the preliminary software developed as a framework for a generalized integrated robotic system simulation is presented. The program structure is composed of three major functions controlled by a program executive. The three major functions are: system definition, analysis tools, and post processing. The system definition function handles user input of system parameters and definition of the manipulator configuration. The analysis tools function handles the computational requirements of the program. The post processing function allows for more detailed study of the results of analysis tool function executions. Also documented is the manipulator joint model software to be used as the basis of the manipulator simulation which will be part of the analysis tools capability.

  3. Nonstandard drugs and feasible new interventions for autoimmune hepatitis: part II.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2012-10-01

    Molecular, cellular, and genetic interventions are now feasible for autoimmune hepatitis because of improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, advances in recombinant technology, and previous successes in animal models and humans with other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Non-mitogenic monoclonal antibodies to CD3 promote apoptosis of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, improve the function of regulatory T cells, and induce a durable remission in mouse models and humans with autoimmune diabetes. Monoclonal antibodies to CD20 deplete B lymphocytes, modify antibody-dependent and cell-mediated cytotoxic pathways, enhance regulatory T cell function, and improve isolated cases of autoimmune hepatitis with B-cell disorders. Recombinant cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 fused with immunoglobulin can block the second co-stimulatory signal required for lymphocyte activation, and it has been licensed for use in rheumatoid arthritis but not tried in autoimmune hepatitis. Other considerations on the distant horizon are monoclonal antibodies against inhibitory receptors on regulatory T cells, adoptive transfer of fresh regulatory T cells, tailored glycolipids that strengthen the immunosuppressive activity of natural killer T cells, small inhibitory ribonucleic acid molecules that silence promoter genes supporting disease activity, and mesenchymal stem cell transplantation to re-constitute immune homeostasis and support the damaged liver. Development of these feasible new interventions for autoimmune hepatitis requires therapeutic animal models, societal support, and a collaborative network of investigators to conduct rigorous clinical trials.

  4. The Maiden Voyage of a Kinematics Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwolfe, Matthew L.

    2015-04-01

    In a Montessori preschool classroom, students work independently on tasks that absorb their attention in part because the apparatus are carefully designed to make mistakes directly observable and limit exploration to one aspect or dimension. Control of error inheres in the apparatus itself, so that teacher intervention can be minimal.1 Inspired by this example, I created a robotic kinematics apparatus that also shapes the inquiry experience. Students program the robot by drawing kinematic graphs on a computer and then observe its motion. Exploration is at once limited to constant velocity and constant acceleration motion, yet open to complex multi-segment examples difficult to achieve in the lab in other ways. The robot precisely and reliably produces the motion described by the students' graphs, so that the apparatus itself provides immediate visual feedback about whether their understanding is correct as they are free to explore within the hard-coded limits. In particular, the kinematic robot enables hands-on study of multi-segment constant velocity situations, which lays a far stronger foundation for the study of accelerated motion. When correction is anonymous—just between one group of lab partners and their robot—students using the kinematic robot tend to flow right back to work because they view the correction as an integral part of the inquiry learning process. By contrast, when correction occurs by the teacher and/or in public (e.g., returning a graded assignment or pointing out student misconceptions during class), students all too often treat the event as the endpoint to inquiry. Furthermore, quantitative evidence shows a large gain from pre-test to post-test scores using the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K).

  5. Coronary revascularization in Japan. Part 3: percutaneous coronary intervention during 1997.

    PubMed

    Shihara, Miwako; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi, Miyuki; Shigematsu, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Shimako; Koike, George; Kono, Suminori; Takeshita, Akira

    2002-01-01

    A survey by the Japanese Coronary Intervention Study (JCIS) group revealed that 109,788 percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures were performed at 1,023 laboratories during 1997. The present study aimed to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment strategies, in-hospital outcomes, and long-term outcomes of these patients. A total of 10,642 PCIs performed in 8,814 patients, which corresponded to approximately 10% of the overall PCIs, were selected at random. The mean patient age was 65 years, and 75% were males. The patients often had extensive coronary risk factors. The most prevalent clinical diagnosis was stable angina (36%), followed by myocardial infarction (MI) excluding acute myocardial infarction (AMI; 28%) and AMI (25%). Plain old balloon angioplasty was used as the sole procedure in 58% of lesions for which an attempt to heal was made, and coronary stent placement in 38%. Angiographic success was achieved in 92% of attempted lesions. Mortality, MI and emergency coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) rates during the hospitalization were 2.6%, 2.0% and 0.7%, respectively. In-hospital mortality rate for AMI was 7.6%, whereas that for elective PCI in cases without AMI was 0.6%. The overall mortality for 1.8 years was 8%. Repeat PCI was performed for 35% and CABG for 6% during the follow-up period. In Japan, PCI was performed in patients with coronary artery disease and extensive risk factors, but a high rate of angiographic success was achieved. The rates of in-hospital mortality and emergency CABG were low in non-AMI patients, but the 1-year rate of repeat PCI was as high as 32%.

  6. Interventions for Children and Youth with Autism: Prudent Choices in a World of Exaggerated Claims and Empty Promises. Part I: Intervention and Treatment Option Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflin, L. Juane; Simpson, Richard L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses intervention and treatment options being used with the population of children and youth who have autism spectrum disorders. The discussion includes interventions based on relationship formation (including holding therapy, gentle teaching, options, and floor time), skill-based treatments, physiologically oriented intervention, and…

  7. CASSY Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Anna; Wright, Ann; Rice, Aaron; Shyaka, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The CASSY Robot project involved two square robots coded in RobotC. The goal was to code a robot to do a certain set of tasks autonomously. To begin with, our task was to code the robot so that it would roam a certain area, marked off by black tape. When the robot hit the black tape, it knew to back up and turn around. It was able to do this thanks to the light sensor that was attached to the bottom of the robot. Also, whenever the robot hit an obstacle, it knew to stop, back up, and turn around. This was primarily to prevent the robot from hurting itself if it hit an obstacle. This was accomplished by using touch sensors set up as bumpers. Once that was accomplished, we attached sonar sensors and created code so that one robot was able to find and track the other robot in a sort of intruder/police scenario. The overall goal of this project was to code the robot so that we can test it against a robot coded exactly the same, but using Layered Mode Selection Logic. Professor.

  8. Clean-room robot implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Comeau, J.L.

    1982-07-14

    A robot has been incorporated in a clean room operation in which vacuum tube parts are cleaned just prior to final assembly with a 60 lb/in/sup 2/ blast of argon gas. The robot is programmed to pick up the parts, manipulate/rotate them as necessary in the jet pattern and deposit them in a tray precleaned by the robot. A carefully studied implementation plan was followed in the procurement, installation, modification and programming of the robot facility. An unusual configuration of one tube part required a unique gripper design. A study indicated that the tube parts processed by the robot are 12% cleaner than those manually cleaned by an experienced operator.

  9. The Effects of Rhythm and Robotic Interventions on the Imitation/Praxis, Interpersonal Synchrony, and Motor Performance of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sudha M.; Kaur, Maninderjit; Park, Isabel K.; Gifford, Timothy D.; Marsh, Kerry L.; Bhat, Anjana N.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the effects of three interventions, rhythm, robotic, and standard-of-care, on the imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and overall motor performance of 36 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) between 5 and 12 years of age. Children were matched on age, level of functioning, and services received, prior to random assignment to one of the three groups. Training was provided for 8 weeks with 4 sessions provided each week. We assessed generalized changes in motor skills from the pretest to the posttest using a standardized test of motor performance, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, 2nd edition (BOT-2). We also assessed training-specific changes in imitation/praxis and interpersonal synchrony during an early and a late session. Consistent with the training activities practiced, the rhythm and robot groups improved on the body coordination composite of the BOT-2, whereas the comparison group improved on the fine manual control composite of the BOT-2. All three groups demonstrated improvements in imitation/praxis. The rhythm and robot groups also showed improved interpersonal synchrony performance from the early to the late session. Overall, socially embedded movement-based contexts are valuable in promoting imitation/praxis, interpersonal synchrony, and motor performance and should be included within the standard-of-care treatment for children with ASD. PMID:26793394

  10. Systematic Review of Occupational Therapy and Adult Cancer Rehabilitation: Part 2. Impact of Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation and Psychosocial, Sexuality, and Return-to-Work Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Elizabeth G; Gibson, Robert W; Arbesman, Marian; D'Amico, Mariana

    This article is the second part of a systematic review of evidence for the effectiveness of cancer rehabilitation interventions within the scope of occupational therapy that address the activity and participation needs of adult cancer survivors. This article focuses on the use of multidisciplinary rehabilitation and interventions that address psychosocial outcomes, sexuality, and return to work. Strong evidence indicates that multidisciplinary rehabilitation benefits cancer survivors and that psychosocial strategies can reduce anxiety and depression. Moderate evidence indicates that interventions can support survivors in returning to the level of sexuality desired and help with return to work. Part 1 of the review also appears in this issue.

  11. Army Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-07

    Army Robotics 07 October 2009 Dr. Grant Gerhart, Senior Research Scientist Bernard Theisen, Joint Center for Robotics DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A... Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Grant Gerhart; Bernard Theisen 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...CBRNE • IED Defeat Systems • Disarm / Disrupt • Reconnaissance • Investigation • Explosive Sniffer • Common Robotic Kit • EOD • Convoy • Log

  12. Space Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    ACCESSION NO 3. RECIPIENTS CATALOG NUIA3.R CMU-RI-TR-82-10 I4 1 (. 4. ;,;-LL (and Sublitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD CovEREO SPACE ROBOTICS Interim... Robotics Institute Pittsburgh, PA. 15213 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Office of Naval Research -August 1982 Arlington, VA 22217...SXnet.eE . Space Robotics Richard E. Korf Department of Computer Science and The Robotics Institute Carnegie-Mellon University Pittsburgh, Oetusylvania

  13. TARDEC Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-12

    unclassified TARDEC Robotics Dr. James L. Overholt Director, Joint Center for Robotics US Army TARDEC Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) James L. Overholt... Robotics , Network and Control Components with a Focus on Customer Driven Requirements to Provide Full System Solutions to the War Fighter Technology

  14. Robotic comfort zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, Maxim; Arkin, Ronald C.

    2000-10-01

    The paper investigates how the psychological notion of comfort can be useful in the design of robotic systems. A review of the existing study of human comfort, especially regarding its presence in infants, is conducted with the goal being to determine the relevant characteristics for mapping it onto the robotics domain. Focus is place on the identification of the salient features in the environment that affect the comfort level. Factors involved include current state familiarity, working conditions, the amount and location of available resources, etc. As part of our newly developed comfort function theory, the notion of an object as a psychological attachment for a robot is also introduced, as espoused in Bowlby's theory of attachment. The output space of the comfort function and its dependency on the comfort level are analyzed. The results of the derivation of this comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function are then presented in terms of the impact they have on robotic behavior. Justification for the use of the comfort function in the domain of robotics is presented with relevance for real-world operations. Also, a transformation of the theoretical discussion into a mathematical framework suitable for implementation within a behavior-based control system is presented. The paper concludes with results of simulation studies and real robot experiments using the derived comfort function.

  15. (Robotic hands)

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, R.C.

    1988-09-23

    The traveler attended the International Workshop on Robot Hands at the Palace Hotel in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia. The traveler presented a lecture on An integrated sensor system for the ORNL mobile robot.'' The traveler obtained important information on current R D efforts in multi-fingered robot hands and object recognition using touch sensing.

  16. Industrial Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Dean; Harden, Thomas K.

    Robots are mechanical devices that can be programmed to perform some task of manipulation or locomotion under automatic control. This paper discusses: (1) early developments of the robotics industry in the United States; (2) the present structure of the industry; (3) noneconomic factors related to the use of robots; (4) labor considerations…

  17. Patient Evaluation and Preparation in Vascular and Interventional Radiology: What Every Interventional Radiologist Should Know (Part 1: Patient Assessment and Laboratory Tests)

    SciTech Connect

    Taslakian, Bedros; Sebaaly, Mikhael Georges Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad

    2016-03-15

    Performing an interventional procedure imposes a commitment on interventional radiologists to conduct the initial patient assessment, determine the best course of therapy, and provide long-term care after the procedure is completed. After patient referral, contact with the referring physician and multidisciplinary team approach is vital. In addition, clinical history, physical examination, as well as full understanding of the pre-procedural laboratory results and imaging findings can guide the interventional radiologist to implement the most appropriate management plan, avoid unnecessary procedures, and prevent complications to achieve a successful outcome. We provide a comprehensive, methodical review of pre-procedural care and management in patients undergoing vascular and interventional radiology procedures.

  18. FIRST Robotics Kickoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA engineers Scott Olive (left) and Bo Clarke answer questions during the 2007 FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Robotics Competition regional kickoff event held Saturday, Jan. 6, 2007, at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The SSC employees and FIRST Robotics volunteer mentors are standing near a mock-up of the playing field for the FIRST Robotics' 2007 `Rack n' Roll' challenge. Roughly 300 students and adult volunteers - representing 29 high schools from four states - attended the kickoff to hear the rules of `Rack n' Roll.' The teams will spend the next six weeks building and programming robots from parts kits they received Saturday, then battle their creations at regional spring competitions in New Orleans, Houston, Atlanta and other cities around the nation. FIRST aims to inspire students in the pursuit of engineering and technology studies and careers.

  19. Robot Technicians: Is There a Need?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minty, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    The study attempted to determine needs for training robotic technicians in Michigan. The survey had three parts: (1) needed technical specialities, (2) current problems with robot maintenance and repair, and (3) number of robots needed to keep a full-time technician occupied. (CH)

  20. Rotorcraft and Enabling Robotic Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the issues underlying potential robotic rescue devices (RRD) in the context where autonomous or manned rotorcraft deployment of such robotic systems is a crucial attribute for their success in supporting future disaster relief and emergency response (DRER) missions. As a part of this discussion, work related to proof-of-concept prototyping of two notional RRD systems is summarized.

  1. Robotics as an Educational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miglino, Orazio; Lund, Henrik Hautop; Cardaci, Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    Explores a new educational application of Piaget's theories of cognitive development: the use, as a teaching tool, of physical robots conceived as artificial organisms. Reviews educational projects using real robots. Shows that the use of intelligent systems to enlarge the view of biological reality could become an integral part of curricula in…

  2. Calculating the peak skin dose resulting from fluoroscopically guided interventions. Part I: Methods.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Kyle; Pasciak, Alexander S

    2011-11-15

    While direct measurement of the peak skin dose resulting from a fluoroscopically-guided procedure is possible, the decision must be made a priori at additional cost and time. It is most often the case that the need for accurate knowledge of the peak skin dose is realized only after a procedure has been completed, or after a suspected reaction has been discovered. Part I of this review article discusses methods for calculating the peak skin dose across a range of clinical scenarios. In some cases, a wealth of data are available, while in other cases few data are available and additional data must be measured in order to estimate the peak skin dose. Data may be gathered from a dose report, the DICOM headers of images, or from staff and physician interviews. After data are gathered, specific steps must be followed to convert dose metrics, such as the reference point air kerma (K(a,r)) or the kerma area product (KAP), into peak skin dose. These steps require knowledge of other related factors, such as the f-factor and the backscatter factor, tables of which are provided in this manuscript. Sources of error and the impact of these errors on the accuracy of the final estimate of the peak skin dose are discussed.

  3. Quartz and respirable dust in the Dutch construction industry: a baseline exposure assessment as part of a multidimensional intervention approach.

    PubMed

    van Deurssen, Erik; Pronk, Anjoeka; Spaan, Suzanne; Goede, Henk; Tielemans, Erik; Heederik, Dick; Meijster, Tim

    2014-07-01

    Quartz exposure can cause several respiratory health effects. Although quartz exposure has been described in several observational workplace studies, well-designed intervention studies that investigate the effect of control strategies are lacking. This article describes a baseline exposure study that is part of a multidimensional intervention program aiming to reduce quartz exposure among construction workers. In this study, personal respirable dust and quartz exposure was assessed among 116 construction workers (bricklayers, carpenters, concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers). Possible determinants of exposure, like job, tasks, and work practices, use of control measures, and organizational and psychosocial factors, were explored using exposure models for respirable dust and quartz separately. Stratified analyses by job title were performed to evaluate the effect of control measures on exposure and to explore the association between control measures and psychosocial factors. Overall, 62% of all measurements exceeded the Dutch occupational exposure limit for quartz and 11% for respirable dust. Concrete drillers and tuck pointers had the highest exposures for quartz and respirable dust (0.20 and 3.43mg m(-3), respectively). Significant predictors of elevated quartz exposure were abrasive tasks and type of material worked on. Surprisingly, in a univariate model, an increased knowledge level was associated with an increase in exposure. Although control measures were used infrequently, if used they resulted in approximately 40% reduction in quartz exposure among concrete drillers and tuck pointers. Only among concrete drillers, the use of control measures was associated with a higher score for social influence (factor 1.6); knowledge showed an inverse association with use of control measures for concrete drillers, demolishers, and tuck pointers. In conclusion, the detailed information on determinants of exposure, use of control measures, and constraints to

  4. Mobile robotics research at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, W.D.

    1998-09-01

    Sandia is a National Security Laboratory providing scientific and engineering solutions to meet national needs for both government and industry. As part of this mission, the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center conducts research and development in robotics and intelligent machine technologies. An overview of Sandia`s mobile robotics research is provided. Recent achievements and future directions in the areas of coordinated mobile manipulation, small smart machines, world modeling, and special application robots are presented.

  5. Hexapod Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begody, Ericka

    2016-01-01

    right or up and down. The hexapod will eventually be able to track the object moving its head and body in sync with on another and being able to rotate its body at 360 degrees. This is the plans and possible end results for the hexapod robot I will be working on during my summer internship at NASA Johnson Space Center. Since working on the hexapod project I have gained an increase interest in robotics. I enjoy the process of critical thinking. Also will working on this project I was challenged in a way that made more passionate to strive even more to become an engineer. I've learned that asking questions is an important part of the learning process. Also I learn that much more is accomplished when teamwork is applied.

  6. Recent Advances in Robotics and Career Opportunities for Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchier, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Some of the most significant advances in robotic systems over the last year are shown in this talk, which covers both autonomous and partly autonomous robots. A few robotic employers, both in Texas and elsewhere are profiled, with an emphasis on opportunities of interest to physicists. The presenter is president of the Dallas Personal Robotics Group.

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part C, Robotics/automation, Waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D&D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D&D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2.

  8. Robot goniophotometry at PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindemann, M.; Maass, R.; Sauter, G.

    2015-04-01

    The total luminous flux of a light source is the complete integration of its spectral radiance distribution weighted with the photopic observer and taken over all parts of its surface and over the full solid angle of emittance. The spatial distributions are measured with various types of goniophotometers and the PTB robot goniophotometer is a new type with many unique features. It is built as an arrangement of three robots with arms of more than 6 m in length and with 7 degrees of freedom each. The extreme flexibility of the robots allows computer controlled tracks with variable radii and speeds up to 3 m and 1 m s-1, respectively. One robot aligns the light source and the two other robots move photometers and array spectrometers in their hemispheres simultaneously measuring planar illuminance and the related relative spectral distribution. The robot goniophotometer is optimized for the realisation of the luminous flux unit, the lumen and it is completely characterized in this report. The relevant properties and correction factors are explained, as well as the implementation of techniques for synchronisation and stabilisation of spatially resolved or integrated photometric and colorimetric quantities. Finally, all contributions are combined in the model of evaluation for the (total) luminous flux value and the measurement uncertainty associated with that value is evaluated in the presented uncertainty budget. The goniophotometric determination of the values for colorimetric quantities is explained for the total luminous flux and the spatially distributed radiant power.

  9. TARDEC Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    TARDEC Robotics Dr. Greg Hudas Greg.hudas@us.army.mil UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Greg Hudas...ANSI Std Z39-18 Excellence in Robotics Outreach & University Shaping Requirements Building Modeling & Simulation Component Development International

  10. ROBOT WRITING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Technical writers who are hypnotized by the mechanical metaphor inevitably produce robot writing - a separate language, distantly related to the...prose of Darwin, Huxley, Jeans, and Einstein. Where they were clear, fresh, and graceful, the robot writer is hard, dull, and clumsy. Where they were...merely human, the robot writer is infallible, prefabricated, impersonal, and irresponsible. These four characteristics are interlinked. An example of one usually illustrates the other three.

  11. Robot Programming.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    8217AD-A127 233 ROBOT PROGRRMMING(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OFGTECHi/ CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB T LOZANO-PEREZ UNCLASSIFIED DC8 AI-9 N884...CATALOG NUMBER * a ~AIM 698 R a is 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Robot Programming Memorandum 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT...34R Distribution is Unlimted .. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 1. KEY WORDS (Continue on r verea aide ii neeaortm and Identify by block number) *Q. Robotics

  12. Robotics research

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.; Paul, R.

    1984-01-01

    Organized around a view of robotics as ''the intelligent connection of perception to action,'' the fifty-three contributions collected in this book present leading current research in one of the fastest moving fields of artificial intelligence. Readings Include: Hand-Eye Coordination in Rope Handling; 3-D Balance Using 2-D algorithms. A Model Driven Visual Inspection Module: Stereo Vision: Complexity and Constraints; Interpretation of Contact Geometers from Force Measurement; The Utah MIT Dextrous Hand: Work in Progress; Hierarchical Nonlinear Control for Robots; VAL-11; A Robot Programming Language and Control System; Technological Barriers in Robotics: A Perspective from Industry.

  13. Hopping robot

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Fischer, Gary J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Martinez, Michael A.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Feddema, John T.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a hopping robot that includes a misfire tolerant linear actuator suitable for long trips, low energy steering and control, reliable low energy righting, miniature low energy fuel control. The present invention provides a robot with hopping mobility, capable of traversing obstacles significant in size relative to the robot and capable of operation on unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides a hopping robot with misfire-tolerant combustion actuation, and with combustion actuation suitable for use in oxygen-poor environments.

  14. Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, S. G. M.

    This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

  15. Research activities on robotics at the Electrotechnical Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakikura, M.

    Various robotics research activities carried out at the Electrotechnical Laboratory in Japan are discussed. The history of robotics research, which has been going on since the late 1960s as a part of artificial-intelligence research is described. Consideration is given to the full-scale robot system called ETL-ROBOT Mk. 1, to the carpenter robot, to the intelligent locomotive-handling robot, to the flexible finger, and to the hand-eye robot. The present aspect of the research in relation to past results is examined and includes the development of new robot systems such as a vision system based on a three-dimensional model, an interactive modeling system, a direct-drive manipulator, a robot vision language, and a language-aided robotic teleoperation system. Research themes planned for the near future include manipulation techniques, sensor techniques, autonomous robot control techniques, advanced teleoperation techniques, and system totalizing techniques.

  16. From an Idea to a Working Robot Prototype: Distributing Knowledge of Robotics through Science Museum Workshops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishuk, Alexander; Verner, Igor; Mir, Ronen

    This paper presents our experience of teaching robotics to primary and middle school students at the Gelfand Center for Model Building, Robotics & Communication which is part of the Israel National Museum of Science, Technology and Space (MadaTech). The educational study examines the value and characteristics of students’ teamwork in the museum robotics workshops.

  17. Robotics 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultan, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Robots are used in all kinds of industrial settings. They are used to rivet bolts to cars, to move items from one conveyor belt to another, to gather information from other planets, and even to perform some very delicate types of surgery. Anyone who has watched a robot perform its tasks cannot help but be impressed by how it works. This article…

  18. Robotic Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Automated Endoscopic System for Optimal Positioning, or AESOP, was developed by Computer Motion, Inc. under a SBIR contract from the Jet Propulsion Lab. AESOP is a robotic endoscopic positioning system used to control the motion of a camera during endoscopic surgery. The camera, which is mounted at the end of a robotic arm, previously had to be held in place by the surgical staff. With AESOP the robotic arm can make more precise and consistent movements. AESOP is also voice controlled by the surgeon. It is hoped that this technology can be used in space repair missions which require precision beyond human dexterity. A new generation of the same technology entitled the ZEUS Robotic Surgical System can make endoscopic procedures even more successful. ZEUS allows the surgeon control various instruments in its robotic arms, allowing for the precision the procedure requires.

  19. Robot Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Martin Marietta Aero and Naval Systems has advanced the CAD art to a very high level at its Robotics Laboratory. One of the company's major projects is construction of a huge Field Material Handling Robot for the Army's Human Engineering Lab. Design of FMR, intended to move heavy and dangerous material such as ammunition, was a triumph in CAD Engineering. Separate computer problems modeled the robot's kinematics and dynamics, yielding such parameters as the strength of materials required for each component, the length of the arms, their degree of freedom and power of hydraulic system needed. The Robotics Lab went a step further and added data enabling computer simulation and animation of the robot's total operational capability under various loading and unloading conditions. NASA computer program (IAC), integrated Analysis Capability Engineering Database was used. Program contains a series of modules that can stand alone or be integrated with data from sensors or software tools.

  20. Robot-assisted adrenalectomy (total, partial, & metastasectomy).

    PubMed

    Ball, Mark W; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2014-11-01

    Robotic-assisted adrenalectomy is an increasingly used intervention for patients with a variety of surgical adrenal lesions, including adenomas, aldosteronomas, pheochromocytomas, and metastases to the adrenal gland. Compared with traditional laparoscopy, robotic adrenalectomy has comparable perioperative outcomes and is associated with improved hospital length of stay and blood loss, though it does come at a cost premium. Emerging literature also supports a role for robotics in partial adrenalectomy and metastasectomy. Ultimately, well-conducted prospective trials are needed to fully define the role of robotics in the surgical management of adrenal disease.

  1. Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy R.; Bekele, Esubalew; Zhang, Lian; Crittendon, Julie A.; Weitlauf, Amy F.; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2013-01-01

    Although it has often been argued that clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relatively few investigations have indexed the impact of intervention and feedback approaches. This pilot study investigated the application of a novel robotic interaction system capable of administering and adjusting joint attention prompts to a small group (n = 6) of children with ASD. Across a series of four sessions, children improved in their ability to orient to prompts administered by the robotic system and continued to display strong attention toward the humanoid robot over time. The results highlight both potential benefits of robotic systems for directed intervention approaches as well as potent limitations of existing humanoid robotic platforms. PMID:24014194

  2. Development of autonomous eating mechanism for biomimetic robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Kil-Woong; Cho, Ik-Jin; Lee, Yun-Jung

    2005-12-01

    Most of the recently developed robots are human friendly robots which imitate animals or humans such as entertainment robot, bio-mimetic robot and humanoid robot. Interest for these robots are being increased because the social trend is focused on health, welfare, and graying. Autonomous eating functionality is most unique and inherent behavior of pets and animals. Most of entertainment robots and pet robots make use of internal-type battery. Entertainment robots and pet robots with internal-type battery are not able to operate during charging the battery. Therefore, if a robot has an autonomous function for eating battery as its feeds, the robot is not only able to operate during recharging energy but also become more human friendly like pets. Here, a new autonomous eating mechanism was introduced for a biomimetic robot, called ELIRO-II(Eating LIzard RObot version 2). The ELIRO-II is able to find a food (a small battery), eat and evacuate by itself. This work describe sub-parts of the developed mechanism such as head-part, mouth-part, and stomach-part. In addition, control system of autonomous eating mechanism is described.

  3. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  4. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION..., Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION..., Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION..., Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION..., Special Education, and Related Services A. Committee Membership The DoD-CC shall meet at least yearly...

  8. The state of the art in non‐pharmacological interventions for developmental stuttering. Part 1: a systematic review of effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Maxine; Blank, Lindsay; Cantrell, Anna; Brumfitt, Shelagh; Enderby, Pam; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The growing range of available treatment options for people who stutter presents a challenge for clinicians, service managers and commissioners, who need to have access to the best available treatment evidence to guide them in providing the most appropriate interventions. While a number of reviews of interventions for specific populations or a specific type of intervention have been carried out, a broad‐based systematic review across all forms of intervention for adults and children was needed to provide evidence to underpin future guidelines, inform the implementation of effective treatments and identify future research priorities. Aims To identify and synthesize the published research evidence on the clinical effectiveness of the broad range of non‐pharmacological interventions for the management of developmental stuttering. Methods & Procedures A systematic review of the literature reporting interventions for developmental stuttering was carried out between August 2013 and April 2014. Searches were not limited by language or location, but were restricted by date to studies published from 1990 onwards. Methods for the identification of relevant studies included electronic database searching, reference list checking, citation searching and hand searching of key journals. Appraisal of study quality was performed using a tool based on established criteria for considering risk of bias. Due to heterogeneity in intervention content and outcomes, a narrative synthesis was completed. Main Contribution The review included all available types of intervention and found that most may be of benefit to at least some people who stutter. There was evidence, however, of considerable individual variation in response to these interventions. The review indicated that effects could be maintained following all types of interventions (although this was weakest with regard to feedback and technology interventions). Conclusions This review highlights a need for

  9. Computerized lifelong mentoring support using robot for autistic individuals.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Shinji; Ijichi, Naomi

    2007-01-01

    Developmental diversity in childhood is transformed into personality variation in adulthood. This view is now revalued through an ongoing paradigm shift in the field of developmental conditions, the transition from the qualitative dichotomy perspective to the quantitative concept. In the quantitative concept, autism is not a disease nor a developmental qualitative disorder, but a behavioral extreme in individual variation. Although the traditional qualitative view cannot interpret the recent worldwide prevalence of autism, the increase in the reported number of cases with autism and border cases can be easily explained by a dimensional exploration in which the primary autistic phenotype is regarded as an evolutional superiority. Therefore, the only suitable intervention is mentoring which provides a powerful lifelong support for higher social achievement in individuals with autism. Here, we hypothesize the coming mentoring circumstances for autistic individuals in the near future. Ongoing progress in robot and computer technology might allow the guardians to leave the major part of mentoring support to an individualized robot, and the 'folk physics' tendency in individuals with autism could facilitate the spread of the mentoring support system. The development of the robot mentor software may be simple because of the uniformity and stereotypy of the behavior patterns in individuals with autism. With the help of the robot mentor and under its guidance, autistic people might enjoy their social life and contribute to the prosperity of the human society to the maximum degree. Because the future population ratio of autistics/non-autistics might be reversed according to the current trend of the prevalence, mentoring robot programs for autistic individuals should be developed without delay as a novel preliminary activity in the Jiminy Cricket movement, which is a campaign to reverse the estrangement of the present majority from autism and to increase the number of mentors

  10. Robotic transportation.

    PubMed

    Lob, W S

    1990-09-01

    Mobile robots perform fetch-and-carry tasks autonomously. An intelligent, sensor-equipped mobile robot does not require dedicated pathways or extensive facility modification. In the hospital, mobile robots can be used to carry specimens, pharmaceuticals, meals, etc. between supply centers, patient areas, and laboratories. The HelpMate (Transitions Research Corp.) mobile robot was developed specifically for hospital environments. To reach a desired destination, Help-Mate navigates with an on-board computer that continuously polls a suite of sensors, matches the sensor data against a pre-programmed map of the environment, and issues drive commands and path corrections. A sender operates the robot with a user-friendly menu that prompts for payload insertion and desired destination(s). Upon arrival at its selected destination, the robot prompts the recipient for a security code or physical key and awaits acknowledgement of payload removal. In the future, the integration of HelpMate with robot manipulators, test equipment, and central institutional information systems will open new applications in more localized areas and should help overcome difficulties in filling transport staff positions.

  11. [Robotic surgery].

    PubMed

    Sándor, József; Haidegger, Tamás; Kormos, Katalin; Ferencz, Andrea; Csukás, Domokos; Bráth, Endre; Szabó, Györgyi; Wéber, György

    2013-10-01

    Due to the fast spread of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, surgical procedures have been changed essentially. The new techniques applied for both abdominal and thoracic procedures provided the possibility for minimally invasive access with all its advantages. Robots - originally developed for industrial applications - were retrofitted for laparoscopic procedures. The currently prevailing robot-assisted surgery is ergonomically more advantageous for the surgeon, as well as for the patient through the more precise preparative activity thanks to the regained 3D vision. The gradual decrease of costs of robotic surgical systems and development of new generations of minimally invasive devices may lead to substantial changes in routine surgical procedures.

  12. Subsumption Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Subsumption Robotics Christopher K. DeBolt Naval EOD Technology Division 2008 Stump Neck Road Indian Head, MD 20640-5070 phone: (301) 744-6850, Ext...eodmgate.navsea.navy.mil; nguyent.eodtc@eodmgate.navsea.navy.mil Helen Greiner and Polly K. Pook I.S. Robotics phone: (617) 629-0055 e-mail: helen@isr.com , pook...408) 656-3462 e-mail: healey@me.nps.navy.mil LONG-TERM GOALS Through the use of subsumption architectures, low cost, simple robots can be developed

  13. Towards a Location-based Service for Early Mental Health Interventions in Disaster Response Using Minimalistic Tele-operated Android Robots Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahidi, H.; Mobasheri, A.; Alimardani, M.; Guan, Q.; Bakillah, M.

    2014-04-01

    Providing early mental health services during disaster is a great challenge in the disaster response phase. Lack of access to adequate mental-health professionals in the early stages of large-scale disasters dramatically influences the trend of a successful mental health aid. In this paper, a conceptual framework has been suggested for adopting cellphone-type tele-operated android robots in the early stages of disasters for providing the early mental health services for disaster survivors by developing a locationbased and participatory approach. The techniques of enabling GI-services in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) environment were studied to overcome the limitations of current centralized services. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to add more flexibility and autonomy to GI web services (WMS, WFS, WPS, etc.) and alleviate to some degree the inherent limitations of these centralized systems. A P2P system Architecture is presented for the location-based service using minimalistic tele-operated android robots, and some key techniques of implementing this service using BestPeer were studied for developing this framework.

  14. Compliant Robotic Structures. Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    in diameter. Gordius (Figure 4) and Ascaris (Figure 5) represent two phyla of worms, Nematomorpha and Nematoda respectively, whose members function...Jean L. ( 1974), Ultrastructural features of a gordian worm ( Nematomorpha ), Jlournaol of Ultrastructure R’esearch, 46: 351-374. Freeman, W.H., and

  15. Parallel Architecture For Robotics Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1990-01-01

    Universal Real-Time Robotic Controller and Simulator (URRCS) is highly parallel computing architecture for control and simulation of robot motion. Result of extensive algorithmic study of different kinematic and dynamic computational problems arising in control and simulation of robot motion. Study led to development of class of efficient parallel algorithms for these problems. Represents algorithmically specialized architecture, in sense capable of exploiting common properties of this class of parallel algorithms. System with both MIMD and SIMD capabilities. Regarded as processor attached to bus of external host processor, as part of bus memory.

  16. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  17. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1998-08-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendible appendages, each of which is radially extendible relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendible members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  18. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1997-02-11

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle. 20 figs.

  19. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1998-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    A robotic vehicle for travel through a conduit. The robotic vehicle includes forward and rear housings each having a hub portion, and each being provided with surface engaging mechanisms for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit such that the housings can be selectively held in stationary positions within the conduit. The surface engaging mechanisms of each housing includes a plurality of extendable appendages, each of which is radially extendable relative to the operatively associated hub portion between a retracted position and a radially extended position. The robotic vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members extending between the forward and rear housings, for selectively changing the distance between the forward and rear housings to effect movement of the robotic vehicle.

  1. Evaluation of a Professional Development Workshop on Integration of Robotics into Early Childhood Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddighin, Safoura

    According to the previous research, the lack of knowledge about technology and developmentally appropriate pedagogical approaches to bring it to the classrooms, in addition to the low level of sense of self-efficacy, and positive attitude towards teaching with technology, are among the major impediments to the successful integration of new technologies into early childhood classrooms. The focus of this research as part of a three year long NSF funded project, "Ready for Robotics", is to seek strategies to be used towards resolving the problem stated above. The current thesis reports a study in which 32 early childhood educators participated in a professional development workshop on the integration of robotics as an educational intervention into their traditional classrooms. Results show a statistically significant increase in the level of knowledge in all the three areas of technology in general, pedagogy, and robotics content, along with non-numerical positive effects of the workshop.

  2. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  3. Robot Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Tests with robots and the high-fidelity Hubble Space Telescope mockup astronauts use to train for servicing missions have convinced NASA managers it may be possible to maintain and upgrade the orbiting observatory without sending a space shuttle to do the job. In a formal request last week, the agency gave bidders until July 16 to sub-mit proposals for a robotic mission to the space telescope before the end of 2007. At a minimum, the mission would attach a rocket motor to deorbit the telescope safely when its service life ends. In the best case, it would use state-of-the- art robotics to prolong its life on orbit and install new instruments. With the space shuttle off-limits for the job under strict post-Columbia safety policies set by Administrator Sean O'Keefe, NASA has designed a "straw- man" robotic mission that would use an Atlas V or Delta N to launch a 20,ooO-lb. "Hubble Robotic Vehicle" to service the telescope. There, a robotic arm would grapple it, much as the shuttle does.

  4. Infant-Guided, Co-Regulated Feeding in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Part II: Interventions to Promote Neuroprotection and Safety.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Catherine S

    2017-04-01

    Feeding skills of preterm neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit are in an emergent phase of development and require careful support to minimize stress. The underpinnings that influence and enhance both neuroprotection and safety were discussed in Part I. An infant-guided, co-regulated approach to feeding can protect the vulnerable neonate's neurologic development, support the parent-infant relationship, and prevent feeding problems that may endure. Contingent interventions are used to maintain subsystem stability and enhance self-regulation, development, and coping skills. This co-regulation between caregiver and neonate forms the foundation for a positive infant-guided feeding experience. Caregivers select evidence-based interventions contingent to the newborn's communication. When these interventions are then titrated from moment to moment, neuroprotection and safety are fostered.

  5. Mission Reliability Estimation for Repairable Robot Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Dolan, John; Stancliff, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A mission reliability estimation method has been designed to translate mission requirements into choices of robot modules in order to configure a multi-robot team to have high reliability at minimal cost. In order to build cost-effective robot teams for long-term missions, one must be able to compare alternative design paradigms in a principled way by comparing the reliability of different robot models and robot team configurations. Core modules have been created including: a probabilistic module with reliability-cost characteristics, a method for combining the characteristics of multiple modules to determine an overall reliability-cost characteristic, and a method for the generation of legitimate module combinations based on mission specifications and the selection of the best of the resulting combinations from a cost-reliability standpoint. The developed methodology can be used to predict the probability of a mission being completed, given information about the components used to build the robots, as well as information about the mission tasks. In the research for this innovation, sample robot missions were examined and compared to the performance of robot teams with different numbers of robots and different numbers of spare components. Data that a mission designer would need was factored in, such as whether it would be better to have a spare robot versus an equivalent number of spare parts, or if mission cost can be reduced while maintaining reliability using spares. This analytical model was applied to an example robot mission, examining the cost-reliability tradeoffs among different team configurations. Particularly scrutinized were teams using either redundancy (spare robots) or repairability (spare components). Using conservative estimates of the cost-reliability relationship, results show that it is possible to significantly reduce the cost of a robotic mission by using cheaper, lower-reliability components and providing spares. This suggests that the

  6. What is next in robotic urology?

    PubMed

    Cathelineau, Xavier; Sanchez-Salas, Rafael; Sivaraman, Arjun

    2014-12-01

    The application of robotic technology in surgical practice was developed during the past three decades, but its clinical application has made a significant impact during the last 10 years. Urologists have embraced surgical robots throughout their evolution, and robot-assisted urologic surgeries have matured into everyday clinical practice in many parts of the world. Long-term data from robot-assisted radical prostatectomies (RARP), an early robotic urologic surgery, has shown that the results are comparable to contemporary open radical prostatectomy (ORP) cohorts. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) is largely restricted to high-volume academic centers; comparative studies have demonstrated significant advantages in favor of RAPN over laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) to achieve adequate warm ischemia time, surgical margins free of cancer cells, and no peri-operative complications. Robot-assisted radical cystectomy shows results that are comparable to contemporary open radical cystectomy. Several authors have reported the feasibility of robotic intracorporeal urinary diversion. The available long-term outcomes of robot-assisted urological surgeries are comparable to conventional open surgical methods and are associated with fewer complications. Surgical robots continue to evolve, and robotic engineers alongside surgeons strive hard to synthesize and evaluate novel robotic platforms, downsize hardware, and develop flexible instruments and newer technologies. Robotic applications available at this point represent the infancy of this technology. Future developments in robotics are profoundly limited to human imagination and can potentially scale to unimaginable heights. We would expect robots coupled with imaging and energies, aiming to provide accurate and reliable treatments which will be finely targeted by biogenetic information.

  7. Handbook of industrial robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Nof, S.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of artificial intelligence to robots used in industrial plants. Topics considered include vision systems, elements of industrial robot software, robot teaching, the off-line programming of robots, a structured programming robot language, task-level manipulator programming, expert systems, and the role of the computer in robot intelligence.

  8. Tutorial on robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S.G.; Gonzalez, R.C.; Fu, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    Basic fundamentals in robotics are presented in this tutorial. Topics covered are as follows: robot arm kinematics; robot arm dynamics; planning or manipulator trajectories; servo control for manipulators; force sensing and control; robot vision systems; robot programming languages; and machine intelligence and robot planning.

  9. Preliminary testing of a compact bone-attached robot for otologic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Neal P.; Balachandran, Ramya; Motte dit Falisse, Antoine; Wanna, George B.; Labadie, Robert F.; Withrow, Thomas J.; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-03-01

    Otologic surgery often involves a mastoidectomy procedure, in which part of the temporal bone is milled away in order to visualize critical structures embedded in the bone and safely access the middle and inner ear. We propose to automate this portion of the surgery using a compact, bone-attached milling robot. A high level of accuracy is required t o avoid damage to vital anatomy along the surgical path, most notably the facial nerve, making this procedure well-suited for robotic intervention. In this study, several of the design considerations are discussed and a robot design and prototype are presented. The prototype is a 4 degrees-of-freedom robot similar to a four-axis milling machine that mounts to the patient's skull. A positioning frame, containing fiducial markers and attachment points for the robot, is rigidly attached to the skull of the patient, and a CT scan is acquired. The target bone volume is manually segmented in the CT by the surgeon and automatically converted to a milling path and robot trajectory. The robot is then attached to the positioning frame and is used to drill the desired volume. The accuracy of the entire system (image processing, planning, robot) was evaluated at several critical locations within or near the target bone volume with a mean free space accuracy result of 0.50 mm or less at all points. A milling test in a phantom material was then performed to evaluate the surgical workflow. The resulting milled volume did not violate any critical structures.

  10. Robots Show Us How to Teach Them: Feedback from Robots Shapes Tutoring Behavior during Action Learning

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J.; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Wrede, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction. PMID:24646510

  11. Robots show us how to teach them: feedback from robots shapes tutoring behavior during action learning.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J; Wrede, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction.

  12. System and method for controlling a vision guided robot assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Yhu-Tin; Daro, Timothy; Abell, Jeffrey A.; Turner, III, Raymond D.; Casoli, Daniel J.

    2017-03-07

    A method includes the following steps: actuating a robotic arm to perform an action at a start position; moving the robotic arm from the start position toward a first position; determining from a vision process method if a first part from the first position will be ready to be subjected to a first action by the robotic arm once the robotic arm reaches the first position; commencing the execution of the visual processing method for determining the position deviation of the second part from the second position and the readiness of the second part to be subjected to a second action by the robotic arm once the robotic arm reaches the second position; and performing a first action on the first part using the robotic arm with the position deviation of the first part from the first position predetermined by the vision process method.

  13. Automatic learning by an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    de Saussure, G.; Spelt, P.F.; Killough, S.M.; Pin, F.G.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes recent research in automatic learning by the autonomous mobile robot HERMIES-IIB at the Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR). By acting on the environment and observing the consequences during a set of training examples, the robot learns a sequence of successful manipulations on a simulated control panel. The robot learns to classify panel configurations in order to deal with new configurations that are not part of the original training set. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Control architecture for human-robot integration: application to a robotic wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Cipriano; Gonzalez, Javier; Fernández-Madrigal, Juan-Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Completely autonomous performance of a mobile robot within noncontrolled and dynamic environments is not possible yet due to different reasons including environment uncertainty, sensor/software robustness, limited robotic abilities, etc. But in assistant applications in which a human is always present, she/he can make up for the lack of robot autonomy by helping it when needed. In this paper, the authors propose human-robot integration as a mechanism to augment/improve the robot autonomy in daily scenarios. Through the human-robot-integration concept, the authors take a further step in the typical human-robot relation, since they consider her/him as a constituent part of the human-robot system, which takes full advantage of the sum of their abilities. In order to materialize this human integration into the system, they present a control architecture, called architecture for human-robot integration, which enables her/him from a high decisional level, i.e., deliberating a plan, to a physical low level, i.e., opening a door. The presented control architecture has been implemented to test the human-robot integration on a real robotic application. In particular, several real experiences have been conducted on a robotic wheelchair aimed to provide mobility to elderly people.

  15. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management.

  16. Rehabilitation robotics.

    PubMed

    Krebs, H I; Volpe, B T

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician's toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual's functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost.

  17. Rehabilitation robotics

    PubMed Central

    KREBS, H.I.; VOLPE, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on rehabilitation robotics which can be used to augment the clinician’s toolbox in order to deliver meaningful restorative therapy for an aging population, as well as on advances in orthotics to augment an individual’s functional abilities beyond neurorestoration potential. The interest in rehabilitation robotics and orthotics is increasing steadily with marked growth in the last 10 years. This growth is understandable in view of the increased demand for caregivers and rehabilitation services escalating apace with the graying of the population. We will provide an overview on improving function in people with a weak limb due to a neurological disorder who cannot properly control it to interact with the environment (orthotics); we will then focus on tools to assist the clinician in promoting rehabilitation of an individual so that s/he can interact with the environment unassisted (rehabilitation robotics). We will present a few clinical results occurring immediately poststroke as well as during the chronic phase that demonstrate superior gains for the upper extremity when employing rehabilitation robotics instead of usual care. These include the landmark VA-ROBOTICS multisite, randomized clinical study which demonstrates clinical gains for chronic stroke that go beyond usual care at no additional cost. PMID:23312648

  18. Brain state-dependent robotic reaching movement with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton: combining brain-machine interfacing and robotic rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Brauchle, Daniel; Vukelić, Mathias; Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    While robot-assisted arm and hand training after stroke allows for intensive task-oriented practice, it has provided only limited additional benefit over dose-matched physiotherapy up to now. These rehabilitation devices are possibly too supportive during the exercises. Neurophysiological signals might be one way of avoiding slacking and providing robotic support only when the brain is particularly responsive to peripheral input. We tested the feasibility of three-dimensional robotic assistance for reaching movements with a multi-joint exoskeleton during motor imagery (MI)-related desynchronization of sensorimotor oscillations in the β-band. We also registered task-related network changes of cortical functional connectivity by electroencephalography via the imaginary part of the coherence function. Healthy subjects and stroke survivors showed similar patterns—but different aptitudes—of controlling the robotic movement. All participants in this pilot study with nine healthy subjects and two stroke patients achieved their maximum performance during the early stages of the task. Robotic control was significantly higher and less variable when proprioceptive feedback was provided in addition to visual feedback, i.e., when the orthosis was actually attached to the subject’s arm during the task. A distributed cortical network of task-related coherent activity in the θ-band showed significant differences between healthy subjects and stroke patients as well as between early and late periods of the task. Brain-robot interfaces (BRIs) may successfully link three-dimensional robotic training to the participants’ efforts and allow for task-oriented practice of activities of daily living with a physiologically controlled multi-joint exoskeleton. Changes of cortical physiology during the task might also help to make subject-specific adjustments of task difficulty and guide adjunct interventions to facilitate motor learning for functional restoration, a proposal that

  19. Brain state-dependent robotic reaching movement with a multi-joint arm exoskeleton: combining brain-machine interfacing and robotic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Brauchle, Daniel; Vukelić, Mathias; Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    While robot-assisted arm and hand training after stroke allows for intensive task-oriented practice, it has provided only limited additional benefit over dose-matched physiotherapy up to now. These rehabilitation devices are possibly too supportive during the exercises. Neurophysiological signals might be one way of avoiding slacking and providing robotic support only when the brain is particularly responsive to peripheral input. We tested the feasibility of three-dimensional robotic assistance for reaching movements with a multi-joint exoskeleton during motor imagery (MI)-related desynchronization of sensorimotor oscillations in the β-band. We also registered task-related network changes of cortical functional connectivity by electroencephalography via the imaginary part of the coherence function. Healthy subjects and stroke survivors showed similar patterns-but different aptitudes-of controlling the robotic movement. All participants in this pilot study with nine healthy subjects and two stroke patients achieved their maximum performance during the early stages of the task. Robotic control was significantly higher and less variable when proprioceptive feedback was provided in addition to visual feedback, i.e., when the orthosis was actually attached to the subject's arm during the task. A distributed cortical network of task-related coherent activity in the θ-band showed significant differences between healthy subjects and stroke patients as well as between early and late periods of the task. Brain-robot interfaces (BRIs) may successfully link three-dimensional robotic training to the participants' efforts and allow for task-oriented practice of activities of daily living with a physiologically controlled multi-joint exoskeleton. Changes of cortical physiology during the task might also help to make subject-specific adjustments of task difficulty and guide adjunct interventions to facilitate motor learning for functional restoration, a proposal that warrants

  20. Generic robot architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-21

    The present invention provides methods, computer readable media, and apparatuses for a generic robot architecture providing a framework that is easily portable to a variety of robot platforms and is configured to provide hardware abstractions, abstractions for generic robot attributes, environment abstractions, and robot behaviors. The generic robot architecture includes a hardware abstraction level and a robot abstraction level. The hardware abstraction level is configured for developing hardware abstractions that define, monitor, and control hardware modules available on a robot platform. The robot abstraction level is configured for defining robot attributes and provides a software framework for building robot behaviors from the robot attributes. Each of the robot attributes includes hardware information from at least one hardware abstraction. In addition, each robot attribute is configured to substantially isolate the robot behaviors from the at least one hardware abstraction.

  1. Brain controlled robots.

    PubMed

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    2008-06-01

    In January 2008, Duke University and the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) publicized their successful control of a brain-machine interface for a humanoid robot by a monkey brain across the Pacific Ocean. The activities of a few hundred neurons were recorded from a monkey's motor cortex in Miguel Nicolelis's lab at Duke University, and the kinematic features of monkey locomotion on a treadmill were decoded from neural firing rates in real time. The decoded information was sent to a humanoid robot, CB-i, in ATR Computational Neuroscience Laboratories located in Kyoto, Japan. This robot was developed by the JST International Collaborative Research Project (ICORP) as the "Computational Brain Project." CB-i's locomotion-like movement was video-recorded and projected on a screen in front of the monkey. Although the bidirectional communication used a conventional Internet connection, its delay was suppressed below one over several seconds, partly due to a video-streaming technique, and this encouraged the monkey's voluntary locomotion and influenced its brain activity. This commentary introduces the background and future directions of the brain-controlled robot.

  2. Robotic and Survey Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Przemysław

    Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

  3. Toward True Integration of Academic and Behavior Response to Intervention Systems: Part Two--Tier 2 Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Goodman, Steve; Bohanon, Hank

    2010-01-01

    In the previous article in this series, the authors provided a rationale for integrating academic and behavior response to intervention (RTI) systems. Their rationale included: (1) research showing that challenges in academic and social behavior are linked; (2) a description of the common features that both RTI systems share; and (3) the…

  4. Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge: An Analysis of Impact on IDEIA, Part C Early Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohjanen, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Infants and toddlers who live in poverty are more likely to experience developmental delays or disabilities and less likely to access early intervention (EI) services. The federal initiative Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) was designed to increase access to high quality early learning programs for children at risk for…

  5. Comparing an Emotion- and a Behavior-Focused Parenting Program as Part of a Multsystemic Intervention for Child Conduct Problems.

    PubMed

    Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.

  6. Proceedings of the 2nd international symposium on robotics research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanafusa, H.; Inoue, H.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of this book does not follow that of the symposium. The 53 papers presented at the 12 technical sessions are grouped into four parts: Visual Perception, Action Control, Robot Mechanisms, and Task Level Studies. There are two chapters in the first part, focusing on these topics in visual perception: representation and recognition of three-dimensional objects; and implementation of robot vision. The two chapters in the second part are concerned with the computational aspects of action control: control theory; and kinematics and design. The two chapters in the third part examine these features of robot mechanisms: manipulators and end effectors; and mobile robots. The two chapters in the fourth part explore the following task level studies: modelling, programming, and monitoring; and theory of manipulation. A final (fifth) part presents in two chapters 9 papers debated at two panel discussions: robotics for future industry; and key issues of robotics research. This final part also includes the 2 panel-discussion summaries.

  7. Cooperating mobile robots

    DOEpatents

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  8. Robotic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A commercially available ANDROS Mark V-A robot was used by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as the departure point in the development of the HAZBOT III, a prototype teleoperated mobile robot designed for response to emergencies. Teleoperated robots contribute significantly to reducing human injury levels by performing tasks too hazardous for humans. ANDROS' manufacturer, REMOTEC, Inc., in turn, adopted some of the JPL concepts, particularly the control panel. HAZBOT III has exceptional mobility, employs solid state electronics and brushless DC motors for safer operation, and is designed so combustible gases cannot penetrate areas containing electronics and motors. Other features include the six-degree-of-freedom manipulator, the 30-pound squeeze force parallel jaw gripper and two video cameras, one for general viewing and navigation and the other for manipulation/grasping.

  9. Robot Swarms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Engineers and interns at this NASA field center are building the prototype of a robotic rover that could go where no wheeled rover has gone before-into the dark cold craters at the lunar poles and across the Moon s rugged highlands-like a walking tetrahedron. With NASA pushing to meet President Bush's new exploration objectives, the robots taking shape here today could be on the Moon in a decade. In the longer term, the concept could lead to shape-shifting robot swarms designed to explore distant planetary surfaces in advance of humans. "If you look at all of NASA s projections of the future, anyone s projections of the space program, they re all rigid-body architecture," says Steven Curtis, principal investigator on the effort. "This is not rigid-body. The whole key here is flexibility and reconfigurability with a capital R."

  10. Robot Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Space Shuttle's Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) is a 50 foot robot arm used to deploy, retrieve or repair satellites in orbit. Initial spinoff version is designed to remove, inspect and replace large components of Ontario Hydro's CANDU nuclear reactors, which supply 50 percent of Ontario Hydro's total power reduction. CANDU robot is the first of SPAR's Remote Manipulator Systems intended for remote materials handling operations in nuclear servicing, chemical processing, smelting and manufacturing. Inco Limited used remote manipulator for remote control mining equipment to enhance safety and productivity of Inco's hardrock mining operations. System not only improves safety in a hazardous operation that costs more than a score of lives annually, it also increases productivity fourfold. Remote Manipulator System Division is also manufacturing a line of industrial robots and developing additional system for nuclear servicing, mining, defense and space operations.

  11. Modeling and simulation of tumor-influenced high resolution real-time physics-based breast models for model-guided robotic interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neylon, John; Hasse, Katelyn; Sheng, Ke; Santhanam, Anand P.

    2016-03-01

    Breast radiation therapy is typically delivered to the patient in either supine or prone position. Each of these positioning systems has its limitations in terms of tumor localization, dose to the surrounding normal structures, and patient comfort. We envision developing a pneumatically controlled breast immobilization device that will enable the benefits of both supine and prone positioning. In this paper, we present a physics-based breast deformable model that aids in both the design of the breast immobilization device as well as a control module for the device during every day positioning. The model geometry is generated from a subject's CT scan acquired during the treatment planning stage. A GPU based deformable model is then generated for the breast. A mass-spring-damper approach is then employed for the deformable model, with the spring modeled to represent a hyperelastic tissue behavior. Each voxel of the CT scan is then associated with a mass element, which gives the model its high resolution nature. The subject specific elasticity is then estimated from a CT scan in prone position. Our results show that the model can deform at >60 deformations per second, which satisfies the real-time requirement for robotic positioning. The model interacts with a computer designed immobilization device to position the breast and tumor anatomy in a reproducible location. The design of the immobilization device was also systematically varied based on the breast geometry, tumor location, elasticity distribution and the reproducibility of the desired tumor location.

  12. Transperineal Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Muntener, Michael; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Schär, Michael; Ursu, Daniel; Song, Danny Y.; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The study was approved by the animal care and use committee. The purpose of the study was to prospectively establish proof of principle in vivo in canines for a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–compatible robotic system designed for image-guided prostatic needle intervention. The entire robot is built with nonmagnetic and dielectric materials and in its current configuration is designed to perform fully automated brachytherapy seed placement within a closed MR imager. With a 3.0-T imager, in four dogs the median error for MR imaging–guided needle positioning and seed positioning was 2.02 mm (range, 0.86–3.18 mm) and 2.50 mm (range, 1.45–10.54 mm), respectively. The robotic system is capable of accurate MR imaging–guided prostatic needle intervention within a standard MR imager in vivo in a canine model. PMID:18430882

  13. Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Robots are limited only by the dexterity of the hand. Dr. Salisbury, in conjunction with Stanford, Caltech and Jet Propulsion Laboratory, developed the Salisbury Hand which has three, three-jointed human-like fingers. The tips are covered with a resilient, high friction material for gripping. The robot hand can manipulate objects by finger motion, and adapts to different aims. Advanced software allows the hand to interpret information from fingertip sensors. Further development is expected. A company has been formed to reproduce the device; copies have been delivered to several laboratories.

  14. Robot gripper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An electronic force-detecting robot gripper for gripping objects and attaching to an external robot arm is disclosed. The gripper comprises motor apparatus, gripper jaws, and electrical circuits for driving the gripper motor and sensing the amount of force applied by the jaws. The force applied by the jaws is proportional to a threshold value of the motor current. When the motor current exceeds the threshold value, the electrical circuits supply a feedback signal to the electrical control circuit which, in turn, stops the gripper motor.

  15. Applying robotic technology to the solid film lubricant burnishing operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fureigh, M.L.

    1984-02-01

    The PUMA 260, a programmable robot, has been used to burnish up to 22 different parts coated with solid film lubricant in the Painting Department. Some other parts also are potential candidates for robotic applications. Robot technology can reduce the burnishing operation standard hours and relieve workers' fatigue and strain as well as produce more uniform part-to-part quality. Using VAL, the versatile computer program language for PUMA 260, the process engineer can define the optimum robot burnishing actions and speeds for each part.

  16. ASBESTOS PIPE-INSULATION REMOVAL ROBOT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-15

    This final topical report details the development, experimentation and field-testing activities for a robotic asbestos pipe-insulation removal robot system developed for use within the DOE's weapon complex as part of their ER and WM program, as well as in industrial abatement. The engineering development, regulatory compliance, cost-benefit and field-trial experiences gathered through this program are summarized.

  17. Orbital Welding Head Held By Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangl, Kenneth J.; Graham, Benny F.; Nesmith, Malcolm F.; Mcferrin, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Orbital welding head positioned by robot controls motion and voltage of arc-welding torch mounted in head. New head encircles part at torch end, and held and manipulated by robot arm at opposite end. Entire welding operation automated. Useful for operations in hazardous environments.

  18. A strategy planner for NASA robotics applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodd, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    Automatic strategy or task planning is an important element of robotics systems. A strategy planner under development at Goddard Space Flight Center automatically produces robot plans for assembly, disassembly, or repair of NASA spacecraft from computer aided design descriptions of the individual parts of the spacecraft.

  19. Robotics Team Lights Up New Year's Eve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    A robotics team from Muncie, Indiana--the PhyXTGears--is made up of high school students from throughout Delaware County. The group formed as part of the FIRST Robotics program (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), an international program founded by inventor Dean Kamen in which students work with professional engineers and…

  20. Robotics Challenge: Cognitive Robot for General Missions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    ROBOTICS CHALLENGE: COGNITIVE ROBOT FOR GENERAL MISSIONS UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS JANUARY 2015 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT... ROBOTICS CHALLENGE: COGNITIVE ROBOT FOR GENERAL MISSIONS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-12-1-0302 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62702E...a complicated environment, a robotic system requires both high-level command facilities and low- level sensing/control mechanisms. This report

  1. The debate over robotics in benign gynecology.

    PubMed

    Rardin, Charles R

    2014-05-01

    The debate over the role of the da Vinci surgical robotic platform in benign gynecology is raging with increasing fervor and, as product liability issues arise, greater financial stakes. Although the best currently available science suggests that, in the hands of experts, robotics offers little in surgical advantage over laparoscopy, at increased expense, the observed decrease in laparotomy for hysterectomy is almost certainly, at least in part, attributable to the availability of the robot. In this author's opinion, the issue is not whether the robot has any role but rather to define the role in an institutional environment that also supports the safe use of vaginal and laparoscopic approaches in an integrated minimally invasive surgery program. Programs engaging robotic surgery should have a clear and self-determined regulatory process and should resist pressures in place that may preferentially support robotics over other forms of minimally invasive surgery.

  2. Robotic Rock Classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebert, Martial

    1999-01-01

    This report describes a three-month research program undertook jointly by the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University and Ames Research Center as part of the Ames' Joint Research Initiative (JRI.) The work was conducted at the Ames Research Center by Mr. Liam Pedersen, a graduate student in the CMU Ph.D. program in Robotics under the supervision Dr. Ted Roush at the Space Science Division of the Ames Research Center from May 15 1999 to August 15, 1999. Dr. Martial Hebert is Mr. Pedersen's research adviser at CMU and is Principal Investigator of this Grant. The goal of this project is to investigate and implement methods suitable for a robotic rover to autonomously identify rocks and minerals in its vicinity, and to statistically characterize the local geological environment. Although primary sensors for these tasks are a reflection spectrometer and color camera, the goal is to create a framework under which data from multiple sensors, and multiple readings on the same object, can be combined in a principled manner. Furthermore, it is envisioned that knowledge of the local area, either a priori or gathered by the robot, will be used to improve classification accuracy. The key results obtained during this project are: The continuation of the development of a rock classifier; development of theoretical statistical methods; development of methods for evaluating and selecting sensors; and experimentation with data mining techniques on the Ames spectral library. The results of this work are being applied at CMU, in particular in the context of the Winter 99 Antarctica expedition in which the classification techniques will be used on the Nomad robot. Conversely, the software developed based on those techniques will continue to be made available to NASA Ames and the data collected from the Nomad experiments will also be made available.

  3. Robotics in Construction.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 1963 A 0 ROBOTICS IN CONSTRUCTIONt 10 BY MICHAEL R. BROZZO A REPORT PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE... ROBOTS AND ROBOTICS ---------------------------- 3 2.1 HISTORY ------------------------------------------- 3 CHAPTER THREE - BASIC ROBOT MOVEMENTS...CHAPTER FOUR - BASIC ROBOT COMPONENTS ------------------------ 8 4.1 GENERAL ------------------------------------------- 8 4.1.1 Manipulator

  4. Beyond Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tally, Beth; Laverdure, Nate

    2006-01-01

    Chantilly High School Academy Robotics Team Number 612 from Chantilly, Virginia, is an award-winning team of high school students actively involved with FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology), a multinational nonprofit organization that inspires students to transform culture--making science, math, engineering and…

  5. Robotic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2007-01-01

    The medical field has many uses for automated and remote-controlled technology. For example, if a tissue sample is only handled in the laboratory by a robotic handling system, then it will never come into contact with a human. Such a system not only helps to automate the medical testing process, but it also helps to reduce the chances of…

  6. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  7. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  8. Robot arm apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1990-12-31

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in ``x,`` ``y,`` and ``z`` directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  9. Safety and Efficacy of At-Home Robotic Locomotion Therapy in Individuals with Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective, Pre-Post Intervention, Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Rüdiger; Schließmann, Daniel; Plewa, Harry; Schuld, Christian; Gerner, Hans Jürgen; Weidner, Norbert; Hofer, Eberhard P.; Knestel, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background The compact Motorized orthosis for home rehabilitation of Gait (MoreGait) was developed for continuation of locomotion training at home. MoreGait generates afferent stimuli of walking with the user in a semi-supine position and provides feedback about deviations from the reference walking pattern. Objective Prospective, pre-post intervention, proof-of-concept study to test the feasibility of an unsupervised home-based application of five MoreGait prototypes in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Methods Twenty-five (5 tetraplegia, 20 paraplegia) participants with chronic (mean time since injury: 5.8 ± 5.4 (standard deviation, SD) years) sensorimotor iSCI (7 ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) C, 18 AIS D; Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI II): Interquartile range 9 to 16) completed the training (45 minutes / day, at least 4 days / week, 8 weeks). Baseline status was documented 4 and 2 weeks before and at training onset. Training effects were assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of therapy. Results After therapy, 9 of 25 study participants improved with respect to the dependency on walking aids assessed by the WISCI II. For all individuals, the short-distance walking velocity measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test showed significant improvements compared to baseline (100%) for both self-selected (Mean 139.4% ± 35.5% (SD)) and maximum (Mean 143.1% ± 40.6% (SD)) speed conditions as well as the endurance estimated with the six-minute walk test (Mean 166.6% ± 72.1% (SD)). One device-related adverse event (pressure sore on the big toe) occurred in over 800 training sessions. Conclusions Home-based robotic locomotion training with MoreGait is feasible and safe. The magnitude of functional improvements achieved by MoreGait in individuals with iSCI is well within the range of complex locomotion robots used in hospitals. Thus, unsupervised MoreGait training potentially represents an option to prolong effective training aiming at recovery of locomotor

  10. Perception and estimation challenges for humanoid robotics: DARPA Robotics Challenge and NASA Valkyrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallon, Maurice

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes ongoing work at the University of Edinburgh's Humanoid Robotics Project. University of Edinburgh have formed a collaboration with the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) around their R5 humanoid robot commonly known as Valkyrie. Also involved are MIT, Northeastern University and the Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) as part of NASA's Space Robotics Challenge. We will outline the development of state estimation and localization algorithms being developed for Valkyrie.

  11. Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  12. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOEpatents

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  13. Robotic Recon for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deans, Matthew; Fong, Terry; Ford, Ken; Heldmann, Jennifer; Helper, Mark; Hodges, Kip; Landis, Rob; Lee, Pascal; Schaber, Gerald; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2009-01-01

    Robotic reconnaissance has the potential to significantly improve scientific and technical return from lunar surface exploration. In particular, robotic recon may increase crew productivity and reduce operational risk for exploration. However, additional research, development and field-testing is needed to mature robot and ground control systems, refine operational protocols, and specify detailed requirements. When the new lunar surface campaign begins around 2020, and before permanent outposts are established, humans will initially be on the Moon less than 10% of the time. During the 90% of time between crew visits, robots will be available to perform surface operations under ground control. Understanding how robotic systems can best address surface science needs, therefore, becomes a central issue Prior to surface missions, lunar orbiters (LRO, Kaguya, Chandrayyan-1, etc.) will map the Moon. These orbital missions will provide numerous types of maps: visible photography, topographic, mineralogical and geochemical distributions, etc. However, remote sensing data will not be of sufficient resolution, lighting, nor view angle, to fully optimize pre-human exploration planning, e.g., crew traverses for field geology and geophysics. Thus, it is important to acquire supplemental and complementary surface data. Robotic recon can obtain such data, using robot-mounted instruments to scout the surface and subsurface at resolutions and at viewpoints not achievable from orbit. This data can then be used to select locations for detailed field activity and prioritize targets to improve crew productivity. Surface data can also help identify and assess terrain hazards, and evaluate alternate routes to reduce operational risk. Robotic recon could be done months in advance, or be part of a continuing planning process during human missions.

  14. Research on the inspection robot for cable tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    Robot by mechanical obstacle, double end communication, remote control and monitoring software components. The mechanical obstacle part mainly uses the tracked mobile robot mechanism, in order to facilitate the design and installation of the robot, the other auxiliary swing arm; double side communication part used a combination of communication wire communication with wireless communication, great improve the communication range of the robot. When the robot is controlled by far detection range, using wired communication control, on the other hand, using wireless communication; remote control part mainly completes the inspection robot walking, navigation, positioning and identification of cloud platform control. In order to improve the reliability of its operation, the preliminary selection of IPC as the control core the movable body selection program hierarchical structure as a design basis; monitoring software part is the core part of the robot, which has a definite diagnosis Can be instead of manual simple fault judgment, instead the robot as a remote actuators, staff as long as the remote control can be, do not have to body at the scene. Four parts are independent of each other but are related to each other, the realization of the structure of independence and coherence, easy maintenance and coordination work. Robot with real-time positioning function and remote control function, greatly improves the IT operation. Robot remote monitor, to avoid the direct contact with the staff and line, thereby reducing the accident casualties, for the safety of the inspection work has far-reaching significance.

  15. Climbing robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerley, James J.; May, Edward L.; Ecklund, Wayne D.

    1993-11-01

    A mobile robot for traversing any surface consisting of a number of interconnected segments, each interconnected segment having an upper 'U' frame member, a lower 'U' frame member, a compliant joint between the upper 'U' frame member and the lower 'U' frame member, a number of linear actuators between the two frame members acting to provide relative displacement between the frame members, a foot attached to the lower 'U' frame member for adherence of the segment to the surface, an inter-segment attachment attached to the upper 'U' frame member for interconnecting the segments, a power source connected to the linear actuator, and a computer/controller for independently controlling each linear actuator in each interconnected segment such that the mobile robot moves in a caterpillar like fashion.

  16. 78 FR 25458 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ..., explained below in further detail. Justification for the Exception to Competition: The Catalyst Foundation... 330 of the PHS Act (H80CS22686), and the sub-grantee to Catalyst that is already providing the clinical care for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C clients. The Catalyst Foundation has...

  17. 75 FR 73110 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of a non-competitive one-time replacement award from Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C... replacement award to support comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS,...

  18. 76 FR 30951 - Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Non-Competitive One-Time Program Expansion Supplement Award of Ryan White HIV/AIDS.../AIDS Program, Part C funds to the Tutwiler Clinic, Tutwiler, Mississippi, to support...

  19. Automated Cutting And Drilling Of Composite Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed automated system precisely cuts and drills large, odd-shaped parts made of composite materials. System conceived for manufacturing lightweight composite parts to replace heavier parts in Space Shuttle. Also useful in making large composite parts for other applications. Includes robot locating part to be machined, positions cutter, and positions drill. Gantry-type robot best suited for task.

  20. Robotic Tool Changer For Automated Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Spencer, Carl N.

    1994-01-01

    Prototype robotic tool changer for automated welding system eliminates need for most manual tool setups and attendant problems: operates rapidly, always chooses designated tool, maneuvers tip of welding torch or other tool in correct position, and reliably connects water, gas, welding wire, high-voltage electrical signals, and ground. Also loads tools other than those for welding. Intended for use in robotic work cell producing all good parts, no rejects. In production, robot welds part, tests for flaws, and reworks as necessary before releasing it.

  1. Robot Guidance Using A Morphological Vision Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lougheed, Robert M.; Tomko, Leonard M.

    1985-12-01

    An algorithm has been developed to guide a robot by identifying the orientation of a randomly-acquired part held in the robot's gripper. A program implementing this algorithm is being used to demonstrate the feasibility of part-independent robotic bin picking*. The project task was to extract unmodified industrial parts from a compartmentalized tray and position them on a fixture. The parts are singulated in the compartments but are positionally and rotationally unconstrained. The part is acquired based upon three-dimensional image data which is processed by a 3D morphological algorithm described in [1]. The vision algorithm discussed here inspects the parts, determines their orientation and calculates the robot trajectory to a keyed housing with which the part must be mated. When parts are extracted during a bin picking operation their position and orientation are affected by many factors, such as gripper insertion-induced motion, interference with container side walls during extraction, slippage due to gravity and vibration during robot motions. The loss of the known position and orientation of the part in the robot gripper makes accurate fixturing impossible. Our solution to this problem was to redetermine the orientation of the part after acquisition. This paper describes the application in detail and discusses the problems encountered in robot acquisition of unconstrained parts. Next, the physical setup and image acquisition system, including lighting and optical components, are discussed. The principles of morphological (shape-based) image processing are presented, followed by a description of the interactive algorithm development process which was used for this project. The algorithm is illustrated step by step with a series of diagrams showing the effects of the transformations applied to the data. The algorithms were run on ERIM' s new fourth generation hybrid image processing architecture, the Cyto-HSS, which is described in detail in [2], and the

  2. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot`s own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup.

  3. Investigation on Requirements of Robotic Platforms to Teach Social Skills to Individuals with Autism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolopoulos, Chris; Kuester, Deitra; Sheehan, Mark; Dhanya, Sneha

    This paper reports on some of the robotic platforms used in the project AUROSO which investigates the use of robots as educationally useful interventions to improve social interactions for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Our approach to treatment uses an educational intervention based on Socially Assistive Robotics (SAR), the DIR/Floortime intervention model and social script/stories. Requirements are established and a variety of robotic models/platforms were investigated as to the feasibility of an economical, practical and efficient means of helping teach social skills to individuals with ASD for use by teachers, families, service providers and other community organizations.

  4. Path Planning for Semi-automated Simulated Robotic Neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Hu, Danying; Gong, Yuanzheng; Hannaford, Blake; Seibel, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the semi-automated robotic surgical procedure for removing the brain tumor margins, where the manual operation is a tedious and time-consuming task for surgeons. We present robust path planning methods for robotic ablation of tumor residues in various shapes, which are represented in point-clouds instead of analytical geometry. Along with the path plans, corresponding metrics are also delivered to the surgeon for selecting the optimal candidate in the automated robotic ablation. The selected path plan is then executed and tested on RAVEN(™) II surgical robot platform as part of the semi-automated robotic brain tumor ablation surgery in a simulated tissue phantom.

  5. Path Planning for Semi-automated Simulated Robotic Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Danying; Gong, Yuanzheng; Hannaford, Blake; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the semi-automated robotic surgical procedure for removing the brain tumor margins, where the manual operation is a tedious and time-consuming task for surgeons. We present robust path planning methods for robotic ablation of tumor residues in various shapes, which are represented in point-clouds instead of analytical geometry. Along with the path plans, corresponding metrics are also delivered to the surgeon for selecting the optimal candidate in the automated robotic ablation. The selected path plan is then executed and tested on RAVEN™ II surgical robot platform as part of the semi-automated robotic brain tumor ablation surgery in a simulated tissue phantom. PMID:26705501

  6. Robot environment expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Robot Environment Expert System uses a hexidecimal tree data structure to model a complex robot environment where not only the robot arm moves, but also the robot itself and other objects may move. The hextree model allows dynamic updating, collision avoidance and path planning over time, to avoid moving objects.

  7. Robotics Algorithms Provide Nutritional Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    On July 5, 1997, a small robot emerged from its lander like an insect from an egg, crawling out onto the rocky surface of Mars. About the size of a child s wagon, NASA s Sojourner robot was the first successful rover mission to the Red Planet. For 83 sols (Martian days, typically about 40 minutes longer than Earth days), Sojourner - largely remote controlled by NASA operators on Earth - transmitted photos and data unlike any previously collected. Sojourner was perhaps the crowning achievement of the NASA Space Telerobotics Program, an Agency initiative designed to push the limits of robotics in space. Telerobotics - devices that merge the autonomy of robotics with the direct human control of teleoperators - was already a part of NASA s efforts; probes like the Viking landers that preceded Sojourner on Mars, for example, were telerobotic applications. The Space Telerobotics Program, a collaboration between Ames Research Center, Johnson Space Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and multiple universities, focused on developing remote-controlled robotics for three main purposes: on-orbit assembly and servicing, science payload tending, and planetary surface robotics. The overarching goal was to create robots that could be guided to build structures in space, monitor scientific experiments, and, like Sojourner, scout distant planets in advance of human explorers. While telerobotics remains a significant aspect of NASA s efforts, as evidenced by the currently operating Spirit and Opportunity Mars rovers, the Hubble Space Telescope, and many others - the Space Telerobotics Program was dissolved and redistributed within the Agency the same year as Sojourner s success. The program produced a host of remarkable technologies and surprising inspirations, including one that is changing the way people eat

  8. Performance Evaluation Methods for Assistive Robotic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Katherine M.; Feil-Seifer, David J.; Matarić, Maja J.; Yanco, Holly A.

    Robots have been developed for several assistive technology domains, including intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders, eldercare, and post-stroke rehabilitation. Assistive robots have also been used to promote independent living through the use of devices such as intelligent wheelchairs, assistive robotic arms, and external limb prostheses. Work in the broad field of assistive robotic technology can be divided into two major research phases: technology development, in which new devices, software, and interfaces are created; and clinical, in which assistive technology is applied to a given end-user population. Moving from technology development towards clinical applications is a significant challenge. Developing performance metrics for assistive robots poses a related set of challenges. In this paper, we survey several areas of assistive robotic technology in order to derive and demonstrate domain-specific means for evaluating the performance of such systems. We also present two case studies of applied performance measures and a discussion regarding the ubiquity of functional performance measures across the sampled domains. Finally, we present guidelines for incorporating human performance metrics into end-user evaluations of assistive robotic technologies.

  9. Biophysical Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Scott

    1987-01-01

    Biophysical interventions as part of an ecological approach to intervention with handicapped children include psychotropic medications (neuroleptics, antidepressants, stimulants, minor tranquilizers and sedatives, lithium); nutritional agents (sugar, vitamins, food allergies); and physical therapies (patterning, optometric training). (DB)

  10. Demonstration of autonomous air monitoring through robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Rancatore, R.

    1989-11-01

    The project included modifying an existing teleoperated robot to include autonomous navigation, large object avoidance, and air monitoring and demonstrating that prototype robot system in indoor and outdoor environments. The robot was also modified to carry a HNU PI-101 Photoionization Detector air monitoring device. A sonar range finder, which already was an integral part of the Surveyor, was repositioned to the front of the robot chassis to detect large obstacles in the path of the robot. In addition, the software of the onboard computer was also extensively modified to provide: navigation control, dynamic steering to smoothly follow the wire-course without hesitation, obstacle avoidance, autonomous shut down and remote reporting of toxic substance detection.

  11. Robots and manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-01-01

    Robots are defined and described for various applications. The key feature of robots is programmability, which allows teleoperation, repair work in hazardous situations, and unsupervised operation in industrial functions. Two types of robots now exist: special purpose, with equipment for a specific task; and general purpose, which include nonservo-controlled robots, servo-controlled robots, and sensory control robots. Sensory robots are the most sophisticated, and are equipped with both internal control sensors and external sensors such as TV cameras, pressure detectors, laser range finders, etc. Sensory feedback to a central computer enables the robots to make appropriate modifications to the control program to adapt to new situations. Pattern recognition and scans for size are features of the TV sensors, and programs to develop a universal effector (hand) are outlined. Finally, robot programming in terms of manual, walkthrough, and textual methods are described, and the potential uses of robots for space and undersea construction and repair are discussed.

  12. [Planning and simulation of minimally-invasive robotic heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Coste-Manière, Eve; Adhami, Louaï; Severac-Bastide, Renault; Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel; Carpentier, Alain

    2002-04-01

    Due to their numerous advantages, mainly in terms of patient benefit, mini-invasive robotically assisted interventions are gaining in importance in various surgical fields. However, this conversion has its own challenges that stem from both its novelty and complexity. In this paper we propose to accompany the surgeons in their transition, by offering an integrated environment that enables them to make better use of this new technology. The proposed system is patient-dependent, and enables the planning, validation, simulation, teaching and archiving of robotically assisted interventions. The approach is illustrated for a coronary bypass graft using the daVinci tele-operated robot.

  13. Robotic Telesurgery Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    dexterous workspace, as in the NB2.1 [5]. This robotic platform is designed specifically for Laparoendoscopic Single - Site Surgery (LESS), and consists...Laparoendoscopic Single - Site Surgery using a Multi-Functional Miniature In Vivo Robot,” The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted...Farritor, S.M., Oleynikov, D. “Laparoendoscopic Single - Site Surgery using a Multi-Functional Miniature In Vivo Robot,” Minimally Invasive Robotic

  14. Robotic Vision for Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  15. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram. Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets; Part B, Remedial action, robotics/automation, waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.L.

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WN) problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remediation, decontamination, and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This volume 3 B provides the Technology Evaluation Data Sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (Remedial Action Robotics and Automation, Waste Management) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than each technology in Vol. 2. The TEDS are arranged alphanumerically by the TEDS code number in the upper right corner of each data sheet. Volume 3 can be used in two ways: (1) technologies that are identified from Vol. 2 can be referenced directly in Vol. 3 by using the TEDS codes, and (2) technologies and general technology areas (alternatives) can be located in the index in the front of this volume.

  16. Cellular assay optimization: part II: the use of a simple integrated robotic work cell to allow the multiplexed batching of cellular assays.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Marie A; Orme, Jonathan P; Roberts, Karen

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the implementation of an automated work cell with commercially available hardware and software, capable of handling up to 15 separate reagents for performing 96-well or 384-well assays but with a small footprint and only a single liquid dispenser and two plate washers. Extremely flexible software was used to enable this simple work cell to perform processes that would traditionally require a much larger, more expensive automation platform. With the development of the C-Myc assays for the targets DYRK, BMX, PERK, and FAK, the authors describe a software solution to multibatch assays to run simultaneously, reducing reagent dead volume and increasing the efficiency of running multiple assays such that the time to generate data across multiple targets was significantly shortened. Although a larger automated system with multiple robotic arms and extensive equipment would also be able to process multiple assays simultaneously, the work cell we have described represents an inexpensive and flexible, easily upgradable option suitable for a wider range of labs.

  17. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  18. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1996-03-12

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 14 figs.

  19. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1996-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  20. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W. Donald

    1994-01-01

    A robotic vehicle (10) for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle (10) comprises forward and rear housings (32 and 12) each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings (32 and 12) are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle (10) also includes at least three selectively extendable members (46), each of which defines a cavity (56) therein. The forward end portion (50) of each extendable member (46) is secured to the forward housing (32) and the rear end portion (48) of each housing is secured to the rear housing (12). Each of the extendable members (46) is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity (56) of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing (32 ) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members (46) is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity (56) of the extendable member (46) such that the distance between the forward housing (32) and the rear housing (12) can be selectively decreased.

  1. Intelligent robotics can boost America's economic growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    A case is made for strategic investment in intelligent robotics as a part of the solution to the problem of improved global competitiveness for U.S. manufacturing, a critical industrial sector. Similar cases are made for strategic investments in intelligent robotics for field applications, construction, and service industries such as health care. The scope of the country's problems and needs is beyond the capability of the private sector alone, government alone, or academia alone to solve independently of the others. National cooperative programs in intelligent robotics are needed with the private sector supplying leadership direction and aerospace and non-aerospace industries conducting the development. Some necessary elements of such programs are outlined. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) can be key players in such national cooperative programs in intelligent robotics for several reasons: (1) human space exploration missions require supervised intelligent robotics as enabling tools and, hence must develop supervised intelligent robotic systems; (2) intelligent robotic technology is being developed for space applications at JSC (but has a strong crosscutting or generic flavor) that is advancing the state of the art and is producing both skilled personnel and adaptable developmental infrastructure such as integrated testbeds; and (3) a NASA JSC Technology Investment Program in Robotics has been proposed based on commercial partnerships and collaborations for precompetitive, dual-use developments.

  2. Bioethics of the refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses: Part 2. A novel approach based on rational non-interventional paternalism.

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, O

    1998-01-01

    Most physicians dealing with Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs) who refuse blood-based treatment are uncertain as to any obligation to educate patients where it concerns the JW blood doctrine itself. They often feel they must unquestioningly comply when demands are framed as religiously based. Recent discussion by dissidents and reformers of morally questionable policies by the JW organisation raise ethical dilemmas about "passive" support of this doctrine by some concerned physicians. In this paper, Part 2, I propose that physicians discuss the misinformation and irrationality behind the blood doctrine with the JW patient by raising questions that provide new perspectives. A meeting should be held non-coercively and in strict confidence, and the patient's decision after the meeting should be fully honoured (non-interventional). A rational deliberation based on new information and a new perspective would enable a certain segment of JW patients to make truly informed, autonomous and rational decisions. PMID:9800583

  3. EVA Robotic Assistant Project: Platform Attitude Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickels, Kevin M.

    2003-01-01

    The Robotic Systems Technology Branch is currently working on the development of an EVA Robotic Assistant under the sponsorship of the Surface Systems Thrust of the NASA Cross Enterprise Technology Development Program (CETDP). This will be a mobile robot that can follow a field geologist during planetary surface exploration, carry his tools and the samples that he collects, and provide video coverage of his activity. Prior experiments have shown that for such a robot to be useful it must be able to follow the geologist at walking speed over any terrain of interest. Geologically interesting terrain tends to be rough rather than smooth. The commercial mobile robot that was recently purchased as an initial testbed for the EVA Robotic Assistant Project, an ATRV Jr., is capable of faster than walking speed outside but it has no suspension. Its wheels with inflated rubber tires are attached to axles that are connected directly to the robot body. Any angular motion of the robot produced by driving over rough terrain will directly affect the pointing of the on-board stereo cameras. The resulting image motion is expected to make tracking of the geologist more difficult. This will either require the tracker to search a larger part of the image to find the target from frame to frame or to search mechanically in pan and tilt whenever the image motion is large enough to put the target outside the image in the next frame. This project consists of the design and implementation of a Kalman filter that combines the output of the angular rate sensors and linear accelerometers on the robot to estimate the motion of the robot base. The motion of the stereo camera pair mounted on the robot that results from this motion as the robot drives over rough terrain is then straightforward to compute. The estimates may then be used, for example, to command the robot s on-board pan-tilt unit to compensate for the camera motion induced by the base movement. This has been accomplished in two ways

  4. Can Robotic Interaction Improve Joint Attention Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Zachary E.; Zheng, Zhi; Swanson, Amy R.; Bekele, Esubalew; Zhang, Lian; Crittendon, Julie A.; Weitlauf, Amy F.; Sarkar, Nilanjan

    2015-01-01

    Although it has often been argued that clinical applications of advanced technology may hold promise for addressing impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), relatively few investigations have indexed the impact of intervention and feedback approaches. This pilot study investigated the application of a novel robotic interaction…

  5. SIR-1: An autonomous mobile sentry robot

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.J.; Klarer, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype mobile robot system configured to function as part of an overall security system at a high security facility. The features of this robot system include specialized software and sensors for navigation without the need for external locator beacons or sign posts, sensors for remote imaging and intruder detection, and data link facilities to communicate information either directly to an electronic security system or to a manned central control center. Other features of the robot system include low weight, compact size, and low power consumption. The robot system can operate either by remote manual control, or it can operate autonomously where the need for direct human control is limited to the global command level. The robot can act as a mobile remote sensing platform for visual alarm assessment or roving patrol, or as an exploratory device in situations potentially hazardous to humans. This robot system may also be used to walk-test intrusion detection sensors as part of a routine test and maintenance program for an interior intrusion detection system (IDS), and to provide a programmable, temporary sensor capability to backup an IDS sensor that has failed. This capability may also be used to provide improved sensor coverage of an area that will be secured on a temporary or short term basis, thereby eliminating the need for a permanent sensor installation. The hardware, software, and operation of this robot system are briefly described.

  6. SIR-1: An autonomous mobile sentry robot

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, J.J.; Klarer, P.R.

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes a prototype mobile robot system configured to function as part of an overall security system at a high security facility. The features of this robot system include specialized software and sensors for navigation without the need for external locator beacons or sign posts, sensors for remote imaging and intruder detection, and data link facilities to communicate information either directly to an electronic security system or to a manned central control center. Other features of the robot system include low weight, compact size, and low power consumption. The robot system can operate either by remote manual control, or it can operate autonomously where the need for direct human control is limited to the global command level. The robot can act as a mobile remote sensing platform for visual alarm assessment or roving patrol, or as an exploratory device in situations potentially hazardous to humans. This robot system may also be used to walk-test intrusion detection sensors as part of a routine test and maintenance program for an interior intrusion detection system (IDS), and to provide a programmable, temporary sensor capability to backup an IDS sensor that has failed. This capability may also be used to provide improved sensor coverage of an area that will be secured on a temporary or short term basis, thereby eliminating the need for a permanent sensor installation. The hardware, software, and operation of this robot system will be briefly described herein.

  7. Interventions for Children and Youth with Autism: Prudent Choices in a World of Exaggerated Claims and Empty Promises. Part II: Legal/Policy Analysis and Recommendations for Selecting Interventions and Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heflin, L. Juane; Simpson, Richard

    1998-01-01

    In this continuation of a discussion of intervention options for educating and treating children with autism, this article discusses court decisions related to intervention options, along with recommendations for choosing interventions and treatments that have the best chance of producing desired outcomes and resolving disputes among professionals…

  8. Robotic Lunar Landers for Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; Hammond, M. S.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L. A.; Kirby, K. W.; Morse, B. J.; Mulac, B. D.; Reed, C. L. B.

    2010-01-01

    The Moon provides an important window into the early history of the Earth, containing information about planetary composition, magmatic evolution, surface bombardment, and exposure to the space environment. Robotic lunar landers to achieve science goals and to provide precursor technology development and site characterization are an important part of program balance within NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). A Robotic Lunar Lan-der mission complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the Moon.

  9. Robot development for nuclear material processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrotti, L.R.; Armantrout, G.A.; Allen, D.C.; Sievers, R.H. Sr.

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Energy is seeking to modernize its special nuclear material (SNM) production facilities and concurrently reduce radiation exposures and process and incidental radioactive waste generated. As part of this program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) lead team is developing and adapting generic and specific applications of commercial robotic technologies to SNM pyrochemical processing and other operations. A working gantry robot within a sealed processing glove box and a telerobot control test bed are manifestations of this effort. This paper describes the development challenges and progress in adapting processing, robotic, and nuclear safety technologies to the application. 3 figs.

  10. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference which examined artificial intelligence and image processing in relation to robotics. Topics considered at the conference included feature extraction and pattern recognition for computer vision, image processing for intelligent robotics, robot sensors, image understanding and artificial intelligence, optical processing techniques in robotic applications, robot languages and programming, processor architectures for computer vision, mobile robots, multisensor fusion, three-dimensional modeling and recognition, intelligent robots applications, and intelligent robot systems.

  11. Humanoid Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linn, Douglas M. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A. (Inventor); Strawser, Phillip A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank N. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a torso, a pair of arms, two hands, a neck, and a head. The torso extends along a primary axis and presents a pair of shoulders. The pair of arms movably extend from a respective one of the pair of shoulders. Each of the arms has a plurality of arm joints. The neck movably extends from the torso along the primary axis. The neck has at least one neck joint. The head movably extends from the neck along the primary axis. The head has at least one head joint. The shoulders are canted toward one another at a shrug angle that is defined between each of the shoulders such that a workspace is defined between the shoulders.

  12. Robotics for Human Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Terrence; Deans, Mathew; Bualat, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Robots can do a variety of work to increase the productivity of human explorers. Robots can perform tasks that are tedious, highly repetitive or long-duration. Robots can perform precursor tasks, such as reconnaissance, which help prepare for future human activity. Robots can work in support of astronauts, assisting or performing tasks in parallel. Robots can also perform "follow-up" work, completing tasks designated or started by humans. In this paper, we summarize the development and testing of robots designed to improve future human exploration of space.

  13. Competencies Identification for Robotics Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Le D.

    A study focused on the task of identifying competencies for robotics training. The level of robotics training was limited to that of robot technicians. Study objectives were to obtain a list of occupational competencies; to rank their order of importance; and to compare opinions from robot manufacturers, robot users, and robotics educators…

  14. Robot strings: Long, thin continuum robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, I. D.

    We describe and discuss the development of long, thin, continuous “ string-like” robots aimed at Space exploration missions. These continuous backbone “ continuum” robots are inspired by numerous biological structures, particularly vines, worms, and the tongues of animals such as the anteater. The key novelty is the high length-to-diameter ratio of the robots. This morphology offers penetration into, and exploration of, significantly narrower and deeper environments than accessible using current robot technology. In this paper, we introduce new design alternatives for long thin continuum robots, based on an analysis and extension of three core existing continuum robot design types. The designs are evaluated based on their mechanical feasibility, structural properties, kinematic simplicity, and degrees of freedom.

  15. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  16. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  17. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully.

    The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  19. Developing a Motion Comic for HIV/STD Prevention for Young People Ages 15-24, Part 2: Evaluation of a Pilot Intervention.

    PubMed

    Willis, Leigh A; Kachur, Rachel; Castellanos, Ted J; Nichols, Kristen; Mendoza, Maria C B; Gaul, Zaneta J; Spikes, Pilgrim; Gamayo, Ashley C; Durham, Marcus D; LaPlace, Lisa; Straw, Julie; Staatz, Colleen; Buge, Hadiza; Hogben, Matthew; Robinson, Susan; Brooks, John; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2016-12-29

    In the United States, young people (ages 15-24 years) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), due at least in part to inadequate or incorrect HIV/STD-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions (KABI). Comic book narratives are a proven method of HIV/STD prevention communication to strengthen KABI for HIV/STD prevention. Motion comics, a new type of comic media, are an engaging and low-cost means of narrative storytelling. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of a pilot six-episode HIV/STD-focused motion comic series to improve HIV/STD-related KABI among young people. We assessed change in HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, condom attitudes, HIV/STD testing attitudes, and behavioral intentions among 138 participants in 15 focus groups immediately before and after viewing the motion comic series. We used paired t-tests and indicators of overall improvement to assess differences between surveys. We found a significant decrease in HIV stigma (p < .001) and increases in both HIV knowledge (p = .002) and behavioral intentions to engage in safe sex (p < .001). In summary, this motion comic intervention improved HIV/STD-related KABI of young adult viewers by reducing HIV stigma and increasing behavioral intentions to engage in safer sex. Our results demonstrate the promise of this novel intervention and support its use to deliver health messages to young people.

  20. Evaluation of Changes in Equine Care and Limb-Related Abnormalities in Working Horses in Jaipur, India, as Part of a Two Year Participatory Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Whay, Helen R.; Dikshit, Amit K.; Hockenhull, Jo; Parker, Richard M. A.; Banerjee, Anindo; Hughes, Sue I.; Pritchard, Joy C.; Reix, Christine E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found the prevalence of lameness in working horses to be 90–100%. Risk factors for lameness in this important equine population, together with risk-reduction strategies adopted by their owners, are poorly understood. The objective was to uncover risk factors for lameness and limb abnormalities in working horses, by associating clinical lameness examination findings on three occasions over two years with owner reported changes in equine management and work practices over this period. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-one communities of horse owners in Jaipur, India, took part in a participatory intervention (PI) project aiming to reduce risk factors for poor welfare, particularly lameness and limb problems. Associations between quantitative measures of equine lameness/limb abnormalities and reported changes in management and work practices were compared with 21 control (C) communities of owners where no intervention had taken place. Key findings from ‘complete cases’, where the same horse stayed with the same owner for the whole study period (PI group = 73 owners of 83 horses, C group = 58 owners of 66 horses), were that more positive statements of change in equine management and work practices were made by PI group owners than C group owners. A mixed picture of potential risk factors emerged: some reported management improvements, for example reducing the weight of the load for cart animals, were associated with improved limbs and lameness, and others, such as making improvements in shoeing and increasing the age at which their animals started work, with negative outcomes. Conclusions/Significance This study illustrates the complexity and interacting nature of risk factors for lameness in working horses, and highlights the importance of longitudinal investigations that recognise and address this. PI group owners found the project useful and requested similar inputs in future. Our findings demonstrate the value of

  1. Evolutionary neurocontrollers for autonomous mobile robots.

    PubMed

    Floreano, D; Mondada, F

    1998-10-01

    In this article we describe a methodology for evolving neurocontrollers of autonomous mobile robots without human intervention. The presentation, which spans from technological and methodological issues to several experimental results on evolution of physical mobile robots, covers both previous and recent work in the attempt to provide a unified picture within which the reader can compare the effects of systematic variations on the experimental settings. After describing some key principles for building mobile robots and tools suitable for experiments in adaptive robotics, we give an overview of different approaches to evolutionary robotics and present our methodology. We start reviewing two basic experiments showing that different environments can shape very different behaviours and neural mechanisms under very similar selection criteria. We then address the issue of incremental evolution in two different experiments from the perspective of changing environments and robot morphologies. Finally, we investigate the possibility of evolving plastic neurocontrollers and analyse an evolved neurocontroller that relies on fast and continuously changing synapses characterized by dynamic stability. We conclude by reviewing the implications of this methodology for engineering, biology, cognitive science and artificial life, and point at future directions of research.

  2. Future robotic platforms in urologic surgery: Recent Developments

    PubMed Central

    Herrell, S. Duke; Webster, Robert; Simaan, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent developments at Vanderbilt University of new robotic technologies and platforms designed for minimally invasive urologic surgery and their design rationale and potential roles in advancing current urologic surgical practice. Recent findings Emerging robotic platforms are being developed to improve performance of a wider variety of urologic interventions beyond the standard minimally invasive robotic urologic surgeries conducted presently with the da Vinci platform. These newer platforms are designed to incorporate significant advantages of robotics to improve the safety and outcomes of transurethral bladder surgery and surveillance, further decrease the invasiveness of interventions by advancing LESS surgery, and allow for previously impossible needle access and ablation delivery. Summary Three new robotic surgical technologies that have been developed at Vanderbilt University are reviewed, including a robotic transurethral system to enhance bladder surveillance and TURBT, a purpose-specific robotic system for LESS, and a needle sized robot that can be used as either a steerable needle or small surgeon-controlled micro-laparoscopic manipulator. PMID:24253803

  3. Report from The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease: cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease (Part 2 - Nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology).

    PubMed

    Bergersen, Lisa; Giroud, Jorge Manuel; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Franklin, Rodney Cyril George; Béland, Marie Josée; Krogmann, Otto Nils; Aiello, Vera Demarchi; Colan, Steven D; Elliott, Martin J; Gaynor, J William; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Maruszewski, Bohdan; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Walters, Henry Lane; Weinberg, Paul; Everett, Allen Dale

    2011-06-01

    Interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease is a relatively young and rapidly evolving field. As the profession begins to establish multi-institutional databases, a universal system of nomenclature is necessary for the field of interventional cardiology for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the efforts of The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease to establish a system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease, focusing both on procedural nomenclature and the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology. This system of nomenclature for cardiovascular catheterisation for congenital and paediatric cardiac disease is a component of The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code. This manuscript is the second part of the two-part series. Part 1 covered the procedural nomenclature associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease. Part 2 will cover the nomenclature of complications associated with interventional cardiology as treatment for paediatric and congenital cardiac disease.

  4. The Gang Intervention Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Arnold P., Ed.; Huff, C. Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides overviews and evaluations of current juvenile-gang-intervention programs and recommends approaches that have been effective in both prevention and rehabilitation. Its three parts, composed of individual essays, examine patterns of ganging and gang intervention, explore the value of psychology-based interventions, and discuss the…

  5. Robotic Lander Prototype

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers successfully integrated and completed system testing on a new robotic lander recently at Teledyne Brown Engineering’s facility in Huntsville in support of the Robotic Lunar Lander ...

  6. Robotic Lander Development Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Robotic Lander Development Project at the Marshall Center is testing a prototype lander that will aid in the design and development of a new generation of small, smart, versatile robotic lander...

  7. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Communications

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, Mike C.

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Comms is the communication server that transmits information between one or more robots using the RIK and one or more user interfaces. It supports event handling and multiple hardware communication protocols.

  8. Robots and the Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albus, James S.

    1984-01-01

    Spectacular advances in microcomputers are forging new technological frontiers in robotics. For example, many factories will be totally automated. Economic implications of the new technology of robotics for the future are examined. (RM)

  9. Robotic Surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic

    2007-03-01

    ZAPATA ENGINEERING challenged our engineers and scientists, which included robotics expertise from Carnegie Mellon University, to design a solution to meet our client's requirements for rapid digital geophysical and radiological data collection of a munitions test range with no down-range personnel. A prime concern of the project was to minimize exposure of personnel to unexploded ordnance and radiation. The field season was limited by extreme heat, cold and snow. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools were used throughout this project to accurately define the limits of mapped areas, build a common mapping platform from various client products, track production progress, allocate resources and relate subsurface geophysical information to geographical features for use in rapidly reacquiring targets for investigation. We were hopeful that our platform could meet the proposed 35 acres per day, towing both a geophysical package and a radiological monitoring trailer. We held our breath and crossed our fingers as the autonomous Speedrower began to crawl across the playa lakebed. We met our proposed production rate, and we averaged just less than 50 acres per 12-hour day using the autonomous platform with a path tracking error of less than +/- 4 inches. Our project team mapped over 1,800 acres in an 8-week (4 days per week) timeframe. The expertise of our partner, Carnegie Mellon University, was recently demonstrated when their two autonomous vehicle entries finished second and third at the 2005 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grand Challenge. 'The Grand Challenge program was established to help foster the development of autonomous vehicle technology that will some day help save the lives of Americans who are protecting our country on the battlefield', said DARPA Grand Challenge Program Manager, Ron Kurjanowicz. Our autonomous remote-controlled vehicle (ARCV) was a modified New Holland 2550 Speedrower retrofitted to allow the machine

  10. NASA's Lunar Robotic Architecture Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulville, Daniel R.

    2006-07-01

    This report documents the findings and analysis of a 60-day agency-wide Lunar Robotic Architecture Study (LRAS) conducted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Work on this study began in January 2006. Its purpose was to: Define a lunar robotics architecture by addressing the following issues: 1) Do we need robotic missions at all? If so, why and under what conditions? 2) How would they be accomplished and at what cost? Are they within budget? 3) What are the minimum requirements? What is the minimum mission set? 4) Integrate these elements together to show a viable robotic architecture. 5) Establish a strategic framework for a lunar robotics program. The LRAS Final Report presents analysis and recommendations concerning potential approaches related to NASA s implementation of the President's Vision for Space Exploration. Project and contract requirements will likely be derived in part from the LRAS analysis and recommendations contained herein, but these do not represent a set of project or contract requirements and are not binding on the U.S. Government unless and until they are formally and expressly adopted as such. Details of any recommendations offered by the LRAS Final Report will be translated into implementation requirements. Moreover, the report represents the assessments and projects of the report s authors at the time it was prepared; it is anticipated that the concepts in this report will be analyzed further and refined. By the time some of the activities addressed in this report are implemented, certain assumptions on which the report s conclusions are based will likely evolve as a result of this analysis. Accordingly, NASA, and any entity under contract with NASA, should not use the information in this report for final project direction. Since the conclusion of this study, there have been various changes to the Agency's current portfolio of lunar robotic precursor activities. First, the Robotic Lunar Exploration Program (RLEP

  11. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  12. Tool Changer For Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanism enables robot to change tools on end of arm. Actuated by motion of robot: requires no additional electrical or pneumatic energy to make or break connection between tool and wrist at end of arm. Includes three basic subassemblies: wrist interface plate attached to robot arm at wrist, tool interface plate attached to tool, and holster. Separate tool interface plate and holster provided for each tool robot uses.

  13. Robotics Research for Cybersecurity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-24

    Wei-Min Shen 1/24/12 Page 1 of 3 Robotics Research for Cybersecurity Wei-Min Shen Polymorphic Robotics Laboratory USC/ISI, 4676 Admiralty Way...Marina del Rey, CA 90292 Phone: 310-448-8710, Fax: 310-822-0751 Email: shen@isi.edu, Web: http://www.isi.edu/ robots / Executive Summary This...project is to conduct a comprehensive study of robotics research in the context of cybersecurity. Specifically, 1) Create a realistic cybersecurity test

  14. Towards Pervasive Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Towards Pervasive Robotics Artur M. Arsenio Artificial Intelligence Lab - Massachusetts Institute of Technology 545 Technology Square, Room NE43-936...MA 02139 arsenio@ai.mit.edu Abstract Pervasive robotics will require, in a near future, small, light and cheap robots that exhibit complex behaviors...These demands led to the development of the M2-M4 Macaco project - a robotic active vi- sion head. Macaco is a portable system, capable of emulating

  15. Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-20

    Ground Vehicle Robotics Jim Parker Associate Director, Ground Vehicle Robotics UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A. Approved for public...DATE 20 AUG 2013 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 09-05-2013 to 15-08-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a...Willing to take Risk on technology -User Evaluated -Contested Environments -Operational Data Applied Robotics for Installation & Base Ops -Low Risk

  16. Robots could assist scientists working in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    GREENLAND—Tom Lane and Suk Joon Lee, recent graduates of Dartmouth University's Thayer School of Engineering, in Hanover, N. H., are standing outside in the frigid cold testing an autonomous robot that could help with scientific research and logistics in harsh polar environments. This summer, Lane, Lee, and others are at Summit Station, a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored scientific research station in Greenland, fine-tuning a battery-powered Yeti robot as part of a team working on the NSF-funded Cool Robot project. The station, also known as Summit Camp, is located on the highest point of the Greenland Ice Sheet (72°N, 38°W, 3200 meters above sea level) near the middle of the island. It is a proving ground this season for putting the approximately 68-kilogram, 1-cubic-meter robot through its paces, including improving Yeti's mobility capabilities and field-testing the robot. (See the electronic supplement to this Eos issue for a video of Yeti in action (http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/).) During field-testing, plans call for the robot to collect data on elevation and snow surface characteristics, including accumulation. In addition, the robot will collect black carbon and elemental carbon particulate matter air samples around Summit Camp's power generator to help study carbon dispersion over snow.

  17. Here today, gone tomorrow: biodegradable soft robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Winfield, Jonathan; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges to modern technologies is what to do with them when they go irreparably wrong or come to the end of their productive lives. The convention, since the development of modern civilisation, is to discard a broken item and then procure a new one. In the 20th century enlightened environmentalists campaigned for recycling and reuse (R and R). R and R has continued to be an important part of new technology development, but there is still a huge problem of non-recyclable materials being dumped into landfill and being discarded in the environment. The challenge is even greater for robotics, a field which will impact on all aspects of our lives, where discards include motors, rigid elements and toxic power supplies and batteries. One novel solution is the biodegradable robot, an active physical machine that is composed of biodegradable materials and which degrades to nothing when released into the environment. In this paper we examine the potential and realities of biodegradable robotics, consider novel solutions to core components such as sensors, actuators and energy scavenging, and give examples of biodegradable robotics fabricated from everyday, and not so common, biodegradable electroactive materials. The realisation of truly biodegradable robots also brings entirely new deployment, exploration and bio-remediation capabilities: why track and recover a few large non-biodegradable robots when you could speculatively release millions of biodegradable robots instead? We will consider some of these exciting developments and explore the future of this new field.

  18. Robot-assisted Therapy in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2013-09-01

    Research into rehabilitation robotics has grown rapidly and the number of therapeutic rehabilitation robots has expanded dramatically during the last two decades. Robotic rehabilitation therapy can deliver high-dosage and high-intensity training, making it useful for patients with motor disorders caused by stroke or spinal cord disease. Robotic devices used for motor rehabilitation include end-effector and exoskeleton types; herein, we review the clinical use of both types. One application of robot-assisted therapy is improvement of gait function in patients with stroke. Both end-effector and the exoskeleton devices have proven to be effective complements to conventional physiotherapy in patients with subacute stroke, but there is no clear evidence that robotic gait training is superior to conventional physiotherapy in patients with chronic stroke or when delivered alone. In another application, upper limb motor function training in patients recovering from stroke, robot-assisted therapy was comparable or superior to conventional therapy in patients with subacute stroke. With end-effector devices, the intensity of therapy was the most important determinant of upper limb motor recovery. However, there is insufficient evidence for the use of exoskeleton devices for upper limb motor function in patients with stroke. For rehabilitation of hand motor function, either end-effector and exoskeleton devices showed similar or additive effects relative to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke. The present evidence supports the use of robot-assisted therapy for improving motor function in stroke patients as an additional therapeutic intervention in combination with the conventional rehabilitation therapies. Nevertheless, there will be substantial opportunities for technical development in near future.

  19. Robotic rectal surgery: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Minuzzo, Alessio; Badii, Benedetta; Qirici, Etleva; Trallori, Giacomo; Mallardi, Beatrice; Lami, Gabriele; Macrì, Giuseppe; Bonanomi, Andrea; Bagnoli, Siro; Perigli, Giuliano; Cianchi, Fabio

    2016-11-15

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words "rectum", "rectal", "cancer", "laparoscopy", "robot". After the initial screen of 266 articles, 43 papers were selected for review. A total of 3013 patients were included in the review. The most commonly performed intervention was low anterior resection (1450 patients, 48.1%), followed by anterior resections (997 patients, 33%), ultra-low anterior resections (393 patients, 13%) and abdominoperineal resections (173 patients, 5.7%). Robotic rectal surgery seems to offer potential advantages especially in low anterior resections with lower conversions rates and better preservation of the autonomic function. Quality of mesorectum and status of and circumferential resection margins are similar to those obtained with conventional laparoscopy even if robotic rectal surgery is undoubtedly associated with longer operative times. This review demonstrated that robotic rectal surgery is both safe and feasible but there is no evidence of its superiority over laparoscopy in terms of postoperative, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications. In conclusion robotic rectal surgery seems to overcome some of technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery especially for tumors requiring low and ultra-low anterior resections but this technical improvement seems not to provide, until now, any significant clinical advantages to the patients.

  20. Vocal Production of Young Children with Disabilities during Child-Robot Interactions. Social Robots Research Reports, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The effects of a socially interactive robot on the vocalization production of five children with disabilities (4 with autism, 1 with a sensory processing disorder) were the focus of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes and involved…

  1. Robotics of human movements.

    PubMed

    van der Smagt, Patrick; Grebenstein, Markus; Urbanek, Holger; Fligge, Nadine; Strohmayr, Michael; Stillfried, Georg; Parrish, Jonathon; Gustus, Agneta

    2009-01-01

    The construction of robotic systems that can move the way humans do, with respect to agility, stability and precision, is a necessary prerequisite for the successful integration of robotic systems in human environments. We explain human-centered views on robotics, based on the three basic ingredients (1) actuation; (2) sensing; and (3) control, and formulate detailed examples thereof.

  2. Building a Better Robot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Kids love to build robots, letting their imaginations run wild with thoughts of what they might look like and what they could be programmed to do. Yet when students use cereal boxes and found objects to make robots, often the projects look too similar and tend to fall apart. This alternative allows students to "build" robots in a different way,…

  3. Robotics development programs overview

    SciTech Connect

    Heckendorn, F.M.

    1990-11-01

    This paper discusses the applications of robotics at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) continues to provide support to the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many areas of Robotics and Remote Vision. An overview of the current and near term future developments are presented. The driving forces for Robotics and Vision developments at SRS include the classic reasons for industrial robotics installation (i.e. repetitive and undesirable jobs) and those reasons related to radioactive environments. Protection of personnel from both radiation and radioactive contamination benefit greatly from both Robotics and Telerobotics. Additionally, the quality of information available from remote locations benefits greatly from the ability to visually monitor and remotely sense. The systems discussed include a glovebox waste handling and bagout robot, a shielded cells robot for radioactive waste sample transfer, waste handling gantry robots, a two armed master/slave manipulator as an attachment to a gantry robot, navigation robot research/testing, demonstration of the mobile underwater remote cleaning and inspection device, a camera deployment robot to support remote crane operations and for deployment of radiation sensors directly over a hazardous site, and demonstration of a large mobile robot for high radiation environments. Development of specialized and limited life vision/viewing systems for hazardous environments is also discussed.

  4. Networking a mobile robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Gerard T.

    1994-10-01

    Conventional mobile robotic systems are `stand alone'. Program development involves loading programs into the mobile, via an umbilical. Autonomous operation, in this context, means `isolation': the user cannot interact with the program as the robot is moving around. Recent research in `swarm robotics' has exploited wireless networks as a means of providing inter- robot communication, but the population is still isolated from the human user. In this paper we report on research we are conducting into the provision of mobile robots as resources on a local area computer network, and thus breaking the isolation barrier. We are making use of new multimedia workstation and wireless networking technology to link the robots to the network in order to provide a new type of resource for the user. We model the robot as a set of resources and propose a client-server architecture as the basis for providing user access to the robots. We describe the types of resources each robot can provide and we outline the potential for cooperative robotics, human-robot cooperation, and teleoperation and autonomous robot behavior within this context.

  5. Robotic Telesurgery Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    concepts have been pursued to provide imaging capabilities for use in robotic surgery . The first concept involves developing a camera system that...Oleynikov, D. Project Title: CAESAR: Computer Automated Enhanced Support and Analysis for Robotic Surgery Source of Support: Intelligent Automation, Inc...successful autonomous robotic surgery . REFERENCES Dolghi, O., Strabala, K., Wortman, T., Goede, M., Farritor, S., & Oleynikov. (2010). Miniature

  6. Mobile robot knowledge base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath Pastore, Tracy; Barnes, Mitchell; Hallman, Rory

    2005-05-01

    Robot technology is developing at a rapid rate for both commercial and Department of Defense (DOD) applications. As a result, the task of managing both technology and experience information is growing. In the not-to-distant past, tracking development efforts of robot platforms, subsystems and components was not too difficult, expensive, or time consuming. To do the same today is a significant undertaking. The Mobile Robot Knowledge Base (MRKB) provides the robotics community with a web-accessible, centralized resource for sharing information, experience, and technology to more efficiently and effectively meet the needs of the robot system user. The resource includes searchable information on robot components, subsystems, mission payloads, platforms, and DOD robotics programs. In addition, the MRKB website provides a forum for technology and information transfer within the DOD robotics community and an interface for the Robotic Systems Pool (RSP). The RSP manages a collection of small teleoperated and semi-autonomous robotic platforms, available for loan to DOD and other qualified entities. The objective is to put robots in the hands of users and use the test data and fielding experience to improve robot systems.

  7. Total portal robotic pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jose R

    2013-09-01

    Robotic pulmonary lobectomies have been reported to be technically and oncologically achievable; however, only three robotic pneumonectomy cases have been described. Two of them used a mini thoracotomy. We describe one case of a total portal robotic pneumonectomy without utility incision. We describe the step-by-step process.

  8. Inertially Aided Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-31

    0031 dis~bti:,1 is uitsnjt( Deczmllcr 31: 1989 92-05530 2:.-: 3o : T >VE?-A ~ : Inertially Aided Robotics FINAL REPORT for Contract No. DAAHO1 -88-D-0057...1 2 Advantages of Inertially Aided Robotics ...86 iii List of Figures Figure 1 - Robot Manipulator having Joint Sensor Based Control ..................... 2

  9. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel-Visualization is the software that supports the user interface. It uses the RIK-C software to communicate information to and from the robot. The RIK-V illustrates the data in a 3D display and provides an operating picture wherein the user can task the robot.

  10. Robotic Follow Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Robotic Follow Algorithm enables allows any robotic vehicle to follow a moving target while reactively choosing a route around nearby obstacles. The robotic follow behavior can be used with different camera systems and can be used with thermal or visual tracking as well as other tracking methods such as radio frequency tags.

  11. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-11-11

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs.

  12. Modular robot

    DOEpatents

    Ferrante, Todd A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold.

  13. Conference on Intelligent Robotics in Field, Factory, Service and Space (CIRFFSS 1994), Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Jon D. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The AIAA/NASA Conference on Intelligent Robotics in Field, Factory, Service, and Space (CIRFFSS '94) was originally proposed because of the strong belief that America's problems of global economic competitiveness and job creation and preservations can partly be solved by the use of intelligent robotics, which are also required for human space exploration missions. Individual sessions addressed the following topics: (1) vision systems integration and architecture; (2) selective perception and human robot interaction; (3) robotic systems technology; (4) military and other field applications; (5) dual-use precommercial robotic technology; (6) building operations; (7) planetary exploration applications; (8) planning; (9) new directions in robotics; and (10) commercialization.

  14. Ask a Futurist. Peace [and] Robots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Earl C.

    A futurist addresses two questions concerning world peace and the implications of using robots. In the section on peace (part 1), recommendations for world peace include: (1) implementing peace education as a mandatory part of education; (2) establishing a Department of Peace in each country to create a societal infrastructure for implementing…

  15. A comprehensive and conservative approach for the restoration of abrasion and erosion. Part I: concepts and clinical rationale for early intervention using adhesive techniques.

    PubMed

    Dietschi, Didier; Argente, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Tooth wear represents a frequent pathology with multifactorial origins. Behavioral changes, unbalanced diet, various medical conditions and medications inducing acid regurgitation or influencing saliva composition and flow rate, trigger tooth erosion. Awake and sleep bruxism, which are widespread nowadays with functional disorders, induce attrition. It has become increasingly important to diagnose early signs of tooth wear so that proper preventive, and if needed, restorative measures are taken. Such disorders have biological, functional, and also esthetic consequences. Following a comprehensive clinical evaluation, treatment objectives, such as a proper occlusal and anatomical scheme as well as a pleasing smile line, are usually set on models with an anterior teeth full-mouth waxup, depending on the severity of tissue loss. Based on the new vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO), combinations of direct and indirect restorations can then help to reestablish anatomy and function. The use of adhesive techniques and resin composites has demonstrated its potential, in particular for the treatment of moderate tooth wear. Part I of this article reviews recent knowledge and clinical concepts dealing with the various forms of early restorative interventions and their potential to restrict ongoing tissue destruction.

  16. Intelligent robots and computer vision

    SciTech Connect

    Casasent, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on artificial intelligence and robot vision. Topics considered at the conference included pattern recognition, image processing for intelligent robotics, three-dimensional vision (depth and motion), vision modeling and shape estimation, spatial reasoning, the symbolic processing visual information, robotic sensors and applications, intelligent control architectures for robot systems, robot languages and programming, human-machine interfaces, robotics applications, and architectures of robotics.

  17. Increased robotic capabilities for lead preparation and component insertion on printed wiring assemblies: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Groot, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    Printed Wiring Assembly (PWA) Robotics development work has increased the capabilities of the robotic component preparation (RCP) workcell to include a mechanism to trim and preform component leads, a part feeder system for radial-leaded components (capacitors and transistors), a fixture to orient axial-lead component marking, the use of dummy parts to separate the component types in the RCP carousel, and the use of the RCP controller to automatically keep track of the quantities of components loaded into the RCP carousel. These changes have reduced the amount of standard hours required to process the components for printed wiring assemblies (PWAs) with a resulting significant cost savings. An order for robotic component insertion system (RCIS) was released for purchase in May 1986 and is scheduled to be shipped to Bendix Kansas City Division (BKC) in the third quarter FY87. An interface system was designed to automate the storage and handling of components between the RCP and RCIS in order to reduce the amount of production operator intervention.

  18. Study on the special vision sensor for detecting position error in robot precise TIG welding of some key part of rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenzeng; Chen, Nian; Wang, Bin; Cao, Yipeng

    2005-01-01

    Rocket engine is a hard-core part of aerospace transportation and thrusting system, whose research and development is very important in national defense, aviation and aerospace. A novel vision sensor is developed, which can be used for error detecting in arc length control and seam tracking in precise pulse TIG welding of the extending part of the rocket engine jet tube. The vision sensor has many advantages, such as imaging with high quality, compactness and multiple functions. The optics design, mechanism design and circuit design of the vision sensor have been described in detail. Utilizing the mirror imaging of Tungsten electrode in the weld pool, a novel method is proposed to detect the arc length and seam tracking error of Tungsten electrode to the center line of joint seam from a single weld image. A calculating model of the method is proposed according to the relation of the Tungsten electrode, weld pool, the mirror of Tungsten electrode in weld pool and joint seam. The new methodologies are given to detect the arc length and seam tracking error. Through analyzing the results of the experiments, a system error modifying method based on a linear function is developed to improve the detecting precise of arc length and seam tracking error. Experimental results show that the final precision of the system reaches 0.1 mm in detecting the arc length and the seam tracking error of Tungsten electrode to the center line of joint seam.

  19. [Robotics in pediatric surgery].

    PubMed

    Camps, J I

    2011-10-01

    Despite the extensive use of robotics in the adult population, the use of robotics in pediatrics has not been well accepted. There is still a lack of awareness from pediatric surgeons on how to use the robotic equipment, its advantages and indications. Benefit is still controversial. Dexterity and better visualization of the surgical field are one of the strong values. Conversely, cost and a lack of small instruments prevent the use of robotics in the smaller patients. The aim of this manuscript is to present the controversies about the use of robotics in pediatric surgery.

  20. Miniaturized autonomous robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Hidenori; Fukuda, Toshio

    1998-01-01

    Many projects developing the miniaturized autonomous robot have been carried out in the whole world. This paper deals with our challenges developing a miniaturized autonomous robot. The miniaturized autonomous robot is defined as the miniaturized closed-loop system with micro processor, microactuators and microsensors. We have developed the micro autonomous robotic system (MARS) consisting of the microprocessor, microsensors, microactuators, communication units and batteries. The MARS controls itself by the downloaded program supplied through the IR communication system. In this paper, we demonstrate several performance of the MARS, and discuss the properties of the miniaturized autonomous robot.

  1. Robotic technology in urology

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D; Challacombe, B; Khan, M S; Dasgupta, P

    2006-01-01

    Urology has increasingly become a technology‐driven specialty. The advent of robotic surgical systems in the past 10 years has led to urologists becoming the world leaders in the use of such technology. In this paper, we review the history and current status of robotic technology in urology. From the earliest uses of robots for transurethral resection of the prostate, to robotic devices for manipulating laparoscopes and to the current crop of master–slave devices for robotic‐assisted laparoscopic surgery, the evolution of robotics in the urology operating theatre is presented. Future possibilities, including the prospects for nanotechnology in urology, are awaited. PMID:17099094

  2. Robotics Technical Note 102.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    IAfl-AIBZ 4U2 AIR FORCE BUSINESS RESEARCH MANAGEMENT CENTER WRIGHT-ETC F/6 13/8 I ROBOTICS TECHNIICAL NOTE 102.(U) JUN Al B M BLABIERSALL UNCLASSIFE...CATALOG uME 1T4.T7- Subtitle S. TYPE OF REPOR & PERIOO COVERED Technical Note 102 Robotics 𔄁 FInal r ---- 6. PERFORMING O1G. REPORT NUMBER C 7. A tNORa B...Identify by block number) Robotics Manufacturing Industrial Robots Robot Technology SRobotics Application BQ~.STRACT (Continue on revere* side It

  3. Computing Dynamics Of A Robot Of 6+n Degrees Of Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiocho, Leslie J.; Bailey, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    Improved formulation speeds and simplifies computation of dynamics of robot arm of n rotational degrees of freedom mounted on platform having three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom. Intended for use in dynamical modeling of robotic manipulators attached to such moving bases as spacecraft, aircraft, vessel, or land vehicle. Such modeling important part of simulation and control of robotic motions.

  4. Robotic Design Studio: Exploring the Big Ideas of Engineering in a Liberal Arts Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turbak, Franklyn; Berg, Robbie

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that it is important to introduce liberal arts students to the essence of engineering. Describes Robotic Design Studio, a course in which students learn how to design, assemble, and program robots made out of LEGO parts, sensors, motors, and small embedded computers. Represents an alternative vision of how robot design can be used to…

  5. Autonomous surgical robotics using 3-D ultrasound guidance: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Whitman, John; Fronheiser, Matthew P; Ivancevich, Nikolas M; Smith, Stephen W

    2007-10-01

    The goal of this study was to test the feasibility of using a real-time 3D (RT3D) ultrasound scanner with a transthoracic matrix array transducer probe to guide an autonomous surgical robot. Employing a fiducial alignment mark on the transducer to orient the robot's frame of reference and using simple thresholding algorithms to segment the 3D images, we tested the accuracy of using the scanner to automatically direct a robot arm that touched two needle tips together within a water tank. RMS measurement error was 3.8% or 1.58 mm for an average path length of 41 mm. Using these same techniques, the autonomous robot also performed simulated needle biopsies of a cyst-like lesion in a tissue phantom. This feasibility study shows the potential for 3D ultrasound guidance of an autonomous surgical robot for simple interventional tasks, including lesion biopsy and foreign body removal.

  6. Robotic-assisted angioplasty: current status and future possibilities.

    PubMed

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Weisz, Giora

    2012-10-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has seen steady technological progress over the past 3 decades. Despite improved patient safety and efficacy, modern interventionalists continue to face significant occupational hazards, including radiation exposure, cataracts, and orthopedic injuries. Robotic remote navigation systems have been developed to address risks and procedural challenges associated with conventional PCI. The first in-human experience using a modern robotic system for PCI yielded excellent results, with an overall technical success rate of 97.9 %. A larger multicenter prospective registry with this system is currently underway. Robotic PCI technology holds promise to reduce operator radiation exposure and musculoskeletal complaints. Postulated benefits to patients include more accurate lesion length calculations, precise stent placement, and reductions in radiation exposure and contrast-media delivery. The development of novel robotic remote control navigation systems represents the dawn of a new era of interventional cardiology.

  7. Robotic Toys as a Catalyst for Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highfield, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and metacognitive…

  8. Robotic arm skate for stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chee Kit; Jordan, Kimberlee; King, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Upper limb paresis after stroke greatly affects the performance of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Unfortunately, rehabilitation for upper limb impairment can have poor results. The current robot-assisted devices are expensive and not readily accessible for homecare. This paper presents the development of a low-cost tabletop robotic device for upper limb rehabilitation. Conceptually, patients perform computer-based goal-directed tasks using the robotic platform. Their progress is monitored and intervention, in the form of assistance or resistance, is introduced accordingly. A prototype platform is described. Experiments demonstrate the ability of the device to provide the necessary forces during movement exercises, in relation to task completion progress, device and target location. Appropriate exercises need to be developed before clinical trials can proceed.

  9. Survey of robotic surgery training in obstetrics and gynecology residency.

    PubMed

    Gobern, Joseph M; Novak, Christopher M; Lockrow, Ernest G

    2011-01-01

    To examine the status of resident training in robotic surgery in obstetrics and gynecology programs in the United States, an online survey was emailed to residency program directors of 247 accredited programs identified through the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education website. Eighty-three of 247 program directors responded, representing a 34% response rate. Robotic surgical systems for gynecologic procedures were used at 65 (78%) institutions. Robotic surgery training was part of residency curriculum at 48 (58%) residency programs. Half of respondents were undecided on training effectiveness. Most program directors believed the role of robotic surgery would increase and play a more integral role in gynecologic surgery. Robotic surgery was widely reported in residency training hospitals with limited availability of effective resident training. Robotic surgery training in obstetrics and gynecology residency needs further assessment and may benefit from a structured curriculum.

  10. Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Basteris, Angelo; Nijenhuis, Sharon M; Stienen, Arno H A; Buurke, Jaap H; Prange, Gerdienke B; Amirabdollahian, Farshid

    2014-07-10

    Robot-mediated post-stroke therapy for the upper-extremity dates back to the 1990s. Since then, a number of robotic devices have become commercially available. There is clear evidence that robotic interventions improve upper limb motor scores and strength, but these improvements are often not transferred to performance of activities of daily living. We wish to better understand why. Our systematic review of 74 papers focuses on the targeted stage of recovery, the part of the limb trained, the different modalities used, and the effectiveness of each. The review shows that most of the studies so far focus on training of the proximal arm for chronic stroke patients. About the training modalities, studies typically refer to active, active-assisted and passive interaction. Robot-therapy in active assisted mode was associated with consistent improvements in arm function. More specifically, the use of HRI features stressing active contribution by the patient, such as EMG-modulated forces or a pushing force in combination with spring-damper guidance, may be beneficial.Our work also highlights that current literature frequently lacks information regarding the mechanism about the physical human-robot interaction (HRI). It is often unclear how the different modalities are implemented by different research groups (using different robots and platforms). In order to have a better and more reliable evidence of usefulness for these technologies, it is recommended that the HRI is better described and documented so that work of various teams can be considered in the same group and categories, allowing to infer for more suitable approaches. We propose a framework for categorisation of HRI modalities and features that will allow comparing their therapeutic benefits.

  11. Training modalities in robot-mediated upper limb rehabilitation in stroke: a framework for classification based on a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Robot-mediated post-stroke therapy for the upper-extremity dates back to the 1990s. Since then, a number of robotic devices have become commercially available. There is clear evidence that robotic interventions improve upper limb motor scores and strength, but these improvements are often not transferred to performance of activities of daily living. We wish to better understand why. Our systematic review of 74 papers focuses on the targeted stage of recovery, the part of the limb trained, the different modalities used, and the effectiveness of each. The review shows that most of the studies so far focus on training of the proximal arm for chronic stroke patients. About the training modalities, studies typically refer to active, active-assisted and passive interaction. Robot-therapy in active assisted mode was associated with consistent improvements in arm function. More specifically, the use of HRI features stressing active contribution by the patient, such as EMG-modulated forces or a pushing force in combination with spring-damper guidance, may be beneficial. Our work also highlights that current literature frequently lacks information regarding the mechanism about the physical human-robot interaction (HRI). It is often unclear how the different modalities are implemented by different research groups (using different robots and platforms). In order to have a better and more reliable evidence of usefulness for these technologies, it is recommended that the HRI is better described and documented so that work of various teams can be considered in the same group and categories, allowing to infer for more suitable approaches. We propose a framework for categorisation of HRI modalities and features that will allow comparing their therapeutic benefits. PMID:25012864

  12. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  13. Clinical designs of recent robot rehabilitation trials.

    PubMed

    Lo, Albert C

    2012-11-01

    Rehabilitation robots are increasingly being tested and promoted for clinical neurorehabilitation. Compared with conventional and manual methods, robots allow for a variety of advantages, particularly in the areas of interventional control and the ability to provide a high volume of facilitated movement. Since 1997, there have been more than 60 clinical trials reporting the use of two dozen different robots for neurorehabilitation. Although there are a number of smaller pilot studies, there are only few larger clinical trials. There may be a number of reasons why pilot robot studies do not materialize into larger studies. Beyond devices that failed to perform as intended, what are the clinical design issues that have limited these studies? Some basic considerations include randomization, inclusion of a control group, power calculation based on a clinically meaningful outcome, and finally, reproducible descriptions of the intervention being tested. Although many of these issues are general challenges presented for all rehabilitation studies, there are clinical design features that would likely greatly improve interpretation of results and better position robot devices toward the next clinical trial step. On the other hand, the absence of these elements, even in the setting of a pilot study, may significantly hamper the interpretation of results and not yield sufficient information on treatment effects, adverse event rates, dropout rate, and so on, to allow further testing to proceed to follow-up Food and Drug Administration phase II and III studies. Development of rehabilitation robots for clinical use needs to occur hand in hand with well-conducted clinical trials to provide evidence of efficacy while also taking into account costs.

  14. PARASURG hybrid parallel robot for minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Pisla, D; Gherman, B; Plitea, N; Gyurka, B; Vaida, C; Vlad, L; Graur, F; Radu, C; Suciu, M; Szilaghi, A; Stoica, A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the parallel hybrid robot, PARASURG 9M, for robotically assisted surgery, a robot which was entirely designed and produced in Romania. It is a versatile robot, being composed of a positioning and orientation module, PARASURG 5M with five degrees of freedom, having the possibility of attaching at its end either a laparoscope or an active surgical instrument for cutting/grasping, PARASIM, with four degrees of freedom. Based on its mathematical modelling, the first low-cost experimental model of the surgical robot has been built. The robot is part of the surgical robotic system, PARAMIS, with three arms, one used as a laparoscope holder, and other two for manipulating active instruments. When it is used as a manipulator of the camera, the user has the possibility to give commands in a large area for the positioning of the laparoscope using different interfaces: joystick, microphone, keyboard & mouse and haptic device. If the active surgical instrument, PARASIM, is attached, the robot commands are given through a haptic device. The main features that make the PARASURG 9M surgical robot suited for minimally invasive surgery are: precision, the elimination of the natural tremor of the surgeon, direct control over a smooth, precise, stable view of the internal surgical field for the surgeon. It also eliminates the need of a second surgeon to be present for the entire procedure (in the case of using the robot as a camera holder). In addition, there is improvement of surgeon dexterity in the case of using the PARASIM active instrument and better ergonomics in using the robot (in the case of the classic laparoscopy, the surgeon must adopt a difficult position for a long period of time, while the robot never gets tired). Having a relatively easy to understand, intuitive commanding system, the surgeons can rapidly adapt to the use of the PARASURG 9M robot in surgical procedures.

  15. Compliant Robot Wrist Senses Deflections And Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, Lloyd R.; Strempek, Franklin; Premack, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    Precise parts assembled without damage. Goddard Space Flight Center developed compliant wrist that moves in any direction and rotates about any axis in response to applied forces. Deflection calibrated and instrumented so control computer measures degree of deflection and derives magnitude and direction of applied forces and torques. Compliant wrist brings to robots important capabilities humans use in manipulating objects. Helps prevent damage to precise, delicate parts during assembly by robot. Rod lengths, spring stiffnesses, and type of displacement sensor changed to suit different applications.

  16. Development of the drug-exposed infant identification algorithm (DEIIA) and its application to measuring part C early intervention referral and eligibility in Massachusetts, 1998-2005.

    PubMed

    Derrington, Taletha Mae

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop an algorithm using government-collected administrative data to identify prenatally drug-exposed infants (DEI) and determine the percent who were referred to and eligible for Part C Early Intervention (EI) in Massachusetts. Data from the population-based Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal (PELL) Data System were used to develop the Drug-Exposed Infant Identification Algorithm (DEIIA). The DEIIA uses positive toxicology screens on the birth certificate and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes in hospital records of the mother (prenatal and birth) and infant (birth and postnatal) to identify infants affected by substance abuse/dependence, withdrawal, and/or prenatal exposure to non-medical use of controlled substances. PELL-EI data linkages were used to determine the percent referred, evaluated, and eligible. The DEIIA identified 7,348 drug-exposed infants born in Massachusetts from 1998 to 2005 to resident mothers (1.2 % of all births). Most DEI (82.6 %) were identified from maternal/infant birth hospital records. Sixty-one percent of all DEI were referred to EI; 87.2 % of those referred were evaluated, and 89.4 % of those evaluated were found eligible. EI data contained information on drug exposure for 59.9 % of referred DEI. Only 2.8 % of MA resident births who were referred to EI but not identified by the DEIIA had drug indicators in EI data. DEI referrals to EI are federally mandated, but many are not referred. The DEIIA uses data available in most states and could be used as a public health screening tool to improve access to developmental services for DEI.

  17. Compliant Prosthetic Or Robotic Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James J.; Eklund, Wayne D.

    1989-01-01

    Rotation partly free and partly restrained by resilience and damping. Joint includes U-shaped x- and y-axis frames joined by cables that cross in at center piece. The y-axis frame rotates about y-axis on roller bearing within predetermined angular range. The y-axis frame rotates slightly farther when arm strikes stop, because cables can twist. This mimics compliant resistance of knee joint reaching limit of its forward or backward motion. Used in prosthetic device to replace diseased or damage human joint, or in robot linkage to limit movement and cushion overloads.

  18. Forming Human-Robot Teams Across Time and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambuchen, Kimberly; Burridge, Robert R.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Bluethmann, William J.; Diftler, Myron A.; Radford, Nicolaus A.

    2012-01-01

    NASA pushes telerobotics to distances that span the Solar System. At this scale, time of flight for communication is limited by the speed of light, inducing long time delays, narrow bandwidth and the real risk of data disruption. NASA also supports missions where humans are in direct contact with robots during extravehicular activity (EVA), giving a range of zero to hundreds of millions of miles for NASA s definition of "tele". . Another temporal variable is mission phasing. NASA missions are now being considered that combine early robotic phases with later human arrival, then transition back to robot only operations. Robots can preposition, scout, sample or construct in advance of human teammates, transition to assistant roles when the crew are present, and then become care-takers when the crew returns to Earth. This paper will describe advances in robot safety and command interaction approaches developed to form effective human-robot teams, overcoming challenges of time delay and adapting as the team transitions from robot only to robots and crew. The work is predicated on the idea that when robots are alone in space, they are still part of a human-robot team acting as surrogates for people back on Earth or in other distant locations. Software, interaction modes and control methods will be described that can operate robots in all these conditions. A novel control mode for operating robots across time delay was developed using a graphical simulation on the human side of the communication, allowing a remote supervisor to drive and command a robot in simulation with no time delay, then monitor progress of the actual robot as data returns from the round trip to and from the robot. Since the robot must be responsible for safety out to at least the round trip time period, the authors developed a multi layer safety system able to detect and protect the robot and people in its workspace. This safety system is also running when humans are in direct contact with the robot

  19. Robotic rectal surgery: State of the art

    PubMed Central

    Staderini, Fabio; Foppa, Caterina; Minuzzo, Alessio; Badii, Benedetta; Qirici, Etleva; Trallori, Giacomo; Mallardi, Beatrice; Lami, Gabriele; Macrì, Giuseppe; Bonanomi, Andrea; Bagnoli, Siro; Perigli, Giuliano; Cianchi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic rectal surgery has demonstrated its superiority over the open approach, however it still has some technical limitations that lead to the development of robotic platforms. Nevertheless the literature on this topic is rapidly expanding there is still no consensus about benefits of robotic rectal cancer surgery over the laparoscopic one. For this reason a review of all the literature examining robotic surgery for rectal cancer was performed. Two reviewers independently conducted a search of electronic databases (PubMed and EMBASE) using the key words “rectum”, “rectal”, “cancer”, “laparoscopy”, “robot”. After the initial screen of 266 articles, 43 papers were selected for review. A total of 3013 patients were included in the review. The most commonly performed intervention was low anterior resection (1450 patients, 48.1%), followed by anterior resections (997 patients, 33%), ultra-low anterior resections (393 patients, 13%) and abdominoperineal resections (173 patients, 5.7%). Robotic rectal surgery seems to offer potential advantages especially in low anterior resections with lower conversions rates and better preservation of the autonomic function. Quality of mesorectum and status of and circumferential resection margins are similar to those obtained with conventional laparoscopy even if robotic rectal surgery is undoubtedly associated with longer operative times. This review demonstrated that robotic rectal surgery is both safe and feasible but there is no evidence of its superiority over laparoscopy in terms of postoperative, clinical outcomes and incidence of complications. In conclusion robotic rectal surgery seems to overcome some of technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery especially for tumors requiring low and ultra-low anterior resections but this technical improvement seems not to provide, until now, any significant clinical advantages to the patients. PMID:27895814

  20. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  1. GRACE and GEORGE: Autonomous Robots for the AAAI Robot Challenge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    GRACE and GEORGE: Autonomous Robots for the AAAI Robot Challenge Reid Simmons, Allison Bruce, Dani Goldberg, Adam Goode, Michael Montemerlo, Nicholas...2004 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GRACE and GEORGE: Autonomous Robots for the AAAI Robot Challenge 5a. CONTRACT...Simmons. “A Social Robot that Stands in Line.” Autonomous Robots , 12:3 pp.313-324, May 2002. [Ortony, 1988] A. Ortony, G. L. Clore, and A. Collins

  2. Collective search by mobile robots using alpha-beta coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Robinett, R. III

    1998-04-01

    One important application of mobile robots is searching a geographical region to locate the origin of a specific sensible phenomenon. Mapping mine fields, extraterrestrial and undersea exploration, the location of chemical and biological weapons, and the location of explosive devices are just a few potential applications. Teams of robotic bloodhounds have a simple common goal; to converge on the location of the source phenomenon, confirm its intensity, and to remain aggregated around it until directed to take some other action. In cases where human intervention through teleoperation is not possible, the robot team must be deployed in a territory without supervision, requiring an autonomous decentralized coordination strategy. This paper presents the alpha beta coordination strategy, a family of collective search algorithms that are based on dynamic partitioning of the robotic team into two complementary social roles according to a sensor based status measure. Robots in the alpha role are risk takers, motivated to improve their status by exploring new regions of the search space. Robots in the beta role are motivated to improve but are conservative, and tend to remain aggregated and stationary until the alpha robots have identified better regions of the search space. Roles are determined dynamically by each member of the team based on the status of the individual robot relative to the current state of the collective. Partitioning the robot team into alpha and beta roles results in a balance between exploration and exploitation, and can yield collective energy savings and improved resistance to sensor noise and defectors. Alpha robots waste energy exploring new territory, and are more sensitive to the effects of ambient noise and to defectors reporting inflated status. Beta robots conserve energy by moving in a direct path to regions of confirmed high status.

  3. Nasa's Ant-Inspired Swarmie Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leucht, Kurt W.

    2016-01-01

    As humans push further beyond the grasp of earth, robotic missions in advance of human missions will play an increasingly important role. These robotic systems will find and retrieve valuable resources as part of an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) strategy. They will need to be highly autonomous while maintaining high task performance levels. NASA Kennedy Space Center has teamed up with the Biological Computation Lab at the University of New Mexico to create a swarm of small, low-cost, autonomous robots to be used as a ground-based research platform for ISRU missions. The behavior of the robot swarm mimics the central-place foraging strategy of ants to find and collect resources in a previously unmapped environment and return those resources to a central site. This talk will guide the audience through the Swarmie robot project from its conception by students in a New Mexico research lab to its robot trials in an outdoor parking lot at NASA. The software technologies and techniques used on the project will be discussed, as well as various challenges and solutions that were encountered by the development team along the way.

  4. Costing Human Rights and Community Support Interventions as a Part of Universal Access to HIV Treatment and Care in a Southern African Setting

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Louisa; Akugizibwe, Paula; Clayton, Michaela; Amon, Joseph J; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Bennett, Rod; Stegling, Christine; Baggaley, Rachel; Kahn, James G; Holmes, Charles B; Garg, Navneet; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Mack, Christina DeFilippo; Williams, Phoebe; Smyth, Caoimhe; Vitoria, Marco; Crowley, Siobhan; Williams, Brian; McClure, Craig; Granich, Reuben; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has both individual health benefits and potential to decrease HIV incidence. Ensuring access to HIV services is a significant human rights issue and successful programmes require adequate human rights protections and community support. However, the cost of specific human rights and community support interventions for equitable, sustainable and non-discriminatory access to ART are not well described. Human rights and community support interventions were identified using the literature and through consultations with experts. Specific costs were then determined for these health sector interventions. Population and epidemic data were provided through the Statistics South Africa 2009 national mid-year estimates. Costs of scale up of HIV prevention and treatment were taken from recently published estimates. Interventions addressed access to services, minimising stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV, confidentiality, informed consent and counselling quality. Integrated HIV programme interventions included training for counsellors, ‘Know Your Rights’ information desks, outreach campaigns for most at risk populations, and adherence support. Complementary measures included post-service interviews, human rights abuse monitoring, transportation costs, legal assistance, and funding for human rights and community support organisations. Other essential non-health sector interventions were identified but not included in the costing framework. The annual costs for the human rights and community support interventions are United States (US) $63.8 million (US $1.22 per capita), representing 1.5% of total health sector HIV programme costs. Respect for human rights and community engagement can be understood both as an obligation of expanded ART programmes and as a critically important factor in their success. Basic rights-based and community support interventions constitute only a small percentage of overall

  5. Humanlike Robots - The Upcoming Revolution in Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-01-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  6. Humanlike robots: the upcoming revolution in robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2009-08-01

    Humans have always sought to imitate the human appearance, functions and intelligence. Human-like robots, which for many years have been a science fiction, are increasingly becoming an engineering reality resulting from the many advances in biologically inspired technologies. These biomimetic technologies include artificial intelligence, artificial vision and hearing as well as artificial muscles, also known as electroactive polymers (EAP). Robots, such as the vacuum cleaner Rumba and the robotic lawnmower, that don't have human shape, are already finding growing use in homes worldwide. As opposed to other human-made machines and devices, this technology raises also various questions and concerns and they need to be addressed as the technology advances. These include the need to prevent accidents, deliberate harm, or their use in crime. In this paper the state-of-the-art of the ultimate goal of biomimetics, the development of humanlike robots, the potentials and the challenges are reviewed.

  7. INL Multi-Robot Control Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Multi-Robot Control Interface controls many robots through a single user interface. The interface includes a robot display window for each robot showing the robot’s condition. More than one window can be used depending on the number of robots. The user interface also includes a robot control window configured to receive commands for sending to the respective robot and a multi-robot common window showing information received from each robot.

  8. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-01-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  9. Robots in modern industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is presented of robotic device types and capabilities, and an assessment is made of the relative benefits they confer in present and planned numbers on such industrial countries as Japan, the U.S., and West Germany. Attention is also given to possible social impacts of large-scale implementation, and the need for close consultation between management and labor is stressed. It is reported that, while the hourly cost of robot labor remained at between $4.00 and $4.60 over the period 1960-present, human hourly labor costs (including fringe benefits) have risen from less than $4.00 to nearly $17.00. Among the types of devices described are: (1) remotely controlled manipulator vehicles; (2) undersea robotic craft; (3) servo-controlled robots; and (4) articulated robots. Also covered are robot programming languages derived from such standard languages as ALGOL, FORTRAN, and BASIC.

  10. ROBOTIC SURGERY: BIOETHICAL ASPECTS

    PubMed Central

    SIQUEIRA-BATISTA, Rodrigo; SOUZA, Camila Ribeiro; MAIA, Polyana Mendes; SIQUEIRA, Sávio Lana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The use of robots in surgery has been increasingly common today, allowing the emergence of numerous bioethical issues in this area. Objective: To present review of the ethical aspects of robot use in surgery. Method: Search in Pubmed, SciELO and Lilacs crossing the headings "bioethics", "surgery", "ethics", "laparoscopy" and "robotic". Results: Of the citations obtained, were selected 17 articles, which were used for the preparation of the article. It contains brief presentation on robotics, its inclusion in health and bioethical aspects, and the use of robots in surgery. Conclusion: Robotic surgery is a reality today in many hospitals, which makes essential bioethical reflection on the relationship between health professionals, automata and patients. PMID:28076489

  11. Robotic surgical simulation.

    PubMed

    Liss, Michael A; McDougall, Elspeth M

    2013-01-01

    Robotic surgery has undergone exponential growth and has ever developing utilization. The explosion of new technologies and regulation have led to challenges in training surgeons who desire this skill set. We review the current state of robotic simulation and incorporation of simulation into surgical training curricula. In addition to the literature review, results of a questionnaire survey study of 21 expert and novice surgeons attending a Urologic Robotic Oncology conference using 3 different robotic skill simulation devices are discussed. An increasing number of robotic surgery simulators have had some degree of validation study of their use in surgical education curricula and proficiency testing. Although simulators are advantageous, confirmation of construct and predictive validity of robotic simulators and their reliability as a training tool will be necessary before they are integrated into the surgical credentialing process.

  12. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  13. Survival of falling robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  14. Robotics and expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at ROBEXS' 86, the Second Annual Workshop on Robotics and Expert Systems. Many diverse perspectives on automation problems, and on the merging of robotics and expert systems technology with conventional systems, are contained in this book. The contents include: Integrated Expert Systems Applications; Expert Systems Theory and Applications, Robotics, Intelligent Control, CAD/CAE/CAM, AI Tools, Human Factors, and intelligent Interfaces.

  15. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  16. NASA Robot Brain Surgeon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical Engineer Michael Guerrero works on the Robot Brain Surgeon testbed in the NeuroEngineering Group at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. Principal investigator Dr. Robert W. Mah states that potentially the simple robot will be able to feel brain structures better than any human surgeon, making slow, very precise movements during an operation. The brain surgery robot that may give surgeons finer control of surgical instruments during delicate brain operations is still under development.

  17. TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-30

    TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics Mr. Jim Parker, Associate Director Dr. Greg Hudas, Chief Engineer UNCLASSIFIED: Distribution Statement A (OPSEC...TARDEC Ground Vehicle Robotics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Jim Parker; Greg Hudas 5d. PROJECT...Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned Ground Vehicles

  18. A Modular Robotic Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    DATES COVERED AD-A232 007 Januar 1991 professional paper5 FUNOING NUMBERS A MODULAR ROBOTIC ARCHITECTURE PR: ZE92 WU: DN300029 PE: 0602936N - S. AUTHOR...mobile robots will help alleviate these problems, and, if made widely available, will promote standardization and compatibility among systems throughout...the industry. The Modular Robotic Architecture (MRA) is a generic control system that meets the above needs by providing developers with a standard set

  19. Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-14

    Mr. Jim Parker Associate Director Ground Vehicle Robotics Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release Report Documentation Page...Briefing 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2012 to 01-08-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Vehicle Robotics Presentation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...ABSTRACT Provide Transition-Ready, Cost-Effective, and Innovative Robotics and Control System Solutions for Manned, Optionally-Manned, and Unmanned

  20. Robotic Security Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    robotic security platforms that automatically respond in an adaptive fashion to potential disturbances reported by a broad-area field of fixed unattended...sensors represents a powerful new defensive tool for mitigating the terrorist threat. Background The primary purpose of any robotic system is to...mobile robots , the predominant challenge is one of perception, in that the very nature of mobility introduces a never-ending sequence of dynamically

  1. Army Medical Robotics Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Army Medical Robotics Research Gary Gilbert, Ph.D., U.S. Army TATRC, Ph: (301) 619-4043, Fax: (301) 619-2518 gilbert@tatrc.org, www.tatrc.org...politically sensitive low intensity combat in urban terrain. Research progress has been made in the areas of robotics ; artificial intelligence...institutions have demonstrated intelligent robots that execute functions ranging from performing mechanical repairs to playing soccer. The military has

  2. Robotics Strategy White Paper

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-19

    VIRGINIA 23651-1087 REPlY TO A1Tl!NTlON OF ATFC-DS 19 MEMORANDUM FOR SEE DISTRIBUTION SUBJECT: Robotics Strategy White Paper 1. The enclosed... Robotics Strategy White Paper is the result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Anny Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and the Tank-Automotive...Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC). This paper builds on a confederated Anny robotics "strategy" that is described by senior leader

  3. AMAS Robotics Seminar Brief

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-19

    Unclassified Unclassified 19 July 2011 AMAS ROBOTICS SEMINAR BRIEF Aaron Hart, Product Integrator, RS JPO DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for...19-07-2011 to 19-07-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE robotics seminar brief 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AMAS ROBOTICS SEMINAR BRIEF 14

  4. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    D-Ai42 488 ARTIFICIAL INEELLIGENCE AND ROBOTICS (U) MASSACHUSETTS i/1 INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAB M BRADY FEB 84 AI-M-756...Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT A PERIOD COVERED Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER...Identify by block niiniber) -. Since Robotics is the field concerned with the connection of perception to action, Artificial Intelligence must have a

  5. Compliant Robotic Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    robotic structure is one or more continuously flexible arms -hat can be controlled to manipulate objects. A typical arm is comprised of ... of ideas for the design of versatile, strong robotic manipulators. In this paper a mathematical model of an elephant trunk lifting a weight is...Results may be used for the design of robotic actuators driven by internal pressure. I,g or 67 I* .,.. INTRODUCTION Improvement in the

  6. Industrial robots: Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Iu. G.

    Topics covered include terms, definitions, and classification; operator-directed manipulators; autooperators as used in automated pressure casting; construction and application of industrial robots; and the operating bases of automated systems. Attention is given to adaptive and interactive robots; gripping mechanisms; applications to foundary production, press-forging plants, heat treatment, welding, and assembly operations. A review of design recommendations includes a determination of fundamental structural and technological indicators for industrial robots and a consideration of drive mechanisms.

  7. Development of Methodologies, Metrics, and Tools for Investigating Human-Robot Interaction in Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezer, Neta; Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis; Sandor, Aniko; Boyer, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), Robonaut, and Space Exploration Vehicle (SEV), as well as interviews with robotics trainers, robot operators, and developers of gesture interfaces. A survey of methods and metrics used in HRI was completed to identify those most applicable to space robotics. These methods and metrics included techniques and tools associated with task performance, the quantification of human-robot interactions and communication, usability, human workload, and situation awareness. The need for more research in areas such as natural interfaces, compensations for loss of signal and poor video quality, psycho-physiological feedback, and common HRI testbeds were identified. The initial findings from these activities and planned future research are discussed. Human-robot systems are expected to have a central role in future space exploration missions that extend beyond low-earth orbit [1]. As part of a directed research project funded by NASA s Human Research Program (HRP), researchers at the Johnson Space Center have started to use a variety of techniques, including literature reviews, case studies, knowledge capture, field studies, and experiments to understand critical human-robot interaction (HRI) variables for current and future systems. Activities accomplished to date include observations of the International Space Station s Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator

  8. Genetic and antigenic characterization of H5, H6 and H9 avian influenza viruses circulating in live bird markets with intervention in the center part of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Chu, Duc-Huy; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Matsuno, Keita; Hiono, Takahiro; Ogasawara, Kohei; Nguyen, Lam Thanh; Van Nguyen, Long; Nguyen, Tien Ngoc; Nguyen, Thuy Thu; Van Pham, Dong; Nguyen, Dang Hoang; Nguyen, Tho Dang; To, Thanh Long; Van Nguyen, Hung; Kida, Hiroshi; Sakoda, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-30

    A total of 3,045 environmental samples and oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs from apparently healthy poultry have been collected at three live bird markets (LBMs) at which practices were applied to reduce avian influenza (AI) virus transmission (intervention LBMs) and six conventional LBMs (non-intervention LBMs) in Thua Thien Hue province in 2014 to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention LBMs. The 178 AI viruses, including H3 (19 viruses), H4 (2), H5 (8), H6 (30), H9 (114), and H11 (5), were isolated from domestic ducks, muscovy ducks, chickens, and the environment. The prevalence of AI viruses in intervention LBMs (6.1%; 95% CI: 5.0-7.5) was similar to that in non-intervention LBMs (5.6%; 95% CI: 4.5-6.8; χ(2)=0.532; df=1; P=0.53) in the study area. Eight H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses were isolated from apparently healthy ducks, muscovy ducks, and an environmental sample in an intervention LBM. The hemagglutinin genes of the H5N6 HPAI viruses belonged to the genetic clade 2.3.4.4, and the antigenicity of the H5N6 HPAI viruses differed from the H5N1 HPAI viruses previously circulating in Vietnam. Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses of the H6 and H9 viruses isolated in both types of LBMs revealed that they were closely related to the viruses isolated from domestic birds in China, Group II of H6 viruses and Y280 lineage of H9 viruses. These results indicate that the interventions currently applied in LBMs are insufficient to control AI. A risk analysis should be conducted to identify the key factors contributing to AI virus prevalence in intervention LBMs.

  9. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  10. Children's Perception and Interpretation of Robots and Robot Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhamjee, Sajida; Griffiths, Frances; Palmer, Julie

    Technology is advancing rapidly; especially in the field of robotics. The purpose of this study was to examine children's perception and interpretation of robots and robot behaviour. The study was divided into two phases: phase one involved 144 children (aged 7-8) from two primary schools drawing a picture of a robot and then writing a story about the robot that they had drawn. In phase two, in small groups, 90 children observed four e-puck robots interacting within an arena. The children were asked three questions during the observation: 'What do you think the robots are doing?', 'Why are they doing these things?' and 'What is going on inside the robot?' The results indicated that children can hold multiple understandings of robots simultaneously. Children tend to attribute animate characteristics to robots. Although this may be explained by their stage of development, it may also influence how their generation integrates robots into society.

  11. Hopping Robot with Wheels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Edward; Marzwell, Nevellie; Fuller, Sawyer; Fionni, Paolo; Tretton, Andy; Burdick, Joel; Schell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    A small prototype mobile robot is capable of (1) hopping to move rapidly or avoid obstacles and then (2) moving relatively slowly and precisely on the ground by use of wheels in the manner of previously reported exploratory robots of the "rover" type. This robot is a descendant of a more primitive hopping robot described in "Minimally Actuated Hopping Robot" (NPO- 20911), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 50. There are many potential applications for robots with hopping and wheeled-locomotion (roving) capabilities in diverse fields of endeavor, including agriculture, search-and-rescue operations, general military operations, removal or safe detonation of land mines, inspection, law enforcement, and scientific exploration on Earth and remote planets. The combination of hopping and roving enables this robot to move rapidly over very rugged terrain, to overcome obstacles several times its height, and then to position itself precisely next to a desired target. Before a long hop, the robot aims itself in the desired hopping azimuth and at a desired takeoff angle above horizontal. The robot approaches the target through a series of hops and short driving operations utilizing the steering wheels for precise positioning.

  12. Human-Robot Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  13. Robotics for welding research

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, G.; Jones, J.

    1984-09-01

    The welding metallurgy research and education program at Colorado School of Mines (CSM) is helping industries make the transition toward automation by training students in robotics. Industry's interest is primarily in pick and place operations, although robotics can increase efficiency in areas other than production. Training students to develop fully automated robotic welding systems will usher in new curriculum requirements in the area of computers and microprocessors. The Puma 560 robot is CSM's newest acquisition for welding research 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Advanced robot locomotion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  15. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  16. Experiments in autonomous robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Center for Engineering Systems Advanced Research (CESAR) is performing basic research in autonomous robotics for energy-related applications in hazardous environments. The CESAR research agenda includes a strong experimental component to assure practical evaluation of new concepts and theories. An evolutionary sequence of mobile research robots has been planned to support research in robot navigation, world sensing, and object manipulation. A number of experiments have been performed in studying robot navigation and path planning with planar sonar sensing. Future experiments will address more complex tasks involving three-dimensional sensing, dexterous manipulation, and human-scale operations.

  17. Hazardous Environment Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed video overlay calibration and demonstration techniques for ground-based telerobotics. Through a technology sharing agreement with JPL, Deneb Robotics added this as an option to its robotics software, TELEGRIP. The software is used for remotely operating robots in nuclear and hazardous environments in industries including automotive and medical. The option allows the operator to utilize video to calibrate 3-D computer models with the actual environment, and thus plan and optimize robot trajectories before the program is automatically generated.

  18. The Citizenship Project part II: impact of a citizenship intervention on clinical and community outcomes for persons with mental illness and criminal justice involvement.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Ashley; O'Connell, Maria J; Bellamy, Chyrell; Benedict, Patricia; Rowe, Michael

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of an intervention based on a theoretical framework of citizenship on reducing psychiatric symptoms, alcohol use, and drug use, and increasing quality of life for persons with serious mental illness (SMI) and criminal justice involvement. One-hundred fourteen adults with SMI and a history of criminal justice involvement participated in a 2 × 3 longitudinal randomized controlled trial of a four-month citizenship intervention versus usual services. Linear mixed model analyses were used to assess the intervention's impact on quality of life, symptoms, and substance use. After controlling for baseline covariates, participants in the experimental condition reported significantly increased quality of life, greater satisfaction with and amount of activity, higher satisfaction with work, and reduced alcohol and drug use over time. However, individuals in the experimental condition also reported increased anxiety/depression and agitation at 6 months (but not 12 months) and significantly increased negative symptoms at 12 months. Findings suggest that community-oriented, citizenship interventions for persons with SMI and criminal justice histories may facilitate improved clinical and community outcomes in some domains, but some negative clinical findings suggest the need for post-intervention support for intervention participants. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  19. Strategy for robot motion and path planning in robot taping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qilong; Chen, I.-Ming; Lembono, Teguh Santoso; Landén, Simon Nelson; Malmgren, Victor

    2016-06-01

    Covering objects with masking tapes is a common process for surface protection in processes like spray painting, plasma spraying, shot peening, etc. Manual taping is tedious and takes a lot of effort of the workers. The taping process is a special process which requires correct surface covering strategy and proper attachment of the masking tape for an efficient surface protection. We have introduced an automatic robot taping system consisting of a robot manipulator, a rotating platform, a 3D scanner and specially designed taping end-effectors. This paper mainly talks about the surface covering strategies for different classes of geometries. The methods and corresponding taping tools are introduced for taping of following classes of surfaces: Cylindrical/extended surfaces, freeform surfaces with no grooves, surfaces with grooves, and rotational symmetrical surfaces. A collision avoidance algorithm is introduced for the robot taping manipulation. With further improvements on segmenting surfaces of taping parts and tape cutting mechanisms, such taping solution with the taping tool and the taping methodology can be combined as a very useful and practical taping package to assist humans in this tedious and time costly work.

  20. Software for Secondary-School Learning About Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Robert O.; Smith, Stephanie L.; Truong, Dat; Hodgson, Terry R.

    2005-01-01

    The ROVer Ranch is an interactive computer program designed to help secondary-school students learn about space-program robotics and related basic scientific concepts by involving the students in simplified design and programming tasks that exercise skills in mathematics and science. The tasks involve building simulated robots and then observing how they behave. The program furnishes (1) programming tools that a student can use to assemble and program a simulated robot and (2) a virtual three-dimensional mission simulator for testing the robot. First, the ROVer Ranch presents fundamental information about robotics, mission goals, and facts about the mission environment. On the basis of this information, and using the aforementioned tools, the student assembles a robot by selecting parts from such subsystems as propulsion, navigation, and scientific tools, the student builds a simulated robot to accomplish its mission. Once the robot is built, it is programmed and then placed in a three-dimensional simulated environment. Success or failure in the simulation depends on the planning and design of the robot. Data and results of the mission are available in a summary log once the mission is concluded.

  1. Soft Robotics: from scientific challenges to technological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laschi, C.

    2016-05-01

    Soft robotics is a recent and rapidly growing field of research, which aims at unveiling the principles for building robots that include soft materials and compliance in the interaction with the environment, so as to exploit so-called embodied intelligence and negotiate natural environment more effectively. Using soft materials for building robots poses new technological challenges: the technologies for actuating soft materials, for embedding sensors into soft robot parts, for controlling soft robots are among the main ones. This is stimulating research in many disciplines and many countries, such that a wide community is gathering around initiatives like the IEEE TAS TC on Soft Robotics and the RoboSoft CA - A Coordination Action for Soft Robotics, funded by the European Commission. Though still in its early stages of development, soft robotics is finding its way in a variety of applications, where safe contact is a main issue, in the biomedical field, as well as in exploration tasks and in the manufacturing industry. And though the development of the enabling technologies is still a priority, a fruitful loop is growing between basic research and application-oriented research in soft robotics.

  2. Current status of robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Obama, Kazutaka; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    Although over 3000 da Vinci Surgical System (DVSS) devices have been installed worldwide, robotic surgery for gastric cancer has not yet become widely spread and is only available in several advanced institutions. This is because, at least in part, the advantages of robotic surgery for gastric cancer remain unclear. The safety and feasibility of robotic gastrectomy have been demonstrated in several retrospective studies. However, no sound evidence has been reported to support the superiority of a robotic approach for gastric cancer treatment. In addition, the long-term clinical outcomes following robotic gastrectomy have yet to be clarified. Nevertheless, a robotic approach can potentially overcome the disadvantages of conventional laparoscopic surgery if the advantageous functions of this technique are optimized, such as the use of wristed instruments, tremor filtering and high-resolution 3-D images. The potential advantages of robotic gastrectomy have been discussed in several retrospective studies, including the ability to achieve sufficient lymphadenectomy in the area of the splenic hilum, reductions in local complication rates and a shorter learning curve for the robotic approach compared to conventional laparoscopic gastrectomy. In this review, we present the current status and discuss issues regarding robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

  3. Artificial consciousness, artificial emotions, and autonomous robots.

    PubMed

    Cardon, Alain

    2006-12-01

    Nowadays for robots, the notion of behavior is reduced to a simple factual concept at the level of the movements. On another hand, consciousness is a very cultural concept, founding the main property of human beings, according to themselves. We propose to develop a computable transposition of the consciousness concepts into artificial brains, able to express emotions and consciousness facts. The production of such artificial brains allows the intentional and really adaptive behavior for the autonomous robots. Such a system managing the robot's behavior will be made of two parts: the first one computes and generates, in a constructivist manner, a representation for the robot moving in its environment, and using symbols and concepts. The other part achieves the representation of the previous one using morphologies in a dynamic geometrical way. The robot's body will be seen for itself as the morphologic apprehension of its material substrata. The model goes strictly by the notion of massive multi-agent's organizations with a morphologic control.

  4. Robotics and nuclear power. Report by the Technology Transfer Robotics Task Team

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    A task team was formed at the request of the Department of Energy to evaluate and assess technology development needed for advanced robotics in the nuclear industry. The mission of these technologies is to provide the nuclear industry with the support for the application of advanced robotics to reduce nuclear power generating costs and enhance the safety of the personnel in the industry. The investigation included robotic and teleoperated systems. A robotic system is defined as a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. A teleoperated system includes an operator who remotely controls the system by direct viewing or through a vision system.

  5. Multi-robot control interface

    DOEpatents

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods and systems for controlling a plurality of robots through a single user interface include at least one robot display window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot display window illustrating one or more conditions of a respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes at least one robot control window for each of the plurality of robots with the at least one robot control window configured to receive one or more commands for sending to the respective one of the plurality of robots. The user interface further includes a multi-robot common window comprised of information received from each of the plurality of robots.

  6. Canadian space robotic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaberger, Christian; Space Plan Task Force, Canadian Space Agency

    The Canadian Space Agency has chosen space robotics as one of its key niche areas, and is currently preparing to deliver the first flight elements for the main robotic system of the international space station. The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is the Canadian contribution to the international space station. It consists of three main elements. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) is a 7-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm. The Special Purpose Dextrous Manipulator (SPDM), a smaller 2-metre, 7-dof, robotic arm can be used independently, or attached to the end of the SSRMS. The Mobile Base System (MBS) will be used as a support platform and will also provide power and data links for both the SSRMS and the SPDM. A Space Vision System (SVS) has been tested on Shuttle flights, and is being further developed to enhance the autonomous capabilities of the MSS. The CSA also has a Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics Program which is developing new technologies to fulfill future robotic space mission needs. This program is currently developing in industry technological capabilities in the areas of automation of operations, autonomous robotics, vision systems, trajectory planning and object avoidance, tactile and proximity sensors, and ground control of space robots. Within the CSA, a robotic testbed and several research programs are also advancing technologies such as haptic devices, control via head-mounted displays, predictive and preview displays, and the dynamic characterization of robotic arms. Canada is also now developing its next Long Term Space Plan. In this context, a planetary exploration program is being considered, which would utilize Canadian space robotic technologies in this new arena.

  7. Robotic thermal battery pellet fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbler, D. L.; Townsend, A. S.; Walton, R. D.; Jones, C. W.

    1985-03-01

    Thermal battery manufacturing at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) is a sequence of operations involving materials processing, component manufacture, and assembly. These operations, for the most part, were manually performed although some operation were computer or fixture assisted. The high labor intensity and the need for process consistency in these operations made the conversion to a robotic work cell appealing in that it could increase productivity while allowing the reassignment of highly trained workers to other duties. An Alpha robot (Microbot, Inc.) was coupled with a Hewlett-Packard HP-9816 microcomputer, and custom software was developed to control the thermal battery manufacturing process. The software provided a menu driven main program with feedback at virtually every step to allow technicians with little or no computer experience to operate the system. Previously, one or two workers were assigned to each of several industrial presses used in the manufacture of thermal batteries. With the introduction of a robotic operator and a microcomputer process control, one worker alone could support two to three presses.

  8. How do robots take two parts apart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajcsy, Ruzena K.; Tsikos, Constantine J.

    1989-01-01

    This research is a natural progression of efforts which begun with the introduction of a new research paradigm in machine perception, called Active Perception. There it was stated that Active Perception is a problem of intelligent control strategies applied to data acquisition processes which will depend on the current state of the data interpretation, including recognition. The disassembly/assembly problem is treated as an Active Perception problem, and a method for autonomous disassembly based on this framework is presented.

  9. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  10. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called “androids” have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  11. Piezoelectrically Actuated Robotic System for MRI-Guided Prostate Percutaneous Therapy.

    PubMed

    Su, Hao; Shang, Weijian; Cole, Gregory; Li, Gang; Harrington, Kevin; Camilo, Alexander; Tokuda, Junichi; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fischer, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a fully-actuated robotic system for percutaneous prostate therapy under continuously acquired live magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The system is composed of modular hardware and software to support the surgical workflow of intra-operative MRI-guided surgical procedures. We present the development of a 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) needle placement robot for transperineal prostate interventions. The robot consists of a 3-DOF needle driver module and a 3-DOF Cartesian motion module. The needle driver provides needle cannula translation and rotation (2-DOF) and stylet translation (1-DOF). A custom robot controller consisting of multiple piezoelectric motor drivers provides precision closed-loop control of piezoelectric motors and enables simultaneous robot motion and MR imaging. The developed modular robot control interface software performs image-based registration, kinematics calculation, and exchanges robot commands and coordinates between the navigation software and the robot controller with a new implementation of the open network communication protocol OpenIGTLink. Comprehensive compatibility of the robot is evaluated inside a 3-Tesla MRI scanner using standard imaging sequences and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss is limited to 15%. The image deterioration due to the present and motion of robot demonstrates unobservable image interference. Twenty-five targeted needle placements inside gelatin phantoms utilizing an 18-gauge ceramic needle demonstrated 0.87 mm root mean square (RMS) error in 3D Euclidean distance based on MRI volume segmentation of the image-guided robotic needle placement procedure.

  12. Piezoelectrically Actuated Robotic System for MRI-Guided Prostate Percutaneous Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hao; Shang, Weijian; Cole, Gregory; Li, Gang; Harrington, Kevin; Camilo, Alexander; Tokuda, Junichi; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a fully-actuated robotic system for percutaneous prostate therapy under continuously acquired live magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance. The system is composed of modular hardware and software to support the surgical workflow of intra-operative MRI-guided surgical procedures. We present the development of a 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) needle placement robot for transperineal prostate interventions. The robot consists of a 3-DOF needle driver module and a 3-DOF Cartesian motion module. The needle driver provides needle cannula translation and rotation (2-DOF) and stylet translation (1-DOF). A custom robot controller consisting of multiple piezoelectric motor drivers provides precision closed-loop control of piezoelectric motors and enables simultaneous robot motion and MR imaging. The developed modular robot control interface software performs image-based registration, kinematics calculation, and exchanges robot commands and coordinates between the navigation software and the robot controller with a new implementation of the open network communication protocol OpenIGTLink. Comprehensive compatibility of the robot is evaluated inside a 3-Tesla MRI scanner using standard imaging sequences and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss is limited to 15%. The image deterioration due to the present and motion of robot demonstrates unobservable image interference. Twenty-five targeted needle placements inside gelatin phantoms utilizing an 18-gauge ceramic needle demonstrated 0.87 mm root mean square (RMS) error in 3D Euclidean distance based on MRI volume segmentation of the image-guided robotic needle placement procedure. PMID:26412962

  13. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  14. Robot Rodeo 2013

    ScienceCinema

    Deuel, Jake

    2016-07-12

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  15. Robot Rodeo 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Deuel, Jake

    2013-08-27

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted the seventh annual Western National Robot Rodeo and Capability Exercise in June 2013. The five-day event is a lively and challenging competition that draws civilian and military bomb squad teams from across the country to see who can most effectively defuse dangerous situations with the help of robots.

  16. Next generation space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwata, Tsutomu; Oda, Mitsushige; Imai, Ryoichi

    1989-01-01

    The recent research effort on the next generation space robots is presented. The goals of this research are to develop the fundamental technologies and to acquire the design parameters of the next generation space robot. Visual sensing and perception, dexterous manipulation, man machine interface and artificial intelligence techniques such as task planning are identified as the key technologies.

  17. Real World Robotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lisa J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a project for elementary school students in which students build a robot by following instructions and then write a computer program to run their robot by using LabView graphical development software. Uses ROBOLAB curriculum which is designed for grade levels K-12. (YDS)

  18. Robotics technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, Melvin D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on robotics technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: mechanisms; sensors; systems engineering processes for integrated robotics; man/machine cooperative control; 3D-real-time machine perception; multiple arm redundancy control; manipulator control from a movable base; multi-agent reasoning; and surfacing evolution technologies.

  19. Motivating Students with Robotics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda; Collver, Michael; Kasarda, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the need to advance the number of individuals pursuing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields has gained much attention. The Montgomery County/Virginia Tech Robotics Collaborative (MCVTRC), a yearlong high school robotics program housed in an educational shop facility in Montgomery County, Virginia, seeks to…

  20. Robotics in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, D. N.; Syryamkin, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technologies play a very important role in our lives. It is hard to imagine how people can get along without personal computers, and companies - without powerful computer centers. Nowadays, many devices make modern medicine more effective. Medicine is developing constantly, so introduction of robots in this sector is a very promising activity. Advances in technology have influenced medicine greatly. Robotic surgery is now actively developing worldwide. Scientists have been carrying out research and practical attempts to create robotic surgeons for more than 20 years, since the mid-80s of the last century. Robotic assistants play an important role in modern medicine. This industry is new enough and is at the early stage of development; despite this, some developments already have worldwide application; they function successfully and bring invaluable help to employees of medical institutions. Today, doctors can perform operations that seemed impossible a few years ago. Such progress in medicine is due to many factors. First, modern operating rooms are equipped with up-to-date equipment, allowing doctors to make operations more accurately and with less risk to the patient. Second, technology has enabled to improve the quality of doctors' training. Various types of robots exist now: assistants, military robots, space, household and medical, of course. Further, we should make a detailed analysis of existing types of robots and their application. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the most popular types of robots used in medicine.

  1. The Uranus Mobile Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Schematics 26 Wi List of Figures 1 Neptune and Pluto .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ... ... ... ... .... 2 2 Uranus...began building our first mobile robot, Pluto (see Figure 1 a). We envisioned Pluto as the ultimate indoor robot within the grasp of current technology...smooth arced trajectory while rotating about its center. This omni-directionality combined with very precise positioning would allow Pluto to easily

  2. Concurrent programming and robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, I.J.; Gehani, N.H.

    1989-04-01

    Many current robot systems exhibit a significant degree of concurrency, doing many activities in parallel. Future sensor-based robots are expected to exhibit even more concurrency. Programs to control such robots are characterized by the need to wait for external events and/or handle interrupts, deal with concurrent activities, synchronize actions with external events, and communicate with other robots and processes. In this paper, the authors focus on the advantages of concurrent programming for robotics and suggest that a general-purpose language with the right facilities is a good vehicle for robot programming. In this context they discuss Concurrent C, an upward-compatible extension of the C language that provides high-level concurrent programming facilities. They give an historical perspective of concurrent programming followed by a brief description of Concurrent C and how Concurrent C programs communicate with robots and devices. They show by examples how Concurrent C simplifies writing robot programs. Of specific interest are the process interaction and related interrupt handling facilities.

  3. Robotics and Industrial Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmison, Glenn A.; And Others

    Robots are becoming increasingly common in American industry. By l990, they will revolutionize the way industry functions, replacing hundreds of workers and doing hot, dirty jobs better and more quickly than the workers could have done them. Robotics should be taught in high school industrial arts programs as a major curriculum component. The…

  4. INL Generic Robot Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The INL Generic Robot Architecture is a generic, extensible software framework that can be applied across a variety of different robot geometries, sensor suites and low-level proprietary control application programming interfaces (e.g. mobility, aria, aware, player, etc.).

  5. Robot Vision Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  6. Tactile Sensing for Dexterous Robotic Hands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2000-01-01

    Robotic systems will be used as precursors to human exploration to explore the solar system and expand our knowledge of planetary surfaces. Robotic systems will also be used to build habitats and infrastructure required for human presence in space and on other planetary surfaces . Such robots will require a high level of intelligence and automation. The ability to flexibly manipulate their physical environment is one characteristic that makes humans so effective at these building and exploring tasks . The development of a generic autonomous grasp ing capability will greatly enhance the efficiency and ability of robotics to build, maintain and explore. To tele-operate a robot over vast distances of space, with long communication delays, has proven to be troublesome. Having an autonomous grasping capability that can react in real-time to disturbances or adapt to generic objects, without operator intervention, will reduce the probability of mishandled tools and samples and reduce the number of re-grasp attempts due to dropping. One aspect that separates humans from machines is a rich sensor set. We have the ability to feel objects and respond to forces and textures. The development of touch or tactile sensors for use on a robot that emulates human skin and nerves is the basis for this discussion. We will discuss the use of new piezo-electric and resistive materials that have emerged on the market with the intention of developing a touch sensitive sensor. With viable tacti le sensors we will be one step closer to developing an autonomous grasping capability.

  7. Honda humanoid robots development.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Ogawa, Kenichi

    2007-01-15

    Honda has been doing research on robotics since 1986 with a focus upon bipedal walking technology. The research started with straight and static walking of the first prototype two-legged robot. Now, the continuous transition from walking in a straight line to making a turn has been achieved with the latest humanoid robot ASIMO. ASIMO is the most advanced robot of Honda so far in the mechanism and the control system. ASIMO's configuration allows it to operate freely in the human living space. It could be of practical help to humans with its ability of five-finger arms as well as its walking function. The target of further development of ASIMO is to develop a robot to improve life in human society. Much development work will be continued both mechanically and electronically, staying true to Honda's 'challenging spirit'.

  8. Intelligent Articulated Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyein, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, an articulated type of industrial used robot is discussed. The robot is mainly intended to be used in pick and place operation. It will sense the object at the specified place and move it to a desired location. A peripheral interface controller (PIC16F84A) is used as the main controller of the robot. Infrared LED and IR receiver unit for object detection and 4-bit bidirectional universal shift registers (74LS194) and high current and high voltage Darlington transistors arrays (ULN2003) for driving the arms' motors are used in this robot. The amount of rotation for each arm is regulated by the limit switches. The operation of the robot is very simple but it has the ability of to overcome resetting position after power failure. It can continue its work from the last position before the power is failed without needing to come back to home position.

  9. [The robotic surgeon training].

    PubMed

    Crestani, Alessandro; Rossanese, Marta; Abbinante, Maria; Calandriello, Mattia; Kungulli, Afrovita; Giannarini, Gianluca; Ficarra, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    The widespread robotic surgery in the world highlighted the relevance of the training programs for young urologists and residents. In the last years, urologic societies and some independent robotic surgeons strongly worked to standardize some general and specific training modules. Theoretical and practical sections of robotic training programs have been recently specified. The role of simulators, dry and wet laboratories, bedside assistance, and modular (step-by-step) training at console represent the most relevant elements of robotic surgeon training. Ideally, these didactic tools should be available in modern training centers. The development of structured robotic training programs should be considered as one of the priorities that the urologic community must take into account in the near future.

  10. Application of artificial intelligence to robotic vision

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, P.S.; Frick, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    A brief introduction to artificial intelligence (AI) and the general vision process is provided. Two samples of AI researchers' work toward general computer vision are given. The first is a model-based vision system while the second is based on results of studies on human vision. The current state of machine vision in industrial robotics is demonstrated using a well known vision algorithm developed at SRI International. A part of a prototype robotic assembly project with vision is sketched to show the application of some AI tools to practical work. 8 references.

  11. Compliant Gripper for a Robotic Manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipra, Raymond; Das, Hari

    2003-01-01

    A figure depicts a prototype of a robotic-manipulator gripping device that includes two passive compliant fingers, suitable for picking up and manipulating objects that have irregular shapes and/or that are, themselves, compliant. The main advantage offered by this device over other robotic-manipulator gripping devices is simplicity: Because of the compliance of the fingers, force-feedback control of the fingers is not necessary for gripping objects of a variety of sizes, shapes, textures, and degrees of compliance. Examples of objects that can be manipulated include small stones, articles of clothing, and parts of plants.

  12. Value of Robotically Assisted Surgery for Mitral Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Goodman, Avi; Jarrett, Craig; Williams, Sarah J.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Bajwa, Gurjyot; Mick, Stephanie L.; Bonatti, Johannes; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The value of robotically assisted surgery for mitral valve disease is questioned because the high cost of care associated with robotic technology may outweigh its clinical benefits. Objective To investigate conditions under which benefits of robotic surgery mitigate high technology costs. Design Clinical cohort study comparing costs of robotic vs. three contemporaneous conventional surgical approaches for degenerative mitral disease. Surgery was performed from 2006–2011, and comparisons were based on intent-to-treat, with propensity-matching used to reduce selection bias. Setting Large multi-specialty academic medical center. Participants 1,290 patients aged 57±11 years, 27% women, underwent mitral repair for regurgitation from posterior leaflet prolapse. Robotic surgery was used in 473, complete sternotomy in 227, partial sternotomy in 349, and anterolateral thoracotomy in 241. Three propensity-matched groups were formed based on demographics, symptoms, cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities, valve pathophysiology, and echocardiographic measurements: robotic vs. sternotomy (n=198 pairs) vs. partial sternotomy (n=293 pairs) vs. thoracotomy (n=224 pairs). Interventions Mitral valve repair. Main Outcome Measures Cost of care, expressed as robotic capital investment, maintenance, and direct technical hospital cost, and benefit of care, based on differences in recovery time. Results Median cost of care for robotically assisted surgery exceeded the cost of alternative approaches by 27% (−5%, 68%), 32% (−6%, 70%), and 21% (−2%, 54%) (median [15th, 85th percentiles]) for complete sternotomy, partial sternotomy, and anterolateral thoracotomy, respectively. Higher operative costs were partially offset by lower postoperative costs and earlier return to work: median 35 days for robotic surgery, 49 for complete sternotomy, 56 for partial sternotomy, and 42 for anterolateral thoracotomy. Resulting net differences in cost of robotic surgery vs. the three

  13. Utilizing Robot Operating System (ROS) in Robot Vision and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL by Joshua S. Lum September 2015 Thesis Advisor: Xiaoping Yun Co-Advisor: Zac Staples...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UTILIZING ROBOT OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lum, Joshua S...release; distribution is unlimited UTILIZING ROBOT OPERATING SYSTEM (ROS) IN ROBOT VISION AND CONTROL Joshua S. Lum Captain, United States

  14. Expanding Frontiers of Humanoid Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    From the IEEE Intelligent Systems Special Issue on Humanoid Robotics , July/August 2000 GUEST EDITORS’ Expanding Frontiers of Humanoid Robotics ...Mark L. Swinson, DARPA David J. Bruemmer, Strategic Analysis Mobile robots pose a unique set of challenges to artificial intelligence researchers...the constraints of logical correctness but also some assortment of crosscutting, physical constraints. Particularly interesting among these robots

  15. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  16. [Application of robots in stomatology].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meng-Qi; Zhang, Jin-Ning; Hong, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the robot technology has been developed rapidly and the medical robot has been used in many clinical areas, especially in the field of stomatology. The application of robot in stomatology will break the traditional mode of treatment and bring a new technological revolution. This paper introduced the advantages, the current situation and the development prospect of applying robot in stomatology.

  17. Personnel occupied woven envelope robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, F. C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of nonmetallic or fabric structures for space application is considered. The following structures are suggested: (1) unpressurized space hangars; (2) extendable tunnels for soft docking; and (3) manned habitat for space stations, storage facilities, and work structures. The uses of the tunnel as a passageway: for personnel and equipment, eliminating extravehicular activity, for access to a control cabin on a space crane and between free flyers and the space station are outlined. The personnal occupied woven envelope robot (POWER) device is shown. The woven envelope (tunnel) acts as part of the boom of a crane. Potential applications of POWER are outlined. Several possible deflection mechanisms and design criteria are determined.

  18. Absence of Intervention Training Programs: Effects Upon the Severely and Profoundly Retarded, Part I: Selected Cases of Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.; And Others

    Fifteen institutionalized profoundly retarded Ss, median age 7 years, who received no intervention training program, were assessed on the Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior (BSAB), Sections I and II to determine whether social coping behavior would improve spontaneous maturation during a 6-month period. The Ss were recommended by nursing…

  19. Adaptive impedance control of a robotic orthosis for gait rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Q; Jamwal, Prashant K

    2013-06-01

    Intervention of robotic devices in the field of physical gait therapy can help in providing repetitive, systematic, and economically viable training sessions. Interactive or assist-as-needed (AAN) gait training encourages patient voluntary participation in the robotic gait training process which may aid in rapid motor function recovery. In this paper, a lightweight robotic gait training orthosis with two actuated and four passive degrees of freedom (DOFs) is proposed. The actuated DOFs were powered by pneumatic muscle actuators. An AAN gait training paradigm based on adaptive impedance control was developed to provide interactive robotic gait training. The proposed adaptive impedance control scheme adapts the robotic assistance according to the disability level and voluntary participation of human subjects. The robotic orthosis was operated in two gait training modes, namely, inactive mode and active mode, to evaluate the performance of the proposed control scheme. The adaptive impedance control scheme was evaluated on ten neurologically intact subjects. The experimental results demonstrate that an increase in voluntary participation of human subjects resulted in a decrease of the robotic assistance and vice versa. Further clinical evaluations with neurologically impaired subjects are required to establish the therapeutic efficacy of the adaptive-impedance-control-based AAN gait training strategy.

  20. MRI-Safe Robot for Endorectal Prostate Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Kim, Chunwoo; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Sebrecht, Peter; Petrisor, Doru; Coleman, Jonathan; Solomon, Stephen B.; Hricak, Hedvig

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the development of an MRI-Safe robot for direct (interventional) MRI-guided endorectal prostate biopsy. The robot is constructed of nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive materials, and is electricity free, using pneumatic actuation and optical sensors. Targeting biopsy lesions of MRI abnormality presents substantial clinical potential for the management of prostate cancer. The paper describes MRI-Safe requirements, presents the kinematic architecture, design and construction of the robot, and a comprehensive set of preclinical tests for MRI compatibility and needle targeting accuracy. The robot has a compact and simple 3 degree-of-freedom (DoF) structure, two for orienting a needle-guide and one to preset the depth of needle insertion. The actual insertion is performed manually through the guide and up to the preset depth. To reduce the complexity and size of the robot next to the patient, the depth setting DoF is remote. Experimental results show that the robot is safe to use in any MRI environment (MRI-Safe). Comprehensive MRI tests show that the presence and motion of the robot in the MRI scanner cause virtually no image deterioration or signal to noise ratio (SNR) change. Robot’s accuracy in bench test, CT-guided in-vitro, MRI-guided in-vitro and animal tests are 0.37mm, 1.10mm, 2.09mm, and 2.58mm respectively. These values are acceptable for clinical use. PMID:25378897

  1. A Survey of Space Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, L.; Kortenkamp, D.; Wettergreen, D.; Nourbakhsh, I.; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we summarize a survey conducted by NASA to determine the state-of-the-art in space robotics and to predict future robotic capabilities under either nominal and intensive development effort. The space robotics assessment study examined both in-space operations including assembly, inspection, and maintenance and planetary surface operations like mobility and exploration. Applications of robotic autonomy and human-robot cooperation were considered. The study group devised a decomposition of robotic capabilities and then suggested metrics to specify the technical challenges associated with each. The conclusion of this paper identifies possible areas in which investment in space robotics could lead to significant advances of important technologies.

  2. Project InterActions: A Multigenerational Robotic Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bers, Marina U.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents Project InterActions, a series of 5-week workshops in which very young learners (4- to 7-year-old children) and their parents come together to build and program a personally meaningful robotic project in the context of a multigenerational robotics-based community of practice. The goal of these family workshops is to teach both parents and children about the mechanical and programming aspects involved in robotics, as well as to initiate them in a learning trajectory with and about technology. Results from this project address different ways in which parents and children learn together and provide insights into how to develop educational interventions that would educate parents, as well as children, in new domains of knowledge and skills such as robotics and new technologies.

  3. Pneumatic squirming robot based on flexible pneumatic actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Libin; Bao, Guanjun; Ruan, Jian

    2005-12-01

    The design of a kind of pneumatic squirming robot is presented. It is based on the use of flexible pneumatic actuator. The flexible pneumatic actuator was made of caoutchouc. Its working principle is described. The structure, working principle, pneumatic and electrical control system of the pneumatic squirming robot are designed. All of the actuator's driving and squirming parts are composed of pneumatic elements. The vacuum osculums, which act as feet, are connected to the flexible pneumatic actuator. When the vacuum pumps operate, vacuum will be produced in the corresponding osculums, which can adsorb on the contacting surface and orient the robot. The actuator, operating under air pressure, drives the robot. By controlling the vacuum pumps and the actuator, straight and bending squirming of this robot can be obtained.

  4. Monitoring robot actions for error detection and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gini, M.; Smith, R.

    1987-01-01

    Reliability is a serious problem in computer controlled robot systems. Although robots serve successfully in relatively simple applications such as painting and spot welding, their potential in areas such as automated assembly is hampered by programming problems. A program for assembling parts may be logically correct, execute correctly on a simulator, and even execute correctly on a robot most of the time, yet still fail unexpectedly in the face of real world uncertainties. Recovery from such errors is far more complicated than recovery from simple controller errors, since even expected errors can often manifest themselves in unexpected ways. Here, a novel approach is presented for improving robot reliability. Instead of anticipating errors, researchers use knowledge-based programming techniques so that the robot can autonomously exploit knowledge about its task and environment to detect and recover from failures. They describe preliminary experiment of a system that they designed and constructed.

  5. The in-situ UST robotic inspection system

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A.D.; Robb, F.J.; Iaconis, J.M.; White, D.W.; Hock, V.F.

    1995-12-31

    A remotely operated robotic inspection system is being developed for underground storage tanks (USTs). The robot is deployed from the ground surface through any 4-inch or larger diameter tank riser to conduct a tank wall thickness inspection while the tank remains in service. Ultrasonic (UT) sensors measure tank wall thickness in accordance with ASTM Standard ES 40-94 to meet EPA inspection requirements for buried steel tanks. Such inspection is required by 40 CFR Part 280 on many USTs. Robotic inspection is cheaper and takes less time than existing manual UT inspection methods. Robotic technology also moves the human out of the UST which significantly reduces human risk. Thickness data obtained by the robot will be mapped onto tank coordinates and entered into a tank-life prediction model. This model will also consider soil chemistry and other test data to evaluate corrosion, predict structural integrity, and develop a life expectation for the UST.

  6. Robotic Surgery for Thoracic Disease.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shin-Ichi; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Robotic surgeries have developed in the general thoracic field over the past decade, and publications on robotic surgery outcomes have accumulated. However, controversy remains about the application of robotic surgery, with a lack of well-established evidence. Robotic surgery has several advantages such as natural movement of the surgeon's hands when manipulating the robotic arms and instruments controlled by computer-assisted systems. Most studies have reported the feasibility and safety of robotic surgery based on acceptable morbidity and mortality compared to open or video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Furthermore, there are accumulated data to indicate longer operation times and shorter hospital stay in robotic surgery. However, randomized controlled trials between robotic and open or VATS procedures are needed to clarify the advantage of robotic surgery. In this review, we focused the literature about robotic surgery used to treat lung cancer and mediastinal tumor.

  7. Design principles of a cooperative robot controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayward, Vincent; Hayati, Samad

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a controller for cooperative robots being designed at McGill University in a collaborative effort with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The first part of the paper discusses the background and motivation for multiple arm control. Then, a set of programming primitives, which are based on the RCCL system and which permit a programmer to specify cooperative tasks are described. The first group of primitives are motion primitives which specify asynchronous motions, master/slave motions, and cooperative motions. In the context of cooperative robots, trajectory generation issues will be discussed and the implementation described. A second set of primitives provides for the specification of spatial relationships. The relations between programming and control in the case of multiple robot are examined. Finally, the paper describes the allocation of various tasks among a set of microprocessors sharing a common bus.

  8. Inner rehearsal modeling for cognitive robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jerome J.; Bergen, Karianne; Dasey, Timothy J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a biomimetic approach involving cognitive process modeling, for use in intelligent robot decisionmaking. The principle of inner rehearsal, a process believed to occur in human and animal cognition, involves internal rehearsing of actions prior to deciding on and executing an overt action, such as a motor action. The inner-rehearsal algorithmic approach we developed is posed and investigated in the context of a relatively complex cognitive task, an under-rubble search and rescue. The paper presents the approach developed, a synthetic environment which was also developed to enable its studies, and the results to date. The work reported here is part of a Cognitive Robotics effort in which we are currently engaged, focused on exploring techniques inspired by cognitive science and neuroscience insights, towards artificial cognition for robotics and autonomous systems.

  9. Neuromodulation and plasticity in an autonomous robot.

    PubMed

    Sporns, Olaf; Alexander, William H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we implement a computational model of a neuromodulatory system in an autonomous robot. The output of the neuromodulatory system acts as a value signal, modulating widely distributed synaptic changes. The model is based on anatomical and physiological properties of midbrain diffuse ascending systems, in particular parts of the dopamine and noradrenaline systems. During reward conditioning, the model learns to generate tonic and phasic signals that represent predictions and prediction errors, including precisely timed negative signals if expected rewards are omitted or delayed. We test the robot's learning and behavior in different environmental contexts and observe changes in the development of the neuromodulatory system that depend upon environmental factors. Simulation of a computational model incorporating both reward-related and aversive stimuli leads to the emergence of conditioned reward and aversive behaviors. These studies represent a step towards investigating computational aspects of neuromodulatory systems in autonomous robots.

  10. Adaptive control of space based robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Michael W.; Wee, Liang-Boon

    1991-01-01

    For space based robots in which the base is free to move, motion planning and control is complicated by uncertainties in the inertial properties of the manipulator and its load. A new adaptive control method is presented for space based robots which achieves globally stable trajectory tracking in the presence of uncertainties in the inertial parameters of the system. A partition is made of the fifteen degree of freedom system dynamics into two parts: a nine degree of freedom invertible portion and a six degree of freedom noninvertible portion. The controller is then designed to achieve trajectory tracking of the invertible portion of the system. This portion consist of the manipulator joint positions and the orientation of the base. The motion of the noninvertible portion is bounded, but unpredictable. This portion consist of the position of the robot's base and the position of the reaction wheel.

  11. [Mental load of robot operation upon workers].

    PubMed

    Okada, Y

    1986-03-20

    In recent years industrial robots have been widely used in factories. In various stages of their introduction mental stress on workers is predicted and factory workers and managers are being forced to deal with the problem seriously. This study centers upon the operation of taking and giving parts between men and robots to estimate the physical and mental load on workers through the analysis of behaviors by means of such physiological indices as RMR, GSR, EOG, etc. and Video Tapes. At the same time I examined the relation of the level of consciousness with the change of the time of selection responses and psychological quantity such as working senses. I also referred to observations and researches in the field of mental medicine. As compared with conveyer system work, robot operation gives a greater mental influence for better or worse, so a more careful operation control is needed from the viewpoint of labor hygiene.

  12. Meeting the challenges of installing a mobile robotic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decorte, Celeste

    1994-01-01

    The challenges of integrating a mobile robotic system into an application environment are many. Most problems inherent to installing the mobile robotic system fall into one of three categories: (1) the physical environment - location(s) where, and conditions under which, the mobile robotic system will work; (2) the technological environment - external equipment with which the mobile robotic system will interact; and (3) the human environment - personnel who will operate and interact with the mobile robotic system. The successful integration of a mobile robotic system into these three types of application environment requires more than a good pair of pliers. The tools for this job include: careful planning, accurate measurement data (as-built drawings), complete technical data of systems to be interfaced, sufficient time and attention of key personnel for training on how to operate and program the robot, on-site access during installation, and a thorough understanding and appreciation - by all concerned - of the mobile robotic system's role in the security mission at the site, as well as the machine's capabilities and limitations. Patience, luck, and a sense of humor are also useful tools to keep handy during a mobile robotic system installation. This paper will discuss some specific examples of problems in each of three categories, and explore approaches to solving these problems. The discussion will draw from the author's experience with on-site installations of mobile robotic systems in various applications. Most of the information discussed in this paper has come directly from knowledge learned during installations of Cybermotion's SR2 security robots. A large part of the discussion will apply to any vehicle with a drive system, collision avoidance, and navigation sensors, which is, of course, what makes a vehicle autonomous. And it is with these sensors and a drive system that the installer must become familiar in order to foresee potential trouble areas in the

  13. Robotic Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffery, Waris S.

    1993-01-01

    The need for automated plasma welding was identified in the early stages of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) because it requires approximately 1.3 miles of welding for assembly. As a result of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding (VPPAW) process's ability to make virtually defect-free welds in aluminum, it was chosen to fulfill the welding needs. Space Station Freedom will be constructed of 2219 aluminum utilizing the computer controlled VPPAW process. The 'Node Radial Docking Port', with it's saddle shaped weld path, has a constantly changing surface angle over 360 deg of the 282 inch weld. The automated robotic VPPAW process requires eight-axes of motion (six-axes of robot and two-axes of positioner movement). The robot control system is programmed to maintain Torch Center Point (TCP) orientation perpendicular to the part while the part positioner is tilted and rotated to maintain the vertical up orientation as required by the VPPAW process. The combined speed of the robot and the positioner are integrated to maintain a constant speed between the part and the torch. A laser-based vision sensor system has also been integrated to track the seam and map the surface of the profile during welding.

  14. Robotic Variable Polarity Plasma Arc (VPPA) welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffery, Waris S.

    1993-02-01

    The need for automated plasma welding was identified in the early stages of the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) because it requires approximately 1.3 miles of welding for assembly. As a result of the Variable Polarity Plasma Arc Welding (VPPAW) process's ability to make virtually defect-free welds in aluminum, it was chosen to fulfill the welding needs. Space Station Freedom will be constructed of 2219 aluminum utilizing the computer controlled VPPAW process. The 'Node Radial Docking Port', with it's saddle shaped weld path, has a constantly changing surface angle over 360 deg of the 282 inch weld. The automated robotic VPPAW process requires eight-axes of motion (six-axes of robot and two-axes of positioner movement). The robot control system is programmed to maintain Torch Center Point (TCP) orientation perpendicular to the part while the part positioner is tilted and rotated to maintain the vertical up orientation as required by the VPPAW process. The combined speed of the robot and the positioner are integrated to maintain a constant speed between the part and the torch. A laser-based vision sensor system has also been integrated to track the seam and map the surface of the profile during welding.

  15. Robotic Technology: An Assessment and Forecast,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    resolution force sensing "skin". Mobility: - Mdbile robots In the near term will be descendents of today’s computer- controlled parts-transfer carts as used...supervisory computer detects the need for parts transport (i.e., a cell has finished working on a piece), provides a cart to transport the piece, routes the... cart to the next cell and orders the cell to unload the work piece from the cart . Simultaneously, - the supervisor has been performing the same chores

  16. Using automatic robot programming for space telerobotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazer, E.; Jones, J.; Lanusse, A.; Lozano-Perez, T.; Odonnell, P.; Tournassoud, P.

    1987-01-01

    The interpreter of a task level robot programming system called Handey is described. Handey is a system that can recognize, manipulate and assemble polyhedral parts when given only a specification of the goal. To perform an assembly, Handey makes use of a recognition module, a gross motion planner, a grasp planner, a local approach planner and is capable of planning part re-orientation. The possibility of including these modules in a telerobotics work-station is discussed.

  17. Partner Ballroom Dance Robot -PBDR-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Takeda, Takahiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Endo, Mitsuru; Nomura, Minoru; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Koizumi, Mizuo; Oconogi, Tatsuya

    In this research, we have developed a dance partner robot, which has been developed as a platform for realizing the effective human-robot coordination with physical interaction. The robot could estimate the next dance step intended by a human and dance the step with the human. This paper introduce the robot referred to as PBDR (Partner Ballroom Dance Robot), which has performed graceful dancing with the human in EXPO 2005, Aichi, Japan.

  18. Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has created codes that ensure that a robot will come to a stop at a precise, specified distance from any obstacle regardless of the robot's initial speed, its physical characteristics, and the responsiveness of the low-level motor control schema. This Guarded Motion for Mobile Robots system iteratively adjusts the robot's action in response to information about the robot's environment.

  19. Robust and efficient vision system for group of cooperating mobile robots with application to soccer robots.

    PubMed

    Klancar, Gregor; Kristan, Matej; Kovacic, Stanislav; Orqueda, Omar

    2004-07-01

    In this paper a global vision scheme for estimation of positions and orientations of mobile robots is presented. It is applied to robot soccer application which is a fast dynamic game and therefore needs an efficient and robust vision system implemented. General applicability of the vision system can be found in other robot applications such as mobile transport robots in production, warehouses, attendant robots, fast vision tracking of targets of interest and entertainment robotics. Basic operation of the vision system is divided into two steps. In the first, the incoming image is scanned and pixels are classified into a finite number of classes. At the same time, a segmentation algorithm is used to find corresponding regions belonging to one of the classes. In the second step, all the regions are examined. Selection of the ones that are a part of the observed object is made by means of simple logic procedures. The novelty is focused on optimization of the processing time needed to finish the estimation of possible object positions. Better results of the vision system are achieved by implementing camera calibration and shading correction algorithm. The former corrects camera lens distortion, while the latter increases robustness to irregular illumination conditions.

  20. A Software Architecture for Semiautonomous Robot Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kortenkamp, David

    2004-01-01

    A software architecture has been developed to increase the safety and effectiveness with which tasks are performed by robots that are capable of functioning autonomously but sometimes are operated under control by humans. The control system of such a robot designed according to a prior software architecture has no way of taking account of how the environment has changed or what parts of a task were performed during an interval of control by a human, so that errors can occur (and, hence, safety and effectiveness jeopardized) when the human relinquishes control. The present architecture incorporates the control, task-planning, and sensor-based-monitoring features of typical prior autonomous-robot software architectures, plus features for updating information on the environment and planning of tasks during control by a human operator in order to enable the robot to track the actions taken by the operator and to be ready to resume autonomous operation with minimal error. The present architecture also provides a user interface that presents, to the operator, a variety of information on the internal state of the robot and the status of the task.